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Sample records for bactrocera oleae diptera

  1. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.

  2. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements. PMID:27392643

  3. 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', a coevolved symbiotic bacterium of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzo, Caterina; Firrao, Giuseppe; Mazzon, Luca; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2005-07-01

    The taxonomic identity of the hereditary prokaryotic symbiont of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated. In order to avoid superficial microbial contaminants and loosely associated saprophytic biota, flies were surface-sterilized at the larval stage and reared under aseptic conditions until adult emergence. B. oleae flies originating from different geographical locations and collected at different times of the year were tested. Bacterial isolation was undertaken from the cephalic oesophageal bulb, which is known to be a specific site of accumulation for the hosted microsymbionts in the adult insect. Despite evidence of multiplication cycles taking place within the insect, attempts at cultivation of the isolated bacteria ex situ were not productive at any stage, leading to the choice of unculturable status definition. PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the entire 16S rRNA gene consistently yielded a single sequence that displayed marked similarity with enterobacterial lineages, with closest matches (97%) to Erwinia persicina and Erwinia rhapontici. The novel taxon differs from common intestinal bacterial species of fruit flies and from instances of culturable bacteria previously described in B. oleae raised without sterility precautions, which we also observed as minority occupants or occasional contaminants. The symbiont's identity is also distinct from Pseudomonas savastanoi. In all observations, the numerically dominant inhabitant of the olive fly oesophageal organ was the same unculturable organism, whose presence at later stages was also regularly observed in the midgut. A novel species is proposed, by virtue of its unique properties, under the designation 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola'.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 Isolated from Bactrocera oleae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Frances; Vontas, John

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Stenotrophomonas are ubiquitous in the environment and are increasingly associated with insects. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 was cultured from the gut of Bactrocera oleae. The draft genome sequence presented here will inform future investigations into the nature of the interaction between insects and their microbiota. PMID:27660769

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bactrocera oleae Symbiont "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Frances; Gioti, Anastasia; Starns, David; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Vontas, John; Darby, Alistair C

    2016-01-01

    "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola" is a Gammaproteobacterium that forms a symbiotic association with the agricultural pest Bactrocera oleae Here, we present a 2.1-Mb draft hybrid genome assembly for "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" generated from single-cell and metagenomic data. PMID:27634990

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 Isolated from Bactrocera oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Frances; Vontas, John; Darby, Alistair C

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Stenotrophomonas are ubiquitous in the environment and are increasingly associated with insects. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 was cultured from the gut of Bactrocera oleae The draft genome sequence presented here will inform future investigations into the nature of the interaction between insects and their microbiota. PMID:27660769

  7. Acetobacter tropicalis is a major symbiont of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis;

    2009-01-01

    Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bactrocera oleae Symbiont “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Frances; Gioti, Anastasia; Starns, David; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Vontas, John

    2016-01-01

    “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola” is a Gammaproteobacterium that forms a symbiotic association with the agricultural pest Bactrocera oleae. Here, we present a 2.1-Mb draft hybrid genome assembly for “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” generated from single-cell and metagenomic data. PMID:27634990

  9. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Pavlidi

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630 were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  10. Tests on the effectiveness of kaolin and copper hydroxide in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)

    OpenAIRE

    Caleca, V; Rizzo, R.

    2007-01-01

    Repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) find a great interest in organic farming, because of the lack of effective products able to kill the olive fly preimmaginal stages. In 2003 in Castelvetrano (Trapani province, Sicily), tests on the effectiveness of Surround WP, a product containing 95% of kaolin, were carried out on three table olive cultivars, Nocellara del Belice, Moresca and Tonda Iblea. In 2004, in the same field and on the same cultiv...

  11. Kaolin protects olive fruits from Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) infestations unaffecting olive oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Perri, Dr Enzo; Iannotta, dr. Nino; Muzzalupo, PhD Innocenzo; Russo, Dr Anna; Caravita, Dr Maria Anna; Pellegrino, Massimiliano; Parise, Mr Attilio; Tucci, Mr Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of the processed kaolin “Surround WP” to control olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin, field infestations was investigated in east Calabria. The preliminary results showed that fruit infestation levels were significantly reduced on kaolin-treated trees compared with untreated trees. The promising results of these experiments points to the feasibility of using particle film technology composed of a non-toxic material, to avoid olive fly damage as an alternative to the applicat...

  12. The parasitoid complex associated with the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Southern Portugal (Algarve)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Maria Albertina; Andrade, Laura,

    2014-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), is the most destructive pest of the olive trees in the Mediterranean Basin. Since 2004 several studies have been carried out in order to identify the beneficial insect species of the Hymenoptera order that usually inhabiting the olive ecosystem in Algarve. For that purpose samples of infested olive fruits were collected during the autumn season from several olive trees at Loulé and S. Brás de Alportel regions. The collected fruits were placed in labor...

  13. Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

    2014-04-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24772542

  14. Role of α-copaene in the susceptibility of olive fruits to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi).

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    de Alfonso, Ignacio; Vacas, Sandra; Primo, Jaime

    2014-12-10

    The influence of α-copaene as a fruit volatile in the susceptibility of Olea europaea L. to the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) has been investigated. By studies on the relative area of volatile components from different cultivars, a positive correlation was found between the abundance of α-copaene in the samples and the corresponding degree of fruit infestation. SPME-GC-MS analysis of volatiles from uninfested fruits of O. europaea L. cv. Serrana were performed over two years to determine the variation of α-copaene throughout the different phenological stages. The results suggested that this sesquiterpene has a significant effect on cultivar susceptibility and may act as an oviposition promoter. Further analysis by chiral GC showed that olive fruits release both α-copaene enantiomers. Bioassays on each enantiomer revealed that fruits with increased amounts of (+)-α-copaene favor oviposition of B. oleae females, whereas the increase of (-)-α-copaene affords no statistically significant differences in host preference.

  15. Acetobacter tropicalis is a major symbiont of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Sacchi, Luciano; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2009-05-01

    Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect model organisms, such as Anopheles stephensi (G. Favia et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9047-9051, 2007) or Drosophila melanogaster (C. R. Cox and M. S. Gilmore, Infect. Immun. 75:1565-1576, 2007), prompted us to investigate the association established between A. tropicalis and B. oleae. Using an A. tropicalis-specific PCR assay, the symbiont was detected in all insects tested originating from laboratory stocks or field-collected from different locations in Greece. This acetic acid bacterium was successfully established in cell-free medium, and typing analyses, carried out on a collection of isolates, revealed that different A. tropicalis strains are present in fly populations. The capability to colonize and lodge in the digestive system of both larvae and adults and in Malpighian tubules of adults was demonstrated by using a strain labeled with a green fluorescent protein.

  16. Insect growth regulators as potential insecticides to control olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae Rossi): insect toxicity bioassays and molecular docking approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bengochea Budia, Paloma; Christiaens, Olivier; Amor Parrilla, Fermín; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Rougé, Pierre; Medina Velez, Maria Pilar; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a key pest in olive orchards, causing serious economic damage. To date, the pest has already developed resistance to the insecticides commonly applied to control it. Thus, in searching for new products for an accurate resistance management programme, targeting the ecdysone receptor (EcR)might provide alternative compounds for use in such programmes. RESULTS: Residual contact and oral exposure in the laboratory of B. oleae adults to the dibenzoy...

  17. Infestation of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California and Taxonomy of its Host Trees

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    Mohammad Athar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the trapping survey were analyzed to determine the taxonomy of various tree species infested by the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae in California. Since its first appearance in California in 1998, the olive fruit fly has spread from Los Angeles to 37 counties, including all of the state’s commercial olive growing areas. Olive fruit flies were trapped from 19 tree species belonging to nine genera distributed in seven families of angiosperms. Olives (Family Oleaceae were the preferred host of the olive fruit fly. Family Rosaceae had nine host tree species followed by Rutaceae (five host tree species. Other host tree species were distributed in Anacardiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Lythraceae and Malpigiaceae families. These hosts were mostly fruit trees with the exceptions of Brazilian pepper tree, carob, crape myrtle and ornamental plum. The host list reflects typical hosts and is not comprehensive. It is unknown if different olive cultivars are more attractive to the fly or more susceptible to fly damage. The pest directly attacks olive fruits and can devastate entire harvests. Adults feed on nectar, honeydew and other opportunistic sources of liquid or semi-liquid food. University of California scientists are now developing specific information about the olive fruit fly in California and have synthesized useful findings from Europe, where the pest has long been established.

  18. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-04-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  19. Evidence of two lineages of the symbiont 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola' in Italian populations of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences.

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    Savio, Claudia; Mazzon, Luca; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Simonato, Mauro; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The close association between the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and bacteria has been known for more than a century. Recently, the presence of a host-specific, hereditary, unculturable symbiotic bacterium, designated 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', has been described inside the cephalic organ of the fly, called the oesophageal bulb. In the present study, the 16S rRNA gene sequence variability of 'Ca. E. dacicola' was examined within and between 26 Italian olive fly populations sampled across areas where olive trees occur in the wild and areas where cultivated olive trees have been introduced through history. The bacterial contents of the oesophageal bulbs of 314 olive flies were analysed and a minimum of 781 bp of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. The corresponding host fly genotype was assessed by sequencing a 776 bp portion of the mitochondrial genome. Two 'Ca. E. dacicola' haplotypes were found (htA and htB), one being slightly more prevalent than the other (57%). The two haplotypes did not co-exist in the same individuals, as confirmed by cloning. Interestingly, the olive fly populations of the two main Italian islands, Sicily and Sardinia, appeared to be represented exclusively by the htB and htA haplotypes, respectively, while peninsular populations showed both bacterial haplotypes in different proportions. No significant correlation emerged between the two symbiont haplotypes and the 16 host fly haplotypes observed, suggesting evidence for a mixed model of vertical and horizontal transmission of the symbiont during the fly life cycle.

  20. The effect of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) on quality parameters, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P

    2016-06-15

    The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils. PMID:27220688

  1. The effect of fly attack (Bactrocera oleae) on the quality and phenolic content of Chemlal olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mettouchi, Soraya; Angerosa, Franca; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Bellal, Mohand Mouloud

    2009-01-01

    The attack on olives by the pest Bactrocera oleae has been studied to determine its influence on the olive oil quality (free acidity, peroxide value, UV extinction, sensorial quality), the total polyphenol and the individual phenolic compounds. The Algerian chemlal olive variety was used in this work. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of phenolic compounds were performed using the colorimetric method and the GC coupled with mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the attack modif...

  2. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Follett, Peter A; Liquido, Nicanor J; Sylva, Charmaine D

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed. PMID:26816484

  3. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakani Evdoxia G

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis. The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique, albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5% proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The

  4. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT.

  5. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. PMID:24995839

  6. Genetic relationship of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wu; Bruce A. McPheron; Jia-Jiao Wu; Zhi-Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    The melon fruit fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),has been the subject of worldwide quarantine and management efforts due to its widespread agricultural impact and potential for rapid range expansion.From its presumed native distribution in India,this species has spread throughout the hot-humid regions of the world.We provide information that reveals population structure,invasion history and population connectivity from 23 locations covering nine countries based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.Forty-two polymorphic sites were described among 38 haplotypes.The most common haplotype,H1,was observed in 73% of the samples distributed among all populations.Highest genetic diversity was seen within populations,and no isolation-by-distance was detected.The western regions (Nepal,Bangladesh,Thailand,Burma and China-west) showed higher haplotype diversity than eastern regions (Chins-east).China-Yunnan showed highest levels of genetic diversity in China.Haplotype diversity decreased with longitude from west to east.Together,these analyses suggest that B.cucurbitae has expanded from west to east within a limited geographic scale and recently invaded China through Yunnan Province.

  7. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens.

  8. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens. PMID:23356059

  9. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author)

  10. Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Marchini, Daniela; Taylor, Phillip W

    2009-05-01

    Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni, were investigated and compared with those of other tephritid flies. Male accessory glands were found to comprise one pair of mesodermic glands and three pairs of ectodermic glands. The mesodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined, binucleate epithelial cells, which are highly microvillated and extrude electron-dense secretions by means of macroapocrine transport into a central lumen. The ectodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined epithelial cells which have wide subcuticular cavities, lined with microvilli. The electron-transparent secretions from these glands are first extruded into the cavities and then forced out through small pores of the cuticle into the gland lumen. Secretions from the two types of accessory glands then flow into the ejaculatory duct, which is highly muscular, with epithelial cells rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and lined with a thick, deeply invaginated cuticle. While there are some notable differences, reproductive accessory glands of male Q-flies generally resemble those of the olive fruitfly, Bactrocera oleae, and to a lesser extent the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. PMID:19026762

  11. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  12. The geometric approach to explore the Bactrocera tau complex (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kitthawee, S.; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Specimens of the genus Bactrocera were collected from several host plants in northern and western Thailand. They were morphologically recognized as Bactrocera tau and were subdivided into eleven samples according to host plant, geographic origin and time of collection. Twelve landmarks of the right wing were described in a total of 264 males and 276 females. An exploratory analysis using kernel density estimates was performed on the multivariate morphometric space. Non-parametric classificati...

  13. Selective extraction of Bactrocera oleae sexual pheromone from olive oil by dispersive magnetic microsolid phase extraction using a molecularly imprinted nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen Alcudia-León, María; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-07-15

    Bactrocera oleae Gmelin, also known as olive fruit fly, is the main olive tree pest. It produces a severe effect not only on the productivity but also on the quality of the olive-related products. In fact, the oil obtained from infected olives has a lower antioxidant power. In addition, an increase of the oil acidity, peroxide index and UV-absorbance can also be observed. 1,7-dioxaspiro-[5,5]-undecane (DSU), is the main component of the sexual pheromone of this pest and may be used as marker of the pest incidence. In this context, the development of new methods able to detect the pheromones in several samples, including agri-food or environmental ones, is interesting. In this work, we synthesized a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPS) layer over magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP) for the selective recognition of DSU. They were prepared using DSU as template and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to associate the target analyte on the surface of the magnetic substrate and the later polymerization of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in presence of 2,2-azobisisobutyonnitrile (AIBN). The resulting Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP composite was characterized by different techniques. The maximum adsorption capacity of DSU on Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP in hexane was 32mg/g (5.3 times than that obtained for the non-imprinted composite). In addition, Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP showed a short equilibrium time (45min) and potential reusability. The combination of dispersive magnetic microsolid phase extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection allows the determination of DSU in real samples at concentrations as low as 10μg/L with precision better than 7.5% (expressed as relative standard deviation). The relative recoveries are in the range between 95 and 99%, which indicates the potential of the methodology. Finally, it has been applied to real olive oil samples being the presence of the pest detected is some of them. PMID:27295964

  14. Inorganic nutrients in natural and artificial food of Dacus oleae larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain inorganic nutrients contained in the natural and artificial food of Dacus oleae larvae were determined by neutron activation analysis and spectrophotometry. The content of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, copper and phosporus was reported for the olive fruit mesocarp at three stages of maturity, brewer's yeast, soybean hydrolysate and roasted peanuts. Several differences were found between the inorganic nutrient content of the natural food (olive fruit) and artificial diet of D. oleae larvae. The differences which may be important in the nutrition and metabolism of this insect were estimated and discussed

  15. Artificial rearing of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into the area-wide management of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a promising althernative to the localized use of chemical control tactics. Implementation of the SIT requires adequate numbers of sterile male insects that are produ...

  16. Male Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tau (Diptera; Tephritidae) attractants from Elsholtzia pubescens Bth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasyim, A.; Muryati,; Mizu Istianto,; Kogel, de W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the ability of different plant extracts to attract male fruit flies indicated that an extract of Elsholtzia pubescens attracted male Bactrocera tau fruit flies in Passion fruit orchards in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Analyses of the plant extract showed that the major compound present was Ca

  17. Evaluation of the efficacy of beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive fruit fly bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango production plays an important role in Africa’s economy. However, the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens is causing high yield losses as an important quarantine pest. Suppression of fruit flies for increased mango production will increasingly rely on management methods which exert low negative environmental impact. Beauveria bassiana is an insect pathogenic fungus used as microbial insecticide because it leaves produce to their fresh state, flavor, colour and texture with no change in the chemical composition of the product and is environmentally friendly. Evaluation of the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephriitidae) was carried out. The fungus B. bassiana (Botanigard® ES) containing 11.3% Beauveria bassiana GHA strain was applied at concentrations of 106, 53.0, 26.5, 13.3 and 6.65(x 106 spores/ml). When three developmental stages of the fruit fly (larvae, puparia and adults) were treated with Beauveria bassiana, the severity of the damage caused by the fungus increased with increasing fungal concentration. The results show lethal time (LT50) that ranged from 2.8 to 3.6 days for a dose of 106 x 106 spores/ml. Comparing methods of fungal application in the field, the result indicated that applying the fungus in fruit fly traps in mango canopies is the better method for fruit flies control in the field as compared to the soil surface spray method. However, both methods could be employed for better results The study of gamma radiation on the virulence of the fungus showed that the combined effect of the fungus and gamma irradiation gave better result by increasing adult mortality to 100 % within three days at 106 x106 spores/ml irradiated at 150 Gy than applying fungal treatment only. (author)

  18. Inter-regional mating compatibility among Bactrocera dorsalis populations in Thailand (Diptera,Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Srikachar, Sunyanee; Kumjing, Phatchara; Weera Kimjong; Sukamnouyporn, Weerawan; Polchaimat, Nongon

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility among recently colonized (wildish) populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) from different geographic origins in Thailand was assessed through inter-regional mating tests. Outdoor octagonal nylon screen field cages containing single potted mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) were used. Sexual compatibility was determined using the index of sexual isolation (ISI), the male relative performance index (MRPI), and the female relative performance index (FRPI). The ISI values indicated that the northern population of Bactrocera dorsalis from Chiang Mai province was sexually compatible with the southern population of Bactrocera dorsalis (previously Bactrocera papayae) from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The MRPI values showed that the northern males had a slightly higher tendency to mate than southern males, while the FRPI data reflected that females of both origins participated equally in matings. In all combinations there were no differences between homotypic and heterotypic couples in mating latency. Southern males tended to mate first with southern females, followed by northern males mating with northern females, while the latest matings involved heterotypic couples, in particular northern males mating with southern females. Overall, more couples were collected from higher parts of the field cage and the upper tree canopy, while there were no differences between the origins of flies in terms of elevation of couples within the cage. Laboratory assessments of fecundity showed no differences in the average number of eggs resulting from inter-regional crosses. Development of immature stages was also equal in the two hybrid crosses, with no differences found in the number of pupae produced, percentage pupal recovery, and percent adult emergence. The practical implication of this study is that colony of Bactrocera dorsalis derived from any northern or southern region of Thailand can potentially be used in sterile insect technique programs against this

  19. Determination of lipase activity in the larval midgut of Bacterocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Delkash-Roudsari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, digestive lipase activity was determined and characterized in the third larval instars of olive fly, Bactericera oleae as the first time in dipteran order. By using two sample fractions, it was found that the enzyme had higher activity in membrane-bound fraction than that of soluble fraction. Optimal pH of soluble lipase was found to be 4 and 6 but membrane-bound lipase showed pH 4 as optimal value. Optimal temperatures for soluble and membrane-bound lipase were obtained to be 35 and 50 °C, respectively. Activities of digestive soluble and membrane-bound lipases decreased by using various mono- and di-valent ions. Since, fruits of olive are full of various oils, digestive lipases of B. oleae larvae have critical role in their digestion. So, these enzymes might be a good target for developing inhibitors and resistant varieties.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the pumpkin fruit fly, Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Meihua; Zhang, Rui; Xiang, Caiyu; Zhou, Xin

    2016-07-01

    The pumpkin fruit fly, Bactrocera tau, is an important quarantine pest in many countries because of its mass destructiveness to a variety of vegetable and fruit plants. In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of B. tau. Its complete mitogenome sequence is 15,687 bp in length, which contains a non-coding control region and all of the 37 genes of bilaterian animals (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes). A phylogenetic tree of the complete mitogenome of all available Tephritidae species was established to approve the accuracy. The base composition of mitogenome sequence and the gene arrangement including directions are rather conservative, compared to other published mitogenomes of Bactrocera species. This first complete mitogenome of B. tau will facilitate the development of new DNA markers for species diagnosis, therefore improving accurate detection of quarantine species. PMID:26024140

  1. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion.

  2. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. PMID:24935641

  3. Microsatellite markers reveal population structure and low gene flow among collections of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Li, Yunlong; Ruiz-Arce, Raul; McPheron, Bruce A; Wu, Jiajiao; Li, Zhihong

    2011-06-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is widespread agricultural pest, and it is known to have the potential to establish invasive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Despite the economic risk associated with a putative stable presence of this fly, the population genetics of this pest have remained relatively unexplored in Asia, the main area for distribution of this pest. The goals for this study were to employ nuclear markers to examine geographic collections for population genetic structure and quantify the extent of gene flow within these Southeast Asian and Chinese populations. To achieve these goals, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers. A low level of genetic diversity was found among collections from China and higher levels were seen in Southeast Asia collections. Three genetically distinct groups, Southeast Asia, southwest China, and southeast China, were recovered by Bayesian model-based clustering methods, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the principal coordinate analysis. The Mantel test clearly shows geographical distance contributed in the genetic structuring of B. cucurbitae's populations. No recent bottlenecks for any of the populations examined. The results of clustering, migration analyses, and Mantel test, strongly suggest that the regional structure observed may be due to geographical factors such as mountains, rivers, and islands. We found a high rate of migration in some sites from the southwest China region (cluster 1) and the southeast China region (cluster 2), suggesting that China-Guangdong-Guangzhou (GZ) may be the center of melon fruit fly in the southeast China region. PMID:21735930

  4. Novel toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishir, Md Asaduzzaman; Akter, Asma; Bodiuzzaman, Md; Hossain, M Aftab; Alam, Md Musfiqul; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Shakila Nargis; Hoq, M Mozammel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fruit fly) is one of the most detrimental vegetable-damaging pests in Bangladesh. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported against a few genera of Bactrocera in addition to numerous other insect species. Bt strains, harbouring cry1A-type genes were, therefore, assayed in vivo against the 3(rd) instar larvae of B. cucurbitae in this study. The biotype-based prevalence of cry1 and cry1A genes was calculated to be 30.8% and 11.16%, respectively, of the test strains (n=224) while their prevalence was greatest in biotype kurstaki. Though three indigenous Bt strains from biotype kurstaki with close genetic relationship exhibited higher toxicity, maximum mortalities were recorded for Btk HD-73 (96%) and the indigenous Bt JSc1 (93%). LC50 and LC99 values were determined to be 6.81 and 8.32 for Bt JSc1, 7.30 and 7.92 for Bt SSc2, and 6.99 and 7.67 for Btk HD-73, respectively. The cause of toxicity and its variation among the strains was found to be correlated with the synergistic toxic effects of cry1, cry2, cry3 and cry9 gene products, i.e. relevant Cry proteins. The novel toxicity of the B. thuringiensis strains against B. cucurbitae revealed in the present study thus will help in developing efficient and eco-friendly control measures such as Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt cucurbits.

  5. Longevity of Mass-Produced Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae) Held Without Food or Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Sundaralingam, Selliah; Jiang, Laura; Nicol, Helen I

    2014-12-01

    The sterile insect technique is used to manage or control fruit flies throughout the world. The technique relies on large scale production before delivery to release managers. As part of the mass production phase, there are many quality control tests to demonstrate and maintain high quality pupae and flies. One highly desirable characteristic is adults with a long life so that these adults can reach sexual maturity and sterile males mate with wild fertile flies in the field and thus produce no viable offspring. Originally longevity was assessed allowing adults to have unlimited access to food and water. As quality and longevity increased, this methodology added significantly to workload and space demands and many facilities moved to testing longevity under stress where no food or water was provided. Here we examined >27,000 Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) from 160 weekly production batches from July 2004 to October 2009 where flies were not provided food or water. The mean longevity was 54.4 ± SE hours. Longevity was significantly shorter from August to March, and the longevity was significantly longer in June. Longevity was not related to pupal weight, contrary to expectations. Weights were significantly lower in June and highest in summer. PMID:26470075

  6. Resistance and synergistic effects of insecticides in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Feng, Hai-Tung; Wu, Wen-Jer

    2004-10-01

    Oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), were treated with 10 insecticides, including six organophosphates (naled, trichlorfon, fenitrothion, fenthion, formothion, and malathion), one carbamate (methomyl), and three pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and fenvalerate), by a topical application assay under laboratory conditions. Subparental lines of each generation treated with the same insecticide were selected for 30 generations and were designated as x-r lines (x, insecticide; r, resistant). The parent colony was maintained as the susceptible colony. The line treated with naled exhibited the lowest increase in resistance (4.7-fold), whereas the line treated with formothion exhibited the highest increase in resistance (up to 594-fold) compared with the susceptible colony. Synergism bioassays also were carried out. Based on this, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate displayed a synergistic effect for naled, trichlorfon, and malathion resistance, whereas piperonyl butoxide displayed a synergistic effect for pyrethroid resistance. All 10 resistant lines also exhibited some cross-resistance to other insecticides, not only to the same chemical class of insecticides but also to other classes. However, none of the organophosphate-resistant or the methomyl-resistant lines exhibited cross-resistance to two of the pyrethroids (cypermethrin and fenvalerate). Overall, the laboratory resistance and cross-resistance data developed here should provide useful tools and information for designing an insecticide management strategy for controlling this fruit fly in the field. PMID:15568360

  7. Including climate change in pest risk assessment: the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W L; Li, Z H; Chen, H J; Wan, F H; Qu, W W; Zhang, Z; Kriticos, D J

    2012-04-01

    Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is one of the most harmful species of Tephritidae. It causes extensive damage in Asia and threatens many countries located along or near the Mediterranean Sea. The climate mapping program, CLIMEX 3.0, and the GIS software, ArcGIS 9.3, were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of B. zonata. The model predicts that, under current climatic conditions, B. zonata will be able to establish itself throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including some parts of the USA, southern China, southeastern Australia and northern New Zealand. Climate change scenarios for the 2070s indicate that the potential distribution of B. zonata will expand poleward into areas which are currently too cold. The main factors limiting the pest's range expansion are cold, hot and dry stress. The model's predictions of the numbers of generations produced annually by B. zonata were consistent with values previously recorded for the pest's occurrence in Egypt. The ROC curve and the AUC (an AUC of 0.912) were obtained to evaluate the performance of the CLIMEX model in this study. The analysis of this information indicated a high degree of accuracy for the CLIMEX model. The significant increases in the potential distribution of B. zonata projected under the climate change scenarios considered in this study suggest that biosecurity authorities should consider the effects of climate change when undertaking pest risk assessments. To prevent the introduction and spread of B. zonata, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions.

  8. Gamma Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment of Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Pumpkin Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoping, Zhan; Lili, Ren; Ying, Shao; Qiaoling, Wang; Daojian, Yu; Yuejin, Wang; Tianxiu, Li

    2015-02-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Walker) is an important quarantine pest that damages fruits and vegetables throughout Asian regions. Host commodities shipped from infested areas should undergo phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of shipping viable flies. The dose-response tests with 1-d-old eggs and 3-, 5-, 7-, 8-d-old larvae were initiated to determine the most resistant stages in fruits, and the minimum dose for 99.9968% prevention of adult eclosion at 95% confidence level was validated in the confirmatory tests. The results showed that 1) the pupariation rate was not affected by gamma radiation except for eggs and first instars, while the percent of eclosion was reduced significantly in all instars at all radiation dose; 2) the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage; 3) the estimated dose to 99.9968% preventing adult eclosion from late third instars was 70.9 Gy (95% CL: 65.6-78.2, probit model) and 71.8 Gy (95% CL: 63.0-87.3, logit model); and iv) in total, 107,135 late third instars cage infested in pumpkin fruits were irradiated at the target dose of 70 Gy (62.5-85.0, Gy measured), which resulted in no adult emergence in the two confirmatory tests. Therefore, a minimum dose of 85 and 72 Gy, which could prevent adult emergence at the efficacy of 99.9972 and 99.9938% at the 95% confidence level, respectively, can be recommended as a minimum dose for phytosanitary treatment of B. tau in any host fruits and vegetables under ambient atmospheres. PMID:26470107

  9. Population dynamics of oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis(Diptera:Tephritidae)in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hui; LIU Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Annual monitoring of the population dynamics of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera:Tephritidae)in Xishuangbanna,southern Yunnan,was conducted by using methyl eugenol-baited traps in 1997,2000,and 2003,and factors including temperature,rainfall,and host species with respect to the population fluctuation were analyzed systematically.The results showed that the fruit fly was present all year round in Xishuangbanna.Its population remained at a lower level from November to February,and increased from March until it reached a peak in June or July,depending on the rainfall that year.Afterward,the fly population declined remarkably until October.Temperature,rainfall,and host fruits were major factors comprehensively influencing the population fluctuation.The monthly mean temperature was in a range of temperatures suitable for development and reproduction of the fly.But the monthly mean minimum temperature from December to February was lower than the suitable temperature range,which was suggested a possible reason for the lower populations in winter months.Rainfall was another essential factor influencing the population fluctuations.The population was depressed when the monthly rainfall amount was lower than 50 mm,but increased when rainfall ranged from 100 mm to 200 mm.When the monthly rainfall amount was higher than 250 mm,the fruit fly population was reduced remarkably.The heavy rain in July and August explained the decreasing population.Mango,orange,pear,longan,and peach were found to be the main host species of the fly in Xishuangbanna.Among them,mango and longan were most preferred by the fly.Therefore,the planted areas,fruiting period,and production exerted essential effects on the fly population fluctuations,which were regarded as another major factor influencing the fly population in that area.Briefly,temperature,monthly rainfall,and the host species,through the way of their functions,the influence strength,as well as the period that they

  10. Interspecific cross of the Bactrocera dorsalis Complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): How did it happen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, which taxonomically resembles the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), comprises at least 52 species. Two closely related members of the complex, namely B. papayae Drew and Hancock and B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, were recently reclassified as new species (Drew and Hancock 1994). Under this taxonomic revision, B. papayae is now regarded as a distinct species from B. carambolae based on the differences of: 1) wing pattern of the costal band at apex R4+5, 2) the presence of a dark spot on the fore femora and, 3) the pattern of the transverse black band on terga III-V. Chemical examination of the volatile components produced by the males of both species also revealed pronounced differences in the chemistry of their rectal gland secretions (Perkins et al. 1990). In Malaysia, B. papayae has a wider distribution and a larger host range compared with B. carambolae. Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) and various species of wax apple (Syzygium spp.) are the preferred hosts of B. carambolae whilst B. papayae attacks over 150 species but preferentially 'attacks' banana (Musa spp.), starfruit, mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.) and guava (Psidium guajava L.) in decreasing order (Tan 1997). Recently, data from field trapping studies using methyl eugenol (ME) in Penang Island, Malaysia, showed the presence of male flies with intermediate morphological characteristics between B. papayae and B. carambolae. Laboratory testing showed that these two species are able to interbreed and produce viable offspring. The hybrids also possess a variety of intermediate characteristics between the two species (Wee and Tan, unpublished data). Therefore, the question arises as to whether B. papayae and B. carambolae should be categorised as different species, subspecies or even as different strains. And before a satisfactory conclusion can be achieved, there are some key issues that need to be addressed. Firstly, after ME

  11. Bionomics of Bactrocera (Bactrocera) philippinensis (Drew & Hancock) ( Diptera: Tephritidae)%菲律宾实蝇生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦懿; 陈枝楠; 陈志粦

    2011-01-01

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) philippinensis (Drew & Hancock ), is an important quarantine pest. It has been reported to damage many fruits seriously, such as mango Mangifera indica L., papaya Carica papaya L. and jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. The bionomics of the fruit fly was systematically observed and studied in the laboratory. The results showed that their emergence percentage was 93.93% during 6- 18 h. Their adult activity, longevity, mating and oviposition were related significantly to temperature and light. The adult longevity was prolonged by supplementary nutrition. The suitable temperature of their development and fecundity was 25℃ -30℃. The fruit fly laid 627.35 and 652.57 eggs on average at 25℃ and 30℃, respectively. The thermal threshold temperature and the effective accumulated temperature for the development were 14. 31℃ and 450. 43 day-degree, respectively. The developmental duration was correlated negatively with temperature (r = -0.9005). This study provided the important basic information for the technique of quarantine treatment and field control of the fruit fly.%菲律宾实蝇 Bactrocera (Bactrocera)philippinensis(Drew & Hancock)是重要的检疫性有害生物,严重危害芒果Mangifera indica L.、木瓜 Carica papaya L.和菠萝蜜Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.等水果.本文在室内实验条件下对菲律宾实蝇生物学特性进行了较为系统的研究.结果表明:菲律宾实蝇在6~18 h羽化率达93.93%.成虫活动、寿命、交配和产卵与温度、光照密切相关.补充营养能显著延长成虫寿命.菲律宾实蝇生长、发育和繁殖的适宜温度为25~30℃.25℃和30℃时平均产卵量分别为627.35粒和652.57粒.发育起点温度和世代有效积温分别为14.31℃和450.43日·度.温度与发育历期呈显著的负相关(r=-0.9005).本研究为菲律宾实蝇的检疫处理和田间防治技术研究提供了重要的基础资料.

  12. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii. PMID:26582906

  13. Weathering and Chemical Degradation of Methyl Eugenol and Raspberry Ketone Solid Dispensers for Detection, Monitoring, and Male Annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Nkomo, Eddie; Cook, Peter J; Mackey, Bruce; Stark, John D

    2015-08-01

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in area-wide pest management bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are pests. Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were significantly higher on the basis of ME concentration (Mallet ME [56%] > Mallet MR [31.2%] > Mallet MC [23.1%]). Captures of B. cucurbitae with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were not different regardless of concentration of RK (Mallet BR [20.1%] = Mallet MR [18.3%] = Mallet MC [15.9%]). Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers, compared with weathered wafers, were significantly different after week 12; captures of B. cucurbitae were not significantly different after 16 wk. Chemical analyses revealed presence of RK in dispensers in constant amounts throughout the 16-wk trial. Degradation of both ME and DDVP over time was predicted with a high level of confidence by nonlinear asymptotic exponential decay curves. Results provide supportive data to deploy solid ME and RK wafers (with DDVP) in fruit fly traps for detection programs, as is the current practice with solid TML dispensers placed in Jackson traps. Wafers with ME and RK might be used in place of two separate traps for detection of both ME and RK responding fruit flies and could potentially reduce cost of materials and labor by 50%.

  14. Synonymization of key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on a review of 20 years of integrative morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioural and chemoecological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White are four horticultural pest tephritid fruit fly species that are highly similar, morphologically and genetically, to the destructive pest, the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). This similarity has rendered the discovery of reliable diagnostic characters problematic, which, in view of the economic importance of these taxa and the international trade implications, has resulted in ongoing difficulties for many areas of plant protection and food security. Consequently, a major international collaborative and integrated multidisciplinary research effort was initiated in 2009 to build upon existing literature with the specific aim of resolving biological species limits among B. papayae, B. philippinensis, B. carambolae, B. invadens and B. dorsalis to overcome constraints to pest management and international trade. Bactrocera philippinensis has recently been synonymized with B. papayae as a result of this initiative and this review corroborates that finding; however, the other names remain in use. While consistent characters have been found to reliably distinguish B. carambolae from B. dorsalis, B. invadens and B. papayae, no such characters have been found to differentiate the latter three putative species. We conclude that B. carambolae is a valid species and that the remaining taxa, B. dorsalis, B. invadens and B. papayae, represent the same species. Thus, we consider B. dorsalis (Hendel) as the senior synonym of B. papayae Drew and Hancock syn.n. and B. invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White syn.n. A redescription of B. dorsalis is provided. Given the agricultural importance of B. dorsalis, this taxonomic decision will have significant global plant biosecurity implications, affecting pest management, quarantine, international trade, postharvest treatment and basic research

  15. The mitochondrial genome of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Complete DNA sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic analysis with other tephritids using next generation DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Jaipal S; Naaz, Naiyar; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Rao, Mathukumalli Srinivasa; Das, Bikash

    2015-09-15

    Mitochondrial genome can provide information for genomic structure as well as for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. The complete 15,935 bp mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae), is assembled from Illumina MiSeq read data. The mitogenome information for B. zonata was compared to the homologous sequences of other tephritids. Annotation indicated that the structure and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA sequences were typical of, and similar to, the ten closely related tephritid species. The nucleotide composition shows heavily biased toward As and Ts accounting 73.34% and exhibits a slightly positive AT skew, which is similar to other known tephritid species. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cox1 with TCG and atp8 with GTG. Nine PCGs use a common stop codon of TAA or TAG, whereas the remaining four use an incomplete termination codon T or TA likely to be completed by adenylation. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, with an exception for trnS((AGN)). Four short intergenic spacers showed high degree of conservation among B. zonata and other ten tephritids. A poly(T) stretch at the 5' end followed by [TA(A)]n-like stretch and a tandem repeats of 39 bp has been observed in CR. The analysis of gene evolutionary rate revealed that the cox1 and atp6 exhibits lowest and highest gene substitution rates, respectively than other genes. The phylogenetic relationships based on Maximum Likelihood method using all protein-coding genes and two ribosomal RNA genes confirmed that B. zonata is closely related to Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, and Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera dorsalis belonging to B. dorsalis species complex forms a monophyletic clade, which is in accordance with the traditional morphological classification and recent molecular works. PMID:26031235

  16. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  17. Bacterial communities in the gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae based on 454 pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailin Wang

    Full Text Available The citrus fruit fly Bactrocera minax is associated with diverse bacterial communities. We used a 454 pyrosequencing technology to study in depth the microbial communities associated with gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax. Our dataset consisted of 100,749 reads with an average length of 400 bp. The saturated rarefaction curves and species richness indices indicate that the sampling was comprehensive. We found highly diverse bacterial communities, with individual sample containing approximately 361 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs. A total of 17 bacterial phyla were obtained from the flies. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that Proteobacteria was dominant in all samples (75%-95%. Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were also commonly found in the total clones. Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia were the major genera. However, bacterial diversity (Chao1, Shannon and Simpson indices and community structure (PCA analysis varied across samples. Female ovary has the most diverse bacteria, followed by male testis, and the bacteria diversity of reproductive organs is richer than that of the gut. The observed variation can be caused by sex and tissue, possibly to meet the host's physiological demands.

  18. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

  19. Attraction and mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to STATIC Spinosad ME weathered under operational conditions in California and Florida: a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Hoffman, Kevin; Mercogliano, Juan; Smith, Trevor R; Hammond, Jack; Davis, Bobbie J; Brodie, Matt; Dripps, James E

    2014-08-01

    Studies were conducted in 2013-2014 to quantify attraction, feeding, and mortality of male oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to STATIC Spinosad ME a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment (MAT) formulation consisting of an amorphous polymer matrix in combination with methyl eugenol (ME) and spinosad compared with the standard treatment of Min-U-Gel mixed with ME and naled (Dibrom). Our approach used a behavioral methodology for evaluation of slow-acting reduced-risk insecticides. ME treatments were weathered for 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d under operational conditions in California and Florida and shipped to Hawaii for bioassays. In field tests using bucket traps to attract and capture wild males, and in toxicity studies conducted in 1-m(3) cages using released males of controlled ages, STATIC Spinosad ME performed equally as well to the standard formulation of Min-U-Gel ME with naled for material aged up to 28 d in both California and Florida. In laboratory feeding tests in which individual males were exposed for 5 min to the different ME treatments, mortality induced by STATIC Spinosad ME recorded at 24 h did not differ from mortality caused by Min-U-Gel ME with naled at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d in California and was equal to or higher for all weathered time periods in Florida during two trials. Spinosad has low contact toxicity, and when mixed with an attractant and slow release matrix, offers a reduced-risk alternative for eradication of B. dorsalis and related ME attracted species, without many of the potential negative effects to humans and nontargets associated with broad-spectrum contact insecticides such as naled. PMID:25195423

  20. The oviposition of the chili fruit fly (Bactrocera latifrons Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae with reference to reproductive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anothai Wingsanoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The chili fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons Hendel, is a serious pest of chili fruit production in Thailand. To determine theeffective control planning of the fly population, the oviposition related to reproductive capacity of the female were observed.The female ovary was daily dissected through the entire life span and the eggs inside the ovary were examined and counted.There were 44.84±19.60 eggs/ovary. The oviposition of female was simultaneously conducted. Eggs inside the ovarypresented on 8th day and the female oviposited on 10th day of the life span. The female laid 4.25±2.28 eggs, which was 12.45±9.56 fold less than the reproductive capacity. The female longevity was 31.1±8.40 days and the oviposition period was 40days.

  1. Effects of laboratory colonization on Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera, Tephritidae) mating behaviour: 'what a difference a year makes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutze, Mark K; Dammalage, Thilak; Jessup, Andrew; Vreysen, Marc J B; Wornoayporn, Viwat; Clarke, Anthony R

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-reared insects are widely known to have significantly reduced genetic diversity in comparison to wild populations; however, subtle behavioural changes between laboratory-adapted and wild or 'wildish' (i.e., within one or very few generations of field collected material) populations are less well understood. Quantifying alterations in behaviour, particularly sexual, in laboratory-adapted insects is important for mass-reared insects for use in pest management strategies, especially those that have a sterile insect technique component. We report subtle changes in sexual behaviour between 'wildish' Bactrocera dorsalis flies (F1 and F2) from central and southern Thailand and the same colonies 12 months later when at six generations from wild. Mating compatibility tests were undertaken under standardised semi-natural conditions, with number of homo/heterotypic couples and mating location in field cages analysed via compatibility indices. Central and southern populations of Bactrocera dorsalis displayed positive assortative mating in the 2010 trials but mated randomly in the 2011 trials. 'Wildish' southern Thailand males mated significantly earlier than central Thailand males in 2010; this difference was considerably reduced in 2011, yet homotypic couples from southern Thailand still formed significantly earlier than all other couple combinations. There was no significant difference in couple location in 2010; however, couple location significantly differed among pair types in 2011 with those involving southern Thailand females occurring significantly more often on the tree relative to those with central Thailand females. Relative participation also changed with time, with more southern Thailand females forming couples relative to central Thailand females in 2010; this difference was considerably decreased by 2011. These results reveal how subtle changes in sexual behaviour, as driven by laboratory rearing conditions, may significantly influence mating

  2. Field Estimates of Attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Methyl Eugenol in Varying Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Siderhurst, Matthew; Jang, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation, and control of invasive pests. Here, we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to estimate the relationship between distance from a trap baited with trimedlure and methyl eugenol, respectively, and probability of capture for a receptive male insect. Experiments were conducted using a grid of traps with a central release point at two sites on Hawaii Island, a Macadamia orchard on the East side of the island and a lava field on the West side. We found that for B. dorsalis and methyl eugenol there is a 65% probability of capture at ∼36 m from a single trap, regardless of habitat. For C. capitata, we found a 65% probability of capture at a distance of ∼14 m from a single trap in the orchard and 7 m in the lava field. We also present results on the spatial and temporal pattern of recaptures. The attraction data are analyzed via a hyperbolic secant-based capture probability model.

