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Sample records for bactris gassipaes kunth

  1. VIABILIDADE DE SEMENTES DE PUPUNHA (BACTRIS GASIPAES KUNTH)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Sidney Alberto do N; Santos,Lenoir Alves dos

    1992-01-01

    A viabilidade e o vigor das sementes de pupunha (Bactris gasipaesKunth) são assoiados com a perda de umidade das mesmas. Partindo de um teor de umidade inicial de 45%, foi observado que abaixo de 38% de umidade a emergência e o vigor das sementes foram afetados negativamente de maneira significativa. Abaixo de 17% de umidade a emergência foi praticamente nula. Baseando-se nestes resultados pode-se enquadrar as sementes de pupunha dentro do grupo das espécies chamadas recalcitrantes. The vi...

  2. Incidencia de enfermedades en pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth para palmito

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    Carlos Arroyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidencia de enfermedades en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth para palmito. Se determinó la incidencia de enfermedades en cuatro variedades de palmito de pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, durante los 12 primeros meses de desarrollo. Tres de ellas sin espinas (Diamantes-1, Diamantes- 10 y Diamantes-20 y una con espinas (Utilis-Tucurrique. El ensayo se efectuó en la región de Guápiles, Costa Rica, de mayo del 2000 a abril del 2001. Los patógenos que se encontraron en las plantas de pejibaye fueron: Colletotrichum sp., (mancha negra de las hojas; Phytophthora palmivora, (pudrición cogollo u hoja guía; Drechslera setariae, (mancha de anillo; Lasiodiplodia theobromae (hoja deshilachada y Erwinia sp., (pudrición del tallo, quema de hojas y hoja guía. La variedad Utilis-Tucurrique, presentó la mayor susceptibilidad a todas las enfermedades, pero en ningún caso éstas llegaron a un nivel de importancia económica. La incidencia de Erwinia sp. y Phytophothora palmivora mostró mayor relación con la precipitación y alta temperatura.

  3. Respostas de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) jovens ao alagamento

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Cláudio José Reis de; Ishida Françoise Yoko

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do encharcamento do solo sobre a condutância estomática, o conteúdo relativo de água, o teor de clorofila e a concentração de N, P, K e de açúcares solúveis nos tecidos das folhas, bulbos e raízes de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) jovens. Plantas com seis meses de idade foram submetidas ao alagamento das raízes por períodos contínuos de sete, 14 e 21 dias. O alagamento induziu o fechamento dos estômatos, apesar de os tecidos das folhas te...

  4. AISLAMIENTO E IDENTIFICACIÓN DE BACTERIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DE FOSFATOS, HABITANTES DE LA RIZÓSFERA DE CHONTADURO (B. gassipaes Kunth ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE BACTÉRIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DA FOSFATO, HABITANTES DA RIZÓSFERA DE CHONTADURO (B. gassipaes Kunth ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PHOSPHATE-SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA INHABITING THE RIZHOSPHERE OF PEACH PALM (B. gassipaes Kunth

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    CARLOS PATIÑO TORRES

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El chontaduro o pejiyabe (Bactris gasipaes Kunth esuna especie nativa de las selvas húmedas del pacífico colombiano, adaptada a condiciones de alta acidez y deficiencia de nutrientes, especialmente fósforo (P, características dominantes en los suelos de esta zona tropical. Los microorganismos rizosféricos solubilizadores de P, entre ellos las bacterias (BSP, contribuyen a mejorar la disponibilidad de este nutriente, por ello, la necesidad de aislarlos, reconocerlos e identificarlos en la rizosfera, como uno de los mecanismos de adaptación de esta especie. Una vez aisladas y purificadas en medio libre de fuentes de fósforo orgánico e inorgánico solubles, las poblaciones bacterianas se identificaron mediante la utilizacióndel análisis de las secuencias DNAr 16S y la técnica BOX-PCR, estableciendo que en el sitio de estudio, las poblaciones dominantes fueron Burkholderia ambifaria y Burkholderia sp. 383, seguidas por Pseudomonas putida, especies reconocidas globalmente por su actividad solubilizadora, y como rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal (PGPR.Do chontaduro oupejiyabe (Bactris gasipaes Kunth é uma espécie nativa da florestas úmidas do pacífico colombiano, adaptados às condições de alta acidez e deficiência de nutrientes, especialmente fósforo (P, características dominantes no solo de esta zona tropical. Microrganismos do solo comcapacidade de solubilizar fosfatos naturais, incluindo as bactérias, contribuir para melhorar a disponibilidade de nutrientes presente, por conseguinte, não existe necessidade de isolar as, reconhecer e identificar-los na rizosfera, como um dos mecanismos de adaptação do presente espécies. Uma vez que tenham sido isoladas e purificadas emmeiolivre de fontes de P orgânicos e inorgânicos solúveis, populações bacterianas foram identificadas pela utilização da análise das sequências do extrachromosome DNAr 16S e a técnica BOX-PCR, que estabelece que a área de estudo, a

  5. Close genetic proximity between cultivated and wild Bactris gasipaes Kunth. revealed by microsatellite markers in Western Ecuador.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.; Billotte, N.; Lara, C.; Vigouroux, Y.; Ludena, B.; Pham, J.L.; Pintaud, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Bactris gasipaes Kunth (peach palm or Pejibaye) is the only domesticated palm of the Neotropics. The genetic relationships between the crop and its wild relatives are still unclear. We undertook field and laboratory work in order to describe differentiation and relationships between the wild and

  6. [Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra) Shoemaker: Species associated to folial spot in pupunha palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in Brazil.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morejón, K; Kimati, H; Fancelli, M I

    1998-03-01

    One species of hiphomycetos group, belonging to the genus Bipolaris Shoemaker that was identified like Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra) Shoemaker is recorded for the first time on pupunha palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) from Brazil. The comparison with other close species reported like pathogenic folial spot in genus Arecaceae is made. Its morphological and cultural characteristics are described.

  7. Durabilidade natural do estipe de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Arecaceae II: insetos Natural durability of Bactris gasipaes Kunth (peach palm, Arecaceae stipe II: insects

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    Raimunda Liege Souza de Abreu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estão apresentados os resultados da durabilidade natural do estipe (madeira de Bactris gasipaes Kunth (pupunha, quando submetido ao ataque de insetos xilófagos, em ensaios em ambiente florestal e urbano. Foram utilizados dez palmeiras, cinco com espinhos e cinco sem espinhos, de plantios da Fazenda Experimental da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, localizada no km 40 da rodovia Manaus-Boa Vista (BR 174. De cada uma das palmeiras foram cortados três discos de aproximadamente 30 cm de espessura, retirados da base, do meio e do topo. No ambiente florestal, os discos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente, em área próxima ao plantio, no espaçamento de 0,5m, permanecendo durante 18 meses, período no qual foram efetuadas seis inspeções trimestrais para avaliar o grau de deterioração e coleta de insetos. Para o ensaio em condição urbana, os discos foram secionados axialmente para a retirada da medula e distribuídos aleatoriamente, nas posições côncava e convexa, sobre uma estrutura de madeira, localizada no Campus do INPA em Manaus, e inspecionados bimestralmente por um ano. Os resultados do ensaio no ambiente florestal indicaram que a maioria dos discos foi deteriorada por térmitas e a vida útil da base foi em torno de 18 meses, a do meio e do topo em torno de 15. As principais espécies de cupins foram: Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen (Rhinotermitidae responsável pela deterioração da parte basal, mediana e o topo; Nasutitermes similis Emerson (Termitidae que infestou a região da base e do meio; Anoplotermes sp.(Termitidae e Nasutitermes tatarandae (Holmgren (Termitidae responsáveis pela infestação da parte mediana do estipe. No ambiente urbano, o principal responsável pela deterioração das amostras foi o besouro Dinoderus bifoveolatus Wollston (Bostrichidae, e em seguida, o térmita N. similis.The durability of the stipe of Bactris gasipaes Kunth (Peach palm when under attack by xylophage insects, is evaluated in

  8. Agentes protectores contra hongos asociados a la semilla de pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth

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    Carlos Arroyo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Agentes protectores contra hongos asociados a la semilla de pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. Se presenta un estudio de alternativas no tradicionales, para el control del ataque fungoso a las semillas de pejibaye durante el proceso de germinación. Se evaluó el efecto de 13 agentes protectores: Vitavax + Benomil, Bayletón, NaCl, Cloro, Kilol, Alcohol, H2O2, Aserrín, H2O, Gasolina, Diesel, Kerosene y Chile picante. De las sustancias probadas, la inmersión en kerosene y gasolina, mostraron un comportamiento tan efectivo como los fungicidas triadimefom (Bayletón y la mezcla de carboxin + benomyl. Esto debido al efecto fungicida y su posterior evaporación, no interfiriendo con la respiración, como fue el caso del aceite diesel. Se encontró además que el peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2, tuvo un efecto acelerador de la germinación, pero no actuó como buen fungicida. El kilol, mostró un efecto fungicida prometedor a concentración superior a los 10 cc/l de agua

  9. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon - implications for genetic resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adin, A.; Weber, J.C.; Sotelo Montes, C.; Vidaurre, H.; Vosman, B.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which

  10. Rentabilidade e risco de investimento na produção de palmito de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.

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    Sidney Araujo Cordeiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out an economic study and a risk simulation analysis in a palm heart of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. cultivation project. Economic analysis was made by using the project evaluation methods: NPV, VAE, TIR and B/C; and the risk analysis was carried out through the Monte Carlo simulation technique by @RISK software. It was concluded that the project of palm heart of pejibaye cultivation is viable, with NPV of R$ 3.549,08; TIR of 19%; B/C greater than 1; the VAE of R$ 1.049,12. The risk analysis showed that the project presents a probability of 5% of getting a negative value for VPL. The variables which affected Net Present Value (NPV according to the ranking of importance were: selling price, productivity and discount rate.

  11. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of Amazonian (Ecuador) Caryodendron orinocense Karst. and Bactris gasipaes Kunth seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Matteo; Viafara, Derwin; Neill, David; Asanza, Mercedes; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Maietti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, data concerning the composition of Caryodendron orinocense Karst. (Euphorbiaceae) and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (Arecaceae) seed oils are lacking. In light of this fact, in this paper fatty acids and unsaponifiable fraction composition have been determined using GC-MS, HPLC-DAD (Diode Array Detector), NMR approaches and possible future applications have been preliminary investigated through estimation of antioxidant activity, performed with DPPH test. For C. orinocense linoleic acid (85.59%) was the main component, lauric (33.29%) and myristic (27.76%) acids were instead the most abundant in B. gasipaes. C. orinocense unsaponifiable fraction (8.06%) evidenced a remarkable content of β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, squalene and vitamin E (816 ppm). B. gasipaes revealed instead β-sitosterol and squalene as main constituents of unsaponifiable matter (3.01%). Antioxidant capacity evidenced the best performance of C. orinocense seed oil. These preliminary results could be interesting to suggest the improvement of the population's incomes from Amazonian basin. In particular the knowledge of chemical composition of C. orinocense and B. gasipaes oils could be helpful to divulge and valorize these autochthones plants.

  12. Morfologia e avaliação do crescimento inicial de plântulas de Bactris gasipaes Kunth. (arecaceae em diferentes substratos Morphology and evaluation of inicial growth of Bactris gasipaes Kunth. seedlings in different substrata

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    Vanessa Lorencini da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos descrever a morfologia dos diásporos, as fases da germinação e determinar o substrato mais adequado para o crescimento inicial de plântulas de pupunha. Periodicamente, unidades representativas de cada fase de germinação foram retiradas para a descrição da seqüência dos eventos morfológicos. Os substratos usados para o crescimento inicial foram Plantmax HT, areia, terra (latossolo roxo e outro com proporções iguais de terra, areia e esterco (TAE. Avaliou-se o crescimento inicial das plântulas aos 101 dias após o transplante, com base na sua altura, número de folhas, comprimento e largura das folhas. Observou-se que as sementes são albuminosas, com endosperma oleaginoso e de consistência relativamente dura. O embrião é lateral, periférico e relativamente indiferenciado, de forma cônica. A germinação inicia-se com o desenvolvimento de uma massa de células indiferenciadas na depressão micropilar. Posteriormente, esta massa de células torna-se cilíndrica, com a diferenciação dos primórdios caulinar e radicular. O primórdio caulinar é constituído por três bainhas envolvendo a primeira folha. Estas se abrem sucessivamente, permitindo a emergência da folha primária. Entre os substratos testados, de acordo com os parâmetros avaliados, os mais adequados para crescimento inicial de mudas de Bactris gasipaes Kunth foram o TAE e o Plantmax.This work aimed to describe the morphology of the diaspore, the phases of germination and to determine the most adequate substratum for germination and development of peach palm. Periodically, representative units of each phase of germination had been removed for the description of the sequence of the morphological events. The used substrata for germination and initial growth were Plantmax HT, sand, rich soil and another one with equal ratios of soil, sand and manure (SSM. It was evaluated the percentage and the speed of germination and the initial

  13. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon-implications for genetic resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, A; Weber, J C; Sotelo Montes, C; Vidaurre, H; Vosman, B; Smulders, M J M

    2004-05-01

    Peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which are managed by indigenous and colonist farming communities, respectively. Gene diversity was 0.2629 for the populations in indigenous communities and 0.2534 in colonist communities. Genetic differentiation among populations ( G(st)) was 0.0377-0.0416 ( Prodents is thought to occur only across relatively short distances (100-200 m), it is likely that exchange of material by farmers and commercial traders is responsible for most of the 'long-distance' (over more than 20 km) gene flow among populations along the two rivers studied. This exchange of material may be important to counteract the effects of selection as well as genetic drift in small groups of trees in farmers' fields, much as in a metapopulation, and may account for the weak genetic differentiation between the two rivers ( G(st)=0.0249, PPeru and Brazil showed the existence of an isolation-by-distance structure up to 3,000 km, consistent with gene flow on a regional scale, likely mediated by trade in the Amazon Basin. Results are discussed with regard to practical implications for the management of genetic resources with farming communities.

  14. Survival and ultrastructural features of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes, Kunth) somatic embryos submitted to cryopreservation through vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringer, Angelo Schuabb; Steinmacher, Douglas André; Schmidt, Éder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2013-10-01

    Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae), also known as peach palm, was domesticated by Amazonian Indians and is cultivated for its fruit and heart-of-palm, a vegetable grown in the tree's inner core. Currently, the conservation of this species relies on in situ conditions and field gene banks. Complementary conservation strategies, such as those based on in vitro techniques, are indicated in such cases. To establish an appropriate cryopreservation protocol, this study aimed to evaluate the ultrastructural features of B. gasipaes embryogenic cultures submitted to vitrification and subsequent cryogenic temperatures. Accordingly, somatic embryo clusters were submitted to Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3). In general, cells submitted to PVS3 had viable cell characteristics associated with apparently many mitochondria, prominent nucleus, and preserved cell walls. Cells not incubated in PVS3 did not survive after the cryogenic process in liquid nitrogen. The best incubation time for the vitrification technique was 240 min, resulting in a survival rate of 37 %. In these cases, several features were indicative of quite active cell metabolism, including intact nuclei and preserved cell walls, an apparently many of mitochondria and lipid bodies, and the presence of many starch granules and condensed chromatin. Moreover, ultrastructure analysis revealed that overall cellular structures had been preserved after cryogenic treatment, thus validating the use of vitrification in conjunction with cryopreservation of peach palm elite genotypes, as well as wild genotypes, which carry a rich pool of genes that must be conserved.

  15. A new set of microsatellite markers for the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth): characterization and across-taxa utility within the tribe Cocoeae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billotte, N.; Couvreur, T.L.P.; Marseillac, P.; Brottier, P.; Perthuis, B.; Vallejo, M.; Noyer, J.L.; Jacquemoud, J.P.; Risterucci, A.M.; Pintaud, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    A (GA)n microsatellite-enriched library was constructed and a new set of 18 nuclear simple sequence repeat loci was isolated in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes. The loci were found to be highly variable in the target species and readily transferable to related Bactris species as well as to the

  16. Lipid-dissolved γ-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene in globular chromoplasts of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Judith; Amrehn, Evelyn; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Heller, Annerose; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2014-11-01

    High levels of β-carotene, lycopene, and the rare γ-carotene occur predominantly lipid-dissolved in the chromoplasts of peach palm fruits. First proof of their absorption from these fruits is reported. The structural diversity, the physical deposition state in planta, and the human bioavailability of carotenoids from the edible fruits of diverse orange and yellow-colored peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) varieties were investigated. HPLC-PDA-MS(n) revealed a broad range of carotenes, reaching total carotenoid levels from 0.7 to 13.9 mg/100 g FW. Besides the predominant (all-E)-β-carotene (0.4-5.4 mg/100 g FW), two (Z)-isomers of γ-carotene (0.1-3.9 mg/100 g FW), and one (Z)-lycopene isomer (0.04-0.83 mg/100 g FW) prevailed. Approximately 89-94 % of total carotenoid content pertained to provitamin A carotenoids with retinol activity equivalents ranging from 37 to 609 µg/100 g FW. The physical deposition state of these carotenoids in planta was investigated using light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. The plastids found in both orange and yellow-colored fruit mesocarps were amylo-chromoplasts of the globular type, containing carotenoids predominantly in a lipid-dissolved form. The hypothesis of lipid-dissolved carotenoids was supported by simple solubility estimations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the fruit mesocarp. In our study, we report first results on the human bioavailability of γ-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene from peach palm fruit, particularly proving the post-prandial absorption of the rarely occurring γ-carotene. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition has been shown to be decisive for carotenoid bioavailability, lipid-dissolved carotenoids in peach palm fruits are expected to be highly bioavailable, however, further studies are required.

  17. Variación temporal en la colonización de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares de Bactris gasipaes Kunth en Buenaventura, Colombia

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    Francisco H Molineros Hurtado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El chontaduro Bactris gasipaes es un cultivo tropical importante del cual se cosechan los frutos o los palmitos. En el estudio se evaluaron los niveles de colonización de las raíces, se realizaron conteos de esporas en el suelo y la identificación de morfotipos de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA asociados a cultivos de B. gasipaes en el áreas rural de Citronela y Zabaletas, municipio de Buenaventura, Departmento de Valle del Cauca, Colombia, durante tres periodos de entre 2006 y 2007, para determinar la influencia de la pluviosidad en la colonización de HMA. Los porcentajes de colonización en Citronela variaron entre 58% y 90% mientras que en Zabaletas la colonización de raíces varió entre 63% y 79%. El número promedio de esporas en 50 g de suelo húmedo fue mayor in Citronela (244.6 ± 116.0 SD que en Zabaletas (50.3 (± 24.1 SD. Se identificaron 22 morfotipos de HMA del suelo asociado a las palmas de de B. gasipaes. Glomus fue el género de hongos micorrízico más abundante en ambas localidades, pero Scutelospora también fue detectado. Este estudio demuestra la existencia de variación geográfica y temporal en parámetros micorrízicos en un cultivo importante para la agricultura del trópico húmedo.

  18. Caracterização tecnológica de extrusados de terceira geração à base de farinhas de mandioca e pupunha Technological chracterization of third generation extruded from cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz and pupunha (Bactris gasipaes kunth. flour

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    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho,com o objetivo de estudar as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas de extrusados de terceira geração obtidos de misturas de farinhas de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. e mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, por meio das análises de densidade aparente, índice de absorção de água, índice de solubilidade em água e viscosidade de pasta (RVA. Os extrusados foram formulados, adicionando-se 15, 20 e 25% de farinha de pupunha à farinha de mandioca, sendo processados em extrusora monorosca, escala piloto. Os parâmetros de extrusão foram fixos, utilizando-se cinco zonas de extrusão com temperaturas de 30ºC, 40ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC e 70ºC; velocidade do parafuso 177rpm; taxa de alimentação 292g/min e matriz laminar de 1mm. Os extrusados de terceira geração obtidos apresentaram valores relativamente baixos ou intermediários de IAA e ISA, variando de 5,01 a 6,48g/g e 5,37 a 7,34% para IAA e ISA, respectivamente. Após o processo de fritura dos extrusados, observou-se expansão e, consequentemente, redução na densidade aparente dos mesmos. O desenvolvimento ou aplicação de tecnologias como a extrusão, que permitam o aproveitamento de matérias-primas regionais, entre elas a mandioca e a pupunha, é uma forma de agregação de valor às riquezas existentes e, ao mesmo tempo, possibilita a diversificação de novos produtos alimentícios prontos para o consumo.The objective of this work was to study the technological functional properties of third generation extruded products obtained from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. flour mixtures, in terms of apparent density, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI and paste viscosity. The extruded products were formulated by adding 15%, 20% or 25% pupunha flour to cassava flour, and processing the mixtures in a pilot scale single screw extruder. The extrusion parameters were fixed by using five extrusion zones (at 30º

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of the cultivated neotropical palm Bactris gasipaes (arecaceae) with its wild relatives inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.; Hahn, K.; Granville, de J.J.; Pham, J.L.; Ludena, B.; Pintaud, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.) is the only Neotropical palm domesticated since pre-Columbian times. It plays an important role not only at the local level due to its very nutritious fruits, but also in the international market for its gourmet palm heart. Phylogenetic relationships of the peach

  20. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-01-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  1. Allozyme variation in spineless Pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isozyme variation was studied in 161 accessions of pineapple including four species of Ananas and one of Pseudananas. Six enzyme systems (ADH, GPI, PGM, SKDH, TPI, UGPP) involving seven putative loci revealed 35 electromorphs . Considerable variation exists within and between species of Ananas. Sixt...

  2. An Integrated Hypothesis on the Domestication of Bactris gasipaes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Gea; Dufour, Dominique; Thomas, Evert; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Escobar Salamanca, Andrés Felipe; Giraldo Toro, Andrés; Rivera, Andrés; Salazar Duque, Hector; Suárez Baron, Harold; Gallego, Gerardo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Gonzalez Mejia, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) has had a central place in the livelihoods of people in the Americas since pre-Columbian times, notably for its edible fruits and multi-purpose wood. The botanical taxon includes both domesticated and wild varieties. Domesticated var gasipaes is believed to derive from one or more of the three wild types of var. chichagui identified today, although the exact dynamics and location of the domestication are still uncertain. Drawing on a combination of molecular and phenotypic diversity data, modeling of past climate suitability and existing literature, we present an integrated hypothesis about peach palm's domestication. We support a single initial domestication event in south western Amazonia, giving rise to var. chichagui type 3, the putative incipient domesticate. We argue that subsequent dispersal by humans across western Amazonia, and possibly into Central America allowed for secondary domestication events through hybridization with resident wild populations, and differential human selection pressures, resulting in the diversity of present-day landraces. The high phenotypic diversity in the Ecuadorian and northern Peruvian Amazon suggest that human selection of different traits was particularly intense there. While acknowledging the need for further data collection, we believe that our results contribute new insights and tools to understand domestication and dispersal patterns of this important native staple, as well as to plan for its conservation.

  3. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation; Avaliacao do palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processado por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-07-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  4. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation;Avaliacao do palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processado por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-07-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  5. guadua Angustifolia Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La carga a compresión evaluada al límite de proporcionalidad en elementos cortos de Guadua angustifolia kunth fue relacionada con algunos parámetros físicos tales como el diámetro externo e interno, espesor de la pared, densidad aparente, número de entrenudos y contenido de humedad. Los elementos de Guadua fueron sometidos a compresión según las normas ISO-TC 165 dadas por el INBAR (1999. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que para predecir el comportamiento de la carga en el límite de proporcionalidad de elementos cortos de Guadua, los parámetros de mayor incidencia son el diámetro externo (De y el espesor total de la pared (e, para los cuales se obtuvo una correlación con un nivel de confianza del 95%. Un valor de 27,15 MPa con un coeficiente de variación del 16% fue encontrado para el esfuerzo a compresión evaluado al límite de proporcionalidad. Además se estableció un modelo aproximado para la densidad aparente de la Guadua según el contenido de humedad.

  6. Carbohydrate composition of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) by-products flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanho, Beatriz Cervejeira; Danesi, Eliane Dalva Godoy; Beléia, Adelaide Del Pino

    2015-06-25

    The flours obtained from peach palm by-products are rich in dietary fiber (62-71%) and they can be used as food ingredients. The aim of this work was to investigate the carbohydrate composition of the flours processed from the residual parts (stem and median sheath) of a hearts-of-palm industry. The flours were fractionated, based on their solubility, whose monomeric compounds were determined. The fraction containing mostly cellulose (S5) was the most abundant (26-28%), followed by the sum of fractions (S2, 53, S4) extracted with alkaline solutions (21-22%). The S1 fraction contained the highest percentage of uronic acids, which characterizes the presence of pectin. Xylose and arabinose were found in high proportion in S2 and S3 fractions. The S4 and S5 fractions, rich in glucose, were the main portion of the cell wall material and correspond to the insoluble fraction of the dietary fiber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Somatic Embryogenesis in Peach-Palm (Bactris gasipaes) Using Different Explant Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmacher, Douglas A; Heringer, Angelo Schuabb; Jiménez, Víctor M; Quoirin, Marguerite G G; Guerra, Miguel P

    2016-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a member of the family Arecaceae and is a multipurpose but underutilized species. Nowadays, fruit production for subsistence and local markets, and heart-of-palm production for local, national, and international markets are the most important uses of this plant. Conventional breeding programs in peach palm are long-term efforts due to the prolonged generation time, large plant size, difficulties with controlled pollination and other factors. Although it is a caespitose palm, its propagation is currently based on seeds, as off-shoots are difficult to root. Hence, tissue culture techniques are considered to be the most likely strategy for efficient clonal plantlet regeneration of this species. Among various techniques, somatic embryogenesis offers the advantages of potential automated large-scale production and putative genetic stability of the regenerated plantlets. The induction of somatic embryogenesis in peach palm can be achieved by using different explant sources including zygotic embryos, immature inflorescences and thin cell layers from the young leaves and shoot meristems. The choice of a particular explant depends on whether clonal propagation is desired or not, as well as on the plant conditions and availability of explants. Protocols to induce and express somatic embryogenesis from different peach palm explants, up to acclimatization of plantlets, are described in this chapter.

  8. Nota sobre Bromus Willdenowii Kunth

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    Pinto Escobar Polidoro

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedente de Suramérica fue introducida en Norteamérica una planta que es utilizada como buen forraje y que corresponde a una especie del género Bromus de la sección Ceratochloa (Gramineae referida a Bromus unioloides Kunth. HITCHCOCK (1934 después de examinar fragmentos del ejernplar de Commerson "ex agro bonaerinsi" (C, considerado como tipo nomenclatural y asumir que el ejemplar había sido obtenido en Lima (Perú, 10 asignó a Bromus catbarticus Yah!. Posteriormente PARODI (1956 Y HUBBARD (1956, rechazaron el nornbre de Bromus catbarticus Yah 1 como nomen confussum y propusieron la validez de Bromus unioloides Kunth.

  9. [Genetic diversity and kin relationships among wild and cultivated populations of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) using microsatellite markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, José Alfredo Hernández; Urpí, Jorge Mora; Nuñez, Oscar Rocha

    2008-03-01

    Genetic diversity and kin relationships among wild and cultivated populations of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) using microsatellite markers. The genetic diversity of the peach palm (Pejibaye, Bactris gasipaes Kunth) was evaluated using four nuclear DNA microsatellites in an effort to elucidate the evolution and domestication of this crop. A total of 258 samples from seven wild populations and eleven races were analyzed. All loci were polymorphic and a total of 50 alleles were identified. Average genetic diversity (0.67) and genetic differentiation among populations (Fst=0.16) were high when all populations were considered. Genetic differentiation was lower when the populations were grouped according to their origin into Western and Eastern populations (Fst=0.13 for both). Gene flow was slightly higher among Western populations (Nm=1.71) than among Eastern populations (Nm=1.62). The Putumayo, Yurimaguas, Vaupés, Tucurrique and Guatuso races seem to have been subjected to intense human selection. Hybrid populations exist in Azuero, Tuira, Cauca, Vaupés, Puerto Ayacucho and Solimões, probably resulting from exchange and introgressions among sympatric wild and cultivated populations. Genetic distance (Dm) was estimated to determine the degree of relationship among populations using the neighbor-joining method; the wild populations from Maracaibo were used as the outgroup. The populations were divided into three general groups: Maracaibo (B. caribaea, B. macana var veragua and B. macana var arapuey), Eastern Amazon (Tembe, Pará and Acre) and a third group with two subgroups, Western (Azuero, Chontilla, Tuira, Cauca, Tucurrique and Guatuso) and Upper Amazon (B. dahlgreniana, Puerto Ayacucho, Solimões, Vaupés and Putumayo). The genetic relationships strongly support the hypothesis that peach palm was brought into cultivation independently in no less than three areas: the Western Andes (extending into lower Central America); Upper Amazon (extending

  10. Chemical composition of the fruit mesocarp of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) populations grown in central Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, Lúcia K O; Aguiar, Jaime P L; Yuyama, Kaoru; Clement, Charles R; Macedo, Sonja H M; Fávaro, Deborah I T; Afonso, Claudia; Vasconcellos, Marina B A; Pimentel, Sabria A; Badolato, Elsa S G; Vannucchi, Helio

    2003-01-01

    The percent composition, soluble and insoluble food fibers, oil fatty acids and minerals were determined in the mesocarp of fruits of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) populations grown in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Amino acids were also determined in one of the populations. The mean protein levels ranged from 1.8 to 2.7%, lipid levels ranged from 3.5 to 11.1%, the nitrogen free fraction ranged from 24.3 to 35%, food fiber ranged from 5.2% to 8.7%, and energy ranged from 179.1 to 207.4 kcal%. All essential, as well as non-essential, amino acids were present, with tryptophan and methionine presenting the lowest mean concentrations. The mono-unsaturated oleic acid predominated in the oil, ranging from 42.8 to 60.8%, and palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid, ranging from 24.1 to 42.3%. Among the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid was the most abundant, with a maximum of 5.4% in Pampa-8. The most important mineral elements were potassium, selenium and chromium, respectively corresponding to 12%, 9% and 9% of daily recommended allowances. Considering the nutritional potential of the fruit, we suggest its more frequent incorporation into the diet of the Amazonian population.

  11. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

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    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  12. Desenvolvimento de panetone à base de farinha de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth
    Development of panettone made of peach palm flour (Bactris gasipaes Kunth

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    A. M. M. MONTEIRO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Atualmente vem crescendo consideravelmente a preocupação dos indivíduos com a saúde e a qualidade de vida. No entanto, com a correria da vida moderna e a falta de tempo, as pessoas valorizam muito os alimentos prontos, rápidos e fáceis de preparar, predominando um consumo desregrado de produtos refi nados, ricos em gorduras saturadas e pobres em nutrientes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo elaborar um panetone com adição de farinha de pupunha (FP, sensorialmente aceitável, e analisar sua composição química e estabilidade. A farinha utilizada na pesquisa foi processada no Laboratório de Nutrição do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Inicialmente foi realizado um experimento para determinar o percentual de farinha de trigo a ser substituída pela farinha de pupunha, sendo escolhida a formulação com 25% FP. Após elaboração do panetone foram realizadas análises físico-químicas, químicas, sensoriais e microbiológicas. O panetone de pupunha apresentou em sua composição química bons teores de proteína (7,78%, lipídios (12,5% e carotenoides (4,16 atividade equivalente de retinol/100g. O produto elaborado apresentou boa aceitabilidade, sendo que todos os consumidores manifestaram intenção positiva em adquiri-lo se for lançado no mercado. A análise microbiológica revelou que o produto se manteve estável pelo período de 90 dias. Assim, pode-se afi rmar que é possível produzir panetones com a substituição de 25% de farinha de trigo pela farinha de pupunha, agregando valor nutricional ao produto sem sinalização de rejeição pelo consumidor.

  13. Palmito de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. composição mineral e cinética de enzimas oxidativas Heart of palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.: mineral composition and kinetics of oxidative enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Ottoboni Galdino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A análise da presença de enzimas oxidativas como a peroxidase (POD e a polifenoloxidase (PPO e o controle da atividade destas enzimas são importantes na preservação e no processamento de alimentos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a atividade enzimática da polifenoloxidase (PPO e da peroxidase (POD do palmito de pupunha, bem como avaliar o comportamento destas enzimas frente ao tratamento térmico e assim calcular a cinética de inativação térmica das mesmas para suas porções termorresistente e termolábil. Para a extração de peroxidase (POD e polifenoloxidase (PPO de palmito, utilizou-se solução tampão fosfato de sódio 100 mM com diferentes pHs (5,5; 6,0; 6,5 e 7,0. O melhor pH de extração da POD foi 5,5 e da PPO, 6,5. Estes extratos foram tratados em diferentes temperaturas (65, 70, 75 e 80 °C por períodos de 1 a 10 minutos. A POD e a PPO sofreram um decréscimo de 70 e 80%, respectivamente, em relação às suas atividades iniciais. As energias de ativação, nas temperaturas estudadas, para a porção termolábil e termorresistente da peroxidase foram 154,0 e 153,0 kJ.mol-1, respectivamente, enquanto que para a polifenoloxidase foram 26,3 e 27,0 kJ.mol-1, respectivamente. Resultados apresentaram valores que estão dentro da faixa de energia de ativação reportada para o processo de inativação térmica de enzimas.Analysis of oxidative enzymes such as peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO and the control of the activity of these enzymes are important in food preservation and also in food processing. The aim of this work was to determine polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD enzymatic activity in heart of palm, as well as to evaluate enzyme behavior during thermal treatment, determining the kinetics of thermal inactivation of the heat resistant and heat labile portions. For the extraction of peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO from the heart of palm solution, 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer with different pH values (5.5; 6.0; 6.5 and 7.0 was used. Optimum pH for extraction was 5.5 and 6.5, for POD and PPO, respectively. These extracts were treated at different temperatures (65, 70, 75 and 80 °C for periods of 1 to 10 minutes. Decreases in POD and PPO activities of around 70 and 80%, respectively, in relation to their initial activities were observed. The activation energies, in the temperatures studied, for the heat labile and resistant portions of peroxidase were 154.0 and 153.0 kJ.mol-1, and of polyphenoloxidase, 26.3 and 27.0 kJ.mol-1, respectively. The results showed values that are in the range for activation energy reported for the thermal inactivation process of enzymes.

  14. Efecto de la poda en el trasplante del almácigo de Pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth

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    Carlos Arroyo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinco tratamientos con diferentes combinaciones de poda de follaje y raíz en pejibaye se llevaron a cabo, al trasplantarlas al campo con raíz desnuda, y su comportamiento fue evaluado con base en siete variables. Además se evaluaron comparativamente las plántulas que mostraban la hoja emergente u hoja guía contra aquéllas en que ésta aún no era visible externamente. Las plántulas que no sufrieron poda alguna fueron significativamente superiores a todos los tratamientos con alguna forma de poda. Esto, no sólo en porcentaje de sobrevivencia (90,33%, sino también en las otras variables estudiadas y en especial en cuanto a su desarrollo posterior, medido por el peso total de la planta tomado seis meses más tarde. Las plántulas sin follaje y sin raíz, mostraron un porcentaje de sobrevivencia del (66,33%, y su recuperación, medida por peso de raíz y peso aéreo, seis meses más tarde, fue muy inferior a todos los tratamientos. En todos los casos, incluyendo el testigo, la presencia visible de la nueva hoja emergente u hoja guía significó un mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia. Las siete variables utilizadas resultaron altamente correlacionados, siendo el peso total de la planta quizás el mejor evaluador, pero en el campo, el diámetro del tallo resulta más fácil de manejar en la práctica.

  15. Physicochemical characterization of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Arecaceae fruit skin residue flour obtained by convective drying

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    Jader Martínez-Girón

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of flour from residues of peach -palm fruit skin has been a forgotten topic from the view point of its physicochemical properties, because studies reported in the literature have focused on mesocarp flour characterization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the peach palm fruit epicarp flour obtained by convective drying at 60±2 °C through a specific production and storage process. As a result, the flour was found to be a source of bioactive compounds, showing total phenol concentration (23.40±1.30 mg gallic acid/100 g, antioxidant activity (33.10%±3.20, total carotenoids (59.31±1.61 mg β-carotene/100 g, color a* (4.95±0.58, color b* (3.25±0.57, and luminosity (33.95±3.16. On the other hand, there was a high level of total carotenoids (85% and phenolic compounds (94% retention after six months. Additionally, color change showed no significant difference during storage. In conclusion, the flour obtained is a byproduct with properties that can be used as an alternative to agroalimentary substitutes, mainly due to its color and antioxidant activity attributes. It is noteworthy to mention that this is one of the first studies to physicochemically characterize peach palm fruit skin flour from Valle del Cauca (Colombia.

  16. [Leaf micrografic anatomy of the Neotropical palm Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimsohn, Francisco Paulo; Montiel, Mayra; Villalobos, Enrique; Mora Urpi, Jorge

    2008-06-01

    The economic importance of the palm Bactris gasipaes is growing in the Neotropoical region. We collected leaflets from plants under a chemical fertilization regime and a population of 5000 plants per hectare, in Costa Rica. The variety, Diamantes 10, has an ascendency fom the upper Amazon basin. We used Harries hematoxiline, eocine and standard light microscopy techniques. The presence of raphids and buliform cells was confirmed for the abaxial surface of the leaflets and for the hypodermic tissue on both sides. The absence of the Krantz anatomy was confirmed in consistence with former observations about the C3 photosynthesis in other species of Palmaceae. The average stomatal density on the abaxial surface was 96.87 +/- 16.31 stomata.mm(-2) and 14.20 +/- 4.05 in the adaxial surface.

  17. Use of AFLPS to distinguish landraces of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes in brazilian Amazonia Uso de AFLPS para discriminar raças primitivas de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes na Amazônia brasileira

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    Charles R. Clement

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the first inhabitants of western Amazonia domesticated pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae or peach palm for its fruits, today it is widely planted for its heart-of-palm. Like other domesticates, pejibaye presents a complex hierarchy of landraces developed before the conquest of the Americas. The existence of three landraces (Pará, Solimões, Putumayo was proposed along the Amazonas and Solimões Rivers, Brazil, based on morphological characteristics. There are some questions remaining about the intermediate landrace being an artifact of the morphometric analysis. AFLPs were used to evaluate the relationships among samples of these putative landraces. DNA was extracted from 99 plants representing 13 populations maintained in the Pejibaye Germplasm Bank, Manaus, AM; six primer combinations generated 245 markers via PCR, which were scored in an ABI Prism 310 sequencer and analyzed with GeneScan Software; Jaccard similarities were estimated and a dendrogram was generated with UPGMA. Two groups of plants were observed in the dendrogram instead of three, and were similar at 0.795. Each group contained two subgroups, similar at 0.815. One group (n=41 contained 73% Pará landrace plants, with one subgroup (n=22 containing 91% Pará, and the other (n=19 containing 53% Pará. The other group (n=58 contained 53% Solimões and 40% Putumayo landrace plants, with one subgroup (n=21 containing 52% Solimões and 43% Putumayo, and the other (n=35 containing 57% Solimões and 37% Putumayo. The first group confirmed the Pará landrace. The second group suggested that the Solimões landrace does not exist, but that the Putumayo landrace extends along the Solimões River to Central Amazonia.Os primeiros povos da Amazônia ocidental domesticaram a pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae por seu fruto, embora hoje seja muito plantada por seu palmito. Como outros cultivos domesticados, a pupunha apresenta uma hierarquia complexa de raças primitivas

  18. [Micromorphology of pejibaye leaflets Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae) var. diamonds-10].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chacón, Ethel; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Rodríguez-Arrieta, Alexander; Gómez-Alpízar, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Bactris gasipaes is widely cultivated for the consumption of palm hearts and fruits. The present work describes the micro morphological characteristics of leaflets from adult plants of B. gasipaes, thornless variety Diamantes-10, collected in the Diamantes Experimental Station in Guápiles, Costa Rica. We collected 25 leaflets and analyses were performed with a combination of microscopy techniques: light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study their structure. Our results showed that leaflets have abundant epicuticular wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Analyses from the epidermis indicated that it is composed of isodiametric cells, and it is also evident that hypodermis cells have rectangular shape and are larger than the other epidermal cells. We observed stomata on both surfaces, but they were more abundant in the abaxial surface. On the other hand, the epidermis showed the presence of trichomes with three different morphologies. In the parenchyma, cells are large and not well defined, and we observed the presence of astroesclereids, and compact groups of fiber bundles between parenchyma cells. The central vein has several vascular bundles, arranged in a continuous manner, and they are surrounded by sclerotic tissue; some of these fibers presented live protoplasts. All minor veins showed the same anatomy as the central vein. In these veins, the vessel elements of protoxylem and metaxylem showed scalariform ornaments on their walls. Phloem is located towards the adaxial surface of the vein and we observed sieve and companion cells surrounded by fibers and parenchyma cells. The companion cells presented branched plasmodesmata attached to a sieve element, and in these elements we found protein bodies called P-protein. The main anatomical difference in the leaflets of the var. Diamantes-10, compared to the other varieties of B. gasipaes K, is the lack of thorns; the other morphological features seem to be conserved.

  19. Micropropagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth (Poaceae) using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The micropropagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth, commonly known as giant bamboo, using semisolid culture medium, is reported to have low multiplication rates. This study evaluated the multiplication index of G. angustifolia in a temporary immersion system (RITA®), comparing results with those obtained using a ...

  20. In vitro toxic activity of Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (Euphorbiaceae

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    Jéssica de Andrade Gomes Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Often found in some Brazilian biomas as caatinga, brejo, restinga and cerrado, the velame, Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth, is popularly known for its medicinal properties used in stomach ache, gastric reflux, vomiting, bloody diarrhea and to reduce fever. In addition to the pharmacological properties, its essential oil has larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, as well as the ethanol extract showed significant insecticidal activity against Sitophilus zeamais. This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of preliminary methanolic extract of Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth on Artemia salina larvae. The bioassay was carried out at concentrations of 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml, 250 µg/ml, 500 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 1000 µg/ml of methanolic extract of leaves. The extract studied showed a moderate toxicity to Artemia salina, with LC 50 values in the range of 637,29 µg/mL.

  1. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

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    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  2. Nutrient critical levels and availability in soils cultivated with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. in Santo Domingo de Los Tsáchilas, Ecuador

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    Carlos Julio Quezada Crespo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the most important exporter of canned peach palm, however, to date ideal soil fertility characteristics for peach palm growers remain unknown. The aim of this research was to determine optimal levels of soil nutrients for the cultivation of peach palm, specifically with regards to soil cation exchange capacity in order to obtain higher yields. We worked with 20 farmsteads and their soils from the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas during the second half of 2014. Fields were evaluated based on a relative yield and extractable (modified Olsen nutrient contents in each soil were determined using regression modeling to determine critical levels of each nutrient and specifically to determine the ideal soil cation exchange capacity under peach palm cultivation. Our analysis established critical levels of soil pH (6.3; OM 6.5%; P 12.3 mg.dm-3; K 0.67 cmol.dm-3 K; Ca 5.1 cmol.dm-3 ; Mg 0.97 cmol.dm-3; and S 7.5 mg.dm-3. The ideal Ca: Mg: K soil cation exchange capacity was determined to be 76:14:10.

  3. Crescimento de mudas de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth utilizando resíduo de mineração de areia como componente de substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Augusta Garcia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986613O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de mudas de pupunheira quando utilizado o resíduo fino de mineração de areia na composição de substratos. O experimento constou de cinco tratamentos, sendo quatro composições de diferentes proporções de resíduo de mineração de areia e casca de arroz carbonizada: 1:0; 3:1; 1:1; 1:3 e um substrato padrão composto por latossolo amarelo podzólico álico e esterco de búfalo curtido, na proporção 3:1. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições e 10 mudas por parcela. Repicou-se uma plântula de pupunheira por recipiente (sacos plásticos de polietileno preto de 8 x 20 cm, volume 1,1 L, os quais foram preenchidos com os diferentes substratos. Foram determinadas mensalmente as variáveis diâmetro do coleto, altura da haste, número de folhas e taxa de crescimento relativo e, após 180 dias da repicagem, os valores SPAD (Soil and Plant Analysis Development, dinâmica da assimilação de CO2, da transpiração e da condutividade estomática. O resíduo de mineração de areia puro como substrato não proporcionou mudas de qualidade, visto que esse material apresenta alta densidade e baixa granulometria. Seu uso pode ser indicado como um dos componentes de substratos, pois as plantas que cresceram nas misturas de resíduo e casca de arroz carbonizada apresentaram resultados semelhantes ao do considerado padrão.

  4. Lípidos sanguíneos en cerdos alimentados con pijiguao (Bactris gasipaes Kunth y lisina sintética

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    Janeth Colina R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la harina de pijiguao y lisina sintética sobre los lípidos sanguíneos de cerdos en crecimiento y engorde. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se realizó en dos etapas. En la primera etapa se utilizaron 72 cerdos castrados en crecimientode 30 ± 0.5 kg, en un arreglo factorial 2x3: dos niveles de lisina sintética (0 y 2.70 g/kgy tres niveles de harina de pijiguao (0, 160 y 320 g/kg. En la segunda etapa se utilizaron 16 cerdos en engorde de 67.25 ± 1.17 kg, en un arreglo factorial 2x2: dos niveles de lisinasintética (0 y 2.70 g/kg y dos niveles de pijiguao (0 y 175 g/kg. Se determinaron las concentraciones séricas de triacilgliceroles, colesterol total y ácidos grasos. Resultados. Los cerdos en crecimiento que consumieron pijiguao presentaron menores (p<0.001concentraciones de colesterol que el grupo control (2.27 y 2.23 mmol/l vs 2.56 mmol/l y triacilgliceroles (0.34 y 0.28 mmol/l vs 0.42 mmol/l. El ácido oleico incrementó (p<0.01con el mayor nivel de pijiguao (20.78% a 28.84%, y la lisina aumentó (p<0.05 el ácidolinoleico (27.83% a 31.29%. Los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao y lisina mostraron menor (p<0.001 ácido palmítico que el grupo con pijiguao sin lisina (0.23 y 0.19% vs 0.45 y 0.62%, respectivamente. En la etapa de engorde los triacilgliceroles disminuyeron (p<0.05 en los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao y lisina (0.46 a 0.36 mmol/l. Los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao mostraron menor ácido linoleico y mayor ácido oleico (p<0.001. Conclusiones. Las dietas con pijiguao y lisina sintética no causaron efectos negativos sobre los lípidos sanguíneos de cerdos.

  5. Estatística multivariada na discriminação de raças amazônicas de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth em Manaus (Brasil

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    Martel Jorge Hugo Iriarte

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As raças e populações de pupunheiras ao longo dos rios Amazonas e Solimões apresentam grande variabilidade genética ainda não totalmente caracterizada. Neste estudo, foram aplicadas técnicas estatísticas multivariadas a 15 descritores morfológicos numa tentativa de caracterizar, morfometricamente, três raças existentes ao longo da Bacia desses rios. As três análises em conjunto permitiram uma discriminação das raças, mostrando também que os descritores mais importantes nessa seleção foram: número de espigas, comprimento da ráquis, peso do fruto, espessura das cascas, facilidade para descascar os frutos, peso das cascas, sabor dos frutos, espessura da polpa, distância morfológica dos frutos e peso da semente.

  6. Produção de Palmito de Pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth sob Diferentes Densidades de Plantio Pupunha Palm Heart Production from Different Plant Density

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    Edinelson José Maciel Neves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    No Estado do Paraná, a região litorânea apresenta-se como potencial ao plantio da pupunheira para palmito, devido as suas condições climáticas serem favoráveis ao desenvolvimento da espécie. Nessa região, no final de 2004, o número de mudas plantadas de pupunha para a produção de palmito, em pequenas propriedades rurais, girava em torno de um milhão, o eqüivalente a uma área plantada de 200 ha. Esse fato credencia a espécie como alternativa de produção sustentável e economicamente viável, à medida que as populações naturais de juçara (Euterpe edulis vão se esgotando. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, aos 24 e 39 meses de idade, a produção de creme de palmito e de vidros com palmito em toletes, em rodelas e em picados, em plantios submetidos a diferentes densidades de plantas e classes de solo. Para tanto, em março de 2001, foram instaladas duas áreas experimentais localizadas nos km 7 e km 10 da estrada Alexandra-Matinhos, Município de Paranaguá, PR. O delineamento estatístico usado foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas de 100 plantas, quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos seguintes espaçamentos/densidade de plantas: 3 m x 1 m (3.333 plantas/ha; 2 m x 1 m (5.000 plantas/ha; 1 m x 1 m x 1,5 m (6.666 plantas/ha e 1 m x 1 m x 2 m (8.000 plantas/ha. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que: (i a produtividade de creme de palmito de pupunheira, de vidros com palmito em toletes, em rodelas e em picados aumenta em função do número de plantas por hectare; (ii a realização de novos cortes nas áreas trabalhadas permitirão definir a densidade ideal de plantas por hectare para a produção de creme de palmito. 
    The coast region of Paraná State, Brazil, has a great potential for growing of pupunha trees aiming palm heart production due to climate conditions. There were around one million pupunha trees planted at small farmers area, totalizing about 200 ha, in this region by the end of 2004. This fact confirms the specie as a sustainable and economicaly viable alternative for small farmers as long as the natural stands of juçara (Euterpe edulis are raryng. This paper aimed to evaluate the palm heart production, at ages 24 and 39 months after planting, from plants growing instands varyng on plant density and soil class and considering processing as heart, ring and chopped. The experiment was set up in two areas located along the Alexandra-Matinhos Road (km 7 and km 10, Paranagua City, in March 2001. Randomized blocks was used as the statistical design on 100 plants per sample, four treatments and six replicates. The treatments considering spacing and plant density were: 3 m x 1 m (3.333 plants/ha; 2 m x 1 m (5.000 plants/ha; 1 m x 1 m x 1,5 m (6.666 plants/ha e 1 m x 1 m x 2 m (8.000 plants/ha. The results showsed that: the productivity of palm heart from pupunha trees increase according to plant numberper hectare for processing as heart, ring and chopped; further harvests in theexperimental area will allow to establish the ideal plant density per hectare aiming palm heart production.   

  7. THE CONSUMPTION OF RED PUPUNHA (BACTRIS GASIPAES KUNTH) INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND REDUCES WEIGHT GAIN OF LACTATING AND POST-LACTATING WISTAR RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, R Piccolotto; Lemos, J R Gonzaga; de Aquino Sales, R Souza; Martins, M Gassen; Nascimento, C H; Bayona, M; Marcon, J L; Monteiro, J Barros

    2013-09-01

    The lactating and post-lactating periods are marked by large metabolic change. Production of milk is 60% lipid dependent. We reported in a recent scientific meeting that Red pupunha palm tree fruit increases HDL cholesterol in lactating rats. This study evaluated if consumption of Red Pupunha by adult female rats has a beneficial impact on the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult rats. Evaluate if consumption of red pupunha has a beneficial effect in the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult Wistar rats. Four groups including two for control; (1) control adult lactating rats, (2) control adults post-lactating rats; and two experimental groups; (3) pupunha adults lactating rats and (4) pupunha adult post-lactating rats were evaluated and compared regarding: weight gain, food consumption, plasma total protein, glucose, total lipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean difference and its 95% confidence intervals were used for group comparisons. Group comparisons were evaluated by using analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The statistical significance of the pairwise differences among groups was assessed by using the two-sided Tukey test. There were no important differences in food consumption, plasma glucose, total lipids and triglycerides among groups. The red pupunha lactating group gain less weight showing lower body mass index (BMI) than controls (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol was lower in red pupunha lactating than in controls but not in the red pupunha post-lactating group as compared to controls. Triglycerides were lower in the post-lactating red pupunha group as compared to the control group (p = 0.039) but not for the lactating groups. Red pupunha lactating and post-lactating groups had higher HDL-cholesterol than their corresponding control groups (p ≤ 0.01). Original findings include the beneficial effect of red pupunha in post-lactating rats increasing the HDL-cholesterol and lowering the BMI. Red pupunha was confirmed to increase HDL-cholesterol in lactating rats. These results suggest that red pupunha is a healthy fruit to be consumed during lactating and post-lactating periods as it is related to better lipid profile and less body weight gain.

  8. [Proximal composition, lipid and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed peach-palm meal (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) and synthetic lysine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez-Timaure, Nancy; Rivero, Janeth Colina; Araque, Humberto; Jiménez, Paola; Velazco, Mariela; Colmenares, Ciolys

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the proximal composition, lipids and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed diets with peach-palm meal (PPM), with or without addition of synthetic lysine (LYS). In experiment 1, 24 pigs were randomly allotted into six treatments with three levels of PPM (0.16 and 32%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). In experiment II, 16 finishing pigs were fed with two levels of PPM (0 and 17.50%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). At the end of each experiment (42 and 35 d, respectively), pigs were slaughtered and loin samples were obtained to determine crude protein, dry matter, moisture, ash, total lipids, and cholesterol content. In experiment I, pork loin from 16% PPM had more dry matter (26.45 g/100 g) and less moisture (73.49 g/100g) than pork loin from 32% PPM (25.11 y 75.03 g/100g, respectively). Meat samples from pigs without LYS had higher (p < 0.05) content of lipids (2.11 g/100 g) than meat from pigs that consumed LYS (1.72 g/100 g). In experiment II, the proximal, lipids and cholesterol content were similar among treatments. The PPM addition to pig diets did not affect the proximal composition of pork, while LYS addition indicated a reduction of total lipids, which could result as an alternative to obtain leaner meat.

  9. Percepción sobre el pejibaye y la aceptación de un snack funcional a base de pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth por consumidoras costarricenses

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    Carmen Isabel Ivankovich-Guillén

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la percepción sobre el pejibaye así como determinar la aceptación de un "snack" tipo tortilla frita, elaborado con 50% de harina de pejibaye y 50% de harina de maíz, se realizó una encuesta y degustación del producto a 163 mujeres del área metropolitana costarricense, con edades comprendidas entre los 21 y 76 años. En lo referente a la percepción del pejibaye, el 84,6% de las encuestadas lo asocia como beneficioso para la salud, esto unido a que el snack tiene una alta aceptación, 8,99 de agrado en una escala de 10 puntos, lo constituye en un producto con alto potencial de mercado. Por edad se encontró diferencia significativa (p < 0,05 en la apariencia, color, olor y sabor del "snack" en el grupo menor de cuarenta años y el de mayor edad. Las jóvenes califican más bajo el producto en los atributos mencionados. Para la comercialización del "snack" en importante declarar el contenido de calorías pues un 9,8% tiene la creencia de que el pejibaye engorda.

  10. CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE PUPUNHEIRA (Bactris gasipaes Kunth UTILIZANDO RESÍDUO DE MINERAÇÃO DE AREIA COMO COMPONENTE DE SUBSTRATOS

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    Valéria Augusta Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of peach palm seedlings using fine residue of sand mining as part of substrates. The experiment comprised five treatments, four containing different ratios of sand mining residue to carbonized rice husk: 1:0; 3:1; 1:1; 1:3, and one composed of alic podzolic yellow latosol and buffalo manure in a 3:1 ratio, used as the standard substrate. Treatments were arranged in randomized blocks with five replications and 10 seedlings each. One peach palm seedling was transplantedper container, which consisted of black, 8x20 cm, 1.1 L PE bags filled with different substrates. Diameter ofstem, plantlet height, number of leaves and relative growth rate were recorded monthly and 180 days aftertheir transplanting, SPAD values, dynamics of CO2 assimilation, transpiration and stomatal conductance. The use of unmixed residue of sand mining as substrate did not produce quality seedlings, since that substance has high density and poor particle size. It can be used as part of substrates though, for plants grown in the mixtures of residue and carbonized rice husk showed similarresults to those grown in the standard substrate.

  11. Cytotoxic Constituents from bark and leaves of Amyris pinnata Kunth.

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    Luis Enrique Cuca-Suarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From leaves and bark of Amyris pinnata Kunth twelve compounds were isolated, corresponding to six lignans 1-6, three coumarins 7-9, a sesquiterpene 10, an oxazole alkaloid 11, and a prenylated flavonoid 12,. Metabolites were identified by spectroscopic techniques ( 1H and 13C NMR, EIMS and by comparison with published data in the literature. C ytotoxicity against leukemia, solid tumors, and normal cells was evaluated for all isolated compounds. Lignans were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds occurring in A. pinnata.

  12. Compostos da casca de tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) com atividade antioxidante

    OpenAIRE

    Dantas, Marcela Berckmans Viégas Costa

    2017-01-01

    Entre os frutos comestíveis do cerrado brasileiro, o tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart) se destaca devido ao seu alto potencial antioxidante e conteúdo de polifenóis. Nós investigamos o extrato aquoso de tucum-do-cerrado quanto ao seu mecanismo de ação e o potencial antioxidante de suas frações. O extrato aquoso foi fracionado por HPLC e as frações analisadas em termos da sua atividade antioxidante por meio da degradação oxidativa de 2-desoxirribose. Cinco frações foram selecionadas com b...

  13. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae = Biologia reprodutiva de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae

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    André Luiz Gomes da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic selfpollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia reprodutiva de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae e avaliar o papel dos visitantes florais em seu sucesso reprodutivo. Bowdichia virgilioides apresenta padrão de floração anual e do tipo cornucópica. A floração ocorre no início da estação seca, entre os meses de junho e agosto e a frutificação no meio desta estação, entre os meses de julho e outubro. Suas flores são de antese diurna e apresentam néctar como recurso floral. Durante a abertura floral, as anteras se encontram deiscentes e por esta razão há a adesão dos grãos de pólen no estigma da própria flor, promovendo o processo de autopolinização passiva. A esp

  14. Cytotoxic components of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Sri Nurestri Abdul; Shin, Sim Kae; Wahab, Norhanom Abdul; Yaacob, Hashim

    2009-05-06

    Dihydroactinidiolide (1) and a mixture of sterols [campesterol (2), stigmasterol (3) and beta-sitosterol (4)], together with the previously isolated individual compounds beta-sitosterol (4), 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (5), alpha-tocopherol (6), phytol (7) were isolated from the active ethyl acetate fraction of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) leaves. Cytotoxic activities of the above mentioned compounds against five human carcinoma cell lines, namely the human nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma cell line (KB), human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi), human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT 116), human hormone-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF7) and human lung carcinoma cell line (A549); and non-cancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) were investigated. Compound 5 possessed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC(50 )value of 0.81microg/mL. This is the first report on the cytotoxic activities of the compounds isolated from Pereskia bleo.

  15. Gamma radiation on the conservation of the pupunha (Bactris gasipaes HBK) minimally processed; Radiacao gama na conservacao de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes HMK) minimamente processada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoto, Marta H. F. [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Walder, Julio M. M.; Domarco, Rachel E. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation on microorganisms and enzymatic darkness reaction of the minimally processed hart of palm pupunha (Bactris gasipaes HBK). The pupunha stalks came from Piraju county, State of Sao Paulo and at CENA/USP laboratory they were peeled and cut in small stalks into a solution of sodium chloride (2.5%) plus citric acid (0.8%). After packing in polyethylene bags the samples were irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. The samples were storage for 14 days period under refrigeration (5 deg C), with analysis at the 1{sup st}, 7{sup th} and 14{sup th} day. No microorganism (bacteria, fungi or yeast) were detect in the irradiated samples during the the storage period. Through the a{sup *} e b{sup *} values the control sample showed a yellow-greenish color and the irradiated samples presented almost white. The pH values kept stable and the ratio values diminished for all treatments during the storage period. (author)

  16. Composition and nutritive value of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes) in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado, M E; Murillo, M G

    1984-06-01

    Nutritive assessment of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes) meals included proximal composition of the lipid and nitrogenous fractions. Caloric values obtained as true metabolizable energy (TME) indicate that the pejibaye has a higher content of energy than corn and that it is not necessary to separate the seeds from the fruits in animal feeds; the level of indispensable aminoacids is considerably low, especially methionine, which is lower than in corn; thin layer chromatography shows that most of the free fatty acids are present in a ratio of 2:1 in unsaturated to saturated acids. The predominant fatty acids in whole pejibaye meal are oleic and palmitic acids with adequate levels of linoleic acid. Saturated fatty acids are predominant in the seed, with a very high content of lauric and myristic acids.

  17. Home at Last II: Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini (Mutisieae, Asteraceae is really a Chaptalia

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    Xiaodan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini of the Gerbera-complex (Mutisieae, Asteraceae/Compositae is distributed in Ecuador and Peru. This perennial herb was first named as Onoseris hieracioides Kunth and was later recognised as Trichocline hieracioides (Kunth Ferreyra. Now it is generally treated as Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini but it has never been included in any section of Gerbera. In this study, the position of Gerbera hieracioides is assessed based on morphology and a molecular phylogeny that includes G. hieracioides and 28 other species from the Gerbera-complex. Morphologically, G. hieracioides bears leaves with the adaxial epidermal surface without stomates but with soft thin trichomes, bracteate scapes, trimorphic capitula and inner ray florets with the corolla shorter than the style. These characters suggest that the species is most closely related to Chaptalia rather than to Gerbera or Trichocline. Furthermore, the phylogenetic results based on two nuclear (ITS and ETS and two chloroplast (trnL–trnF and trnL–rpl32 sequences strongly support the placement of G. hieracioides nested within Chaptalia. As both morphological characters and the molecular phylogenetic results support the transfer of G. hieracioides to Chaptalia, this enigmatic taxon is recognised as Chaptalia hieracioides (Kunth X.-D. Xu & W. Zheng.

  18. Actividad biológica de los aceites esenciales de Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón Mejía, Carlos Andrés; Castaño Osorio, Jhon Carlos; Ríos Vázquez, Eunice

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass. es una arvense nativa del norte de Suramérica conocida por su contenido de alcamidas alifáticas, se usa popularmente como anestésico y analgésico contra los dolores de muelas y de garganta. Objetivos: obtener, analizar y evaluar la actividad biológica de los aceites esenciales de las flores y hojas de Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass. Métodos: se obtuvieron los aceites esenciales de Acmella ciliata por hidrodestilación e hidrodestilación asistida por mi...

  19. MORPHOANATOMY OF Garcinia madruno (KUNTH HAMMEL (CLUSIACEAE UNDER WATERLOGGED CONDITIONS

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    NATÁLIA DO COUTO ABREU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Garcinia madruno (Kunth Hammel is a neotropical tree that naturally occurs in terra firme forests and is important as a source of income and medicine for Amazonian populations. This study describes and compares the morphoanatomical responses of plants under conditions of stress and normoxia. Young plants of Garcinia madruno were subjected to two water regimes: daily controlled irrigation and waterlogged for 84 days. Hypertrophic lenticels, adventitious roots and anatomical characteristics of the roots and leaves were evaluated on days 0, 21, 42, 63 and 84. There were no changes in leaf structure, but cracks and hypertrophic lenticels appeared on the stems, there was an increase in blackness of the roots and the plants formed adventitious roots to adapt to the flooded environment. The anatomical changes in the roots of the flooded plants were thickening of the exodermis in the main root and of the pericycle in the lateral roots, and a large increase in the amount of aerenchyma. Histochemical tests detected starch in the midrib, mesophyll, stem and root of flooded plants, and in the petiole of control plants. In the waterlogged plants, phenolic compounds were found in the petiole and alkaloids were found in the midrib, petiole and root.

  20. Cytotoxic Components of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dihydroactinidiolide (1 and a mixture of sterols [campesterol (2, stigmasterol (3 and β-sitosterol (4], together with the previously isolated individual compounds β-sitosterol (4, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (5, α-tocopherol (6, phytol (7 were isolated from the active ethyl acetate fraction of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae leaves. Cytotoxic activities of the above mentioned compounds against five human carcinoma cell lines, namely the human nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma cell line (KB, human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi, human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT 116, human hormone-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF7 and human lung carcinoma cell line (A549; and non-cancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5 were investigated. Compound 5 possessed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC50 value of 0.81µg/mL. This is the first report on the cytotoxic activities of the compounds isolated from Pereskia bleo.

  1. Essential oil composition of leaf and fine stem of Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez from Manaus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Maria da Paz; Silva,Tatiana Maria D.; Silva,João Domingos da; Zoghbi,Maria das Graças B.; Andrade,Eloisa Helena A.

    2004-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves and fine stems of Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez collected in the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-two components were identified, of which 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, as expected, was the major (71.2%-68.2%).

  2. UTILIZACIÓN DE CHONTADURO (Bactris gasipaes ENRIQUECIDA CON Pleurotus ostreatus EN POLLOS

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    JOSE MIGUEL CAMPO GAVIRIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In commercial poultry production, 70% of the production costs are related to feeding, this is a limiting factor affecting the profitability. This study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of chontaduro peel (Bactris gasipaes, enriched with the (Pleurotus ostreatus fungus, in the feeding of broilers; using a completely randomized design, with five treatments and three repetitions per treatment, with inclusion levels of 0,10% and 20% of chontaduro fruit peel, and 10 and 20% of chontaduro fruit peel enriched with the fungus (Pleurotus ostreatus. The productive behavior of the lot was determined by the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, skin pigmentation and cost benefit ratio of the portions. In this regard, no statistical differences (p <0,05 between treatments for all production variables evaluated were found, except for pigmentation, which was higher with levels of 20% of inclusion; as well as the positive effect in economic terms where the addition of a 20% of chontaduro peel flour enriched with the fungus is favorable because of the better cost-benefit ratio, without significantly affectingthe productive behavior.

  3. Decolorization of textile industry wastewater in solid state fermentation with Peach-Palm (Bactris gasipaes) residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicatto, J A; Rainert, K T; Gonçalves, M J; Helm, C V; Altmajer-Vaz, D; Tavares, L B B

    2018-02-15

    In this work we have assessed the decolorization of textile effluents throughout their treatment in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system. SSF assays were conducted with peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) residue using the white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum EF 31. The influence of the dye concentration and of the amounts of peach-palm residue and liquid phase on both the discoloration efficiency and enzyme production was studied. According to our results, independently of experimental conditions employed, laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme produced by G. lucidum. The highest laccase activity was obtained at very low effluent concentrations, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory effect of higher concentrations on fungal metabolism. The highest percentage of color removal was reached when 10 grams of peach palm residue was moistened with 60 mL of the final effluent. In control tests carried out with the synthetic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) decolorization efficiencies about 20% higher than that achieved with the industrial effluent were achieved. The adsorption of RBBR on peach-palm residue was also investigated. Equilibrium tests showed that the adsorption of this dye followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Hence, our experimental results indicate that peach-palm residue is suitable substrate for both laccase production and color removal in industrial effluents.

  4. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-02-23

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  5. Decolorization of textile industry wastewater in solid state fermentation with Peach-Palm (Bactris gasipaes residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Chicatto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work we have assessed the decolorization of textile effluents throughout their treatment in a solid-state fermentation (SSF system. SSF assays were conducted with peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes residue using the white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum EF 31. The influence of the dye concentration and of the amounts of peach-palm residue and liquid phase on both the discoloration efficiency and enzyme production was studied. According to our results, independently of experimental conditions employed, laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme produced by G. lucidum. The highest laccase activity was obtained at very low effluent concentrations, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory effect of higher concentrations on fungal metabolism. The highest percentage of color removal was reached when 10 grams of peach palm residue was moistened with 60 mL of the final effluent. In control tests carried out with the synthetic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR decolorization efficiencies about 20% higher than that achieved with the industrial effluent were achieved. The adsorption of RBBR on peach-palm residue was also investigated. Equilibrium tests showed that the adsorption of this dye followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Hence, our experimental results indicate that peach-palm residue is suitable substrate for both laccase production and color removal in industrial effluents.

  6. Microencapsulation by spray-drying of anthocyanin pigments from Corozo ( Bactris guineensis) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Coralia; Acevedo, Baudilio; Hillebrand, Silke; Carriazo, José; Winterhalter, Peter; Morales, Alicia Lucía

    2010-06-09

    The anthocyanins of Bactris guineensis fruit were isolated with the aid of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative HPLC, and their chemical structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods. Among the identified pigments, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside were characterized as major constituents (87.9%). Peonidin-3-rutinoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6-O-malonyl)glucoside, and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were present in minor amounts. Four anthocyanin ethanolic extracts (AEEs) were obtained by osmotic dehydration and Soxhlet extraction and physicochemically characterized. The composition of anthocyanins was monitored by HPLC-PDA. The extracts with the highest anthocyanin content were subjected to the spray-drying process with maltodextrin. The so-obtained spray-dried powders were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found to consist of spherical particles fruit. The microencapsulated powders were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), revealing that they are quite stable until 100 degrees C. Storage stability tests of microcapsules showed that the release of anthocyanin pigments follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and that the process rate is increased by temperature and humidity. The most suitable conditions for storage were below 37 degrees C and <76% relative humidity, respectively.

  7. Gamma radiation on the conservation of the pupunha (Bactris gasipaes HBK) minimally processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoto, Marta H. F.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation on microorganisms and enzymatic darkness reaction of the minimally processed hart of palm pupunha (Bactris gasipaes HBK). The pupunha stalks came from Piraju county, State of Sao Paulo and at CENA/USP laboratory they were peeled and cut in small stalks into a solution of sodium chloride (2.5%) plus citric acid (0.8%). After packing in polyethylene bags the samples were irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. The samples were storage for 14 days period under refrigeration (5 deg C), with analysis at the 1 st , 7 th and 14 th day. No microorganism (bacteria, fungi or yeast) were detect in the irradiated samples during the the storage period. Through the a * e b * values the control sample showed a yellow-greenish color and the irradiated samples presented almost white. The pH values kept stable and the ratio values diminished for all treatments during the storage period. (author)

  8. Leptoglossus lonchoides Allen (Heteroptera, Coreidae), causente de la caida de los frutos de Bactris gasipaes (Palmae) en la Amazonia central

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Guy; Clement, C.R.; Viana Filho, P.

    1991-01-01

    #Leptoglossus lonchoïdes$ Allen (Heteroptera Coreidae) provoque la chute des fruits de #Bactris gasipaes$ HBK (Palmae) en Amazonie centrale. Les plantations de "pejibaye", #B.gasipaes$, un palmier neotropical domestiqué, souffrent d'importantes chutes de jeunes fruits en Amazonie centrale (Manaus, Amazonas, Brésil), dues en partie, peut-être principalement, à la punaise #L. lonchoïdes$. Dans cet article, on évalue l'importance économique des dégâts et on décrit l'insecte. (Résumé d'auteur)...

  9. Carotenoid composition and antioxidant activity of the raw and boiled fruit mesocarp of six varieties of Bactris gasipaes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatunov, Sorel; Quesada, Silvia; Díaz, Cecilia; Murillo, Enrique

    2010-03-01

    Total carotenoid content and composition of carotenoids of six varieties of Bactris gasipaes were determined by spectrophotometry and HPLC, with photodiode array detector. Significant differences in total carotenoid content (1.1 to 22.3 mg/100g) were detected among these varieties. Boiling the fruits for 30 minutes did not affect total carotenoid content, but did change the amount of some specific carotenoids, mainly by the production of Z-isomers. Peach palm varieties had the same carotenoids, but in different proportions, presenting mainly, all E-beta-carotene (26.2% to 47.9%), Z-gamma-carotene (18.2% to 34.3%) and Z-lycopene (10.2% to 26.8%). When antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, it was observed that the variety with higher percentages of beta-carotene (54.1%) presented the higher activity. This is one of the first reports in carotenoid content and antioxidant activity in well typified varieties of Bactris gasipaes, whose results could have a positive impact in the consumption of certain peach palm varieties.

  10. [Use of flour of pejibaye fruit (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) in bread making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, M

    1987-03-01

    Trial were conducted in Costa Rica in 1984 and 1985, to determine the possibility of substituting pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) meal for wheat flour in bread. Utilization in three distinct mixtures was examined: 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 percentage of wheat flour to percentage of pejibaye meal, respectively. The breads were made, and dough analyses were conducted at "Molinos de Costa Rica, S.A.", the country's principal flour mill. Chemical analyses were carried out at the University of Costa Rica. Results indicate a marked inverse relationship between both initial dough development time and dough strength maintenance, and the content of pejibaye meal present in the flour mixture. Consequent problems with sufficient dough expansion preclude utilization of this fruit meal for bread-making in proportions significantly greater than 10% of the total composite flour. The above-mentioned findings reflect the high nutritional value of the pejibaye fruit. Although the protein content is inversely correlated with the amount of pejibaye meal in the mixture, vitamin A and fat contents are positively correlated. This fact demonstrates that the utilization of pejibaye meal in bread-making may well be in some ways considered as a form of nutritional enrichment. As a final conclusion drawn from the results of analyses of the trials and sensory observations, the 90% wheat flour with 10% pejibaye meal mixture apparently was the optimum substitution level of the breads examined. The potential macroeconomic ramifications on the Costa Rican economy of producing and utilizing pejibaye meal in bread-making, are highly favorable.