  3. Performance of methyl eugenol + matrix + toxicant combinations under field conditions in Hawaii and California for trapping Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Carvalho, Lori A

    2013-04-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of many fruit crops worldwide. Current detection programs by federal and state agencies in the United States use a grid of traps consisting of liquid methyl eugenol (lure) and naled (toxicant) applied to cotton wicks and hung inside the trap. In recent years efforts have been made to incorporate these chemicals into various solid-type matrices that could be individually packaged to reduce human exposure to the chemicals and improve handling. New solid formulations containing methyl eugenol and either naled or dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate toxicants were compared with the standard formulations on cotton wicks in large scale field evaluation in Hawaii. Two reduced risk toxicants (spinosad and Rynaxypyr) were also evaluated. In one test the solid lure-toxicant-matrix combinations were sent to California to be weathered under California climate conditions and then sent back to Hawaii for evaluation. The polymer matrices with lure and toxicant were found to be as attractive as baited wicks and have the same longevity of attraction regardless of being weathered in Hawaii or in California. The new ingestible toxicants were also effective, although further testing of these ingestible lure + toxicant + matrix products is necessary. PMID:23786060

  4. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated. PMID:27196605

  5. Genetic structure and colonization history of the fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae) in China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W; Kerdelhué, C; Ye, H

    2014-06-01

    Bactrocera tau (Walker), a major invasive pest worldwide, was first described in Fujian (China) in 1849 and has dispersed to tropical and subtropical Asia and the South Pacific region. Few data are available on its colonization history and expansion processes. This pilot study attempted to reconstruct the colonization history and pathways of this pest in China and neighboring Southeast Asian countries based on mitochondrial DNA. Results of the study showed six genetic groups corresponding to geographical characteristics, although the pattern was relatively weak. Homogeneous genetic patterns were observed within southern and central China, and northern Vietnam. Continuous colonization from the coast of southern China to inland regions of China and northern Vietnam was suggested. Strong genetic structure was observed in western China, Thailand, and Laos. The isolation of four of the six groups was most probably attributable to major topographical barriers of western China. Yunnan acted as a contact zone of B. tau in China and neighboring Southeast Asia. The absence of isolation by distance and the overall low phylogeographic structure of B. tau suggested that long distance dispersal events and human activities could play a major role in the colonization and expansion patterns of B. tau. By analyzing the genetic diversity, gene flow, haplotype phylogeny, and demographic history of 23 fly populations, we hypothesized that B. tau could have been introduced long ago in southern China, from which it further expanded or that southern China could correspond to the native range of this species.

  6. Use of alpha-ionol + cade oil for detection and monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Jang, Eric B., E-mail: grant.mcquate@ars.usda.go, E-mail: eric.jang@ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS), Hilo, HI (United States). Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Bokonon-Ganta, Aime H., E-mail: aimehbg@hawaii.ed [University of Hawaii (CTAHR/PEPS/UH), Honolulu, HI (United States). Coll. of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. Dept. of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences

    2006-07-01

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly that primarily infests solanaceous fruits. Although primarily of Asian distribution, it has invaded Hawaii and, more recently, the continent of Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). Male B. latifrons uniquely respond to alpha-ionol + cade oil, rather than to either methyl eugenol or cuelure, to which males of the majority of other Dacine fruit flies respond. Here we present research results detailing the age of male B. latifrons response to alpha-ionol + cade oil, the persistence of wick attractiveness, and the effectiveness of alpha-ionol + cade oil in detecting B. latifrons populations. Based on wind tunnel studies with wild flies, male response steadily increased from 5% at age 2 to 45% at age 28, with male response exceeding 50% of the peak response by Day 7 and exceeding 75% and 90% by days 14 and 21, respectively. The attractiveness of wicks treated with 2.0 ml alpha-ionol and 1.0 ml cade oil (on separate wicks) declined over time, with wick response reduced to about 50% of the fresh catch after 6 1/2 weeks. Based on concurrent alpha-ionol + cade oil based trapping and collections of turkey berry, Solanum torvum (Solanaceae), fruits, the presence of B. latifrons was detected at the time of fruit collection, 75.5 % of the time. (author)

  7. Use of alpha-ionol + cade oil for detection and monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly that primarily infests solanaceous fruits. Although primarily of Asian distribution, it has invaded Hawaii and, more recently, the continent of Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). Male B. latifrons uniquely respond to alpha-ionol + cade oil, rather than to either methyl eugenol or cuelure, to which males of the majority of other Dacine fruit flies respond. Here we present research results detailing the age of male B. latifrons response to alpha-ionol + cade oil, the persistence of wick attractiveness, and the effectiveness of alpha-ionol + cade oil in detecting B. latifrons populations. Based on wind tunnel studies with wild flies, male response steadily increased from 5% at age 2 to 45% at age 28, with male response exceeding 50% of the peak response by Day 7 and exceeding 75% and 90% by days 14 and 21, respectively. The attractiveness of wicks treated with 2.0 ml alpha-ionol and 1.0 ml cade oil (on separate wicks) declined over time, with wick response reduced to about 50% of the fresh catch after 6 1/2 weeks. Based on concurrent alpha-ionol + cade oil based trapping and collections of turkey berry, Solanum torvum (Solanaceae), fruits, the presence of B. latifrons was detected at the time of fruit collection, 75.5 % of the time. (author)

  8. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Chinese Citrus Fly, Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae), by High-Throughput Illumina Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Xiong, Ke-Cai; Liu, Ying-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein), is one of the most devastating pests of citrus in the temperate areas of Asia. So far, studies involving molecular biology and physiology of B. minax are still scarce, partly because of the lack of genomic information and inability to rear this insect in laboratory. In this study, de novo assembly of a transcriptome was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 20,928,907 clean reads were obtained and assembled into 33,324 unigenes, with an average length of 908.44 bp. Unigenes were annotated by alignment against NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG) database. Genes potentially involved in stress tolerance, including 20 heat shock protein (Hsps) genes, 26 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes, and 2 ferritin subunit genes, were identified. These genes may play roles in stress tolerance in B. minax diapause stage. It has previously been found that 20E application on B. minax pupae could avert diapause, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, genes encoding enzymes in 20E biosynthesis pathway, including Neverland, Spook, Phantom, Disembodied, Shadow, Shade, and Cyp18a1, and genes encoding 20E receptor proteins, ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP), were identified. The expression patterns of 20E-related genes among developmental stages and between 20E-treated and untreated pupae demonstrated their roles in diapause program. In addition, 1,909 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected, which will contribute to molecular marker development. The findings in this study greatly improve our genetic understanding of B. minax, and lay the foundation for future studies on this species. PMID:27331903

  9. Morphological and histological damage on reproduction organ of radio-sterilized male fruit flies bactrocera carambolae (drew & hancock) (diptera; tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that gamma irradiation of 90 Gy on pupae of Bactrocera carambolae (Drew & Hancock) fruit fly induced sterility on the adults, however limited data on the cause of sterility is available. To obtain such information, morphological and histological damages on the reproduction organ of male adult flies emerged from irradiated pupae were observed. Pupae of 9 day-old were irradiated with 90 Gy gamma, and the male adults of 7 and 14 day-old emerged from the pupae were dissected to obtained the testis. Morphology and size of the testis of irradiated and unirradiated flies were observed under the microscopes, each in 10 replicates. Preparate of the testis were also made and observed under the microscopes of 400 magnification. The results showed that significant damages were found on testis of the irradiated B. carambolae flies due to irradiation, so that the growth of the organ disturbed as shown by the smallers size of the irradiated testis as compare to the normal one. On the irradiated 7 day-old flies, the length and width of testis were 25.9 and 30.2 % smaller, while on those of 14 day-old the testis were 39.20 and 44.42 % smaller, than the normal. Besides smaller in size, dead germinal cells on the testis preparate were also observed. It is concluded that sterility on the male flies was due to the damage on the germinal cells so that abnormal spermatogenesis process happened. The smaller in size of the testis, is also differentiate between of the irradiated from the normal flies of B. carambolae. (author)

  10. Wing shape as a potential discriminator of morphologically similar pest taxa within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutze, M K; Jessup, A; Clarke, A R

    2012-02-01

    Four morphologically cryptic species of the Bactrocera dorsalis fruit fly complex (B. dorsalis s.s., B. papayae, B. carambolae and B. philippinensis) are serious agricultural pests. As they are difficult to diagnose using traditional taxonomic techniques, we examined the potential for geometric morphometric analysis of wing size and shape to discriminate between them. Fifteen wing landmarks generated size and shape data for 245 specimens for subsequent comparisons among three geographically distinct samples of each species. Intraspecific wing size was significantly different within samples of B. carambolae and B. dorsalis s.s. but not within samples of B. papayae or B. philippinensis. Although B. papayae had the smallest wings (average centroid size=6.002 mm±0.061 SE) and B. dorsalis s.s. the largest (6.349 mm±0.066 SE), interspecific wing size comparisons were generally non-informative and incapable of discriminating species. Contrary to the wing size data, canonical variate analysis based on wing shape data discriminated all species with a relatively high degree of accuracy; individuals were correctly reassigned to their respective species on average 93.27% of the time. A single sample group of B. carambolae from locality 'TN Malaysia' was the only sample to be considerably different from its conspecific groups with regards to both wing size and wing shape. This sample was subsequently deemed to have been originally misidentified and likely represents an undescribed species. We demonstrate that geometric morphometric techniques analysing wing shape represent a promising approach for discriminating between morphologically cryptic taxa of the B. dorsalis species complex. PMID:21867577

  11. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  12. Evaluation of endogenous references for gene expression profiling in different tissues of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jin-Jun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several studies have shown that the reference genes used for the quantification of mRNA expression can be affected by the experimental set-up or cell type resulting in variation of the expression level of these key genes. Therefore, the evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of insects. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel. Results Two different programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were used to analyze the data. According to geNorm, α-TUB + ACT5 are the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling across the three different tissues in the female flies, while ACT3 + α-TUB are considered as the best for males. Furthermore, we evaluated the stability of the candidate reference genes to determine the sexual differences in the same tissue. In the midgut and Malpighian tubules, ACT2 + α-TUB are the best choice for both males and females. However, α-TUB + ACT1 are the best pair for fat body. Meanwhile, the results calculated by Normfinder are quite the same as the results with geNorm; α-TUB is always one of the most stable genes in each sample validated by the two programs. Conclusions In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in different tissues of B. dorsalis. Moreover, appropriate reference genes were selected out for gene

  13. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain

    OpenAIRE

    Isasawin,Siriwan; Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2014-01-01

    Background The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has...

  14. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    OpenAIRE

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some c...

  15. Development of liquid larval diet with modified rearing system for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae) for the application of sterile insect technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liquid larval diet and its rearing system have been developed for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Hawaii. Rearing facility in Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, modified protein source from brewer's yeast to a combinat...

  16. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more

  17. 啤酒废酵母酶解生产橘小实蝇引诱蛋白研究%Production of Protein Bait for Bactrocera dorsalis ( Diptera: Tephritidae) by Using Beer Waste Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜迎刚; 李云玲; 季清娥

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to optimize the production conditions of protein bait for Bactrocera dorsalis ( Diptera: Tephritidae) by u-sing beer waste yeast. [ Method] Production conditions of protein bait for Bactrocera dorsalis by using beer waste yeast like yeast concentration , enzyme amount, hydrolysis temperature, hydrolysis time, hydrolysis pH and hydrolysis product' pH were optimized with orthogonal design by outdoor small-cage bioassay. [Result] The best attractiveness to females and males could be attained with the processes that the third thickness mother beer waste yeast liquid was treated with 15.0 g/kg papain at 67. 5 ℃ and pH 6.5 for 27 and 24 hours, respectively. The bio-assays also showed that the protein hydrolysate with pH 8. 5 could reach its highest attractiveness. [ Conclusion] The research provides theoretical basis for the development of protein bait for Bactrocera dorsalis.%[目的]优化啤酒废酵母酶解生产橘小实蝇引诱蛋白的条件.[方法]采用室外小笼子生物测定法,通过正交试验设计对啤酒废酵母酶解生产橘小实蝇引诱蛋白的影响因素(酵母浓度、酶量、水解温度、水解时间、水解pH和水解产物pH)进行了优化.[结果]将酵母母液稀释3倍后加入15.0 g/kg木瓜蛋白酶,在pH 6.5、温度67.5℃条件下保温水解24 h得到的水解蛋白于pH 8.5时对橘小实蝇雄性的引诱活性最强,水解27 h对橘小实蝇雌性的引诱活性最强.[结论]为开发橘小实蝇蛋白诱剂提供了理论依据.

  18. Pest risk assessment for regulatory control of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Musina area (Limpopo Province) / J.H. Venter.

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Jan Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Fruit flies (Tephritidae) can enter and establish in new territories due to the movement of fruit from one area to another through trade or tourism, which can negatively impact on fruit production and market access. An invader fruit fly species (Bactrocera invadens) has established on the African continent and has spread throughout sub-Saharan Africa. This newly described polyphagous fruit fly species is a successful invader species which continues to distribute and establish in new habitats....

  19. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

  20. Age-stage, two-sex life tables of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) with a discussion on the problem of applying female age-specific life tables to insect populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bing Huang; Hsin Chi

    2012-01-01

    Age-stage,two-sex life tables of the melon fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae ( Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),reared on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.),sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica Roem) and a carrot medium (mashed Daucus carota L.mixed with sucrose and yeast hydrolysate) were constructed under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1 ℃,65% ± 0.5%relative humidity,and a photoperiod 12 ∶ 12h (L ∶ D).The intrinsic rates of increase of B.cucurbitae were 0.144 6,0.141 2 and 0.068 8 days on cucumber,sponge gourd,and carrot medium,respectively.The highest net reproduction rate was 172 offspring per fly reared on sponge gourd.The mean generation times of B.cucurbitae ranged from 34 days reared on cucumber to 56 days reared on carrot medium.The life history raw data was analyzed using the traditional female age-specific life table and compared to results obtained using the age-stage,two-sex life table.When the age-specific female life table is applied to an age-stage-structured two-sex population,survival and fecundity curves will be improperly manipulated due to an inability to include variation in preadult development time.We discussed different interpretations of the relationship between the net reproductive rate and the intrinsic rate of increase to clarify possible misunderstanding in the literature.

  1. Intraspecific variation in the wild male population, and its potential value in the mass rearing program, of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept for improvement of quality of breeding stock used for mass-rearing of tephritid fruit flies for sterile release eradication programs is reported. According to this concept, high quality individuals are those that are numerically dominant in the wild population and hence, they would be selected for breeding purposes. To recognize dominant variants among the wild males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), intraspecific differences were determined. A total of nine intraspecific variants were recognized. Out of these one labelled GIIC. was dominant in the dry, wet, and fringe habitats of this fruit fly

  2. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan Ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-02-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade.

  3. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, E G; Godoy, W A C; Sousa, M S M; Lopes, G N; Jesus-Barros, C R; Silva, J G; Adaime, R

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  4. Host plant oviposition preference of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera : Tephritidae)%瓜实蝇对寄主植物的产卵选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭帅; 郑丽霞; 吴伟坚

    2013-01-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae ( Coquillett) has been reported to damage more than 100 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables. Choice oviposition experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to help assess host plant specificity of the fruit fly. Six host species: Momordica charantiap, Luffa cylindrical, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita moschata, Carica papaya and Cucurbita pepo were tested. Oviposition rates were highest on M. charantiap (56. 18% of eggs) and C. sativus (29. 00% ) , with low rates on C. papaya (1. 85% ) and C. moschata (0. 00% ) . In contrast, Oviposition rates were highest on C. sativus ( 34. 64% ) , C. pepo ( 30. 37% ) and C. moschata (18. 05% ) , with low rates on C. papaya (0. 60% ) when the fruit peel were pared. Oviposition rates of B. cucurbitae females on fruits with peel had a significant negative correlation with the hardness of peel, and the correlation coefficient was - 0. 8772. The results imply that in addition to the in - built chemical compounds, plants have physical barrier like hard fruit peel, which impact melon fruit fly oviposition.%瓜实蝇Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)可危害100多种寄主植物,是葫芦科蔬菜的重要害虫.为了探明瓜实蝇的寄主特异性,在实验室条件下研究了瓜实蝇对黄瓜Cucumis sativus、苦瓜Momordica charantiap、丝瓜Luffa cylindrica、南瓜Cucurbita moschata、番木瓜Carica papaya和西葫芦Cucurbita pepo的产卵选择性.瓜实蝇在苦瓜和黄瓜上的产卵比率较高,分别为56.18%和29.00%,在番木瓜和南瓜上产卵比率较低,分别为1.85%和0.00%,但是在去掉果皮后,黄瓜、西葫芦和南瓜的产卵比率较高,分别达到34.64%、30.37%和18.05%,在番木瓜上的产卵率较低仅为0.60%.瓜实蝇雌虫在带皮果实上的产卵比率与果皮硬度呈显著的负相关关系,相关系数为-0.8772结果表明除了自身的化合物之外,植物具有的物理屏障如坚硬的

  5. Cage study of spinosad-based bait efficacy on Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus, and Dacus demmerezi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Douraguia, Elisabeth; Atiama-Nurbel, Toulassi; Chiroleu, Fréderic; Quilici, Serge

    2012-08-01

    On Reunion Island, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Dacus ciliatus (Loew), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi) cause severe damage to Cucurbit crops. The aim of the study was to test in field cages the effectiveness of Synéis-appât (Dow AgroSciences), a spinosad-based bait (0.02% of spinosad) on both attraction and mortality of young adults (6-9 d old) of these three species. The effects of gender were also evaluated for all species whereas the effects of protein deprivation were tested with B. cucurbitae only. For the first 15 min after application, significantly more B. cucurbitae adults (21.7 +/- 1.8%) were attracted to the bait than D. demmerezi (7.6 +/- 2.4%) and D. ciliatus (2.7 +/- 1.4%); the subsequent response (30-75 min after bait application) of D. demmerezi was statistically similar to that recorded for B. cucurbitae; whereas the response ofD. ciliatus to the bait was consistently significantly lower. Adult mortality was significantly higher for B. cucurbitae (94.6 +/- 0.7%) than for D. demmerezi (85.7 +/- 2.1%), and was significantly higher for the latter than for D. ciliatus (60.4 +/- 4.4%). Sex had no significant effect on the mortality rate for each species. The efficiency of the bait was the same for B. cucurbitae adults regardless whether or not the diet included proteins. Overall, Synéis-appât appears to be more effective against B. cucurbitae and B. demmerezi than against D. ciliatus. In Reunion Island, this bait could constitute a useful component in the framework of Integrated Pest Management.

  6. Characteristics of hot spots of melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sterile fly release areas on Okinawa island [Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of populations of the melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae COQUILLETT, in the southern part of Okinawa Island where an eradication program using sterile flies has been conducted, were analyzed in relation to the seasonal succession and abundance of wild and cultivated host fruits. The study areas were classified into four major zones according to the seasonal abundance of flies caught by cue-lure traps and the availability of host fruits including Diplocyclos palmatus, Melothria liukiuensis and Momordica charantia var. pevel. Zone-I is characterized by the continuous presence of host fruits and a relatively-high population density of the melon fly indicated by the cue-lure trap catch of more than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day throughout the year. Zone-II has a characteristic decline in both number of host fruits and fly density during the fall-winter period with an annual average of less than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day. Zone-III includes areas where host fruits and flies (about 1 fly/trap/day) were relatively abundant only during the winter-spring period. Zone-IV is characterized by constantly low availability of host fruits and low fly density throughout the year. Hot spots, which are defined as areas where the ratio of sterile to wild flies hardly increases despite frequent and intensive release of sterile flies, were found in the Zone-I areas. Therefore, the continuous presence and abundance of host fruits appears to hot spots. For effective control of this species, it is essential to locate such areas and release sterile flies

  7. Abundance of African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens drew, tsuruta and white (diptera: tephritidae) and influence of weather parameters on trap catches in mango in the Volta region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzim, Charles Amankwa; Billah, Maxwell Kelvin; Afreh-Nuamah, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal abundance of African Invader fly, Bactrocera invadens and the influence of temperature and rainfall on fly catches was determined in two agro ecological zones; moist semi-deciduous forest area and the coastal grassland area of the Volta Region of Ghana for year of mango production. Traps containing methyl eugenol were used in monitoring the abundance of the Africa invader fly, Bactrocera invadens where data on both temperature and rainfall were collected from Meteorological Services of Ghana in Volta region. A total of 49,322 organisms captured, 45,829 were identified as Bactrocera invadens and 3493 were non-fruit fly. There were significant differences (p activities peaked differently during the study period due to favourable climatic conditions. The activities of Bactrocera invadens peaked during weeks 7 and 29 in the moist semi deciduous forest area while their activities peaked during weeks 3 and 24 for the coastal grassland areas. Both agro ecological zones recorded the presence of Bactrocera invadens, their number and proportion varied considerably with associated effects of the weather parameters on their abundance. The effect of weather parameters on the abundance of bactrocera invadens requires the development of degree day models to manage them. PMID:27429878

  8. KETERTARIKAN LALAT BUAH BACTROCERA PADA EKSTRAK OLAHAN LIMBAH KAKAO BERPENGAWET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lalat buah Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae merupakan salah satu hama pen ting menyerang tanaman buah-buahan dan sayuran. B. carambolae di laboratorium tertarik pada olahan limbah kakao. Hasil uji coba di lapangan belum memuaskan karena olahan limbah kakao mudah rusak. Tujuan penelitian ini mengkaji respon lalat buah Bactrocera yang diberi umpan ekstrak olahan limbah kakao berpenga wet. Pengawet yang digunakan yakni: Natrium klorida (NaCl, Natrium benzoat (C7H5NaO2 dan Potasium sorbat (C6H7KO2. Konsentrasi yang dipakai masing-masing pengawet 0,1%; 0,2% dan 0,3%. Pengamatan dilakukan selama satu ming gu. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa daya tahan limbah yang diberi penga wet dan yang tidak dilihat secara secara fisik (warna dan tekstur tidak berbeda nyata, namun ada perbedaan bau. Limbah yang tidak diberi pengawet ada kecen derungan baunya tidak sedap dibanding yang diberi pengawet. Hal ini yang mempengaruhi ketertarikan lalat terhadap olahan limbah kakao. Respon ketertarikan lalat Bactrocera terhadap olahan limbah kakao yang diberi pengawet berbeda antara satu dengan yang lain. Respon ketertarikan tertinggi Bactrocera cenderung pada olahan limbah kakao yang diberi pengawet Natrium klorida 0,3%, Potasium sorbat 0,2% dan Natrium benzoat 0,1%.The fruit fly Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the important pests attacking crops of fruits and vegetables. In the laboratory, B. carambolae was attracted by the processed cocoa waste. The results of field trials have not been satisfactory yet, because the processed cocoa waste was easily damaged. The purpose of the study wast to examine the response of Bactrocera to the bait made of processed cocoa extract waste containing preservatives. The preservatives used were: Sodium chloride (NaCl, sodium benzoate (C7H5NaO2 and potassium sorbate (C6H7KO2. The concentration of each preservative was 0.1%; 0.2% and 0.3%. A one-week observation was made. The result showed that there was no

  9. Assessment of attractiveness of cassava as a roosting plant for melon fly, bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), populations, and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations. Establishment of preferred roostin...

  10. Population structure of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southeast Asia: evidence for a single species hypothesis using mitochondrial DNA and wing-shape data

    OpenAIRE

    Schutze Mark K; Krosch Matthew N; Armstrong Karen F; Chapman Toni A; Englezou Anna; Chomič Anastasija; Cameron Stephen L; Hailstones Deborah; Clarke Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. is a pestiferous tephritid fruit fly distributed from Pakistan to the Pacific, with the Thai/Malay peninsula its southern limit. Sister pest taxa, B. papayae and B. philippinensis, occur in the southeast Asian archipelago and the Philippines, respectively. The relationship among these species is unclear due to their high molecular and morphological similarity. This study analysed population structure of these three species within a southeast Asian ...

  11. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Teal, P. E. A.; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (i...

  12. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Roger I. Vargas; Piñero, Jaime C.; Luc Leblanc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of steri...

  13. Population structure of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae in southeast Asia: evidence for a single species hypothesis using mitochondrial DNA and wing-shape data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schutze Mark K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. is a pestiferous tephritid fruit fly distributed from Pakistan to the Pacific, with the Thai/Malay peninsula its southern limit. Sister pest taxa, B. papayae and B. philippinensis, occur in the southeast Asian archipelago and the Philippines, respectively. The relationship among these species is unclear due to their high molecular and morphological similarity. This study analysed population structure of these three species within a southeast Asian biogeographical context to assess potential dispersal patterns and the validity of their current taxonomic status. Results Geometric morphometric results generated from 15 landmarks for wings of 169 flies revealed significant differences in wing shape between almost all sites following canonical variate analysis. For the combined data set there was a greater isolation-by-distance (IBD effect under a ‘non-Euclidean’ scenario which used geographical distances within a biogeographical ‘Sundaland context’ (r2 = 0.772, P r2 = 0.217, P beast analysis provided a root age and location of 540kya in northern Thailand, with migration of B. dorsalis s.l. into Malaysia 470kya and Sumatra 270kya. Two migration events into the Philippines are inferred. Sequence data revealed a weak but significant IBD effect under the ‘non-Euclidean’ scenario (r2 = 0.110, P  Conclusions Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis likely represent one species structured around the South China Sea, having migrated from northern Thailand into the southeast Asian archipelago and across into the Philippines. No migration is apparent between the Philippines and Taiwan. This information has implications for quarantine, trade and pest management.

  14. Taxonomic identity of the invasive fruit fly pest, Bactrocera invadens: concordance in morphometry and DNA barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathiya M Khamis

    Full Text Available In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry using wing veins and tibia length was used to separate B. invadens populations from other closely related Bactrocera species. The Principal component analysis yielded 15 components which correspond to the 15 morphometric measurements. The first two principal axes contributed to 90.7% of the total variance and showed partial separation of these populations. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that only the first five canonical variates were statistically significant. The first two canonical variates contributed a total of 80.9% of the total variance clustering B. invadens with other members of the B. dorsalis complex while distinctly separating B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae and B. zonata. The largest Mahalanobis squared distance (D(2 = 122.9 was found to be between B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, while the lowest was observed between B. invadens populations against B. kandiensis (8.1 and against B. dorsalis s.s (11.4. Evolutionary history inferred by the Neighbor-Joining method clustered the Bactrocera species populations into four clusters. First cluster consisted of the B. dorsalis complex (B. invadens, B. kandiensis and B. dorsalis s. s., branching from the same node while the second group was paraphyletic clades of B. correcta and B. zonata. The last two are monophyletic clades, consisting of B. cucurbitae and B. oleae, respectively. Principal component analysis using the genetic distances confirmed the clustering inferred by the NJ tree.

  15. Taxonomic identity of the invasive fruit fly pest, Bactrocera invadens: concordance in morphometry and DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Fathiya M; Masiga, Daniel K; Mohamed, Samira A; Salifu, Daisy; de Meyer, Marc; Ekesi, Sunday

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry using wing veins and tibia length was used to separate B. invadens populations from other closely related Bactrocera species. The Principal component analysis yielded 15 components which correspond to the 15 morphometric measurements. The first two principal axes contributed to 90.7% of the total variance and showed partial separation of these populations. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that only the first five canonical variates were statistically significant. The first two canonical variates contributed a total of 80.9% of the total variance clustering B. invadens with other members of the B. dorsalis complex while distinctly separating B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae and B. zonata. The largest Mahalanobis squared distance (D(2) = 122.9) was found to be between B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, while the lowest was observed between B. invadens populations against B. kandiensis (8.1) and against B. dorsalis s.s (11.4). Evolutionary history inferred by the Neighbor-Joining method clustered the Bactrocera species populations into four clusters. First cluster consisted of the B. dorsalis complex (B. invadens, B. kandiensis and B. dorsalis s. s.), branching from the same node while the second group was paraphyletic clades of B. correcta and B. zonata. The last two are monophyletic clades, consisting of B. cucurbitae and B. oleae, respectively. Principal component analysis using the genetic distances confirmed the clustering inferred by the NJ tree. PMID:23028649

  16. 瓜实蝇对虚拟波长下不同颜色的趋性%Preferences of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)to different colors: a quantitative investigation using virtual wavelength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛皇娃; 吴伟坚

    2013-01-01

    利用害虫对不同颜色的趋性进行害虫防治,如利用黄板对实蝇的监测和防治已有很长的历史,然而尚未见把颜色量化进行实蝇对颜色偏嗜性研究的报道.为探明对瓜实蝇Bactrocera Cucurbitue最具吸引力的颜色及其虚拟波长,本试验应用Dan Bruton的虚拟波长与RGB值的函数关系,把RGB值转换为虚拟波长;选择RGB值[(0,213,255),(0,255,146),(54,255,0),(129,255,0),(195,255,0),(255,255,0),(255,190,0)和(255,119,0)]的颜色进行打印,这些颜色对应的虚拟波长分别是480,500,520,540,560,580,560和600 nm;在八面体内进行瓜实蝇对8种颜色的偏嗜性试验.结果表明:波长在520 ~ 560 nm之间对应的颜色对瓜实蝇的吸引率高于其他虚拟波长对应的颜色,而540 nm(黄绿色,RGB值为129,255,0)对应的颜色纸对瓜实蝇的吸引率最大.此外田间颜色偏嗜性试验也证实了黄绿色对瓜实蝇有最强的引诱作用.结果说明,黄绿色(虚拟波长540nm)是吸引瓜实蝇的关键颜色,黄绿色粘虫板可作为监测与防治瓜实蝇的一种有效方法.%Various colors have been used as visual cues to trap insect pests.For example,yellow traps for monitoring and controlling of the fruit flies have been used for a very long time.However,the chromatic cue of using color traps has never been quantitatively investigated.To reveal which wavelengths are most attractive to the fly,experiments were conducted to evaluate the preferences of Bactrocera cucurbitae to different colors.In this study,RGB values and virtual wavelengths were converted each other based on Dan Bruton' s wavelength to RGB function.Eight color papers were printed by color printer based on RGB values [(0,213,255),(0,255,146),(54,255,0),(129,255,0),(195,255,0),(255,255,0),(255,190,0) and (255,119,0)] and were chosen to test the color preference of the melon fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae in an octagon maze,and their equivalent wavelengths were 480 nm,500 nm,520 nm,540 nm,560 nm,580

  17. Characterization and evaluation of microsatellite markers in a strain of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), with a genetic sexing character used in sterile insect population control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a key economic insect pest reducing fruit yield and generating constraints in the international market. The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) continues to reveal areas where new technologies can improve the effectiveness of fruit fly control. One such advancement concerns insect strains. In the present study, a mass-reared strain of the fly with a translocation-based genetic sexing character (Salaya1) based on a brown-white pupal colour dimorphism was genetically characterized using 11 microsatellite DNA markers. Subsequently, these markers were used to evaluate the maintenance of genetic variability in the strain under mass-rearing conditions. Mating competitiveness of this strain was also tested in field cages. Two of the newly characterized Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite markers were used for strain identification in field monitoring traps. The strain was also validated in a pilot integrated pest management programme using male-only SIT in a fruit orchard. The programme resulted in the suppression of the fruit fly population

  18. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly.

  19. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, Parasitoid Longevity in Presence of the Host, and Host Status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin),...

  20. 柑橘大实蝇对不同柑橘品种的产卵偏好和幼虫取食选择%Adult oviposition and larval feeding preference for different citrus varieties in Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘路; 周琼; 宋傲群; 尤克西

    2014-01-01

    [Aim] This study aims to understand the preference of Bactrocera minax for several citrus varieties.[Methods] We investigated the diseased citrus ratio of different citrus varieties in citrus orchards under natural conditions by five-point sampling method,counted the numbers of egg-laying marks and eggs laid on the basal hemisphere and distal hemisphere of citrus fruit,and examined the larval feeding preference of B.minax to host odorants of citrus petals by the selection tests in the laboratory.[Results] The results showed that the rate of oviposition sites on citrus fruits facing the forest harborage was significantly higher than that at any other directions in citrus orchards,and the oviposition preference of B.minax found was Citrus sinensis cv.Navel and C.aurantium > C.sinensis cv.Bingtang,Amakusa,and C.reticulata cv.Satsuma > C.maxima cv.Shatian > C.reticulata cv.Ponkan.The numbers of egg-laying marks and eggs laid on oranges (C.sinensis cv.Navel,C.aurantium and C.sinensis cv.Bingtang) were higher than those on tangerines (Amakusa,C.reticulata cv.Satsuma,C.reticulata cv.Ponkan) and C.maxima cv.Shatian (P < 0.05).The number of egg-laying marks on the distal hemisphere of citrus fruit was significantly than that on the basal hemisphere (P < 0.05)(except C.reticulata cv.Satsuma).Larval feeding preference was closely correlated with adult oviposition preference.[Conclusion] Our results suggest that oviposition preference of B.minax is related to larval feeding preferences.%[目的]掌握柑橘大实蝇Bactrocera minax对不同品种柑橘的产卵偏好,以及与幼虫取食喜嗜性的关系.[方法]我们用五点取样法分别调查了自然条件下不同品种柑橘果园的虫果率,统计了各品种柑橘虫果基半部和端半部产卵痕量和卵量,并在实验室内采用培养皿桔瓣选择法研究了其幼虫对不同柑橘品种果实的取食选择.[结果]在未采取防控措施的情况下,果树面朝杂树林的方位虫果率

  1. 南亚果实蝇多酚氧化酶的性质研究%Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from the fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Walker) ( Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小珍; 刘映红

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为揭示南亚果实蝇Bactrocera tau (Walker)不同发育阶段体内多酚氧化酶的活性与性质.[方法]以邻苯二酚为底物,在415 nm波长下测定了南亚果实蝇l,2和3龄幼虫、蛹以及成虫多酚氧化酶的活性和动力学参数.[结果]南亚果实蝇在不同发育阶段,多酚氧化酶的活性存在明显差异,通常3龄幼虫中活性最高,为434.42 U/mg;蛹中最低,为231.05 U/mg.在pH 6.5时,南亚果实蝇不同发育阶段多酚氧化酶的活性分别为265.42,358.34,444.42,210.02和373.99 U/mg,但当pH值高于7.0或低于5.0时,多酚氧化酶的活性则明显下降.在温度为34℃和37℃时,南亚果实蝇各发育阶段多酚氧化酶的活性均较高,当温度高于40℃或低于27℃时,活性则明显下降.以邻苯二酚为底物,2龄幼虫中多酚氧化酶的Km值(3.10 mmol/min)和Vmax(476.19 mmol/L)较大,说明多酚氧化酶对底物邻苯二酚催化能力强;蛹中多酚氧化酶的Km(0.63 mmol/min)和Vmax(50.25 mmoL/L)较小,说明多酚氧化酶对底物的亲和力和催化能力弱.当以L-DOPA为底物时,3龄幼虫中多酚氧化酶的Km值和Vmax较大,分别为0.49mmol/min和188.68mmoL/L;蛹中多酚氧化酶的Km值和Vmax较小,分别为0.25 mmol/min和21.79 mmol/L.[结论]南亚果实蝇体内多酚氧化酶在不同温度和pH值下的活性和动力学参数与虫体发育阶段密切相关.%[Objective] This study aims to determine the activities of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) in the fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Walker) during various developmental stages.[ Methods] The PPO activity and kinetic properties in the 1st,2nd and 3rd instar larva,pupa and adult were determined with spectrophotomethrical method using catechol as the substrate.[ Results ] The PPO activities varied significantly during different developmental stages of B.tau.The enzyme activity in the 3rd instar larva was the highest (434.42 U/mg) and that in pupa was the lowest (231.05 U/mg).At pH 6.5,the enzyme activities in the

  2. 南亚实蝇成虫肠道细菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of bacteria in the intestinal tract of adult Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆米娟; 张贺贺; 陈家骅; 杜迎刚; 何龙艳; 季清娥

    2016-01-01

    采用传统的微生物培养和16S rDNA ( V6-V8)高变区测序相结合的方法,从室内人工饲养的性成熟南亚实蝇雌虫肠道中分离、鉴定出21株细菌,均属于γ-变形菌门,分别为肠杆菌属(7株)、拉乌尔菌属(3株)、沙雷氏菌属(2株)、普罗维登斯菌属(2株)、不动杆菌属(1株)、柠檬酸杆菌属(1株)、西地西菌属(1株)和不可培养的细菌(4株);从性成熟的南亚实蝇雄虫肠道内分离得到20株细菌,分别为细菌(7株)、克雷伯氏菌属(4株)、肠杆菌属(3株)、普罗维登斯菌属(2株)、沙雷氏菌属(1株)、摩根菌属(1株)、假单胞菌属(1株)和γ-变形杆菌(1株),也均属于γ-变形菌门。由上可知,性成熟的南亚实蝇雌、雄成虫肠道共有细菌为肠杆菌属、普罗维登斯菌属和沙雷氏菌属,均属于肠杆菌科,表明肠杆菌科是南亚雌、雄成虫肠道细菌的优势菌群。%21 strains of bacteria were isolated and identified from the intestinal tract of sexually matured female Bactrocera tau which were reared in the laboratory using traditional isolation and 16S rDNA ( V6-V8 hypervariable region) sequencing technique. All bacteria strains belonged to the Gamma-proteobacteria phylum, which included Enterobacter (7 strains), Raoultella (3 strains), Serratia ( 2 strains) , Providencia ( 2 strains) , Acinetobacter ( 1 strain) , Citrobacter ( 1 strain) , Cedecea ( 1 strain) and uncultured bacteria (4 strains). Similarly, 20 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from male B.tau and they also belonged to Gamma-proteobacteria phylum, which consisted of bacteria (7 strains), Klebsiella (4 strains), Enterobacter (3 strains), Providencia (2 strains), Serratia (1 strain ), Morganella (1 strain), Pseudomonas (1 strain ) and gamma Proteobacterium (1 strain). Bacteria genus which both females and males had in common were Enterobacter, Providencia and Serratia, which all belonged to Enterobacte-riaceae. To summarize

  3. Pre-Release Consumption of Methyl Eugenol Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Large Field Enclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Todd E. Shelly; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound,...

  4. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  5. Isolation of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor from Olea europea and Olea lancea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K; Adsersen, A.; Brøgger Christensen, S.;

    1996-01-01

    The aqueous extract of the leaves of Olea europea and Olea lancea both inhibited Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) in vitro. A bioassay-directed fractionation resulted in the isolation of a strong ACE-inhibitor namely the secoiridoid 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl 4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)-4E...

  6. Targeted Cue-lure Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: An area wide IPM approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression was undertaken as part of a Hawaii state-wide program funded by USDA-ARS Area Wide Initiative. Methods: A grid of 1 cuelure trap/ km2 over 40 km2 was established in Kamuela, HI to pinpoint ...

  7. Targeted Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    An area wide integrated pest management approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression in Kamuela, Hawaii, was undertaken as part of a larger state-wide program by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Area Wide Initiative. After a...

  8. Nonhost status of mangosteen to Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera:Tephritidae) in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest quarantine treatments (irradiation or vapor heat) are used to control fruit flies and other pests in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) exported to the United States and Japan from Thailand. No-choice tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine whether Thai mangosteen is a host f...

  9. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  10. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation...

  11. Cytogenetic and symbiont analysis of five members of the B. dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae): no evidence of chromosomal or symbiont-based speciation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Asimakis, Elias D; Cáceres, Carlos; Tsiamis, George; Bourtzis, Kostas; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, currently comprising about 90 entities has received much attention. During the last decades, considerable effort has been devoted to delimiting the species of the complex. This information is of great importance for agriculture and world trade, since the complex harbours several pest species of major economic importance and other species that could evolve into global threats. Speciation in Diptera is usually accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements, particularly inversions that are assumed to reduce/eliminate gene flow. Other candidates currently receiving much attention regarding their possible involvement in speciation are reproductive symbionts, such as Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia and Cardinium. Such symbionts tend to spread quickly through natural populations and can cause a variety of phenotypes that promote pre-mating and/or post-mating isolation and, in addition, can affect the biology, physiology, ecology and evolution of their insect hosts in various ways. Considering all these aspects, we present: (a) a summary of the recently gained knowledge on the cytogenetics of five members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, namely Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae, supplemented by additional data from a Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. colony from China, as well as by a cytogenetic comparison between the dorsalis complex and the genetically close species, Bactrocera tryoni, and, (b) a reproductive symbiont screening of 18 different colonized populations of these five taxa. Our analysis did not reveal any chromosomal rearrangements that could differentiate among them. Moreover, screening for reproductive symbionts was negative for all colonies derived from different geographic origins and/or hosts. There are many different factors that can lead to speciation, and our data do not support chromosomal and/or symbiotic

  12. Non-target host risk assessment of the idiobiont parasitoid Bracon celer (Hymenoptera:Bracondiae) for biological control of olive fly in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The non-target risk posed by the African fruit-fly parasitoid, Bracon celer Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was assessed as part of a classical biological program for the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in California, USA. Behavioral and reproductive ...

  13. Improvement of mass-rearing procedures for an olive fruit fly parasitoid – duration of exposure to hosts affects production of Psyttalia lounsburyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe economic damage in California. Control of this fly is currently limited to pesticides. The USDA-ARS European Biological Control Laboratory in Montpellier, France established a classical biological control program nearly 15 y...

  14. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FLY: BALANCING PARASITOID EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST NON-TARGET IMPACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), has become an important pest of California olives, and is the target of a classical biological control program. We report here on the pre-release screening of imported parasitoids Hymenoptera:Braconidae), conducted in the University of California ...

  15. A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

  16. Oleuropein-Specific-β-Glucosidase Activity Marks the Early Response of Olive Fruits (Olea europaea) to Mimed Insect Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonia Spadework; Silvia Mazzuca; Francesca Fiorella Chiappetta; Attilio Parise; Enzo Perri; Anna Maria Innocenti

    2008-01-01

    Olive fruits are seriously deteriorated by pre and postharvest damage due to the attack of insects, such as Bactrocera olaea, which strongly alters the quality of olives. Defence response in olive fruits injured both by pathogens and by mechanical damages has been associated with the enzyme β-glucosidase, which specifically hydrolyses oleuropein, producing highly reactive aldehyde molecules. In situ detection of β-glucosidase activity in olive fruit tissues following injury, which simulates Bactrocera oleae punctures, is reported. The assay was performed in two cultivars showing different degrees of susceptibilities to fly infestation. In both cultivars, the histochemical assay for β-glucosidase showed that within 20 min after the injury, a strong β-glucosidase activity could be observed in the damaged tissues. Thereafter a progressive enzyme inactivation occurred starting from tissues around the boundary of the injury with decrease of the enzyme activity and stopped after 3h. Whereas the mass of active celsreached a distance of (300±50)μm from the edge of the injury. Biochemical analyses showed that in extracts of the injured fruit, β-glucosidase activity rapidly increased within 20 min from injury, thereafter decreasing and reaching values comparable with those in intact fruits. Following puncture, the oleuropein contents did not change significantly in the high susceptibility cultivar, whereas it rapidly decreased in the cultivar showing low susceptibility. The results strongly suggest that olive fruits susceptible towards fly infestation could be related to the ability of the oleuropein-degrading-β-glucosidase to produce the highly reactive molecules in the damaged tissues. As a consequence of puncture, high level of peroxidase activity was detected. This feature also suggested that this enzyme could play a key role in the defence response against insect injuries.

  17. Behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many species of tephritid fruit flies have gained global status as pests of economic importance in fruit and vegetable cultivation. Bactrocera species are no exception. Males of most Bactrocera species are known to be attracted to either methyl eugenol (ME) or cuelure (CL)/raspberry ketone (RK) (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1987 and 1990). At the turn of the century, male fruit flies of both B. diversa (Coquillett) (formerly Dacus diversus) and B. zonata (Saunders) (formerly Dacus zonatus) were first observed to have a strong attraction to citronella oil (Howlett 1912). The chemical responsible for the attraction was discovered to be ME (Howlett 1915). Since that discovery, ME has been used successfully in monitoring and male annihilation programmes (Steiner et al. 1965), in estimating native population density and survival rates (Tan 1985, Tan and Jaal 1986, Tan and Serit 1994), and movements between ecosystems (Tan and Serit 1988). The unique characteristic of male Bactrocera flies is that not only are they strongly attracted to certain male attractants but they compulsively feed on them. This phenomenon was not fully understood (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1990, Metcalf and Metcalf 1992) until early this decade. Certain male attractants play a very important role in the behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies, and aid in the understanding of the intricate interrelationships between plants, fruit flies and their predators (Tan 1993). Every organism actively or passively secretes chemicals which act as a characteristic 'body odour'. This 'body odour' affects behaviour of individuals, both intraspecies and interspecies, within a community and it is here referred to as ecomone (ecohormone) under a large group of semiochemicals (behaviour modifying chemicals). To understand the different roles of chemicals acting as a medium in communication between individuals and affecting behaviour of a receptive organism, a brief classification of semiochemicals is essential

  18. cDNA cloning, tissue expression and ligand binding characteristics of odorant-binding protein 2 from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)%桔小实蝇气味结合蛋白BdorOBP2的cDNA克隆、组织表达及配基结合特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲; 李红亮; 周宇翔; 赵磊; 张林雅; 倪翠侠; 商晗武

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the function and binding characteristics of the odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in the oriental fruit fly,Bactrocera dorsalis,we cloned an OBP cDNA from B.dorsalis,which was named BdorOBP2 (GenBank accession no.:KC773766),and then heterologously expressed its protein in prokaryotic cells.BdorOBP2 contains a 447-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 148-amino-acid residues.The mature protein of BdorOBP2 includes six conserved cysteine residues,which are the hallmark of insect OBPs.Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that BdorOBP2 was expressed in different tissues with the highest expression in the head and the lowest in the wings (63 % ± 6% of the expression level in the head).The recombinant protein BdorOBP2 was purified by affinity chromatography,and N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN) was applied as a fluorescent probe to measure the binding capacity of BdorOBP2 with each of seven major host fruit odors.The results indicated that BdorOBP2 can evidently bind to most esters and aldehydes examined.BdorOBP2 showed the highest affinity to trans-2-hexenal and β-ionone with the dissociation constant KD of 9.96 and 15.37 μmol/L,respectively.The results of this study may help rational designs of specific and effective attractants to be used for managing B.dorsalis.%为了研究桔小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis气味结合蛋白(odorant-binding proteins,OBPs)参与其嗅觉识别过程中的功能及其与植物气味的结合特性,本研究克隆了桔小实蝇的一个气味结合蛋白基因,命名为BdorOBP2(GenBank登录号为KC773766),并对该基因进行了原核表达.BdorOBP2开放阅读框长447 bp,编码148个氨基酸,具有典型的6个半胱氨酸位点.定量PCR结果显示,桔小实蝇BdorOBP2在不同组织中均有表达,其中头部中的表达量最高,翅中表达量最低(为头部表达量的63%±6%).构建了BdorOBP2原核表达载体,诱导并获得了重组BdorOBP2并进行了亲和层析纯化.最后以N-苯基-1-

  19. Changes of the frequency of resistant individuals in populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae ), with resistant individual flow%桔小实蝇抗性个体流动对抗性个体频率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金涛; 曾玲; 陆永跃; 林玉英; 梁广文

    2011-01-01

    为了解害虫个体的迁移对害虫群体抗药性发展的影响,本研究利用实验室内建立的桔小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis对敌百虫和高效氯氰菊酯两种抗性品系以及相对敏感品系,设计5%~25%个体的迁移比例,研究桔小实蝇抗、感个体流动对原始种群抗性个体频率的影响.结果表明:桔小实蝇抗性个体迁入敏感种群,使得敏感种群抗性个体频率增加,在抗性个体迁移率为25%时,影响敏感种群敌百虫和高效氯氰菊酯抗性个体频率的变化值分别为20.04%和41.75%;同样随着敏感个体迁入比例的增加,抗性种群中抗性个体频率降低程度越大,在敏感个体迁移率为25%时,抗性种群敌百虫和高效氯氰菊酯抗性个体频率的变化值分别为56.20%和25.88%.利用抗性个体频率变化值与相应迁移率的比值来表示迁移的相对效率,在抗性个体迁移率为5%时,影响敏感种群抗性个体频率变化的相对效率最高;在敏感个体迁移率分别为5%和10%时,影响敌百虫抗性种群和高效氯氰菊酯抗性种群抗性个体频率变化的相对效率最高.以抗、感个体迁移引起的抗性个体频率变化值进行趋势拟合,发现抗敌百虫与抗高效氯氰菊酯桔小实蝇品系不同迁移比例下的抗性个体频率变化趋势分别符合密度模型(density model)和房屋模型(housing model),相关系数分别是0.9696和0.9647.研究结果表明通过合理地设计抗、感迁移比例能有效地延缓桔小实蝇抗性水平的上升,达到抗性治理的目的.%To investigate the effecis of immigration of individuals on evolution of insecticide resistance, l 'frequencies of resistant individuals of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, to trichlorphon and βcypermethrin were measured with different immigration rates of resistant or sensitive individuals in this study. The results showed that when resistant adults were immigrated into the susceptible population, the

  20. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  1. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  2. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. ...

  3. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of Fipronil and Imidacloprid on Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Adan del Rio, Angeles; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Bengochea Budia, Paloma; Budia Marigil, Maria Flor; Estal Padillo, Pedro Del; Medina Velez, Maria Pilar; Aguado Cortijo, Pedro Luis

    2011-01-01

    Psyttalia concolor (Szèpligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid of several species of tephritid (Diptera) larvae, such as Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Here, we report on the effects of imidacloprid and fipronil on P. concolor females, when different routes of exposure were evaluated: residual contact (cover and bait sprays) and via treatment of host species. Moreover, the persistence of the bait formulated compound also was studied. Fo...

  4. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in relation to region, trap type, season, and availability of fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T; Stewart-Leslie, Judy; Rice, Richard E; Phillips, Phil A

    2006-12-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was monitored with adult captures by season and trap type, and was related to fruit volume and nonharvested fruit to elucidate the occurrence of the newly introduced pest in California. The highest numbers of adults captured in ChamP traps in olive trees, Olea europaea, were in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Comparisons of trap types showed that the number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps in a commercial orchard was significantly greater than in ChamP traps. A significantly greater number of females were captured in Pherocon AM traps with bait packets and pheromone lures than traps with pheromone lures alone, while a significantly greater number of adults and males were captured in traps with pheromone lures alone. Significantly more adults were captured in ChamP traps with bait packets and pheromone lures versus traps with bait packets alone. Fruit volume increased by four times from mid-June to mid-November. Olive fruit fly was found to oviposit on small olive fruit fruit set, the maximum number of ovipositional sites per fruit occurred in October, and the greatest number of pupae and adults were reared from fruit collected in September and October. The highest numbers of pupae were collected from nonharvested fruit in March when high numbers of adults were captured in the same orchard.

  5. Genetic structure and inferences on potential source areas for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) based on mitochondrial and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Kerdelhué, Carole; Ye, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia and in the Pacific region. Despite its economic importance, very few studies have addressed the question of the wide genetic structure and potential source area of this species. This pilot study attempts to infer the native region of this pest and its colonization pathways in Asia. Combining mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, we evaluated the level of genetic diversity, genetic structure, and the gene flow among fly populations collected across Southeast Asia and China. A complex and significant genetic structure corresponding to the geographic pattern was found with both types of molecular markers. However, the genetic structure found was rather weak in both cases, and no pattern of isolation by distance was identified. Multiple long-distance dispersal events and miscellaneous host selection by this species may explain the results. These complex patterns may have been influenced by human-mediated transportation of the pest from one area to another and the complex topography of the study region. For both mitochondrial and microsatellite data, no signs of bottleneck or founder events could be identified. Nonetheless, maximal genetic diversity was observed in Myanmar, Vietnam and Guangdong (China) and asymmetric migration patterns were found. These results provide indirect evidence that the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and southern coast of China may be considered as the native range of the species and the population expansion is northward. Yunnan (China) is a contact zone that has been colonized from different sources. Regions along the southern coast of Vietnam and China probably served to colonize mainly the southern region of China. Southern coastal regions of China may also have colonized central parts of China and of central Yunnan. PMID:22615898

  6. Genetic structure and inferences on potential source areas for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel based on mitochondrial and microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    Full Text Available Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia and in the Pacific region. Despite its economic importance, very few studies have addressed the question of the wide genetic structure and potential source area of this species. This pilot study attempts to infer the native region of this pest and its colonization pathways in Asia. Combining mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, we evaluated the level of genetic diversity, genetic structure, and the gene flow among fly populations collected across Southeast Asia and China. A complex and significant genetic structure corresponding to the geographic pattern was found with both types of molecular markers. However, the genetic structure found was rather weak in both cases, and no pattern of isolation by distance was identified. Multiple long-distance dispersal events and miscellaneous host selection by this species may explain the results. These complex patterns may have been influenced by human-mediated transportation of the pest from one area to another and the complex topography of the study region. For both mitochondrial and microsatellite data, no signs of bottleneck or founder events could be identified. Nonetheless, maximal genetic diversity was observed in Myanmar, Vietnam and Guangdong (China and asymmetric migration patterns were found. These results provide indirect evidence that the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and southern coast of China may be considered as the native range of the species and the population expansion is northward. Yunnan (China is a contact zone that has been colonized from different sources. Regions along the southern coast of Vietnam and China probably served to colonize mainly the southern region of China. Southern coastal regions of China may also have colonized central parts of China and of central Yunnan.

  7. Economic thresholds level for the fruit generation of olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard) (Lepidoptera: Hyponomeutidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Albino; Pereira, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), is one of the most destructive pests of olive groves in the Mediterranean basin. In recent years, the interest in evaluating the economic importance of P. oleae has been increasing, being loss assessment essential to the development of integrated pest management programs (IPM). Reliable economic thresholds for the pest are associated to any IPM practice, since enables the growers to reduce the input of pesticid...

  8. The gene transformer of anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera, tephritidae and its evolution in insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Ruiz

    Full Text Available In the tephritids Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae, the gene transformer acts as the memory device for sex determination, via an auto-regulatory function; and functional Tra protein is produced only in females. This paper investigates the evolution of the gene tra, which was characterised in twelve tephritid species belonging to the less extensively analysed genus Anastrepha. Our study provided the following major conclusions. Firstly, the memory device mechanism used by this gene in sex determination in tephritids likely existed in the common ancestor of the Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha phylogenetic lineages. This mechanism would represent the ancestral state with respect to the extant cascade seen in the more evolved Drosophila lineage. Secondly, Transformer2-specific binding intronic splicing silencer sites were found in the splicing regulatory region of transformer but not in doublesex pre-mRNAs in these tephritids. Thus, these sites probably provide the discriminating feature for the putative dual splicing activity of the Tra-Tra2 complex in tephritids. It acts as a splicing activator in dsx pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the female-specific exon promotes the inclusion of this exon into the mature mRNA, and as a splicing inhibitor in tra pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the male-specific exons prevents the inclusion of these exons into the mature mRNA. Further, a highly conserved region was found in the specific amino-terminal region of the tephritid Tra protein that might be involved in Tra auto-regulatory function and hence in its repressive splicing behaviour. Finally, the Tra proteins conserved the SR dipeptides, which are essential for Tra functionality.

  9. Preliminary test of trap and kill to the adult of Bactrocera(Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)%桔小实蝇成虫诱杀试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈景辉; 黄茂进; 林岳生; 方份; 林文才

    2003-01-01

    @@ 目前,国内外在监测和防治桔小实蝇Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)方面,主要采用两类引诱剂,即化学合成引诱剂和食物诱饵.化学合成引诱剂如:性引诱剂甲基丁香酚(methyl eugenol);食物诱饵如:水解蛋白(又称蛋白诱饵),二者可混合有机磷杀虫剂马拉硫磷置于专用诱捕器(Steine和Mcphail)进行田间诱杀.

  10. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  11. Diptera. Chapter 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Skuhravá

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the 19,400 native species and 125 families forming the European diptera fauna, 98 species (less than 0.5% in 22 families are alien to Europe. These aliens constitute 66 species (18 families of the suborder Brachycera and 32 species (4 families of the suborder Nematocera. By family in this category, there are 23 Cecidomyiidae species, 18 Drosophilidae, nine Phoridae, eight Tachinidae and seven Culicidae. Another 32 fly species belonging to five families are considered to be alien in Europe. These invasives native to other European countries are composed of 14 species of Cecidomyiidae, seven Syrphidae, five Culicidae and three species each of Anthomyiidae and Tephritidae. The date of the first record in Europe is known for 84 alien species. Arrivals of alien species of Diptera have accelerated rapidly since the second half of the 20th century. North America appears to be the dominant contributor of the alien flies. The majority of alien Diptera were introduced into or within Europe unintentionally, with only three predators released intentionally for biological control. Alien Diptera are predominantly phytophagous (35.6%, while a lesser portion are zoophagous (28.6% or detrivorous/mycetophagous (29.6%. Ecological impacts on native fauna and flora have not been documented for any of the alien species established in Europe. However, 14 alien species have economic impacts on crops.

  12. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  13. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-02-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  14. Preliminary experiments on the mass-trapping and releasing of the parasitoid (Psyttalia concolor Szepl.) to control the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae Gmel.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This experiment was conducted in an olive orchard containing 2,500 olive trees in Goekceada, 2002. Eco-traps (Vioryl Firm, Athens, Greece) were utilised for mass-trapping olive fly. In addition, Psyttalia concolor Szepl, which is one of the most effective parasitoids of olive fruit fly, were mass-reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) larvae under laboratory conditions and were released throughout the natural population. Olive fruit fly populations in the experimental and control area were measured by means of McPhail and yellow sticky pheromone traps. A total of 2,000 Eco-traps were distributed in the experimental area before the first punctures were observed. Parasitoid releases were started by the time of the first punctures and continued in paralell to the increasing adult population. Fruit samples that were taken before each release and at harvest were counted. Wormy fruits were taken into culture to observe parasitoid emergence. As for the result of the study in the experimental area the efficiency of the combined technique was 79.32%, whereas the damage rate in control area was 87.60%. (author)

  15. Comparative sensitivity to methyl eugenol of four putative Bactrocera dorsalis complex sibling species – further evidence that they belong to one and the same species B. dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Ooi, Yue-Shin; Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Males of certain species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to, and readily feed on methyl eugenol (ME), a plant secondary compound that is found in over 480 plant species worldwide. Amongst those species is one of the world’s most severe fruit pests the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former taxonomic species Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis. The latter species have been recently synonymised with Bactrocera dorsalis based on their very similar morphology, mating compatibility, molecular genetics and identical sex pheromones following consumption of ME. Previous studies have shown that male fruit fly responsiveness to lures is a unique phenomenon that is dose species-specific, besides showing a close correlation to sexual maturity attainment. This led us to use ME sensitivity as a behavioural parameter to test if Bactrocera dorsalis and the three former taxonomic species had similar sensitivity towards odours of ME. Using Probit analysis, we estimated the median dose of ME required to elicit species’ positive response in 50% of each population tested (ED50). ED50 values were compared between Bactrocera dorsalis and the former species. Our results showed no significant differences between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis in their response to ME. We consider that the Bactrocera males’ sensitivity to ME may be a useful behavioural parameter for species delimitation and, in addition to other integrative taxonomic tools used, provides further supportive evidence that the four taxa belong to one and the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. PMID:26798265

  16. Widespread distribution of the piggyBac transposon in various bactrocera species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The piggyBac transposable element from the Lepidopteran species Trichoplusia ni is currently the most widely used vector for insect transgenesis. Consequently, the presence of piggyBac-like sequences has been investigated, by PCR and Southern analysis, in different species of target genera such as Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha, along with Tirhitromina and Rhagoletis. PiggyBac-like sequences were detected in several Bactrocera species. The evolution of the piggyBac-like sequences is discussed with respect to the phylogenies of the hosts. (author)

  17. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Hashmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine.

  18. Biological Significance of Seed Oil and Polyphenolic of Olea europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree Olea europaea have beneficial properties. Mainly used parts of the olive tree are fruits and seeds. Seeds oil of olive is used as a major component of the “diet.” Chief active components of olive oil include oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, polyphenolics and squalene. These main phenolic components are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein, which occur in highest amounts in virgin olive oil and have antioxidant properties. Olive oil has shown activity in against cancer, mainly in colon and breast cancer prevention, while individual component of olive oil, oleic acid and squalene has also been identified as anticancer agent. The olive oil has effects on coronary heart disease, due to its ability to reduce blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein level. Some components (such as hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein of olive oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganism in intestinal and respiratory infections. The oleic acid, polyphenolics, squqlenes are dependable for a number of biological activities as well as whole olive plant also gives health benefits.

  19. Olive plants (Olea europaea L.) as a bioindicator for pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliwa, Amal Mohamed; Kamel, Ehab Abdel-Razik

    2013-06-15

    In the present work, olive plant (Olea europaea L.) was used as a biological indicator for pollution in which, molecular and physiological parameters were studied. Olive plants were collected from polluted and non-polluted areas in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia, traffic area as an air polluted area, sewage treatment station as water polluted area, industrial area as solid waste polluted, costal area as marine polluted area and an area without a direct source of pollution far away from the city center, which was used as control. These changes conducted with nucleic acid content, minerals content, pigments and some growth parameters. Results showed significant reductions in DNA and RNA contents under all polluted sites. Mineral contents were varied widely depending on the different pollutants and locations of olive plant. Generally, micro-elements varied (increase/decrease) significantly within collected samples and the source of pollution. All growth parameters were decreased significantly within the studied samples of all pollutant areas except the relative water content was increased. The content of chlorophyll a has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. While the content of chlorophyll b has increased significantly in all polluted leaves especially in air polluted leaves. The total content of carotenoid pigments has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. It was concluded that olive plant can be used as a biological indicator to the environmental pollutants. PMID:24494523

  20. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  1. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: prendon@aphisguate.co [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  2. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  3. A Technique of Culturing the Olive Fly, Dacus Oleae Gmel., on Synthetic Media Under Xenic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five generations of Dacus oleae have been cultured on an agar-dehydrated carrot base medium that contains an enzymatic protein hydrolysate of soya or casein, brewer's yeast, choline chloride and olive oil. Although the culture technique is xenic, an attempt is made to control microorganisms by chemical means. A bacterial species replaced the normal symbiote within D. oleae and was believed to be essential to maintaining the stock, but two generations of D. oleae have been cultured without any bacteria being present in the sites normally occupied within the larva or adult by its typical symbiote. Streptomycin is now being incorporated into the adult food to control bacterial infection of the eggs. Normal larval development, size and reproduction of D. oleae is obtained. Mass culture is possible using the larval medium developed, but further research is necessary to find a faster method of placing the eggs on the medium. Further screening of mould inhibitors is desirable, as well as seeking cheaper substitutes for the medium. (author)

  4. Isolation and identification of radical scavengers in olive tree (Olea europaea) wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Linares-Palomino, P.J.; Altarejos, J.; Nogueras, M.; Sánchez, A.

    2006-01-01

    Several extracts of Olea europaea wood (Picual olive cultivar) were obtained with solvents of different polarity and their antioxidant activities determined. The active compounds were detected in fractions of an ethyl acetate extract using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After applyi

  5. Transcriptome analysis of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Mao Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, is one of the most economically important pests in the world, causing serious damage to fruit production. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its development and its ability to resist insecticides. Analysis of the B. dorsalis transcriptome and its expression profile data is essential to extending the genetic information resources on this species, providing a shortcut that will support studies on B. dorsalis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed de novo assembly of a transcriptome using short read sequencing technology (Illumina. The results generated 484,628 contigs, 70,640 scaffolds, and 49,804 unigenes. Of those unigenes, 27,455 (55.13% matched known proteins in the NCBI database, as determined by BLAST search. Clusters of orthologous groups (COG, gene orthology (GO, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG annotations were performed to better understand the functions of these unigenes. Genes related to insecticide resistance were analyzed in additional detail. Digital gene expression (DGE libraries showed differences in gene expression profiles at different developmental stages (eggs, third-instar larvae, pupae, and adults. To confirm the DGE results, the expression profiles of six randomly selected genes were analyzed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding of B. dorsalis and makes a huge number of gene sequences available for further study, including both genes of known importance and genes of unknown function. The DGE data provide comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different developmental stages. This facilitates the study of the role of each gene in the developmental process and in insecticide resistance.

  6. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  7. The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex: comparative cytogenetic analysis in support of Sterile Insect Technique applications

    OpenAIRE

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2014-01-01

    Background The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex currently harbors approximately 90 different members. The species complex has undergone many revisions in the past decades, and there is still an ongoing debate about the species limits. The availability of a variety of tools and approaches, such as molecular-genomic and cytogenetic analyses, are expected to shed light on the rather complicated issues of species complexes and incipient speciation. The clarification of genetic relationships am...

  8. Taxonomic Identity of the Invasive Fruit Fly Pest, Bactrocera invadens: Concordance in Morphometry and DNA Barcoding

    OpenAIRE

    Khamis, Fathiya M.; Masiga, Daniel K.; Samira A Mohamed; Daisy Salifu; Marc de Meyer; Sunday Ekesi

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry usi...

  9. Distinct Genetic Lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) Revealed by COI and 16S DNA Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Phaik-Eem Lim; Ji Tan; I WAYAN SUANA; Praphathip Eamsobhana; Hoi Sen Yong

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malays...

  10. Biochemical and molecular mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in and Olea europaea

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Paulo Filipe Pereira de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Ciências (área de especialização em Biologia) The current work focused in the research subject of membrane transport and plant - environment interactions and two plant models were the target of the studies: Olea europaea and Populus euphratica. Olive tree is an emblematic species and one of the most important fruit crops in the Mediterranean basin. The halophytic and salt and drought stress tolearant plant P. euphratica, which occurs naturally in semi...

  11. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L.) Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Abaza; Amani Taamalli; Houda Nsir; Mokhtar Zarrouk

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analyt...

  12. Rhythmicity of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) attraction to cuelure: Insights from an interruptable lure and computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe and validate an Agent-Based Simulation (ABS) of invasive insects and use it to investigate the time to extirpation of Ceratitis capitata using data from seven outbreaks that occurred in California from 2008-2010. Results are compared with the length of intervention and quarantine imposed...

  13. Monitoring and Varietal Screening Cucurbit Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae on Cucumber in Bhaktapur and Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranju Maharjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of cucurbit fruit fly by using four different types of traps was conducted in Sipadole VDC of Bhaktapur district during 2012 to observe the population dynamics. Three different types of fruit flies were recorded, in which the number of B. cucurbitae dominated to other species. Only B. cucurbitae damaged the cucumber, which was trapped 92.68%, 87.05%, 90.61%, and 69.38% in cue-lure, banana pulp bait, sticky traps and fly catcher, respectively. The highest number of fruit flies (167.5 male fruit flies/3traps was recorded in cue-lure trap during the first week of September, which coincided with 85.45% RH and 21.67°C and 25.04°C minimum and maximum temperature, respectively. Positive relation of temperature, relative humidity and fruit fly catches was observed. Thus, cue-lure was the most effective traps for monitoring of fruit fly population. In varietal screening, among the six different varieties of cucumber, i.e. Kathmandu local, Kusle, Kamini, Malini, Kasinda and Mahyco Green Long, they were highly significant difference in yield. Kamini gave the highest marketable fruit 26.66 mt/ha yield and the lowest by Kusle (5.05 mt/ha. All the varieties were affected by cucurbit fruit fly. The highest number of unmarketable fruit set was observed in Kamini (22.29 fruits/plant.

  14. Efecto de la estructura del paisaje en la polilla del olivo de “Prays oleae (Lepidoptera: Praydidae)”

    OpenAIRE

    Sáenz Posada, Damián Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar un análisis espacio-temporal de la relación entre la estructura del paisaje y la polilla del olivo (P. oleae). En primer lugar se construye una capa de usos del suelo en el área de estudio a partir de la capa del Sistema de Información sobre Ocupación de Suelo en España (SIOSE) que será el paisaje a analizar. A continuación se calculan índices de paisaje a diferentes escalas espaciales circundantes a las muestras de P. oleae (radios de influencia de ...

  15. Area-wide integrated control of oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) and Guava Fruit Fly (Bactrocera correcta) in Thailand using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two tephritid species, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta are the major insect pests of fruit production in Thailand, causing yield loss and quality degradation. This leads to quarantine restrictions from importing countries. After one decade of effective cooperation between IAEA and Thailand, DOAE an area-wide integrated fruit fly management programme has been established with a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) component. This is underway in two distinctive pilot areas in Ratchaburi (western) and Pichit (northern) provinces, approximately 70 km2. The ongoing programme is aimed at controlling, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta, the key pests of mango. Both species are mass-reared and sterilised at the facility located in the Pathumthani province following standard operational procedures. Currently sterilised pupae, 20 million B. dorsalis and 10 million B. correcta, are transported to the pilot areas, held until adult emergence and ground released. Quality control of the release is monitored through use of a trapping network to monitor the distribution and abundance of wild and sterile flies whilst success of the control is monitored using periodic fruit sampling to assess the percentage of fruit infested. The integrated approach has been effective in controlling fruit flies by reducing damage from over 80% to an average of less than 5% in Ratchaburi province in the past three years. Meanwhile in Pichit province, which has been under a control programme for 2 years, the percentage of infestation has been reduced from 43% to 16%. We also address the use of public relations, grower cooperation and integration of multidisciplinary research for the field operations. (author)

  16. Inducing and isolation of antibacterial peptides from oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG-LI DANG; JIN-HUAN TIAN; HUI-YU YI; WEN-XIAN WANG; MIN ZHENG; YI-FENG LI; YANG CAO; SHUO-YANG WEN

    2006-01-01

    One antibacterial activity fraction from an immunized dipteran insect, Bactrocera dorsalis, was isolated and purified by prepurification, ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The final purified fraction was checked on the Smart system HPLC and was judged as a pure fraction. The results of physical and biological analysis revealed that this fraction is heat stable and showed strong activities against Gram-positive bacterial growth. It possesses antibicrobial peptide properties and is worth further investigation.

  17. Competitiveness of irradiated methyl eugenol fed oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of methyl eugenol feeding in the sexual competitiveness of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis was studied. Addition of methyl eugenol concentration up to 0.5 ml per liter diet revealed no significant difference base on different quality control parameters used in the study. Results of mating tests showed high number of mated pairs were collected on flies fed with methyl eugenol both on the larvae and adult stage as compared with the untreated flies. Although no significant difference was observed between the larval and adult methyl eugenol-fed flies, the number of mated pairs slightly increased in the former than the latter in all mating tests conducted. (Author)

  18. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    OpenAIRE

    Hoi-Sen Yong; Phaik-Eem Lim; Ji Tan; Sze-Looi Song; I WAYAN SUANA; Praphathip Eamsobhana

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequenc...

  19. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L. Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Abaza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analytical methods used to extract, identify, and/or quantify phenolic compounds in olive leaves.

  20. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  1. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L. PMID:26780918

  2. Development of resistance to spinosad in oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory selection and cross-resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Feng, Hai-Tung

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we assessed the potential for the development of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in a laboratory colony of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Resistance was selected by using topical applications of spinosad. After eight generations of selection, the LD50 of the selected line was 408 times greater compared with that of the untreated parental colony. This spinosad-resistant line did not exhibit cross-resistance to 10 other insecticides tested, including six organophosphates (naled, trichlorfon, fenitrothion. fenthion, formothion, and malathion) one carbamate (methomyl), and three pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and fenvalerate). However, using lines previously selected for resistance to these same insecticides, two of the 10 lines tested (naled- and malathion-resistant) did show some cross-resistance to spinosad. Also, oriental fruit flies from different field collections where naled and malathion have been used for control purposes displayed some resistance to spinosad. In addition, the effects of direct ingestion of spinosad through dietary supplementation also were tested. Overall, the laboratory resistance and cross-resistance data developed in this study provide new information that will be useful for managing the development of resistance when spinosad is used to control B. dorsalis in the field. PMID:16813333

  3. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

    2013-10-01

    Cold storage is used to preserve fruit quality after harvest during transportation in marketing channels. Low temperature can be a stressor for insects that reduces survivorship, and cold storage may contribute to the efficacy of postharvest quarantine treatments such as irradiation against quarantine insect pests. The combined effect of irradiation and cold storage was examined in a radiation-tolerant fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly), and a radiation-intolerant fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Third instars on diet or in papaya were treated with a sublethal radiation dose of 30 Gy and stored at 4 or 11 degrees C for 3-13 d and held for adult emergence. For both fruit fly species, survival of third instars to the adult stage generally decreased with increasing cold storage duration at 4 or 11 degrees C in diet or papaya. Survivorship differences were highly significant for the effects of substrate (diet > papaya), temperature (11 > 4 degrees C),and irradiation (0 > 30 Gy). Few Mediterranean fruit flies survived in any cold storage treatment after receiving a radiation dose of 30 Gy. No melon fly larvae survived to the adult stage after irradiation and 11 d cold storage at 4 or 11 degrees C in papayas. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and widens the margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments. Potentially irradiation and cold storage can be used in combination to reduce the irradiation exposure requirements of quarantine treatments. PMID:24224244

  4. Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Jere Kahanpää; Kaj Winqvist; Theo Zeegers

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera ’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae , Asilidae , Athericidae , Bombyliidae , Mythicomyiidae , Rhagionidae , Scenopinidae , Stratiomyidae , Tabanidae , Therevidae , Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae .

  5. Evaluation of SPLAT with spinosad and methyl eugenol or cue-lure for "attract-and-kill" of oriental and melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Hertlein, Mark; Neto, Agenor Mafra; Coler, Reginald; Piñero, Jaime C

    2008-06-01

    Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT) methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) "attract-and-kill" sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared with other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), respectively. Field tests were conducted with three different dispensers (Min-U-Gel, Acti-Gel, and SPLAT) and two different insecticides (naled and spinosad). SPLAT ME with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel ME with naled formulation up to 12 wk. SPLAT C-L with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel C-L with naled formulation during weeks 7 to12, but not during weeks 1-6. In subsequent comparative trials, SPLAT ME + spinosad compared favorably with the current standard of Min-U-Gel ME + naled for up to 6 wk, and it was superior from weeks 7 to 12 in two separate tests conducted in a papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchard and a guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard, respectively. In outdoor paired weathering tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers (SPLAT + spinosad, SPLAT + naled, and Min-U-Gel + naled) were effective up to 70 d. Weathered ME dispensers with SPLAT + spinosad compared favorably with SPLAT + naled and Min-U-Gel + naled, and they were equal to fresh dispensers for 21-28 d, depending on location. Our current studies indicate that SPLAT ME and SPLAT C-L sprayable attract-and-kill dispensers containing spinosad are a promising substitute for current liquid organophosphate insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii. PMID:18613576

  6. Response of melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to weathered SPLAT-Spinosad-Cue-Lure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Jang, Eric B; Mau, Ronald F L; Stark, John D; Gomez, Luis; Stoltman, Lyndsie; Mafra-Neto, Agenor

    2010-10-01

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to measure attraction of male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-Cue-Lure (C-L) and SPLAT-Melo-Lure (M-L) (raspberry ketone formate). Direct field comparisons of SPLAT-C-L and SPLAT-M-L at low (5%) and high (20%) concentrations indicated few differences in attraction over a 15-wk period. Subsequently, only SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L (5%) was compared with Min-U-Gel C-L with naled (standard used in California) in weathering studies. Treatments were weathered for 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk in Riverside, CA, and shipped to Hawaii for attraction/toxicity tests under field and semifield conditions by using released males of controlled ages, and for feeding tests in the laboratory. In terms of attraction, SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L compared favorably to, or outperformed the current standard of Min-U-Gel-C-L with naled. In terms of toxicity, the cumulative 24-h mortality did not differ between the two insecticide-containing C-L treatments in field cage studies after 8 wk. However, in feeding studies in which individual males were exposed for 5 min to the different C-L treatments after 4 wk of weathering, SPLAT-Spinosad-C-L demonstrated reduced mortality compared with the Min-U-Gel-C-L with naled, suggesting reduced persistence of the spinosad material. Spinosad has low contact toxicity and when mixed with SPLAT and C-L offers a reduced risk alternative for control of B. cucurbitae and related C-L-responding species, without many of the negative effects to humans and nontargets of broad-spectrum contact poisons such as naled. PMID:21061958

  7. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of a TGR5 agonist isolated from Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Genet, Cédric; Strehle, Axelle; Thomas, Charles; Lobstein, Annelise; Wagner, Alain; Mioskowski, Charles; Auwerx, Johan; Saladin, Régis

    2007-11-01

    Olive tree (Olea europeaea) leaves are well known for their effect on metabolism in particular as a traditional anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive herbal drug. These properties are until now only attributed to oleuropein, the major secoiridoid of olive leaves. Here we describe the isolation and the identification of another constituent implicated in the anti-diabetic effect of this plant, i.e. oleanolic acid. We show that this triterpene is an agonist for TGR5, a member of G-protein coupled receptor activated by bile acids and which mediates some of their various cellular and physiological effect. Oleanolic acid lowers serum glucose and insulin levels in mice fed with a high fat diet and it enhances glucose tolerance. Our data suggest that both oleuropein and oleanolic acid are involved in the anti-diabetic effect of olive leaves and further emphasize the potential role of TGR5 agonists to improve metabolic disorders.

  8. Hot water dipping of olives (Olea europaea) for virgin oil debittering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José M; Yousfi, Khaled; Oliva, Jesús; García-Diaz, M Teresa; Pérez-Camino, M Carmen

    2005-10-19

    Olives (Olea europaea L.) of the Manzanilla, Picual, and Verdial varieties harvested at the green mature stage of ripening were dipped in hot water at a range of temperatures between 60 and 72 degrees C for 3 min. Immediately after treatment, oils were physically extracted from the olives. Olive heating promotes a reduction of oil bitterness in direct relationship to the temperature used. Fruit heating at > or =60 degrees C for 3 min did not cause significant changes in acidity, UV absorption, peroxide index, and panel test score of the oils obtained but decreased its oxidative stability. Oils extracted from heated fruit showed higher concentrations of chlorophylls and carotenes and lower total phenol content. PMID:16218671

  9. Quantification of endogenous auxin levels and polyphenoloxidase enzymatic activity in olive (Olea europaea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, C; Antunes, R.; H. Hegewald; C. Costa; Pinto, A.P.; A. Peixe

    2007-01-01

    A actividade enzimática de polifenoloxidases foi avaliada em folhas e na zona apical, média e basal de ramos de duas cultivares de oliveira (Olea europaea L.), comuns no Alentejo (‘Galega vulgar’ e ‘Cobrançosa’), mostrando que a actividade enzimática nas folhas foi muito superior à encontrada em tecidos de ramos do ano. Maior actividade enzimática foi também detectada na variedade ‘Cobrançosa’ versus ‘Galega vulgar’. As condições óptimas para a determinação da actividade enzimática foram: pH=...

  10. Commensal Bacteria Aid Mate-selection in the Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Commensal bacteria influence many aspects of an organism's behaviour. However, studies on the influence of commensal bacteria in insect mate-selection are scarce. Here, we present empirical evidence that commensal bacteria mediate mate-selection in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Male flies were attracted to female flies, but this attraction was abolished when female flies were fed with antibiotics, suggesting the role of the fly's microbiota in mediating mate-selection. We show that male flies were attracted to and ejaculated more sperm into females harbouring the microbiota. Using culturing and 16S rDNA sequencing, we isolated and identified different commensal bacteria, with Klebsiella oxytoca being the most abundant bacterial species. This preliminary study will enhance our understanding of the influence of commensal bacteria on mate-selection behaviour of B. dorsalis and may find use in devising control operations against this devastating pest. PMID:27423980

  11. Development of transport technique by chilling for melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptela: Dephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of chilling on mass-reared melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae COQ., groups of adult flies were exposed to 3, 0.5, -2.2 and -3.5°C for 6, 12, 24 and 48h. The recovery and longevity of adult chilled for less than 24h at about 0.5°C was not adversely affected. A special container for chilled flies, which was able to keep the temperature below 10°C for 4h, was designed for their long-distance transport. The longevities of flies using aerial distribution by helicopter and hand release on the ground using the chilled transport container were compared with direct release from an emergence box without chilling at Miyagi Island in Okinawa Prefecture. There were no significant differences in longevity between the three release methods

  12. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  13. Polyphenols benefits of olive leaf (Olea europaea L) to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Patrícia; Kasper Machado, Isabel; Garavaglia, Juliano; Zani, Valdeni Terezinha; de Souza, Daiana; Morelo Dal Bosco, Simone

    2014-12-17

    Introducción: Los compuestos fenólicos presentes en las hojas del olivo (olea europaea l.) conferir beneficios para la salud humana. Objetivos: Revisar la literatura científica sobre los beneficios de los polifenoles de hojas de olivo para la salud humana. Método: Revisión de la literatura en las bases de datos lilacs-bireme, scielo y medline para publicaciones en inglés, portugués y español con los descriptores “olea europaea”, “hojas de olivo”, “hoja de olivo”, “hojas de olivo extractos”, “los extractos de hoja de olivo”, “compuestos fenólicos”, “polifenoles”, “oleuropeína”, “composición química”, y “salud”. Se identificaron 92 artículos, pero sólo 38 en relación con los objetivos del estudio y 9 artículos citados en las obras se incluyeron debido a su relevancia. Resultados y discusión: Los compuestos fenólicos presentes en las hojas del olivo, especialmente la oleuropeína, se asocian a antioxidante, antihipertensivo, hipoglucemiante, actividad hipocolesterolémico y cardioprotector. además, los estudios asocian la oleuropeína a un efecto anti-inflamatorio en trauma de la médula ósea y como soporte en el tratamiento de la obesidad.

  14. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962

  15. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.

  16. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaik-Eem Lim

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%. Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.

  17. Influence of Olea europea L. and Ficus Carrica L. fine root activity on the K biodisponibility and clay mineralogy of the rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Mouas-Bourbia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effect of fine root activity of Olea europea L. and Ficus carrica L. of soil in its immediate vicinity (in the so-called rhizosphere zone. The study was conducted on two stations in Northern Algeria: Guendoul and Bouira. Olea europea L. and Ficus carrica L. roots significantly modified some chemical properties of rhizosphere soil. Increases of soil carbon, KNH4+ and KHNO3- were observed in the Olea europea L. and Ficus carrica L rhizosphere soil at both stations. Bulk and rhizosphere soil clay mineralogy was similar. Interstratified illite-smectite, smectite-illite and illite were predominant in the clay fraction. Chlorite and kaolinite were less represented. The decomposition of XRD diffractograms of two soil clay fractions using the Decomp program revealed that Olea europea L. roots promote nK+ storage in interlayer position. Indeed, the lower abscissa position of the gravity center (cg of the X-ray patterns, the peak displacement of clays populations PCI, I/S, S/I toward illite peak position indicates an increase of “illite-like” layer content in the vicinity of Olea europea L. roots. Olea europea L. roots appeared to have more influence on the rhizosphere soil than Ficus carrica L. roots probably because of its higher root biomass and the greater activity of the tree in winter (contrary to Ficus Carrica L., Olea europea L. keep their leaves in winter. The two species underground activity seems to be well reflected in their respective rhizosphere.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera arecae (Insecta: Tephritidae) by next-generation sequencing and molecular phylogeny of Dacini tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chow, Wan-Loo; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera arecae was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 15,900 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding region (A + T-rich control region). The control region (952 bp) was flanked by rrnS and trnI genes. The start codons included 6 ATG, 3 ATT and 1 each of ATA, ATC, GTG and TCG. Eight TAA, two TAG, one incomplete TA and two incomplete T stop codons were represented in the protein-coding genes. The cloverleaf structure for trnS1 lacked the D-loop, and that of trnN and trnF lacked the TΨC-loop. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 protein-coding genes was concordant with 37 mitochondrial genes, with B. arecae having closest genetic affinity to B. tryoni. The subgenus Bactrocera of Dacini tribe and the Dacinae subfamily (Dacini and Ceratitidini tribes) were monophyletic. The whole mitogenome of B. arecae will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26472633

  19. 橘小实蝇、瓜实蝇和南亚果实蝇人工饲料的优化%Optimization of artificial diets for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis,Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera tau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明光; 汪兴鉴; 张艳; 孙蕊芬; 曾玲

    2013-01-01

    在温度25 ~28℃、相对湿度70%~75%和光照周期L:D=14∶10条件下进行了人工大量饲养橘小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)和瓜实蝇B.cucurbitae (Coquillett)成虫人工饲料配方的筛选试验.结果显示,1∶2重量比例混合的蔗糖和啤酒酵母是饲养这2种果实蝇的最佳成虫人工饲料,用其饲养的单雌产卵量、产卵期和孵化率分别为424.16 ~ 445.75粒,30.90 ~31.87 d,74.60% ~ 75.40%.同时,对18种由不同配方配制成的幼虫人工饲料饲养橘小实蝇、瓜实蝇和南亚果实蝇B.tau (Walker)的效果进行了比较.结果表明,玉米和麦麸作为饲料的介质优于麦片和麦麸.橘小实蝇幼虫人工饲料的优化配方为:玉米+麦麸(125 g+25 g),蔗糖25 g,啤酒酵母25 g,对羟基苯甲酸甲酯0.9g,1 mol/L盐酸4 mL,纸巾4 g,自来水300 mL;用其幼虫人工饲料饲养该虫的生物学参数包括子代孵化率、化蛹率、羽化率和平均蛹重分别为81.17% ±0.05%,96.41% ±0.02%,94.85%±0.01%与(19.40±0.08) mg.而瓜实蝇和南亚果实蝇幼虫人工饲料的优化配方为:玉米+麦麸(100 g+50 g),蔗糖30 g,啤酒酵母25 g,以及一定量的其他组分(同上);用其饲料饲养这2种果实蝇的相关参数:子代孵化率、化蛹率、羽化率和平均蛹重分别为78.50%±0.04%与76.96%±0.12%,95.73% ±0.03%与94.69% ±0.02%,94.57%±0.02%与95.82%±0.03%,(18.62±0.23) mg与(22.83±1.38) mg.试验证实,优化后的成、幼虫人工饲料具有饲养效果好、方法简便,配方材料来源广泛和价格低廉等优点,可用于室内人工大量饲养上述3种果实蝇属害虫.%Artificial diets for adult Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and B.cucurbitae (Coquillett) were evaluated in the laboratory at 25-28℃,70%-75% RH and a L∶ D ratio of 14∶ 10.A mixture of 1 part sucrose to 2 parts beer yeast by weight was the optimum artificial diet for adults of these two species.The egg quantity

  20. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  1. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R. [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore (India). Div. of Entomology and Nematology

    2006-07-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers ({approx} 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval

  2. Identification and Characterization of the Iridoid Synthase Involved in Oleuropein Biosynthesis in Olive (Olea europaea) Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Kries, Hajo; Panara, Francesco; Baldoni, Luciana; O'Connor, Sarah E; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-03-11

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive fruits. OeISY, the first pathway gene characterized for this type of secoiridoid, is a potential target for breeding programs in a high value secoiridoid-accumulating species.