  11. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe3O4 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, S.; Arias, N.P.; Giraldo, O.; Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O.

    2012-01-01

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in NaOH or NH 4 OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 °C and 800 °C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  12. Development of the pollen in the antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl.

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Giełwanowska; Anna Bochenek; Ewa Szczuka

    2012-01-01

    Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. produced two types very small bisexual fl owers. In the Antarctic natural conditions chasmogamic and cleistogamic fl owers most often form fi ve stamina with short fi laments. Two microsporangia with a three-layer wall form in the anther. Microspore mother cells, which develop into microspores after meiosis, form inside the microsporangium. Microsporocytes of Colobanthus quitensis are surrounded with a thick callose layer, the special wall. After meiosis, ...

  13. Anatomía micrográfica del folíolo de la palma neotropical Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Chaimsohn

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron hojas de plantas jóvenes cultivadas para producción de palmito de la variedad Diamantes 10 de ascendencia del Alto Amazonas. Se estudió la anatomía micrográfica foliar y la frecuencia de estomas en la superficie adaxial y abaxial de los foliolos de Bactris gasipaes provenientes de una plantación experimental en un régimen de fertilización química y una densidad de población de 5000 plantas por hectárea, en Guápiles, Costa Rica. Se confirmó la presencia de rafidios y células buliformes en la superficie abaxial de las láminas foliares y del tejido hipodermico en ambos lados. Confirmamos la ausencia de la anatomía Krantz en esta especie, reafirmando la fotosíntesis C3 como mecanismo metabólico en la familia Palmaceae. La densidad promedio de estomas en la superficie abaxial fue de 96,87±16,31 estomas.mm-2 y en la superficie adaxial fue de 14,20±4,05 estomas.mm-2.Leaf micrografic anatomy of the Neotropical palm Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae. The economic importance of the palm Bactris gasipaes is growing in the Neotropoical region. We collected leaflets from plants under a chemical fertilization regime and a population of 5000 plants per hectare, in Costa Rica. The variety, Diamantes 10, has an ascendency fom the upper Amazon basin. We used Harries hematoxiline, eocine and standard light microscopy techniques. The presence of raphids and buliform cells was confirmed for the abaxial surface of the leaflets and for the hypodermic tissue on both sides. The absence of the Krantz anatomy was confirmed in consistence with former observations about the C3 photosynthesis in other species of Palmaceae. The average stomatal density on the abaxial surface was 96.87±16.31 stomata.mm-2 and 14.20±4.05 in the adaxial surface. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 951-959. Epub 2008 June 30.

  14. Estudo químico de alimentos formulados à base de palmito Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. (pupunha desidratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Marlene Azevedo Magalhães

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O coração da palmeira Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. (pupunha foi utilizado, sob forma desidratada, na formulação de uma sopa-creme para merenda escolar. Análises químicas do palmito e do coração da palmeira (açúcares redutores, lipídeos, proteínas totais, aminograma, fibras, calorias e minerais foram feitas tanto na forma in natura como na forma processada, bem como na de sopa-creme. Não foram encontradas diferenças relevantes em relação a essas determinações, podendo-se ressaltar a boa qualidade aminoacídica do coração da palmeira.

  15. Características do resíduo de mineração de areia como componente de substratos para a produção de mudas de pupunheira (Bactris Gasipaes Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Augusta Garcia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características físicas, químicas e biológica do resíduo fino de mineração de areia como componente de substratos para a produção de mudas de pupunheira. Para isso, foram testados quatro substratos com as proporções de resíduo de mineração de areia:casca de arroz carbonizada (RA:CA: 1:0; 3:1; 1:1; 1:3, e comparados ao substrato testemunha: 3:1 (Latossolo Amarelo Podzólico álico:esterco de búfalo curtido. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, com 10 mudas por parcela. As mudas de pupunheira foram produzidas em recipiente com capacidade para 1,1L, em ambiente protegido. Quando as mudas encontravam-se prontas para o transplantio, 210 dias após a repicagem, foram determinados diâmetro do coleto, altura da haste, número de folhas, massa seca da parte aérea e radicular. Concluiu-se que o resíduo de mineração de areia pode ter uso no sistema produtivo da pupunheira como componente de substrato para produção de mudas. Sua proporção máxima deve ser de 75% do volume do substrato, sempre agregado a outros materiais para que a composição final apresente densidade seca entre 500 e 800 kg.m-3.

  16. FISIOLOGÍA POSCOSECHA, COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA Y CAPACIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE DE FRUTAS DE PEJIBAYE (Bactris gasipaes Kunth cv. Tuira DarIén COSECHADAS A TRES DIFERENTES EDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Serrano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron variables de calidad poscosecha, composición química y capacidad antioxidante de frutas de pejibaye cv. Tuira-Darién, cosechados con una edad de 97, 106 y 120 días desde floración. Con base en su patrón respiratorio, el pejibaye pareciera pertenecer al grupo de los frutos no climatéricos, con una tasa respiratoria alta (30-45 mg.kg-1.h-1 de CO2 al inicio del almacenamiento; en etapas más avanzadas del almacenamiento alcanzó 80 mg.kg-1.h-1 de CO2, lo que le confiere una vida útil poscosecha corta. En los frutos recién cosechados, los valores de firmeza de la pulpa, el color de la pulpa, el color externo, el contenido de sólidos solubles, el contenido de grasa y la capacidad antioxidante se vieron influenciados por la edad de cosecha. No se encontró efecto de la edad de cosecha en el contenido de almidones y carotenoides. Los valores de respiración, índice de color externo y contenido de sólidos solubles aumentaron durante el almacenamiento poscosecha, mientras que la firmeza de la pulpa mostró una disminución. Se encontraron bajos contenidos de acidez titulable, sin variaciones significativas durante el periodo de almacenamiento. Además, mediante el método ORAC en base húmeda, se determinó que el pejibaye tiene una alta capacidad antioxidante (16,18 uÊmol ET (equivalentes Trolox/g, superior a la informada para frutas como mango (10,02 uÊmol ET/g, pina (7,93 uÊmol ET/g, tomate (4,60 uÊmol ET/g. Los frutos cosechados con la menor edad (97 dias, presentaron los mayores valores de capacidad antioxidante tanto en la determinacion ORAC en base seca (58,08 uÊmol ET/g como en la base humeda (16,18 uÊmol ET/g.

  17. PROPAGACIÓN in vitro DE Geranium chilloense WILLD. EX KUNTH. PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE PLANTAS COMPLETAS

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, Thaly; Córdova, Adriana; Vaca, Ivonne

    2016-01-01

    Geranium chilloense Willd. ex Kunth es conocida con el nombre de Geranio de los Chillos, es una planta ornamental silvestre, nativa de Los Andes se encuentra distribuida en las quebradas del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito y forma parte de la historia de la flora nativa de Quito ya que ha sido descrita desde la expedición de Alexander Humboldt y Aimé Bonpland en 1802. El presente estudio presenta un protocolo de propagación in vitro de Geranium chilloense Willd. ex Kunth, para la ...

  18. Os óleos essenciais das folhas e galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez coletados em Manaus, B

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Maria da Paz; Silva, Tatiana Maria D.; Silva, João Domingos da; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B.; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A.

    2004-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves and fine stems of Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez collected in the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-two components were identified, of which 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, as expected, was the major (71.2%-68.2%).Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth) Mez coletada na cidade de Manaus, AM, Brasil, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por CG-EM. Quarenta e dois compone...

  19. Contribución al estudio de biología reproductiva de un especie de bactris (palmae en el bosque de Galería (depto. Beni, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTRIBUTION A L’ETUDE DE BIOLOGIE REPRODUCTIVE D’UNE ESPECE DE BACTRIS (PALMAE DE FORET DE GALERIE (DPT. BENI, BOLIVIE. Cette étude présente les résultats d’observations préliminaires sur la biologie de reproduction de Bactris bidentula Spruce des forêts-galerie situées dans les savanes des plaines de Moxos (Espíritu, département du Beni, Bolivie. Les observations réalisées ont permis d’obtenir des données sur les caractères végétatifs, la phénologie, l’anthèse et les agents pollinisateurs possibles. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos de observaciones preliminares sobre la biología reproductiva de Bactris bidentula Spruce del bosque de galería en las sabanas de los llanos de Moxos (Espíritu, Depto. Beni, Bolivia. Las observaciones realizadas permitieron registrar datos vegetativos, fenológicos, antesis y posibles polinizadores. CONTRIBUTION TO REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF A BACTRIS SPECIES (PALMAE IN A GALLERY FOREST (DEPART. OF BENI, BOLIVIA. Here we present results of preliminary observations on the reproductive biology of Bactris bidentula Spruce of gallery forest of the savanna of Llanos de Moxos (Espíritu, Dept. Beni, Bolivia. The observations registered information about vegetative features, phenology, anthesis, and possible pollinators.

  20. Avaliação de Fungicidas para o Controle de Antracnose em Folhas de Pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Evaluation of Fungicides for Controlling Anthracnose on Leaves of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauri José Tessmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A antracnose, causada pelo fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, é uma doença foliar importante da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes nas fases de muda e planta jovem. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de fungicidas químicos no controle de antracnose em folhas de pupunheiras jovens, no Noroeste do Paraná. O ensaio foi conduzido com o delineamento experimental  em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos com fungicidas e uma testemunha  sem fungicida, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados os fungicidas chlorotalonil (2 g L-1, chlorotalonil+tiofanato metílico (1 + 0,4 g L-1, tebuconazole (0,2 g L-1, azoxistrobina (80 mg L-1 e calda Viçosa (3 g L-1 de ácido bórico; 5 g L-  de sulfato de cobre; 6 g L-1 de sulfato de zinco; 3,5 g L-1 de cal hidratada. Cada fungicida foi pulverizado cinco vezes, com intervalo de 15 a 20 dias entre as aplicações. Verificou-se que todos os tratamentos com fungicidas proporcionaram redução estatisticamente significativa na intensidade da doença em relação à testemunha sem fungicida (P=0,05. Os fungicidas mais eficientes no controle da doença foram chlorotalonil e a mistura de tiofanato metílico+chlorotalonil.  
    Leaf anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum loeosporioides, is the most important disease of seedlings and young peach palm plants (Bactris gasipaes. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy of some fungicides for controlling anthracnose on leaves of young peach palm (Bactris gasipaes, in Northwestern Paraná State, Brazil. An assay with randomized block design was carried out, with five different fungicides and a control, with four replicates. The fungicide evaluated were: chlorotalonil (2 g L- , chlorotalonil+methyl tiophanate (1 + 0,4 g L-1, tebuconazole (0,2 g L-1, azoxystrobin (80 mg L-1 and calda Viçosa (boric acid 3 g L-1; copper sulfate 5 g L-1; zinc sulfate 6 g L-1; hydrated lime

  1. Notes on Two Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan: Evolvulus nummularius (L. L. (Convolvulaceae and Acalypha aristata Kunth (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolvulus nummularius (L. L. and Acalypha aristata Kunth, originally native to tropical America, were recently found naturalized in disturbed sites of Taiwan. The present study gives the taxonomic description and line drawings of the two species. In addition, their distributions and notes on ecology are provided.

  2. Identification and elimination of bacterial contamination during in vitro propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadha, Harleen Kaur; Salwan, Richa; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2012-04-01

    Guadua angustifolia Kunth is a very important bamboo species with significant utility in pharmaceutical, paper, charcoal, and construction industries. Microbial contamination is a major problem encountered during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This study has been designed to analyze the identity of contaminating bacteria and to develop the strategy to eliminate them during micropropagation of Guadua. We isolated and consequently analyzed partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify two contaminating bacteria as (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis. In addition, we also- performed antibiotic sensitivity testing on these bacterial isolates. We identified kanamycin and streptomycin sulfate as potentially useful antibiotics in eliminating the contaminating bacteria. We grew shoots on multiplication medium containing BAP (2 mg/l) and adenine sulfate (10 mg/l) supplemented with kanamycin (10 μg/ml) for 10 days and transferred them to fresh medium without antibiotics and found that bacterial growth was inhibited. Moreover, we observed intensive formation of high-quality shoots. Streptomycin sulfate also inhibited bacterial growth but at higher concentration. We also demonstrated that shoots grown in streptomycin sulfate tended to be shorter and had yellow leaves. Thus, we have developed a novel strategy to identify and inhibit intriguing microbial contaminations of (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This would improve in vitro establishment of an important bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth for large scale propagation.

  3. [Content and bioavailability of carotenoids from peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) as a source of vitamin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A; Muñoz, L

    1992-06-01

    Four introductions of ripe peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) were analyzed for ether extract, total carotenoids and their biological conversion into vitamin A. Also, edible portion in cooked fruit was estimated. Ether extract content in raw fruit ranged from 8.2 to 12.9% dry basis (DB), cooked between 5.7 to 12.4% DB and nutrient retention after cooking was 69 to 100%. Carotenoids content in raw and cooked pejibaye was similar, 4.8 to 29.6% DB and 4.8 to 29.9% DB, respectively, giving a nutrient retention after cooking greater than 85%. Average edible portion was 68 +/- 2%. The biological study showed significant differences (p 0.05). Carotenoids content was inversely related (r = -0.8, p < 0.02) with ether extract. Cooking had no significant effect in ether extract and carotenoids content, except in one introduction. Based in the results generated in the study and vitamin A Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) it was estimated that one, in three introductions and seven in the remaining one satisfies an adult RDA's.

  4. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.; Arruda, Sandra F.

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  5. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart, Brazil’s Native Fruit

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    Fernanda R. Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD. Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  6. Essential oil composition of leaf and fine stem of Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez from Manaus, Brazil Os óleos essenciais das folhas e galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez coletados em Manaus, B

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    Maria da Paz Lima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the leaves and fine stems of Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez collected in the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-two components were identified, of which 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, as expected, was the major (71.2%-68.2%.Os óleos essenciais das folhas e dos galhos finos de Aniba canelilla (Kunth Mez coletada na cidade de Manaus, AM, Brasil, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por CG-EM. Quarenta e dois componentes foram identificados, dos quais 1-nitro-2-feniletano, como esperado, foi o que apresentou maior porcentagem (71,2%-68,2%.

  7. FLAVONOIDES AISLADOS DE LAS INFLORESCENCIAS DE Piper hispidum Kunth (PIPERACEAE Y DERIVADOS ACETILADOS

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    Luis Enrique Cuca

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir del extracto etanólico de las inflorescencias de la especie Piper hispidum Kunth (Piperaceae fueron aislados tres flavonoides: 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona, 5-hidroxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona y 2’,4’,6’-trimetoxidihidrochalcona. De las flavanonas aisladas fueron obtenidos los  derivados acetilados: 5-acetoxi-7-metoxiflavanona y  5-acetoxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona. Las estructuras fueron elucidadas empleando técnicas espectroscópicas y por comparación con datos de literatura. Los compuestos naturales y sus derivados fueron sometidos al bioensayo de letalidad frente a Artemia salina. El flavonoide 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona presenta la mayor actividad tóxica frente a los microcrustaceos CL50 1.8 µg/ml.

  8. Development of the pollen in the antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl.

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    Irena Giełwanowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. produced two types very small bisexual fl owers. In the Antarctic natural conditions chasmogamic and cleistogamic fl owers most often form fi ve stamina with short fi laments. Two microsporangia with a three-layer wall form in the anther. Microspore mother cells, which develop into microspores after meiosis, form inside the microsporangium. Microsporocytes of Colobanthus quitensis are surrounded with a thick callose layer, the special wall. After meiosis, the callose wall is dissolved and microspores are released from the tetrad. The production of proorbicules, orbicules and peritapetal membrane, and the construction of a complex sporoderm with numerous apertural sites were observed. When microspore and pollen protoplasts underwent necrosis, probably as a result of temperature and osmotic stress, sporoderm layers formed around microspores, and the cell tapetum did not disintegrate. However, woody wall layers did not accumulate in endothecium cells.

  9. Polimorfismo isoenzimático en cuatro razas y un híbrido de Bactris gasipaes (Palmae

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    Sonia Rojas-Vargas

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estandarizó un sistema de electroforesis de isoenzimas con tejido de hojas que permitió la identificación del polimorfismo fenético entre cuatro razas y un híbrido de pejibaye Bactris gasipaes provenientes de Brasil, Perú, Bolivia, Panamá y Costa Rica. Las isoenzimas ensayadas fueron: PRX, EST, ACP, ME, DIA, MDH, G6PDH, PGI, SOD, PGM, ADH, GOT, de estas solamente las dos œltimas no mostraron actividad. El resto de isoenzimas mostraron polimorfismo fenético en diferentes grados, por esto se consideran marcadores polimórficos potenciales para estudios de variabilidad genética en pejibaye. Se encontró un locus único en el zimograma de la enzima PRX en las muestras de Utilis-Guápiles (CR, el cual podría usarse como un marcador discriminatorio para esta raza. Se establecieron relaciones de similitud isoenzimática entre las razas Utilis-Guápiles (CR y Tuira-Darién (Pa; Tembé-Chapare (Bo y Pará-Belem (Bra respectivamente, mientras que el híbrido Yurimaguas (Pe se ubicó aparte y ligeramente más cercano a Utilis y Tuira, por esto se considera que posiblemente desciende de padres aún no identificados.The study of genetic diversity in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes K. is important for the breeding work on this palm and to corroborate the hypotheses on its origins. For that purpose it is necessary to use alternative techniques to complement the morphological studies traditionally made. One of the techniques that responds to that need is isozyme electrophoresis. The isozymes are biochemical markers of importance in the study of genetic variability in plants of economic importance, because they are the primary products of genetic expression. This work is an electrophoretic analysis on gels of polyacrilamide to study phenetic relations using twelve isozymes on four races and an spontaneous hybrid of peach palm. The biological material used came from the germplasm bank from Los Diamantes Experimental Station, Guápiles-Costa Rica. Four

  10. Traffic-emitted metal status and uptake by Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald growing in roadside turfy swamp in the Changbai Mountain area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Nie, Lei; Xu, Yan; Li, Miao; Lv, Yan

    2018-04-26

    Six traffic-emitted metals (Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni) were determined in soil and plants for below- and aboveground parts along different distances from highway to evaluate their behavior and uptake by Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald growing in turfy swamps. The results indicated that the different plant tissues showed significantly different levels of metal content. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that metal contents leveled off at constant values before they decreased as the distance from the roadside increased. The high R 2 values of the regression model indicated good fit of the exponential function applied to depict the distribution pattern of the metal elements. It was deduced that Cr, Cu, and Cd in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were mainly derived from the soil; Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald absorbed Pb mainly through the stomata from atmospheric depositions; Cr, Cu, and Cd in Carex meyeriana Kunth and Zn in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were mainly affected by soil and atmospheric depositions. After excluding the effects of traffic, only the bioaccumulation factor of Cd (1.34) in Carex meyeriana Kunth and the translocation factor of Zn (1.13) in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were greater than 1, suggesting that Carex meyeriana Kunth could be a good candidate for assimilating Cd from soils and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald could be suitable for the phytoextraction of Zn.

  11. [Bee diversity in Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth (Bignoniaceae): importance for pollination and fruit production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cláudia I; Augusto, Solange C; Sofia, Silvia H; Moscheta, Ismar S

    2007-01-01

    Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth is an exotic plant in Brazil, commonly distributed in urban areas, which is considered an invasive species in crop and pasture areas. In this study, the floral biology and the behavior of bees in flowers of T. stans from three urban areas in southeastern Brazil were investigated. In all study sites, T. stans was an important food resource to the Apoidea to 48 species of bees. Centris tarsata Smith and Exomalopsis fulvofasciata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the effective pollinators more abundant, while Scaptotrigona depilis Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the more frequent robber species. The most part of T. stans visitors (87.5%) exploited exclusively nectar, which varied in sugar concentration depending on the day period and flower phase. In all flower stages, higher averages of nectar concentration (26.4% to 32.7%) occurred from 10 am to 2 pm. The presence of osmophore in the petals and protandry were detected. In two urban areas the number of visitors varied significantly during the day. The greatest abundance of pollinators occurred when pollen availability was higher and flowers showed receptive stigma, which could be contributing to the reproductive success of T. stans. The results indicate that the production of fruits increased in plants that received a higher number of effective pollinators.

  12. Efecto de diferentes niveles de aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides kunth en pollos de engorde

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    Liliana Betancourt L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de inclusión de aceite esencial de Lippia origanoides Kunth (AEO que maximice el peso corporal y la eficiencia económica. Materiales y métodos. Los AEO se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se analizaron por GC/MS. Se evaluaron cuatro niveles, 0, 100, 200 y 300 ppm de AEO en dos grupos de pollos; un grupo retado con ooquistes atenuados de coccidia y otro no retado. El nivel óptimo de inclusión fue estimado mediante una función sinusoidal. Resultados. La suplementación con 100 ppm de AEO redujo el impacto negativo del reto con ooquistes atenuados de coccidia sobre el peso corporal, 1.799, 1.889 y 1.995 g en los grupos retado sin AEO, retado + AEO y control, respectivamente (p<0.001. Se encontró una interacción significativa entre la suplementación con AEO y reto sobre el peso corporal y la conversión de alimento (p<0.05. El nivel de AEO que maximiza el peso corporal en los grupos de pollos no retados fue 65 ppm; mientras que para los grupos retados fue 147 ppm. Conclusiones. Se demostró que los AEO ricos en timol pueden ser un aditivo natural viable para la producción de carne de pollo.

  13. TRADITIONAL USE OF A PROTECTED SPECIES (Litsea glaucescens Kunth IN THE “SIERRA DEL LAUREL

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    Salvador Martín Medina-Torres

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whenever a natural area is proposed to be a protected area, the information that supports the proposal is usually based on the physical environmental, rather than on the social environment and on the management of natural resource. This study was conducted from May 2004 to June 2005 whit the objective to analyze the process of exploitation of Mexican Bay Leaf (Litsea glaucescens Kunth in rural communities of Sierra del Laurel, a priority area in the state of Aguascalientes, México. Thirteen semi-structured interview were applied for local collectors and seven more were applied to inhabitants of the region to understand the trends in the use of resource. Three interviews were also applied to environmental officials from federal and local institutions to know about their position regarding the use of the Mexican Bay Leaf. A participative workshop with producers and collectors was conducted to document their opinion on the status of the population of this specie. Trend in utilization of the Mexican Bay Leaf have led it to be in danger of extinction: there is not organization nor legal utilization schemes among collectors that allow regeneration; the lack of institutional coordination, along whit inefficient implementation of laws and other legal instruments to regulate the management of natural resources, has contributed so that users have not adequate risk management procedures.

  14. LEAF MICROMOPHOMETRY OF PALICOUREA RIGIDA KUNTH. (RUBIACEAE FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO AND CAMPO RUPESTRE ENVIRONMENTS

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    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate qualitative and quantitative leaf anatomical traits of Palicourea rigida Kunth. (Rubiaceae species occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado and Campo Rupestre ecosystems. Anatomical analysis was performed in fresh or fixed leaves processed with usual plant microtechnique. Leaves showed uniseriate epidermis in petiole and leaf blade which contains uniseriate nonglandular tricomes (tector type occurring only over the vascular bundles. Likewise, paracytic stomata were found only in abaxial side of the leaf surface. The mesophyll contains uniseriate palisade parenchyma and multiseriate spongy parenchyma (nine layers which showed cells with different morphology and size. Crystal idoblasts of different types were observed in both the petiole and leaf blade. Collateral vascular bundles were found both in the petiole and leaf blade. Leaf venation type was pinnate, campylodromous or brochydodromous. The micromorphometric analysis showed significant differences from plants of different environments for all leaf characteristics and Cerrado plants showed higher means for all evaluated traits. Therefore, the influence of environments may had modulated morphological responses in P. rigida, since no difference was found in the type or distribution of leaf tissues in Cerrado or Campo Rupestre.

  15. Contribution to the ethnopharmacological and anti-Helicobacter pylori knowledge of Cyrtocarpa procera Kunth (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; Del Carpio, Joel Díaz; Palacios-Espinosa, Juan Francisco; Romero, Irma

    2012-08-30

    Cyrtocarpa procera Kunth (Anacardiaceae) is a Mexican endemic tree; its bark has been traditionally employed in Mexico since prehispanic times to relieve digestive disorders. To perform an acute evaluation of the toxicity, gastroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as the anti-Helicobacter pylori action of C. procera bark extracts, in order to determine polypharmalcological activities. Five different polarity extracts (hexanic, CH(2)Cl(2), CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH, methanolic, and aqueous) were prepared. Each of them was evaluated in the following acute mice models: toxicity Lorke test, ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, TPA-induced ear edema; and the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity with a broth dilution method. None of the extracts were toxic under acute administration. The methanolic, hexanic, and aqueous extracts possess remarkable gastroprotective activity. All the extracts inhibit H. pylori growth, being the hexanic the most active, and only this one showed significant anti-inflammatory effect. This work demonstrates that C. procera bark has polypharmacological activities; which makes it a promising asset to the development of an integral treatment for gastritis or peptic ulcer related or not to H. pylori. Our findings contribute to the ethnopharmacological knowledge about this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution

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    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

  17. Amides from Piper as a Diuretic: Behind the Ethnopharmacological Uses of Piper glabratum Kunth

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    Thiago Bruno Lima Prando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the genus Piper are known in Brazilian folk medicine as having diuretic activity. So, we propose to investigate the acute diuretic activity and the possible toxic effects of Piper glabratum Kunth, popularly known as false Jaborandi. Additionally, we propose to check whether there is any correlation between the biological activities of the crude extract (MEPG and its 2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-trans-cinnamoyl-pyrrolidine (MMCP in Wistar rats. The MEPG was fractioned by chromatography column and the MMCP was identified by analyses of 1H and 13C RMN spectral data and correlations. Both MEPG and MMCP were assayed for diuretic activity. The preparations obtained were orally administered in a single dose to rats. The urine excretion, pH, density, conductivity, and content of Na+, K+, Cl−, and HCO3- were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. Additionally, acute toxicity of the extract was also evaluated. MMCP at doses of 30 mg/kg was able to increase the urine volume, pH, and HCO3- excretion. Moreover, high dosage of MEPG showed important liver toxicity and elevated mortality when injected intraperitoneally. The results indicate that the MMCP shows important diuretic properties when administered in Wistar rats. Additionally, MEPG can induce important acute toxicity if given in high doses.

  18. Phytotoxic potential of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg (Myrtaceae

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    E. Habermann

    Full Text Available Abstract The loss of leaves by plant species found in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna is an energetically expensive process due to adverse environmental conditions and predation by herbivory. The mature leaves have adaptations which minimize these events. However, the young individuals lack these structures and produce high leaf concentrations of secondary metabolites as a form of protection. These compounds can be used in bioprospection of natural herbicides. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxicity of hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles (Triticum aestivum L. and evaluate the potential phytotoxic of ethyl acetate extract on germination, growth and cell size of metaxylem of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. seedlings. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the elongation of wheat coleoptiles at all concentrations; however, the most promising results were observed in coleoptile fragments treated with the ethyl acetate extract. This treatment changed the mean germination time and the synchrony of sesame seeds, inhibited the growth of shoots and roots, reduced the dry weight of seedlings, led to abnormalities in the seedlings and reduced the length of the metaxylem cells in the sesame seedlings. These results demonstrated the phytotoxic potential of young leaf extracts of B. salicifolius and the high phytotoxicity of the ethyl acetate extract in the initial development of S. indicum.

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of echinochloa colona (linn.) link and sporobolus coromandelianus (retz.) kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.; Khan, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of two plants Echinochloa colona (Linn.) Link and Sporobolus coromandelianus (Retz.) Kunth, were carried out. The results revealed that the extracts of both plants were active against Gram positive bacteria, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae and Gram negative bacteria, i.e. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as the fungal strains Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger. The most significant results were obtained from the methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of E. colona, i.e. 24 +- 2.64 mm and 23 +- 2.64 mm against S. aureus, respectively. A significant inhibition zone of 23.66 +- 1.52 was observed by petroleum ether extract of S. coromandelianus. The chloroform extracts of S. coromandelianus showed an inhibition zone 72.33 +- 4.09 mm against A. oryzae and 66.33 +- 1.15 mm against A. niger. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using five approaches, i.e. 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) method; ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, metal chelating assay, total phenolic contents (TPC) and flavonoid contents. The results showed that the methanolic extracts of both plants possessed significant antioxidant activity. The results also indicated that methanolic extract of E. colona had total phenolic and flavonoid contents, i.e. 734.25 and 7774.54 mg/ml, however, methanolic extract of S. coromandelianus had phenolic and flavonoid contents, i.e. 366.75 and 3010.90 mg/ml. (author)

  20. Effect of Light and Giberellic Acid (AG3) on the Germination of Minthostachys mollis Kunth. Griseb. (Labiatae)

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Diego; Fernández Alonso, José Luis; Marina Melgarejo, Luz

    2011-01-01

    Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb., es un arbusto perenne que crece en la región andina de Colombia; es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales donde es valorado por sus propiedades medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca y luz natural) y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm) en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró inhibición de la germinación bajo condiciones de oscuridad. No se observó efecto de AG3 sobre...

  1. Diversidad, patrones de uso y conservación de palmas Arecaceae en bosques pluviales del Chocó, Colombia

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    Hamleth Valois-Cuesta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Arecaceae es rica en especies, principalmente en el trópico, y constituye una fuente de recursos para la subsistencia de sus pobladores. En el presente trabajo se estudió la riqueza, diversidad, composición y patrones de uso de la familia Arecaceae en tres localidades de la cuenca media del río Atrato en el Chocó, Colombia, con el fin de obtener información que permita su conservación y uso sostenible. Se registraron 29 especies en 18 géneros, siendo Bactris 24.13 y Wettinia 10.34 los géneros más ricos en especies. El Buey mostró más especies y géneros 23 especies, 17 géneros que Beté 15 y 10 respectivamente y Tanguí 14 y 11 respectivamente. La similitud florística entre localidades fue menor al 45. Las especies con mayor peso ecológico y valor de uso fueron: Euterpe oleracea Mart., Oenocarpus bataua Mart., Attalea allennii H.E. Moore, Manicaria saccifera Gaertn., Bactris gassipaes Kunth y Wettinia quinaria O.F.Cook y Doyle R. Bernal. Las categorías de uso con mayor riqueza de especies e importancia cultural fueron: construcción, alimento y uso artesanal; y los órganos más usados fueron tallos y frutos. Los resultados de este trabajo demuestran que el Atrato Medio posee alta riqueza y diversidad de especies de palmas en un contexto regional y nacional. Sin embargo, la relación entre el número de uso y la importancia ecológica de la especie depende de la localidad, lo que indica que la importancia socio-cultural de la especie puede variar entre grupos humanos que comparten una misma cultura o región biogeográfica. Se publicarán estudios a futuro para determinar el papel del tipo de órgano utilizado como materia prima en la demografía y dinámica ecológica de las poblaciones de palma en el Chocó y otras regiones del Neotrópico.

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbiological, phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) Activity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mun'im, Abdul; Ramadhani, Fitria; Chaerani, Kartika; Amelia, Lili; Arrahman, Arif

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Gamma irradiation is an effective technique can be used to reduce contaminants in herbal products. Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth belongs to Piperaceae family has some biological activity, such as antioxidant and ACE inhibitor. The aimed of this research was to determine the effects of

  3. Acute and subacute toxicity and chemical constituents of the hydroethanolic extract of Verbena litoralis Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Rachel; Guex, Camille Gaube; da Silva, Andreia Regina Haas; Lhamas, Cibele Lima; Dos Santos Moreira, Karen Luise; Casoti, Rosana; Dornelles, Rafaela Castro; Marques da Rocha, Maria Izabel Ugalde; da Veiga, Marcelo Leite; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane; Manfron, Melânia Palermo

    2018-05-14

    Verbena litoralis Kunth is a native species of South America, popularly known as gervãozinho-do-campo ou erva-de-pai-caetano. It is used in gastrointestinal disorders, as detoxifying the organism, antifebrile properties and amidaglitis. To identify the chemical constituents of the hydroethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of V. litoralis and to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity in male and female rats. The single dose (2000 mg/kg) of the extract was administered orally to male and female rats. In the subacute study the extract was given at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg during 28 days orally. Biochemical, hematological and histological analyzes were performed, oxidative stress markers were tested and chemical constituents were identified through UHPLC-ESI-HRMS RESULTS: Six classes of metabolites were identified: iridoids glycosides, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids-derived, phenylethanoid-derived, cinnamic acid-derived and triterpenes. In the acute treatment, the extract was classified as safe (category 5), according to the OECD guide. Our results demonstrated that subacute administration of the crude extract of V. litoralis at 400mg/kg resulted in an increase in AST in males, whereas ALT enzyme showed a small increase in males that received 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of the extract. The extract of the aerial parts of Verbena litoralis did not present significant toxicity when administered a single dose. However, when different doses were administered for 28 days, were observed changes in hematological, biochemical and histological parameters in rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Evaluation of uva camarona (Macleania rupestris Kunth A.C. Smith propagation with air layering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Durán-Casas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Uva camarona (Macleania rupestris Kunth A.C. Smith belongs to the Ericaceae family and grows in páramo and subpáramo areas in Colombia, between 2,200 and 3,500 m a.s.l. This plant presents edible berries that serve as a source of food and small income for local communities. The absence of a propagation protocol for this species limits its use. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of asexual propagation of M. rupestris with air layering, using indole-butyric acid (IBA as a rooting hormone at different concentrations: 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg L-1. The results showed that an exogenous application of IBA accelerated the rooting process in the layered zone, with a notable emission of first adventitious roots at 60 days from the start of the experiment. The treatments of 500 and 1,000 mg L-1 IBA had the highest number of roots per layer, being two to three times higher than those presented in the control. No significant differences were seen in root length between treatments. The treatments of 500 and 1,000 mg L-1 IBA showed a high production for the dry weights of the roots and callus, with a higher weight of callus compared to root weight. Air layering negatively affected the longitudinal growth of the branches, since their average growth rate was 1.49 cm per month, while the growth of intact branches was 2.78 cm per month. The results suggest that the best concentration for rooting was 1.200 mg L-1 IBA because it had the largest number and dry weight of roots in air-layered M. rupestris

  5. Anti-nociceptive activity of Pereskia bleo Kunth. (Cactaceae) leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Guilhon, Carolina Carvalho; Fernandes, Patricia Dias; Boylan, Fabio

    2012-12-18

    Local communities in Malaysia consume Pereskia bleo Kunth. (Cactaceae) leaves as raw vegetables or as a concoction and drink as a tea to treat diabetes, hypertension, rheumatism, cancer-related diseases, inflammation, gastric pain, ulcers, and for revitalizing the body. To evaluate anti-nociceptive activity of the extracts and vitexin, isolated for the first time in this species, in two analgesic models; formalin-induced licking and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing. Three and a half kilos of P. bleo leaves were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with ethanol for 72 h. The crude ethanol extract was treated with activated charcoal overnight and subjected to a liquid-liquid partition yielding hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts. All extracts, including the crude ethanol and vitexin isolated from the ethyl acetate partition were tested for peripheral anti-nociceptive activity using formalin test and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, besides having their acute toxicity assays performed. The phytochemical analyses resulted in the isolation of vitexin (1), β-sitosterol glucoside (2) and β-sitosterol (3) isolated from the ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane extracts, respectively. This is the first time vitexin and β-sitosterol glucoside are isolated from this species. The anti-nociceptive activities for all extracts were only moderate. Vitexin, which was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract did not show any activity in all models tested when used alone at the same concentration as it appears in the extract. This study showed that all the extracts possess moderate anti-nociceptive activity. Vitexin is not the compound responsible for the anti-nociceptive effect in the ethyl acetate extract. Further investigations are needed to identify the compound(s) that might be responsible for the anti-nociceptive activity in this plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estudo anatômico de folha e caule de Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Bonissoni Empinotti

    Full Text Available Conhecida comumente como erva-de-colégio, erva-grossa e sussuaiá, Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae é uma espécie herbácea perene, de base sublenhosa, ramos curtos e flores arroxeadas. Suas folhas são empregadas como emoliente, resolutivo, sudorífico e no tratamento de bronquite, tosse e gripe na medicina popular. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar caracteres anatômicos foliares e caulinares, a fim de fornecer subsídios aplicáveis à identificação da planta medicinal. Folhas adultas e fragmentos de caules foram fixados, seccionados e corados com azul de astra/fucsina básica ou com azul de toluidina. Testes microquímicos e análise ultra-estrutural de superfície foram também executados. A folha possui epiderme uniestratificada, recoberta por cutícula estriada e, em vista frontal, tem células com contorno ondulado. Ocorrem tricomas tectores e glandulares. Os primeiros são eretos, pluricelulares e unisseriados. Os tricomas glandulares são capitados e bisseriados. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e a nervura central é percorrida por feixes vasculares colaterais dispostos em arco aberto. O caule, em estrutura secundária inicial, possui epiderme unisseriada com cutícula estriada e tricomas semelhantes aos da folha. No córtex, observam-se colênquima anelar alternado com clorênquima e endoderme com estrias de Caspary. Calotas esclerenquimáticas apõem-se ao floema. Este é formado pelo câmbio vascular em direção à periferia e o xilema é gerado de modo centrípeto. A medula é parenquimática. Pequenos cristais de oxalato de cálcio estão presentes na folha e no caule.