  3. Epicuticular Wax in Developing Olives (Olea europaea) Is Highly Dependent upon Cultivar and Fruit Ripeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Stefania; Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Barrios, Gonçal; Mateu, Jordi; Ninot, Antonia; Romero, Agustí

    2016-08-01

    The epicuticular wax (EW) layer is located on the surface of most plant organs. It provides the cuticle with most of its properties and is the primary barrier against biotic and abiotic stress. Despite the importance of Olea europaea cultivation, few studies have characterized the EW covering leaves and olives, which could be involved in resistance to both infection and environmental conditions. In the present study, wide-ranging screening was carried out using direct-injection electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to analyze EW in developing olives of nine varieties. The proportions of EW fractions [wax esters (WEs), diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols (TAGs), triterpenic acids, and aldehydes] strongly depended upon the olive cultivar and, in only a few cases, were influenced by the sampling date. The specific compositions of the major fractions, WEs and TAGs, were strictly related to the cultivar, while the degree of unsaturation and chain length of the WEs evolved throughout the 4 weeks prior to the olive turning color.

  4. Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone-Land, Angelina; Takeoka, Gary R; Shoemaker, Charles F

    2014-04-15

    Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, phenols, terpenes, norisoprenoids, and pyridines. Odour unit values, calculated from concentration and odour threshold data, indicate that the following compounds are major contributors to black-ripe table olive aroma: β-damascenone, nonanal, (E)-dec-2-enal, 3-methylbutanal, ethyl benzoate, octanal, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methylbutanal and 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol. Imported olives contained a variety of fermentation derived volatiles that were not detected in domestic olives. Constituents such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, oct-1-en-3-one, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate, benzyl acetate and 4-ethylphenol contributed to the odour of imported olives but were not detected in domestic olives. PMID:24295708

  5. Identification of ancient Olea europaea L. and Cornus mas L. seeds by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; Rolfo, Mario Federico; Leonardi, Donatella; Rickards, Olga; Canini, Antonella

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) provides archaeologists and anthropologists with innovative, scientific and accurate data to study and understand the past. In this work, ancient seeds, found in the "Mora Cavorso" archaeological site (Latium, Central Italy), were analyzed to increase information about Italian Neolithic populations (plant use, agriculture, diet, trades, customs and ecology). We performed morphological and genetic techniques to identify fossil botanical species. In particular, this study also suggests and emphasizes the use of DNA barcode method for ancient plant sample analysis. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations showed seed compact structure and irregular surface but they did not permit a precise nor empirical classification: so, a molecular approach was necessary. DNA was extracted from ancient seeds and then it was used, as template, for PCR amplifications of standardized barcode genes. Although aDNA could be highly degraded by the time, successful PCR products were obtained, sequenced and compared to nucleotide sequence databases. Positive outcomes (supported by morphological comparison with modern seeds, geographical distribution and historical data) indicated that seeds could be identified as belonging to two plant species: Olea europaea L. and Cornus mas L. PMID:22847014

  6. Genetic improvement of olive (Olea europaea L.) by conventional and in vitro biotechnology methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, E; Cristofori, V; Silvestri, C

    2016-01-01

    In olive (Olea europaea L.) traditional methods of genetic improvement have up to now produced limited results. Intensification of olive growing requires appropriate new cultivars for fully mechanized groves, but among the large number of the traditional varieties very few are suitable. High-density and super high-density hedge row orchards require genotypes with reduced size, reduced apical dominance, a semi-erect growth habit, easy to propagate, resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses, with reliably high productivity and quality of both fruits and oil. Innovative strategies supported by molecular and biotechnological techniques are required to speed up novel hybridisation methods. Among traditional approaches the Gene Pool Method seems a reasonable option, but it requires availability of widely diverse germplasm from both cultivated and wild genotypes, supported by a detailed knowledge of their genetic relationships. The practice of "gene therapy" for the most important existing cultivars, combined with conventional methods, could accelerate achievement of the main goals, but efforts to overcome some technical and ideological obstacles are needed. The present review describes the benefits that olive and its products may obtain from genetic improvement using state of the art of conventional and unconventional methods, and includes progress made in the field of in vitro techniques. The uses of both traditional and modern technologies are discussed with recommendations. PMID:26972849

  7. 454 Pyrosequencing of Olive (Olea europaea L. Transcriptome in Response to Salinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Bazakos

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. is one of the most important crops in the Mediterranean region. The expansion of cultivation in areas irrigated with low quality and saline water has negative effects on growth and productivity however the investigation of the molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive trees has been only recently initiated. To this end, we investigated the molecular response of cultivar Kalamon to salinity stress using next-generation sequencing technology to explore the transcriptome profile of olive leaves and roots and identify differentially expressed genes that are related to salt tolerance response. Out of 291,958 obtained trimmed reads, 28,270 unique transcripts were identified of which 35% are annotated, a percentage that is comparable to similar reports on non-model plants. Among the 1,624 clusters in roots that comprise more than one read, 24 were differentially expressed comprising 9 down- and 15 up-regulated genes. Respectively, inleaves, among the 2,642 clusters, 70 were identified as differentially expressed, with 14 down- and 56 up-regulated genes. Using next-generation sequencing technology we were able to identify salt-response-related transcripts. Furthermore we provide an annotated transcriptome of olive as well as expression data, which are both significant tools for further molecular studies in olive.

  8. Allozyme variation of oleaster populations (wild olive tree) (Olea europaea L.) in the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumaret, R; Ouazzani, N; Michaud, H; Vivier, G; Deguilloux, M-F; Di Giusto, F

    2004-04-01

    As a result of the early domestication and extensive cultivation of the olive tree throughout the Mediterranean Basin, the wild-looking forms of olive (oleasters) presently observed constitute a complex, potentially ranging from wild to feral forms. Allozyme variation was analysed at 10 loci in 31 large and 44 small oleaster populations distributed in various habitats of the Mediterranean Basin and in two populations of the wild subspecies Olea europaea subsp (ssp) guanchica, endemic to the Canary islands and closely related to oleasters. At eight polymorphic loci, 25 alleles were identified. Genetic evidence that nondomesticated oleasters still survive locally was provided by the occurrence of four and one alleles shared exclusively by the eight western and two eastern oleaster populations, respectively, which were collected in forests potentially containing genuinely wild forms according to environmental, historical and demographic criteria. As reported previously from cytoplasmic and RAPDs analysis, substantial genetic differentiation was observed between the eastern oleaster populations genetically close to most olive clones cultivated in the Mediterranean Basin, and the western populations that are related to the wild Canarian populations. In addition, the occurrence of significantly lower heterozygosity in cultivated olive than in oleasters, whatever their origin, suggests that intensive selection involving inbreeding has taken place under cultivation to obtain particular characteristics in the olive cultivars.

  9. 454 Pyrosequencing of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Transcriptome in Response to Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazakos, Christos; Manioudaki, Maria E; Sarropoulou, Elena; Spano, Thodhoraq; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important crops in the Mediterranean region. The expansion of cultivation in areas irrigated with low quality and saline water has negative effects on growth and productivity however the investigation of the molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive trees has been only recently initiated. To this end, we investigated the molecular response of cultivar Kalamon to salinity stress using next-generation sequencing technology to explore the transcriptome profile of olive leaves and roots and identify differentially expressed genes that are related to salt tolerance response. Out of 291,958 obtained trimmed reads, 28,270 unique transcripts were identified of which 35% are annotated, a percentage that is comparable to similar reports on non-model plants. Among the 1,624 clusters in roots that comprise more than one read, 24 were differentially expressed comprising 9 down- and 15 up-regulated genes. Respectively, inleaves, among the 2,642 clusters, 70 were identified as differentially expressed, with 14 down- and 56 up-regulated genes. Using next-generation sequencing technology we were able to identify salt-response-related transcripts. Furthermore we provide an annotated transcriptome of olive as well as expression data, which are both significant tools for further molecular studies in olive.

  10. Molecular identification of Greek olive (Olea europaea) cultivars based on microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, K; Moustakas, M; Aravanopoulos, F A

    2010-01-01

    Olea europaea is one of the oldest species of domesticated trees. We used microsatellite markers for fingerprinting and for evaluation of genetic similarity and structure of 26 Greek olive cultivars, which cover most of the olive cultivation regions of Greece, including previously undescribed denominations from northern Greece. Eighty-one alleles were revealed with six SSR loci that were selected as most informative of 10 SSR primers that were initially investigated. The number of alleles per locus varied from 7 to 20 (mean, 13.5). Heterozygosity ranged from 0.240 at locus DCA-3 to 0.826 at locus UDO99-9, with a mean value of 0.600. Analysis of 104 trees representing 26 denominations (four trees per denomination) revealed 26 distinct SSR profiles, indicating 26 olive cultivars; no intracultivar variability was observed. Genetic and geographic distances were not significantly correlated, based on the Mantel test. These SSR loci allowed unequivocal identification of all the cultivars and will be useful for future breeding and olive germplasm management efforts.

  11. Genetic improvement of olive (Olea europaea L.) by conventional and in vitro biotechnology methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, E; Cristofori, V; Silvestri, C

    2016-01-01

    In olive (Olea europaea L.) traditional methods of genetic improvement have up to now produced limited results. Intensification of olive growing requires appropriate new cultivars for fully mechanized groves, but among the large number of the traditional varieties very few are suitable. High-density and super high-density hedge row orchards require genotypes with reduced size, reduced apical dominance, a semi-erect growth habit, easy to propagate, resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses, with reliably high productivity and quality of both fruits and oil. Innovative strategies supported by molecular and biotechnological techniques are required to speed up novel hybridisation methods. Among traditional approaches the Gene Pool Method seems a reasonable option, but it requires availability of widely diverse germplasm from both cultivated and wild genotypes, supported by a detailed knowledge of their genetic relationships. The practice of "gene therapy" for the most important existing cultivars, combined with conventional methods, could accelerate achievement of the main goals, but efforts to overcome some technical and ideological obstacles are needed. The present review describes the benefits that olive and its products may obtain from genetic improvement using state of the art of conventional and unconventional methods, and includes progress made in the field of in vitro techniques. The uses of both traditional and modern technologies are discussed with recommendations.

  12. Erwinia oleae sp. nov., isolated from olive knots caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Chiaraluce; Hosni, Taha; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Brady, Carrie; De Vos, Paul; Buonaurio, Roberto; Cleenwerck, Ilse

    2011-11-01

    Three endophytic bacterial isolates were obtained in Italy from olive knots caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi. Phenotypic tests in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated a phylogenetic position for these isolates in the genera Erwinia or Pantoea, and revealed two other strains with highly similar 16S rRNA gene sequences (>99 %), CECT 5262 and CECT 5264, obtained in Spain from olive knots. Rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting of the five strains from olive knots with BOX, ERIC and REP primers revealed three groups of profiles that were highly similar to each other. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB gene sequences indicated that the strains constituted a single novel species in the genus Erwinia. The strains showed general phenotypic characteristics typical of the genus Erwinia and whole genome DNA-DNA hybridization data confirmed that they represented a single novel species of the genus Erwinia. The strains showed DNA G+C contents ranging from 54.7 to 54.9 mol%. They could be discriminated from phylogenetically related species of the genus Erwinia by their ability to utilize potassium gluconate, l-rhamnose and d-arabitol, but not glycerol, inositol or d-sorbitol. The name Erwinia oleae sp. nov. (type strain DAPP-PG 531(T)= LMG 25322(T) = DSM 23398(T)) is proposed for this novel taxon.

  13. Antimicrobial potential of green synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles from Olea europaea leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Nazar, Mudassar; Naz, Sania; Hussain, Talib; Jabeen, Nyla; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Abbas, Fazal; Jan, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm−1, showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  14. Characterisation of chlorophyll oxidation mediated by peroxidative activity in olives (Olea europaea L.) cv. Hojiblanca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Domínguez, Honorio; Roca, María; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz

    2013-08-15

    The oxidation of chlorophyll a (chl a) catalysed by peroxidase (POD) from mesocarp of the olive fruit (Olea europaea L., cv Hojiblanca) in the presence of H2O2 and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), is characterised via the individualised quantification of the products of the enzymatic reaction using a new methodology of HPLC-UV spectrometry. This innovation has allowed the discovery that, in addition to 13(2) OH chl a and 15(1) OH lactone chl a, which are the first products of POD on chl a, the reaction process sequentially creates another series of oxidised chlorophyll derivatives which have not been previously described. Their origins have been linked to POD activity in the presence of 2,4-DCP. Likewise, a study of the effect of the concentration of the various cosubstrates on the POD reaction rate demonstrated that the correct establishment of the relative concentrations of the same ([H2O2]/[2,4-DCP]/[Chl]=1:3:0.02) is crucial to explaining inhibition effects by substrates and carrying out optimum measurements. Therefore, new essential parameters for the determination of POD activity on a chlorophyll substrate are established. PMID:23561174

  15. Estructura y diversidad genética de poblaciones bacterianas en la rizosfera de olivo (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea) en Andalucía

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda Ocampo, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    El olivo (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea) ha sido culturalmente y económicamente el principal cultivo oleaginoso de la Cuenca Mediterránea. España es el mayor productor de aceite de oliva en el mundo, y Andalucía, la región sur del país, es el principal área de cultivo con 62% de la superficie de olivar en España, ocupando >1.5 millones ha, y un 17% de su superficie total en un monocultivo impresionante. En España, el olivo se puede encontrar en dos formas, silvestre (Olea europaea L. subsp...

  16. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  17. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia L. Reynolds

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni.

  18. Identification and Characterization of Sex-Biased MicroRNAs in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Tariq, Kaleem; Xie, Junfei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes including sexual dimorphism. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. However, no miRNAs have been identified from the separate sex and gonads to elucidate sex gonad differentiation in B. dorsalis. In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries from whole body of females, males (except ovaries and testes) and ovaries, testes of B. dorsalis for deep sequencing. The data analysis revealed 183 known and 120 novel miRNAs from these libraries. 18 female-biased and 16 male-biased miRNAs that may be involved in sexual differentiation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in the four libraries. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted doublesex (dsx) as a target gene of the female-biased miR-989-3p which is considered as the key switch gene in the sex determination of tephritid insects. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the sex differentiation and gives a first insight into sex differences in miRNA expression of B. dorsalis which could facilitate studies of the reproductive organ specific roles of miRNAs. PMID:27441641

  19. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, Abraham; Sreedevi, K.; Nagaraju, D.K., E-mail: avergis@iihr.ernet.i [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2006-07-01

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  20. A chromogenic test for irradiated oriental fruitfly, Bactrocera philippinensis as quarantine diagnostic kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biochemical marker of irradiated Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis was isolated and identified in denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The biomarker, Gs-protein, is the biosynthetic product of a radiosensitive gene locus of B philippinensis. The gene seems to be sensitive to radiation even at a low dose of 25 Gy as demonstrated by the loss of the Gs-protein band from SDS-PAGE gel analysis of pupal homogenates and total soluble protein fractions of irradiated larvae. Isolated Gs-protein has a tyrosinase enzyme activity capable of converting tyrosine into an intermediate product, DOPA(Dihydroxilphenolaldanim). It also exhibits the copper-containing character of mushroom tyrosinase as shown in a preliminary TXRF analysis. An apparent molecular weight of 109 kDa was calculated from SDS-PAGE preparation of the Gs-protein with high molecular weight proteins as standards. In particular, a convenient chromogenic test for tyrosinase present in homogenates of fruit fly, B. philippinensis, at different stages of development starting from 2nd instar larva, has been devised to detect whether the fruit fly had been irradiated at a dose of at least 100 Gy. Starting with homogenate material from fruit fly to be tested, a simple such test based on the activity of the tyrosinase enzyme with its substrate produces a positive dark brown to black coloration on a test spot mounted on acetate film containing 2-methyl DOPA. (author)

  1. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system.

  2. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system. PMID:24006804

  3. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16–60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species. PMID:27767174

  4. Identification and Characterization of Sex-Biased MicroRNAs in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Tariq, Kaleem; Xie, Junfei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes including sexual dimorphism. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. However, no miRNAs have been identified from the separate sex and gonads to elucidate sex gonad differentiation in B. dorsalis. In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries from whole body of females, males (except ovaries and testes) and ovaries, testes of B. dorsalis for deep sequencing. The data analysis revealed 183 known and 120 novel miRNAs from these libraries. 18 female-biased and 16 male-biased miRNAs that may be involved in sexual differentiation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in the four libraries. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted doublesex (dsx) as a target gene of the female-biased miR-989-3p which is considered as the key switch gene in the sex determination of tephritid insects. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the sex differentiation and gives a first insight into sex differences in miRNA expression of B. dorsalis which could facilitate studies of the reproductive organ specific roles of miRNAs. PMID:27441641

  5. Endocytic pathway mediates refractoriness of insect Bactrocera dorsalis to RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxue; Dong, Xiaolong; Zou, Cong; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful and convenient tool for sequence-specific gene silencing, and it is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNAi can be easily achieved in many eukaryotes by either injecting or feeding dsRNAs. This mechanism has demonstrated its potential in fundamental research on genetics, medicine and agriculture. However, the possibility that insects might develop refractoriness to RNAi remains unexplored. In this study, we report that the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, became refractory to RNAi using orally administered dsRNA targeting endogenous genes. Furthermore, refractoriness to RNAi is not gene-specific, and its duration depends on the dsRNA concentration. RNAi blockage requires the endocytic pathway. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that in RNAi refractory flies, dsRNA uptake is blocked. Genes involved in the entry of dsRNAs into cells, including chc, cog3, light and others, are down-regulated in RNAi refractory flies. Increasing the endocytic capacity by improving F-actin polymerization disrupts RNAi refractoriness after both primary and secondary dsRNA exposures. Our results demonstrate that an insect can become refractory to RNAi by preventing the entry of dsRNA into its cells. PMID:25731667

  6. Identification of new polymorphic regions and differentiation of cultivated olives (Olea europaea L. through plastome sequence comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldoni Luciana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cultivated olive (Olea europaea L. is the most agriculturally important species of the Oleaceae family. Although many studies have been performed on plastid polymorphisms to evaluate taxonomy, phylogeny and phylogeography of Olea subspecies, only few polymorphic regions discriminating among the agronomically and economically important olive cultivars have been identified. The objective of this study was to sequence the entire plastome of olive and analyze many potential polymorphic regions to develop new inter-cultivar genetic markers. Results The complete plastid genome of the olive cultivar Frantoio was determined by direct sequence analysis using universal and novel PCR primers designed to amplify all overlapping regions. The chloroplast genome of the olive has an organisation and gene order that is conserved among numerous Angiosperm species and do not contain any of the inversions, gene duplications, insertions, inverted repeat expansions and gene/intron losses that have been found in the chloroplast genomes of the genera Jasminum and Menodora, from the same family as Olea. The annotated sequence was used to evaluate the content of coding genes, the extent, and distribution of repeated and long dispersed sequences and the nucleotide composition pattern. These analyses provided essential information for structural, functional and comparative genomic studies in olive plastids. Furthermore, the alignment of the olive plastome sequence to those of other varieties and species identified 30 new organellar polymorphisms within the cultivated olive. Conclusions In addition to identifying mutations that may play a functional role in modifying the metabolism and adaptation of olive cultivars, the new chloroplast markers represent a valuable tool to assess the level of olive intercultivar plastome variation for use in population genetic analysis, phylogenesis, cultivar characterisation and DNA food tracking.

  7. Functional characterization of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Bactrocera dorsalis: Possible involvement in susceptibility to malathion

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Huang; Xue-Ping Lu; Luo-Luo Wang; Dong Wei; Zi-Jiao Feng; Qi Zhang; Lin-Fan Xiao; Wei Dou; Jin-Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is essential for cytochrome P450 catalysis, which is important in the detoxification and activation of xenobiotics. In this study, two transcripts of Bactrocera dorsalis CPR (BdCPR) were cloned, and the deduced amino-acid sequence had an N-terminus membrane anchor for BdCPR-X1 and three conserved binding domains (FMN, FAD, and NADP), as well as an FAD binding motif and catalytic residues for both BdCPR-X1 and BdCPR-X2. BdCPR-X1 was detected to have the hi...

  8. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Micucci; Marco Malaguti; Tullia Gallina Toschi; Giuseppe Di Lecce; Rita Aldini; Andrea Angeletti; Alberto Chiarini; Roberta Budriesi; Silvana Hrelia

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE), of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE), and of their 13 : 2 w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mix...

  9. Di- and Tri-flourinated analogs of methyl eugenol: attractiveness to and metabolism in the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (hendel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), males are highly 1 attracted to the natural phenylpropanoid methyl eugenol (ME). They compulsively feed on ME and metabolize it to ring and side-chain hydroxylated compounds that have both pheromonal and allomonal properties. Previously, we demonstra...

  10. Insecticidal Activity of Basil Oil, trans-Anethole, Estragole, and Linalool to Adults of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and B. cucurbitae (Cocquillett) are among the species of economic significance. Their management has primarily relied on the use of food baits, male attractants and their combinations with insecticides. Basil o...

  11. Role of carbohydrate reserves in yield production of intensively cultivated oil olive (Olea europaea L.) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Avni, Avishai; Lavee, Shimon; Zipori, Isaac; Yeselson, Yelena; Schaffer, Arthur A; Riov, Joseph; Dag, Arnon

    2011-05-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) has a very high tendency for year-to-year deviation in yield (alternate bearing), which has a negative economic impact on the olive oil industry. Among possible reasons for alternate bearing, depletion of stored carbohydrates (CHO) during the On-year (high yield) has often been mentioned. The objective of the present study was to verify the role of CHO reserves, as a cause or effect, in the alternate bearing of intensively cultivated olives. A monthly survey of soluble sugar and starch concentrations in the leaves, branches, bark and roots of On- and Off-trees (cv. Barnea) was carried out during a complete reproductive cycle from November 2005 to October 2006. Carbohydrate concentration in the sapwood was determined in January, as well as an estimate of whole-tree biomass. The trunk and limbs possess the largest portion of CHO reserves. The influence of reduced fruit load on CHO reserves was also investigated. Starch, mannitol and sucrose concentrations increased from December to March in all tissues, and then declined along with fruit development. Leaves, branches and bark have a significant role in CHO storage, whereas roots accumulated the lowest CHO concentrations. However, fluctuations in reserve content suggested considerable involvement of roots in the CHO budget. Nevertheless, there were no meaningful differences in the annual pattern of CHO concentration between On- and Off-trees. Even a 75-100% reduction in fruit number brought about only a minor, sluggish increase in CHO content, though this was more pronounced in the roots. Carbohydrate reserves were not depleted, even under maximum demands for fruit and oil production. It is concluded that in olives, the status of CHO reserves is not a yield determinant. However, they may play a significant role in the olive's survival strategy, ensuring tree recovery in the unpredictable semiarid Mediterranean environment. This suggests that CHO reserves in olive act like an active sink

  12. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelfattah

    Full Text Available The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6% and Basidiomycota (2.8%. A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions.

  13. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea) was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December) using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6%) and Basidiomycota (2.8%). A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii) was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions. PMID:26132745

  14. Comparison of Classical Models for Evaluating the Heat Requirements of Olive (Olea europeae L.) in Portugal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena Ribeiro; Mário Cunha; Ilda Abreu

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy and reproducibility of six statistical models for the calculation of olive (Olea europeae L.) heat requirements to trigger the onset of flowering in three Portuguese regions: Reguengos de Monsaraz, Valenca do Douro, and Braga. Other aims were to ascertain the date on which the heat-accumulation period started and the threshold temperatures above which the development of reproductive structures starts in olives. The starting and peak dates for the regional O.europeae flowering season were estimated by monitoring airborne pollen from 1998 to 2004 using "Cour"type samplers. The threshold temperature values calculated for the three regions were very similar (9.0 ℃for Valenca do Douro, 9.2 ℃ for Reguengos de Monsaraz, and 9.7 ℃ for Braga). The accumulated daily mean temperature model had less interannual and inter-regional variation, showing best predictive results for 2004, with absolute differences between the observed and predicted dates of 4 d in Reguengos de Monsaraz and 2 d in Valenca do Douro and Braga for the onset of flowering date and of 2 d in Reguengos de Monsaraz,7 d in Valenca do Douro, and 4 d in Braga for peak flowering dates. This model was the most accurate,reproducible, and operational to calculate heat requirements for olives to flower, with an average mean temperature accumulation of 1446 ℃ in Reguengos, 1642 ℃ in Valenca do Douro, and 1703 ℃ in Braga to reach the onset of flowering. The best initial date for this accumulation was 1 January.

  15. Salt stress induces differential regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Olea europaea cultivars Frantoio (salt-tolerant) and Leccino (salt-sensitive)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Borghi, Monica; Francini, Alessandra; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, De Yu; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in the Mediterranean Basin where drought and salinity are two of the main factors affecting plant productivity. Despite several studies have reported different responses of various olive tree cultivars to salt stress, the mechanisms that convey t

  16. Isolation of antioxidative secoiridoids from olive wood (Olea europaea L.) guided by on-line HPLC-DAD-radical scavenging detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Waard, de P.; Linares-Palomino, P.J.; Sánchez, A.; Altarejos, J.

    2011-01-01

    The woody portion of olive tree pruning is a source of natural antioxidants of potential interest for the food industry. This work deals with the isolation and identification of further antioxidants present in an ethyl acetate extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) wood. Thus, a new secoiridoid, oleuro

  17. The Effect of Gamma Radiation on some Biological Aspects of Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma-irradiation on certain biological aspects of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata following gamma irradiation of 5 days old pupae were studied. Treatment led to a decrease in percentage adult emergence which was 3.66, 9.22, 14.77.18.55 and 22.66, following irradiation with 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 Gy, respectively. Some emerged flies exhibited malformation being 3.3, 5, 6.7, 8.3 and 11.7% in flies irradiated as pupae with the respective mentioned doses. Sex ratio of emerged flies were shifted towards females. When male flies, emerging from irradiated pupae with 10, 30, 50, 70 or 90 Gy were paired with untreated females the mean number of deposited eggs was reduced to 211.3, 197.3, 184, 173 and 161.3 eggs /female as compared to 220 eggs/ female in the control. Percentages of hatched eggs were 62.1, 40.2, 26.6, 7.9 and zero as compared to 81.8 in the control. The effect on reproductive potential was more evident when unirradiated males were paired with female flies emerging from irradiated 5 day old pupa. In females emerged of pupae irradiated with 10 and 30 Gy mated with unirradiated male; the mean number of eggs laid per female were 135.1 and 72.3 eggs comparing to 233.4 in control. The percentages of eggs hatch were 57.4 and 35.3% in at doses 10 and 30 Gy, respectively in comparing to 82.2% in control. No eggs laid by females emerged from pupae exposed to the higher considered doses of 50, 70 or 90 Gy

  18. Inlfuence of Host Shift on Genetic Differentiation of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Xuan-wu; LIU Ying-hong; LUO Lin-ming; FENG Chuan-hong; WANG Sheng; MA Li

    2014-01-01

    Invasion of the oriental fruit lfy, Bactrocera dorsalis, into new niches containing different food sources (a process referred to as host shift), may cause population genetic differentiation and sympatric speciation. To attempt to infer that experimentally, test populations were established by transferring a subset of the original populations, which had been grown on banana for many generations, onto navel orange, and then subculturing the navel orange population and banana population for at least 20 generations. Four pairs of SSR primers with high polymorphism on laboratory strains were used to detect population genetic differentiation. All six tested populations (the 5th, 10th and 15th generations of B. dorsalis fed on banana and navel orange, respectively) were found to have low genetic diversity. Furthermore, the genetic diversity of the navel orange populations was found to decline after being crossed for several generations. Populations initially were deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, however, equilibrium was achieved with increasing numbers of generations in both of the host populations. Limited gene lfows were found among the six populations. The Nei’s standard genetic distances between the two host populations of the same generation were initially low, but increased with generation number. Genetic distances between banana and navel orange populations of the same generation were lower than genetic distances between different generations grown on the same host plant. Analysis of molecular distance (AMOVA) results based on generation groups and host groups demonstrated that genetic variation among generations was greater than that between the two host populations. The results indicated that population genetic differentiation occurred after the host shift, albeit at low level. Biogeography and taxonomy of the B. dorsalis complex revealed that speciation of B. dorsalis might be tightly associated with host shift or host specialization of B. dorsalis

  19. Functional characterization of an α-esterase gene involving malathion detoxification in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luo-Luo; Lu, Xue-Ping; Meng, Li-Wei; Huang, Yong; Wei, Dong; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Extensive use of insecticides in many orchards has prompted resistance development in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). In this study, a laboratory selected strain of B. dorsalis (MR) with a 21-fold higher resistance to malathion was used to examine the resistance mechanisms to this organophosphate insecticide. Carboxylesterase (CarE) was found to be involved in malathion resistance in B. dorsalis from the synergism bioassay by CarE-specific inhibitor triphenylphosphate (TPP). Molecular studies further identified a previously uncharacterized α-esterase gene, BdCarE2, that may function in the development of malathion resistance in B. dorsalis via gene upregulation. This gene is predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, a key insect tissue for detoxification. The transcript levels of BdCarE2 were also compared between the MR and a malathion-susceptible (MS) strain of B. dorsalis, and it was significantly more abundant in the MR strain. No sequence mutation or gene copy changes were detected between the two strains. Functional studies using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of BdCarE2 significantly increased the malathion susceptibility in the adult files. Furthermore, heterologous expression of BdCarE2 combined with cytotoxicity assay in Sf9 cells demonstrated that BdCarE2 could probably detoxify malathion. Taken together, the current study bring new molecular evidence supporting the involvement of CarE-mediated metabolism in resistance development against malathion in B. dorsalis and also provide bases on functional analysis of insect α-esterase associated with insecticide resistance. PMID:27155483

  20. Identification of a carboxylesterase associated with resistance to naled in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Kai; Huang, Li-Hsin; Geib, Scott M; Hsu, Ju-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Compared to other organophosphate-resistant and -susceptible (S) lines of Bactrocera dorsalis, the carboxylesterase (CBE) BdE5 in the naled-resistant (nal-r) line has been found to possess remarkable quantitative elevation. Our study attempts to identify the role of BdE5 in naled resistance, and we discovered several points of interest. Firstly, activity staining on native PAGE revealed that the percentage of flies with intensive BdE5 bands in the nal-r line was substantially higher than in the S line, indicating that the BdE5 band correlates with naled susceptibility. Secondly, in vitro and in vivo inhibition assays showed that BdE5 was inhibited by naled in both lines; under diagnostic doses of naled, the overall extent of inhibition on CBEs was much greater in the S line than in the nal-r line. Thirdly, NanoLC-nanoESi-MS/MS analysis used the NCBI database to identify and annotate BdE5 as an esterase FE4-like (XP_011200445.1) in B. dorsalis. Fourthly, rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to obtain the 2012-bp full-length BdE5 cDNA, which contained an open reading frame of 1770bp and encoded a putative protein of 590 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BdE5 is a secreted β-esterase (E clade) closely related to CG6414 (NP_570089), a CBE in Drosophila melanogaster. Finally, our relative quantification real-time PCR data showed a significant elevation in transcript levels of the BdE5 gene in nal-r line. Our results confirmed that BdE5 is correlated with naled resistance and provides further understanding about the identification and molecular characteristics of BdE5 in B. dorsalis. PMID:27265823

  1. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern. PMID:26090853

  2. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae: Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi-Sen Yong

    Full Text Available Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia and southern hemisphere (Indonesia were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2 genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94% was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77% and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%. This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.

  3. Droogboeketten als vector voor exoten (Diptera: Tephritidae)?

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Everlasting flowers as a vector for exotic insects (Diptera: Tephritidae)? In this paper two rearing occasions of exotic fruit fly species of the genus Terellia are documented. Terellia fuscicornis (Loew, 1844) was reared from a ‘tropical’ plant (probably a thistle species) of unknown origin. Terellia longicauda (Meigen, 1830) was reared from Cirsium rivulare from southern France. On both occasions the plants were left to dry to serve as everlasting flowers. The differences between these exot...

  4. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vicoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot, but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes. Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  5. Effects of the methanolic extracts of Zizyphus spina christi, Olea europaea and Morus alba leaves in Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Othman*, M. A. Amer*, M. Abdel-Mogib **, R. F. Samaha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:The present study aims to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidimic and antioxidant effect of the methanolic crude extracts of Zizyphus spina christi, Morus alba and Olea europaea leaves, individually or in combination against diabetes induced rats by Streptozotocin (STZ. Results:Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidaemia except in high density lipoproteins (HDL were observed in serum after 5 weeks of STZ administration. This was associated with a depression in hepatic glutathione (GSH concentration as well as hepatic catalase (CAT, glutathione-s-transferase (GST and superoxide dismutase (SOD activates. In addition hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS and protein carbonyl (PC were significantly elevated, indicating increased lipid and protein oxidation and oxidative stress. Depression in blood hemoglobin (Hb content, serum insulin levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC and nitric oxide (NO levels as well as body weight gain were also observed in diabetic rats. Administration of 100mg/kg alcoholic extracts of Zizyphus spina christi, Morus alba and Olea europaea leaves 3 days before and after STZ injection daily for 5 weeks significantly ameliorated the oxidative stress evidenced by lowering TBARS & PC as well as increasing hepatic GSH concentration and CAT, GST and SOD activates as compared with STZ treated rats. These effects were paralleled with marked protection against STZ induced hyperglycemia and disturbance of lipid profile. They also caused a great improvement in insulin levels, TAOC, NO, Hb content and body weight gain. Conclussion:Thus, these results showed that the administration of the crude extracts of either Zizyphus spina christi, Morus alba or Olea europaea leaves individually or in combination might improve the clinical manifestation of diabetes and decrease the oxidative stress, this study supports the beneficial effects of these extracts especially Zizyphus spina christi, which showed marked amelioration

  6. RNA interference of four genes in adult Bactrocera dorsalis by feeding their dsRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi is a powerful method to inhibit gene expression in a sequence specific manner. Recently silencing the target gene through feeding has been successfully carried out in many insect species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Escherichia coli strain HT115 was genetically engineered to express dsRNA targeting genes that encode ribosomal protein Rpl19, V type ATPase D subunit, the fatty acid elongase Noa and a small GTPase Rab11. qRT-PCR showed that mRNA level of four target genes was reduced compared to ds-egfp control by feeding either engineered bacteria or dsRNAs. The maximum down-regulation of each gene varied from 35% to 100%. Tissue specific examination indicated that RNAi could be observed not only in midgut but also in other tissues like the ovary, nervous system and fat body. Silencing of rab11 through ingestion of dsRNA killed 20% of adult flies. Egg production was affected through feeding ds-noa and ds-rab11 compared to ds-egfp group. Adult flies were continuously fed with dsRNA and bacteria expressing dsRNA for 14 days and up-regulations of target genes were observed during this process. The transcripts of noa showed up-regulation compared to ds-egfp control group in four tissues on day 7 after continuous feeding either dsRNA or engineered bacteria. The maximum over-expression is 21 times compared to ds-egfp control group. Up-regulation of rab11 mRNA level could be observed in testes on day 7 after continuous bacteria treatment and in midgut on day 2 after ds-rab11 treatment. This phenomenon could also be observed in rpl19 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that it is feasible to silence genes by feeding dsRNA and bacteria expressing dsRNA in Bactrocera dorsalis. Additionally the over-expression of the target gene after continuously feeding dsRNA or bacteria was observed.

  7. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Narit Thaochan; Richard A.I. Drew; Anuchit Chinajariyawong; Anurag Sunpapao; Chaninun Pornsuriya

    2015-01-01

    The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria w...

  8. 基于物联网的桔小实蝇诱捕监测装备设计及试验%Design and test of remote monitoring equipment for bactrocera dorsalis trapping based on internet of things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖德琴; 傅俊谦; 邓晓晖; 冯健昭; 殷建军; 可欣荣

    2015-01-01

    For bactrocera dorsalis field monitoring, the current method had some disadvantages: a heavy workload, low efficiency, poor reliability, low accuracy, and it could not large-scale and fast monitor the orchard pest situation in real time. Agriculture experts eager to have a solution to automatically count the number of bactrocera dorsalis and remotely observe the trapping result in real time to reduce their labor so that they could focus more on the study of the characteristics of insects. Therefore, combining the image target detection technology and the target tracking technology to develop an automated counting system by using a video image sensor would be necessary. In order to realize the real-time monitoring, the bactrocera dorsalis trapping, and a rapid diagnosis, an IOT-Based remote monitoring equipment for bactrocera dorsalis trapping was provided in this paper. The equipment included a trap monitoring device, a solar power supply device, and the monitoring control device. The trap monitoring device was comprised of a top cover, a transparent funnel, a trap bottle, a LED, and a camera;the solar energy device was comprised of a solar panel, a storage battery, and a solar panel bracket;the bactrocera dorsalis monitoring control system device was comprised of a Fit-pc controller, a 3G communication module, and the independent software for counting bactrocera dorsalis’ numbers. This equipment combined machine vision technology and telecommunication technology with solar power technology. The purpose of the equipment was to achieve a whole function for bactrocera dorsalis trap monitoring with plant diseases and insect pests information collection, together with processing, transmission, and self-supply. It could monitor the trapping process and precise calculation of the number of bactrocera dorsalis anytime and anywhere, and also automatically transmit the results to the remote server or store it in a local storage card. For object extraction,this paper used

  9. Polyploidy in the olive complex (Olea europaea): Evidence from flow cytometry and nuclear microsatellite analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besnard, G.; Garcia-Verdugo, C.; Rubio de Casas, R.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Phylogenetic and phylogeographic investigations have been previously performed to study the evolution of the olive tree complex (Olea europaea). A particularly high genomic diversity has been found in north-west Africa. However, to date no exhaustive study has been addressed to infer...... putative polyploidization events and their evolutionary significance in the diversification of the olive tree and its relatives. Methods: Representatives of the six olive subspecies were investigated using (a) flow cytometry to estimate genome content, and (b) six highly variable nuclear microsatellites......, strong evidence for polyploidy was obtained in subspp. cerasiformis (tetraploid) and maroccana (hexaploid), whereas the other subspecies appeared to be diploids. Agreement between flow cytometry and genetic analyses gives an alternative approach to chromosome counting to determine ploidy level of trees...

  10. The familes Lonchopteridae, Opetiidae and Pipunculidae of Malta (Diptera, Aschiza)

    OpenAIRE

    Ebejer, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    An account is given of the three Aschiza families of Diptera: one species of Lonchopteridae, one species of Opetiidae and four species of Pipunculidae that occur in Malta and which are all new records for this country

  11. Prays oleae midgut putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3LB differs from that of Cry1Ac toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Rouis, Souad; Sellami, Sameh; Jaoua, Samir

    2009-09-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) is a class of insecticidal proteins produced by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage. The vip3LB gene of B. thuringiensis strain BUPM95, which encodes a protein active against the Lepidoptera olive tree pathogenic insect Prays oleae, was cloned into pET-14b vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed Vip3LB protein, found in the E. coli cytoplasmic fraction, was purified and used to produce anti-Vip3LB antibodies. Using the midgut extract of P. oleae, the purified Vip3LB bound to a 65-kDa protein, whereas Cry1Ac toxin bound to a 210-kDa midgut putative receptor. This result justifies the importance of the biological pest control agent Vip3LB that could be used as another alternative particularly in case of resistance to Cry toxins. PMID:19434523

  12. Dynamique de la conductance hydraulique chez l'olivier de table (Olea europaea L., cv Meski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hechmi, C.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic Conductance Dynamic in Olive Table Tree (Olea europaea L. cv Meski. Cette étude expose les effets de l'aménagement des pâturages par la digue filtrante sur la dynamique de la végétation. Dans les régions sahéliennes, de nombreuses techniques sont appliquées sur les sols pour la restauration des parcours dégradés. La digue filtrante s'intéresse particulièrement aux axes de drainage ou bas-fonds en dégradation. La méthode d'étude a consisté à évaluer l'impact des digues filtrantes par l'inventaire de la végétation, la mesure de la biomasse produite, et l'analyse chimique d'échantillons de fourrage et de sol. Ces observations ont été faites à la fois sur l'espace aménagé et sur un espace témoin représentatif en deux fois durant cinq ans. Les observations sur l'espace aménagé (stations d'observation d'un ha ont été faites en fonction du gradient par rapport à la digue filtrante tandis que sur le témoin (station d'observation d'un ha, les mesures ont été homogénéisées sur l'ensemble de la parcelle. Les résultats obtenus des inventaires de végétation montrent un effet positif de l'aménagement sur la dynamique de la végétation qui se maintient après cinq années. Les effets concernent la composition floristique pour laquelle certaines espèces connaissent une amélioration. Il s'agit de Panicum laetum (+ 5,9% en 1999 et + 1,9% en 2003, Setaria pallide fusca (+ 2,4 à + 8,6%, Cassia obtusifolia (+ 13,6% à + 9,3% et Zornia glochidiata (- 2,9% à + 1,7 %. Les espèces en régression sont surtout composées de Schoenefeldia gracilis (+ 1,7% à - 12% et Microchloa indica (- 28,9% à - 12,1% entre 1999 et 2003. L'écart de recouvrement du sol entre la parcelle aménagée et le témoin a été de -0,4% en 1999 contre + 14,6% en 2003. La biomasse produite et la capacité de charge ont connu une expansion allant de 3,14 à 4,5 fois par rapport à l'espace non aménagé. Cependant, des suivis doivent

  13. A population analysis of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), the Queensland fruit fly or Q-fly, is the most economically important horticultural pest in Australia, infesting almost every commercial vegetable and fruit crop (Drew 1989). It is well established as a serious pest all along the east coast of Australia, as far south as the east Gippsland area of Victoria (Drew 1989). B. tryoni has the potential to spread across Australia to South Australia, Victoria and the tropical regions of the Northern Territory (Meats 1989) and flies classified as B. tryoni have been identified in the Northern Territory (Osborne et al. 1997). Winter breeding of B. tryoni is believed to occur only in the northern half of the range, although winged adults are usually sufficiently hardy to survive the southern winter without reproducing (Meats 1989). The number of generations per year is also a function of temperature, ranging from about eight in northern Queensland to about three in the Sydney region (Fletcher 1989). In recent years, there has been an increase in the frequency of outbreaks in horticulturally important areas, inland in the southeast of the continent, where irrigation systems have been in use (Bateman 1991). Small-scale outbreaks occur in Adelaide (Maelzer 1990), and a more substantial outbreak was eradicated from Perth (Fisher 1996). These outbreaks mean the suspension of fruit fly free status with severe financial implications for the regions affected. To assist with the control of outbreaks within the fly-free zones and to facilitate area-wide management programmes in the endemic areas, it would be useful to have molecular genetic markers capable of identifying population structure. Population analysis requires markers which are capable of easy and repeatable scoring and which are as polymorphic as possible. Microsatellites are now widely regarded as the most useful molecular markers available for genetic typing of individuals for kinship or larger-scale population studies (Bruford and Wayne 1993

  14. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.