  7. Morpho-anatomical and fingerprinting study of Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob.

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    Patricia I. Manzano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: The specie Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob. (Asteraceae is a South American native wild bush that grows in various provinces of Ecuador and it has been used in traditional medicine for several diseases, highliting its use in treatment of leishmaniasis, a condition of high incidence in the country. Despite its medicinal use, there are few or none botanic, chemical nor biological studies for this species. Aims: In this paper it were comprised the morpho-anatomical characterization of leaves and stems and genetic identification of a DNA fraction of the leaves of V. patens, in order to provide the elements for proper characterization and contribute to the establishment of quality control. Methods: The macromorphological description was made in leaves and stems from the fresh plant. The micromorphological evaluation was performed by paraffin inclusion of the material with cross-section that were clarify in sodium hypochlorite for its posterior safranin and cresil’s blue stained and its glycerinated gel fixation respectively. On obtaining the DNA chloroplast it was followed the internal protocol established by Molecular Biology CIBE´s laboratory. In order to sequence isolated DNA fragments from leaves of V. patens, Macrogen Maryland, USA´S company services were hired. Results: Leaves and stems of the new specie’s micro morphological characteristics were described for the first time and new macro morphological characters were described too from stems particularly. Conclusions: Using molecular and macro-micromorphological assessments is corroborated the identity of the V. patens species growing in Ecuador coast.

  8. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Arias, N.P. [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Electronica y Computacion, Facultad de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Giraldo, O., E-mail: ohggiraldo@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}in NaOH or NH{sub 4}OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  9. Dechlorophyllation of Cosmos caudatus Kunth., Morinda citrifolia, and Mangifera indica L. Leaves Methanolic Extract by Electrocoagulation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Budhi Pebriana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present of chlorophyll is not expected in the isolation process of plant active constituent. Electrocoagulation is a potential dechlorophyllation method. This research aims to know the effectivity of electrocoagulation in the dechlorophyllation process of Cosmos caudatus Kunth., Morinda citrifolia, and Mangifera indica L. leaves methanolic extract as well as the effect to the total phenolic content. Electrocoagulation are performed using copper, silver, aluminum and iron plates as the electrode. Dechlorophyllation by extraction using n-hexane is performed as reference. The % absorbance of chlorophyll and % of total phenolic content of dechlorophyllated samples are measured spectrophotometrically. Electrocoagulation process reduces % absorbance of chlorophyll in Cosmos caudatus Kunth., Morinda citrifolia, and Mangifera indica L. leaves methanolic extract. The more the duration of electrocoagulaton process the lower the % absorbance of chlorophyll obtained. % absorbance of chlorophyll of the electrocoagulated extract according to paired t-test (P=0.95 are significantly different with the previous. One way ANOVA continued with LSD (P=0.95 shows that the % absorbance of chlorophyll from the electrocoagulated extract are significantly different with those extracted with n-hexane. Electrocoagulation process reduces total phenolic content along with duration of electrocoagulation.

  10. Chromatographic analysis of irradiated medicinal herbs: Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Paula M; Rela, Paulo R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Nowadays the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing; therefore the consumer attention to the medicinal active plants is growing. The rich Brazilian flora, represents more than 20% of the plant species know in the world as raw materials for pharmaceutical preparations. Since the last decade microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out and presented in many scientific articles. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is the issue of several studies, which propose appropriate techniques for the reduction of micro-organisms. One of these techniques is radiation processing by gamma source industrial plants. Other is the utilisation of accelerators. In order to safeguard consumers, treatment by ionizing radiation is allowed now in Brazil to medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical products. The radiation process is known as safe for a large variety of products and applications as well as a effective in the reduction of pathogenic micro-organisms. The aim of our study is observe if flavonoids and alkaloids will be influenced by irradiation. Experimental: Samples - Local herbs companies in Sao Paulo, Brazil, provided dehydrated samples of Rhamnus purshiana D.C. and Paulinia cupana Kunth. Irradiation. The powdered samples were irradiated in on plastic package in a electron beam accelerator facility of Radiation Dynamics Inc., USA (E=1,5 MeV, l=25 mA, installed in IPEN Sao Paulo, Brazil. The irradiation doses were 10,20 and 30 kGy at room temperature. The thickness of samples was less than 0,5 cm. Sample analysis -flavonoids and alkaloids analysis was performed in a Thin Layer Chromatography according to Wagner (1995). Results and discussion: No alterations in the flavonoids and alkaloids, after irradiation treatment in that herbs was observed. Chromatographic analysis of the different extracts irradiated at increasing doses indicated that there were no great differences in the chemical

  11. Effect of light and gibberellic acid (AG3) on the germination of minthostachys mollis kunth. Griseb. (labiatae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Diego; Fernandez Alonso, Jose Luis; Melgarejo, Luz Marina

    2011-01-01

    Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) griseb, is a perennial shrub that grows in the Andean region of Colombia; this species is widely used by rural communities where it is valued for its medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of light (red light, white light, and natural light) and gibberellic acid (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm) on the process of germination of M. mollis. We found a strong inhibition of germination under conditions of darkness. We do not observe effect of AG3 on germination. The germination percentages obtained were above 80% (positive photoblastic seeds) for the three proposed lighting treatments where red-light treatment had a most significant effect on the germination process.

  12. Dureza Brinell y parámetros termofísicos de la Guadua angustifólia - Kunth

    OpenAIRE

    Gordillo-Delgado,F.; Cortés-Hernández,D. M.; Mejía-Morales,C.; Bedoya-Pérez,A.F.; Ariza-Calderón,H.

    2012-01-01

    La Guadua angustifolia-Kunth es un recurso forestal que debido a sus características físicas y mecánicas ha sido utilizado principalmente en la construcción de viviendas, en la fabricación de laminados y de artículos decorativos. Además es una planta que desempeña un importante papel como protectora de cuencas hidrográficas, en la captura de CO2 y en la conservación de suelos. La caracterización térmica y mecánica de este tipo de materiales de origen biológico es de mucha importancia ya que p...

  13. Anti-proliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Hui Meng; Cheng, En-Hsiang; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2007-09-25

    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (pCactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on the 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells as the EC(50) values obtained are greater than 50 microg/mL when tested under optimal culture condition. Moreover, the aqueous extract may form mutagenic compound(s) upon the metabolisation by liver enzymes.

  14. Aquatic insects associated to Eichhornia azurea (Schwartz Kunth in wetlands of Atrato River, Chocó - Colombia

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    Zuleyma Mosquera Murillo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the aquatic insect community associated with Eichhornia azurea (Schwartz Kunth in four swamp of the middle and lower basin of the Atrato river (Chocó-Colombia during high and low water periods; the influence of environmental and physicochemical variables on this community was also evaluated. For two months, aquatic insects associated with the roots of E. azurea were collected, using a quadrant of one m2, provided with a mesh of 0.5 mm, with three replicates per swamp and simultaneously measured some physical and chemical variables of the water. The community consisted of 6 orders, 21 families and 28 genera. The highest number of organisms (55.39% and of taxa (23 were recorded in the low water period. The most abundant orders were Ephemeroptera (37.55% and Coleoptera (26.77%, standing out the families Baetidae and Noteridae respectively; while the greatest taxonomic richness was for Coleoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera. There were no significant differences in diversity and dominance between hydrological periods (p> 0.05, but in the specific richness (p <0.05. The most abundant functional groups were predators (54.81% and collectors (43.70%. The physicochemical variables did not show significant differences between hydrological periods and there were associations between the aquatic entomofauna and the abiotic variables analyzed, mainly with dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolved solids.

  15. Effect of Nanoemulsified and Microencapsulated Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) Essential Oil Coatings on Quality of Fresh Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Lira-Moreno, César Y; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; Wild-Padua, Graciela; Di Pierro, Prospero; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado-González, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable food. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) incorporated into active coatings (ACs) spread on fresh pork meat as free (FEO), nanoemulsified (NEO), and microencapsulated (MEO) essential oil (EO), on its microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties during 15 d at 4 ± 1 °C. Thymol and γ-terpinene were identified in the EO. In vitro effect of 2.85 mg EO/cm 2 was tested against Brochothrix thermosphacta, Micrococcus luteus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fragi, and Salmonella Infantis. FEO antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) was significantly higher than that of thymol, NEO and MEO (93.53%, 89.92%, 77.79%, and 78.50% inhibition, respectively), and similar to BHA (96.03%) and gallic acid (95.57%). FEO, NEO, and MEO ACs on meat caused growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria (5 log population reduction) and Pseudomonas spp. (4 log reduction), whereas ≤1.5 log population reduction was observed for B. thermosphacta and Salmonella Infantis. Meat microbiota was more efficiently controlled by MEO than by FEO or NEO. ACs delayed lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation of fresh pork meat. After 15 d of cold storage meat added with EO coatings was desirable for panelists, whereas untreated (UT) samples were undesirable. Active coatings are a significant alternative method for fresh meat preservation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Effects of plant lectin from cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth on development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2008-11-01

    The lectin from tubers of cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth was purified by affinity chromatography using asialofetuin-linked amino activated porous silica beads. The concentration dependent effect of lectin was studied on second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.). The treatment not only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage pupation and emergence of the adults from treated larvae but it also prolonged the remaining larval development period. A very low LC50 value, 39 mgl(-1) of lectin was obtained on the basis of adult emergence using probit analysis. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (GSTs: Glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of the LC50 of lectin at increasing exposure intervals (0, 24, 48 and 72 hr). The Arisaema curvatum lectin significantly decreased the activity of all the enzymes except for esterases, where the activity increased as compared to control at all exposure intervals. The decrease in pupation and emergence as well as significant suppression in the activities of two hydrolases, one oxidoreductase and one GST enzyme in treated larvae of B. cucurbitae indicated that this lectin has anti-metabolic effect on the melon fruit fly larvae.

  17. In vitro propagation of Rubus macrocarpus Benth. and Rubus bogotensis Kunth, as an ex situ conservation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkys Adriana Pérez-Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate techniques for in vitro multiplication and rooting and ex vitro adaptation of wild blackberry plants (Rubus bogotensis Benth. and Rubus macrocarpus Kunth. In in vitro phases, the influence of culture media was evaluated based on Murashige & Skoog (MS composition, with or without a 50% reduction in salts, vitamins, and myo-inositol and supplemented or not with benzylaminopurine (BAP, indole acetic acid (IAA, L-cysteine, agar, peat, perlite, and vermiculite. The ex vitro phase was based on a soil, rice husks, peat, and perlite substrate management. After two months of evaluation of the in vitro phases, it was determined that the MS medium at 50% salts, vitamins, and myo-inositol and supplemented with sucrose (15000 mg.l-1 and agar (5000 mg.l-1 was the most suitable for obtaining the highest values of apical length (cm, shoot number, rooting percentage, and root number. In ex vitro adaptation, the acclimation subphase, evaluated during three months, allowed to determine survival rates of 83.33% and 75% for R. macrocarpus and R. bogotensis, respectively. The average increase in stem length (cm was 2.35 cm and 1.30 cm, respectively. In the greenhouse subphase, evaluated for four months, 100% plant survivorship was obtained, and 2.75 cm and 5.31 cm increases in average stem length (cm for R. macrocarpus and R. bogotensis, were determined.

  18. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  19. Central Antinociceptive and Mechanism of Action of Pereskia bleo Kunth Leaves Crude Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds

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    Carolina Carvalho Guilhon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae is a plant commonly used in popular medicine in Malaysia. In this work, we evaluate the antinociceptive effect of P. bleo leaf extracts and isolated compounds in central antinociceptive model. Ethanol extract (E, hexane (H, ethyl acetate (EA, or butanol (B fractions (30, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o., sitosterol (from hexane and vitexin (from ethyl acetate, were administered to mice. Antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate and capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking models. Morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. was used as reference drug. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p., atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p., and L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg, i.p. were administered 30 min earlier (100 mg/kg, p.o. in order to evaluate the mechanism of the antinociceptive action. Higher dose of B developed an effect significantly superior to morphine-treated group. Naloxone prevented the antinociceptive effect of all fractions. L-NAME demonstrated effect against E, EA, and B. In all fractions, sitosterol and vitexin reduced the licking time after capsaicin injection. Glutamate-induced licking response was blocked by H, EA, and B. Our results indicate that Pereskia bleo fractions, sitosterol and vitexin, possessed a central antinociceptive effect. Part of this effect is mediated by opioid receptors and nitrergic pathway.

  20. Optimization of the bamboo guadua angustifolia kunth in the elaboration of glued laminated elements for constructive use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, G A; Cruz, R A; Chávez, A M

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is considered one of the best timber resources in the world because for its mechanical properties and high sustainability; this research aims to improve the mechanical properties of the laminated glued bamboo Guadua Angustifolia Kunth (GAK) for use as structural elements, starting from de very manufacture process; this is important because it is possible to observe variations in the flexural strength and the elastic modulus in GAK samples taken from different heights and thickness of the culm. In order to analyze the influence of these final mechanical properties variations in the laminated, the height of the culm where samples are extracted (cepa, basa and sobrebasa) it is taken as a variable from where different types of laminated were manufactured, seeking to make optimal the configuration based in the transversal section area and the material strength. Three assemblies were designed varying the overlap of the adhesion lines and it concluded that the highest strength average values were obtained in the laminated composites manufactured with samples taken from the bottom of the culm (basa), which is possible because in these elements there are less adhesion lines than the other ones (middle, top and mixed) or the better matching of themselves

  1. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  2. Fabrication of cellulose nanocrystal from Carex meyeriana Kunth and its application in the adsorption of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Liu, Hui; Han, Fuyi; Jiang, Shuai; Liu, Lifang; Xia, Zhaopeng

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) was extracted from Carex meyeriana Kunth (CMK) by a combination of TEMPO oxidation and mechanical homogenization method, and used to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. After alkali-oxygen treatment, the aqueous biphasic system (polyethylene glycol/inorganic salt) was applied to further remove lignin from CMK. The characteriazation of CNC, and the effects of H 2 O 2 dosage, CNC dosage, adsorption time, and initial MB concentration on the MB removal capacity of CNC were investigated. The results showed that the removal percentage of MB by CNC was raised with the increase of H 2 O 2 and CNC dosage. The adsorption kinetics of prepared CNC followed the pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption isotherms fitted well to the Langmuir model with a calculated maximum adsoption capacity of 217.4mg/g, which was higher than those of CNC extracted by acid hydrolysis method, indicating CNC extracted from CMK had promising potentials in the field of MB adsorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated.

  4. Determination and evaluation of the metals and metalloids in the Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Uenderson Araujo; dos Santos, Ivanice Ferreira; dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; dos Santos, Debora Correia; da Costa, Grenivel Mota

    2013-09-01

    The Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli) is a native plant from Brazil, which has been mainly used in medicinal application being a potent antirheumatic and diuretic, in the production of soft drinks, and also in the ornamentation of aquariums. In this paper, the metals and metalloids for the leaves of chapeu-de-couro collected in the Paraguacu River from the city Cachoeira, Bahia State, Brazil, was determined and evaluated using multivariate analysis. The samples were digested using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of apple leaves, furnished by National Institute of Standard and Technology. The study involved 15 samples of the Paraguacu River. The results expressed as milligrams of element per kilogram of sample demonstrated that the concentration ranges varied: 1.39-5.27 for chromium, 44.85-165.39 for manganese, 0.55-0.84 for arsenic, 0.01-3.94 for antimony, and 0.18-0.31 for lead. The principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis evidenced that the concentrations of the metals and metalloids varied according with the variations in the water of the Paraguacu.

  5. Post-harvest conservation of camu–camu fruits (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh using different temperatures and packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza GRIGIO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The camu-camu tree (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh is fruit-bearing tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae. This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the type of storage temperature and package which allow better conservation of the quality attributes of camu-camu. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized with three replications in a factorial arrangement (3x3x8, constituted of three different storage temperatures (laboratory ambiente or 25 ± 2 °C, 15 °C and 20 °C, three types of packages (no package, PET and PVC and fourteen days’ storage, the fruits being analyzed every two days. The fruits were evaluated as to fresh mass loss, pH, soluble solids contents, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, anthocyanins, chlorophylls A and B and maturation index (SS/AT. According to the results obtained, the quality attributes and ascorbic acid content were conserved for longer time in the fruits stored on PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene trays at 15 °C. It follows that the best temperature for the storage of camu-camu is 15 °C and the package that best keeps its quality attributes is the PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene tray.

  6. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb Vaught from the Venezuelan Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Flor D; Araque, María; Rojas, Luis B; Ramirez, Rosslyn; Silva, Bladimiro; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2009-07-01

    Chemical constituents of the essential oil from the leaves of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb Vaught var. mollis collected in January 2008 at Tuñame, Trujillo State, Venezuela, were separated and identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and thirteen components (98.5% of the sample) were identified by comparison with the Wiley GC-MS library data base. The two major components were pulegone (55.2%) and trans-menthone (31.5%). The essential oil showed a significant inhibitory effect against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi (4 microg/mL).

  7. Estudio químico de los compuestos lipídicos de las hojas, tallos y flores de Vernonanthura patens (Kunth) H. Rob. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano Santana, Patricia; Miranda Martínez, Migdalia; Montes de Oca Porto, Rodney; Orellana León, Tulio; Abreu Payrol, Juan; Peralta García, Esther L

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Vernonanthura patens (Kunth) H. Rob. es una especie que crece silvestre en el Ecuador, para la cual existen escasos antecedentes de estudios químicos y biológicos, y en ninguno de estos se aborda el estudio de fracciones lipídicas. Objetivos: estudiar las fracciones de compuestos lipídicos presentes en las hojas, tallos y flores de la especie. Métodos: la planta se recolectó en estado adulto, en época de floración, los órganos vegetales fueron secados en estufa por separado, se ...

  8. ABEJAS VISITANTES DE Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S. F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: COMPORTAMIENTO DE FORRAJEO Y CARGAS POLÍNICAS BEES VISITING Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S .F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: FORAGING BEHAVIOR AND POLLEN LOADS

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    Clara Isabel Aguilar Sierra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En cuatro localidades de la zona de influencia del embalse Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia, se observó el comportamiento de 23 taxones de abejas durante sus visitas a Aspilia tenella (Kunth S. F. Blake; se registró el número de individuos y el tiempo total de visita y se midieron la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Los análisis de varianza indican que hubo una relación estadísticamente significativa en cuanto a los atributos considerados para las especies de abejas y una covariación significativa con las variables ambientales. Las pruebas de rangos múltiples muestran que Trigona nigerrima es la especie con los mayores valores promedio para el número de individuos y el tiempo de visita. En el estudio de las cargas polínicas se encontraron 30 tipos polínicos, dentro de los cuales A. tenella presentó el mayor porcentaje; Piper aduncum, Miconia minuti flora, Psidium guajava, Rapanea sp., Mimosa pudica y Psychotria sp., en su orden, son otras fuentes de polen importantes para varias de las especies de abejas. El análisis de agrupamiento para las abejas capturadas permitió diferenciar dos grupos: el primero incluye a 18 especies cuyas cargas polínicas que poseían una abundancia relativa de granos de polen de A. tenella por encima de 77%; el segundo grupo estaba conformado por cinco especies de abejas que recolectaron porcentajes mayores de otros tipos polínicos: Exomalopsis sp. 1 (90,4% de M. minuti flora; Lasioglossum sp. 1 y Coelioxys aff. mexicana (77,4% y 64,1% de P. aduncum, respectivamente; Exomalopsis sp. 2 (67,1% de P. guajava y Auglochloropsis vesta (55,5% de Rapanea sp.. Trigona fulviventris y Apis mellifera presentaron los valores más altos de riqueza de tipos polínicos en las cargas de polen; ello evidencia sus nichos tróficos amplios y su comportamiento generalista de visita.We observed the behavior of 23 species of wild bees visiting Aspilia tenella (Kunth S .F. Blake in four different localities of the Porce II dam

  9. Mycorrhizal Dependency of Alcaparro (Senna pistaciifolia Kunth at Three Concentrations of Soil Solution Phosphorus / Dependencia Micorrizal de la Alcaparra (Senna pistaciifolia Kunth bajo Tres Concentraciones de Fósforo en la Solución del Suelo

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    Jorge Alberto Sierra Escoba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A greenhouse bioassay was carried out to determine themycorrhizal dependency of alcaparro (Senna pistaciifolia Kunth. Arandomized complete experimental design was employed, with sixtreatments in a factorial arrangement 3x2; the treatments consistedof three levels in soil solution phosphorus (P (0.002, 0.02, and0.2 mg L-1 combined with two levels of mycorrhizal inoculationeither uninoculated or inoculated with Glomus agreggatum. Thevariables studied were leaf P content as a function of time, shootdry matter, shoot P content, mycorrhizal colonization of roots, andthe mycorrhizal dependency (MD. The results indicate that the leafP content increased significantly with the mycorrhizal inoculationin alcaparro to 0.02 mg L-1 after the second sampling days, butnot in the other soil P levels. Likewise, shoot dry weight increasedsignificantly at 0.02 mg L-1. On the other hand, the total plant Pcontent increase at all levels of soil available P. The mycorrhizalcolonization in alcaparro roots was 11, 23, and 0% at 0.02, 0.002and 0.2 mg of P L-1, respectively. The MD for alcaparro was 32%,which allow classify this specie as moderately dependent on themycorrhizal association. /  Resumen. Se realizó un bioensayo en invernadero para determinar la dependencia micorrizal de alcaparro (Senna pistaciifolia Kunth. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente randomizado. Los tratamientos se arreglaron en un factorial 3x2, estos consistieron en la combinación de tres niveles de P en la solución del suelo (0.002, 0.02 y 0.2 mg L-1 y 2 niveles de inoculación micorrizal (inoculado y no inoculado con el hongo Glomus agreggatum. Se emplearon como variables respuesta el contenido de P foliar en función del tiempo; al momento de la cosecha, se determinaron la masa seca aérea, el P total en la parte aérea y la colonización micorrizal. Los resultados indican que el contenido de P foliar a 0.02 mg L-1 en el segundo muestreo aumentó significativamente

  10. α-Glucosidase Inhibition and Antibacterial Activity of Secondary Metabolites from the Ecuadorian Species Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth Govaerts

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    Vladimir Morocho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of both volatile and fixed metabolites of Clinopodium taxifolium (Kunth Govaerts (Lamiaceae was performed for the first time. It allowed the isolation and characterization of the essential oil and six known compounds: carvacrol (1, squalane (2, uvaol (3, erythrodiol (4, ursolic acid (5, and salvigenin (6. Their structures were identified and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS, and corroborated by literature. The essential oil of the leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation in two different periods and analyzed by GC-MS and GC coupled to Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID. A total of 54 compounds were detected, of which 42 were identified (including trace constituents. The major constituents were carvacrol methyl ether (18.9–23.2%, carvacrol (13.8–16.3% and, carvacryl acetate (11.4–4.8%. The antibacterial activities were determined as Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Micrococcus luteus. The hexane and methanol extracts exhibited activity only against Klebsiella pneumoniae (250 and 500 μg/mL respectively, while the ethyl acetate extract was inactive. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by the in vitro inhibition of α-glucosidase. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract showed strong inhibitory activity with IC50 = 24.88 µg/mL, however methanolic and hexanic extracts showed weak activity. As a pure compound, only ursolic acid showed a strong inhibitory activity, with IC50 = 72.71 μM.

  11. Morphological and genetic diversity of camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh] in the Peruvian Amazon.

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    Jan Šmíd

    Full Text Available Camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh] is currently an important and promising fruit species grown in the Peruvian Amazon, as well as in Brazil, Colombia, and Bolivia. The species is valued for its high content of fruit-based vitamin C. Large plantations have been established only in the last two decades, and a substantial part of the production is still obtained by collecting fruits from the wild. Domestication of the species is at an early stage; most farmers cultivate the plants without any breeding, or only through a simple mass selection process. The main objective of the study was to characterize morphological and genetic variation within and among cultivated and natural populations of camu-camu in the Peruvian Amazon. In total, we sampled 13 populations: ten wild in the Iquitos region, and three cultivated in the Pucallpa region in the Peruvian Amazon. To assess the genetic diversity using seven microsatellite loci, we analyzed samples from ten individual trees per each population (n = 126. Morphological data was collected from five trees from each population (n = 65. The analysis did not reveal statistically significant differences for most of the morphological descriptors. For wild and cultivated populations, the observed heterozygosity was 0.347 and 0.404 (expected 0.516 and 0.506, and the fixation index was 0.328 and 0.200, respectively. Wild populations could be divided into two groups according to the UPGMA and STRUCTURE analysis. In cultivated populations, their approximate origin was determined. Our findings indicate a high genetic diversity among the populations, but also a high degree of inbreeding within the populations. This can be explained by either the isolation of these populations from each other or the low number of individuals in some populations. This high level of genetic diversity can be explored for the selection of superior individuals for further breeding.

  12. Morphological and genetic diversity of camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmíd, Jan; Kalousová, Marie; Mandák, Bohumil; Houška, Jakub; Chládová, Anna; Pinedo, Mario; Lojka, Bohdan

    2017-01-01

    Camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] is currently an important and promising fruit species grown in the Peruvian Amazon, as well as in Brazil, Colombia, and Bolivia. The species is valued for its high content of fruit-based vitamin C. Large plantations have been established only in the last two decades, and a substantial part of the production is still obtained by collecting fruits from the wild. Domestication of the species is at an early stage; most farmers cultivate the plants without any breeding, or only through a simple mass selection process. The main objective of the study was to characterize morphological and genetic variation within and among cultivated and natural populations of camu-camu in the Peruvian Amazon. In total, we sampled 13 populations: ten wild in the Iquitos region, and three cultivated in the Pucallpa region in the Peruvian Amazon. To assess the genetic diversity using seven microsatellite loci, we analyzed samples from ten individual trees per each population (n = 126). Morphological data was collected from five trees from each population (n = 65). The analysis did not reveal statistically significant differences for most of the morphological descriptors. For wild and cultivated populations, the observed heterozygosity was 0.347 and 0.404 (expected 0.516 and 0.506), and the fixation index was 0.328 and 0.200, respectively. Wild populations could be divided into two groups according to the UPGMA and STRUCTURE analysis. In cultivated populations, their approximate origin was determined. Our findings indicate a high genetic diversity among the populations, but also a high degree of inbreeding within the populations. This can be explained by either the isolation of these populations from each other or the low number of individuals in some populations. This high level of genetic diversity can be explored for the selection of superior individuals for further breeding.

  13. Produção de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes para palmito sob diferentes espaçamentos, no Litoral do Estado do Paraná Production of three cuttings of Bactris gasipaes for heart-of-palm under different plant density in the Paraná State Coastal Region, Brazil

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    Edinelson José Maciel Neves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos caracterizar as propriedades químicas do solo sob plantio de pupunheira
    (Bactris gasipaes aos 24, 39 e 48 meses de idade e, quantificar na agroindústria, nessas idades, a produção de
    palmito em toletes, em rodelas e picado, em função de diferentes espaçamentos. Para tanto, em março de 2001,
    foram instaladas duas áreas experimentais localizadas nos Km 7 e Km 10 da Estrada Alexandra-Matinhos, Município
    de Paranaguá, PR. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas de 100 plantas, quatro
    tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos seguintes espaçamentos: 3 m x 1 m ; 2 m
    x 1 m ; 2 m x 1 m x 1 m (linhas duplas e 1,5 m x 1 m x 1 m (linhas duplas. Foi feita adubação com N, P e K na época
    de plantio e aos 6 ; 9 ; 12 ; 18 ; 21 e 45 meses de idade, totalizando 86 g ; 47,8 g e 67,5 g por planta, respectivamente.
    Aos 42 meses de idade, foram distribuídos nas entrelinhas de plantio 16 kg de calcário dolomítico, correspondo
    a, aproximadamente, 2 t.ha-1. Foi possível concluir que: (i as quantidades de N, P, K e de calcário aplicadas
    promoveram mudanças nas características químicas do solo; (ii as densidades entre 5 mil e 6.666 plantas por
    hectare promoveram as maiores produções de palmito, nos sucessivos cortes realizados.The present study was developed to characterize the chemical properties of the soil under peach palm (Bactris gasipaes plantations at 24, 39 and 48 months old, and to quantify the heart-of-palm  production on a local industrial scale (packaged in various forms in glass jars. The experiment was set up in two areas, located along the Alexandra-Matinhos Road (km 7 and km 10 near Paranaguá county, State of Paraná, Brazil, in March of 2001. Randomized blocks were used as statistical design, having 100 plants per sample, with four  treatments and six replicates. Treatments

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body...... between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and a reduction in body weight. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  15. EFECTO DE LA LUZ Y DEL ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO (AG3) EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE Minthostachys mollis KUNTH. GRISEB.(LABIATAE) Effect of Light and Giberellic Acid (AG3) on the Germination of Minthostachys mollis Kunth. Griseb. (Labiatae)

    OpenAIRE

    DIEGO SUÁREZ; JOSÉ LUIS FERNÁNDEZ ALONSO; LUZ MARINA MELGAREJO

    2011-01-01

    Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb., es un arbusto perenne que crece en la región andina de Colombia; es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales donde es valorado por sus propiedades medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca y luz natural) y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm) en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró inhibición de la germinación bajo condiciones de oscuridad. No se observó efecto de AG3 sobre...

  16. Effects of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Leaf Yield, Essential Oil Content and Composition of Lemon Verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth

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    Mohammad Taghi Ebadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic fertilizers with beneficial effects on soil structure and nutrient availability help maintain yield and quality, and they are less costly than synthetic fertilizers. Vermicompost and vermiwash are two organic fertilizers that they contain a biologically active mixture of bacteria, enzymes and phytohormones, also these organic fertilizers can supply the nutritional needs of plants. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth, Verbenaceae is an evergreen perennial aromatic plant. The lemon-scented essential oil from the lemon verbena has been widely used for its digestive, relaxing, antimalarial and lemony flavor properties. In order to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers for reduction of environmental pollution, this research was undertaken to determine effects of vermicompost and vermiwash in comparison with chemical fertilizer on leaf yield, essential oil content and composition of lemon verbena. Materials and Methods: A pot experiment based on a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications on Lemon verbena was carried out in the experimental greenhouse of the Department of Horticulture Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 2012. Treatments consisted of 10, 20 and 30 % by volume of vermicompost and vermiwash (with an addition to irrigation in three steps, including: two weeks after the establishment of plants in pots, the appearing of branches and three weeks before harvest, complete fertilizer and control without any fertilizer. Each replication contained six pots and each pot contained one plant of Lemon verbena provided from Institute of Medicinal Plants, Karaj, therefore 108 pots were used in this experiment. The pots were filled up by a mixture contained 3/5 soil and 2/5 sand (v/v. After three months, plant aerial parts were harvested concomitantly at starting of the flowering stage. Aerial parts were dried at room temperature for 72 hours and dry weights of dried branches and leaves were

  17. Esterases no exame da estrutura populacional de Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae Esterases for examining the population structure of Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae

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    Aylton Saturnino Teixeira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois sistemas enzimáticos (esterase e esterase-D, analisados pela técnica de eletroforese em gel de amido, em folhas jovens de plantas cultivadas em terra firme, de sementes provenientes de três amostras de populações naturais de camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae, procedentes de Iquitos, Boa Vista e Uatumã, revelaram a presença de 6 locos: Est-1, Est-2, Est-3, Est-4, Est-D1 e Est-D2. Dois dos seis locos gênicos examinados no presente estudo (Est-3 e Est-D2 mostraram-se polimórficos, sendo desse modo considerados valiosos no estudo de caracterização da estrutura populacional da espécie. Os padrões de polimorfismo revelados nos locos Est-3 e Est-D2 de camu-camu, são típicos de enzimas monoméricas e diméricas, respectivamente. O loco Est-3 apresentou um grande desbalanço genético dentro e entre as amostras populacionais examinadas, devido ao excessivo número observado de plantas heterozigóticas em relação ao número esperado. O loco Est-D2 apresentou um polimorfismo exclusivo para os alelos Est-D2¹,Est-D2² e Est-D2³, e um bom balanço genético na amostra populacional de Uatumã. Em função disso, dentre os demais locos gênicos aqui investigados, o loco Est-D2 parece ser o mais adequado para identificação e delimitação de prováveis estoques de camu-camu. Portanto, recomenda-se que esse loco esteja presente na lista dos marcadores isoenzimáticos a serem usados em futuras prospecções sobre genética populacional dessa espécie na região amazônica. Dados sobre a distribuição das freqüências alélicas, estimativas das distâncias genéticas, e estimativas de variação genética nos 6 locos de esterases examinados, foram eficazes na demonstração de diferenças genéticas entre as amostras populacionais examinadas da espécie. Os maiores valores de heterozigozidade média (0,1353; proporção de locos polimórficos (0,33 e número médio de alelos por loco (1,33 revelados na amostra

  18. Nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae em capítulos de Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae para o Brasil

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    Alessandre Pereira-Colavite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae para o Brasil, Dasineura occulta sp. nov., é descrita associada a Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae, uma espécie invasora e característica de ambientes antropizadas. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada ocupando capítulos e não há formação de galhas ou alterações no tecido das inflorescências que possam ser reconhecidas externamente. São apresentados desenhos de caracteres morfológicos de adultos (macho e fêmea, larva e pupa. Pranchas da ocupação do hospedeiro também são incluídas.

  19. VARIABILIDAD MORFOLÓGICA MEDIANTE CARACTERES DE SEMILLA DE POBLACIONES DE Amelanchier denticulata (Kunth Koch, ORIGINARIAS DE GUANAJUATO, MÉXICO

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    Miguel Ángel Hernández-Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El membrillo cimarrón (Amelanchier denticulata (Kunth Koch. es un arbusto frutal de la familia Rosaceae subtribu Pyrinae originario de México, del cual no existen estudios para conocer su diversidad ni su sistema reproductivo. Por estas razones y para tener un primer antecedente sobre su variabilidad morfológica, se caracterizaron seis poblaciones de A. denticulata originarias de Guanajuato, México, mediante caracteres de semilla. Todas las poblaciones presentaron alta variabilidad intra e interpoblacional. Las variables de semilla analizadas fueron discriminantes para distinguir las diferentes poblaciones, siendo las más importantes las relacionadas con las de tamaño de las semillas, seguidas de las de forma. El grado de apomixis no es claro en esta especie debido a la alta variación intrapoblacional; por lo tanto, se necesitan estudios más detallados para concluir la existencia o no de apomixis en A. denticulata.