  15. Effectiveness of attract-and-kill systems using methyl eugenol incorporated with neonicotinoid insecticides against the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yi-Yuan; Hou, Roger F

    2008-04-01

    Laboratory bioassays and field trials were conducted to evaluate an "attract-and-kill" system using methyl eugenol (ME) with neonicotinoid insecticides against male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In laboratory bioassays, mortality of male flies resulting from the conventional toxicant, naled was 98.3-100% at 24 through 72 h after treatment, whereas the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and acetamiprid caused only approximately 60-80% at 24 through 72 h after treatment. In the assays of residual effect, naled was persistent up to 96 wk, whereas imidacloprid or acetamiprid was persistent up to 150 wk, resulting in 38.9 or 61.2% male mortality, respectively. Imidacloprid, in particular, caused a delayed lethal effect on flies. In another experiment, male mortality within 28 wk from clothianidin, another neonicotinoid insecticide, was approximately 80% after exposure for 24 h, suggesting a delayed lethal effect similar to those treated with imidacloprid, and mortality was up to 91.8%, if observed, 72 h after treatment. In field trials, attractiveness was similar between ME alone and ME incorporated with naled or neonicotinoids, indicating that addition of these insecticides to ME in traps is not repellent to B. dorsalis males. Using an improved wick-typed trap with longer attractiveness for simulating field application, addition of imidacloprid or acetamiprid maintained 40.1 or 64.3% male mortality, respectively, when assayed once every 2 wk from traps placed in orchards for 42 wk without changing the poison, whereas incorporation with naled resulted in as high as 98.1% after 34 wk and approximately 80% at 42 wk, indicating that persistence is increased compared with sugarcane fiberboard blocks for carrying poison attractants. This study also suggests that neonicotinoid insecticides could be used as an alternative for broad-spectrum insecticides as toxicants in fly traps. PMID:18459398

  16. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    1999-09-01

    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination.

  17. Polyphenols from leaves of Olea europaea%油橄榄叶多酚类成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓飞; 李辰; 郑媛媛; 邸多隆

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究油橄榄Olea europaea的多酚类成分.方法 利用硅胶柱色谱手段,结合波谱方法分离鉴定油橄榄叶中的多酚类化合物.结果 从油橄榄叶醋酸乙酯部位中分离得到15个多酚类化合物,分别鉴定为:酪醇(1)、羟基酪醇(2)、羟基酪醇乙酰酯(3)、1H-2-苯并吡喃-6,7-二醇(4)、3,4-二羟基苯甲酸(5)、3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯甲酸(6)、异鼠李素(7)、圣草酚(8)、花旗松素(9)、槲皮素(10)、木犀草素(11)、女贞苷(12)、橄榄苦苷(13)、芹菜素-7-O-葡萄糖苷(14)、木犀草素-7-O-葡萄糖苷(15).结论 化合物4~9为首次从该种植物中分离得到.%Objective To study the polyphenols from the leaves of Olea europaea.Methods The polyphenols from ethyl acetate fraction were separated and purified by silica chromatographic method and identified by spectroscopic analysis.Results In combination with the data from literatures, the structure of 15 polyphenols had been elucidated on the basis of various spectroscopic methods, including tyrosol (1), hydroxytyrosol (2), hydroxytyrosol acetate (3), 1H-2-benzopyran-6,7-diol (4), 3,4-dihydroxyl-benzoic acid (5), 3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyl benzoic acid (6), isorhamnetin (7), eriodictyol (8), taxifolin (9), quercetin (10), luteolin (11),ligstroside (12), oleuropein (13), apigenin-7-O-glucoside (14), and luteolin-7-O-glucoside (15).Conclusion Compounds 4-9 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  18. Oil, protein, antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity of stone from wild olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi, Hédia; Elfalleh, Walid; Marzouk, Sizaiem

    2013-05-01

    The wild olive trees or oleaster (var. sylvestris) and the cultivated olive trees (var. europaea) constitute the two botanical varieties of Olea europaea L. from Mediterranean. In this study, a partial chemical profile was conducted including the total lipids, the fatty acid profiles, soluble proteins, polyphenols, flavanoids contents and antioxidants activities of stone from six oleaster trees. The comparison was made by two olive cultivars cultivated in the same region. The oleaster and cultivar stones were richer in oil content having an average of 8.99 and 7.38 % dry weight basis (DW), respectively. Qualitatively, all studied oils have the same fatty acids profile with the oleic acid C18:1n-9 as the major fatty acid. The oleaster stone oils were richer in monounsaturated fatty acids having an average of 64.87%. They, also, richer in protein content with an average of 198.86 mg/g DW.The globulin is the major fraction, followed by the albumin, the prolamin and the glutemin fractions. The oleaster stone extracts contain polyphenols, flavonoids with an average of 151.14 and 11.91 mg gallic acid equivalent/100g of DW, respectively. The studied extracts showed antioxidant activity using the free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH and ABTS. The unexploited oleaster stone seems to be a source of oil with good fatty acids balance, in protein and antioxidants metabolites and would be useful for the formulation of supplements and/or pharmaceutical ingredients.

  19. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Micucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE, of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE, and of their 13 : 2 w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mixture and isolated guinea-pig left and right atria and aorta to evaluate the inotropic and chronotropic activities and vasorelaxant properties. In cultured HUVECs, OEE and HSE reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability, following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. OEE and HSE exerted negative inotropic and vasorelaxant effects without any chronotropic property. Interestingly, the mixture exerted higher cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the mixture exerted an inotropic effect similar to each single extract, while it revealed an intrinsic negative chronotropic activity different from the single extract; its relaxant activity was higher than that of each single extract. In conclusion OEE and HSE mixture has a good potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application, thanks to the synergistic effects of the single phytochemicals.

  20. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, Matteo; Malaguti, Marco; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Aldini, Rita; Angeletti, Andrea; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE), of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE), and of their 13 : 2 w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mixture and isolated guinea-pig left and right atria and aorta to evaluate the inotropic and chronotropic activities and vasorelaxant properties. In cultured HUVECs, OEE and HSE reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability, following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. OEE and HSE exerted negative inotropic and vasorelaxant effects without any chronotropic property. Interestingly, the mixture exerted higher cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the mixture exerted an inotropic effect similar to each single extract, while it revealed an intrinsic negative chronotropic activity different from the single extract; its relaxant activity was higher than that of each single extract. In conclusion OEE and HSE mixture has a good potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application, thanks to the synergistic effects of the single phytochemicals. PMID:26180582

  1. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive tree (Olea europaea L.) with a focus on the Mediterranean Basin: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadine; Chapuis, Elodie; Tavoillot, Johannes; Mateille, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea ssp. europaea.) is one of the most ancient cultivated trees. It is an emblematic species owing to its ecological, economic and cultural importance, especially in the Mediterranean Basin. Plant-parasitic nematodes are major damaging pests on olive trees, mainly in nurseries. They significantly contribute to economic losses in the top-ten olive-producing countries in the world. However, the damages they induce in orchards and nurseries are specifically documented only in a few countries. This review aims to update knowledge about the olive-nematode pathosystem by: (1) updating the list of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees; (2) analysing their diversity (taxonomic level, trophic groups, dominance of taxa), which allowed us (i) to assess the richness observed in each country, and (ii) to exhibit and describe the most important taxa able to induce damages on olive trees such as: Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Tylenchulus, Rotylenchulus, Heterodera (distribution especially in the Mediterranean Basin, pathogenicity and reactions of olive trees); (3) describing some management strategies focusing on alternative control methods; (4) suggesting new approaches for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on the management of the diversity of their communities, which are structured by several environmental factors such as olive diversity (due to domestication of wild olive in the past, and to breeding now), cropping systems (from traditional to high-density orchards), irrigation, and terroirs.

  2. Effet du milieu de culture sur le microbouturage de l'olivier (Olea europeae L. cv. Picholine Marocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abousalim A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of culture medium on micropropagation of olive (Olea europeae L. cv. Moroccan Picholine. The effect of the basal media OM (Olive Medium, 1/2 MS (Murashige et Skoog with half strength macronutrients, WPM (Lloyd and McCown, 1/2 Miller (Miller with half strength macronutrients, and K&H (medium with Knop macronutrients and Heller micronutrients, supplemented with 5 mg/l Zeatine, on shoot proliferation of mature ‘Moroccan Picholine'cultivar (30 years old was investigated. OM and 1/2 MS media were the most effective at the early stages of proliferation. A microcutting percentage of up to 91,6 and 90,9 % were achieved in OM and 1/2 MS media respectively but OM was distinguished later by permitting a better shoot growth with no vitrification symptoms The highest percentages of new shoots per explant were obtained with 1/2 MS and OM media (67 and 65 % respectively. OM was the most effective for shoot height (12,42 mm followed by 1/2 MS (8,92 mm. The other tested media induced an important callus development and leaf chlorosis, and the reduction of shoot growth was noticeable.

  3. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from the Manzanilla cultivar (Olea europaea pomiformis) and prevention of browning reactions in bruised olive fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia-Bravo, Kharla A; Jarén-Galan, Manuel; García-García, Pedro; Garrido-Fernandez, Antonio

    2007-08-01

    The crude extract of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme from the Manzanilla cultivar (Olea europaea pomiformis) was obtained, and its properties were characterized. The browning reaction followed a zero-order kinetic model. Its maximum activity was at pH 6.0. This activity was completely inhibited at a pH below 3.0 regardless of temperature; however, in alkaline conditions, pH inhibition depended on temperature and was observed at values above 9.0 and 11.0 at 8 and 25 degrees C, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of substrate oxidation depended on pH within the range in which activity was observed. The reaction occurred according to an isokinetic system because pH affected the enzymatic reaction rate but not the energy required to carry out the reaction. In the alkaline pH region, browning was due to a combination of enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions that occurred in parallel. These results correlated well with the browning behavior observed in intentionally bruised fruits at different temperatures and in different storage solutions. The use of a low temperature ( approximately 8 degrees C) was very effective for preventing browning regardless of the cover solution used. PMID:17628073

  4. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from the Manzanilla cultivar (Olea europaea pomiformis) and prevention of browning reactions in bruised olive fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia-Bravo, Kharla A; Jarén-Galan, Manuel; García-García, Pedro; Garrido-Fernandez, Antonio

    2007-08-01

    The crude extract of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme from the Manzanilla cultivar (Olea europaea pomiformis) was obtained, and its properties were characterized. The browning reaction followed a zero-order kinetic model. Its maximum activity was at pH 6.0. This activity was completely inhibited at a pH below 3.0 regardless of temperature; however, in alkaline conditions, pH inhibition depended on temperature and was observed at values above 9.0 and 11.0 at 8 and 25 degrees C, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of substrate oxidation depended on pH within the range in which activity was observed. The reaction occurred according to an isokinetic system because pH affected the enzymatic reaction rate but not the energy required to carry out the reaction. In the alkaline pH region, browning was due to a combination of enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions that occurred in parallel. These results correlated well with the browning behavior observed in intentionally bruised fruits at different temperatures and in different storage solutions. The use of a low temperature ( approximately 8 degrees C) was very effective for preventing browning regardless of the cover solution used.

  5. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water, solute content and cell wall rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Nadia S; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    Plants can avoid freezing damage by preventing extracellular ice formation below the equilibrium freezing temperature (supercooling). We used Olea europaea cultivars to assess which traits contribute to avoid ice nucleation at sub-zero temperatures. Seasonal leaf water relations, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen and tissue damage and ice nucleation temperatures in different plant parts were determined in five cultivars growing in the Patagonian cold desert. Ice seeding in roots occurred at higher temperatures than in stems and leaves. Leaves of cold acclimated cultivars supercooled down to -13 °C, substantially lower than the minimum air temperatures observed in the study site. During winter, leaf ice nucleation and leaf freezing damage (LT50 ) occurred at similar temperatures, typical of plant tissues that supercool. Higher leaf density and cell wall rigidity were observed during winter, consistent with a substantial acclimation to sub-zero temperatures. Larger supercooling capacity and lower LT50 were observed in cold-acclimated cultivars with higher osmotically active solute content, higher tissue elastic adjustments and lower apoplastic water. Irreversible leaf damage was only observed in laboratory experiments at very low temperatures, but not in the field. A comparative analysis of closely related plants avoids phylogenetic independence bias in a comparative study of adaptations to survive low temperatures. PMID:25737264

  6. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water, solute content and cell wall rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Nadia S; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    Plants can avoid freezing damage by preventing extracellular ice formation below the equilibrium freezing temperature (supercooling). We used Olea europaea cultivars to assess which traits contribute to avoid ice nucleation at sub-zero temperatures. Seasonal leaf water relations, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen and tissue damage and ice nucleation temperatures in different plant parts were determined in five cultivars growing in the Patagonian cold desert. Ice seeding in roots occurred at higher temperatures than in stems and leaves. Leaves of cold acclimated cultivars supercooled down to -13 °C, substantially lower than the minimum air temperatures observed in the study site. During winter, leaf ice nucleation and leaf freezing damage (LT50 ) occurred at similar temperatures, typical of plant tissues that supercool. Higher leaf density and cell wall rigidity were observed during winter, consistent with a substantial acclimation to sub-zero temperatures. Larger supercooling capacity and lower LT50 were observed in cold-acclimated cultivars with higher osmotically active solute content, higher tissue elastic adjustments and lower apoplastic water. Irreversible leaf damage was only observed in laboratory experiments at very low temperatures, but not in the field. A comparative analysis of closely related plants avoids phylogenetic independence bias in a comparative study of adaptations to survive low temperatures.

  7. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  8. The role of the transformer gene in sex determination and reproduction in the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Zheng, Wenping; Handler, Alfred M; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-12-01

    Transformer (tra) is a switch gene in the somatic sex-determination hierarchy that regulates sexual dimorphism based on RNA splicing in many insects. In tephritids, a Y-linked male determining gene (M) controls sex in the sex-determination pathway. Here, homologues of Drosophila tra and transformer-2 (tra-2) genes were isolated and characterized in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of B. dorsalis transformer (Bdtra) were identified. The presence of multiple TRA/TRA-2 binding sites in Bdtra suggests that the TRA/TRA-2 proteins are splicing regulators promoting and maintaining, epigenetically, female sex determination by a tra positive feedback loop in XX individuals during development. The expression patterns of female-specific Bdtra transcripts during early embryogenesis shows that a peak appears at 15 h after egg laying. Using dsRNA to knock-down Bdtra expression in the embryo and adult stages, we showed that sexual formation is determined early in the embryo stage and that parental RNAi does not lead to the production of all male progeny as in Tribolium castaneum. RNAi results from adult abdominal dsRNA injections show that Bdtra has a positive influence on female yolk protein gene (Bdyp1) expression and fecundity. PMID:26481008

  9. Dominance of an invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera invadens, along an altitudinal transect in Morogoro, Eastern Central Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, K; Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M

    2014-06-01

    Bactrocera invadens, a fruit fly from Asia, is an invasive pest species across Africa. It appears to continue spreading, not only in latitude but also in altitude. To assess its capacity to infest a large variety of hosts and its competition with other fruit fly species, a study along an altitudinal gradient was conducted. At low altitudes, the high abundance in the field and high infestation of B. invadens in different fruit species make it a serious pest. At high altitudes, colonization has started and B. invadens occurs in low numbers by reproducing successfully in high altitude fruits. Overall the abundance and infestation of B. invadens is influenced by its direct competitor Ceratitis rosa and the presence of its preferred host species. C. rosa is still the dominant species in temperate fruits grown at high altitude. Ceratitis cosyra, however, is negatively affected by B. invadens, this species seems to have shifted hosts to avoid competition. The broad host range and competitive potential of B. invadens increase the risk for further spread not only to higher areas, but also to subtropical regions.

  10. The noa gene is functionally linked to the activation of the Toll/Imd signaling pathways in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaolong; Li, Qiujia; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-02-01

    The noa gene is an essential gene encoding a very long chain fatty acid elongase. In this study, we cloned the noa gene of Bactrocera dorsalis, which encodes a protein sharing 84.50% identity to the NOA in Drosophila melanogaster. The expression profiles indicated that the transcriptional level of noa was high at the egg stage and in the testis tissue. The results showed that noa expression was up-regulated after Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli infection. Silencing of noa would influence the expression of immune related genes, including MyD88 and defensin in the Toll pathway and relish and diptericin in the Imd pathway. Moreover, infection with L. monocytogenes and S. aureus after feeding ds-noa, the expression of MyD88 and defensin down-regulated significantly in ds-noa group compared with in ds-egfp group, indicating that noa interference influenced the activation of the Toll pathway. Meanwhile, infection with L. monocytogenes and E. coli, which activated the Imd pathway, do not cause increase of the mRNA levels of relish and diptericin in ds-noa group as severely as in ds-egfp treatment, indicating that the Imd pathway was also repressed after silences of noa. PMID:26404497

  11. Inferences on the population structure and colonization process of the invasive oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, N; Bonizzoni, M; Thanaphum, S; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R; Gugliemino, C R

    2007-09-01

    The phytophagous insects of the Tephritidae family offer different case histories of successful invasions. An example is Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, the oriental fruit fly which has been recognized as a key pest of Asia and the Pacific. It is known to have the potential to establish adventive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Despite the economic risk associated with a putative stable presence of this fly, the genetic aspects of its invasion process have remained relatively unexplored. Using microsatellite markers we have investigated the population structure and genetic variability in 14 geographical populations across the four areas of the actual species range: Far East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Area. Results of clustering and admixture, associated with phylogenetic and migration analyses, were used to evaluate the changes in population genetic structure that this species underwent during its invasion process and establishment in the different areas. The colonization process of this fly is associated with a relatively stable population demographic structure, especially in an unfragmented habitat, rich in intensive cultivation such as in Southeast Asia. In this area, the results suggest a lively demographic history, characterized by evolutionary recent demographic expansions and no recent bottlenecks. Cases of genetic isolation attributable to geographical factors, fragmented habitats and/or fruit trade restrictions were observed in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Hawaii. Regarding the pattern of invasion, the overall genetic profile of the considered populations suggests a western orientated migration route from China to the West. PMID:17845427

  12. The role of the transformer gene in sex determination and reproduction in the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Zheng, Wenping; Handler, Alfred M; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-12-01

    Transformer (tra) is a switch gene in the somatic sex-determination hierarchy that regulates sexual dimorphism based on RNA splicing in many insects. In tephritids, a Y-linked male determining gene (M) controls sex in the sex-determination pathway. Here, homologues of Drosophila tra and transformer-2 (tra-2) genes were isolated and characterized in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of B. dorsalis transformer (Bdtra) were identified. The presence of multiple TRA/TRA-2 binding sites in Bdtra suggests that the TRA/TRA-2 proteins are splicing regulators promoting and maintaining, epigenetically, female sex determination by a tra positive feedback loop in XX individuals during development. The expression patterns of female-specific Bdtra transcripts during early embryogenesis shows that a peak appears at 15 h after egg laying. Using dsRNA to knock-down Bdtra expression in the embryo and adult stages, we showed that sexual formation is determined early in the embryo stage and that parental RNAi does not lead to the production of all male progeny as in Tribolium castaneum. RNAi results from adult abdominal dsRNA injections show that Bdtra has a positive influence on female yolk protein gene (Bdyp1) expression and fecundity.

  13. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  14. Relación entre variación fenotípica y éxito reproductor en "Olea europaea"

    OpenAIRE

    Granado Yela, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo general de la presente memoria doctoral es estudiar la relación entre la variación fenotípica en el acebuche (Olea europaea L.) y el éxito reproductor de sus individuos. Mediante una aproximación a tres escalas (intra-individual, inter-individual e interpoblacional) se busca valorar la importancia en la variación fenotípica de: a) la modularidad; b) la plasticidad fenotípica; c) la ontogenia; d) la diferenciación (genética) entre individuos y poblaciones; y e) el ambiente local y ...

  15. Marcadores moleculares de ADN : análisis de variabilidad, relaciones genéticas y mapeo en olivo (Olea Europaea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez García, Mª del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    El olivo (Olea europaea L.) es uno de los cultivos más antiguos de la cuenca mediterránea y cuenta con un gran patrimonio genético. Sin embargo, la tendencia actual en la mayoría de los países olivareros es hacia la utilización de pocas variedades muy populares. Por tanto la conservación de esta diversidad genética resulta de vital importancia para evitar su pérdida. Durante las últimas décadas, se han realizado importantes trabajos de prospección, recolección, caracterizaci...

  16. Dynamics of Bactrocera dorsalis in Jujube Orchards in Dry Hot Valley of Yuanmou%桔小实蝇在干热河谷区元谋枣园年发生动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子祥; 沙毓沧; 王玖瑞; 刘海刚; 张德; 马开华; 杨建花; 段曰汤

    2013-01-01

    Bactrocera dors alls is one of the important insect pests harm Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. cv. Liuxiang and Ziziphus jujube, cv Jinsixiaozao in the dry hot valley. The text conduct a comprehensive analysis on the annual dynamics survey, climatic factors, food resources and host plants of Bactrocera dorsalis adult in the typical dry-hot valley of Yuanmou. The results show that the Bactrocera dorsalis in Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. cv. Liuxiang trap significantly higher than Ziziphus jujube, cv Jinsixiaozao; Bactrocera dorsalis adults in Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. cv. Liuxiang and Ziziphus jujube, cv Jinsixiaozao have one (August), two (February and August) peak, the peak period is basically consistent with fruit maturity; the monthly mean temperature, monthly rainfall and food source host plants are the main factors of population fluctuations. To master the changes in the population dynamics of Bactrocera dorsalis by two kinds of Zaoyuan monitoring, can timely provide a theoretical basis for Bactrocera dorsalis control period.%桔小实蝇[Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)]是危害干热河谷区台湾青枣(Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.cv.Liuxiang)和金丝小枣(Ziziphus Jujube.cv Jinsi-xiaozao)的重要害虫之一.对典型干热河谷气候区云南元谋台湾青枣和金丝小枣园桔小实蝇成虫的年发生动态进行调查,并就气候因子及食源寄主植物进行综合分析.结果表明:台湾青枣园桔小实蝇诱捕量明显高于金丝小枣园;桔小实蝇成虫在金丝小枣、台湾青枣上分别拥有1个(8月)、2个(2、8月)发生高峰期,高峰期与果实成熟期基本吻合;月均温、月降雨量和食源寄主植物是种群变动的主要因子.通过两种枣园桔小实蝇的监测,掌握种群动态的变化,可为适时制定桔小实蝇防治时期提供理论依据.

  17. Boron remobilization at low boron supply in olive (Olea europaea) in relation to leaf and phloem mannitol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakopoulos, Georgios; Stavrianakou, Sotiria; Filippou, Manolis; Fasseas, Costas; Tsadilas, Christos; Drossopoulos, Ioannis; Karabourniotis, George

    2005-02-01

    For plant species in which a considerable portion of the photoassimilates are translocated in the phloem as sugar alcohols, boron is freely translocated from mature organs to growing tissues. However, the effects of decreased plant boron status on boron remobilization are poorly understood. We conducted a growth chamber experiment (CE) and a field experiment (FE) to study the effects of low boron supply on boron remobilization in olive (Olea europaea L.), a species that transports considerable amounts of mannitol in the phloem. For the CE, several physiological parameters were compared between control (B+) and boron-deficient olive plants (B-) during the expansion of new leaves. Boron remobilization was assessed by measuring boron content of selected leaves at the beginning and at the end of the CE. As expected, boron was remobilized from mature leaves to young leaves of B+ plants; however, considerable boron remobilization was also observed in B- plants, suggesting a mechanism whereby olive can sustain a minimum boron supply for growth of new tissues despite an insufficient external boron supply. Boron deficiency caused inhibition of new growth but had no effect on photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf surface area of young and mature leaves, thereby altering the carbon utilization pattern and resulting in carbon allocation to structures within the source leaves and accumulation of soluble carbohydrates. Specifically, in mature B- leaves in the CE and in B- leaves in the FE, mannitol concentration on a leaf water content basis increased by 48 and 27% respectively, compared with controls. Carbon export ability (assessed by both phloem anatomy and phloem exudate composition of FE leaves) was enhanced at low boron supply. We conclude that, at low boron supply, increased mannitol concentrations maintain boron remobilization from source leaves to boron-demanding sink leaves. PMID:15574397

  18. Genetic diversity and relationships in olive ( Olea europaea L.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaj, A.; Satovic, Z.; Rallo, L.; Trujillo, I.

    2002-09-01

    Genetic diversity studies using the RAPD technique were carried out in a set of 103 olive cultivars from the World Germplasm Bank of the Centro de Investigación y Formación Agraria (CIFA) "Alameda del Obispo" in Cordoba (Spain). A total of 126 polymorphisms (6.0 polymorphic markers per primer) out of 135 reproducible products (6.4 fragments per primer) were obtained from the 21 primers used. The number of bands per primer ranged from 4 to 11, whereas the number of polymorphic bands ranged from 3 to 10, corresponding to 83% of the amplification products. The dendrogram based on unweighted pair-group cluster analysis using Jaccard's index includes three major groups according to their origin: (1) cultivars from the Eastern and Central Mediterranean areas, (2) some Italian and Spanish cultivars, and (3) cultivars from the Western Mediterranean zone. The pattern of genetic variation among olive cultivars from three different Mediterranean zones (West, Centre and East) was analysed by means of the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Although most of the genetic diversity was attributable to differences of cultivars within Mediterranean zones (96.86%) significant phi-values among zones (phi(st) = 0.031; p < 0.001) suggested the existence of phenotypic differentiation. Furthermore, the AMOVA analysis was used to partition the phenotypic variation of Spain, Italy (Western region), Greece and Turkey (Eastern region) into four categories: among regions, among countries (within regions), within countries, and among and within countries of each region. Most of the genetic diversity was attributable to differences among genotypes within a country. These results are consistent with the predominantly allogamous nature of Olea europaea L. species. This paper indicates the importance of the study of the amount and distribution of genetic diversity for a better exploration of olive genetic resources and the design of plant breeding programmes.

  19. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  20. De wapenvlieg Clitellaria ephippium terug van weggeweest (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Korf, W.; Leij, van der, A.

    2000-01-01

    Clitellaria ephippium, rediscovered in the Netherlands after 100 years (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Clitellaria ephippium has been found in the Netherlands only between 1870 and 1880 near Venlo. In 1999 a female of this beautifully coloured fly was caught near Tegelen. This locality is very close to the first site, in the northern part of the province of Limburg.

  1. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  2. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  3. Scanning electron microscopy of the male genitalia of Sarcophagidae (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo de Souza Lopes

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available The male genitalia of nine species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera - Goniophyto honsuensis Rohdendorf, 1962, Tricharaea brevicornis (Wiedemann, 1830, Chaetoravinia derelicta (Walker, 1852, Austrohartigia spinigena (Rondani, 1864, Chrysagria duodecimpunctata Townsend, 1935, Boettcheria bisetosa Parker, 1914, Lipoptilocnema lanei Townsend, 1934, L. crispina (Lopes, 1938 and Euboettcheria alvarengai Lopes & Tibana, 1982 - were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM and the main morphological features are descirbed.

  4. LARVAL X-RAY IRRADIATION INFLUENCES PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN PUPAE OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, BACTROCERA DORSALIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Geib, Scott M; Stanley, David

    2016-07-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) was developed to eradicate the new world screwworm from the southern United States and Mexico, and became a component of many area-wide integrated pest management programs, particularly useful in managing tephritid fruit flies. SIT is based on the idea of rearing and sterilizing male pests, originally by ionizing radiation, and then releasing into field, where they compete for and mate with wild females. Mating with sterile males leads to reduced fecundity to lower pest populations. There are concerns with the use and distribution of radioisotopes for SIT programs, which have led to developing X-ray irradiation protocols to sterilize insects. We considered the possibility that X-ray irradiation exerts sublethal impacts aside form sterilizing insects. Such effects may not be directly observable, which led us to the hypothesis that X-ray irradiation in one life stage creates alterations in biological fitness and protein expression in the subsequent stage. We tested our hypothesis by irradiating larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis. There are two major points. One, exposing larvae to X-ray treatments led to reduced adult emergence, fecundity, fertility, and flight capacity from the corresponding pupae and emerged adults. Two, the X-ray treatments led to substantial expression changes in 27 pupal proteins. We assorted the 67 spots representing these proteins into three groups, metabolism, development, and structure. Our interpretation is these X-ray induced changes in biological performance and protein expression indicate their adult counterparts may be disabled in their abilities to successfully compete for and mate wild females in native habitats. PMID:27079560

  5. Pupal X-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Villalun, MaryAnn; Geib, Scott M; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Stanley, David

    2015-05-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a pest of fruit in the Asia-Pacific region and also, due to quarantine restrictions, a threat to California fruit production. Area-wide suppression of B. dorsalis integrated several approaches including the sterile insect technique (SIT). SIT involves exposing juveniles to gamma radiation and releasing sterile males in substantial numbers, where they successfully compete for wild females. The resulting infertile eggs lead to reduction of the pest populations. Although these protocols are well documented, arising issues about the international transport and distribution of radioactive products is creating difficulties in use of radioactive sources for sterilizing radiation. This led to a shift toward use of X-ray irradiation, which also sterilizes male and female insects. However, use of X-ray technologies is in its infancy and there is virtually no information on the effects of irradiation, other than sterilization, at the physiological and molecular levels of fruit fly biology. We posed the hypothesis that sterilizing male oriental fruit flies via radiation treatment also influences protein expression in the flies. We found that exposing pupae to X-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 31 proteins in adult males. Seven proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, larval cuticle protein 2, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein alpha-B and A chains, general odorant-binding protein 99b, polyubiquitin, and protein disulfide-isomerase) were impacted in both sexes. Some of the proteins act in central energy-generating and in pheromone-signal processing pathways; we infer that males sterilized by X-ray irradiation may be enfeebled in their ability to compete with wild males for females in nature. PMID:25772096

  6. Discovery of genes related to insecticide resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis by functional genomic analysis of a de novo assembled transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance has recently become a critical concern for control of many insect pest species. Genome sequencing and global quantization of gene expression through analysis of the transcriptome can provide useful information relevant to this challenging problem. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the world's most destructive agricultural pests, and recently it has been used as a target for studies of genetic mechanisms related to insecticide resistance. However, prior to this study, the molecular data available for this species was largely limited to genes identified through homology. To provide a broader pool of gene sequences of potential interest with regard to insecticide resistance, this study uses whole transcriptome analysis developed through de novo assembly of short reads generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS. The transcriptome of B. dorsalis was initially constructed using Illumina's Solexa sequencing technology. Qualified reads were assembled into contigs and potential splicing variants (isotigs. A total of 29,067 isotigs have putative homologues in the non-redundant (nr protein database from NCBI, and 11,073 of these correspond to distinct D. melanogaster proteins in the RefSeq database. Approximately 5,546 isotigs contain coding sequences that are at least 80% complete and appear to represent B. dorsalis genes. We observed a strong correlation between the completeness of the assembled sequences and the expression intensity of the transcripts. The assembled sequences were also used to identify large numbers of genes potentially belonging to families related to insecticide resistance. A total of 90 P450-, 42 GST-and 37 COE-related genes, representing three major enzyme families involved in insecticide metabolism and resistance, were identified. In addition, 36 isotigs were discovered to contain target site sequences related to four classes of resistance genes. Identified sequence motifs were also

  7. Design of a micro colorimetric enzyme assay for screening of radioprotectors using the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera Philippine's Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of function and expression of a 109kDa protein is observed in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis, upon exposure to a γ-radiation dose of 100 Gy. Found to possess tyrosinase activity, this marker enzyme is particularly important during quarantine treatment of export fruits. A semi-automated radioprotector screening assay for anti-cancer drug development at PNRI has been developed and optimized. Larvae of B.philippinensis are subjected to relatively high and low doses of standard radioprotectors (L-glutathione (GSH), tert-butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), garlic bulb extracts), temperature treatments (37 degrees centegrade and 42 degrees centegrade) and relatively high and low radiation doses (10 and 40 Gy) following a 2-factorial design. Using mushroom tyrosinase as standard and 605 nm as reference wavelength, optimum precision, sensitivity and curve linearity are achieved at the 405 nm window within 60-minute reaction time with 2-methyl DOPA yielding dopachrome. Significant radioprotection and tyrosinase activity are observed. Results showed that GSH exhibited the best radioprotection with an emergence rate of 100% (GSHη 42 degrees10). Consequently, GSHη exhibited a high dopachrome level next to garlicη. Garlic approximates the performance of GSH and BHA, but the fact that dopachrome levels or garlich are exceeding high could be correlated with the relatively lower emergence rates observed. Dopachrome level of 0.45-005μg/ml exhibits the optimal radioprotection.Other radioprotectors will be screened in the future using this assay in search of potent and less toxic radioprotectors that could decrease radiation-induced morbidities and improve therapeutic gains in patients undergoing therapy. (Author)

  8. Identification, characterization and target gene analysis of testicular microRNAs in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, K; Peng, W; Saccone, G; Zhang, H

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate various diverse biological processes including insect spermatogenesis. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the most destructive horticultural pests in East Asia and the Pacific region. Although developmental miRNA profiles of B. dorsalis have enriched our knowledge, specific testicular miRNAs in this dipteran species are unexplored. In this study, we identified miRNAs from B. dorsalis testes by deep sequencing, which provided an overview of miRNA expression during spermatogenesis. Small RNA libraries were constructed from the testes of fully mature (FM), immature (IM) and middle-aged (MA) adult flies of B. dorsalis. Small RNA sequencing and data analysis revealed 172 known and 78 novel miRNAs amongst these libraries. Pairwise comparisons of libraries led to the identification of 24, 15 and 14 differentially expressed miRNAs in FM vs. IM, FM vs. MA and IM vs. MA insects, respectively. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted 124 target genes against the 13 most differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, the expression patterns of six randomly selected miRNAs (from the 13 most differentially expressed miRNAs) and their putative target genes (from the 124 predicted target genes) were analysed in the testis of B. dorsalis by quantitative real-time PCR, which showed that out of six, four tested miRNAs-mRNAs had an inverse expression pattern and are probably co-regulated. This study is the first comparative profile of the miRNA transcriptome in three developmental stages of the testis, and provides a useful resource for further studies on the role of miRNAs in spermatogenesis in B. dorsalis. PMID:26486729

  9. The effect of methyl eugenol exposure on subsequent mating performance of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of methyl eugenol (ME) on the total times of mating, consecutive mating, mating competitiveness, multiple mating, and the incidence of wild female remating were studied in sterile males from a genetic sexing strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Male pupae were irradiated at dose of 100 Gy by 137Cs at 2 d before emergence and the dose rate was 1.00 Gy/min. Sexually mature 10 day old sterile males were fed ME, while Non-ME-fed sterile males and normal wild males were used as control, and wild females as mating partners. The results showed that some ME-fed sterile males could mate continuously up to nine times, but the total times of consecutive mating and the mean value of continuous mating times were not significant (P> 0.05) compared with the control. The total mating times of ME-fed sterile males was 344.33±12.55 and the mean value was 6.88±0.25, but both have no significant difference compared with the control. The mating success rate of ME-fed and non- ME-fed sterile males mated with wild females were (44.67±2.40)% and (22.00±2.31)% separately. There were significant differences between them (t = -6.8, P = 0.002). The outcomes were that feeding on ME did not increase the frequency of multiple mating by sterile males, but significantly increased the mating competitiveness of sterile males against wild males. At the same time, sterile males fed ME did not significantly affect the remating of wild females 5 days after the initial mating, but increased the remating frequency of females 10 and 15 days after the initial mating. (authors)

  10. The effects of RNA interference targeting Bactrocera dorsalis ds-Bdrpl19 on the gene expression of rpl19 in non-target insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aie; Zheng, Weiwei; Zheng, Wenping; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-04-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) designed to target pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest control. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the effects of dsRNA on non-target insects, such as native enemies and beneficial insects, to determine the environmental safety of such treatments. In this paper, we investigated the effects of dsRNA targeting rpl19 from Bactrocera dorsalis on non-target insects in citrus ecological systems by feeding the dsRNA to Bactrocera minax, Apis mellifera and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata. The results showed that when B. dorsalis were fed rpl19 CDS dsRNA or 3'UTR dsRNA, the expression of rpl19 was dramatically decreased. Feeding the Bdrpl19 CDS dsRNA to adult B. minax and D. longicaudata caused their respective rpl19 genes to be knocked down over 50-70 and 40%, respectively, but it had no effect on the expression of the rpl19 gene in A. mellifera. The Bdrpl19 3'UTR dsRNA did not have any silencing effects on the expression levels of rpl19 in non-target insects. This study provides evidence that dsRNA can impact non-target organisms, but the 3'UTR dsRNA may not have effects in non-target organisms.

  11. Ecophysiological responses of some maquis (Ceratonia siliqua L., Olea oleaster Hoffm. & Link, Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus coccifera L.) plant species to drought in the east Mediterranean ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Munir; Dogan, Yunus; Sakcali, M Serdal; Doulis, Andreas; Karam, Fadi

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to examine the adaptation strategies of four maquis species to drought prone environments; typical of the east Mediterranean area in degraded and healthy sites in Turkey. A comparison made between sites for Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus coccifera shows higher net daily photosynthesis in the degraded site, when compared with the healthy site; but Ceratonia siliqua and Olea oleaster exhibited no difference in their photosynthetic activity in environmentally contrasting conditions. The pattern of daily transpiration shows higher values in the degraded site in the case of P. lentiscus and Q. coccifera, while no site effect was observed for C. siliqua and O. oleaster. In the case of Q. coccifera, a behavior similar to C. siliqua was observed. A comparison made between C. siliqua and O. oleaster to observe seasonal differences in daily patterns of net photosynthesis and transpiration reveals that Q. coccifera had the highest water use efficiency (slope= 2.88; r2 = 0.61), followed by C. siliqua (slope = 2.74; r2 = 0.7), P. lentiscus (slope = 2.56; r2 = 0.52) and O. oleaster (slope = 2.40; r2 = 0.78). Olea oleaster and P. lentiscus performed as a drought tolerant species, being more resistant to aridity and thus indicative of the degradation state of the site. Ceratonia siliqua and Q. coccifera were found avoiding drought by adopting first a water-spending strategy, and then a water-saving strategy.

  12. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui' Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

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    Soumaya Dbara

    Full Text Available The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs and improving water use efficiency (WUE. Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui' in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may

  13. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui') Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dbara, Soumaya; Haworth, Matthew; Emiliani, Giovani; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and improving water use efficiency (WUE). Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui') in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc) applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may indicate the

  14. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui') Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dbara, Soumaya; Haworth, Matthew; Emiliani, Giovani; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and improving water use efficiency (WUE). Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui') in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc) applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may indicate the

  15. Management of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, infesting cucurbit growing areas of Bangladesh using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protocols for the application of SIT have been developed to suppress the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, the key pest of cucurbit growing areas in the country. Collaborations have been initiated to transfer the technology to the field through the Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI). They have the established network among the horticultural producers throughout the country. The Insect Biotechnology Division of the Institute of Food and Radiation Biology (IFRB) has developed mass-rearing of the fruit fly using artificial diet and protocols for SIT application i.e., sterility dose, mating competitiveness, quality control etc. Semi-field trials of SIT have been conducted successfully. The sterilising dose for the melon fly was determined by exposing 72 hrs old pupae to gamma rays at various doses: 5,10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 Gy. Mating competitiveness of the irradiated males and the virgin untreated females were conducted at ratios 1:1. A radiation dose of 50 Gy induced 100% sterility in the melon fly. Semi-field trials of the melon fly, B. cucurbitae were conducted on the premises of IFRB. A netted area of 3 x 1.5 x 2 meters (L x W x H) was used for the semi field trial experiments. The irradiated males (50 Gy) and unirradiated females were released at a ratio of 1:1 in the netted cages. The mating period was recorded between 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. Complete sterility was achieved at 50 Gy but percent mating of irradiated males with unirradiated females was recorded as 69.4 % ± 7.8. Further work on mating competitiveness, longevity of sterile males and preliminary field trials are in progress following the SIT model of Knipling. Extensive cucurbit growing areas of the southwestern parts (Jessore district) of Bangladesh have been selected for the preliminary field release programme of the melon fly. For the proper implementation of melon fly SIT programme, the following management structure has been formulated in

  16. Microsporidium Infecting Anopheles supepictus (Diptera: Culicidae Larvae

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    Seyed-Mohammad Omrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microsporidia are known to infect a wide variety of animals including mosquitoes (Diptera: Cu­licidae. In a recent study on the mosquito fauna of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province, at the central western part of Iran, a few larvae of Anopheles superpictus were infected with a microsporidium-resembled microorganism. Cur­rent investigation deals with the identification of the responsible microorganism at the genus level.Methods: Fresh infected larvae were collected from the field. After determining the species identity they were dis­sected to extract their infective contents. Wet preparations were checked for general appearance and the size of the pathogenic microorganism. Fixed preparations were stained with Geimsa and Ryan-Blue modified Trichrome tech­niques to visualize further morphological characters. The obtained light microscopy data were used in the identifica­tion process.Results: The infected larvae were bulged by a whitish material filling the involved segments corresponding to a microsporidium infection. Bottle-shaped semioval spores ranged 4.33±0.19×2.67±0.12 and 4.18±0.43×2.45±0.33 micron in wet and fixed preparations, respectively. They were mostly arranged in globular structures comprised of 8 spores. These data was in favor of a species from the genus Parathelohania in the family Ambliosporidae.Conclusion: This is the first report of a microsporidium infection in An. superpictus. The causative agent is diag­nosed as a member of the genus Parathelohania. Further identification down to the species level needs to determine its ultrastructural characteristics and the comparative analysis of ss rRNA sequence data. It is also necessary to un­derstand the detail of the components of the transmission cycle.

  17. The efficacy of kaolin particle film on oil quality indices of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) cv 'Zard' grown under warm and semi-arid region of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Esmaeil; Arzani, Kazem; Moallemi, Norollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Kaolin particle film (0%, 3% and 6%; w/v), as an antitranspirant treatment, was applied to mature 'Zard' olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Olive oil was extracted from harvested fruit and fatty acid composition and other oil quality indices of the fruit assessed over crop seasons. Kaolin increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, but decreased peroxide and iodine values, and UV absorbance extinction coefficients, of the oil. The highest palmitic acid was observed in the oil obtained from untreated trees (17%). Kaolin increased oleic acid up to 65% and 64% in the first and second crop seasons, respectively, but decreased linoleic and linolenic acid contents. Monounsaturated acids (65%) and oleic acid/linoleic acid ratios (4) were higher in oil obtained from kaolin treated than untreated trees. Therefore it can be expected that extracted olive oil from kaolin treated trees has a higher oxidative stability and shelf life than untreated trees.

  18. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7, an indigenous root endophyte from olive (Olea europaea L.) and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Pedro Manuel; Ruano-Rosa, David; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Prieto, Pilar; Ramos, Cayo; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 is a native endophyte of olive roots. Previous studies have shown this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective biocontrol agent against the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of one of the most devastating diseases for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 consisting of a circular chromosome of 6,136,735 bp that encodes 5,567 protein-coding genes and 88 RNA-only encoding genes. Genome analysis revealed genes predicting factors such as secretion systems, siderophores, detoxifying compounds or volatile components. Further analysis of the genome sequence of PICF7 will help in gaining insights into biocontrol and endophytism.

  19. Influence of Dacus Oleae infestation on flavor of oils, extracted from attacked olive fruits, by HPLC and HRGC analyses of volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solinas, M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have examined the influence of the Dacus Oleae infestation on the aroma of the oils obtained from olives of Coratina and Nebbio varieties at different levels of attack. The results obtained indicated a worsening of the qualitative level of the oils obtained from increasing percentages of infested olives; these were found to have a great decrease of phenolic substances and higher contents of both volatile alcohols and aldehydes with an unpleasant sensation. Of particular interest was hexanal/total volatile alcohols ratio, in which having been well correlated with the extent of infestation, would permit one to establish in an objective manner, if and how much the olives from which an oil has been extracted have suffered a Dacus attack.Los autores han examinado la influencia de la infestación por Dacus Oleae sobre el aroma de aceites obtenidos de aceitunas de las variedades Coratina y Nebbio en diferentes estados de ataque. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron un empeoramiento de los niveles de calidad de los aceites obtenidos a medida que se incrementaba el porcentaje de aceitunas infestadas; mostrando una gran disminución de las sustancias fenólicas y altos contenidos tanto de alcoholes volátiles como de aldehídos, con una sensación desagradable. De particular interés fue la relación hexanal/alcoholes volátiles totales, la cual ha sido bien correlacionada con la extensión de la infestación, lo que permitiría establecer de una manera objetiva, sí y cuantas de las aceitunas de las cuales se ha extraído, han sufrido ataque por Dacus.