  20. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA RELACIÓN DE POISSON DE LA Guadua angustifolia Kunth A PARTIR DE PROCESAMIENTOS DE imágenes Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA ESTRUCTURA INTERNA DETERMINATION OF POISSON´S RATIO OF THE Guadua angustifolia Kunth USING IMAGE PROCESSING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MICROSTRUCTURE

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    Jairo Alexander Osorio Saraz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se propuso determinar los valores de la relación de Poisson para la Guadua angustifolia Kunth, en la cepa y la basa del culmo, además de analizar la incidencia que ejerce la estructura interna en dicha propiedad. Los resultados indicaron que la relación de Poisson depende significativamente de la estructura del material variando entre 0,22 y 0,35 haciéndolo un producto biológico altamente heterogéneo y anisotrópico. Además, los análisis de estructura interna de tejido conductivo, parénquima y tejidos de fibras, indicaron que estos componentes varían a través de la sección transversal del culmo de la guadua.The technique of image processing was applied to determine the values of the Poisson's ratio for the Guadua angustifolia Kunth, in the “cepa” and the “basa” of the element, besides to analyze the incidence of its internal structure in this property. The results indicated that the Poisson's ratio depends upon the material structure reaching values between 0,22 and 0,35 making of this biological product a material highly heterogeneous and anisotropic. In addition the microstructure analysis of conductive tissue, parenchyma and fibers, indicated that these components vary through the cross-sectional section of the guadua element.

  1. Calagem e adubação orgânica na produção de biomassa e óleo essencial em Lippia citriodora (Kunth Liming and organic fertilization on Lippia citriodora (Kunth phytomass and essential oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a calagem e adubação orgânica na produção de biomassa e óleo essencial em Lippia citriodora Kunth. O delineamento experimental utilizado constou de fatorial 7 x 2, sendo sete tratamentos (testemunha; adição de sulfato de Ca e Mg; calcário dolomítico; silicato de Ca e Mg; sulfato de Ca e Mg + esterco de curral; calcário dolomítico + esterco de curral; silicato de Ca e Mg + esterco de curral e duas épocas de colheita, com quatro repetições, inteiramente casualizado (DIC. Verificou-se que a correção do solo mostrou-se prática necessária para o desenvolvimento da Lippia citriodora. Independentemente da época de colheita, a produção de massa fresca e seca foi maior com a aplicação do esterco de curral (32 t ha-1, no entanto, isso não refletiu em maior rendimento de óleo essencial.The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of liming and bovine fertilization on Lippia citriodora Kunth phytomass and essential oil production. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven treatments (control; Ca and Mg sulfate; limestone; Ca and Mg silicate; Ca and Mg sulfate + manure; limestone + manure; Ca and Mg silicate + manure and two harvest seasons, with four replicates. Soil adjustment showed to be a necessary procedure for Lippia citriodora development. Independently of the harvest season, fresh and dry matter yields were higher under treatments with bovine manure (32 t ha-1; however, no effect of treatments was observed on essential oil concentration.

  2. Transcriptome Assembly and Comparison of an Allotetraploid Weed Species, Annual Bluegrass, with its Two Diploid Progenitor Species, Poa supina Schrad and Poa infirma Kunth

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    Shu Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual bluegrass ( L. is one of the most widespread weed species in this world. As a young allotetraploid, has occupied diverse environments from Antarctic area to subtropical regions. To unveil the evolutionary mystery behind ’s wide distribution, extensive adaptability and phenotypic plasticity needs collaboration from multiple research scopes from ecology and plant physiology to population genetics and molecular biology. However, the lack of omic data and reference has greatly hampered the study. This is the first comprehensive transcriptome study on species. Total RNA was extracted from and its two proposed diploid parents, Schrad and Kunth, and sequenced in Illumina Hiseq2000. Optimized, nonredundant transcriptome references were generated for each species using four de novo assemblers (Trinity, Velvet, SOAPdenovo, and CLC Genomics Workbench and a redundancy-reducing pipeline (CD-HIT-EST and EvidentialGene tr2aacds. Using the constructed transcriptomes together with sequencing reads, we found high similarity in nucleotide sequences and homeologous polymorphisms between and the two proposed parents. Comparison of chloroplast and mitochondrion genes further confirmed as the maternal parent. Less nucleotide percentage differences were observed between and homeologs than between and homeologs, indicating a higher nucleotide substitution rates in homeologs than in homeologs. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis suggested the more compatible cytoplasmic environment and cellular apparatus for homeologs as the major cause for this phenomenon.

  3. DISTRIBUCIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN ECO-CLIMÁTICA DEL MEMBRILLO CIMARRÓN (Amelanchier denticulata (Kunth Koch EN MÉXICO.

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    Carlos Alberto Núñez-Colín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El membrillo cimarrón (Amelanchier denticulata (Kunth Koch es un arbusto frutal nativo de México, del cual no existen suficientes estudios sobre su uso, distribución y diversidad. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo hacer un modelo de distribución, una caracterización eco-climática así como modelos actual y futuro de zonas adecuadas de cultivo de A. denticulata con el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG. El membrillo cimarrón se distribuyó principalmente en el centro de México. Se obtuvieron tres grupos climáticos, el grupo 1 presentó un clima C, el grupo 2, un clima A(C, y el grupo 3, un clima Bs. Las regiones más adecuadas de cultivo fueron Guanajuato, Querétaro e Hidalgo. Los tres diferentes grupos climáticos pueden tener germoplasma diverso, por lo que es importante colectar en cada uno de ellos. Las mejores regiones para establecer un banco de germoplasma in vivo son el noreste de Guanajuato, centro y sur de Querétaro y el sur de Hidalgo.

  4. Biosynthesis of Multicomponent Nanoparticles with Extract of Mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth Berry: Application on Heavy Metals Removal from Water and Immobilization in Soils

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    Mayra Abril

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Through preparation of multicomponent nanoparticles (MCNPs using ferric chloride (FeCl3, sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, and the extract of mortiño fruit (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth, we dramatically improved the removal/immobilization of heavy metals from water and in soils. As-prepared nanoparticles were spherical measuring approximately 12 nm in diameter and contained iron oxides and iron sulfides in the crystal structure. Removal of copper and zinc from water using MCNPs showed high efficiencies (>99% at pH above 6 and a ratio of 0.5 mL of the extract:10 mL 0.5 M FeCl3·6H2O : 10 mL 0.035 M Na2SO4. The physisorption process followed by chemisorption was regarded as the removal mechanism of Cu and Zn from water. While, when MCNPs were used to treat soils contaminated with heavy metals, more than 95% of immobilization was accomplished for all metals. Nevertheless, the distribution of the metallic elements changed in the soil fractions after treatment. Results indicate that immobilization of metals after the injection of nanoparticles into soils was effective. Metals did not leach out when soils were drained with rain, drinking, and deionized water but fairly leached out under acidic water drainage.

  5. Composition of the volatile fraction of Ocotea bofo Kunth (Lauraceae) calyces by GC-MS and NMR fingerprinting and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Moreno Rueda, Gabriela; Medici, Alessandro; Besco, Elena; Bruni, Renato

    2006-10-04

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the floral calyces of Ocotea bofo Kunth (Lauraceae) was studied by means of GC, GC-MS, and 1H, 13C, and bidimensional NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC). Twenty-five constituents were identified, and estragole (48.7%), alpha-phellandrene (19.6%) and sabinene (10.4%) were found to be the major components. Antimicrobial activity against six aerobic bacteria and five yeasts and antioxidant activity performed by photochemiluminescence (PCL), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and beta-carotene bleaching assays are reported. The oil showed fair inhibiting properties against bacteria and a good inhibition against most yeasts. Its radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant properties were comparable to or better than those provided by synthetic controls. Particular emphasis has been given to the use of NMR as a fast and reliable tool to discriminate O. bofo essential oil from other commercial anethole- and estragole-rich oils, namely, Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Artemisia dracunculus.

  6. Estudio comparativo del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb "Muña" de tres regiones peruanas por cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Ruitón, César M.; Munguía Chipana, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    A Study of the chemical composition of the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb, has been done by means of chromatographic and spectronic methods, in order to determine the composition according to the place of selling. We found the following: in the essential oil from Tarma (Junín, región A. A. Cáceres): l-tetradecene (23,14%), 2S-transmenthona (23,00%) and pulegone (13,21%), in the essential oil from Huaraz (Ancash. Región Chavín): 2S-trans-menthona (41,48%), pulegone (16,02...

  7. Gastroprotective potential of Buddleja scordioides Kunth Scrophulariaceae infusions; effects into the modulation of antioxidant enzymes and inflammation markers in an in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rivas, J O; Herrera-Carrera, E; Gallegos-Infante, J A; Rocha-Guzmán, N E; González-Laredo, R F; Moreno-Jiménez, M R; Ramos-Gómez, M; Reynoso-Camacho, R; Larrosa-Pérez, M; Gallegos-Corona, M A

    2015-07-01

    A common plant used to treat several gastric disorders is Buddleja scordioides Kunth, commonly known as salvilla. To detect inflammatory markers, in order to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of salvilla infusions, as this could have beneficial impact on the population exposed to gastric ulcers and colitis. The present work attempted infusions were prepared with B. scordioides (1% w/w) lyophilized and stored. Total phenolic content and GC-MS analysis were performed. Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=8), a negative vehicle control, an indomethacin group, and three experimental groups, named preventive, curative, and suppressive. All rats were sacrificed under deep ether anesthesia (6h) after the last oral administration of indomethacin/infusion. The rat stomachs were promptly excised, weighed, and chilled in ice-cold and 0.9% NaCl. Histological analysis, nitrites quantification and immunodetection assays were done. B. scordioides infusions markedly reduced the visible hemorrhagic lesions induced by indomethacin in rat stomachs, also showed down-regulation of COX2, IL-8 and TNFα and up-regulation of COX-1 with a moderate down-regulation of NFkB and lower amount of nitrites. However, this behavior was dependent on the treatment, showing most down-regulation of COX-2, TNFα and IL-8 in the curative treatment; more down-regulation of NF-kB in the preventive treatment; and more up-regulation of COX-1 for the suppressor and preventive treatments. The anti-inflammatory potential of B. scordioides infusions could be related with the presence of polyphenols as quercetin in the infusion and how this one is consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Composição química volátil e não-volátil de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae

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    Maria Rose Jane R. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a composição química dos óleos essenciais e o isolamento de onze substâncias de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação, analisados por CG-EM e avaliados quanto às suas atividades frente à enzima acetilcolinesterase. O rendimento dos óleos foi de 0,11% para as folhas e 0,03% para os talos. Os principais constituintes dos óleos foram os sesquiterpenos β-cariofileno (24,9 e 22,2%, espatulenol (17,7 e 12,4% e epóxi-allo-aromadendreno (23,0 e 23,6%. Do extrato hexânico da parte aérea foi isolada a mistura de β-sitosterol e estigmasterol, incluindo suas formas glicosiladas, e os triterpenos acetato de taraxasterila e taraxasterol, enquanto, do extrato etanólico foram isolados os flavonóides nepetina and 3-O-glicosil-quercetina. Do extrato hexânico das raízes foram isolados os triterpenos epi-friedelanol e damara-20,24-dien-3β-ol e do extrato etanólico a cumarina 11-hidroxi-11,12-di-hidroobliquina. As estruturas de todos os compostos foram determinadas usando técnicas espectroscópica tais como IV, EM e RMN ¹H e 13C.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of Choisya ternata Kunth essential oil, ternanthranin, and its two synthetic analogs (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates.

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    Mariana Martins Gomes Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae is native to North America where it is popularly known as "Mexican orange". In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin-ISOAN and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate--MAN and PAN were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO obtained from C. ternata leaves (3-100 mg/kg, p.o., ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1-30 mg/kg, p.o. and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o., were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA. None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect.

  10. Eficiencia fotoquímica del fotosistema II y crecimiento en plantas de curuba (Passiflora tripartita (Juss. var. mollissima (Kunth bajo estrés salino

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    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La curuba (Passiflora tripartita (Juss. var. mollissima (Kunth es un cultivo importante en Colombia, especialmente en el departamento de Boyacá. A pesar de que el estrés osmótico es un limitante en la producción de este cultivo, existe poca información sobre su respuesta a la salinidad. En el presente estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en plantas de curuba bajo estrés salino. Las plantas se expusieron a concentraciones (mmol/kg de suelo de 20, 40, 60, y 80 de NaCl. Como consecuencia, el área foliar de la planta se redujo 20.89, 42.91, 58.37 y 76.40%, respectivamente, en relación con plantas control (condiciones no salinas. La longitud total de tallos se redujo 9.97, 27.28, 42.79 y 55.77% y el peso seco total por planta en 23.89, 31.49, 39.60 y 61.26%. La eficiencia cuántica máxima del fotosistema II (Fv/Fm se redujo 11.29, 14.23, 38.89 y 92.25% bajo los tratamientos de salinidad; por tanto, la salinidad afectó drásticamente los parámetros de crecimiento y fluorescencia. La reducción en el área foliar se correlacionó con la reducción en la fotosíntesis. La reducción en peso seco también siguió la tendencia de la relación Fv/Fm, lo que sugiere que la mayoría de los impactos de la salinidad en las plantas de curuba se deben a los efectos negativos sobre la fotosíntesis.

  11. Teores de nutrientes e fertirrigação em cultivo de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh com diferentes doses de nitrogênio

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    Carlos Abanto Rodriguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh é uma fruteira nativa que está em processo de domesticação, portanto, o conhecimento das necessidades nutricionais é essencial para melhorar a eficiência da adubação durante seu desenvolvimento. O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar os teores de nutrientes em plantas de camu-camu em função da adubação nitrogenada via fertirrigação no primeiro ano de cultivo. O experimento foi conduzido mediante delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 5 tratamentos: 0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N, oito repetições e sete plantas por unidade experimental. As variáveis avaliadas foram a massa seca total e os teores de nutrientes nas folhas. Os resultados mostram que a massa seca total das plantas de camu-camu apresentou comportamento quadrático significativo em resposta às doses crescentes de N, sendo que doses maiores a 128 kg ha-1 propiciaram efeitos depressivos. Além disso, os teores foliares de N, K, Ca tiveram uma resposta quadrática significativa, sendo que as maiores concentrações foram registradas entre as doses de 113 e 115 kg de N ha-1. Por outro lado, os micronutrientes tiveram um comportamento polinomial depressivo de acordo com os incrementos das doses de N. Pode-se concluir que os teores foliares dos nutrientes estão dentro dos adequados para o desenvolvimento das plantas de camu-camu, e os nutrientes mais exigidos foram o N, Ca, K, Fe, Mn e B, e finalmente os teores de macro e micronutrientes determinados nas folhas responderam a seguinte ordem decrescente: N > Ca > K > Mg > S > P > Mn >Fe > B > Zn > Cu, respectivamente.

  12. Determinação de taninos e metilxantinas no guaraná em pó (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Determination of tannins and methylxanthines in powdered guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae by high performance liquid chromatography

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    Sandra A. Sousa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae são utilizadas como estimulante e os principais constituintes químicos são as metilxantinas e os taninos, tais como catequina e epicatequina. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar um método por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE para quantificar, simultaneamente, cafeína, teofilina, teobromina, catequina e epicatequina em pó de guaraná. Os valores obtidos foram comparados com os resultados encontrados no método espectrofotométrico da Farmacopéia Brasileira IV ed. Pelo método cromatográfico, os teores de metilxantinas e taninos totais foram de 4,04% e 1,48%, respectivamente. Os teores de metilxantinas e taninos totais, obtidos pelo método espectrofotométrico, foram de 4,88% e 4,05%, respectivamente. Acredita-se que, nas condições experimentais empregadas, o método espectrofotométrico não foi específico, quantificando outras substâncias fenólicas presentes no guaraná. Portanto, sugere-se o emprego desse método cromatográfico no controle de qualidade do guaraná em pó, por ser preciso, sensível, específico e rápido.The seeds of Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae, are used as a stimulant and the main chemical constituents are the methylxanthines and tannins, as catechin and epicatechin. This study aimed to investigate a method by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify both caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, catechin and epicatechin in powdered of P. cupana. The values obtained were compared with the results of the spectrophotometric method of the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia IV ed. For the chromatographic method, the levels of methylxanthines and total tannins were 4.04% and 1.48%, respectively. The levels of methylxanthines and total tannins obtained by the spectrophotometric method, were 4.88% and 4.05%, respectively. It is believed that, under our experimental conditions, the spectrophotometric method was not specific and

  13. Capacidad de enraizamiento de plantas matrices promisorias de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh en cámaras de subirrigación¹

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    Carlos Abanto Rodríguez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Camu camu es una fruta nativa de la Amazonía, que llama la atención por el alto contenido de vitamina C (6,116 mg/ 100 g de pulpa, está en proceso de domesticación, por lo cual se está investigando un método de propagación vegetativa que permita avanzar en el proceso de mejoramiento genético. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad rizogénica de plantas matrices promisorias de camu camu "Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh" según el aumento del número de hojas, mediante la técnica de estacas herbáceas en cámaras de subirrigación. El ensayo fue conducido mediante un Diseño de Bloques Completamente al Azar (DBCA con arreglo factorial 9Ax3B, con 3 repeticiones y 15 estacas por unidad experimental. El factor A, estuvo constituido por nueve plantas matrices y el factor B: pares de hojas con 3 niveles: 1; 2 y 3 pares. El enraizamiento fue evaluado después de 90 días. Se observó que existió interacción estadística significativa para las variables: porcentaje de enraizamiento, longitud y número de raíces. Para las variables porcentaje de callo y porcentaje de mortalidad se encontró efecto de la planta matriz y pares de hojas. Los resultados muestran que el porcentaje de enraizamiento estuvo influenciado por efectos intrínsecos adherentes a la variabilidad genotípica de las plantas matrices, presentando un alto grado de dispersión, que osciló entre 91,11 % y 0,00 %, mostrando una alta variabilidad y marcada influencia de la planta matriz sobre el proceso de rizogénesis, influyendo de manera altamente significativa en el enraizamiento. Con respecto al área foliar, estacas con 2 y 3 pares de hojas, independiente de la planta matriz, presentaron mayor capacidad de enraizamiento. Con base en estos resultados se concluye que el efecto de la variabilidad genotípica y el área foliar influyen de manera altamente significativa en el proceso de rizogénesis de estacas herbáceas de camu camu.

  14. Lab-scale co-firing of virgin and torrefied bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth as a fuel substitute in coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryda, Lydia; Daza, Claudia; Pels, Jan; Janssen, Arno; Zwart, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential sustainable biomass source for renewable heat and power production as it presents common fuel characteristics with other biomass feedstocks regarding heating value and chemical composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the combustion behaviour of the bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth, virgin as well as torrefied, in blends with coal or pure, comparing with other biomass feedstocks such as wood and herbaceous biomass. The bamboo pre-treatment and the combustion experiments were carried out at dedicated installations at ECN, including a laboratory scale batch torrefaction reactor and a combustion simulation test facility. The results on combustion and co-firing reveal that in terms of fouling, the untreated bamboo shows behaviour closer to herbaceous biomass rather than to wood, with specific fouling factors of wood, bamboo and herbaceous biomass of 0.91·10 −3 , 2.9·10 −3 , 3.1·10 −3  K·m 2 ·W −1 ·g −1 respectively. Dry torrefaction improves its physical properties by increasing the density and grindability without improving significantly its fouling behaviour while the fouling behaviour of wet torrefied bamboo is similar to woody biomass; the specific fouling factors of dry torrefied and wet torrefied bamboo are 2.4·10 −3 and 0.89·10 −3  K·m 2 ·W −1 ·g −1 respectively. The fouling behaviour of biomass and coal blends lies between the fuels of the blend. Alternative bamboo species were evaluated using the alkali index A i based on their fuel composition. It appears that the fouling behaviour of alternative species is better than for G. angustifolia, therefore these should be further analysed. - Highlights: • Bamboo species Guadua angustifolia is a promising feedstock for power generation. • Dry and wet torrefaction of selected samples were carried out at ECN. • Virgin (untreated) and pretreated samples were fired pure or in coal blends. • Pretreated bamboo is suitable for large scale power

  15. Aislamiento y caracterización de la fracción hexánica de las hojas de Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob. con actividad antifúngica Isolation and characterization of hexane fraction from Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob leaves with antifungal action

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    Patricia Manzano Santana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la medicina folclórica ecuatoriana, utiliza las cocciones de las hojas de Vernonanthura pathens (Kunth H. Rob, para combatir entre otras, paludismo, dolores pre y posparto, estomacales, erupciones de piel, diarreas y parásitos. Objetivos: examinar la presencia de actividad antifúngica en fracciones obtenidas de un extracto metanólico de las hojas de V. patens. Métodos: el extracto metanólico de hojas se fraccionó por columna cromatográfica empleando los siguientes sistemas de disolventes: hexano, hexano/acetato de etilo, acetato de etilo y acetato de etilo/metanol. La actividad antifúngica se midió mediante la técnica de difusión en agar con medio (potato dextrosa agar PDA, en pocillos de 5 mm de diámetro, adicionando 20 µL de las fracciones en concentraciones de 100 y 200 µg/mL disueltas en dimetilsulfóxido. La fracción activa fue analizada para su identificación estructural por cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masas. Resultados: de las fracciones obtenidas solo presentó actividad antifúngica la fracción de hexano al 100 %, con porcentajes de inhibición del 57,6 y 80,2 % frente a Penicillium notatum, y 64,8 y 81,5 % frente a Fusaryum oxysporum, a los quince días de incubación. Se propusieron las estructuras de 29 compuestos como constituyentes de la fracción hexánica, los que en su mayoría, son hidrocarburos. Conclusiones: se comprobó la presencia de actividad antifúngica en la fracción de hexano al 100 %, lo que puede incrementar el arsenal de usos medicinales de la planta estudiada y enriquecer la medicina folclórica ecuatoriana.Introduction: the Ecuadorian folk medicine uses the coction from Vernonanthura pathens (Rob H. Kunth leaves to treat, malaria, pain before and after childbirth, stomachache, skin rashes, diarrheas and parasitism. Objectives: to examine the presence of antifungal activity in fractions obtained from a methanol extract from V. patens leaves. Methods: the methanol

  16. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Piper auritum Kunth and Piper holtonii C. DC. against phytopathogenic fungi Composición química y actividad antifúngica de Piper auritum Kunth y Piper holtonii C. DC. contra hongos fitopatogénicos

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    Rodrigo Pineda M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi during pre - and postharvest of fruits may cause spoilage and result in a reduction in quality and quantity. The aim of the present work was to investigate the efficacy of four extracts (n-hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol and the essential oil of Piper auritum Kunth and P. holtonii C. DC. on the growth inhibition of three important postharvest pathogens of fruits (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botryodiplodia theobromae. The in vitro antifungal activity was assayed following the poisoned food technique. The results showed that both n-hexane extract (HE as essential oil (EO displayed a relative good control against the three pathogens, being the originating materials of P. holtonii the most actives. Mycelial growth of C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and B. theobromae was significantly inhibited at 400 μg mL-1. Additionally, the chemical composition of the bioactive materials was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Safrole (64.54/56.88% and apiol (64.24/57.20% were the major constituents of the EO/HE from P. auritum and P. holtonii respectively. Structural identification was also confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Both compounds exhibited significant antifungal properties. It can be concluded that EOs/HEs from P. auritum and P. holtonii, and their major constituents, have interesting applications to control plant pathogenic fungi.El crecimiento de hongos durante pre- y poscosecha de frutas puede causar el deterioro y resultar en una reduccion en la calidad y cantidad. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar la eficiencia de cuatro extractos (n-hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etilo, y metanol y el aceite esencial de Piperauritum Kunth y P. holtonii C. DC. en la inhibición del crecimiento de tres importantes patogenos de pre- y poscosecha de frutas (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides y Botryodiplodia theobromae. La actividad antifúngica in

  17. Reconocimiento de hongos con potencial benéfico asociados a la rizósfera de chontaduro (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. en la region Pacifico del Valle del Cauca, Colombia

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    Sarria-Villa Greicy A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El chontaduro o pejibaye DBactris gasipaes H.B.K es el principal cultivo de los agroecosistemas de la selva :Gmeda  tropical de la costa pacifica colombiana. Esta región no aparece reerenciada en la literatura cientifica a pesar de su alta biodiversidad e importancia agroecológica. El objetivo de este estudio ue aislar % caracteriIar  morfológicamente  hasta  género,  hongos  presentes en la riIósera de B. gasipaes en dos sistemas de producción diferentes, localizados en Citronela y Sabaletas, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Durante seis meses se tomaron muestras de raices % suelo riIos-rico en tres

    -pocas con distinta precipitación pluvial. Se planteó como :ipótesis que el tamaño % diversidad de la población de :ongos  son inMuenciados negativamente por la precipitación, %a que esta es la variable climOtica preponderante en la región del estudio. Los resultados mostraron que en la localidad de Citronela las poblaciones de hongos permanecieron estables durante los dos primeros muestreos, independiente de los cambios ocurridos en el r-gimen de lluvias entre -pocas. En Sabaletas, durante estos mismos periodos, los registros de lluvias ueron mOs altos, lo que pudo generar condiciones anaerobias en la rizósfera y limitar la expresión poblacional fúngica. Para el tercer muestreo, en ambas localidades aumentó la población % diversidad de g-neros de :ongos, lo que coincide con la

    -poca de alta precipitación pluvial % llenado de rutos en las palmas, condiciones que aparentemente favorecen la liberación de exudados en las raíces y consecuentemente el desarrollo de las poblacio- nes microbianas ben-ficas  de la riIósera.  Los g-neros de :ongos  aislados en este estudio ueron6 Trichoderma en ambas localidades, Fusarium y Rhizopus sólo en Citronela, Penicillium y Thielaviopsis sólo en Sabaletas. Estos

  18. Aves endêmicas e ameaçadas de extinção da Estação Ecológica de Xitué e a contribuição do taquaruçu Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth para a riqueza local. Endemic and threatened birds of the Xitué Ecological Station and the contribution of the bamboo Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth to local richness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Zamorano ANTUNES

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O contínuo ecológico da Serra deParanapiacaba, no sul do Estado de São Paulo,é uma área de extrema importância para aconservação das aves. Dentro do contínuo, a EstaçãoEcológica de Xitué é a Unidade de Conservaçãocuja avifauna é menos conhecida. Em levantamentoefetuado em 2006 foram registradas em Xitué48 espécies endêmicas da Mata Atlântica e 8ameaçadas de extinção. Apesar de ser a espécievegetal dominante em vastos trechos da estação,o taquaruçu Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth parececontribuir pouco para a riqueza de espécies de avesencontradas. No entanto, entre estas espécies seencontra o criticamente ameaçado papa-capim-dataquaraSporophila falcirostris, granívoroespecializado em sementes de taquaras.The Paranapiacaba Range ecologicalcontinuum, in State of São Paulo southernBrazil, is an extremely important area to birdconservation. In Paranapiacaba Range the birds ofXitué Ecological Station remains poorly known.We surveyed the Xitué birds in 2006 and we found48 Atlantic Forest endemics species and 8 threatened.Although the bamboo Guadua tagoara (NeesKunth dominate many areas of Xitué, it contributedtoo little for bird richness. However, between thesebird species was the critically endangered Temminck’sSeedeater Sporophila falcirostris, specializedbamboo granivorous.

  19. Phytochemical and biological evaluation of Preskia bleo (Kunth) DC, a plant species used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafii Khamis; Norihan Mohd Saleh; Norizah Jaafar Sidek; Noor Azlinawatima Sulong; Nor Azizah Marsiddi

    2006-01-01

    ER positive and ER negative breast cancer cell lines were found to be 1.3 and 3.5 μg/ml, respectively. The aqueous extract was found to be non-cytotoxic. All the extracts tested were also found to be non-toxic against the brine shrimps up to 2,000 μg/ml of the extracts. This study demonstrated that the non-aqueous extracts of the leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) D.C exhibited a non-selective mode of action against breast cancer cells proliferation in-vitro. Their non-cytotoxic activities toward the non-tumour 3T3 mouse fibroblasts indicates that the extracts exhibited selective mode of inhibition between tumour and non-tumour cells. The results obtained support the reputation of the above species as anticancer plant. Further work to isolate the cytotoxic compounds and to investigate the in vivo antitumour activity in rat is in progress. (Author)

  20. Estudo farmacognóstico e atividade in vitro sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária das folhas de Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae Pharmacognostic study and in vitro activity on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation of leaves of Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Passiflora (Passifloraceae é utilizado principalmente para tratar doenças do SNC e cardiovasculares. A espécie Passiflora nitida Kunth é comumente conhecida como “maracujá-do-mato". A literatura relata o consumo in natura dos frutos desta espécie pela população local para distúrbios gastrointestinais. Considerando o potencial farmacológico do gênero, este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar estudo de caracterização fitoquímica desta espécie e estudar os efeitos dos extratos aquoso (EA, etanólico (EE e hexânico (EH de suas folhas sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária. Para a caracterização fitoquímica foram realizados testes de cromatografia em camada delgada e ressonância magnética nuclear. O efeito dos extratos sobre a coagulação foi avaliado pelos testes de tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa. O efeito sobre a agregação plaquetária foi avaliado em plasma rico em plaquetas por método espectrofotométrico, usando adenosina difosfato (ADP e adrenalina (ADR como indutores da agregação. Os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram atividade coagulante pelo teste do TP e o EE apresentou atividade anticoagulante para o TTPa. Quando induzidos por ADP, os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram valores de concentração inibitória 50% (CI50, µg/mL de 450,5 ± 50,7; 511,2 ± 35,5 e 394,4 ± 8,9, respectivamente, e quando induzidos por ADR apresentaram valores de 438,7 ± 5,2; 21,0 ± 1,9 e 546,9 ± 49,9, respectivamente. O EE apresentou atividade inibitória sobre a agregação. A caracterização fitoquímica foi sugestiva da presença de flavonóides e cumarinas, aos quais podem ser atribuídos, em parte, os efeitos biológicos estudados.The Passiflora genus (Passifloraceae is mainly used to treat CNS and cardiovascular diseases. The Passiflora nitida Kunth species is commonly known as “maracujá-do-mato". The literature reports the in natura consumption of

  1. Características físico-químicas e produtividade de acessos de Passiflora nitida Kunth procedentes do Centro-Norte do Brasil Physical and chemical characteristics and yield of Passiflora nitida Kunth accessions from North and Central regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá-suspiro (Passiflora nitida Kunth é uma espécie silvestre amplamente distribuída no território nacional. Tem alto potencial para o melhoramento visando à resistência a diversas doenças que provocam perdas expressivas em cultivos comerciais de maracujá-azedo (Passiflora edulis Sims. Seus frutos são comestíveis e têm elevado valor comercial como fruta fresca. Dessa forma, esse estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características físicas e químicas dos frutos e determinar, em condições de campo, o rendimento de dez acessos de P. nitida procedentes de estados e/ou de diferentes tipos fitofisionômicos das regiões Centro - Norte do Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Cerrados, localizada em Planaltina, Distrito Federal. Os acessos avaliados foram coletados em Manaus-AM, de capoeira; no Núcleo Rural São José - DF, de chapada e de vereda; no Vale do Amanhecer - DF, de vereda; Jardim Botânico-DF, de Cerrado Stricto Sensu; em Silvânia-GO, de mata ciliar e de chapada; em Itiquira - MT, de Cerrado Stricto Sensu; em Alto Paraíso-GO, de chapada, e em Natividade-TO, de chapada. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e três plantas úteis por repetição. As plantas foram propagadas por estacas enraizadas de cada acesso e conduzidas em espaldeiras verticais de 1,80 metro de altura, com irrigação por gotejamento. As avaliações foram feitas durante as colheitas de 2006 e 2007. O acesso do Vale do Amanhecer apresentou o melhor rendimento de frutos. Este acesso pode ser usado no programa de melhoramento visando à inserção de P. nitida no mercado. Também foi possível observar que as fontes provenientes do Cerrado têm características físicas mais desejáveis, produzindo frutos maiores e com melhor rendimento em polpa. Por outro lado, o acesso do Amazonas teve a menor espessura da casca, característica desejável para o mercado de frutas naturais.The passion fruit

  2. ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA Y COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA DE LOS ACEITES ESENCIALES DE Malvaviscus arboreus Cav, Pimenta dioica (L. Merr., Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Kunth Y Psidium guajava L.

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    Daniel Vázquez Cahuich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aceites esenciales de las hojas de Malvaviscus arboreus Cav., Pimenta dioica (L. Merr., Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Kunth y Psidium guajava L., obtenidos por hidrodeltilación, fueron evaluados como antimicrobianos potenciales contra Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 4028 y Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778. Para la evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana se emplearon los métodos de difusión en disco, bioautografía y microdilución, subsecuentemente cada extracto fue analizado por cromatografía de gases/masas (CG-MS para la obtención del perfil químico. Los aceites esenciales de las cuatro especies presentaron actividad antimicrobiana por el método de difusión en agar contra las tres cepas de microorganismos. En cuanto a la bioautografía, se detectó que la fracción 4 en el aceite esencial de P. dioica, con una referencia frontal (Rf de 0.42 cm, inhibió el crecimiento de B. cereus, S. typhimurium y S. aureus. En la microdilución se determinó que B. cereus fue el microorganismo más susceptible a la presencia de los aceites esenciales de M. arboreus, P. dioica, B. crassifolia y P. guajava. El eugenol fue el principal componente de P. dioica y P. guajava con porcentajes de abundancia de 94.86% y 33.84% respectivamente, determinado por CG-MS.

  3. Antiprotozoal alkaloids from Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Lucilia; Oliveira, Cecilia M.A. de; Faria, Emiret O.; Ribeiro, Laryssa C.; Carvalho, Brenda G.; Silva, Cleuza C. da; Santin, Silvana M.O.; Schuque, Ivania T.A.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Britta, Elisandra A.; Miranda, Nathielle; Iglesias, Amadeu H.; Delprete, Piero G.

    2012-01-01

    The continuity of the phyto chemical study of crude extracts of P. prunifolia's roots and branches led to the isolation of five indole-β-carboline alkaloids. Among them, the 10-hydroxy-iso-deppeaninol and N-oxide-10-hydroxy-antirhine derivatives are described here for the first time. The structures were achieved through 1D and 2D NMR, IR and HRMS analyses. The branches and roots crude extracts and the alkaloids 14-oxoprunifoleine and strictosamide showed selective activity against L. amazonensis, with IC 50 values of 16.0 and 40.7 μg per mL, respectively. (author)

  4. Flavonoids and sesquiterpenes of Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2012-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6 - O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6 - O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3 - methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data. (author)

  5. Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Luz Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3"-methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data.

  6. Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdênia Loiola; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2012-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3"-methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric method...

  7. Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh "Camu Camu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Córdova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la alta variabilidad en la producción de vitamina C enMyrciariadubia"camucamu", es necesarioestablecer procedimientos biotecnológicos para la propagación clonal masiva de genotipos promisorios de estaespecie.El objetivo fue establecer un método eficiente para inducir la formación de callosin vitroa partir deexplantesdeM. dubia. Los explantes de hojas y nudos se obtuvieron de ramas cultivadas en el laboratorio y lapulpa a partir defrutos colectados en el campo. Estosfueron desinfectados y sembrados en medio Murashige-Skoog (1962 suplementado con ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, bencilaminopurina (BAP y kinetina(Kin. Los cultivos fueron mantenidos a 25±2°C, en oscuridad por 2 semanas y posteriormente con unfotoperiodo de 16 horas luz y 8 horas de oscuridad por 6 semanas. El tratamiento con 2 mg/L de 2,4-D y 0,1mg/L de BAP estimuló mayor callogénesis en los tres tipos de explantes. Los callos se generaron a partir de laprimera semana (nudos, cuarta semana (hojas y sexta semana (pulpa y estos fueron friables (hojas y nudosy no friables (pulpa. En conclusión, el método descrito es eficiente para inducir callosin vitroen hojas, nudosy pulpa deM. dubia, siendo los explantes de hojas y nudos los más idóneos para la obtención de callos.

  8. Inoculation methods and aggressiveness of five Fusarium species against peach palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Miguel Jarek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fusarium wilt is a major disease which affects peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.var gasipaes Henderson. This study aimed to evaluate inoculation methods and aggressiveness of isolates of five Fusarium species on peach palm. Fusarium proliferatum can infect the leaves, stem, and roots of peach palm. F. proliferatum, F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC, F. verticillioides, F. solani species complex (FSSC, and Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC are pathogenic to peach palm. The use of Fusarium-colonized ground corn for root inoculation was effective and reduced the level of damage to plants.

  9. Caracterização tecnológica de extrusados de terceira geração à base de farinhas de mandioca e pupunha.

    OpenAIRE

    CARVALHO, A. V.; VASCONCELOS, M. A. M. de; SILVA, P. A.; ASSIS, G. T.; ASCHERI, J. L. R.

    2011-01-01

    Conduziu-se este trabalho,com o objetivo de estudar as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas de extrusados de terceira geração obtidos de misturas de farinhas de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.) e mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz), por meio das análises de densidade aparente, índice de absorção de água, índice de solubilidade em água e viscosidade de pasta (RVA). Os extrusados foram formulados, adicionando-se 15, 20 e 25% de farinha de pupunha à farinha de mandioca, sendo processados em ext...

  10. Variação do peso fresco em Cornops aquaticum (Bruner (Orthoptera, Acrididae associado a Eichhornia azurea (Sw Kunth (Pontederiaceae em uma baía no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso Variation of the fresh weight in Cornops aquaticum (Bruner (Orthoptera, Acrididae associated with Eichhornia azurea (Sw Kunth (Pontederiaceae in a bay in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima R. Jaloretto da Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Variação do peso fresco em Cornops aquaticum (Bruner (Orthoptera, Acrididae associado a Eichhornia azurea (Sw Kunth (Pontederiaceae em uma baía no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso. Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, 1906 (Orthoptera, Acrididae desenvolve seu ciclo de vida sobre macrófitas aquáticas da família Pontederiaceae. Como os gafanhotos são capazes de responder às mudanças sazonais, a alternância de períodos que ocorre no Pantanal pode refletir em sua biologia. Este estudo foi desenvolvido no Pantanal de Poconé - MT, com o objetivo de avaliar possíveis variações no peso fresco dos adultos e ninfas de C. aquaticum. Durante o período de março/2006 a fevereiro/2007 coletaram-se mensalmente, 50 indivíduos de C. aquaticum. Um total de 600 indivíduos foi avaliado, sendo 43,5 % adultos e 56,5 % ninfas. Os maiores valores de peso fresco total ocorreram nos meses de setembro (9,106g; 0,182g/indivíduo e outubro/2006 (8,865g; 0,177g/indivíduo e os menores em março/2006 (3,413g; 0,068g/indivíduo. Nos indivíduos adultos os maiores pesos frescos foram registrados em setembro/2006 (8,680g; 0,223g/indivíduo e outubro/2006 (8,654g; 0,234g/indivíduo, no final do período de seca, e o menor em março/2006 (1,792g; 0,138g/indivíduo, durante o período de cheia. As ninfas tiveram o maior peso fresco em abril/2006 (2,913g; 0,076g/indivíduo início da vazante, enquanto o menor peso fresco ocorreu em outubro/2006 (0,211g; 0,016g/indivíduo início da enchente. Apenas a variação no peso fresco médio das fêmeas foi significativa (f = 6,43; p = 0,001, com os maiores registros durante o período de enchente, o que pode evidenciar uma estratégia reprodutiva.Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, 1906 (Orthoptera, Acrididae develops its life cycle on aquatic macrophyte of the Pontederiaceae family. As grasshoppers are able to respond to the seasonal changes, the alternation of periods that occurs in the Pantanal may reflect in their biology. This study

  11. Comportamento higroscópico da farinha de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Hygroscopic behavior of the pupunha flour (Bactris gasipaes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane D. Ferreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento higroscópico da farinha de pupunha obtida por secagem em estufa a 70°C. Obteve-se dados de equilíbrio de adsorção de umidade a 15°C e 35°C, através de um método estático, onde recipientes de 500mL, contendo soluções saturadas de sais, foram utilizados como ambientes geradores de umidades relativas constantes, na faixa de 11% a 97%, aos quais foram submetidas amostras do produto. A partir dos dados de equilíbrio foram construídas isotermas de adsorção de umidade, sendo observadas isotermas do tipo III e, ainda, que a umidade de equilíbrio diminui com o aumento da temperatura. Determinou-se o calor isostérico de adsorção para diferentes níveis de umidade de equilíbrio e a umidade equivalente à monocamada, observando-se valores inferiores a 5g H2O/100 g s.s. Verificou-se a aplicabilidade do modelo GAB na predição de dados de equilíbrio do produto. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a farinha de pupunha apresenta baixa higroscopicidade, ou seja, baixa afinidade por moléculas de água.It was studied the hygroscopic behavior of the pupunha flour obtained by drying in the oven at 70°C. It was collected data of moisture adsorption for two temperatures (15°C and 35°C, using the static method, where the recipients with the capacity of 500mL, having saturated salt solutions, it was used as environment generators of constant relative humidity, ranging from 11% to 97%, which were submitted the samples of the product. From the equilibrium data, it was built isotherms of moisture adsorption, being observed type III isotherms, but even that the equilibrium moisture for the product decreases with the temperature increase. It was determined the isosteric heat of adsorption for different levels of equilibrium moisture and the equivalent moisture to the monolayer, which were inferior of 5g H2O/100 g s.s. It was verified the application of the GAB model in the equilibrium data prediction for the product. According to the results obtained, the pupunha flour shows low hygroscopicity, low affinity for water molecule.

  12. Flavonoids and sesquiterpenes of Croton pedicellatus Kunth; Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-glucopyranosyl-3{sup -}methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data. (author)

  13. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae) = Biologia reprodutiva de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Gomes da Silva; Samyra Ramos Chaves; Jéfferson Mesquita Brito

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna). The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flowe...

  14. YURUPARÍ: MÁSCARAS Y PODER ENTRE LOS PIAROAS DEL ORINOCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDER MANSUTTI RODRÍGUEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In northwest Amazonia, among other kinds, two celebrations occur: one with masks dedicated to the harvest of Bactris gasipaes and other fruits, and another with sacred flutes that evoke extraordinary beings. When both coincide in a same village they occur at different moments. However, to the Piaroa and the Wirö peoples of the Orinoco basin, both ceremonies occur simultaneously at the same place. This paper shall describe participants and procedures of the ceremony and evaluate the gender and age based power game that comes to light during it. This ceremony consolidates alliances between the shamans and their communities with the masters who control animals and plants exploited by the Piaroa people, facilitates men’s expropriations and limits women power to the domestic sphere, and shifts a society with no major hierarchical organizations into a highly hierarchical one as long as the ceremony is occuring.En el noroccidente amazónico se realizan, entre otras, dos tipos de fiestas: una enmascarada dedicada a la cosecha de Bactris gassipaes y otras frutas, y otra con flautas sagradas dedicada a evocar seres extraordinarios. Ellas, cuando coinciden en un mismo pueblo, se realizan en momentos diferentes. Sin embargo, en el caso de los Piaroas y Wirös de la cuenca del Orinoco, ambas fiestas coinciden entiempo y lugar. En este ensayo vamos a describir los personajes y procedimientos que son parte de la fiesta y a evaluar algunos de los juegos de poder de género y edad que en ella se expresan.Se trata de una fiesta que consolida alianzas de los shamanes y sus comunidades con los dueños de animales y plantas sometidas a la depredación piaroa, que institucionaliza la expropiación por los hombres y la redefinición hacia lo doméstico del poder femenino, y que transforma una sociedad sin grandes jerarquías en su citianeidad en una sociedad altamente jerarquizada mientras dura la fiesta.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Composition of Senecio salignus Kunth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez González, Cuauhtemoc; Serrano Vega, Roberto; González-Chávez, Marco; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36 ± 4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%). The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9 ± 2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h. PMID:23691512

  16. Micropropagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth (Poaceae) using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Universidad del Quindio

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... develop an application for RITA® for use in the commercial production of G. angustifolia. Key words: Giant .... Data were analyzed using a random block design with 20 replicates ..... Gray D (eds) Plant Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory ... A (eds) Current Issues in Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology,.

  17. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de Calceolaria chelidonioides Humb. Bonpl. & Kunth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Q. Falcão

    Full Text Available A espécie Calceolaria chelidonioides (Scrophulariaceae, até então inédita nas citações científicas, foi estudada sob o ponto de vista farmacológico buscando-se identificar possíveis atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante em metodologia in vitro. As partes aéreas dessa espécie demonstraram atividade antioxidante em modelo usando o radical livre DPPH. As flores de C. chelidonioides mostraram grande potencial antibacteriano frente à bactéria Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina MRSA, um dos principais responsáveis em casos de infecção hospitalar.

  18. Phenology of the reproductive development of Elaeis oleifera (Kunth Cortes

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    Leidy Paola Moreno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenological stages of oil palm can be coded using the BBCH scale, which has three digits due to the inclusion of intermediate stages between the principal and secondary stages in order to provide greater detail on each developmental stage. For the phenological description of the reproductive development of Elaeis oleifera, the principal stages used were emergence of inflorescence, flowering, fruit growth and development, and fruit ripening. The observations were made in Colombia over a 12 month-period on E. oleifera palms planted in 1991; the observations were made on the daily course or depending on the development stage. The duration of each phenological stage was measured in days. Thus, the appearance of new leaves took 20.1±2.8 days, reaching preanthesis I (601 took 145.09±19.61 days, from this stage to preanthesis II (602 took 7.50±1.50 days, then to preanthesis III (603 took 7.39±1.56 days and finally to anthesis (607 took 5.74±1.32 days. At the population level, it was found that the phenology cycle of inflorescence is annual and that the production of flowers and the opening of inflorescences with pistils is asynchronous.

  19. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth, Boraginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Andricia S. da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g and eriodictyol (0.015 g. These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia.

  20. TDZ pulsing evaluation on the in vitro morphogenesis of peach palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graner, Erika Mendes; Oberschelp, Gustavo Pedro Javier; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Batagin-Piotto, Katherine Derlene; de Almeida, Cristina Vieira; de Almeida, Marcílio

    2013-04-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.) cropping is an excellent alternative to native species exploitation; nevertheless, the problems with seed germination and conventional propagation justify the use of in vitro culturing. Aiming to asses TDZ pulsing effect on B. gasipaes morphogenesis, explants obtained from unarmed microplants were maintained in two treatments, half of them in MS free medium (without growth regulator) and the other half in MS with TDZ (0.36 μM). Both groups were transferred to growth regulator-free MS medium following 14 days of culture. After 84 days of culture, TDZ pulsing increased the growth and development of the shoots, restricted the growth and development of the roots, with no influence on adventitious bud induction or somatic embryogenesis. Furthermore, development of prickles, thickening of roots and chlorotic leaves were noted under TDZ pulsing. Leaf sheath histological analysis showed an epidermal origin and no vascularization of these prickles.

  1. Pupunha no mercado de Manaus: preferências de consumidores e suas implicações

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    Clement Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A demanda para o fruto fresco de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae permanece estável após 50 anos de pesquisa e fomento na Amazônia. Entrevistas com 30 consumidores na principal feira de Manaus, durante a segunda safra, determinaram que o fruto preferido é o vermelho (por 53%, de tamanho médio (67%, moderadamente a oleoso (53% oleoso e 40% moderadamente, em cachos grandes (50% e com um custo razoável (R$5/cacho em outubro 2001, diferente dos frutos usados no fomento (grandes, secos, mais caros e de dificil criação por melhoristas. A quantificação e o detalhamento destas preferências são essenciais para reorientar a pesquisa e o fomento.

  2. Axial vessel widening in arborescent monocots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Giai; DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Carrer, Marco; Anfodillo, Tommaso

    2014-02-01

    Dicotyledons have evolved a strategy to compensate for the increase in hydraulic resistance to water transport with height growth by widening xylem conduits downwards. In monocots, the accumulation of hydraulic resistance with height should be similar, but the absence of secondary growth represents a strong limitation for the maintenance of xylem hydraulic efficiency during ontogeny. The hydraulic architecture of monocots has been studied but it is unclear how monocots arrange their axial vascular structure during ontogeny to compensate for increases in height. We measured the vessel lumina and estimated the hydraulic diameter (Dh) at different heights along the stem of two arborescent monocots, Bactris gasipaes (Kunth) and Guadua angustifolia (Kunth). For the former, we also estimated the variation in Dh along the leaf rachis. Hydraulic diameter increased basally from the stem apex to the base with a scaling exponent (b) in the range of those reported for dicot trees (b = 0.22 in B. gasipaes; b = 0.31 and 0.23 in G. angustifolia). In B. gasipaes, vessels decrease in Dh from the stem's centre towards the periphery, an opposite pattern compared with dicot trees. Along the leaf rachis, a pattern of increasing Dh basally was also found (b = 0.13). The hydraulic design of the monocots studied revealed an axial pattern of xylem conduits similar to those evolved by dicots to compensate and minimize the negative effect of root-to-leaf length on hydrodynamic resistance to water flow.

  3. Palmito de pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes cultivado bajo diferentes densidades de laurel (Cordia alliodora

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    Johnny Montenegro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalu6 el incremento en altura y gro- SOT de rebrotes, la altura del tallo dominante, la alliodoproducci6n de palmito y el numero de rebrotes diapOT cepa en plantaciones sin y bajo 2 poblacio- domines de laurel (92 y 370 arboles/ha y el efecto ofdel sombreamiento, en la zona Atlantica de Costa Rica. Se observ6 un mayor incremento en el diametro y la altura de los rebrotes en el monocultivo (P=0.0403, P=0.0033 respectiva- mente unicamente en los estadios iniciales de crecimiento. Una mayor altura del tallo princi- pal (P=0.0143se observ6 en la asociaci6n con haraltas densidades de arboles de laurel. EI nume- ro de rebrotes pOT cepa fue mayor (P=0.05 en maxilas parcelas sin la presencia de arboles. Las ma- yores producciones de palmito fueron encon- whetradas en el monocultivo y con 92 arboles ha/(P=O.O 117, determinandose un menor ren- dimiento con mayores niveles de intercepci6n de luz fotosinteticamente activa pOT parte del estrato arb6reo (r=0.68, P=0.0415. Los ingre- monosos fueron mayores en el tratamiento sin arbo- les, los cuales ejercieron un efecto negativo so- bre el rendimiento productivo del cultivo.

  4. EFEITO DO SOMBRAMENTO DE PUPUNHA (Bactris gasipaes NA CULTURA DO CAFÉ CONILON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Agnolette Capelini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho analisar o comportamento temporal do teor foliar de clorofila, da área foliar específica e do índice de sólidos solúveis (medido pelo grau brix de plantas de café conilon cultivadas em sistemas agroflorestais sombreados com pupunha. As medições de teor foliar de clorofila e área foliar específica foram realizados mensalmente enquanto o grau brix foi medido a partir do início da fase fenológica de maturação. As analises estatísticas foram determinadas pelo teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Regressões múltiplas foram realizadas para analisar o efeito do sistema arborizado sobre qualidade do café. O teor foliar de clorofila e a área foliar específica apresentaram variabilidade temporal, com destaque para a última variável onde a variação foi elevada. O sombreamento não influenciou a maturação dos frutos. À medida que o teor foliar de clorofila e a área foliar específica se elevam, os valores de º Brix também aumentam.

  5. [Fatty acids contained in 4 pejibaye palm species, Bactris gasipaes (Palmae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Piedra, M; Blanco-Metzler, A; Mora-Urpí, J

    1995-01-01

    Cooked and uncooked samples from four pejibaye palm races were analyzed to determine the moisture content, ether extract and the content of six fatty acids (C16:0 to C18:3). There was an increase in moisture and a decrease in ether extract (p < 0.05) in the cooked samples in comparison with the uncooked ones. No significant differences were found in fatty acid content between cooked and uncooked samples, but there were differences (p < 0.05) among races concerning the content of four fatty acids. Pejibaye fat is mainly mono-unsaturated (45.6%) and has a low poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (0.5). The fatty acid profile of uncooked pejibaye samples was: oleic acid, 32.6 to 47.8%; palmitic acid, 30.5 to 40.3%; linoleic acid, 11.2 to 21.1%; palmitoleic acid, 5.7 to 7.1%; linoleic acid, 1.5 to 5.5%; and stearic acid, 1.7 to 2.4%.

  6. Análisis quimico de la semilia de bactris gasipaes hbk (chontaduro)

    OpenAIRE

    Zuluaga, Fabio; Smlth, George N.

    2009-01-01

    Se encontró que la semilla de chontaduro contenía 28% de grasa y 12.5% de carbohidratos. La grasa estaba constituida de 90% de trigllcéridos y de 0.1% de esteróles, además de ácidos grasos libres y otras sustancias no identificadas. Después de la transesterlficaclón del aceite, se identificaron los ásteres etílicos de los ácidos caprlllco, cáprlco, láurico, mirlstlco, paimftico, esteárico, olelco y llnolelco. La mayor parte de la fracción esferoidal estaba constituida por g -sltosterol (90%),...

  7. Análisis quimico de la semilia de bactris gasipaes HBK (Chontaduro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Zuluaga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se encontró que la semilla de chontaduro contenía 28% de grasa y 12.5% de carbohidratos. La grasa estaba constituida de 90% de trigllcéridos y de 0.1% de esteróles, además de ácidos grasos libres y otras sustancias no identificadas. Después de la transesterlficaclón del aceite, se identificaron los ásteres etílicos de los ácidos caprlllco, cáprlco, láurico, mirlstlco, paimftico, esteárico, olelco y llnolelco. La mayor parte de la fracción esferoidal estaba constituida por g -sltosterol (90%, campesterol (~9% y colestorol (~ 1 %. La fracción de los carbohidratos fue casi en su totalidad sacarosa. La separación e identificación de los compuestos fueron hechos por cromatografía (capa delgada, columna, gas-llquIdo y por métodos espectroscópicos (IR, UV, RMN y Masas.

  8. Uso da terra e propriedades físicas e químicas de Argissolo Amarelo distrófico na Amazônia Ocidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações físicas e químicas em Argissolo Amarelo distrófico textura média/argilosa relevo plano, sob diferentes tipos de uso no assentamento Favo de Mel, município de Sena Madureira, Acre. A coleta de material de solo foi realizada no início da estação chuvosa (outubro/1999. Os tipos de usos avaliados foram: mata natural (testemunha, mata recém - desbravada e submetida à queima intensa, pupunha (Bactris gassipae com dois anos de cultivo e pastagem de braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha com quatro anos de cultivo. Em cada área, abriu-se uma trincheira, de onde se coletaram 12 amostras, em camadas delgadas, no intervalo de 0,0 a 0,60 m a partir da superfície do solo. Também coletaram-se amostras dos horizontes pedogenéticos. No material coletado, avaliaram-se: características físicas (granulometria, argila dispersa em água, densidade do solo, resistência do solo à penetração e parâmetros sedimentológicos e químicas (complexo sortivo, fósforo disponível, pH em água e em KCl, carbono orgânico, fósforo remanescente, substâncias húmicas e ferro pelo ataque sulfúrico. Verificou-se que, sob pastagem de braquiária, o solo apresentou os maiores valores de densidade no horizonte A, o que revela tendência à compactação. Os nutrientes avaliados e o carbono orgânico apresentaram baixos teores e estavam concentrados nos primeiros centímetros do solo. O potássio decresceu drasticamente na pastagem, graças, possivelmente, às perdas por erosão, queima e pastejo. A fração humina, dentre os compostos orgânicos, predominou nos quatro sistemas avaliados.

  9. Composição de carotenoides em canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni Carotenoids composition of canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia da Silveira Agostini Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O canistel (P. campechiana é uma fruta nativa da América Central e México, ainda pouco conhecida no Brasil. Apresenta uma polpa amarelo-alaranjada, rica em carotenoides, que tem despertado interesse como potencial de vitamina A. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor de carotenoides e o valor provitamina A na polpa de canistel, assim como os teores de umidade e lipídeos na polpa e na semente. Os carotenoides foram separados por cromatografia em coluna aberta. O conteúdo de carotenoides totais foi de 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantina e neoxantina foram os carotenóides predominantes, somando 196 ± 5 μg/g. seguidos por zetacaroteno, betacaroteno 5,6-epóxido, betacaroteno e fitoflueno. A semente foi a parte do fruto que apresentou maior teor de lipídeos totais, com 4,6 ± 0,2 %, e a polpa, 0,61 ± 0,03 %. Os resultados indicam que o canistel apresenta teores de carotenóides totais muito elevados e pode ser considerado uma boa fonte de provitamina A (59 ± 6 RAE/100g, se comparado com outras frutas normalmente consumidas. No entanto, os principais carotenoides encontrados em sua polpa são destituídos de atividade provitamina A.Canistel (Pouteria campechiana is a native fruit from Central America and Mexico. This fruit still not known in Brazil, presents an orange-yellow pulp rich in carotenoids, which has attracted interest as a potential source of vitamin A. The purpose of this study was to determine the carotenoids content and pro-vitamin A values in the pulp of canistel, as well as the percentage of moisture and lipids in the pulp and seeds. Carotenoids were separated by open column chromatography. The content of total carotenoids was 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantin and neoxantin were the predominant carotenoids with 196 ± 5 μg/g followed by zeta-carotene, beta-carotene 5,6-epoxide, beta-carotene and phytofluene. The seeds presented higher levels of total lipids with 4.6 ± 0.2 %, while pulp had 0.61 ± 0.03 % of total lipid. These results indicate that this fruit presented very high levels of total carotenoids when compared to other fruits regularly consumed, and may be considered as a good source of pro-vitamin A (59 ± 6 RAE/100g. However, the main carotenoids found in Canistel have no pro-vitamin A activity.

  10. The fate of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth. detritus within a tropical reservoir O destino dos detritos de Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth. em um reservatório tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bianchessi da Cunha Santino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study is aimed at comparing the kinetics of decomposition of Eichhornia azurea and discussing the fate of its detritus; METHODS: The samples of aquatic macrophytes and water were collected in the Piraju Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil. The plant material was oven-dried and triturated and for each experimental condition (aerobic and anaerobic, 72 mineralization chambers were prepared with plant fragments and reservoir water. On sampling days the particulate and dissolved organic matter were quantified (on carbon basis POC and DOC, respectively; RESULTS: The decomposition of E. azurea is more efficient under aerobic conditions, being 2.2 times faster than for the anaerobic process, according to the amount of mineralized carbon. For the decay of leaves, stems and roots of E. azurea the aerobic processes were 1.22-fold faster. It is assumed that the fractions responsible for the high oxygen consumption have reduced periods of half-time, and therefore do not accumulate in the ecosystems. Owing to the biomass of E. azurea in the Piraju Reservoir, the aerobic decay of E. azurea can promote moderate depletion in the dissolved oxygen budget. With the rate of the mineralization of refractory materials (Ξ half-time varying from 385 to 462 days, the fibrous debris of this plant, i.e. refractory fractions, associated with the appropriate conditions of pH and oxi-reduction potential, can contribute to the gas production and storage of particulate organic matter in sediments.OBJETIVO: Nesse estudo foram comparadas as cinéticas de decomposição de Eichhornia azurea e discutidos os destinos de seus detritos; MÉTODOS: As amostras de plantas e de água foram coletadas no reservatório de Piraju (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As plantas foram secas e trituradas; para cada condição experimental (meio aeróbio e anaeróbio foram preparadas 72 câmaras de mineralização com fragmentos de planta e água do reservatório. Nos dias de coleta as frações particuladas e dissolvidas de matéria orgânica foram quantificadas (em base de carbono: carbono orgânico particulado (COP e dissolvido (COD, respectivamente; RESULTADOS: Com base no carbono mineralizado, os resultados indicaram que a decomposição de E. azurea foi mais eficiente em meio aeróbio (2,2 vezes mais rápido que em anaerobiose. Para a decomposição das folhas, talos e raízes os processos aeróbios foram 1,22 vezes mais rápidos. Verificou-se que as frações responsáveis pelos consumos elevados de oxigênio possuem tempos de meia vida reduzidos e, desse modo, não se acumulam no reservatório. Devido à biomassa de E. azurea no reservatório de Piraju os processos aeróbios de decomposição dessa espécie podem promover depleções moderadas no balanço de oxigênio dissolvido. Devido à magnitude dos coeficientes de degradação (meia-vida: de 385 a 462 dias, associados com as condições predominantes de pH e potencial de oxi-redução, as frações refratárias dos detritos (fibras de E. azurea podem contribuir para a produção de gases e no estoque de matéria orgânica particulada dos sedimentos do reservatório.

  11. A família Bombacaceae Kunth no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The family Bombacaceae Kunth in the state of Pernambuco - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Du Bocage

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho consiste de um estudo taxonômico sobre a família Bombacaceae no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Constatou-se a ocorrência de sete espécies distribuídas em seis gêneros: Bombacopsis retusa (Mart. & Zucc. A. Robyns, Ceiba glaziovii (Kuntze K. Schum., Eriotheca crenulaticalyx A. Robyns, Pachira aquatica Aubl., Pseudobombax marginatum (A. St.-Hil. A. Robyns, Pseudobombax simplicifolium A. Robyns e Quararibea turbinata (Sw. Poir. Chave para identificação das espécies, descrições, material examinado, ilustrações e comentários sobre distribuição geográfica e habitat são apresentados. Bombacopsis retusa e Pseudobombax marginatum são referidas pela primeira vez para Pernambuco.The present work is a taxonomic study on the family Bombacaceae in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Seven species were found , distributed in six genera: Bombacopsis retusa (Mart. & Zucc. A. Robyns, Ceiba glaziovii (Kuntze K. Schum., Pachira aquatica Aubl., Pseudobombax marginatum (A. St.-Hil. A. Robyns, Pseudobombax simplicifolium A. Robyns and Quararibea turbinata (Sw. Poir. Species, Key descriptions, examined material, illustrations and comments on the geographic distribution and habitat are presented. Bombacopsis retusa and Pseudobombax marginatum are recorded for the first time in the State of Pernambuco.

  12. Seed germination of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, under water stress Germinação de sementes de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, sob estresse hídrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia M. de M. Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Bowdichia virgilioides (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae is a native tree species in Brazil characteristic of the savannah vegetation. Seeds of this species were submitted to different osmotic potentials induced by polyethyleneglycol (PEG-6000 in order to verify their resistance to drought conditions. Seeds were previously scarified with sulphuric acid and incubated at 25 ºC with an eight hours photoperiod, at osmotic potentials of 0.0, -0.1, -0.3, -0.5, -0.7, -0.9 and -1.1 MPa. It was found that water stress resistance limit ranged from -0.7 to -0.9 MPa. Significant reduction in germination velocity from -0.3 MPa, and final percentage of germination from -0.5 MPa in relation to control, were observed. Germination under drastic conditions of water stress was inhibited, but was restored with an increase of water availability.Bowdichia virgilioides (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae é uma espécie arbórea nativa do Brasil, característica da vegetação de cerrado, denominada principalmente de sucupira-preta. Sementes dessa espécie foram escarificadas com ácido sulfúrico e submetidas a diferentes potenciais osmóticos, induzidos por polietilenoglicol (PEG-6000, com o objetivo de avaliar a sua resistência a condições de seca. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar a 25 ºC, sob fotoperíodo de oito horas, nos potenciais osmóticos de 0,0, -0,1, -0,3, -0,5, -0,7, -0,9, e -1,1 MPa. Pelos resultados obtidos, observou-se que o limite de resistência da espécie ao estresse hídrico situa-se entre -0,7 e -0,9 MPa. A velocidade de germinação foi significativamente reduzida a partir de -0,3 MPa e a porcentagem final a partir de -0,5 MPa, em relação às sementes não submetidas ao estresse hídrico. Sob drásticas condições de estresse hídrico não houve germinação das sementes, que foi restabelecida com o aumento da disponibilidade de água.

  13. Micorriza arbuscular em cupuaçu e pupunha cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central Arbuscular mycorrhiza in cupuaçu and peach palm cultivated in agroforestry and monoculture systems in the Central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira da Silva Junior

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a colonização micorrízica arbuscular em pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth e cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central, em duas épocas do ano, e também identificar características anatômicas da formação dessa simbiose nessas espécies. Foram realizadas coletas de solo e raízes em duas estações, seca e chuvosa. A colonização micorrízica arbuscular no cupuaçu e na pupunha é alterada pelo sistema de manejo adotado, com taxas maiores de colonização no monocultivo. A densidade total dos esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sob o cupuaçu não é alterada pelo sistema de manejo ou pela época do ano, ao contrário do que ocorre sob a pupunha. Nessa cultura, a densidade de esporos foi maior sob sistema agroflorestal no período seco. A colonização micorrízica na pupunha apresenta dois padrões anatômicos, Paris e Arum, enquanto no cupuaçu ocorre o padrão Arum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth and cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum, in agroforestry systems and monoculture in the Central Amazon region, and to identify anatomic characteristics of mycorrhizal colonization in these species. Soil and root samples were collected in the field, in the dry and rainy season. Mycorrhizal root colonization of cupuaçu and peach palm is affected by the management systems, with higher colonization rates in the monoculture system. Total spore density of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under cupuaçu is not affected by management systems or season, but under peach palm this variation is season dependent. Mycorrhizal colonization of Arum and Paris types occur in peach palm, and only Arum type occurs in cupuaçu.

  14. Propagaçăo vegetativa de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) a partir de perfilhos /

    OpenAIRE

    Tracz, Anderson Luiz Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Orientador: Marguerite Quoirin Co-orientador: Ivar Wendling Dissertaçăo (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Cięncias Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduaçăo em Agronomia. Defesa: Curitiba, 2005 Inclui bibliografia e anexos Área de concentraçăo: Produçăo vegetal

  15. [Evaluation of consumer's acceptance of a peach palm snack (Bactris gasipaes) and determination of its potential as a functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calvo, Rebeca; Pérez, Ana M; Ivankovich Guillén, Carmen; Calderón Villaplana, Sandra; Pineda Castro, Maria Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' acceptance of a peach palm snack and to determine its potential as a functional food by chemical characterization. An assessment was conducted with 100 consumers to determine the acceptance of different snack formulations and the results were subjected to cluster analysis. This analysis revealed two groups. Group 2 included people that consume snacks and peach palm frequently and showed the highest grades for the snack evaluated characteristics. All the consumers in group 2 and approximately 85% of the consumers in group 1 indicated that they would buy the product suggesting that there is a niche market for the developed peach palm snack. Also, a qualitative evaluation, using mini focus groups, of the two most widely accepted formulas of the snack (chosen according to previously described study) was performed. The sessions considered the opinion of middle class professionals and housewives. It was determined that the combination of tara gum and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) allows a positive synergistic effect on the sensory characteristics of the snack, highlighting natural peach flavor and improving crunchiness. In a dry basis, the snack contains per 100 g: 9 ± 4 g of fat, 14.0 ± 0.3 g of dietary fiber, 15500 ± 32 µg of carotenoids and has an antioxidant capacity of 4700 ± 8 µmol TE, which demonstrates its potential as a functional food.

  16. CAMBIOS FISIOLÓGICOS, TEXTURALES Y FISICOQUÍMICOS DE DOS VARIEDADES DE CHONTADURO (Bactris gasipaes EN POSCOSECHA

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    JHON ALEXANDER DAZA

    Full Text Available El chontaduro es una de las frutas exóticas más importantes para Colombia debido su considerable aporte en nutrientes y a que posee 8822 hectáreas sembradas en los departamentos de Valle del Cauca, Cauca y Putumayo. Se evaluaron los cambios ocurridos en dos variedades del fruto de chontaduro (roja y amarilla, durante el periodo poscosecha, bajo condiciones ambientales provenientes del Municipio de El Tambo (Cauca para brindar una guía de compra y venta que ayude en su comercialización. La pérdida de peso, amplitud, longitud y la proporción pulpa-cascara-semilla fueron directamente proporcionales a la pérdida de agua en la maduración. En cambio, el contenido de grasas y los sólidos solubles totales fueron inversamente proporcionales. La firmeza permitió diferenciar frutos frescos de frutos sobremadurados, al evidenciar una considerable variación en la resistencia a la penetración pasando de 39,5358N hasta 23,6431N en variedad roja y de 19,6353N hasta 11,7463N en variedad amarilla. De acuerdo con el comportamiento observado en la concentración de O2 y CO2, como también en los cambios físicos y químicos en el fruto de chontaduro, se puede afirmar que este producto es climatérico, lo cual indica que el tiempo de comercialización es corto, ya que sigue madurando incluso después de haber sido cosechado.

  17. Effect of the addition of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes peel flour on the color and sensory properties of cakes

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    Jader MARTÍNEZ-GIRÓN

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the color and sensorial characteristics of a cake made with different amounts of flour made with peach palm peel flour. The flour was added at different concentrations, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10% (w/w, including a control (tartrazine. Physiochemical analyses were carried out on the cakes, including total carotenoids, CIE-L*a*b* color coordinates, and sensorial attributes. The results demonstrated that the peach palm peel flour substitution increased the total carotenoid content of the cakes. The color test showed that high levels of peach palm peel flour resulted in a decrease in the values of lightness (L* and hue angle (h°, while the values of browning index (BI and color change (ΔE* increased significantly. The qualification of the sensorial evaluation indicated that the quality attributes were acceptable in the cakes made with wheat flour and 7.5% peach palm peel flour. Therefore, it was concluded that flour obtained from peach palm peel is a by-product that can be used as a natural food dye alternative in bread products.

  18. Estimation of glycaemic index of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) cooked fruits and chips, and pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Gin; Gómez, Georgina; Pérez, Ana M; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana

    2012-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) is a physiological measure of a food's potential to increase postprandial blood glucose, as compared to the effect produced by food taken as reference, such as glucose or white bread. Currently researchers and consumers are interested in low GI foods, since their consumption is associated with better weight control and reduced risk of incidence of chronic diseases, like diabetes. In the present study, the GI value for peach palm cooked fruit, peach palm chips and pitahaya pulp was estimated. The methodology established by the FAO/WHO for determining the GI of food was used. A total of 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers were selected and they ingested the fore mentioned foods on different occasions, in 25 g portions of available carbohydrates, after 12-14 h overnight fast. Blood glucose levels were measured in 30 min intervals up to 120 min after ingestion. Average GI value was 48 +/- 11 for the pitahaya pulp and 35 +/- 6 for the peach palm cooked fruit, which may be classified as low glyceamic index foods. The GI of peach palm chips was 60 +/- 7, corresponding to a food with a moderate GI. The processing for producing the chips caused an increase in the GI value when compared to the cooked fruit, probably because the stages of miIling, moulding and baking promote availability of starch during hydrolysis by the digestive enzymes.

  19. Micropropagation, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of extracts of Verbena litoralis Kunth (Verbenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Virgínia F; Mendes, Giselle C; Oliveira, Raphael T R; Soares, Carla Q G; Resende, Cristiano F; Pinto, Leandro C; Santana, Reinaldo de; Viccini, Lyderson F; Raposo, Nádia R B; Peixoto, Paulo H P

    2012-03-01

    This work describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for Verbena litoralis and the study of the antinociceptive and antioxidant activities in extracts of this species. For the establishment in vitro, surface-sterilization procedures and PVPP showed high efficiency in fungal-bacterial contamination and phenol oxidation controls. Nodal segments cultivation in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (7.5 µM)/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; 0.005 µM) induced multiple shoots. Elongated shoots were rooted with IAA (0.2 µM). Acclimatization rates were elevated and the plants showed the typical features of this species. The hexanic fraction (HF) of powdered leaves presented a radical scavenging activity with IC(50) = 169.3 µg mL(-1). HF showed a non-dose dependent analgesic activity in the writhing test; its antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test was restricted to 500 mg kg(-1), which is the highest dose. The results of this study showed the potential of tissue culture on conservation and large scale multiplication and confirmed the traditional folk medicine use of V. litoralis.