  20. Interactive effects of soil water deficit and air vapour pressure deficit on mesophyll conductance to CO2 in Vitis vinifera and Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martin, A; Flexas, J; Ribas-Carbó, M; Bota, J; Tomás, M; Infante, J M; Diaz-Espejo, A

    2009-01-01

    The present work aims to study the interactive effect of drought stress and high vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on leaf gas exchange, and especially on mesophyll conductance to CO(2) (g(m)), in two woody species of great agronomical importance in the Mediterranean basin: Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo and Olea europaea L. cv. Manzanilla. Plants were grown in specially designed outdoor chambers with ambient and below ambient VPD, under both well-irrigated and drought conditions. g(m) was estimated by the variable J method from simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and fluorescence. In both species, the response to soil water deficit was larger in g(s) than in g(m), and more important than the response to VPD. Olea europaea was apparently more sensitive to VPD, so that plants growing in more humid chambers showed higher g(s) and g(m). In V. vinifera, in contrast, soil water deficit dominated the response of g(s) and g(m). Consequently, changes in g(m)/g(s) were more related to VPD in O. europaea and to soil water deficit in V. vinifera. Most of the limitations of photosynthesis were diffusional and especially due to stomatal closure. No biochemical limitation was detected. The results showed that structural parameters played an important role in determining g(m) during the acclimation process. Although the relationship between leaf mass per unit area (M(A)) with g(m) was scattered, it imposed a limitation to the maximum g(m) achievable, with higher values of M(A) in O. europaea at lower g(m) values. M(A) decreased under water stress in O. europaea but it increased in V. vinifera. This resulted in a negative relationship between M(A) and the CO(2) draw-down between substomatal cavities and chloroplasts in O. europaea, while being positive in V. vinifera. PMID:19457982

  1. A De novo Transcriptomic Approach to Identify Flavonoids and Anthocyanins "Switch-Off" in Olive (Olea europaea L.) Drupes at Different Stages of Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaria, Domenico L; Chiappetta, Adriana; Muzzalupo, Innocenzo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights A de novo transcriptome reconstruction of olive drupes was performed in two genotypesGene expression was monitored during drupe development in two olive cultivarsTranscripts involved in flavonoid and anthocyanin pathways were analyzed in Cassanese and Leucocarpa cultivarsBoth cultivar and developmental stage impact gene expression in Olea europaea fruits. During ripening, the fruits of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) undergo a progressive chromatic change characterized by the formation of a red-brown "spot" which gradually extends on the epidermis and in the innermost part of the mesocarp. This event finds an exception in the Leucocarpa cultivar, in which we observe a destabilized equilibrium between the metabolisms of chlorophyll and other pigments, particularly the anthocyanins whose switch-off during maturation promotes the white coloration of fruits. Despite its importance, genomic information on the olive tree is still lacking. Different RNA-seq libraries were generated from drupes of "Leucocarpa" and "Cassanese" olive genotypes, sampled at 100 and 130 days after flowering (DAF), and were used in order to identify transcripts involved in the main phenotypic changes of fruits during maturation and their corresponding expression patterns. A total of 103,359 transcripts were obtained and 3792 and 3064 were differentially expressed in "Leucocarpa" and "Cassanese" genotypes, respectively, during 100-130 DAF transition. Among them flavonoid and anthocyanin related transcripts such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonol 3'-hydrogenase (F3'H), flavonol 3'5 '-hydrogenase (F3'5'H), flavonol synthase (FLS), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), UDP-glucose:anthocianidin: flavonoid glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were identified. These results contribute to reducing the current gap in

  2. Trocas gasosas influenciam na morfogênese in vitro de duas cultivares de oliveira (Olea europaea L. Gas exchange affects in vitro morphogenesis of two olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius Marques Pinheiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estabelecer in vitro as cultivares de oliveira 'Arbequina' e 'Maria da Fé' e avaliar a influência das tampas com membranas permeáveis a gases na morfogênese in vitro dessas cultivares. Inocularam-se segmentos nodais com gemas previamente descontaminadas pelo protocolo aqui desenvolvido. Utilizaram-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC em esquema fatorial 2³, duas cultivares; dois meios de cultura OM (Olive medium (OM + 20 µM de zeatina [1]; e OM + 20 µM de zeatina + 10 µM de GA3 [2]; dois tipos de vedação (tampa rígida sem orifício e com membrana porosa com cinco repetições/ tratamento; e a unidade experimental constituída por quatro tubos de ensaio. Avaliaram-se: a porcentagem de contaminação total; a porcentagem de contaminação fúngica e bacteriana; o número de gemas intumescidas; o número de brotos; e a porcentagem de oxidação. Aos 30 dias de cultivo, constatou-se a contaminação de 15% e 8,8% dos explantes de 'Arbequina' e 'Maria da Fé', respectivamente. Em 'Arbequina', 33,3% e 66,7% ocorreram por contaminação fúngica e bacteriana, respectivamente. Em 'Maria da Fé', 28,6% e 71,4% decorreram de contaminação fúngica e bacteriana, respectivamente. O número de gemas foi superior (pThe objectives of this work were to establish cultivars of Olea europaea L., namely 'Arbequina' and 'Maria da Fé', and to evaluate the influence of gas exchange on in vitro morphogenesis of these cultivars. Under aseptic conditions, single-bud nodal segments were previously decontaminated using disinfestation protocol developed in this work. The treatments followed a completely randomized design, in a 2³ factorial scheme: two cultivars and two olive (Olive medium culture media (OM (OM + 20 µ M zeatin [1]; and OM + 20 µ M zeatin + 10 µM GA3 [2]; and two types of sealing (rigid lid without orifice and porous membrane in five repetitions/treatment. The experimental unit consisted of four

  3. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  4. The olive fly endosymbiont, "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola," switches from an intracellular existence to an extracellular existence during host insect development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Bronstein, Judith L; Pierson, Elizabeth A

    2009-11-01

    As polyphagous, holometabolous insects, tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provide a unique habitat for endosymbiotic bacteria, especially those microbes associated with the digestive system. Here we examine the endosymbiont of the olive fly [Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)], a tephritid of great economic importance. "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola" was found in the digestive systems of all life stages of wild olive flies from the southwestern United States. PCR and microscopy demonstrated that "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" resided intracellularly in the gastric ceca of the larval midgut but extracellularly in the lumen of the foregut and ovipositor diverticulum of adult flies. "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" is one of the few nonpathogenic endosymbionts that transitions between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles during specific stages of the host's life cycle. Another unique feature of the olive fly endosymbiont is that unlike obligate endosymbionts of monophagous insects, "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" has a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of closely related plant-pathogenic and free-living bacteria. These two characteristics of "Ca. Erwinia dacicola," the ability to transition between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles and a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of free-living relatives, may facilitate survival in a changing environment during the development of a polyphagous, holometabolous host. We propose that insect-bacterial symbioses should be classified based on the environment that the host provides to the endosymbiont (the endosymbiont environment).

  5. Revisão de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) Revision of Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    1999-01-01

    Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) a neotropical genus with ten species is revised. Redescriptions of eight species were made: E. nuda Hull, 1971, E. amabilis (Wulp, 1881), E. beckeri Lamas & Couri, 1998, E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830), E. caminaria (Wiedemann, 1830), E. knutsoni Hull, 1971, E. maracajula Hull, 1971 and E. truxalia Hull, 1971, with illustrations of the types, male terminalia and spermathecae. Two synonymies - E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830), syn.: E. bicinc...

  6. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  7. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  8. Impact of Introduction of Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Classical Biological Control Releases of the Natural Enemy, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), on Economically Important Fruit Flies in F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to determine attraction and feeding propensity of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet) to different protein bait mixtures with and without the insecticides spinosad and malathion. The type of protein (GF-120 Fruit ...

  9. Conserved metallomics in two insect families evolving separately for a hundred million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Afshar, Negar; Osorio, Beatriz; Barajas-Aceves, Martha; Szular, Joanna; Ahmad, Sohel; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Tomas, Ulysses Sto; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Salomon, Mor; Vreysen, Marc J B; Nestel, David; Missirlis, Fanis

    2014-12-01

    Μetal cofactors are required for enzymatic catalysis and structural stability of many proteins. Physiological metal requirements underpin the evolution of cellular and systemic regulatory mechanisms for metal uptake, storage and excretion. Considering the role of metal biology in animal evolution, this paper asks whether metal content is conserved between different fruit flies. A similar metal homeostasis was previously observed in Drosophilidae flies cultivated on the same larval medium. Each species accumulated in the order of 200 µg iron and zinc and approximately ten-fold less manganese and copper per gram dry weight of the adult insect. In this paper, data on the metal content in fourteen species of Tephritidae, which are major agricultural pests worldwide, are presented. These fruit flies can be polyphagous (e.g., Ceratitis capitata) or strictly monophagous (e.g., Bactrocera oleae) or oligophagous (e.g., Anastrepha grandis) and were maintained in the laboratory on five distinct diets based on olive oil, carrot, wheat bran, zucchini and molasses, respectively. The data indicate that overall metal content and distribution between the Tephritidae and Drosophilidae species was similar. Reduced metal concentration was observed in B. oleae. Feeding the polyphagous C. capitata with the diet of B. oleae resulted in a significant quantitative reduction of all metals. Thus, dietary components affect metal content in some Tephritidae. Nevertheless, although the evidence suggests some fruit fly species evolved preferences in the use or storage of particular metals, no metal concentration varied in order of magnitude between these two families of Diptera that evolved independently for over 100 million years.

  10. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui') Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dbara, Soumaya; Haworth, Matthew; Emiliani, Giovani; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and improving water use efficiency (WUE). Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea ‘var. Chetoui’) in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: ‘control’ plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc) applied to the whole root-zone; ‘PRD100’ were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; ‘PRD50’ were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; ‘rain-fed’ plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during ‘off-years’ may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) were not altered by PRD100 irrigation

  11. Uses Semi–quantitative and Relative Quantity Methods to Analysis Gene Expression of DGAT1 Gene Responsible for the Olive Diacylglcerol Acyltransferases in 10 Cultivars of Olive (Olea europaea. L)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Saeed Atiyah AL-Janabi

    2015-01-01

    In this study gene expression for DGAT1 gene was analyzed. Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final step of the triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis of the Kennedy pathway. Two major gene families have been shown to encode DGATs, DGAT1 (type-1) and DGAT2 (type-2). Gene expression were analyzed for 10 Olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.) (Khaderi, Qaysi, Manzenillo, Baashiqi, Arabqween, Nabali, Labeeb, Dahkan, Shami and Sorani). Different plant organs as plant materials (mature l...

  12. Flightless mutants in the melon fly and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their possible role in the sterile insect release method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new mutants that affect adult wing morphology and render the flies incapable of flight.sbd.bubble wing (bw) in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and small wing (sw) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).sbd.are described. Both mutants have variable expression and are caused by autosomal, recessive genes. We discuss the possible role of these alleles in constructing genetic sex sorting systems to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the sterile insect release method

  13. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  14. Statistics and tracking of Bactrocera Dorsalis based on machine vision%基于机器视觉的橘小实蝇运动轨迹跟踪与数量检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文韬; 洪添胜; 李震; 罗文辉; 龙秀珍; 陈海彬

    2011-01-01

    The number of Bactrocera Dorsalis in occurring period is the important parameter which threats the growth situation for fruit trees and is the basis of implementing variable rate technology. In order to realize detecting the occurrence of Bactrocera Dorsalis real-time and fasting in large-scale orchard, machine vision technologies based on moving object trace tracking were employed to trace Bactrocera Dorsalis behavies around traps real-time, so as to achieve statistics of their number into the hole precisely. The fore 50 000 video image were selected as evaluation samples which collected in feed room of Resource and Environment College in South China Agricultural University using vision monitoring platform for Bactrocera Dorsalis. Through comparison of results with methods of artificial and machine vision detecting, the experiment indicated that the number of Bactrocera Dorsalis detected by artificial and machine vision were 85 heads and 78 heads, respectively. The loss rate of detecting using machine vision was 9.4%, which can meet the demands of pests' monitoring.%橘小实蝇发生期虫口数量是威胁果树生长状况的重要参数,是实施精准变量喷雾的基础.为实现果园大尺度、现场、实时和快速检测橘小实蝇虫害发生情况,该文提出了一种基于机器视觉技术在虫口区域跟踪橘小实蝇运动轨迹和数量检测的方法.试验采用橘小实蝇视觉检测平台,选取华南农业大学资源与环境学院橘小实蝇饲养室采集的视频图像作为评价样本,通过人工与机器视觉方式比较视频前50 000帧的检测效果,试验结果表明人工和机器视觉检测的橘小实蝇数量分别为85、78头;机器视觉漏检率为9.4%,达到虫害数量统计要求.

  15. Species of Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Oliveira Roque

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges are reported for the first time in Brazil.Espécies de Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae no interior de esponjas de água doce no Brasil. Larvas de Oukuriella Epler, 1986 no interior de esponjas de água doce são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

  16. Descriptions of syntypes of Brumptamyia brumpti (Lsrrousse, 1920 (Diptera: Psychodidae-Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Williams

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available The male and female of Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrousse, 1920, the type species of the genus Brumptomyia França & Parrot, 1921 (Diptera: Psychodidae - phlebotominae are redescribed from syntypes in the British Museum (Natural History.É apresentada a redescrição de sinotipos macho e fêmea de Brumptomya brumpti (Larrousse, 1920, a espécie típica do gênero Brumptomyia França e Parrot, 1921 (diptera: Psychodidae - Phlebotominae.

  17. Preliminary Studies of the Field Movement of the Olive Fruit Fly (Dacus Oleae Gmel,) by Labelling a Natural Population with Radioactive Phosphorus (P32)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary trials were conducted to obtain the first data on the field movement of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae Gmel. These studies were carried out in the olive-growing area at Rovies, Evvia, Greece, during the autumn of 1961, when the maximum adult fly activity usually occurs. A mixture of radioactive P32 of H3P32O4 in HCl and hydrolysate protein, Staley No. 7, was prepared for labelling the naturally occurring adult fly population. Twigs of 30 olive trees which were selected in a semi-mountainous olive orchard at Rovies were treated with the P32 bait solution on 14 October 1961. Five hundred McPhail traps, containing 3% of diammonium phosphate as a lure, were used for the collection of flies. Traps were distributed in the olive groves of the entire area at Rovies and also in the adjacent areas (fewest or olive groves) up to a distance of 10 km from the treated trees. A total of 350 tagged flies of both sexes were collected in 48 traps during 15 counts of traps made between 15 October and 18 November. Labelled flies which were caught from 1 to 35 days after treatment represented 2.8% of the total number of flies collected in 48 traps, or 0.15% of the total number of flies caught in 298 traps in the entire area at Rovies. A proportion of 73% of the tagged flies were trapped within the first ten-day period following treatment. Labelled flies were found as far as 4300 m (maximum of dispersal) from the labelling station. Radioactivity of tagged flies ranged between 258 and 9549 counts/min per fly (background radiation 8-21 counts/min). These preliminary trials have confirmed a more or less continuous local movement (dispersal) o f flies from the semi-mountainous grove to the adjacent plains or to the coastal olive groves at Rovies from the north to south. Long-distance movement (migration) of Dacus flies to other areas has not been observed. Pine woods appear to act as a barrier to die movement of Dacus oleae adults. (author)

  18. Polen atmosférico de Olea europaea L. en Madrid (Ciudad Universitaria y Aranjuez durante los años 1994-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáenz Laín, Concepción

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of four years of study (1994-1997 of the atmospheric levéis of pollen from Olea europaea L. in Madrid and Aranjuez are presented. The principal pollination period (PPP for each year and each season were calculated, using the mean daily concentrations, and fell between weeks 16 and 26, with maximum daily valúes registered between 3rd May and 7th June. The presence of olive pollen was greater in Aranjuez than in Madrid (mean 3,307 grains of pollen/year and 2,123 grains/year, respectively. The pollen season was similar in each locality. A preliminary comparison of pollen data with temperature and precipitation seems to indicates that accumulated pre-season temperatures, but not rainfall, can have decisive influence on the initiation of pollination. His nuclear what influence rainfall has on the account of pollen collected.Presentamos los resultados obtenidos durante cuatro años de estudio (1994-1997 del contenido atmosférico de polen de Olea europaea L. en Madrid (Ciudad Universitaria y en Aranjuez. A partir de las concentraciones medias diarias, hemos calculado el Período de Polinización Principal (PPP para cada año y cada estación, que se ha producido siempre entre las semanas 16 y 26, con valores máximos diarios registrados entre el 3 de mayo y el 7 de junio. La presencia del polen de olivo ha sido mayor en Aranjuez que en Madrid (media del período, 3.307 granos de polen/año y 2.123, respectivamente. Las estación polínica transcurre de forma similar en ambas localidades. De una primera comparación de los datos polínicos con los datos de temperatura y precipitación, parece deducirse que las temperaturas acumuladas durante el período preestacional pueden tener una influencia decisiva en el inicio de la polinización, no así las precipitaciones. Tampoco parece clara su influencia sobre el total anual de polen recogido.

  19. A De novo Transcriptomic Approach to Identify Flavonoids and Anthocyanins “Switch-Off” in Olive (Olea europaea L.) Drupes at Different Stages of Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaria, Domenico L.; Chiappetta, Adriana; Muzzalupo, Innocenzo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights A de novo transcriptome reconstruction of olive drupes was performed in two genotypesGene expression was monitored during drupe development in two olive cultivarsTranscripts involved in flavonoid and anthocyanin pathways were analyzed in Cassanese and Leucocarpa cultivarsBoth cultivar and developmental stage impact gene expression in Olea europaea fruits. During ripening, the fruits of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) undergo a progressive chromatic change characterized by the formation of a red-brown “spot” which gradually extends on the epidermis and in the innermost part of the mesocarp. This event finds an exception in the Leucocarpa cultivar, in which we observe a destabilized equilibrium between the metabolisms of chlorophyll and other pigments, particularly the anthocyanins whose switch-off during maturation promotes the white coloration of fruits. Despite its importance, genomic information on the olive tree is still lacking. Different RNA-seq libraries were generated from drupes of “Leucocarpa” and “Cassanese” olive genotypes, sampled at 100 and 130 days after flowering (DAF), and were used in order to identify transcripts involved in the main phenotypic changes of fruits during maturation and their corresponding expression patterns. A total of 103,359 transcripts were obtained and 3792 and 3064 were differentially expressed in “Leucocarpa” and “Cassanese” genotypes, respectively, during 100–130 DAF transition. Among them flavonoid and anthocyanin related transcripts such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonol 3′-hydrogenase (F3′H), flavonol 3′5 ′-hydrogenase (F3′5′H), flavonol synthase (FLS), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), UDP-glucose:anthocianidin: flavonoid glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were identified. These results contribute

  20. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632

  1. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  2. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traps baited with synthetic food-based lures that include blends of ammonia, either as ammonium acetate or ammonium bicarbonate, and putrescine capture a number of Anastrepha and Bactrocera species fruit flies. However, for many of these species, more flies are captured in traps baited with the pro...

  3. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  4. Variability of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in a segregating progeny from a single cross in Olea europaea L. and sensory and nutritional quality implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; León, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raúl; Sanz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil.

  5. Nutritional and technological characteristics of olive (Olea europea L.) fruit and oil: two varieties growing in two different locations of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cevat; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2009-08-01

    Olea europea L. fruits were evaluated for weight, moisture, ash, crude protein, crude oil, energy, crude fibre, roundness, resistance against extra force and product density. The relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value and unsaponifiables were determined in the olive oils. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2). Of the identified fatty acids, lauric acid (12:0), linolenic acid (18:3), arachidic acid (20:0), eicosenoic acid (20:1), behenic acid (22:0) and lignoseric acid (24:0) were found in trace amounts. As expected, the oleic acid content was the major fatty acid of olive oil. Oleic acid was represented in much higher concentrations than the other acids. The product roundness, resistance against extra force, product density and weight of 100 fruit were established as technological characteristics in olive fruit. The damage energy and the unit of volume deformation energy of the Memecik and Tavşanyüreği varieties were 1.36×10(-3) J and 3.59×10(-4) J/mm(3) and 1.89×10(-3) J and 5.10×10(-4) J/mm(3), respectively. The fruits showed a similar composition, and both fruit and oil contained unsaturated fatty acids.

  6. Evaluation of RNA extraction methods and identification of putative reference genes for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression studies on olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Alberto; Vezzaro, Alice; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2012-07-11

    Genome wide transcriptomic surveys together with targeted molecular studies are uncovering an ever increasing number of differentially expressed genes in relation to agriculturally relevant processes in olive (Olea europaea L). These data need to be supported by quantitative approaches enabling the precise estimation of transcript abundance. qPCR being the most widely adopted technique for mRNA quantification, preliminary work needs to be done to set up robust methods for extraction of fully functional RNA and for the identification of the best reference genes to obtain reliable quantification of transcripts. In this work, we have assessed different methods for their suitability for RNA extraction from olive fruits and leaves and we have evaluated thirteen potential candidate reference genes on 21 RNA samples belonging to fruit developmental/ripening series and to leaves subjected to wounding. By using two different algorithms, GAPDH2 and PP2A1 were identified as the best reference genes for olive fruit development and ripening, and their effectiveness for normalization of expression of two ripening marker genes was demonstrated.

  7. On the Suitable Regions for Olive (Olea europaea) Growing in China%中国油橄榄适生区研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施宗明; 孙卫邦; 祁治林; 李云; 刘金凤

    2011-01-01

    油橄榄在中国引种已50多年,引种初期对其特殊的生态习性了解不够深入,出现了许多问题.作者从近40年的栽培实践中,认真分析了我国亚热带地区与地中海亚热带地区气候的差异,认为中国发展油橄榄生产的最佳适生区是西部干旱河谷地区,其中以甘南白龙江河谷和滇两北及川西南金沙江河谷发展的潜力最大.%Olive tree ( Olea ewopaea) has been introduced into China for more than fifty years. Because of less knowledge about its unique ecological characteristics known by people in China during the early stage, its cropping has been occurred a rugged development. Based on the experience for about forty years of cultivation practice as well as the comparison and analysis about the climate between China and the Mediterranean region for olive growing, it can be concluded that the dry valleys in west China might be suitable areas for developing olive. The most potential regions for developing olive are the bailongjiang Valley in southern Cansu and the Jinshajiang (upper reach of Yangtze River) Valley in the northwestern Yunnan and the southwestern Sichuan.

  8. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Flowers and Olea Europea L. Leaves Extract-Based Formulation for Hypertension Care: In Vitro Efficacy and Toxicological Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, Matteo; Angeletti, Andrea; Cont, Massimiliano; Corazza, Ivan; Aldini, Rita; Donadio, Elisa; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2016-05-01

    Olea europaea L. leaves extract (Oe) and Hybiscus sabdariffa L. flowers extract (Hs) have calcium antagonistic properties. Aim of this work was to study the cardiovascular effects of Pres Phytum(®), a nutraceutical formulation containing a mixture of the two extracts and the excipients, and investigate its possible off-target effects, using in vitro biological assays on guinea pig isolated organs. Cardiovascular effects were assessed using guinea pig atria and aorta. The effects of Pres Phytum on spontaneous gastrointestinal, urinary, and respiratory tracts smooth muscle contractility were evaluated. Pres Phytum exerted a vasorelaxant effect (IC50 = 2.38 mg/mL) and a negative chronotropic effect (IC50 = 1.04 mg/mL) at concentrations lower than those producing smooth muscle spontaneous contractility alterations in the other organs. Compared to Pres Phytum, the mixture did not exert negative inotropic activity, while it maintained a negative chronotropic efficacy (IC50 = 1.04 mg/mL). These experimental data suggest a possible nutraceutical use of this food supplement for the management of preclinical hypertension. PMID:27152980

  9. Recent trends on sterile insect technique and area-wide integrated pest management. Economic feasibility, control projects, farmer organization and Bactrocera dorsalis complex control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have invited professional papers from over the world, including Okinawa, for compilation of recent trends on Sterile Insect Techniques and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management to further pursue environment friendly pest insects control measures in agricultural production in the Asia-Pacific region. Pest insects such as the tephritid fruit flies have long been and are still today causing serious damage to agricultural products in the Asia-Pacific region and farmers in the region apply such insecticides that are no longer allowed or being subjected to strict usage control in Japan. This, in return, may endanger the health of the very farmers, food safety and the ecosystem itself. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to clarify keys for technology transfer of so called SIT/AWIPM to potential recipients engaged in agricultural production in the region. This report focused on several topics, which make up important parts for the effective Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management: economic feasibility; pest insects control projects; farmers' education; research progress in Bactrocera dorsalis complex issues specific to the Asia-Pacific region. The 12 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. 桔小实蝇的发生与诱杀防治研究进展%Study advance in incidence and trap control of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉玲

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a polyphagous pest of fruit and vegetable crops in South -East Asia and Hawaii. To control the population, understanding the occurrence of B. dorsalis has important significance. In this paper, the incidence, biological and ecological characteristics were summarized, and also trapping measures in recent years were discussed, in order to provide direction and references for future prevention and control work.%桔小实蝇是东南亚和夏威夷地区的杂食性果蔬作物害虫,认识其发生情况对有效防治具有重要意义.本文综述了桔小实蝇的发生近况以及生物学和生态学特性,并对桔小实蝇的生物诱杀防治措施进行了探讨,以期为今后的防治工作提供方向和参考.

  11. De novo cloning and annotation of genes associated with immunity, detoxification and energy metabolism from the fat body of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jia Yang

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive pest in tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analysis of the fat body of B. dorsalis and obtained more than 59 million sequencing reads, which were assembled into 27,787 unigenes with an average length of 591 bp. Among them, 17,442 (62.8% unigenes matched known proteins in the NCBI database. The assembled sequences were further annotated with gene ontology, cluster of orthologous group terms, and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. In depth analysis was performed to identify genes putatively involved in immunity, detoxification, and energy metabolism. Many new genes were identified including serpins, peptidoglycan recognition proteins and defensins, which were potentially linked to immune defense. Many detoxification genes were identified, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases and ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. Many new transcripts possibly involved in energy metabolism, including fatty acid desaturases, lipases, alpha amylases, and trehalose-6-phosphate synthases, were identified. Moreover, we randomly selected some genes to examine their expression patterns in different tissues by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated that some genes exhibited fat body-specific expression in B. dorsalis. The identification of a numerous transcripts in the fat body of B. dorsalis laid the foundation for future studies on the functions of these genes.

  12. Effects of Beauveria bassiana on experimental populations of Bactrocera dorsalis%球孢白僵菌对橘小实蝇实验种群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志萍; 翟欣

    2015-01-01

    研究了球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)B6菌株对橘小实蝇成虫(Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel)的影响.结果表明,在杨桃、番石榴与香蕉3种水果上喷施球孢白僵菌孢子悬浮液,橘小实蝇雌成虫平均产卵量分别为(188.3±11.4)粒、(156.7±13.1)粒、(165.3±9.1)粒,与对照差异不显著;孵化的老熟幼虫数量分别(156.3±11.5)头、(130.3±8.3)头、(147.7±10.6)头,与对照差异也不显著;成虫存活率分别为51.1%、52.2%、62.3%,与对照差异极显著.干扰作用控制指数IIPC为0.554 2、0.573 0、0.667 7,对橘小实蝇成虫控制效果明显.

  13. Transcriptome analysis to identify genes for peptides and proteins involved in immunity and reproduction from male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct of Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Liu, Shi-Huo; Wang, Tao; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In the male reproductive system of insects, the male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct (MAG/ED) are important organs and their primary function is to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa. Proteins secreted by the MAG/ED are also known to induce post-mating changes and immunity responses in the female insect. To understand the gene expression profile in the MAG/ED of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), that is an important pest in fruits, we performed an Illumina-based deep sequencing of mRNA. This yielded 54,577,630 clean reads corresponding to 4.91Gb total nucleotides that were assembled and clustered to 30,669 unigenes (average 645bp). Among them, 20,419 unigenes were functionally annotated to known proteins/peptides in Gene Orthology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases. Typically, many genes were involved in immunity and these included microbial recognition proteins and antimicrobial peptides. Subsequently, the inducible expression of these immunity-related genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis when insects were challenged with immunity-inducible factors, suggesting their function in guaranteeing fertilization success. Besides, we identified some important reproductive genes such as juvenile hormone- and ecdysteroid-related genes in this de novo assembly. In conclusion, this transcriptomic sequencing of B. dorsalis MAG/ED provides insights to facilitate further functional research of reproduction, immunity and molecular evolution of reproductive proteins in this important agricultural pest.

  14. BdorCSP2 is important for antifeed and oviposition-deterring activities induced by Rhodojaponin-III against Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yi

    Full Text Available Rhodojaponin-III is a nonvolatile botanical grayanoid diterpene compound, which has antifeedant and oviposition deterrence effects against many kinds of insects. However, the molecular mechanism of the chemoreception process remains unknown. In this study, the important role of BdorCSP2 in the recognition of Rhodojaponin-III was identified. The full length cDNA encoding BdorCSP2 was cloned from legs of Bactrocera dorsalis. The results of expression pattern revealed that BdorCSP2 was abundantly expressed in the legs of adult B. dorsalis. Moreover, the expression of BdorCSP2 could be up-regulated by Rhodojaponin-III. In order to gain comprehensive understanding of the recognition process, the binding affinity between BdorCSP2 and Rhodojaponin-III was measured by fluorescence binding assay. Silencing the expression of BdorCSP2 through the ingestion of dsRNA could weaken the effect of oviposition deterrence and antifeedant of Rhodojaponin-III. These results suggested that BdorCSP2 of B. dorsalis could be involved in chemoreception of Rhodojaponin-III and played a critical role in antifeedant and oviposition behaviors induced by Rhodojaponin-III.

  15. Fumigant Toxicity of Phenylpropanoids Identified in Asarum sieboldii Aerial Parts to Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Diptera: Scatopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jee Hwan; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Sankarapandian, Karuppasamy; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2015-06-01

    Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) are two of the most economically important insect pests of cultivated mushrooms. The toxicities to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide benfuracarb. In a contact+fumigant mortality bioassay with L. ingenua and C. fuscipes larvae, methyleugenol (1.46 and 2.33 µg/cm2) was the most toxic compound, followed by safrole (2.03 and 2.59 µg/cm2) and myristicin (3.59 and 4.96 µg/cm2), based on 24-h LC50 values. The phenylpropanoids were less toxic than benfuracarb (LC50, 0.75 and 0.55 µg/cm2). In vapor-phase mortality tests with the larvae, the phenylpropanoids were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that the effect of the compounds was largely a result of vapor action. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on A. sieboldii plant-derived products as potential fumigants for the control of mushroom fly populations in mushroom houses and mushroom compost.

  16. Study and application on sterile insect technique for oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis in the field to control the fly%桔小实蝇不育技术及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁广勤; 梁帆; 赵菊鹏; 邹伟权; 周庆贤; 伍伟亮; 吴佳教; 胡学难

    2008-01-01

    以钴(60Co)的不同剂量,对桔小实蝇(Bactrocera dorsalis)蛹进行不育辐照对比测定,结果显示,桔小实蝇有效不育的剂量为95Gy.雄性不育成虫可导致野外处女雌性成虫终生不育以及在果园扩散的距离多集中在140 m的范围,为制定应用不育蝇防治野生蝇的策略提供科学依据.

  17. Checklist of the Diptera (Insecta of Finland: an introduction and a summary of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Kahanpää

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980. The number of true flies (Diptera known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase, Pipunculidae (98%, and Chironomidae (90%.

  18. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains. PMID:23926790

  19. Winter flight of flies (Diptera in Hongneung Arboretum, Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter phenology (diapause and activity of insects is expected to change more significantly than that of other seasons, because temperature will increase more in winter than in other seasons in temperate regions. However, studies on winter phenology of insects are rare. It is expected that winter flights of flies (Diptera will increase as climate warms. This study aims to find the relationship between flight of flies and temperature. The survey on flies and weather (temperature and rainfall was carried out in the Hongneung Arboretum in Seoul, Korea. Flies were collected weekly from December 2012 to February 2013 using sweeping and Malaise trap. In the survey, 106 flies belonging to 28 morphospecies and 17 families were collected. Richness and abundance of flies were positively correlated with temperature.

  20. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Aedes vigilax (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two main clades of the medically significant saltmarsh mosquito Aedes vigilax Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) were obtained using combined Illumina and Sanger sequencing. The two 15,877 bp circular genomes share 99.0% nucleotide identity and encode 37 genes with identical gene arrangement similar to previously published Culicidae species with a non-coding A + T rich region between rns and tRNA-Ile. Protein initiation codon is ATN apart from ND5 (GTG) and COX1 (TCG). Eight protein-coding genes encode full TAA stop codon, while five are completed by mRNA polyadenylation. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:26099979

  1. 瓜实蝇DNA甲基化的MSAP体系建立与优化%Establishment and optimization of MSAP Analysis System for DNA Methylation in Bactrocera cucurbitae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚治; 周世豪; 马华博; 张亚楠; 符悦冠

    2016-01-01

    The melon fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] is one of the most important vegetables insect pest in China. However, the DNA methylation in melon fly has not been reported yet. Methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) is an important research tecnnique to analysis the DNA methylation. The MSAP can be established through the enzyme digestion reaction, ligation, PCR amplification system, and primer screening, such as 10 U restriction endonuclease is put in the 20 μL enzyme digestion system, and then react with 600 ng of genome DNA at 37℃ overnight; 1U of T4 ligase is put in the 20 μL ligation system, 50 pmol of HpaⅡ-MspⅠ-adapter and 5 pmol of EcoR I-adapter which react at 16℃ for 12 hours. Diluent ligation products were used in PCR to pre-amplification and selected amplification, the result is tested by silver staining and 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Six pairs of primers which suited for DNA methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism were selected out by this system. The MSAP system provides the technical support for the study of the epigenetics research of melon fly.%瓜实蝇[Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)]是中国重要的蔬菜害虫,但其DNA甲基化研究尚未见报道。甲基化敏感扩增多态性是研究DNA甲基化的重要技术之一。通过对酶切反应、连接、 PCR扩增和引物筛选等条件优化,建立瓜实蝇MSAP反应体系,即:①20μL酶切体系中加入10 U的限制性内切酶与600 ng基因组DNA,于37℃酶切反应过夜;②20μL连接体系中加入T4连接酶1 U, HpaⅡ-MspⅠ-adapter接头50 pmol, EcoR I-adapter接头5 pmol,并于16℃反应12 h;③连接产物稀释后进行PCR预扩增和选择性扩增,再经6%变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳和银染检测结果。通过该体系筛选出适用于瓜实蝇基因组DNA甲基化多态性研究的6对引物;瓜实蝇MSAP体系为瓜实蝇的表观遗传学研究提供了技术支持。

  2. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.

  3. Recent advances in the cryopreservation of shoot-derived germplasm of economically important fruit trees of Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Carla; De Carlo, Anna; Engelmann, Florent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the advances made over the last decade in cryopreservation of economically important vegetatively propagated fruit trees. Cryopreservation protocols have been established using both dormant buds sampled on field-grown plants and shoot tips sampled on in vitro plantlets. In the case of dormant buds, scions are partially dehydrated by storage at -5 °C, and then cooled slowly to -30 °C using low cooling rates (c.a. 1 °C/h) before immersion in liquid nitrogen. After slow rewarming and rehydration of samples, regrowth takes place either through grafting of buds on rootstocks or excision of apices and inoculation in vitro. In the case of shoot tips of in vitro plantlets, the cryopreservation techniques employed are the following: controlled rate cooling procedures involving slow prefreezing followed by immersion in liquid nitrogen or vitrification-based procedures including encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification. The current status of cryopreservation for a series of fruit tree species including Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis is presented. Routine application of cryopreservation for long-term germplasm storage in genebanks is currently limited to apple and pear, for which large cryopreserved collections have been established at NCGRP, Fort Collins (USA), using dormant buds and in vitro shoot tips, respectively. However, there are a growing number of examples of pilot scale testing experiments under way for different species in various countries. Progress in the further development and application of cryopreservation techniques will be made through a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the induction of tolerance to dehydration and cryopreservation in frozen explants.

  4. Neuroprotection by Combined Administration with Maslinic Acid, a Natural Product from Olea europaea, and MK-801 in the Cerebral Ischemia Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisong Qian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is a major cause of ischemic brain damage. MK-801 confers neuroprotection by attenuating the activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor, but it failed in clinical use due to the short therapeutic window. Here we aim to investigate the effects of maslinic acid, a natural product from Olea europaea, on the therapeutic time window and dose range for the neuroprotection of MK-801. Rats were administered with maslinic acid intracerebroventricularly and cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO followed by reperfusion. MK-801 was administered at 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h after ischemia, respectively. The cerebral infarct volume was determined by 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining, neuronal damage was assessed by Haematoxylin Eosin (H&E staining, and the expression of glial glutamate transporters and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot post-ischemia. Results showed that the presence of maslinic acid extended the therapeutic time window for MK-801 from 1 h to 3 h. Co-treatment of maslinic acid and MK-801 at a subthreshold dosage obviously induced neuroprotection after ischemia. The combination of these two compounds improved the outcome in ischemic rats. Moreover, maslinic acid treatment promoted the expression of GLT-1 and GFAP post-ischemia. These data suggest that the synergistic effect of maslinic acid on neurological protection might be associated with the improvement of glial function, especially with the increased expression of GLT-1. The combination therapy of maslinic acid and MK-801 may prove to be a potential strategy for treating acute ischemic stroke.

  5. Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.S

    1982-01-01

    The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

  6. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues.

  7. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. PMID:26514651

  8. 诱蝇醚防治柑桔小实蝇适宜添加间隔期的试验%An experiment of suitable accession interval for controlling Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel by Methyl Eugenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄后琚

    2009-01-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel is one of the major insects endangering citrus, which can threaten severely citrus production. Methyl Eugenol has an obvious effect for controlling Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel. In order to find most suitable accession interval, the writer has conducted an experiment with different accession intervals. The experimental results show that in higher temperature, each accession of 2 ml and 30d interval will be best selection.%柑桔小实蝇是柑桔(包括橙、柚类)重要害虫之一,严重威胁着柑桔的生产.诱蝇醚对柑桔小实蝇的防效显著.为了找到添加诱蝇醚适宜的间隔期,笔者进行了诱蝇醚不同添加间隔期的试验.试验的结果表明:在气温较高的气候条件下,当每次添加诱蝇醚的量为2ml时,添加诱蝇醚的间隔期以30d为宜.

  9. On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.

  10. Revisão de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Revision of Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae a neotropical genus with ten species is revised. Redescriptions of eight species were made: E. nuda Hull, 1971, E. amabilis (Wulp, 1881, E. beckeri Lamas & Couri, 1998, E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830, E. caminaria (Wiedemann, 1830, E. knutsoni Hull, 1971, E. maracajula Hull, 1971 and E. truxalia Hull, 1971, with illustrations of the types, male terminalia and spermathecae. Two synonymies - E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830, syn.: E. bicincta Hull, 1971; and E. nuda Hull, 1971, syn.: E. shannoni Hull, 1971 - are proposed. A key to species are presented except to E. goyaz (Macquart, 1840 and E. aperta (Macquart, 1847, which were not included in this study, as no material was examined.

  11. Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associado com Cordia Verbenacea DC. (Boraginaceae no Brasil Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Cordia verbekacea DC. (Boraginaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordiamyia globosa gen.n., sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associated with Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae, in Brazil, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall.

  12. Checklist of the 'lower Brachycera' of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the 'lower Brachycera' of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  13. Gene discovery and differential expression analysis of humoral immune response elements in female Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that impact livestock and wildlife in the United States. Little is known about their molecular functioning, including components of their immune system. Because the insect immune response is involved ...

  14. A New Species of Megarhyphus,an Interesting Discovery from the Lower Jurassic of England(Diptera,Anisopodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ewa KRZEMI(N)SKA; Robert A. CORAM; Wies(l)aw KRZEMI(N)SKI

    2010-01-01

    The oldest representative of the genus Megarhyphus Kovalev(Diptera:Anisopodidae)is described from the Lower Jurassic(Sinemurian)of England.A summary of our knowledge of Jurassic Anisopodidae is given.

  15. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  16. First records of the 'bathroom mothmidge' Clogmia albipunctata, a conspicuous element of the Belgian fauna that went unnoticed (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Boumans; J.-Y. Zimmer; F. Verheggen

    2009-01-01

    The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of circumtropical origin, the species probably spread to synanthropic habitats in northern and central

  17. Fourier analysis of wing beat signals: assessing the effects of genetic alterations of flight muscle structure in Diptera.

    OpenAIRE

    Hyatt, C J; Maughan, D W

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining and analyzing the wing beat frequency in Diptera is presented. This method uses an optical tachometer to measure Diptera wing movement during flight. The resulting signal from the optical measurement is analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique, and the dominant frequency peak in the Fourier spectrum is selected as the wing beat frequency. Also described is a method for determining quantitatively the degree of variability of the wing beat frequency about...

  18. A remarkable new species of Eutrichopoda Townsend, 1908 (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-01-01

    A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini. PMID:27395220

  19. Description of a new genus and new species of New World Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and new species of Phlebotominae, Edentomyia piauiensis (Diptera, Psychodidae from a cave in Piauí State, Brazil, are described. This new genus belongs to Phlebotomini, but its inclusion in any subdivision of this tribe depends on further study.

  20. A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae) from Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Woodley, Norman E.

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae), P. imitator, n. sp., is described from Chiapas, Mexico. The new species is compared to previously described species and diagnostic notes are presented for separation of Paraberismyia from Berismyia Giglio-Tos.

  1. Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records. The female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira, 2012 is described for the first time. Description and illustrations of the habitus, wing and terminalia of the female are provided. The distribution is extended to Bolivia and Peru.

  2. Laboratory effects of two organically-certified insecticides on Trichopoda pennipes (Diptera:Tachinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this laboratory study was to determine the effects of two organically-certified insecticides, azadirachtin and spinosad, on the stink bug parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (Fab.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) in residual, topical, and oral toxicity tests. The insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin was...

  3. On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.Sobre o primeiro taquinídeo (Diptera, Tachinidae carregando polinários de Asclepiadoideae na Região Neotropical. Esta contribuição relata a primeira espécie neotropical de Tachinidae possivelmente associada à polinização de Asclepiadoideae: uma fêmea de Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini transportando dois polinários de Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae presos à sua probóscide. O espécime foi coletado no Paraguai, Departamento Canindeyú. O polinário é ilustrado e caracterizado. Este é o primeiro registro de antofilia para G. parviflorus e para o gênero.

  4. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity. PMID:24472199

  5. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  6. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

  7. Transcriptome analyses of blood and sugar digestive processes in female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) midges vector numerous diseases impacting livestock and humans. The molecular physiology of this midge has been under-studied, so our approach was to gain an understanding of basic processes of blood and sucrose digestion using tra...