  20. Micropropagation, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of extracts of Verbena litoralis Kunth (Verbenaceae

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    Virgínia F. Braga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for Verbena litoralis and the study of the antinociceptive and antioxidant activities in extracts of this species. For the establishment in vitro, surface-sterilization procedures and PVPP showed high efficiency in fungal-bacterial contamination and phenol oxidation controls. Nodal segments cultivation in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (7.5 µM/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; 0.005 µM induced multiple shoots. Elongated shoots were rooted with IAA (0.2 µM. Acclimatization rates were elevated and the plants showed the typical features of this species. The hexanic fraction (HF of powdered leaves presented a radical scavenging activity with IC50 = 169.3 µg mL-1. HF showed a non-dose dependent analgesic activity in the writhing test; its antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test was restricted to 500 mg kg-1, which is the highest dose. The results of this study showed the potential of tissue culture on conservation and large scale multiplication and confirmed the traditional folk medicine use of V. litoralis.Este trabalho descreve um protocolo eficiente de micropropagação para Verbena litoralis e estuda as atividades antinociceptiva e antioxidante de extratos desta espécie. Para o estabelecimento in vitro, os procedimentos de desinfecção e o PVPP mostraram alta eficiência no controle da contaminação por fungos e bactérias e da oxidação fenólica. O cultivo de segmentos nodais em meio MS suplementado com 6-benziladenina (7,5 µM e ácido α-naftalenoacético (ANA; 0,005 µM induziu múltiplos brotos. Brotos alongados foram enraizados com AIA (0,2 µM. As taxas de aclimatização foram elevadas e as plantas apresentaram características típicas da espécie. A fração hexânica (FH de folhas trituradas apresentou atividade sequestradora de radicais livres com IC50 = 169,3 µg mL-1. A FH mostrou atividade analgésica não dose-dependente no teste das contorções abdominais; sua atividade antinociceptiva no teste de placa quente foi restrita a 500 mg kg-1, a dose mais elevada. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram o potencial da cultura de tecidos na conservação e multiplicação em larga escala de V. litoralis e confirmaram o uso tradicional dessa planta na medicina popular.

  1. Vida de vaso de inflorescências de Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth tratadas com inibidores de etileno

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    MARCELO AMARAL DE MOURA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de inibidores da síntese e ação do etileno, incluindo ácido aminooxiacético (AOA, ácido aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG, ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS e tiossulfato de prata (STS, aplicados na forma de pulverização ou solução de condicionamento sobre a qualidade de flores cortadas de Epidendrum ibaguense. As hastes foram colhidas e imediatamente submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: (1 pulverização com 1,0 mM de AOA; (2 pulverização com 1,0 mM de AVG; (3 pulverização com 1,0 mM de AAS; (4 pulsing com 2,0 mM de STS, por 30 minutos; (5 pulverização com 1,0 mM de AOA + pulsing com 2,0 mM de STS, por 30 minutos; (6 pulverização com 1,0 mM de AVG + pulsing com 2,0 mM de STS; (7 pulverização com 1,0 mM de AAS + pulsing com 2,0 mM de STS; (8 pulverização + pulsing com água desionizada (controle. Após os tratamentos, as hastes foram mantidas em vasos com água desionizada, renovada a cada dois dias, para evitar o desenvolvimento de microrganismos. Ao final da longevidade, o qual variou de acordo com o tratamento, as inflorescências submetidas ao AVG e AVG + STS mostraram a maior porcentagem de abertura floral, visto que promoveram aumento de 49 e 88% em relação ao controle. A taxa de abscisão também foi influenciada pelos tratamentos, pois ao oitavo dia, as inflorescências controle apresentaram cerca de 51% de queda das flores, cujo início ocorreu, principalmente, a partir do quinto dia. As inflorescências tratadas ao AAS, AOA, STS, AVG, STS + AAS, STS + AOA e STS + AVG mostraram redução de 11, 39, 47, 71, 38, 61 e 86%, respectivamente. Além disso, houve atraso de 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 3 e 8 dias para o início da abscisão, respectivamente. A longevidade de E. ibaguense foi afetada pelos inibidores do etileno, mas com exceção de AAS e AOA, os demais tratamentos foram significativamente maiores que o controle. O STS, AVG, AAS + STS, AOA + STS e AVG + STS tiveram longevidade aumentada em 45, 76, 33, 38 e 104%. O uso de AVG, isolado ou em combinação com STS, manteve a qualidade e prolongou a longevidade de flores cortadas de Epidendrum ibaguense.

  2. Aporphine alkaloids with antitubercular activity isolated from Ocotea discolor Kunth (Lauraceae

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    Monica Constanza Avila Murillo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis disease causes thousands of deaths worldwide and, currently, the used drugs are either not enough or obsolete for its treatment. Therefore, new compounds that combat this disease are been seek. Thus, the antituberculosis activity of the alkaloids ocoxilonine (1, ocoteine (2, dicentrine (3 and 1,2-methylenedioxy-3,10,11-trimethoxyaporphine (4, isolated from Ocotea discolor wood was evaluated. Their structures were identified by analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data (NMR 1D – 1H, 13C, 2D – COSY, HSQC and HMBC, mass spectra, and comparison with literature data. All the isolated compounds demonstrated antituberculosis activity, with ocoteine (2 being the most active compound, with a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 140 μM against the virulent strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. All the isolated compounds showed antituberculosis activity, with a variation range in the minimum inhibitory concentration between 140 to 310 μM, being ocoteine (2 the most active compound against the virulent strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

  3. Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth: Seasonal Characterization of the Essential Oil Chemical Composition of Leaves and Reproductive Organs

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    Bianca Schindler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes a comparative analysis of the essential oil (EO chemical composition of leaves and reproductive organs (inflorescences and fruits of Piper gaudichaudianum during the seasons of a year in order to determine the best collection time and the most suitable plant organ to obtain this extractive. The chemical composition of EO obtained from fresh leaves was compared to the dried ones, to verify if the drying process interferes in the extractive quality. The leaves were collected from a native population of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, twice in each season, in triplicate, while inflorescences and fruits were sampled when they were present. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation of the different plant organs for 3 h. The 20 EO samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC coupled to mass spectrometry and GC with flame ionization detector, in triplicate. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal components analysis (PCA were performed to verify a possible formation of chemical groups (CG and the cohesion among them. The phenylpropanoid dillapiole was the major constituent of the EO in all seasons and in all plant organs, and myristicin was observed only in reproductive organs. The EO samples of this population were divided into two CG by HCA and PCA, showing the variability in chemical composition between different plant organs, however there was no chemical variability due to seasonality and phenophases. Since the drying of the leaves did not alter the EO chemical composition, this post-harvest procedure can be used without compromising the extrative quality.

  4. Antinociceptive Effect of the Essential Oil from Croton conduplicatus Kunth (Euphorbiaceae

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    Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira Júnior

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been widely used in the treatment of chronic pain. In this study, we describe the antinociceptive effect of the essential oil from Croton conduplicatus (the EO 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, i.p., a medicinal plant native to Brazil. Antinociceptive activity was investigated by measuring the nociception induced by acetic acid, formalin, hot plate and carrageenan. A docking study was performed with the major constituents of the EO (E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and camphor. The EO reduced nociceptive behavior at all doses tested in the acetic acid-induced nociception test (p < 0.05. The same was observed in both phases (neurogenic and inflammatory of the formalin test. When the hot-plate test was conducted, the EO (50 mg/kg extended the latency time after 60 min of treatment. The EO also reduced leukocyte migration at all doses, suggesting that its antinociceptive effect involves both central and peripheral mechanisms. Pretreatment with glibenclamide and atropine reversed the antinociceptive effect of the EO on the formalin test, suggesting the involvement of KATP channels and muscarinic receptors. The docking study revealed a satisfactory interaction profile between the major components of the EO and the different muscarinic receptor subtypes (M2, M3, and M4. These results corroborate the medicinal use of C. conduplicatus in folk medicine.

  5. Chemins de fer en mutation dans l'Europe médiane / Antoine Kunth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kunth, Antoine

    2002-01-01

    Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa raudteestruktuuride arengust sotsialismiperioodist tänapäevani. Reformid ja erastamine. Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikide vahelistest raudteeliinidest. Tabelid. Joonis: Kümme Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa transpordikoridori.

  6. Models of sustainable use of alder (Alnus acuminate Kunth hillside area in forest mist

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    Pacheco-Agudo Edilberto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Timber extractions non planned affect negatively in the reduction of forest cover, proper management and planned with minor extractions preserve the natural production allow for longer and sustainable forms a stand to benefit local populations and the same ecosystem. In the basin of Acero Marca has two stands Alnus acuminata that they are extracted continuously. With the purpose of planning the extraction of timber resourses were constructed and evaluated matrix models sustainable harvest of this species on the basis of structures of age. For this, two old structures we worked following a dendrochronological analysis and demographic model of the forestall mass, from making local information by transectos Gentry. According to the demographic model, the potential regression evidences significant differences (p 1 and could be the most appropriate for a planned extraction becoming sustainable over time. The second structure of age proved extremely sensitive to any change. To use the matrix models is not a simple path of going over. In spite of the results, the matrix models joined to ample experience of the observer would be able to present proposals of sustainable handling of the forestal resources.

  7. Age-dependent changes from allylphenol to prenylated benzoic acid production in Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia, Anderson M; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Kato, Massuo J

    2014-10-01

    HPLC-DAD and principal component analysis (PCA) of the (1)H NMR spectrum of crude plant extracts showed high chemical variability among seedlings and adult organs of Piper gaudichaudianum. While gaudichaudianic acid was the major compound in the adult leaves, apiole and dillapiole were the major compounds in their seedling leaves. By the 15th month of seedling growth, the levels of apiole and dillapiole decreased and gaudichaudianic acid appeared along with two compounds, biosynthetically related to gaudichaudianic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kavalactones and benzoic acid derivatives from leaves of Piper fuligineum Kunth (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeu, Bruna F.; Felippe, Lidiane G.; Furlan, Maysa, E-mail: maysaf@iq.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Cotinguiba, Fernando [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPPN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Química

    2018-05-01

    The known kavalactones (E)-4-methoxy-6-styryl-2H-pyran-2-one, 4-methoxy6-(3-phenyloxiran-2-yl)-2H-pyran-2-one, 6-(1,2-dihydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran2-one, the three benzoic acid derivatives methyl-4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)benzoate and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-4-oxochroman-6-carboxylate, and a new methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut2-enoyl)benzoate were isolated from the ethanolic extract of Piper fuligineum. The structures of these compounds were determined by using a combination of spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. This is the first report of the chemical study of P. fuligineum, and the methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut2-enoyl)benzoate is described as a new natural product. (author)

  9. FACTORES DE INFLUENCIA EN EL ENRAIZAMIENTO DE ESTACAS DE Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham

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    J. Daniel Castillo-Flores

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La declinación forestal en el Desierto de los Leones, D. F. afecta a Abies religiosa, una de las especies dominantes en la región con difícil capacidad de enraizamiento que requiere propagación en la zona. En el presente estudio se desarrolló un método de propagación vegetativa con el fin de determinar si el efecto de la procedencia, edad del material, tipo de hormona y la presencia de síntomas de declinación, influyen en la capacidad de enraizamiento de estacas de dicha especie. En este experimento se utilizó un sustrato compuesto por turba y agrolita para probar estacas de dos procedencias, con y sin síntomas de declinación, generadas en dos estaciones de crecimiento, y dos auxinas, manteniendo una humedad de 75-80 %. La combinación de estos factores produjo 16 tratamientos, los cuales se repitieron 50 veces. Los datos fueron procesados mediante un análisis de varianza factorial. Los resultados indican que a principios de diciembre es la mejor época de recolecta de material vegetal para enraizamiento de estacas de A. religiosa, siendo las estacas más jóvenes y las que recibieron indol-3-butírico las que mejor enraizaron. La procedencia y la sintomatología no tuvieron efecto en el enraizamiento.

  10. Chemical sterilization in in vitro propagation of Arundina bambusifolia Lindl. and Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth

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    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a great demand for simpler and less costly laboratory techniques and for more accessible procedures for orchid breeders who do not have the necessary theoretical basis to use the traditional seed and clone production methods of orchids in vitro. The aim of this study was to assess the use of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO as a decontaminant in the process of inoculating adult orchid explants of Arundina bambusifolia and Epidendrum ibaguenses. Solutions of NaClO (1.200, 2.400, 3.600, 4.800 and 6.000 mg L-1 - equivalent to 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mL L-1 of commercial bleach - CB were sprayed on the explants (1.0 mL and the culture medium (GB5, in the presence or absence of activated charcoal (2 g L-1. The explants used were nodal segments of field-grown adult plants. The procedures for inoculating the explants were conducted outside the laminar flow chamber (LFC, except for the control treatment (autoclaved medium and explant inoculation inside the LFC. The best results for fresh weight yield, height and number of shoots were obtained using NaClO in solution at 1.200 mg L-1 (equivalent to 50 mL L-1 commercial bleach with activated charcoal in the culture medium. Fresh weight figures were 1.10 g/jar for Arundina bambusifolia and 0.16 g/jar for Epidendrum ibaguenses. Spraying the NaClO solutions controls the contamination of the culture medium already inoculated with the explants.

  11. Production of oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth seedling from seeds in nursery for transplanting

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    Raúl Martínez-Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de orégano en vivero es una opción para la obtención de plantas de buena calidad para trasplante. El propósito del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de cinco sustratos y cinco contenedores en el crecimiento y calidad de la planta de orégano. Los sustratos fueron: mezcla comercial BM2 (turba, perlita y vermiculita, 80:10:10, BM2 + arena de río (1:1, BM2 + arena de río (1.5:1, BM2 + perlita + vermiculita (1:1:1 y mezcla de composta + arena de río (1.5:1. Los contenedores incluyeron charolas de poliestireno expandido (PE de 200, 128 y 76 cavidades, vaso de PE de 250 cm 3 y bolsa de plástico negro de 712 cm 3 (calibre 150 μm . Se usó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial, con cuatro repeticiones por tratamiento. Los sustratos y el tipo de contenedor afectaron el crecimiento y calidad de la planta. Se observó mayor crecimiento de la planta y mayor área foliar en la combinación bolsa y sustrato BM2. Este mismo sustrato y el contenedor bolsa promovieron el índice de calidad de Dickson más alto. La relación peso seco del vástago y peso seco de la raíz fue mayor en los contenedores de mayor volumen.

  12. Phytotoxicity and biodirected fractionation of extracts of barks of Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O.Berg. (Myrtaceae

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    Eduardo Habermann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of barks of Blepharocalyx salicifolius on elongation of etiolated coleoptiles of Triticum aestivum (wheat. The extracts hexane (Hx, ethyl acetate (AcOET, and aqueous (H2O were obtained by means of exhaustive extraction with CH2Cl2/CH3OH and subsequent fractionation by partition chromatography coefficient. The extracts AcOET and Hx were fractionated by column chromatography by using organic solvents in increasing order of polarity, yielding 7 hexanic fractions and 6 ethylic acetate fractions. Subsequently, the fractions Hx1 and Hx5 were subfractionated by column chromatography. The extracts AcOET and Hx inhibited elongation of coleoptiles. Four ethylic acetate fractions inhibited elongation of coleoptiles at all concentrations. Five hexanic fractions inhibited elongation of coleoptiles, the fractions Hx5 and Hx1 fractions showed phytotoxic effects equivalent or superior to those observed by the herbicide GOAL® at the same concentrations. All subfractions obtained by means of fractionation of Hx1 inhibited elongation of coleoptiles. Six fractions obtained by means of fractionation of Hx5 inhibited elongation of coleoptiles at all concentrations. This study proves the phytotoxicity of extracts of barks of B. salicifolius, providing indications that they may act as promising natural herbicides.

  13. Formulation of Peperomia pellucida (L Kunth extract tablet by modified filler

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    Nanang Yunarto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Peperomia pelusida telah banyak digunakan dalam pengobatan tradisional. Pada saat ini, bentuk-bentuk yang ada masih konvensional seperti jus dan infusum, karena itu, perlu dirumuskan lebih praktis dan berat seragam seperti bentuk tablet. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan formula optimum pelusida tablet ekstrak P. pellucida. Metode: P. pelusida ekstrak tablet yang diproduksi dengan variasi selulosa mikrokristalin (MCC PH 101 - laktosa dengan metode granulasi basah dalam tiga formula, formula I (100% MCC PH 101, II (laktosa 100%, dan III (MCC PH 101: laktosa = 50%: 50%. Butiran dievaluasi karakteristik fisik termasuk laju aliran, penyerapan air, dan kompaktibilitas untuk mendapatkan formula optimum dengan menggunakan desain simplex lattice dan jumlah respon. Formula yang digunakan untuk membuat tablet dan diuji karakteristik fisik (keseragaman bobot, kekerasan, dan kerapuhan dan waktu hancur. Hasil: Laktosa secara signifikan dipengaruhi oleh laju alirannya, sedangkan MCC PH 101 - laktosa dengan metode granulasi basah dalam tiga formula, formula I (100% MCC PH 10PH 101 dipengaruhi penyerapan kompaktibilitas dan air. Berdasarkan karakteristik fisik granul dan jumlah responsnya, kombinasi formula MCC PH 101 80% dan laktosa 20% dapat disimpulkan menjadi yang paling optimal untuk tablet filler. Formula tablet ini yang memiliki karakteristik fisik terbaik dengan berat 620,84 ± 1,04 mg, kekerasan 8,54 ± 0,68 kg, kerapuhan 0,26% ± 0,04 dan waktu hancur 4,58 ± 0,17 menit.Kesimpulan: Proporsi MCC PH 101 80% dan laktosa 20% merupakan formula optimum terbaik dan memenuhi persyaratan karakteristik fisik tablet. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:32-6 Key words: formulasi, extract P. pellucida, optimalAbstractBackground: Peperomia pellucida has been widely used in traditional medicine. Recently, its existing forms are still conventional such as juice and infusum; therefore, it needs to be formulated more practically and in uniform weight such as tablet form. The objective of this research was to get the optimum formula of P. pellucidaextract tablet. Methods: P. pellucida extract tablets were produced with variation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC PH 101 – lactose by wet granulation method in three formulas, formula I (100% MCC PH 101, II (lactose 100%, and III (MCC PH 101: lactose = 50%: 50%. Granules were evaluated their physical characteristics including their flow rate, water absorption and compactibility to obtain the optimum formula by using simplex lattice design and total response. The optimum formula was used to make tablet and tested its physical characteristics (uniformity weight, hardness, and friability and disintegration time. Results:Lactose significantly  influenced by its flow rate, whereas MCC PH 101 influenced  the compactibility and water absorption. Based on the granules physical characteristics and their total responses, the formula combination of MCC PH 101 80% and lactose 20% was concluded to be the most optimum one for tablet filler. This optimum formula tablet had the best physical characteristics with weigth uniformity of 620.84 ± 1.04 mg, hardness of 8.54 ± 0.68 kg, friability of 0.26% ± 0.04 and disintegration time of 4.58 ± 0.17 minutes. Conclusion: The proportion MCC PH 101 80% and lactose of 20% obtained the best optimum formula and passed requirements of the tablet physical characteristics. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:32-6Key words: formulation, P. pellucida extract, optimize

  14. A rapid simultaneous determination of methylxanthines and proanthocyanidins in Brazilian guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kamilla Nunes; Freitas, Aline Alves de; Cunha, Luzia Helena; Faraco, André Augusto Gomes; Pádua, Rodrigo Maia de; Braga, Fernão Castro; Vianna-Soares, Cristina Duarte; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira

    2018-01-15

    Paullinia cupana is a plant native to Brazil that is widely used in traditional medicine as a physical and mental stimulant. It is also used worldwide to produce soft drinks. A method for the simultaneous quantitation of seven markers in guaraná by HPLC-PDA was developed, and extraction methods for the determination of methylxanthines and tannins were investigated. Quantified substances were theobromine, theophylline, caffeine, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins A2 and B2. Results confirmed the satisfactory selectivity and linearity (r 2 ≥0.99) within the mass ranges. Repeatability (RSD≤2.80%), intermediate precision (RSD≤4.47%), accuracy (recoveries from 90.59%-104.67%), and robustness were demonstrated. Extract 1 presented the contents: 0.0177% (±1.02%) for theobromine, 0.0131% (±1.14%) for theophylline, 2.9429% (±1.27%) for caffeine, 0.4563% (±1.02%) for catechin, 0.5515% (±1.05%) for epicatechin, 0.0607% (±2.80%) for A2 and 0.1035% (±1.39%) for B2. The method for simultaneous quantitation of seven chemical markers in guaraná proved to be reliable using a simple and convenient HPLC setup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An efficient method for in vitro callus induction in Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh "Camu Camu"

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    Ana M. Córdova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high variability in vitamin C production in Myrciaria dubia "camu camu", biotechnological procedures are necessary for mass clonal propagation of promising genotypes of this species. The aim was to establish an efficient method for in vitro callus induction from explants of M. dubia. Leaf and knot sex plants were obtained from branches grown in the laboratory and from fruit pulp collected in the field. These were desinfected and sown on Murashige-Skoog (1962 medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin(Kin. The cultures were maintained at 25±2°C in darkness for 2 weeks and subsequently with a photoperiod of 16 hours in light and 8 hours in dark for 6 weeks. Treatment with 2 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.1 mg/L BAP allowed major callus formation in the three types of explants. Calluswere generated from the first week (knots, fourth week (leaves and sixth week (pulp and these were friable (leaves and nodes and non-friable (pulp. In conclusion, the described method is efficient for in vitro callus induction in leaves, knots and pulp of M. dubia, been leaves and knots explants more suitable for callus obtention

  16. Carotenoid deposition in plant and animal foods and its impact on bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, R M; Carle, R

    2017-06-13

    Over the past decades, an enormous body of literature dealing with the natural deposition of carotenoids in plant- and animal-based foods has accumulated. Prominent examples are the large solid-crystalline aggregates in carrots and tomatoes or the lipid-dissolved forms in dairy products and egg yolk. Latest research has identified lipid-dissolved forms in a rare number of plant foods, such as tangerine tomatoes and peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes Kunth). In addition, liquid-crystalline forms were assumed in so-called tubular chromoplasts of numerous fruits, e.g., in papaya, mango, and bell pepper. The bioavailability of carotenoids from fresh and processed foods strongly depends on their genuine deposition form, since their effective absorption to the human organism requires their liberation from the food matrix and subsequent solubilization into mixed micelles in the small intestine. Consequently, a broad overview about the natural array of carotenoid deposition forms should be helpful to better understand and modulate their bioavailability from foods. Furthermore, naturally highly bioavailable forms may provide biomimetic models for the improved formulation of carotenoids in food supplements. Therefore, this review paper presents scientific evidence from human intervention studies associating carotenoid deposition forms with their bioavailability, thus suggesting novel technological and dietary strategies for their enhanced absorption.

  17. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Clement, Charles R; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2012-04-01

    Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H(T) = 0.82). The low levels of divergence [F(ST) (0.023), G(ST)' (0.005)] and the high number of migrants (Nm - 3.8 to 52.2) indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.

  18. QUALIDADE SANITÁRIA E FISIOLÓGICA, MÉTODOS DE DETECÇÃO DE Fusarium spp. E TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE PUPUNHEIRA

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    José Carlos da Costa Junior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rotting (BSR, caused by Fusarium spp., has been observed in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. var. gasipaes Henderson plantations in Brazil since 2000. The disease is a limiting factor to peach palm farming, damaging plants of different ages. The pathogen presence has been verified in seeds. The objectives of this study were: to evaluate the sanitary and physiological quality of eight commercial lots of peach palm seeds from Porto Velho, state of Rondonia, in Brazil; to compare two detection methods for Fusarium spp. in peach palm seeds; to evaluate pathogenicity and to compare aggressiveness of Fusarium spp. isolates from peach palm seeds; and to evaluate the chemical treatment of two peach palm seed lots for controlling Fusarium spp., about their effects on: a sanitary effect; b germination and vigor. The Fusarium spp. pathogenic may be transmitted by seeds to seedlings causing BSR disease. The paperboard methodology for Fusarium spp. detection proved to be more efficient for recovering this pathogen in peach palm seeds. The Chlorothalonil + Thiophanate Methyl and Thiophanate Methyl fungicides achieved the effective control over the target pathogen Fusarium spp. in peach palm seeds. Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium proliferatum isolated from seed and seedling, respectively, were pathogenic to peach palm.

  19. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Campos, Ceci; Araujo, Lidia M; Minhoni, Marli T A; Andrade, Meire C N

    2013-01-01

    The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. ("marupá"), Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. ("pau-de-balsa") and Anacardium giganteum ("cajuí") sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth ("pupunheira") stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse). The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18-21.5%) varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  20. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Alves-Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H T = 0.82. The low levels of divergence [F ST (0.023, G ST' (0.005] and the high number of migrants (Nm -3.8 to 52.2 indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.

  1. Microbiological analysis of peach palm in natura submitted to 60Co radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Araujo, Michel M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Hojeije, Khalil Y.

    2009-01-01

    The palm tree (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a species with high potential benefits, because of the nutritional value of its fruits that could be used both in human and animals feeding and mainly for peach palm extraction. It represents a great source of dietary fiber and a moderate source of magnesium and iron. Food irradiation is a worldwide technology that aims to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. Radiation processing, in the recommended doses, causes very few chemical alterations and nutritional losses in foods, being considered insignificant and/or similar to other food treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on microbiological counts of mesophilic aerobic in the peach palm in natura. Samples were irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy using a 60 Co multipurpose irradiator. Radiation treatment appeared to be a useful alternative to reduce microbial contamination in the samples analyzed. (author)

  2. Microbiological analysis of peach palm in natura submitted to {sup 60}Co radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Araujo, Michel M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: priscilavsilva@gmail.com, e-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Hojeije, Khalil Y. [Floresta Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The palm tree (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a species with high potential benefits, because of the nutritional value of its fruits that could be used both in human and animals feeding and mainly for peach palm extraction. It represents a great source of dietary fiber and a moderate source of magnesium and iron. Food irradiation is a worldwide technology that aims to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. Radiation processing, in the recommended doses, causes very few chemical alterations and nutritional losses in foods, being considered insignificant and/or similar to other food treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on microbiological counts of mesophilic aerobic in the peach palm in natura. Samples were irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy using a {sup 60}Co multipurpose irradiator. Radiation treatment appeared to be a useful alternative to reduce microbial contamination in the samples analyzed. (author)

  3. Current status of the Palm collection (Arecaceae of the Venezuelan National Herbarium (VEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslavi Espinoza Flores

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Herbarium of Venezuela (VEN has the largest collection of botanical specimens in the country,thus being the main source of reference for the flora of Venezuela. It also hosts a large number of specimensfrom other countries in the Neotropical region. The VEN contains approximately 400 000 specimens currentlyregistered in the herbarium’s database, of which 2192 form the palm (Arecaceae collection that encompasses35 genera (including 5 foreign genera and 127 specific and infraspecific taxa. The genera with the largestnumber of specimens are Geonoma (498 and Bactris (360, followed by Euterpe (158. The species Geonomadeversa (Poit. Kunth contains the largest number of specimens in the collection (110. The herbarium hosts typematerial of 12 Arecaceae taxa: 4 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 5 isotypes and 2 isoneotypes. Most of the specimensat the VEN have been identified by specialists such as A. Henderson, F. Kahn, F. Stauffer and J. Wessels-Boer. A list of species found in the herbarium is presented herein. Review of specimen data at the VEN showthat palms have been collected mainly in the following states of Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Zulia, DeltaAmacuro, Aragua, Apure, and Distrito Capital. The main contribution to the collection of palms to the VEN isthe collections made by J. A. Steyermark and F. Stauffer.

  4. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECI SALES-CAMPOS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. (“marupá”, Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. (“pau-de-balsa” and Anacardium giganteum (“cajuí” sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (“pupunheira” stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse. The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18 – 21.5% varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  5. Photosynthetic performance of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae in a high-elevation site of the Andes of central Chile Desempeño fotosintético de Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae en los Andes de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANGÉLICA CASANOVA-KATNY

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis of Colobanthus quitensis and mesoclimatic conditions of air temperature and light intensity during the growing season were investigated at 2,650 m in the central Chilean Andes. On three typical days of the growing period (January, March and May, CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. In addition, a series of fluorescence response curves with increasing light intensity at different temperatures were performed to estimate the propensity of Andean C. quitensis populations to be photoinhibited. Net Photosynthesis (Pn was low (ca. 2.0 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 during the morning and noon in days with high photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, above 1,800 mmol photons m-2s-1. Pn increased in the afternoon (3.5-4.8 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 when PAR decreased to ca. 1,400 mmol photons m-2s-1 and leaf temperature were ca. 20 °C. Fv/Fm in the diurnal periods was between 0.7-0.75 without evidence of photoinhibition. Leaves at 15 and 22 °C exhibited a slow decrease of F PSII with the increase in actinic light intensity, although the fraction of reaction centers open (expressed by qP remained higher at 22 °C. NPQ was saturated at light intensities close to 500 mmol photons m-2s-1 in leaves at 22 °C and at higher intensities at 15 °C, suggesting that NPQ could be a mechanism of energy dissipation at high light intensity and high leaf temperature in the field. Our results indicated that C. quitensis is not photodamaged during the diurnal cycle and that the low Pn registered during some diurnal periods are likely to be related with photorespiration, which has been suggested as an efficient protective mechanism for photoinhibition in alpine plants. Our results are also compared with the photosynthetic performance of C. quitensis populations from the maritime AntarcticSe estudió la fotosíntesis de Colobanthus quitensis y las condiciones mesoclimáticas de temperatura del aire e intensidad lumínica a 2.650 m en los Andes de Chile central. Se midió la tasa de intercambio gaseoso y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en tres días típicos durante la estación de crecimiento (enero, marzo y mayo. Adicionalmente, se realizaron una serie de curvas de respuesta a incrementos en la intensidad lumínica a diferentes temperaturas para estimar la propensión de C. quitensis a la fotoinhibición. La fotosíntesis neta (Pn fue baja (ca. de 2,0 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 en la mañana y mediodía en días con alta radiación fotosintéticamente activa (PAR, sobre los 1.500 mmol fotones m-2s-1. La tasa de fotosíntesis aumentó en la tarde (3,5-4,8 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 cuando la radiación PAR disminuyó a alrededor de 1.000 mmol fotones m-2s-1. Fv/Fm osciló entre 0,7-0,75 en los registros de enero y marzo, decreciendo en mayo a 0,67. Hojas medidas a 15 y 22 °C mostraron un leve descenso en F PSII con el aumento en la intensidad de luz actínica, aunque la fracción de centros de reacción abiertos (expresados por qP fue mayor a 22 °C. NPQ fue saturado a intensidades lumínicas cercanas a 500 mmol photons m-2s-1 en hojas a 22 °C, y a intensidades mayores en hojas a 15 °C, sugiriendo que NPQ puede ser un mecanismo de disipación energética bajo condiciones de altas intensidades lumínicas y altas temperaturas en el campo. Nuestros resultados indican que C. quitensis no sufre fotodaño durante los ciclos diurnos, y probablemente, los bajos Pn registrados durante algunos periodos diurnos están relacionados con fotorrespiración, la cual ha sido sugerida como un mecanismo muy eficiente en la protección de plantas alpinas contra la fotoinhibición. Nuestros resultados también son comparados con el desempeño fotosintético de las poblaciones de C. quitensis en la Antártica marítima

  6. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003 Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003

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    Samyra Ramos Chaves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic self-pollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00 hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic self-pollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00 hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.

  7. Cargas polínicas de abelhas polinizadoras de Byrsonima chrysophylla Kunth. (Malpighiaceae: fidelidade e fontes alternativas de recursos florais Pollen loads of pollinator bees of Byrsonima chrysophylla Kunth. (Malpighiaceae: fidelity and alternative sources of flower resources

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    Éville Karina Maciel Delgado Ribeiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Byrsonima chrysophylla, conhecida popularmente como murici pitanga, é uma espécie arbustiva que ocorre em restinga. Dentre seus visitantes, além de abelhas da tribo Centridini, também se encontram com freqüência abelhas Xylocopini. Para verificação das espécies vegetais utilizadas pelas abelhas visitantes mais freqüentes, cargas polínicas de suas pernas posteriores (n = 5, bem como de ninhos naturais de Centris caxiensis (n = 7 foram analisados através de acetólise. Durante toda a floração, Byrsonima chrysophylla foi a principal fonte de pólen utilizada por suas abelhas visitantes. Comolia lythrarioides e Myrcia obtusa foram fontes secundárias de pólen, Mouriri guianensis foi fonte secundária de óleo e pólen, enquanto Anacardium microcarpum, Cuphea tenella, Matayba discolor e Phthirusa pyrifolia mostraram-se importantes fontes de néctar durante esse período, sendo o pólen detectado nas amostras, provavelmente aderido ao corpo das abelhas durante a coleta de néctar. Os resultados demonstram que as abelhas visitantes não misturaram os recursos polínicos durante o vôo para a coleta de pólen, apresentando fidelidade às flores de Byrsonima chrysophylla.Byrsonima chrysophylla, known as "murici pitanga", is a shrubby species occurring in 'restinga'. Among its visitors, bees of the Centridini tribe as well as Xylocopini bees are frequently found. To detect which plant species have been used by the most frequent visitors, pollen loads from the back legs (n = 5 and also from natural nests of Centris caxiensis (n = 7 were treated by acetolysis. During flowering of Byrsonima chrysophylla, this plant species was the main pollen source used by bees. Comolia lythrarioides and Myrcia sylvatica were secondary pollen sources, Mouriri guianensis was a secondary oil and pollen source, while Anacardium microcarpum, Cuphea tenella, Matayba discolor and Phthirusa pyrifolia were important nectar sources at this time. The pollen detected in the samples probably adhered to the bee's body during nectar collection. The results show that the bee visitors do not mix pollen sources during the pollen-collecting flight, thus representing fidelity to Byrsonima chrysophylla flowers.

  8. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de Byrsonima coccolobifolia (Kunth em uma savana amazônica Floral Biology and the reproductive system of Byrsonima coccolobifolia (Kunth in an amazonian savanna

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    Rosa Mª Cordovil Benezar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A biologia reprodutiva de Byrsonima coccolobifolia, foi avaliada em uma população de savana do Estado de Roraima. A espécie é constituída de arbustos e arvoretas com altura inferior a 3m, de flores hermafroditas zigomorfas, pentâmeras, reunidas em inflorescências do tipo racemo terminal, produzidos em brotações novas, o cálice é composto por cinco sépalas, que apresentam um par de glândulas produtoras de óleo. A corola é formada por cinco pétalas albo-róseas e unguiculadas, o androceu é composto por dez estames com anteras de coloração amarela. A antese pode ser noturna ou diurna, estende-se por um período médio de 12 horas e as flores costumam ficar abertas e vistosas por um período adicional de 15 horas, quando se inicia a senescência. Foram registrados dois episódios de floração e o fogo parece ser um fator ambiental estimulador desta fenofase. Os visitantes florais predominantes foram abelhas das famílias Anthophoridae (Centris sp. e Xylocopa sp. e Apidae (Apis mellifera e Bombus sp.. Os resultados das polinizações controladas e o cálculo do índice de auto-incompatibilidade (ISI indicam que a espécie apresenta comportamento protogínico e é autocompatível, produzindo frutos em todos os tratamentos de autopolinização em proporções semelhantes à polinização natural, não sendo confirmada a produção de frutos apomíticos. Entretanto, os percentuais de frutos formados nos tratamentos de xenogamia foram significativamente superiores aos tratamentos de autofertilização, indicando que B. coccolobifolia apresenta um sistema reprodutivo misto com níveis elevados de alogamia e autogamia.The reproductive biology of Byrsonima coccolobifolia was evaluated in a savanna area of State of Roraima, Brazil. This is a woody species of bushes and small trees 3m tall. The flowers are hermaphrodite, pentamerous, zygomorphic, arranged in a terminal inflorescence, produced in new sprouts. Five sepals form the calyx, each one with a pair of oil-producing glands, called elaiophores. The corolla is pale-pink and formed by five clawed and fringed petals, and the androecium is composed of ten stamens with yellow-colored anthers. The anthesis can be nocturnal or diurnal, which lasts for an average of 12 hours, and the flowers usually remain open and pretty for 15 more hours after the end of the process, when senescing begins. Two flowering periods were registered and the fire seems to be a factor environmental stimulator of this phonological phase. The predominant floral visitors were bees of the families Anthophoridae (Centris sp. and Xylocopasp. and Apidae (Apis mellífera and Bombus sp.. Results of controlled pollination and the self-incompatibility index (ISI suggest that the species presents protogynous behavior and is self-compatible, producing fruits in all self-pollination treatments in similar proportions as under natural pollination. The production of apomict fruits was not confirmed. However, the percentages of fruits formed under xenogamy treatments were significantly superior to the fruit-set in self-fertilization. This suggests that the species presents a mixed reproductive system with high allogamy and autogamy levels.