  8. Surimyia, a new genus of Microdontinae, with notes on Paragodon Thompson, 1969 (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Surimyia, a new genus of Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) is described, based on specimens from Suriname. Surimyia is the only known genus of Syrphidae in which the katatergum (ventral part of lateral postnotal sclerite of mesonotum) lacks microtrichia. Within Microdontinae, the genus is unique in

  9. Systematics and phylogeny of Centrioncidae, a new afromontane family of Diptera (Schizophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments are put forward for the erection of a new family of Diptera, named Centrioncidae. Centrioncus prodiopsis, its only previously described representative, was originally placed in the Sepsidae and later transferred to the Diopsidae. This species is now redescribed and five more Centrioncus ar

  10. A metagenomic assessment of the bacteria associated with Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. Both species of this genus causes myiasis and are vectors of disease causing bacteria. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot therapy. ...

  11. Pollinating flies (Diptera): A major contribution to plant diversity and agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diptera are one of the three largest and most diverse animal groups of the world. As an often neglected, but important group of pollinators, they play a significant role in agrobiodiversity and biodiversity of plants everywhere. Flies are present in almost all habitats and biomes and for many food p...

  12. Symbiotic Bacteria Enable Olive Fly Larvae to Overcome Host Defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. (author)

  13. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narit Thaochan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt, was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria which was prominent in all clones. The total bacterial community consisted of Proteobacteria (more than 75% of clones, except in the crop of B. cacuminata where more than 50% of clones belonged to Firmicutes. Firmicutes gave the number of the secondary community structure in the fly’s gut. Four orders, Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were found in both fruit fly species, while the order Epsilonproteobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes were found only in B. tryoni. Two phyla, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were rare and less frequent in the flies. There was a greater diversity of bacteria in the crop of the two fruit fly species than in the midgut. The midgut of B. tryoni females and the midgut of B. cacuminata males had the lowest bacterial diversity.

  14. Análise cladística de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) Cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    1999-01-01

    A cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae), a Neotropical genus that includes ten species, was made. The cladogram was obtained from eight studied species, based on a data matrix with 21 characters, using the program Hennig86. Character states were polarized following outgroup analysis, and an hypothetical ancestor was included in the analysis in order to root the tree. The options used, "ie*" and "xs w", resulted in four most parsimonious trees with ci =...

  15. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

  16. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fiammetta Alagna; Mario Kallenbach; Andrea Pompa; Francesca De Marchis; Rosa Rao; Ian T Baldwin; Gustavo Bonaventure; y Luciana Baldoni

    2016-01-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic com-pounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results pro-vide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack;information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest.

  17. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Kallenbach, Mario; Pompa, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesca; Rao, Rosa; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Baldoni, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest.

  18. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Kallenbach, Mario; Pompa, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesca; Rao, Rosa; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Baldoni, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest. PMID:25727685

  19. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  20. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  1. Chironomid (Diptera, Chironomidae species assemblages in northeastern Algerian hydrosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chaib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae, and determine their substrate preferences, from two hydrosystems located in northeastern Algeria: the Kebir-East and the Seybouse wadis. Sixty-five species were recorded in 49 sampling sites distributed along the main courses of the two hydrographic nets and their tributaries. The majority of taxa comprised cosmopolitan species widely distributed along these two hydrosystems. Cricotopus (Cricotopus bicinctus showed the highest abundance and frequency of occurrence (29.52% and was widespread in almost all the sampling sites. Species richness ranged from 4 to 23, Shannon diversity between 0.15 and 0.90, Evenness from 0.23 to 1. A cluster analysis was carried out to represent the different groups of sites sharing similar species composition. Agglomerative cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into four clusters according to the community data. An Indval analysis was then carried out to detect indicator species for each group of the sampling sites. Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris was indicator of the first group of the sampling sites. Orthocladius pedestris, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus and C. bicinctus were indicators of the second group, and Polypedilum cultellatum of the third group. The fourth group was not characterized by any species. Indval analysis allowed also to determine species preferences for substrate size: Corynoneura scutellata and Dicrotendipes nervosus emphasized a preference to fine gravel, and Glyptotendipes pallens to fine sand.

  2. Mushroom host influence on Lycoriella mali (Diptera: Sciaridae) life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, L; Keil, C B

    2005-04-01

    Lycoriella mali Fitch (Diptera: Sciaridae) infests mushroom crops early in the crop cycle. Recent observations in mushroom houses indicated a difference in emergence time and size of adult L. mali developing on various strains of commercial mushrooms. Samples of adult flies from isolated mushroom houses growing Portabella mushrooms were significantly heavier then those from oyster mushroom houses, whereas flies from shiitake mushroom houses were lightest in weight. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on four strains and species of Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. After the adults emerged, females were weighed, mated, and allowed to oviposit. The number of eggs laid increased as the weight of the female increased. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on eight strains and species of mushrooms. Flies were reared for four generations on each host mushroom mycelium then switched to different host mushrooms. Overall, the hybrid strain of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricomycetideae) was the most favorable host for L. mali, whereas the wild strain of A. bisporus was the least favorable host. Mushroom hosts influence developmental time, survivorship, weight, and reproduction of L. mali. PMID:15889722

  3. Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.

  4. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Claudia; Mathis, Samuel; Feichtinger, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell(®) amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500-550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300-400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell(®) amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400-500 nm) were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap "UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle" was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation. PMID:26462825

  5. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation.

  6. Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods. PMID:26271257

  7. 果蔬重要实蝇属的分布、危害与形态特征比较研究%Comparative Study on Distribution, Harm and Morphological Characteristics of Important Insects in Bactrocera in Fruits and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振; 黄可辉

    2012-01-01

    This paper expounded the geological distribution, host plant species and major morphological characteristics of the important quarantine pest insects in fruits and vegetables in the following five genera: Bactrocera Macquart, Dacus Fabricius, Ceratitis Macleay, Anastrepha Schiner and Rhagoletis Loew, compared the similarities and differences among the five genera, and put forward some measures for the control of the important pest insects in fruits and vegetables in these genera.%阐述了果实蝇属、寡鬃实蝇属、小条实蝇属、按实蝇属、绕实蝇属5个检疫性害虫果蔬实蝇属的地理分布、寄主及其主要形态特征,比较了各个属形态特征的异同,并提出了一些防治果蔬重要实蝇属的措施.

  8. Influência do número de nós em estacas semilenhosas de oliveira (Olea europaea L. no enraizamento sob câmara de nebulização Influence the number of nodes on semi-woody cuttings of olive tree (Olea europaea L. on the rooting in misty room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelson Francisco de Oliveira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de oliveira (Olea europaea L. com diferentes números de nós, foi conduzido no Centro de Investigación y Formación Agraria - CIFA "Alameda del Obispo" de Córdoba - Espanha, experimento sob condições de câmara de nebulização intermitente. As estacas foram tratadas com ácido indolbutítico (AIB na concentração de 3.000 mg.L-1, antes da instalação do ensaio, submergindo durante cinco segundos as suas bases, aproximadamente 2,5 centímetros, em solução contendo o produto. Utilizaram-se estacas medianas, que foram coletadas de plantas em desenvolvimento vegetativo contínuo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em fatorial 2 x 5, sendo respectivamente duas variedades, Picual e Arbequina, e cinco tamanhos de estacas: dois nós com duas folhas, três nós com duas folhas, três nós com quatro folhas, quatro nós com quatro folhas e cinco nós com quatro folhas. Utilizaram-se quatro repetições com parcelas experimentais constituídas por trinta estacas plantadas em substrato de perlita, em mesas suspensas, com aquecimento controlado. Avaliaram-se aos 75 dias porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, mortas e número e comprimento médio de raízes. Observou-se que, entre estacas de quatro nós e cinco nós, com quatro folhas, não houve diferença nos parâmetros considerados; estacas com três nós, com duas e quatro folhas também não diferenciaram. Estacas com dois nós e duas folhas, de ambas as variedades, apresentaram maior mortalidade.With the objective of assessing the rooting efficiency of semi-woody cuttings of olive tree (Olea europaea L., with different nodes, an experiment under intermittent misty room conditions and with the use of IBA at the concentration of 3000 mg L-1 was run at the Centro de Investigación y Formación Agraria 'Alameda del Obispo' in Cordoba, Spain. The cuttings were treated before the establishment of the trial

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of 29 Olive (Olea europaea L. Cultivars for Production and Alternate Bearing, in the Huasco Valley, Northern Chile Evaluación Preliminar de la Produción y Añerismo en 29 Variedades de Olivo (Olea europaea L. en el Valle del Huasco, Norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tapia C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the development of intensively managed olive orchards (Olea europaea L. in northern Chile. The selection of specific varieties that perform well on a particular site is considered crucial to maximizing productivity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the productive performance of 29 varieties of olive in the Huasco Valley (28°34' S, 70°47' W, Northern Chile.The traits evaluated were: mean olive production per tree considering a longitudinal (PML analysis over a period of five years, 2003 to 2007, total olive production in the same period (PA03-07 and alternate bearing index (ABI. The effect of variety was highly significant (p En el norte de Chile existe un creciente interés en el desarrollo de huertos de olivo (Olea europaea L. manejados intensivamente. La selección de variedades específicas que han respondido bien en un sitio en particular es considerada clave para la maximización de la productividad. El presente estudio fue realizado para evaluar el desempeño de algunas características agronómicas en 29 variedades de olivo, en el Valle del Huasco (28°34' S, 70°47' O, norte de Chile. Las características analizadas correspondieron a producción de frutos promedio por árbol (PML en un análisis longitudinal durante un período de 5 años, 2003 a 2007, producción acumulada del mismo período (PA03-07 y el índice de alternancia de producción (ABI. El efecto debido a la variedad fue altamente significativo (p < 0,01 para las tres características. El ABI fue moderado (0,52, con una PML de 37,37 kg árbol-1 y PA03-07 de 186 kg árbol-1. Correlaciones de Spearman entre los ranking de cada característica fueron positivas y significativamente diferentes de cero (p < 0,05. ‘Leccino’ tuvo la mejor respuesta considerando únicamente la producción de frutos. ‘Arbequina’, ‘Picholine’, ‘Manzanilla Racimo’, ‘Picual’, ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’, ‘Frantoio’ y

  10. Quantificação dos níveis endógenos de auxinas e da actividade enzimática das polifenoloxidases em oliveira (Olea europaea L. Quantification of endogenous auxin levels and polyphenoloxidase enzymatic activity in olive (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Serra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A actividade enzimática de polifenoloxidases foi avaliada em folhas e na zona apical, média e basal de ramos de duas cultivares de oliveira (Olea europaea L., comuns no Alentejo (‘Galega vulgar’ e ‘Cobrançosa’, mostrando que a actividade enzimática nas folhas foi muito superior à encontrada em tecidos de ramos do ano. Maior actividade enzimática foi também detectada na variedade ‘Cobrançosa’ versus ‘Galega vulgar’. As condições óptimas para a determinação da actividade enzimática foram: pH= 5.5 e T= 40 ºC, com 20 mM de 4-metilcatecol em tampão acetato. Nestas condições o KM determinado foi: 2,60 e 3,48 mM com o método de Michaelis-Menten e Lineweaver-Burk, respectivamente. A melhor recuperação das auxinas AIA (ácido indol-3-acético e AIB (ácido indolbutírico em material vegetal foi conseguida através da extracção das amostras com acetona. A separação, identificação e quantificação do AIA e AIB em padrões, material vegetal dopado (tecidos de oliveira dopados com uma concentração conhecida de padrão e não dopado, foi efectuada por técnicas cromatográficas (HPLC-DAD e LCMS, mostrando os resultados taxas de recuperação superiores a 40% para o AIA e 60% para o AIB.The poliphenoloxidase enzymatic activity was evaluated in two olive cultivars (Olea europaea L. widespread in Alentejo (‘Galega vulgar and ‘Cobrançosa. Leaves and apical, medium and basal regions of the year stems were used as sample material. When compared with the different regions of the year stem, the results have shown that enzymatic activity was significantly higher in the leaves of both cultivars. Between cultivars, it was observed that ‘Cobrançosa’ presented higher enzymatic activity than ‘Galega vulgar’. The pH at 5.5 and 40 ºC temperature, using 20 mM of 4methylcatecol in acetate buffer were the optimized conditions for the enzymatic analysis. Under these conditions, the measured KM was 2,60 and 3,48 m

  11. Evaluation of Cuelure and Methyl Eugenol solid lure and insecticide dispensers for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) monitoring and control in Tahiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Performance of solid male lure (cuelure (C-L)/raspberry ketone (RK) - against Bactrocera tyroni (Froggatt), and methyl eugenol (ME) - against oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) and insecticide formulations, were evaluated in Tahiti Island (French Polynesia), as alternatives to current monitori...

  12. 不同诱捕处理在苦瓜地上对瓜实蝇和桔小实蝇的诱捕效果研究%Trapping Effects of Different Trapping Methods to Bactrocera Dorsalis and Bactrocera Cucurbitae in Bitter Gourd Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖永林; 张扬; 李燕芳; 肖汉祥; 张振飞; 符悦冠

    2013-01-01

    研究引诱剂的5种不同诱捕处理在苦瓜地上对瓜实蝇和桔小实蝇的诱捕效果.结果发现,好粘主要诱捕桔小实蝇雄虫,稳得主要诱捕瓜实蝇雄虫,2种诱剂均可同时引诱小量其它实蝇;在用量1 g的条件下,引诱剂的5种不同诱捕处理中瓶内喷涂对2种实蝇的诱捕效果均明显好于瓶外喷涂,且好粘与稳得对2种实蝇雄虫的诱捕效果随着瓶内水量的增加先增强后逐渐减弱,加水50 mL时达最大值.研究还探讨了好粘与稳得2种引诱剂对苦瓜地外围瓜实蝇和桔小实蝇雄虫的诱捕效果,结果好粘与稳得2种引诱剂在寄主植物外围不同位点上均可诱捕瓜实蝇和桔小实蝇雄虫,且某一位点上虫量发生越大其诱捕量越大.%A comparative study was conducted on the trapping effects of attractants under five different trapping methods to Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera dorsalis in bitter gourd field. The results showed that attractant Haonian mainly had trapping effect to male B. dorsalis, Wende mainly to male B. cucurbitae, besides, both of these two attractants were attractive to some other species fruit flies. With lg attractant, all five methods reflected that sprayed attractants to inside of bottles were more effective to B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis than sprayed on the surface of the bottles. When sprayed to the inside of the bottles, both Haonian and Wende's trapping effects were increased while adding water in the bottle, and the effects were decreased when keeping adding water after the strongest effects appeared when 50mL added. This study also discussed the trapping effects of attractants Haonian and Wende to B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis on the outside of the bitter gourd field. It was found that both of Haonian and Wende had trapping effects to B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis even when placed in different sites that had certain distance to host plant, and where there were more B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, there

  13. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds of extra virgin olive oil from Olea europaea L. by HPLC-DAD-SPE-NMR/MS. Identification of a new diastereoisomer of the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Parella, Teodor

    2010-08-25

    The phenolic fraction of a monovarietal extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from Olea europaea L. var. Cornezuelo was studied by the hyphenated HPLC-DAD-SPE-NMR/MS techniques. This survey led to the identification of 25 main compounds. One was identified as a new diastereoisomer of the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone (AOA) and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The relative configuration of this new AOA was determined as 5R*,8S*,9S* on the basis of the results obtained from the combination of NOE experiments and Monte Carlo conformational search calculations. Assuming, as for the described diastereoisomers, that the new AOA comes from the natural oleuropein aglycone (OA), the absolute configuration was proposed as 5S,8R,9R.

  14. Detección de los niveles de proteínas alergénicas en el aire de olea europaea (ole e 1) cuantificación por métodos inmunológicos

    OpenAIRE

    García Hernández, José Julio

    2010-01-01

    [ESP] Desde la más remota antigüedad se ha intuido que el origen de algunas enfermedades, entre las que están la rinoconjuntivitis y el asma alérgico, reside en ciertas partículas presentes en la atmósfera que respiramos. En el siglo XIX, el Dr. Blackley pudo establecer que la causa de la denominada "fiebre del heno" era el grano polen de gramíneas, desde entonces hasta nuestros días se ha utilizado el Índice polínico como indicador de la carga alergénica del aire. El polen del olivo (Olea...

  15. Virulence Determination of Beauveria bassiana Bb070817 against Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in Laboratory%球孢白僵菌Bb070817菌株对番石榴实蝇的室内毒力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁盛勇; 孔琼; 李珣; 田学军; 陈斌

    2013-01-01

    为研究球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)Bb070817菌株对番石榴实蝇Bactrocera correcta(Bezzi)的毒力效果,采用喷雾法和浸渍法以不同密度球孢白偶菌(Beauveria bassiana)Bb070817菌株的分生孢子液处理番石榴实蝇Bactrocera correcta(Bezzi)的成虫、幼虫和蛹,并分别测定对成虫、幼虫和蛹的室内毒力.结果表明,成虫的累积校正死亡率最高,为86.12%,其致死中时间(LT50)为4.66d,致死中密度(LCT50)为2.948 5×105 mL-1.幼虫的累积校正死亡率为88.42%,其LT50为4.47 d,LCT50为2.769 5×105 mL-1.蛹的累积校正死亡率是83.91%,其LT50为5.16d,LCT50为3.155 7×105 mL-1,说明该菌株对番石榴实蝇具有较强的毒力.

  16. Chryseobacterium oleae sp. nov., an efficient plant growth promoting bacterium in the rooting induction of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cuttings and emended descriptions of the genus Chryseobacterium, C. daecheongense, C. gambrini, C. gleum, C. joostei, C. jejuense, C. luteum, C. shigense, C. taiwanense, C. ureilyticum and C. vrystaatense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Calasanz, Maria del Carmen; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Schmid, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Tindall, Brian J; Camacho, Maria

    2014-07-01

    A novel non-motile, Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated CT348(T), isolated from the ectorhizosphere of an organic olive tree in Spain and characterised as an efficient plant growth promoting bacterium, was investigated to determine its taxonomic status. The isolate grew best in a temperature range of 5-35°C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-1% (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Chryseobacterium. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 38.2mol%. The strain contained a polyamine pattern with sym-homospermidine as the major compound and produced flexirubin-type pigments. MK-6 was the dominant menaquinone and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C17:1ω9c, iso-C17:0 3-OH and iso-C15:0 2-OH. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified lipids and aminolipids. The 16S rRNA gene showed 92.2-97.8% sequence identity with the members of the genus Chyseobacterium. Based on the phenotypic traits and DNA-DNA hybridizations with the type strains of the most closely related species, the isolate is shown to represent a novel species, Chyseobacterium oleae, type strain CT348(T) (=DSM 25575 =CCUG 63020). Emended descriptions of the genus Chryseobacterium and C. daecheongense, C. gambrini, C. gleum, C. joostei, C. jejuense, C. luteum, C. shigense, C. taiwanense, C. ureilyticum and C. vrystaatense are also proposed.

  17. New records of biting midges from Argentina and Chile (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Nuevos registros de Ceratopogonidae (Diptera para Argentina y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available New records are provided for 22 species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Argentina and Chile, 12 belonging to Forcipomyia Meigen, two to Atrichopogon Kieffer and Culicoides Latreille, and one to Leptoconops Skuse, Dasyhelea Kieffer, Paradasyhelea Macfie, Alluaudomyia Kieffer, Macrurohelea Ingram & Macfie and Palpomyia Meigen. Forcipomyia (F. harpegonata Wirth & Soria, F. (F. pictoni Macfie, F. (F. sexvittata Wirth, F. (Lepidohelea annulatipes Macfie, F. (L. kuanoskeles Macfie, F. (Phytohelea jocosa Saunders and F. (Thyridomyia nana (Macfie are firstly recorded from Argentina, and Leptoconops ricardoi Ronderos & Spinelli, Atrichopogon endemicus Spinelli & Marino, Culicoides chacoensis Spinelli & Wirth, Paradasyhelea brevipalpis (Ingram & Macfie and Alluaudomyia schnacki Spinelli are firstly recorded from Chile. Forcipomyia calchaqui Spinelli & Marino is removed from the subgenus Thyridomyia Saunders and assigned to the subgenus Synthyridomyia Saunders.Se brindan nuevas citas de 22 especies de Ceratopogonidae para Argentina y Chile, de las cuales 12 pertenecen a Forcipomyia Meigen, dos a Atrichopogon Kieffer y Culicoides Latreille, y una a Leptoconops Skuse, Dasyhelea Kieffer, Paradasyhelea Macfie, Alluaudomyia Kieffer, Macrurohelea Ingram & Macfie y Palpomyia Meigen. Forcipomyia (F. harpegonata Wirth & Soria, F. (F. pictoni Macfie, F. (F. sexvittata Wirth, F. (Lepidohelea annulatipes Macfie, F. (L. kuanoskeles Macfie, F. (Phytohelea jocosa Saunders y F. (Thyridomyia nana (Macfie son registradas por primera vez para Argentina, mientras que Leptoconops ricardoi Ronderos & Spinelli, Atrichopogon endemicus Spinelli & Marino, Culicoides chacoensis Spinelli & Wirth, Paradasyhelea brevipalpis (Ingram & Macfie y Alluaudomyia schnacki Spinelli lo son para Chile. Se excluye Forcipomyia calchaqui Spinelli & Marino del subgénero Thyridomyia Saunders y se la asigna a Synthyridomyia Saunders.

  18. Simuliid blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae and ceratopogonid midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae as vectors of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in northern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Shelley

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Mansonella ozzardi, a relatively non pathogenic filarial parasite of man in Latin America, is transmitted by either ceratopogonid midges or simuliid blackflies. In the only known focus of the disease in north-western Argentina the vectors have never been incriminated. This study investigated the potential vectors of M. ozzardi in this area. The only anthropophilic species of these Diptera families biting man at the time of the investigation were Simulium exiguum, S. dinellii, Culicoides lahillei and C. paraensis. Using experimentally infected flies S. exiguum and both species of Culicoides allowed full development of microfilariae to the infective stage, with C. lahillei being a more competent host than S. exiguum. Based on these data, biting rates and natural infectivity rates it is probable that at the begininning of the wet season C. lahillei is the main vector of M. ozzardi and both C. paraensis and S. exiguum secondary vectors. Additionally, it was found that a single dose of ivermectin was ineffectual in eradicating M. ozzardi from infected individuals in this area.

  19. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  20. [Mode of formation of the flight muscles in a nematocerous Diptera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebart-Pedebas, M C; Auber, J

    1982-01-01

    An electron microscope study was conducted on the origin of the dorsal longitudinal muscles of a Nematocerous Diptera (Chironomus). These imaginal muscles arise from three pairs of slender larval muscles that are characterized by the presence of myoblasts located beneath the basal lamina and adhering to the sarcoplasmic membrane. During the last larval instar the myoblasts increase in number, each of the associated muscle fibers loses its contractile material and splits longitudinally into two to form six columns of sarcoplasm. Differentiation of the fibrillar material begins in each of the six muscle rudiments after the adhering myoblasts have become incorporated. There are several possible origins for these myoblasts: they may be embryonic cells that persist in association with the larval muscle fibers; or --as in the case of Cyclorrhaphous Diptera-- they may migrate from elsewhere to invest these fibers. PMID:7138012

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the flesh fly, Parasarcophaga portschinskyi (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian; Guo, Yadong; Zhang, Chaoyue; Zhou, Yong; Yan, Jie; Liao, Huidan; Lagabaiyila, Zha

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Parasarcophaga portschinskyi (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a forensically important entomology was sequenced for the first time. The 14,929 bp circular genome contains the 37 genes found in a typical Metazoan genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. It also contains one non-coding A + T-rich region. All the protein initiation codons are ATN, except for cox1 that begins with TCG. Each of the base composition on heavy strand was as follows A: 38.94%, G: 9.69%, C: 14.13%, T: 37.24% and the A + T content 76.18%. The mitochondrial genome of Parasarcophaga portschinskyi presented will be valuable for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the family Sarcophagidae and order Diptera, and could be used to identify favorable genetic markers for species identifications for forensic purposes. PMID:25319282

  2. Wing shape is influenced by environmental variability in Polietina orbitalis (Stein) (Diptera: Muscidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Michelon Alves; Maurício Osvaldo Moura; Claudio J. B. de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We measured variation and covariation in wing morphology in six populations of the fly Polietina orbitalis (Stein) (Diptera: Muscidae) to test for geographic morphological structure. Additionally, we examined the role of environmental variables in determining geographic variation in wing shape. We sampled five populations in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil (Colombo, Fênix, Guarapuava, Jundiaí do Sul and Ponta Grossa), and one in Paraguay (Mbaracayú). We choose 15 landmarks to de...

  3. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder; Renata Morelli; Karen Zamboni Costa; Kenya Martins Faggioni; Patrícia Alessandra Sanches; Beatriz Aguiar Jordão Paranhos; José Maurício Simões Bento; Maria de Lourdes Zamboni Costa

    2014-01-01

    Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) kept under fully artificial conditions. E...

  4. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Gerald; Zacharopoulou Antigone; Caceres Carlos; Schetelig Marc F; Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dep...

  5. Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.

  6. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation.

  7. A new species of Anabarhynchus ( Diptera : Therevidae ) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    David Ferguson; David Yeates

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae  ( Diptera ) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchus kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Meg...

  8. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Magdi El-Hawagry; Hathal Al Dhafer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species ( Bombyliidae , Diptera ) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of...

  9. Overwintering Biology of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in the Sacramento Valley of California

    OpenAIRE

    NELMS, BRITTANY M.; Macedo, Paula A.; KOTHERA, LINDA; Savage, Harry M.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.

    2013-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar un...

  10. Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae na cidade de Recife capturados com isca luminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico S. Barbosa

    1968-02-01

    Full Text Available Eleven species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae were recorded frorn a mangrove area in the town of Recife, Brazil. The midges were collected by 6 light traps during the period of a whole year, 1954-1955. The predominant species were C. maruim, C. guyanensis and C. insignis. The first one represented 73.7% of the total collected. Seasonal variations were markedly observed, with higher number of midges appearing during the period of March to July.

  11. First detection of Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Remadi, Latifa; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2014-01-01

    Background Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species are known to be the vectors of Bluetongue virus and African Horses Sickness virus (AHSV) in different areas of the world. Nevertheless, other researchers have hypothesized that these arthropods could be involved in the transmission of other pathogens such as Schmallenberg virus, Plasmodium and Leishmania parasites. Identification of the Culicoides’ potential vector competence is crucial in understanding the worldwide Culicoides/Leishman...

  12. Some Streblidae and Nycteribiidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) from Maracá Island, Roraima, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Graciolli Gustavo; Linardi Pedro Marcos

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen species in five genera of Streblidae and two species in two genera of Nycteribiidae, collected in Maracá Island, State of Roraima, Brazil are presented with comments on bat hosts and geographical distribution. A total of 42 specimens of Diptera and 17 bats were captured from 1987 to 1988, integrating the "Maracá Project". All species of ectoparasites represent new geographic records for Roraima.

  13. Ectoparasitic insects (Diptera: Streblidae and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) of bats from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Analía Gladys Autino; Guillermo Luis Claps; Rubén Marcos Barquez; María Mónica Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Based on specimens collected from bats of different families, we add new species and extend the known ecological distribution and host associations of insect ectoparasites of bats in Peru. New information is provided for the distribution of 26 species of parasites (25 Diptera and 1 Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae). Four species (Neotrichobius ectophyllae, Strebla galindoi, Strebla paramirabilis and Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni) are new for Peru and 16 represent new records for the departme...

  14. Some Streblidae and Nycteribiidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea from Maracá Island, Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciolli Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen species in five genera of Streblidae and two species in two genera of Nycteribiidae, collected in Maracá Island, State of Roraima, Brazil are presented with comments on bat hosts and geographical distribution. A total of 42 specimens of Diptera and 17 bats were captured from 1987 to 1988, integrating the "Maracá Project". All species of ectoparasites represent new geographic records for Roraima.

  15. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Pinto e Vairo; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu; Claudio J.B. de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Ch...

  16. Parasitoids of Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Southeast Turkey with 3 New Records

    OpenAIRE

    ÇIKMAN, Emine; BEYARSLAN, Ahmet; CİVELEK, Hasan Sungur

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine parasitoid species of the family Agromyzidae (Diptera) in Diyarbakır and Mardin provinces during 2002-2004. Infested leaves with leafminer larvae were collected from both cultivated and non-cultivated plants twice a month. The adult parasitoids were obtained by rearing from infested leaves in the laboratory. Five parasitoid species belonging to the Braconidae (Hymenoptera) were found. These species, Bracon kirgisorum Telenga, 1936, Opius basali...

  17. The first records of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    S. Khaghaninia; Kazerani, F.

    2014-01-01

    Based on collected specimens from Arasbaran Forests during 2013, four species belonging to 3 genera of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera; Stratiomyidae) [Actina chalybea Meigen, 1804; Beris schaposchnikowi Pleske, 1926; Beris clavipes (Linnaeus, 1767) and Chorisops nagatomii Rozkošný, 1979] were recognised, which are recorded for the first time from Iran. A key to the studied species is provided, as well as diagnostic characters along with photos of the studied species; their geographical dist...

  18. The first records of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khaghaninia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on collected specimens from Arasbaran Forests during 2013, four species belonging to 3 genera of the subfamily Beridinae (Diptera; Stratiomyidae [Actina chalybea Meigen, 1804; Beris schaposchnikowi Pleske, 1926; Beris clavipes (Linnaeus, 1767 and Chorisops nagatomii Rozkošný, 1979] were recognised, which are recorded for the first time from Iran. A key to the studied species is provided, as well as diagnostic characters along with photos of the studied species; their geographical distributions are discussed.

  19. Morphology and Developmental Rate of the Blow Fly, Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Forensic Entomology Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nophawan Bunchu; Chinnapat Thaipakdee; Apichat Vitta; Sangob Sanit; Kom Sukontason; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

    2012-01-01

    Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a forensically important blow fly species presented in many countries. In this study, we determined the morphology of all stages and the developmental rate of H. ligurriens reared under natural ambient conditions in Phitsanulok province, northern Thailand. Morphological features of all stages based on observing under a light microscope were described and demonstrated in order to use for identification purpose. Moreover, development time in e...

  20. A DNA Barcode Library for Korean Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) and Indexes for Defining Barcode Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won

    2011-01-01

    Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified l...

  1. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C. A.; Roberto A. Zucchi

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha spe...

  2. Spook and Spookier code for stage-specific components of the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway in Diptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ono, Hajime; Rewitz, Kim; Shinoda, Tetsu;

    2006-01-01

    Ecdysteroids regulate many key developmental events in arthropods including molting and metamorphosis. Recently, members of the Drosophila Halloween group of genes, that are required for embryonic viability and cuticle deposition, have been shown to code for several cytochrome P450 enzymes that c...... Bombyx and Manduca that is expressed in both embryos and larva. These studies suggest an evolutionary split between Diptera and Lepidoptera in how the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway is regulated during development....

  3. Volatile host fruit odors as attractants for the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, M L; Duan, J J; Messing, R H

    2000-02-01

    We examined the responses of oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, to the odors of different stages and types of fruit presented on potted trees in a field cage. Females were most attracted to odors of soft, ripe fruit. Odors of common guava were more attractive to females than papaya and starfruit, and equally as attractive as strawberry guava, orange, and mango. In field tests, McPhail traps baited with mango, common guava, and orange captured equal numbers of females. Traps baited with mango were compared with 2 commercially available fruit fly traps. McPhail traps baited with mango captured more females than visual fruit-mimicking sticky traps (Ladd traps) and equal numbers of females as McPhail traps baited with protein odors. Results from this study indicate that host fruit volatiles could be used as lures for capturing oriental fruit flies in orchards.

  4. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  5. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labud Valeria Alejandra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  6. Análise cladística de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

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    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae, a Neotropical genus that includes ten species, was made. The cladogram was obtained from eight studied species, based on a data matrix with 21 characters, using the program Hennig86. Character states were polarized following outgroup analysis, and an hypothetical ancestor was included in the analysis in order to root the tree. The options used, "ie*" and "xs w", resulted in four most parsimonious trees with ci = 79, ri = 80 and length 115. The monophiletism of Euprepina was supported by two synapomorphies.

  7. 基于卡尔曼滤波的橘小实蝇成虫运动轨迹优化跟踪%Moving trace optimization tracking for adult of Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) based on Kalman filter algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文韬; 洪添胜; 李立君; 张南峰; 李震; 郭鑫

    2014-01-01

    Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) are invasive pests which occur frequently and are seriously harmful to the growth of fruit trees, and they have been ranked an important quarantine object in many countries and regions. The regular manual survey used as the routine predicting method for Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) has not accomplished the requirement of real-time and precise monitoring and warning by means of the adult trapping and monitoring device deployed in orchards. With the development of science and technologies, the method of the automatic machine monitoring for pests has been studied including detection of sound characteristics, radar monitoring and spectral monitoring. Considering the characteristic with randomness, migratory and hiding for Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), there were some problems such as timing, processing and costs in monitoring pests with the aid of combining the above monitoring and the traditional method. In order to accomplish precise monitoring for Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), machine vision technologies were used as an in-field automatic detecting method for the Hendel adults in this paper. Considering the problem with tracking Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) object disappearance in multi-objects with more closer condition by means of the mean shift algorithm in color space according to previous machine vision technology research results, the fusion algorithm based on mean shift and Kalman filter theories for moving objects was proposed for optimizing multi-objects moving trace tracking by means of colorful analysis for moving objects and background in monitoring zones. The recurrence relation of the adults moving trace was obtained, and position coordinate, X-component and Y-component of speed in the 2D plane were extracted by image processing and matching technologies in this algorithm. By analyzing the state sequence linear minimum variance estimate theory of dynamic system and recurrence relation of the adults moving trace, the model

  8. A check list of necrophagous flies (Diptera: Calyptratae from urban area in Medellín, Colombia Lista de moscas necrófagas (Diptera: Calyptratae del área urbana del municipio de Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Salazar-Ortega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of necrophagous flies (Diptera, Calyptratae occurring in the urban area of Medellín-Colombia is presented. 27 species belonging to 4 families are reported. Data were obtained from field work and recent bibliography references.Se presenta una lista actualizada de moscas necrófagas (Diptera, Calyptratae presentes en el área urbana del municipio de Medellín. Se registran 27 especies incluidas en cuatro familias. Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de recolectas en campo y referencias bibliográficas.

  9. The control effects of push - pull combination on oviposition of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)%拒避-诱杀组合技术对橘小实蝇产卵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢慧林; 欧阳革成; 郭明昉

    2012-01-01

    Effects of the push - pull combination, which "Lieying" protein poison bait ( GF - 120) was as bait and mineral spray oil as repellent, on oviposition of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis were studied in this paper. The results showed that the average oviposition puncture number by B. dorsalis on the banana fruits in treatment by push - pull combination was 0. 000 ± 0. 000, and the percentage of perfect fruit reached 100% , but the average oviposition puncture number in treatment only by the protein bait was 27. 000 ± 1. 732, and the percentage of perfect fruit was only 5. 55% , which showed that push-pull combination had significantly better control effect on oviposition of B. dorsalis than using mineral oil or protein bait only. The control effect was increased with the concentration of mineral oil. Poison bait dosage and application area should be enhanced as pest population density increased.%本文研究了以矿物油(mineral spray oil)乳剂为保护剂、“猎蝇”蛋白质毒饵为诱杀剂组成的拒避-诱杀组合技术对橘小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)产卵的控制作用.结果显示:橘小实蝇在采用拒避-诱杀组合技术保护的供试香蕉上平均产卵孔数为0.000±0.000个,果实完好率达到100%,而单独使用“猎蝇”蛋白质毒饵的平均产卵孔数为27.000±1.732个,果实完好率仅为5.55%,表明该组合技术对橘小实蝇产卵的控制效果显著.在100倍~ 300倍浓度范围内,矿物油浓度越高,拒避-诱杀组合对橘小实蝇产卵的控制效果越好;随着虫口密度的增加,毒饵使用量和施用面积也须相应增加,才能取得更好的防治效果.

  10. 人工饲料对柑橘大实蝇成虫寿命和繁殖特性的影响%Effects of Artificial Diet on Longevity and Reproductive Characteristics of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) Adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小姣; 王福莲; 张桂芬; 李传仁

    2012-01-01

    为了明确柑橘大实蝇[ Bactrocera minax (Enderlein)]成虫人工饲养的最适配方,室内条件下测定了蜂蜜水、糖醋液、啤酒酵母蔗糖水以及蛋白胨蔗糖水等4种人工饲料对柑橘大实蝇成虫寿命、交配次数及产卵量的影响.结果表明,4种人工饲料均能满足柑橘大实蝇成虫存活和繁殖的营养需求.以4种人工饲料饲喂的成虫可存活23~45 d,期间交配3~5次,且4种配方间没有显著差异;研究还显示,以蛋白胨蔗糖水喂食的成虫单雌产卵量最高,约为20粒,与其他3种配方间具有明显差异.研究结果可为柑橘大实蝇基础生物学特性和可持续治理技术提供参考.%In order to define a suitable artificial diet for Bactrocera minax (Enderlein), the effects of honey water, liquid sweet and sour mix, beer yeast sucrose water and peptone Bucrose water on longevity, mating and fecundity of B. Minax adult were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The results showed that all of the four kinds of artificial diets could enable B. Minax to complete their living history and lay eggs. Adults that fed on the four kinds of artificial diets could survival 23~ 45 d and mate 3~5 times during this period. There were no significant differences among the four kinds of artificial diets when the longevity and mating frequency of the adults were compared. However, the numbers of eggs laid by female adults reared on the peptone sucrose water (about 20 eggs/female) was much higher than those of adults reared on the other three kinds of artificial diets. The results are inportant for studying the basic biological characteristics of B. Minax and its sustainable management.

  11. 油橄榄扩区栽培不同区试点土壤肥力分析与评价%Analysis and Assessment of Different Pilot Area Soil Fertility in the Olea europaea Expansion Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 成娟; 周玉燕; 张正武; 赵强宏

    2015-01-01

    在油橄榄扩区驯化栽培的12个区试点采集土样,对土壤的p H值、全氮、全磷和速效钾含量进行测定,并对各点土壤情况进行对比分析。结果表明:所有区试点土壤p H值为中性到弱碱性,平均为7.36,符合油橄榄对土壤酸碱度的要求;全氮含量相对最低,平均为0.0939%,全磷含量相对较高,平均为0.098%;速效钾含量相对最高,平均为211.6mg/kg ;土壤肥力大小与不同流域及土壤类型之间无关联,而与人为活动程度密切相关。在油橄榄扩区驯化栽培土肥管理上,依照各流域不同区试点土壤肥力状况,可采取各种有效措施来改善油橄榄种植地土壤肥力状况。%In order to analyze the soils property of 12 domesticated cultivation areas ,we collected soil samples from each olea europaea expansion area and study pH ,total nitrogen ,total phosphorus and rapidly‐available potassium . The results show that pH of all pilot areas are neutral or weak alkaline ,with an average of 7 .36 .which is suitable for olea europaea .Total nitrogen is relatively low ,with an average of 0 .0939% .Total phosphorus and rapidly‐a‐vailable potassium are relatively high ,with an average of 0 .098% and 211 .6mg/kg respectively .Fertility of soil from different river basin and soil type is similar to each other ,but it is closely related to human activity .To improve the olive gardens soil fertility ,appropriate and effective way should be selected according to the soil fertility conditions of different pilot districts .

  12. Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Kahanpää

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae.

  13. Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  14. 16s rDNA文库法分析番石榴果实蝇共生菌组成%Composition of symbiotic bacteria associated with Bactrocera correcta analyzed by 16s rDNA libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴阳; 李志红; 柳丽君; 吴佳教; 邓裕亮

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The composition of symbiotic bacteria associated with Guava fruit fly, Bacirocera correcta (Bezzi), was investigated to provide the basis for further study on physiological function of the symbionts and co-evolution between bacteria and the host. [Method] 16s rDNA libraries of laboratory population for B. correcta were constructed, and BLAST analysis of bacterial composition and abundance was carried out in this study. [Result] The dominant symbionts in B. correcta male adults were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lactococcus lactis, while symbiotic bacteria in female adults were Enterobacter bacteria. [Conclusion] Various bacteria are present in the Guava fruit fly, B. correcta.%[目的]探索分析番石榴果实蝇[ Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi)]的共生菌组成,为进一步探索共生菌的生理功能以及与宿主的协同进化关系奠定基础.[方法]构建番石榴果实蝇室内种群共生菌的16s rDNA文库,BLAST分析其共生菌的组成以及丰度.[结果]室内雄虫共生菌主要为Pseudomonas aeruginosa和Lactococcus lactis,雌虫共生菌主要为Enterobacter属的细菌.[结论]本研究结果证明番石榴果实蝇存在多种共生菌.

  15. Essais de prolifération et d'enracinement de matériel issu de rajeunissement par bouturage d'oliviers adultes (Olea europaea L. et de germination in vitro : effets de cytokinine et d'auxines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walali Loudiyi D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation and rooting of juvenile and adult olive explants (Olea europaea L.: effects of cytokinin and auxins. The micropropagation trials conducted concerned juvenile and adult material from the ‘Moroccan Picholine’ olive cultivar. Zeatin, added to the proliferation medium, was tested at 0, 1, 5, 10 et 20 mg/l. Root induction was performed on media contaning IAA, IBA or NAA tested at 0, 0.5, 1, 2 et 4 mg/l. A significant (P<0.001 interaction exists between the explant type and the cytokinine concentration on one hand and the type and concentration of auxin on the other hand. The highest bud sprouting and shoot development were obtained on medium supplemented with 5 mg/l zeatin. For economical reasons, satisfying results can be obtained with only 1 mg/l. Rooting of microcuttings reached 100% when NAA, which proved to be the best auxin for root induction, was used at 1 mg/l. No rooting was observed in the case of adult plant material. Further investigations are being undertaken to improve the reactivity of this recalcitrant type of material.

  16. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  17. Influence of methoprene and protein on survival, maturation and sexual performance of male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), like many other polifagous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae), adopts a lek as mating system. The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires the release of sterile males able to survive on the field, to compete with wild males, and attrac...

  18. Captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera:Tephritidae) and non-target insects on red spheres versus yellow spheres and panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticky red spheres can be used to capture western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), but whether they capture more flies than yellow spheres and panels is poorly known. The objective of this study was to compare fly captures on red spheres versus yellow traps so...

  19. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Graciolli; Alexsander Araújo Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae). Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934), Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographic...

  20. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  1. New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA, Agricultural Research Service scientists in Gainesville, FL and Israeli scientists regularly c...

  2. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  3. Reduction in Emergence of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Sweet Cherries with Different Egg and Larval Distributions Using Newer Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...

  4. List of descriptions and other taxonomic proposals on american sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae: 1975-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Brisóla Marcondes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A check-list of new species, descriptions of other sex of previously described species, redescriptions, proposals of synonymy, and new status for species previously in synonymy or described as subspecies for american sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae, for the period 1975-1993, and not included in the revision of Martins el at. (1978, are presented.

  5. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  6. Three new genera and three new species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Rubiaceae from Guadeloupe, French West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new genera of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Faramitella Gagné, Anapeza Gagné and Pellacara Gagné, each with one new species, are described. The new species are from leaf galls on Rubiaceae collected in Guadeloupe, F.W.I.: Faramitella planicauda Gagné, new species, was reared from Fara...

  7. How much can diptera-borne viruses persist over unfavourable seasons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud V P Charron

    Full Text Available Diptera are vectors of major human and animal pathogens worldwide, such as dengue, West-Nile or bluetongue viruses. In seasonal environments, vector-borne disease occurrence varies with the seasonal variations of vector abundance. We aimed at understanding how diptera-borne viruses can persist for years under seasonal climates while vectors overwinter, which should stop pathogen transmission during winter. Modeling is a relevant integrative approach for investigating the large panel of persistence mechanisms evidenced through experimental and observational studies on specific biological systems. Inter-seasonal persistence of virus may occur in hosts due to viremia duration, chronic infection, or vertical transmission, in vector resistance stages, and due to a low continuous transmission in winter. Using a generic stochastic modeling framework, we determine the parameter ranges under which virus persistence could occur via these different mechanisms. The parameter ranges vary according to the host demographic regime: for a high host population turnover, persistence increases with the mechanism parameter, whereas for a low turnover, persistence is maximal for an optimal range of parameter. Persistence in hosts due to long viremia duration in a few hosts or due to vertical transmission is an effective strategy for the virus to overwinter. Unexpectedly, a low continuous transmission during winter does not give rise to certain persistence, persistence barely occurring for a low turnover of the susceptible population. We propose a generic framework adaptable to most diptera-borne diseases. This framework allows ones to assess the plausibility of each persistence mechanism in real epidemiological situations and to compare the range of parameter values theoretically allowing persistence with the range of values determined experimentally.

  8. How Much Can Diptera-Borne Viruses Persist over Unfavourable Seasons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Maud V. P.; Balenghien, Thomas; Seegers, Henri; Langlais, Michel; Ezanno, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Diptera are vectors of major human and animal pathogens worldwide, such as dengue, West-Nile or bluetongue viruses. In seasonal environments, vector-borne disease occurrence varies with the seasonal variations of vector abundance. We aimed at understanding how diptera-borne viruses can persist for years under seasonal climates while vectors overwinter, which should stop pathogen transmission during winter. Modeling is a relevant integrative approach for investigating the large panel of persistence mechanisms evidenced through experimental and observational studies on specific biological systems. Inter-seasonal persistence of virus may occur in hosts due to viremia duration, chronic infection, or vertical transmission, in vector resistance stages, and due to a low continuous transmission in winter. Using a generic stochastic modeling framework, we determine the parameter ranges under which virus persistence could occur via these different mechanisms. The parameter ranges vary according to the host demographic regime: for a high host population turnover, persistence increases with the mechanism parameter, whereas for a low turnover, persistence is maximal for an optimal range of parameter. Persistence in hosts due to long viremia duration in a few hosts or due to vertical transmission is an effective strategy for the virus to overwinter. Unexpectedly, a low continuous transmission during winter does not give rise to certain persistence, persistence barely occurring for a low turnover of the susceptible population. We propose a generic framework adaptable to most diptera-borne diseases. This framework allows ones to assess the plausibility of each persistence mechanism in real epidemiological situations and to compare the range of parameter values theoretically allowing persistence with the range of values determined experimentally. PMID:24023929

  9. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin N.; Corcoran, Jacob A.; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D.; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1–2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  10. Morfologia comparada das terminálias masculina e feminina dos rhagionidae (Diptera, Tabanomorpha) neotropicais

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel D.D. Carmo; Charles Morphy D. Santos

    2011-01-01

    Apresentamos uma investigação comparativa da morfologia das terminálias masculina e feminina de gêneros da família Rhagionidae (Diptera, Brachycera, Tabanomorpha) com distribuição neotropical. Partindo do plano básico de Brachycera, hipóteses de homologias entre as peças reprodutivas foram analisadas em um contexto comparativo. Os resultados sugerem que as condições presentes em Rhagionidae são no geral muito modificadas quando comparadas com o ancestral comum mais recente de Brachycera. Este...

  11. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ferguson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic A. kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001, but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113.

  12. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2014-01-01

    Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchusoceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchuskampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113. PMID:25349526

  13. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-01-01

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.  PMID:25544092

  14. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  15. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae from Baltic amber (Eocene: the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860.

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    Iwona Kania

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae from Baltic amber (Eocene is presented. Four species--E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew--are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus' ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed.

  16. Comparison of emergence traps of different shape and translucency in the trapping of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, S; Lühken, R; Kroischke, F; Timmermann, E; Kiel, E

    2016-06-15

    Various types of emergence traps are available for investigations of the breeding habitats of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). In order to assess the potential impact of the trap design on the trapping success, we compared the efficiency of opaque and white (more translucent) emergence traps and two trap shapes (cone-shaped and quadratic), to sample Culicoides emerging from cowpats. Significantly higher numbers of Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi were trapped with opaque traps, while there was no obvious effect of the trap shape. There were no distinct differences in the microclimate among different trap types. PMID:27198792

  17. Pollinator diversity (Hymenoptera and Diptera in semi-natural habitats in Serbia during summer

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    Mudri-Stojnić Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess species diversity and population abundance of the two main orders of pollinating insects, Hymenoptera and Diptera. The survey was conducted in 16 grassland fragments within agro-ecosystems in Vojvodina, as well as in surrounding fields with mass-flowering crops. Pollinators were identified and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used to measure their diversity. Five families, 7 subfamilies, 26 genera and 63 species of insects were recorded. All four big pollinator groups investigated were recorded; hoverflies were the most abundant with 32% of the total number of individuals, followed by wild bees - 29%, honeybees - 23% and bumblebees with 16%.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica. PMID:26642812

  19. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin N; Corcoran, Jacob A; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1-2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  20. New locality record of Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B

    2013-03-01

    Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak. PMID:23665723

  1. Biología de Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en enclaves representativos de la Comunidad Valenciana

    OpenAIRE

    Chordá Olmos, Francisco Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Los mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) es uno de los grupos de insectos de mayor notoriedad en Salud Pública no sólo por su molesta picadura sino, sobre todo, por la gran variedad y cantidad de enfermedades que transmiten al ser humano y a los animales. Entre ellas hay que destacar la Malaria, el Dengue, la Fiebre amarilla, el Virus del Oeste del Nilo, el Chikungunya, las Filariasis y diversas Encefalitis que anualmente afectan a millones de personas en todo el mundo. Para el control de las po...

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica.

  3. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

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    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  4. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation. PMID:18209717

  5. Two torymid species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Torymidae developing on Artemisia gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two parasitoid wasps, Torymus artemisiae Mayr and Torymoides violaceus (Nikol’skaya, were reared on Artemisia herba-alba (Asteraceae galles, in central Iran. Torymus artemisiae and T. violaceus were developed from the gall midges: Rhopalomyia navasi Tavares and R. hispanica Tavares, respectively. The occurrence of these two parasitic wasps in Iran, and their associations with R. navasi and R. hispanica, are new. Data on the wasps’ biological associations and geographical distribution are provided. The parasitoid compositions of the genus Rhopalomyia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were also discussed.

  6. A new record of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera:Fanniidae) from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, B; Kurahashi, H; Jeffery, J; Yasohdha, N; Lau, S Y; John, M C; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Ahmad, M S

    2007-12-01

    Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) is newly recorded from Malaysia. This record is based on 1male symbol 1female symbol from Sarawak, east Malaysia and 1male symbol 2female symbol from Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. It is included in the pusio group of Fannia wherein are included Fannia femoralis (Stein), Fannia howardi Malloch, Fannia trimaculata (Stein), Fannia leucosticta (Meigen) and Fannia punctiventris Malloch. The male of Fannia pusio is differentiated from other members of the group by the following features: hind femur with a swelling bearing a number of setae that are usually curled at tip; squamae creamy; tergite 1+2 broadly grey dusted at sides.

  7. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Smir marshes (northwest of Morocco): inventory and biotypology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Joubari, M; Louah, A; Himmi, O

    2014-02-01

    The Smir marshes are a favorable environment for the growth of many mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). The inventory of Culicidae species reveals 14 species, is 33% of the species of Morocco, distributed in four genera: Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus and Anopheles (with 5, 2, 5 and 2 species respectively) which Anopheles labranchiae, vector of the agent of the malaria in Morocco until 2004. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal mesological affinities and we tried to explain the biotypology of mosquito populations of the site. These analyzes revealed several groups of stations and species according to various parameters, especially salinity.

  8. New locality record of Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Aisha, S; Kurahashi, H; Omar, B

    2013-03-01

    Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.

  9. Host plant record for the fruit flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C A; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the "Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce". This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  10. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  11. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  12. Abundance and seasonality of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae in Southern Pantanal, Brazil Sazonalidade de Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Pantanal Sul-mato-grossense, Brasil

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    Wilson Werner Koller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae, known as the secondary screwworm, occurs in the Americas and has medical-veterinary and forensic importance. This study aimed to describe the seasonal fluctuation of this species in the Pantanal region, Central-Western Brazil. From December 2004 to November 2007 fly catches using four windoriented traps baited with decaying bovine liver were carried out at the Nhumirim ranch, Nhecolândia subregion, Southern Pantanal. Traps remained active throughout the study period and collections were carried out on a weekly basis. A total of 159,397 Calliphoridae were caught and C. macellaria (57.33% was the most abundant species. C. macellaria occurred all over the year showing a bimodal behavior with peaks in May-July (late autumn/early winter and October-December (spring.Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae, conhecida como mosca-varejeira, ocorre no continente americano e apresenta importância médico-veterinária e forense. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a flutuação sazonal dessa espécie na região do Pantanal. De dezembro/2004 a novembro/2007 foram realizadas coletas de dípteros na fazenda Nhumirim, sub-região da Nhecolândia, Pantanal sul-mato-grossense. Foram utilizadas quatro armadilhas orientadas pelo vento, iscadas com fígado bovino deteriorado. As armadilhas permaneceram ativas durante todo o período de estudo, e coletas foram realizadas semanalmente. Foram capturados 159.397 califorídeos, sendo C. macellaria (57,33% a espécie mais abundante. C. macellaria foi observada em todos os meses do ano, apresentando comportamento bimodal com picos populacionais em maio/julho (final de outono/início de inverno e outubro/dezembro (primavera.

  13. Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae

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    Karlla Patrícia Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae. The male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 is described and illustrated for the first time based on material housed in the entomological collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. This monotypic subgenus has been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, first in the state of Amazonas and now in the state of Pará. The general structure of the male terminalia is similar that of other Lepidodexia, especially of the subgenus Lepidodexia, by the short distiphallus, juxta with apical projection, and vesica with a membranous spinous lobe.Descrição do macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. O macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez, com base em material depositado na coleção entomológica do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Esse subgênero monotípico tem sido registrado na Floresta Amazônica brasileira, primeiramente no estado do Amazonas e agora no Pará. A estrutura geral da terminália masculina é similar a de outras espécies de Lepidodexia, especialmente do subgênero Lepidodexia, pelo distifalo curto, juxta com projeção apical e vesica com lobo membranoso e espinhoso.

  14. The mitochondrial genome of the garden pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-Zhu; Jin, Gui-Hua; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Here we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the garden pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) (GenBank accession no. KR047789). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Chromatomyia. The current length with partial A  +  T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 15,320 bp with an A  +  T content of 77.54%. All the 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes were sequenced, except for the A  +  T-rich region. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Diptera, there is no rearrangement compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with the ATN start codon except for the gene cox1, which uses abnormal TTG. The A  +  T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnI with a sequenced length of 503 bp. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes recovered the monophyly of Agromyzidae with one species of Chromatomyia and four species of Liriomyza in our study. The superfamily Oestroidea (with Agromyzidae in analysis) is sister to the Opomyzoidea.

  15. Identification through DNA barcoding of Tabanidae (Diptera) vectors of surra disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Dhriti; Kumar, Vikas; Maity, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Biswatosh; Tyagi, Kaomud; Singha, Devkant; Kundu, Shantanu; Laskar, Boni Amin; Naskar, Atanu; Rath, Shibananda

    2015-10-01

    Horse flies and deer flies are common names applied to members of the family Tabanidae (Diptera). Tabanid flies are pestiferous and of veterinary and medical importance, with about 244 species in India. They are major vectors of Trypanosoma evansi that causes trypanosomiasis (surra disease). Lack of stable morphological characters, and scarcity of taxonomic expertise, is major impediments for accurate species identification of these important pest and disease vectors. Molecular data, especially DNA barcode data, has been widely used in the identification of Diptera of economic importance. We evaluated the utility of DNA barcode data to discriminate the vectors of surra disease (trypanosomiasis) from India. We used barcode gap and reciprocal monophyly (neighbor-joining and Bayesian tree) criteria to analyze barcode data. A total of 46 specimens belonging to 7 species under four genera in two subfamilies were used for this study. DNA barcode data was not available previously for these species. Analysis revealed that all morphologically identifiable species can be discriminated using DNA barcoding data. Further, our study clearly demonstrated the presence of cryptic species in Chrysops dispar. Moreover, we revealed that closely related species without stable taxonomic distinguishing characters in the "Tabanus striatus species complex" can be discriminated using DNA barcode data. PMID:26126785

  16. Cue lure and the mating behavior of male melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effect of the parapheromone cue lure on the mating behavior of male Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). Exposure to cue lure resulted in a short-term mating advantage. For wild flies, treated males that fed on cue lure on the day of testing, or 1 day prior to testing, mated more frequently than control males that had no prior exposure to cue lure. However, control and treated males had similar mating success in tests performed 3 or 7 days after the treated males were exposed to the lure. Exposure to cue lure also increased the mating success of mass-reared, irradiated males relative to unexposed wild males, though this advantage was evident for only 1 day following exposure. Cue lure appeared to enhance mating performance by increasing male wing-fanning activity but not the attractiveness of the signal per se. A field study revealed that irradiated males exposed to cue lure 1 week prior to release were less likely to be captured (in Steiner traps baited with cue lure and naled) than unexposed males. These findings suggest that exposure of sterile males to cue lure might improve the effectiveness of sterile insect release as well as enable simultaneous control programs of sterile insect release and male annihilation

  17. Toxicity of Pesticides in Protein Bait to Bactrocera dorsalis%橘小实蝇蛋白饵剂中添加农药的室内毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 杨莹; 黄居昌; 陈家骅

    2013-01-01

    蛋白饵剂中添加高效低毒农药已成为国内外防控实蝇类害虫的一项重要措施,为筛选高效低毒、与蛋白饵剂兼容性好的农药,在实验室条件下,采用药膜法和饵剂加毒法分别测定了多杀菌素、马拉硫磷、阿维菌素、虫螨腈和乙虫腈5种农药对橘小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalcs的触杀和胃毒作用.触杀试验结果表明,多杀菌素的触杀效果最好,LC50为72.33 mg· L-1,95%置信区间为52.84 ~ 101.48 mg·L-1.其他农药的触杀作用效果顺序为:阿维菌素>马拉硫磷>乙虫腈>虫螨腈.胃毒试验结果表明,阿维菌素和多杀菌素的胃毒作用效果较好,LC50分别为13.99和15.76 mg·L-1,95%置信区间范围分别为11.72 ~16.97和13.09~ 19.23 mg·L-1.其他农药的胃毒作用效果顺序为:虫螨腈>乙虫腈>马拉硫磷.生物测定结果表明,添加农药后,水解蛋白的引诱效果会不同程度地下降,添加多杀菌素后引诱效果最好,引诱率达到55.83%,与水解蛋白原液相比,引诱率仅下降了4.17%.%Application of protein bait adding high-efficiency and low-toxicity pesticides is an important approach controlling fruit flies in the world. Under laboratory conditions, the contact and stomach toxicity of several pesticides to Bactrocera dorsalis were tested for screening the pesticides of high-efficiency, low toxicity and good proten bait compatibility. The results of contact toxicity showed that spinosad was the best due to its lowest LC50 of 72. 33 mg · L-1. The contact toxicity of other four pesticides in order was avermectins, malathion, ethiprole and chlorfenapyr. The results of stomach toxicity showed that avermec-tins and spinosad were better than those of other three pesticides, of which the LC50 were 13. 99 and 15.76 mg · L-1 respectively, and 95% confidence interval range were 11.72 - 16.97 and 13.09 -19. 23 mg · L-1 respectively. The effect of other three pesticides in order was chlorfenapyr

  18. 橘小实蝇蛋白饵剂中氨基酸的HPLC分析及生物测定%HPLC Analysis and Biological Test of Amino Acids in Protein Bait for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英; 王波; 许晨; 许建中; 黄居昌; 季清娥; 杨建全; 陈家骅

    2014-01-01

    采用生物测定的方法比较Prima蛋白饵剂和自行研制蛋白饵剂的引诱效果。结果表明,两者对橘小实蝇(Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel))引诱效果相当,但水解后的同种蛋白饵剂引诱效果高于水解前。采用柱前衍生高效液相色谱法(AccQ·Tag法)测定以上两种蛋白饵剂中氨基酸的种类和含量,结果表明,这两种蛋白饵剂中均含有游离氨基酸17种,总氨基酸18种。其中Prima蛋白饵剂总氨基酸含量为52.8476 mg/mL,游离氨基酸含量为5.7364 mg/mL,多肽含量为4.71112 mg/mL;自行研制的橘小实蝇蛋白饵剂总氨基酸含量为65.6243 mg/mL,游离氨基酸含量为6.3010 mg/mL,多肽含量为59.3233 mg/mL。通过比较两者氨基酸的差别,为蛋白饵剂的工业化生产质量监控提供方法依据。%This article mainly compares the similarities and differences between Prima produced by Malaysia Pupuk Alam company and protein bait for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) developed by our research institute. The biological test was used to compare attractive effects, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Precolumn Derivatization (AccQ · Tag) was used to analyse the kinds and contents of amino acids. The results showed the attractive effects of Prima and protein bait were similar, and the two protein baits all contained 17 kinds of free amino acids and 18 total amino acids. Prima contained 52.847 6 mg/mL of total amino acids, 5.736 4 mg/mL of free amino acid, and 47.111 2 mg/mL of peptides. The protein bait was consisted of 65.624 3 mg of total amino acids, 6.301 0 mg of free amino acid, 59.323 3 mg of peptides in one milliliter. Besides, the attractive effect of hydrolyzed protein was stronger than before. The results can provide a basis for monitoring protein bait quality on the industrial production.

  19. Toxicity Determination of Several Insecticides and Their Mixtures to Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae ( Coquillett)%几种杀虫剂及其混配对瓜实蝇成虫的毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奎; 付步礼; 邱海燕; 符悦冠

    2011-01-01

    采用微量点滴法,测定了毒死蜱、甲维盐、敌敌畏、顺式氯氰菊酯等4种杀虫剂对瓜实蝇成虫的毒力和二元混配的联合毒力.结果表明:80%敌敌畏乳油(EC)的LD50最小,为1.683 9μg·g-1;100g·L-1顺式氯氰菊酯EC的LD50最大,为8.877 0μ g·g-1.供试杀虫剂毒性大小依次为:80%敌敌畏EC>5%甲维盐微乳剂(ME) >480g·L-1毒死蜱EC> 100 g·L-1顺式氯氰菊酯EC.敌敌畏与甲维盐(1∶1)混配的增效作用最强,共毒系数为426.%Four insecticides toxicities to adult of Bactrocera (Zeugodacus ) cucurbitae ( Coquillett) and their co-efficient ratio were determined by micro drop method. The results showed that LD50 of 80 % dichlorvos EC was minimum for 1.683 9 μg ? G-1 and alpha-cypermethrin EC was the largest for 8.877 0 μg ? G-1. The toxicity order was 80 % dichlorvos EC>5 % emamectin-benzoate ME > 480 g ? L-1 chlorpyrifos EC> 100 g ? L-1 alpha-cypermethrin EC. The co-efficient ratio of the mixture of dichlorvos and emamectin-benzoate (1:1) was 426.

  20. Oviposition deterrents of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis to non-host plant extracts%非寄主植物提取物对橘小实蝇的产卵拒避作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海清; 刘少明; 欧阳革成; 杨悦屏; 黄灏维; 郭家骏; 熊锦君

    2008-01-01

    选取4种非寄主植物柠檬桉Eucalyptus citriodora、樟树Cinnamomum camphora、白千层Melaleuca leucadendron、夹竹桃Nerium indicum,初步研究了这4种植物叶子提取物对橘小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis的产卵拒避作用.以无水乙醇作溶剂,供试4种植物中的白千层提取物对橘小实蝇具有较强的产卵拒避作用.检测了橘小实蝇对4种植物的乙醇提取物的触角电位值,发现各生物测定值与雌虫触角电位值呈显著相关性,表明其中的挥发性组分是橘小实蝇对植物提取物产生拒避反应的重要原因之一.用无水乙醇、乙醚、石油醚、二氯甲烷作溶剂,分别提取白千层叶,仅乙醇提取物有显著拒避作用;用这4种溶剂分别提取樟树叶,则无水乙醇、乙醚、石油醚作溶剂的提取物都有较好效果.

  1. Parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae coletados em pupários no substrato rim bovino Parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae collected in pupae in the bovine kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Patrick Bonani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo, identificar as principais espécies de parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, em Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, cujas larvas foram alimentadas com rim bovino. As coletas foram realizadas durante o período de agosto de 2003 a março de 2004. Um total de 921 parasitóides foram coletados em 942 pupas dessa mosca. A prevalência natural de parasitismo foi de 97%.The study aimed at identifying the main parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. The larvae were feed on bovine kidney. Samplings were conducted from August 2003 to March 2004, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 921 parasitoids in 942 pupae fly were collected. The prevalence natural parasitism was 97%.

  2. Anomalías morfológicas en diferentes estructuras de cinco especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae Morphological abnormalities in different structures of five species of Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vergara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran diversos casos de anomalías morfológicas de cinco diferentes especies de Lutzomyia França (Diptera Psychodidae. Estas teratologías se observan en varias estructuras importantes para la identificación taxonómica de dichas especies. Los diferentes individuos pertenecientes a las especies L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai y L. panamensis fueron capturados en diversos departamentos en Colombia.Diverse morphological anomalies in five different species of Lutzomyia França (Diptera: Pychodidae are described and illustrated. These theratologies are observed in various structures important for the taxonomic identification of the species. The different individuals that belong to the species L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai and L. panamensis were captured in diverse departments in Colombia.

  3. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: fanniidae no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae is reported. Pupae of F. pusio were collected in traps using human feces to attract the adults. Ten pupae were obtained, of which two were parasitized by S. nigroaenea, thus demonstrating a parasitism rate of 20.0%.

  4. Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea in Argentina, with information on the biology of the genus Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea en Argentina, con información sobre la biología del género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. Campos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first literature record of the genus Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae from South America (Neotropical Region. New information on the biological cycle of Stenomicra species in the wild is provided, and four species of the genus Eryngium L. (Apiaceae are recorded as host plants for immature stages of this taxon. The specimens of Stenomicra sp. were collected in Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.En este estudio, se publica por primera vez para Sudamérica (Región Neotropical el género Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae. Se aporta información sobre su ciclo biológico en condiciones naturales y se mencionan cuatro especies del género Eryngium L. (Apiaceae, como plantas hospedadoras de los estados inmaduros. Los ejemplares de Stenomicra sp. fueron colectados en Sierra de la Ventana, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  5. Optimization design and experiment of monitoring system forBactrocera dorsalis trapping under lighting variations%适应场景光照变化的桔小实蝇诱捕监测系统优化设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖德琴; 叶耀文; 冯健昭; 潘春华; 陆永跃

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera Dorsalis is a type of invasive pests and causes serious damage to many important economic crops. In order to monitor Bactrocera Dorsalisaccurately, and to reduce the misjudgment of light-induced problem, a remote monitoring system which combined a hardware equipment and a software system was designed. The hardware equipment was optimized based on our preliminary design forBactrocera Dorsalis trapping. By improving the shading system, solar devices and 4G communications devices, the hardware equipment now can be self-powered and integrate the insect pest information collection, processing and transmission as a whole functionality. In addition, this paper presents a good human-computer interaction software system, which includes theBactrocera Dorsalis monitoring programs, the server and the client-side. The monitoring program can monitor the trapping process, precisely calculate the number ofBactrocera Dorsalis, and automatically transmit the results to the remote server or store it in a local storage card. Users are convenient to obtain the monitoring information through the client-side. In order to improve the accuracy ofthe Bactrocera Dorsalis detection algorithm (BDDA) and achieve the requirements of real-time systems, an algorithm namedBactrocera Dorsalis detection algorithm under lighting variations (BDDA-LV) was proposed. The BDDA-LV began by selecting appropriate background model according to the light conditions. Then the background difference method was used to extractBactrocera Dorsalis target preliminarily. Median filtering and morphological filtering for the image was used to reduce white noise, and eliminate holes in the target area to improve the image quality. The image was then divided into blocks based on the adjacent pixels of the image and used these blocks for Geometric feature matching, so that theBactrocera Dorsalis area can be extracted. Both BDDA-LV algorithm and BDDA algorithm were tested by two sets of data. These data came from

  6. Calliphoridae (Diptera) from wild, suburban, and urban sites at three Southeast Patagonian localities: Calliphoridae (Diptera) de ambientes no habitados, suburbanos y urbanos en tres localidades del sudeste patagónico

    OpenAIRE

    Juan C. Mariluis; Juan A. Schnack; Pablo P. Mulieri; Luciano D. Patitucci

    2008-01-01

    Species composition, relative abundance, sex ratio and habitat preference of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Caleta Olivia, Puerto Deseado, and Puerto San Julián (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina) were studied during late spring and summer in 2004-2005. Results showed a higher prevalence of the exotic species, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) and Phaenicia sericata (Meigen) at urban sites over the natives, Compsomyops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy) and Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wied...

  7. Diversity, distribution and floral specificity of tangle-veined flies (Diptera: Nemestrinidae) in north west Patagonia, Argentina Diversidad, distribución y especificidad floral de nemestrínidos (Diptera) en el noroeste de la Patagonia, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    MARIANO DEVOTO; DIEGO MEDAN

    2006-01-01

    Tangle-veined flies (Nemestrinidae) constitute a primitive and rather widespread family among Diptera. The genus Trichophthalma occurs in Australia and South America and is the only one in the family with a typically Gondwanian, disjoint distribution. The ecology and distribution of most southern South American species of this genus remains virtually unknown. We studied the diversity, distribution and flower specificity of flower-visiting species of the genus Trichophthalma in the temperate f...

  8. Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) como parasitóide de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) no Brasil Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as a parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori

    2007-01-01

    This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) found in chicken dung in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Manure samples, collected at two weeks intervals, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by water flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. The parasitism was 1.3%.

  9. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae) em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: fanniidae) no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori; Vanessa Alves Alvarenga

    2008-01-01

    Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae), no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Cur...

  10. Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae como parasitóide de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Diptera: Fanniidae no Brasil Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as a parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Marchiori

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Diptera: Fanniidae found in chicken dung in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Manure samples, collected at two weeks intervals, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by water flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. The parasitism was 1.3%.

  11. Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea) in Argentina, with information on the biology of the genus Stenomicra (Diptera: Opomyzoidea) en Argentina, con información sobre la biología del género

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Raúl E.; María C Gramajo; Mercedes Lizarralde de Grosso

    2010-01-01

    This is the first literature record of the genus Stenomicra Coquillett (Diptera: Periscelididae) from South America (Neotropical Region). New information on the biological cycle of Stenomicra species in the wild is provided, and four species of the genus Eryngium L. (Apiaceae) are recorded as host plants for immature stages of this taxon. The specimens of Stenomicra sp. were collected in Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.En este estudio, se publica por primera vez para Su...

  12. The skeletomuscular system of the larva of Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophilidae, Diptera): a contribution to the morphology of a model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Schneeberg, Katharina; Löffler, Andreas; Hünefeld, Frank; Meier, Rudolf; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-01-01

    The morphological features of the third instar larva of the most important insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, are documented for the first time using a broad spectrum of modern morphological techniques. External structures of the body wall, the cephaloskeleton, and the musculature are described and illustrated. Additional information about other internal organs is provided. The systematic implications of the findings are discussed briefly. Internal apomorphic features of Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha are confirmed for Drosophila. Despite the intensive investigations of the phylogeny of the megadiverse Diptera, evolutionary reconstructions are still impeded by the scarcity of anatomical data for brachyceran larvae. The available morphological information for the life stages of three insect model organisms -D. melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae), Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) - is addressed briefly. The usefulness of a combination of traditional and innovative techniques for an optimized acquisition of anatomical data for different life stages is highlighted. PMID:23010508

  13. Golden Ratio-Based and Tapered Diptera Inspired Wings: Their Design and Fabrication Using Standard MEMS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. Q. Bao; E. Cattan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents our understanding of insect wings, and the design and micromachining of artificial wings with golden ratio-based and tapered veins. The geometric anisotropy of Leading Edge Veins (LEVs) selected by Diptera has a function able to evade impact. As a Diptera example, the elliptic hollow LEVs of cranefly wings are mechanically and aerodynamically significant. In this paper, an artificial wing was designed to be a fractal structure by mimicking cranefly wings and incorporating cross-veins and discal cell. Standard technologies of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) were employed to materialize the design using the selected material. One SU-8 wing sample, light and stiff enough to be comparable to fresh cranefly wings,was presented. The as-prepared SU-8 wings are faithful to real wings not only in weight and vein pattern, but also in flexural stiffness and mass distribution. Thus our method renders possible mimicking with good fidelity of natural wings with complex geometry and morphology.

  14. Review of Thompsoniella Guimarães with description of a new species from Colombia (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wolff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Thompsoniella Guimarães with description of a new species from Colombia (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellinae. The Mesembrinellinae (Diptera, Calliphoridae are exclusively Neotropical with nine genera comprising 36 recognized species, including the genus Thompsoniella Guimarães with a single species, T. anomala Guimarães. We describe a new species, Thompsoniella andina sp. nov., from the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Colombia (Cordillera Central of the Andes, between 2600 - 2700 m and redescribe T. anomala. A key to the nine genera of Mesembrinellinae and a key to the males of the two species of Thompsoniella are provided. Color photographs to illustrate the two species of Thompsoniella and drawings of the male genitalia of both species are also provided. Here we record Thompsoniella for the first time in Colombia.

  15. How to inventory tropical flies (Diptera)--One of the megadiverse orders of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkent, Art; Brown, Brian V

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to inventory Diptera species in tropical habitats is described. A 150 x 266 m patch of cloud forest at Zurquí de Moravia, Costa Rica (10.047N, 84.008W) at 1585 meters asl was sampled with two Malaise traps for slightly more than one year (Sept. 12, 2012-Oct. 18, 2013). Further concomitant sampling with a variety of trapping methods for three days every month and collecting during a one-week intensive "Diptera Blitz", with 19 collaborators collecting on-site, provided diverse additional samples used in the inventory. Two other Costa Rican sites at Tapantí National Park (9.720N, 83.774W, 1600 m) and Las Alturas (8.951N, 82.834W, 1540 m), 40 and 180 km southeast from Zurquí de Moravia, respectively, were each sampled with a single Malaise trap to allow for beta-diversity assessments. Tapantí National Park was sampled from Oct. 28, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013 and Las Alturas from Oct. 13, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013. A worldwide group of 54 expert systematists are identifying to species level all 72 dipteran families present in the trap samples. Five local technicians sampled and prepared material to the highest curatorial standards, ensuring that collaborator efforts were focused on species identification. This project, currently in its final, third year of operation (to end Sept. 1, 2015), has already recorded 2,348 species and with many more yet expected. Unlike previous All Taxon Biodiversity Inventories, this project has attainable goals and will provide the first complete estimate of species richness for one of the four megadiverse insect orders in a tropical region. Considering that this is the first complete survey of one of the largest orders of insects within any tropical region of the planet, there is clearly great need for a consistent and feasible protocol for sampling the smaller but markedly more diverse smaller insects in such ecosystems. By weight of their species diversity and remarkable divergence of habit, the Diptera are an excellent model to

  16. Orientisargidae fam. n., a new Jurassic family of Archisargoidea (Diptera, Brachycera), with review of Archisargidae from China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Junfeng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A pair of fly impressions is described as a new species of a new genus, Orientisargus illecebrosus gen. et sp. n., referred to a new family Orientisargidae fam. n. within Archisargoidea of Brachycera, Diptera. The systematic position of Orientisargidae is discussed. Daohugosargus gen. n. is proposed for Sharasargus eximius KY Zhang et al., 2008. Uranorhagionidae is a junior synonym for Archisargidae. Meanwhile, Mostovskisarginae is a junior synonym for Uranorhagionidae. Mostovskisarg...

  17. Bush Blitz aids description of three new species and a new genus of Australian beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Exoprosopini)

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Lambkin; Justin Bartlett

    2011-01-01

    Bush Blitz is a three-year multimillion dollar program to document the plants and animals in hundreds of properties across Australia’s National Reserve System. The core focus is on nature discovery – identifying and describing new species of plants and animals. The Bush Blitz program has enabled the collection and description of beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from surveys in Western Australia and Queensland. Three new species of Australian beeflies belonging to the Exoprosopini a...

  18. Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from some localities of Paraguay: new records, checklist, and illustrated key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated.

  19. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3(rd) palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  20. Morphology, molecules and mating behavior : an integrative study of population divergence and speciation in widespread sepsid flies (Sepsidae: Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Puniamoorthy, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation explores processes of selection and speciation acting on diverging populations in two widespread sepsid species (Sepsidae: Diptera). The main focus was on investigating sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and incipient speciation in the nearctic and palaearctic species Sepsis punctum (Fabricius 1794) (Chapters 1-4). In addition, divergence in reproductive behavior and morphology was also addressed in the neotropical species Archisepsis divers...

  1. Posterior spiracles of fourth instar larvae of four species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, posterior spiracles of laboratory-reared fourth instar larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. lenti, and L. whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The number of papillae of spiracles examined varied according to the species examined, but no intraspecific differences were found. The importance of this structure to sand fly larva identification and phylogeny is commented.

  2. Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera) as water quality indicators along an environmental gradient in a neotropical urban stream

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja Gomes Machado; Danielle Christine Stenner Nassarden; Francyele dos Santos; Isabelle Christina Gonçalves Boaventura; Gregory Perrier; Fernanda Silveira Carvalho de Souza; Eucarlos de Lima Martins; Marcelo Sacardi Biudes

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic interference in urban lotic systems is a factor affecting the biota of waterbodies. Aquatic macro invertebrates are an important food source for fish and are valuable indicators of water quality. The objective of this work was to study Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera) distribution along an environmental gradient in Barbado Stream, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. No individual Chironomus was found in the springs of Barbado Stream, which may indicate preservation of the area. During ...

  3. First records of the 'bathroom mothmidge' Clogmia albipunctata, a conspicuous element of the Belgian fauna that went unnoticed (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Boumans, L.; Zimmer, J.-Y.; Verheggen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of circumtropical origin, the species probably spread to synanthropic habitats in northern and central Europe during the past decades. The first documented findings in Belgium are discussed, together with general information on the biology and recognition of the species.

  4. Dasiops luzestelae: a new species of the genus dasiops rondani (diptera: lonchaeidae) associated with passion fruit crops in colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Angela; Korytkowski, Cheslavo; Ebratt, Everth; Brochero, Helena L.

    2013-01-01

    Dasiops luzestelae n. sp. (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) is a species that previously was not described formally and is regarded as an undetermined pest affecting buds of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener. This study evaluated material collected in 10 departments of Colombia where passion fruit crops constitute an important economic income. Data of geographical distribution and passion fruit crops associated with Dasiops luzestelae n. sp. are presented.

  5. Translocation-based genetic sexing system to enhance the sterile insect technique against the melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autosomal recessive bubble wing (bw) mutant was used to construct a translocation-based genetic sex sorting system in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The translocation stock has females with the bubble wing phenotype that are unable to fly, but the males are wild-type and fly normally. The bubble wing translocation strain has lower egg hatch, larval viability, and eclosion rates than the wild-type strain. Expression of the bubble wing trait is temperature-dependent, with high expression of the trait in 92% of adults at 23°C but in only 15% of adults at 28°C. This translocation-based sex sorting system is the only method available for automatic separation of male and female melon flies in sterile insect release programs

  6. Translocation-based genetic sexing system for the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on pupal color dimorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autosomal recessive white puparium (wp) mutant was used to construct the first genetic sex sorting system in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The translocation stocks have females with the white puparium phenotype and puparia of males are the wild-type color, brown. Viability measurements of the 49-wp translocation strain indicate that fitness relative to the wild-type and white puparium strains was not lower than expected. Hatch rate and larval viability were lower for the translocation strain, but there were no significant differences between strains for eclosion rates. This translocation-based sex sorting system is the only automatic method currently available for separation of male and female oriental fruit flies in sterile insect release programs

  7. "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina: Resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Simuliidae is a family of Diptera with approximately 2072 described species worldwide. The females of the majority of the species feed from vertebrates' blood, which makes them a significant plague that affects both men as well as cattle, birds, and other vertebrates. The objective of this paper is to create an inventory of Simuliidae and to reveal certain aspects of the biology and distribution of this family of aquatic insects in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Moreover, information on the zoogeography of Simuliidae in Patagonia is provided. Five genera, 3 subgenera and 32 species Simuliidae are recorded from Patagonia: Cnesia (three spp., Cnesiamima (one sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (one sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (one sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (one sp. and S. ( Pternaspatha (11 spp., At present, we have collected all five genera, one subgenus of Simulium (Pternaspatha, and 19 species of Simuliidae in the park, which amounts to 57% of the Simuliidae fauna in this area. Puerto Blest, a characteristic area of the High-Andean phytogeographical province (humid forest, showed the highest diversity of Simuliidae.Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera (Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium

  8. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi El-Hawagry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794, Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909, Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804, while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone.

  9. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al

    2015-01-01

    Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyiadiscoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylumcandidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopalinearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopaminos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopalinearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylumcandidum and Bombomyiadiscoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  10. The relationship between morphological and behavioral mimicry in hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Heather D; Hassall, Christopher; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Lamborn, Brent; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2014-02-01

    Palatable (Batesian) mimics of unprofitable models could use behavioral mimicry to compensate for the ease with which they can be visually discriminated or to augment an already close morphological resemblance. We evaluated these contrasting predictions by assaying the behavior of 57 field-caught species of mimetic hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and quantifying their morphological similarity to a range of potential hymenopteran models. A purpose-built phylogeny for the hover flies was used to control for potential lack of independence due to shared evolutionary history. Those hover fly species that engage in behavioral mimicry (mock stinging, leg waving, wing wagging) were all large wasp mimics within the genera Spilomyia and Temnostoma. While the behavioral mimics assayed were good morphological mimics, not all good mimics were behavioral mimics. Therefore, while the behaviors may have evolved to augment good morphological mimicry, they do not advantage all good mimics.

  11. Ectoparasitic insects (Diptera: Streblidae and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae of bats from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Gladys Autino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on specimens collected from bats of different families, we add new species and extend the known ecological distribution and host associations of insect ectoparasites of bats in Peru. New information is provided for the distribution of 26 species of parasites (25 Diptera and 1 Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae. Four species (Neotrichobius ectophyllae, Strebla galindoi, Strebla paramirabilis and Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni are new for Peru and 16 represent new records for the department of Loreto. Also, we found 17 new host-ectoparasite relationships. Of note, we found remarkable new association between Neotrichobius delicatus and bat species from the families Molossidae and Noctilionidae and a novel association between Paradyschiria parvula and a species of Vespertilionidae. Host-ectoparasite specificity was recorded with 14 species as monoxenous, three oligoxenous, seven pleioxenous and two polyxenous.

  12. Phylogeny of genus Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae) according to ITS2 sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小爱; 李嵩; 李昌本; 赵寿元; Aksoy; Serap

    1999-01-01

    The flies of genus Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae) are an important vector of African trypanosomiases which cause diseases in humans and animals. The ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (ITS-2) region sequences from different Glossina species were PCR-amplified and analyzed in order to construct a molecular phylogeny for genus Glossina. Trees generated by parsimony confirmed the monophyletic taxonomic placement of genus Glossina where fusca group species formed the deepest branch followed by morsitans and palpalis groups, respectively. The placement of Glossina austeni by both the traditional morphological and biochemical criteria has been controversial. Results presented here, based on ITS-2 locus sequence analysis, suggest that Glossina austeni can be placed into a separate subgenerus which forms a sister-group relationship with the morsitans group species.

  13. A preliminary survey of the non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae of the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Laurindo da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chironomidae (Diptera are among the most diverse and widespread aquatic insects, with roughly 5,500 described species. However, prior to the present work, no species of Chironomidae had been documented from the island of Hispaniola. Collections of non-biting midges, with emphasis on the lotic fauna, were made in the Dominican Republic during July of 2015. In total, 578 specimens belonging to 27 genera and at least 44 species within the subfamilies Chironominae (20 taxa, Orthocladiinae (16 taxa and Tanypodinae (8 taxa were found. The subfamilies Chironominae and Orthocladiinae predominated. Polypedilum was the most widespread and diverse genus of Chironominae. Metriocnemus were collected in bromeliad tanks. The chironomid fauna in Dominican Republic includes multiple genera with worldwide distributions, including Holarctic and Neotropical components.

  14. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  15. Foraging, Mating, and Thermoregulatory Behavior of Cyrtopogon willistoni Curran (Diptera: Asilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. O'Neill

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The robber fly Cyrtopogon willistoni Curran was studied in SW Montana, where it was an opportunistic predator of relatively small insects from 25 families in 7 orders. The most common prey were Diptera (44% and Homoptera (21%, with Cicadellidae, Bibionidae, and Formicidae comprising 44% of the prey. The elaborate courtship behavior of males included audible airborne visual displays that made use of silvery-white combs of hairs on the males' foretarsi. While perching, the flies exhibited both lateral and dorsal basking postures, and were apparently capable of strong flight only when direct sunlight was available. I compare the foraging and courtship behaviors of C. willistoni to those of other Cyrtopogon, and their thermal responses to those of other robber flies in the same habitat.

  16. Molecular identification of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in eastern North America by using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Logan M; Yu, Tian; Florin, David A; Nukmal, Nismah; Brown, Grayson C; Zhou, Xuguo

    2013-07-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are small blood-feeding dipterans that are primary vectors of numerous human and livestock pathogens. Effective surveillance programs with accurate identification tools are critical in development and implementation of modern integrated pest management programs. Although morphological keys are available for North American species, identification can still be challenging owing to the nature of sample preparation and incompatibility with molecular or biochemical-based pathology assays. Further, the potential for introduction of Old World or other exotic species is not accounted for by current keys. Herein, we present the development and validation of a restriction fragment-length polymorphism-based molecular identification method. Specifically, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, a mitochondrial DNA marker, was used to distinguish two species of adult sand flies indigenous to eastern North America with two exotic species not yet known to occur in the United States.

  17. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  18. Giant spiral shaped spermatozoa of Diasemopsis comoroensis (Diptera, Diopsidae) with a unique ultrastructural component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrba, M; Heß, M

    2013-12-01

    In this study we describe a new kind of sperm gigantism in the stalk-eyed fly, Diasemopsis comoroensis (Diptera, Diopsidae). The sperm cells have a length of up to 1.7 mm and can be coiled into a compact 'slinky' spiral. Their ultrastructure involves a prominent electron dense central band, which runs the entire length of the sperm tail and in some regions constitutes its largest element in cross section. We propose that this organelle is either a giant centriole adjunct or a kind of accessory body derived from it, and that it takes part in coiling the sperm tail. To our knowledge, no comparable structure has been described before. PMID:24054968

  19. The complete mitochondrial DNA genomes for two lineages of Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J; Webb, C E

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes for two deeply divergent lineages of the urban adapted mosquito Aedes notoscriptus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia were sequenced using a combination of next generation Illumina and traditional Sanger sequencing. The 15,846 and 15,851 bp circular genomes share 95.0% nucleotide identity. They both have the full complement of 37 metazoan genes and identical gene arrangements to previously published Culicidae species with the one non-coding A + T rich control region present between rns and tRNA-Ile. All protein initiation codons are ATN apart from COX1 (TCG). Eight protein coding genes encode full TAA stop codons, one uses an incomplete TA and four use T. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:25350735

  20. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514