  9. Qualidade de palmito pupunha minimamente processado: aplicação de antioxidantes Quality of fresh cut pupunha palm cabbage: application of antioxidants

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    Marisa Carvalho Botelho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, a avaliação de antioxidantes na prevenção do escurecimento e na manutenção da qualidade de palmito pupunha minimamente processado armazenado a 5º C (± 1º C e 90% ± 5% UR. Os palmitos foram adquiridos no município de Coqueiral (MG, lavados em água corrente e detergente neutro, sanificados com hipoclorito de sódio 200 mg L-1 por 15 min, processados em rodelas de 1 cm de espessura, sanificados com hipoclorito de sódio 100 mg L-1 por 10 min e submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: controle, cisteína 0,5%, ácido cítrico 0,5% e cisteína 0,5% + ácido cítrico 0,5%. Posteriormente, foram acondicionados em embalagens rígidas de polipropileno, armazenados por 12 dias a 5º C (± 1º C e 90% ± 5% UR. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente causalizado em fatorial 4x7 (4 tratamentos e 7 tempos de armazenamento com 3 repetições. O palmito sem tratamento apresentou vida útil de oito dias. O tratamento com cisteína 0,5% foi o que melhor manteve a qualidade de palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth minimamente processado, caracterizando um produto com menores valores e menos oscilações de a* e b*, manutenção da firmeza e da acidez titulável ao longo do armazenamento, redução da atividade da peroxidase e manutenção da qualidade do produto durante o período avaliado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the role antioxidants in preventing both browning and quality maintenance of fresh cut pupunha palm cabbage stored at 5º C (± 1º C and 90% ± 5% RH. The pupunha palm cabbages were purchased in the town of Coqueiral (MG, washed in running water and neutral detergent, sanitized with 200 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite for 15 min, processed into 1cm-thick rings, sanitized with 100 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite for 10 min and submitted to the following treatments: control, 0.5% cysteine, 0.5% citric acid and 0.5% cysteine + 0.5% citric acid. Afterwards, they were packed into stiff polypropylene

  10. Peach palm growth and heart-of-palm yield responses to liming Respostas de crescimento e produção de palmito da pupunheira à calagem

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    M. L. A. Bovi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of liming rates on growth and heart-of-palm yield of peach palm plants (Bactris gasipaes Kunth were studied in a two-year field experiment conducted in Pariquera-Açu, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Soils in this region are allic (sub group Ultic Haplorthox, with base saturation ranging from 15 to 26 % of the cation exchange capacity (CEC. A randomized complete block design, with five rates of dolomitic limestone (0, 0.7, 4.7, 8.7, and 14.6 Mg ha-1 and five replications was utilized. Individual plots were composed of 80 plants but only the inner rows (24 plants were used for data recording. Planting spacing was 2 x 1 m. There was a cubic effect of liming rates on growth and yield. Maximum heart-of-palm yield was estimated to be achieved at 4.3 Mg ha-1 of limestone application, corresponding to 51.4 % soil base saturation. A significant decrease in growth and yield was observed when large amounts of limestone were applied (8.7 and 14.6 Mg ha-1, probably due to a decreased micronutrient availability.Os efeitos de doses de calcário sobre o crescimento e a produção de palmito de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth foram estudados em experimento realizado em campo em Pariquera-Açu, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Solos dessa região são álicos (subgrupo Ultic Haplorthox, com saturação por bases variando de 15 a 26% da capacidade de troca catiônica. Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos completos dispostos ao acaso, com cinco doses de calcário dolomítico (0, 0,7, 4,7, 8,7 e 14,6 Mg ha-1 e cinco repetições. Parcelas individuais eram compostas por 80 plantas, das quais apenas as linhas mais internas (24 plantas foram utilizadas para análise dos dados. O espaçamento entre plantas foi 2 x 1 m. Foram observados efeitos cúbicos para doses de calcário tanto para o crescimento quanto para a produção. Estimativas indicam que máxima produção de palmito pode ser obtida com a aplicação de 4,3 Mg ha-1 de calcário, correspondendo a

  11. Composição mineral de uma linhagem de Pleurotus ostreatus cultivada em resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica Mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus strain grown in wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region

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    Ceci Sales-Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os cogumelos do gênero Pleurotus são cultivados em diversos substratos lignocelulósicos, dada a atividade decompositora desses organismos proveniente de seu metabolismo enzimático. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a composição mineral de Pleurotus ostreatus e dos substratos de cultivo preparados à base de resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica. Foram analisados macro (P, K, Ca e Mg e micronutrientes (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn e Na dos cogumelos e dos substratos. Os substratos foram formulados a partir da serragem de Simarouba amara Aubl. (marupá, Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. (pau de balsa e de bagaços de Bactris gasipaes Kunth (pupunheira e de Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar. As amostras foram solubilizadas mediante digestão ácida (nítrico-peridrol. Os elementos Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn foram determinados por espectrometria de absorção atômica; o Na e K, por emissão atômica e o P, por colorimetria. A composição mineral do cogumelo variou com o substrato de cultivo. Os diferentes substratos possibilitaram a produção de um cogumelo rico em K, P, Mg e Fe, essenciais à nutrição e à saúde humana. O potássio foi o mineral de maior teor no cogumelo em todos os substratos testados (36,83-42,18 g.kg-1, seguido de fósforo (6,95-10,60 g.kg-1 e do magnésio (1,57-2,50 g.kg-1.Mushrooms belonging to the Pleurotus gender are grown in several lignocellulosic substrates due to the decomposing activity of these organisms that result from their enzymatic metabolism. The objective of the present study was to analyze the mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus and the cultivation substrates prepared with wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region. Macro (P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Na of mushroom and substrates were analyzed. Substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. and Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. sawdust and crushed Bactris gasipaes Kunth

  12. Efeitos da fertirrigação sobre a produção de palmito da pupunheira Fertirrigation in peach palm: effects on heart-of-palm yield

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    Adriana Ramos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação de lâminas de irrigação e níveis de adubação nitrogenada na produção de palmito de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, foi conduzido um experimento a campo, durante 22 meses, em Piracicaba (SP. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 3 (nitrogênio x 4 (lâminas. Os níveis de nitrogênio corresponderam a 0; 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, aplicados por meio de fertirrigações semanais. As lâminas de irrigação foram equivalentes a 0; 50; 100 e 120% da evapotranspiração de referência (Eto, determinada em função de tanque classe A. A produção de palmito por planta foi avaliada dos 30 aos 34 meses após o plantio. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos (irrigação e adubação para todas as variáveis relacionadas à produção. Os tratamentos com menores lâminas e doses de nitrogênio apresentaram as menores produções. Levando-se em conta o crescimento da planta e a produção de palmito, os resultados indicam que irrigação com 100% da ETo e fertirrigação com 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N são as recomendadas para a pupunheira cultivada em condições de solo, clima e manejo cultural semelhantes às deste estudo.Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth yield responses were evaluated, using four irrigation levels and three nitrogen doses, in a field experiment carried out, during a 22-month period, in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. A randomized block trial in a factorial design was utilized. Nitrogen doses corresponded to 0; 200 and 400 kg ha-1 year-1 of N, whereas irrigation levels were equivalent to 0; 50; 100 and 120% of the daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo, determined by a class A evaporation pan. Weekly fertirrigations were applied using a diaphragm injection pump. Heart-of-palm yield was evaluated from 30 to 34 months. There were significant treatment (irrigation and fertilization effects for all yield

  13. Perdas fermentativas e composição bromatológica da entrecasca de palmito pupunha ensilada com aditivos químicos Fermentative losses and chemical composition of pupunha palm by-products ensiled with chemical additives

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    Patrick Schmidt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de aditivos químicos na ensilagem de resíduos (entrecasca da produção de palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes, Kunth. Utilizaram-se silos experimentais (baldes de 20 litros providos de aparatos para determinação gravimétrica de perdas por gases e efluentes. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: controle (sem aditivos; ureia (1% da MV e cal virgem (1% da MV. Decorridos 70 dias de armazenagem, os silos foram pesados, abertos e amostrados. As perdas por efluentes e gases aumentaram com a aplicação de cal virgem na ensilagem. As perdas totais de MS foram de 15,1; 14,4 e 26,6% nas silagens controle, ureia e cal, respectivamente. Em todas as silagens, houve redução no teor de FDN e elevação da fração FDA, o que indica desaparecimento da fração hemicelulose. A relação cálcio:fósforo aumentou substancialmente com a adição de cal virgem, de 4,1:1 na silagem controle para 15,6:1 na silagem com cal. O resíduo da extração do palmito pupunha pode ser classificado como alimento de média qualidade e alto teor de umidade. Os aditivos aplicados na ensilagem não são efetivos em reduzir as perdas fermentativas no processo de conservação.Feeding animals with agro-residues may reduce costs and environmental concerns. The agroindustrial wastes used as ruminant feeding are an alternative for ambient problems caused by it accumulation. This study aimed to evaluate chemical additives on the ensilage of residues of pupunha palm (Bactris gasipaes, Kunth production. Experimental silos (20 L buckets were used equipped with meters to determine gas and effluent DM losses. The experimental treatments were: control (no additives; urea (1% - wet basis and calcium oxide (1% WB. After 70 days storage, the silos were weighed, opened and sampled. Effluent and gas DM losses increased with the application of calcium oxide at ensiling. Total DM losses were 15.1, 14.4 and 26.6% for the Control, Urea and Calcium oxide

  14. Relações alométricas para estimativa da fitomassa aérea em pupunheira Peach palm biomass estimates based on allometric relationships

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    Fernando Vinicio A. Vega

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa da fitomassa aérea da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth por meio de relações alométricas tem aplicação teórica e prática, sendo essencial em estudos de fisiologia de crescimento, bem como para identificar respostas e predizer a produção. No presente trabalho foram avaliadas diferentes equações buscando o melhor ajuste alométrico representativo da fitomassa da pupunheira cultivada para a produção de palmito. Foram utilizadas palmeiras inermes, da raça Putumayo, em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento, cultivadas em Ubatuba (SP no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m. Selecionaram-se 117 plantas, com alturas entre 0,22 e 5,04 m e diâmetros entre 2,23 e 27,06 cm. Medidas diretas, relacionadas ao crescimento, foram realizadas antes do corte. Em seguida as plantas foram separadas em diferentes partes estruturais, sendo medidas, pesadas e secas, obtendo-se a massa da matéria seca. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão e ajuste de equações, tendo como variáveis independentes os caracteres facilmente mensuráveis e não destrutivos. A fitomassa da pupunheira pode ser estimada de forma precisa a partir de equações simples, valendo-se de relações alométricas. A altura da haste principal, medida do solo até a inserção da folha +1, foi o caráter preditório indireto ideal para estimar a fitomassa de pupunheiras em cultivo comercial. Identificou-se também que, do estádio de implantação ao início de colheita de palmito, a contribuição dos perfilhos para a fitomassa aérea total é pequena e pode ser desprezada.Biomass estimates based on allometric relationships have theoretical and practical application. These data are useful tools in growth analysis experiments and yield prediction. Several equations were studied to define the best allometric fit to peach palm grown for heart-of-palm purpose. Spineless peach palms (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, from Putumayo landrace, were utilized. The experiment, in a 2 x 1

  15. Fotossíntese, condutância estomática e transpiração em pupunheira sob deficiência hídrica Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration in peach palm under water stress

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    Maria Aparecida José de Oliveira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Resultados de pesquisa envolvendo aspectos fisiológicos da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, fruteira nativa da América Tropical, são escassos. Procurando completar essa lacuna, um experimento sob deficiência hídrica foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, durante um período de 13 dias, utilizando plantas de 12 meses de idade. O objetivo principal foi avaliar as respostas da pupunheira à deficiência hídrica. As variáveis observadas foram: taxa de assimilação de CO2, transpiração, condutância estomática e potencial de água das folhas. As coletas dos dados foram realizadas diariamente em laboratório e sob fluxo de 1200 mim-2 s-1. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão. Verificou-se decréscimo no potencial de água da folha e nas trocas gasosas quando a irrigação foi interrompida por mais de seis dias. Valores mínimos foram obtidos no décimo dia, com redução de 92% da fotossíntese líquida, 87% da condutância estomática e 70% da transpiração. O menor potencial de água nas folhas (-1,9 MPa foi também observado nesse período. Houve recuperação total de todas as variáveis dois dias após reirrigação, com exceção da condutância estomática. A diminuição da condutância estomática e a queda mais rápida da taxa de transpiração que a queda na fotossíntese, indicam a existência de mecanismos de aclimatação em pupunheira, no sentido de diminuir as perdas de água, quando sob condição de estresse hídrico moderado.Research results on physiological aspects of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, a native fruit tree from tropical America, are scarce. Trying to fill this gap, a water deficit experiment was performed under nursery conditions during 13 days, utilizing 12 months old plants. The main objective was to evaluate peach palm responses to water deficit. The measured variables were: CO2 assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential

  16. The production of Pleurotus sajor-caju in peach palm leaves (Bactris gasipaes and evaluation of its use to enrich wheat flour

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    Paula Fernanda Bomfim Oliveira Cogorni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate of Pleurotus sajor-caju production in peach palm leaves and the addition of different fractions of mushroom powder to wheat flour to increase its nutritional value without changing its characteristics. The best yield (48.4%, biologic efficiency (4.5%, and Pr (0.36 g/day values were obtained using 20% inoculum fraction and 10% rice bran fraction. The Pleurotus sajor-caju fruiting body cultivated under these conditions had the following composition in 100 g: 29.91 g (carbohydrates, 42.92 g (proteins, 1.24 g (lipids, 15.93 g (fibers, 7.42 g (ashes, 1.6 g (phosphorus, 2.7 g (potassium, 8.73 mg (iron, 23.75 mg (sodium, 0.34 mg (thiamine, and 0.57 mg (riboflavin. The wheat flour with mushroom powder had reduced sugar content, but it did not have increased fat content. The fiber, protein, phosphorus, potassium, iron, and riboflavin contents were increased mainly when 10% mushroom powder was added to the wheat flour. Furthermore, this flour does not undergo drastic alterations in its physicochemical characteristics such as in moisture, wet gluten, color, and falling number.

  17. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) by-products with sunflower oil using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Santos, Luis Eduardo; Pinzón-Zarate, Lina Ximena; González-Salcedo, Luis Octavio

    2015-11-01

    The present study reports on the extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit by-products with sunflower oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Three independent variables including ultrasonic intensity (764-1528, W/m(2)), temperature (25-45°C), and the extraction time (10-30 min). According to the results, the optimal UAE condition was obtained with an ultrasonic intensity of 1528 W/m(2), extraction temperature of 35°C and extraction time of 30 min. At these conditions, extraction maximum extraction of total carotenoids as 163.47 mg/100 g dried peel. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC

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    Sogand Zareisedehizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed, Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.

  19. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.

  20. Quantitative variations in the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth.) Griseb. in response to insects with different feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchio, Erika; Zygadlo, Julio; Valladares, Graciela R

    2005-08-24

    Plants display a diverse array of inducible changes in secondary metabolites following insect herbivory. Herbivores differ in their feeding behavior, physiology, and mode of attachment to the leaf surface, and such variations might be reflected in the induced responses of damaged plants. Induced changes were analyzed for Minthostachys mollis, a Lamiaceae with medicinal and aromatic uses, and four species of folivore insects with different feeding habits (chewing, scraping, sap-sucking, and puncturing). In M. mollis leaves experimentally exposed to the insects, levels of the two dominant monoterpenes pulegone and menthone were assessed 24 and 48 h after wounding. Menthone content generally decreased in the essential oil of damaged leaves, whereas pulegone concentration increased in all treatments. These changes occurred also in the adjacent undamaged leaves, suggesting a systemic response. The relatively uniform response to different kinds of damage could be attributable to the presence of such a strongly active compound as pulegone in the essential oil of M. mollis. The effects of wounding on essential oil concentration may be significant from a commercial point of view.

  1. Isolation, identification, and the growth promoting effects of two antagonistic actinomycete strains from the rhizosphere of Mikania micrantha Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dandan; Wang, Lanying; Luo, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    Actinomycetes are an important group of gram-positive bacteria that play an essential role in the rhizosphere ecosystem. The confrontation culture and Oxford cup method were used to evaluate the antagonistic activities of strains, which were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Mikania micrantha. The two isolates were identified using morphological and physiological tests combined with 16S rRNA-based molecular analysis, respectively. The type I polyketone synthase (PKS-I) was amplified. The constituents of fermentation metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The plant growth promoting effect was determined. Finally, the growth of wheat seedlings was assessed using the Petri dish method. Overall, of the isolated twelve strains, WZS1-1 and WZS2-1 could significantly inhibit target fungi. Isolate WZS1-1 was identified as Streptomyces rochei, and WZS2-1 was identified as Streptomyces sundarbansensis. In particular, Fusarium graminearum (FG) from wheat was inhibited by more than 80%, and the inhibitory bandwidths against FG were 31 ± 0.3 mm and 19 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. The genes PKS-I were successfully amplified, confirming that these strains are capable of producing biosynthetic secondary metabolites. Major component analysis revealed aliphatic ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters, with n-hexadecanoic acid being the most abundant compound. Plant growth promoting test indicated that both strains produced IAA, presented with orange loops on CAS plates, dissolved phosphorus and potassium, fixed nitrogen, but did not generate organic acids; both strains colonized in soil, while only WZS1-1 colonized in wheat roots. Additionally, the fermentation broth significantly promoted the growth of wheat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimación de la biomasa foliar seca de Lippia graveolens Kunth del sureste de Coahuila

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    Eulalia Edith Villavicencio Gutiérrez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El orégano es un recurso forestal no maderable de importancia comercial, considerado como una especie aromática y culinaria que se aprovecha en las zonas semiáridas de Coahuila, con una producción mayor a 700 t anuales, y representa para el sector rural una opción productiva. Con el propósito de cuantificar el recurso y contribuir a regular su aprovechamiento, se determinaron las relaciones alométricas de individuos de orégano recolectados en 20 poblaciones naturales distribuidas en los municipios General Cepeda, Parras de la Fuente y Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, para seleccionar un modelo que estime la biomasa foliar seca (Bfs de la planta. A partir de un muestreo destructivo, se analizaron 706 plantas, de las cuales se obtuvo su altura total (At, diámetro mayor arbustivo (DM y diámetro menor arbustivo (Dm, diámetro promedio (Dp de la copa y biomasa foliar seca (Bfs. Con la prueba de correlación de Pearson se eligieron las variables más relacionadas con la Bfs , las cuales se emplearon para ajustar 10 modelos de regresión mediante el procedimiento PROC MODEL. El modelo seleccionado fue el de Schumacher-Hall Bfs 0.00599(Dp1.935454(At0.256803por registrar valores superiores de R2aju (0.80 y el menor valor en la raíz del cuadrado medio del error (RCME, 0.304, considerando la significancia de sus parámetros (p≤ 0.0001, a partir de este se elaboró una tabla de doble entrada que estima la Bfs de las plantas.

  3. Nutraceutic effect of free condensed tannins of Lysiloma acapulcensis (Kunth) benth on parasite infection and performance of Pelibuey sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Cesar; Arece-García, Javier; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Mendoza-Martínez, German David; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito; Vázquez-Armijo, José Fernando; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Olmedo-Juárez, Agustín; Marie-Magdeleine, Carine; López-Leyva, Yoel

    2017-01-01

    Forty-five Pelibuey sheep were experimentally infested with nematodes to evaluate the effect of three free condensed tannin (FCT) levels of Lysiloma acapulcensis on fecal egg counts (FECs), packed cell volumes (PCV), ocular mucosa colors (OMC), average daily gain (ADG), and adult nematode count. Five treatments were used: 12.5, 25.0, and 37.5 mg of FCT kg -1 of body weight (BW); sterile water (control); and ivermectine (0.22 mg kg -1 of BW) as chemical group. The data were processed through repeated measurement analysis. Even though the three FCT doses decreased (P < 0.05) the FEC, the highest reduction was obtained with 37.5 mg kg -1 of BW. No differences were observed in PCV and OMC. Higher ADG (P < 0.05) was observed with 37.5 mg kg -1 of BW of FCT. The count of adult nematodes (females and males) in the higher dose of FCT was similar to chemical treatment. Dose of 37.5 mg kg -1 of BW decreased the parasite infection and improved the lamb performance. Therefore, this dose could be used as a nutraceutic product in sheep production.

  4. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with roots of Eichhornia azuera (Swarts Kunth (Pontederiaceae in an oxbow lake in Pantanal, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Henrique L. Saulino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes play an important role in the community structure of aquatic systems. In this study, we examined the macroinvertebrate communities within 20 Eichhornia azurea roots in an oxbow lake in Pantanal (MS during dry season. Species abundance and richness were compared via linear regression, and the mean relative proportion of macroinvertebrates among root samples was determined. Macroinvertebrates were identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level, and root volume was measured using the volume displacement method. We identified 371 specimens, belonging to 31 families and 21 taxonomic groups. Chironomus sp. (Chironomidae, Slavinia sp. and Dero sp. (Naididae, all detritivores, were most the represented taxon. Regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between root volume and the abundance and richness of the macroinvertebrate community. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences between species abundance and richness among different E. azuera root volumes, however we did observe a trend toward a positive correlation of both variables with increasing root volume. We suspect that greater root volumes should increase microhabitat availability, which could explain this observed trend. Our results indicate that E. azurea roots may play an important ecologic role (e.g., by providing shelter, food stock in lake macroinvertebrate communities.

  5. Morphological and genetic diversity of camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] in the Peruvian Amazon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, J.; Kalousková, M.; Mandák, Bohumil; Houška, Jakub; Chládková, A.; Pinedo, M.; Lojka, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-15, č. článku e0179886. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Myricaria dubia * genetic diversity * Amazonia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  6. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae) - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Andre Luiz Gomes da; Universidade Federal do Maranhão; Chaves, Samyra Ramos; Universidade Federal do Maranhão; Brito, Jéfferson Mesquita; Universidade Federal do Maranhão

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna). The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flowe...

  7. Functional Response (FR) and Relative Growth Rate (RGR) Do Not Show the Known Invasiveness of Lemna minuta (Kunth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boets, Pieter; Goethals, Peter L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing travel and trade threatens biodiversity as it increases the rate of biological invasions globally, either by accidental or intentional introduction. Therefore, avoiding these impacts by forecasting invasions and impeding further spread is of utmost importance. In this study, three forecasting approaches were tested and combined to predict the invasive behaviour of the alien macrophyte Lemna minuta in comparison with the native Lemna minor: the functional response (FR) and relative growth rate (RGR), supplemented with a combined biomass-based nutrient removal (BBNR). Based on the idea that widespread invasive species are more successful competitors than local, native species, a higher FR and RGR were expected for the invasive compared to the native species. Five different nutrient concentrations were tested, ranging from low (4 mgN.L-1 and 1 mgP.L-1) to high (70 mgN.L-1 and 21 mgP.L-1). After four days, a significant amount of nutrients was removed by both Lemna spp., though significant differences among L. minor and L. minuta were only observed at lower nutrient concentrations (lower than 17 mgN.L-1 and 6 mgP.L-1) with higher nutrient removal exerted by L. minor. The derived FR did not show a clear dominance of the invasive L. minuta, contradicting field observations. Similarly, the RGR ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 d-1, but did not show a biomass-based dominance of L. minuta (0.5 ± 0.1 d-1 versus 0.63 ± 0.09 d-1 for L. minor). BBNR showed similar results as the FR. Contrary to our expectations, all three approaches resulted in higher values for L. minor. Consequently, based on our results FR is sensitive to differences, though contradicted the expectations, while RGR and BBNR do not provide sufficient power to differentiate between a native and an invasive alien macrophyte and should be supplemented with additional ecosystem-based experiments to determine the invasion impact. PMID:27861603

  8. Pre-procambial cells are niches for pluripotent and totipotent stem-like cells for organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in the peach palm: a histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Marcilio; de Almeida, Cristina Vieira; Mendes Graner, Erika; Ebling Brondani, Gilvano; Fiori de Abreu-Tarazi, Monita

    2012-08-01

    The direct induction of adventitious buds and somatic embryos from explants is a morphogenetic process that is under the influence of exogenous plant growth regulators and its interactions with endogenous phytohormones. We performed an in vitro histological analysis in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) shoot apexes and determined that the positioning of competent cells and their interaction with neighboring cells, under the influence of combinations of exogenously applied growth regulators (NAA/BAP and NAA/TDZ), allows the pre-procambial cells (PPCs) to act in different morphogenic pathways to establish niche competent cells. It is likely that there has been a habituation phenomenon during the regeneration and development of the microplants. This includes promoting the tillering of primary or secondary buds due to culturing in the absence of NAA/BAP or NAA/TDZ after a period in the presence of these growth regulators. Histological analyses determined that the adventitious roots were derived from the dedifferentiation of the parenchymal cells located in the basal region of the adventitious buds, with the establishment of rooting pole, due to an auxin gradient. Furthermore, histological and histochemical analyses allowed us to characterize how the PPCs provide niches for multipotent, pluripotent and totipotent stem-like cells for vascular differentiation, organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in the peach palm. The histological and histochemical analyses also allowed us to detect the unicellular or multicellular origin of somatic embryogenesis. Therefore, our results indicate that the use of growth regulators in microplants can lead to habituation and to different morphogenic pathways leading to potential niche establishment, depending on the positioning of the competent cells and their interaction with neighboring cells. Our results indicate that the use of growth regulators in microplants can lead to habituation and to different morphogenic pathways leading to

  9. Características físicas e químicas de frutos de pupunheira no Estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar física e físico-quimicamente frutos de 21 matrizes de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, visando a obter subsídios que permitam avançar com o programa de melhoramento genético, em especial para características da polpa do fruto. Os frutos provenientes de diferentes genótipos foram caracterizados quanto à dimensão dos frutos e caroço, umidade, proteínas, lipídeos, cinzas, fibras e carotenoides totais. Os resultados obtidos para as diferentes variáveis analisadas demonstraram diferenças entre os frutos obtidos de diferentes genótipos. A análise de proteínas apresentou valores que variaram de 4,20 a 6,79%, com destaque para a matriz B04-P20, que apresentou o maior valor. Para lipídeos, os teores variaram bastante, com valores entre 8,25 e 40,83%, destacando-se a matriz B02-P30 com o maior teor de lipídeos. Os teores de carotenoides totais das matrizes de pupunheira variaram de 8,02 a 124,90µg/g, com destaque para as matrizes B02-P30 (124,90µg/g e B05-P45 (123,04µg/g, indicando que a pupunha pode contribuir de maneira importante na ingestão de antioxidantes na dieta. De maneira geral, as análises físicas e físico-químicas dos frutos mostraram diferenças significativas entre as matrizes para os caracteres estudados, evidenciando ser um conjunto geneticamente promissor para a prática da seleção.

  10. Efeito de aditivos no valor nutritivo de silagens feitas com subproduto da extração do palmito de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. Effect of additives on nutritive value of silages based on palm cabbage production by-products from pupunha (Bactris gasipaes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Rodrigues Neto

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi determinar a qualidade e o valor nutritivo de silagens do subproduto da pupunha, produzidas com aditivos, conforme os tratamentos: T1 - Testemunha (sem aditivo; T2 - Adição de 2,5% de açúcar; T3 - Adição de 10,0% de polpa cítrica e T4 - Adição de 10,0% de milho moído, base da matéria natural. Verificou-se que a adição 10% de polpa cítrica (PC ou milho moído (MM elevou o teor de matéria seca da massa a ser ensilada, bem como da silagem, em 6,5 e 8,0 unidades percentuais, respectivamente. Silagens com aditivos apresentaram menores valores de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 / NT e pH. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior para as silagens feitas com PC ou MM, atingindo 85 g/kg PV0,75 ou 2,1% do PV, contra 44,7 g/kgPV0,75 ou 1,12%, para as silagens sem aditivo ou com 2,5% de açúcar. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, também foi superior para as silagens contendo 10% de PC ou MM (65,0% em relação à média das demais (52,0%. A digestibilidade da parede celular não mostrou tendência definida em função dos tratamentos. A silagem de subproduto da pupunha feita com a adição de 10% de polpa cítrica ou milho moído, apresentou valor nutritivo semelhante às silagens de forrageiras convencionais.The objective of this experiment was to evaluated the effect of additives on the quality and nutritive value of silages made with pejibaye palm by-product, according to the following treatments: T1 - Control (without additive; T2 - Addition of 2.5% of sugar; T3 - Addition of 10.0% of citric pulp and T4 - Addition of 10.0% of ground corn, based on natural matter. The use of 10.0% of citric pulp (CP or ground corn (GC increased dry matter content of the by-product prior to ensilage and of the silage by 6,5 and 8,0 percentage units, respectively. The use of additives resulted in smaller values of ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3/TN and pH. Dry matter intake was higher for silage made with CP or GC, mean value of 85.0 g/kgLW0.75 or 2.1% of LW, compared to the others (44.7 g/kgLW0.75 or 1.12% of LW. Also, apparent dry matter digestilibity coefficient was higher for silage containing 10% CP or GC (65.0% in comparison to the others (52.0%. Cell wall digestibility did not show a defined trend as a function of the treatments. Silage made of by-product pejibaye with 10.0% of citrus pulp or ground corn showed a nutritional value similar to conventional forage silages.

  11. APLICAÇÃO DA METODOLOGIA DE MODELOS MISTOS (REML/BLUP NA ESTIMAÇÃO DE COMPONENTES DE VARIÂNCIA E PREDIÇÃO DE VALORES GENÉTICOS EM PUPUNHEIRA (Bactris gasipaes APLICATION OF THE MIXED MODEL METHODOLOGY (REML/BLUP IN VARIANCE COMPONENTS ESTIMATION AND PREDICTION OF GENETIC VALUES IN PEACH PALM (Bactris gasipaes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO TOMÉ DE FARIAS NETO

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a pupunheira é uma planta muito útil na alimentação, seja como fonte de frutos ou de palmito. O interesse pela pupunheira, além de ser uma cultura perene, são: crescimento a pleno sol, precocidade, rusticidade, perfilhamento, palatabilidade e não-escurecimento do palmito após o corte. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos em pupunheira são escassas e se constituem em ferramenta de suma importância para orientar os programas de melhoramento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a variabilidade genética e estimar o valor genético individual como critério de seleção, usando o procedimento BLUP/REML (Melhor predição linear não viciada/máxima verossimilhança restrita. Adotaram-se duas estratégias de seleção para o caráter produção de palmito: simulando programa de melhoramento a curto prazo (CP- seleção das 9 famílias com 31 indivíduos de maior valor genético e a longo prazo (LP- seleção das 15 famílias com 53 indivíduos. As progênies foram avaliadas em experimento delineado em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, parcelas lineares de cinco plantas, espaçadas de 2,0 m x 1,0 m e bordadura composta por uma fileira em torno do experimento no Campo Experimental do Matapí, Município de Porto Grande, Estado do Amapá. A avaliação foi realizada aos 26 meses pós- plantio (2ª avaliação, coletando-se dados de altura da planta (AP, diâmetro da planta à altura do colo (DPC, tamanho do palmito (TP, diâmetro do palmito (DP, peso do resíduo apical (PRA, basal (PRB e do palmito líquido (PP (tipo exportação. Os dados de AP, DPC, TP e DP corresponderam às médias das touceiras que apresentavam mais de uma haste. Já para os caracteres PRA, PRB e PP corresponderam à soma das hastes na touceira. De maneira geral, a população estudada apresenta baixa variabilidade genética. As herdabilidades no sentido restrito em nível de indivíduos foram: AP (18,44%, DPC (3,16%, TP (42,47%, DP (10,54%, PP (5,70%, PRB (6,15%. Os ganhos genéticos preditos em relação à média da população para PP foram de 7,18% na situação de LP e 8,40% para CP, com tamanho efetivo de 30,38 e 19,00, respectivamente.The peach palm is a very useful plant for feeding Brazilians as fruit or palm heart producer. The interest for the peach palm besides being a perennial culture is: growth in full sun, precocity, rusticity, capacity to shoot, flavor and non-darkening of the palm heart after the cut. Estimates of genetic parameters in peach palm are scarce and constitute the most important tool to guide the improvement programs. The objective of this work was to study the genetic variability and estimate the individual genetic value as selection criterion, using the BLUP/REML procedure (Best linear unbiased prediction/restricted maximum likelihood. Two selection strategies for the palm heart production trait were adopted: a short term (CP - selection of the 9 families with 31 individuals of bigger genetic value and a long term (LP - selection of the 15 families with 53 individuals. The progenies were evaluated in randomized block design with three replications, the plots were composed by rows of five plants, spaced in 2.0 m x 1.0 m and with a row around the experiment in the Experimental Field of Matapi, Porto Grande municipality, Amapa State, Brazil. The evaluation was accomplished to the 26 months after planting (2nd evaluation being collected data of plant height (AP, diameter of the plant to the lap height (DPC, palm heart size (TP, palm heart diameter (DP, residual apical weight (PRA, basal weight (PRB and of the liquid palm heart (PP (exportation type. The data of AP, DPC, TP and DP corresponded to the clump of roots averages that presented more than a stem. However for the characters PA, PRB and PP corresponded the sum of the stems in the clump of roots. In general, the population presented low genetic variability. The narrow sense heritability at the individuals level was: AP (18.44%, DPC (3.16%, TP (42.47%, DP (10.54%, PP (5.70%, PRB (6.15%. The genetic gain estimated in relation to average of the population for PP were of 7.18% in the LP situation and 8.40% for CP, with effective size of 30.38 and 19.00, respectively.

  12. ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL DE Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham., EN EL EJIDO EL CONEJO DEL PARQUE NACIONAL COFRE DE PEROTE, VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Pineda-López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura de los rodales de oyamel (Abies religiosa presentes en el ejido El Conejo, localizado en el Parque Nacional Cofre de Perote, Veracruz. Se evaluó la densidad, diámetro, altura y cobertura del arbolado adulto en 17 parcelas de 625 m2. La regeneración se midió en las 17 parcelas utilizando subcuadrantes de 312.50 m2. El arbolado mostró una estructura de crecimiento de “J” invertida; sin embargo, los individuos se encuentran suprimidos y, aun cuando la regeneración es adecuada, el arbolado requiere de la apertura de claros para su desarrollo. Se encontró una superficie arbolada altamente fragmentada y amenazada de manera permanente por el crecimiento de la frontera agrícola y la extracción de leña para uso doméstico. Los resultados muestran evidencia de que la categoría de parque nacional no contribuye a la conservación del bosque.

  13. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CV. Silva

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  14. A??o do camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] liofilizado sobre a glicemia e o perfil lip?dico de adultos jovens

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Bianca Languer

    2012-01-01

    As doen?as cr?nicas, como diabetes, doen?as cardiovasculares (DCV) e c?ncer, representam atualmente 60% de todas as mortes no mundo. O estresse oxidativo, desencadeado pela a??o de radicais livres, est? envolvido na patog?nese de in?meras doen?as cr?nicas, a exemplo as DCV. Alguns nutrientes presentes em frutas e verduras possuem a??o antioxidante, como ? o caso dos flavon?ides e da vitamina C, e seu consumo regular est? associado ? diminui??o do risco de desenvolvimento de doen?as cr?nicas. ...

  15. Comparative anatomy of the leaves of Piper lepturum(Kunth) C.DC. var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (C.DC.) Yunck.

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nelson Santana de Oliveira; Pereira, Flaviane Gomes; Santos, Paulo Roberto Dias dos; Costa, Cecília Gonçalves; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This study showed anatomical differences related to Piper lepturumvar. lepturum and P. lepturum var. angustifolium species, sometimes considered varieties and in other cases synonyms. For histological analysis, fully expanded leaves were collected and for analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fragments from the midrib were fixed on both leaf surfaces. The two species revealed differences in plant anatomy and it was observed that the stem of P. lepturum var. lepturum showed persisten...

  16. The Spatial Distribution of Alkaloids in Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm and Palicourea coriacea (Cham.) K. Schum Leaves Analysed by Desorption Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Lucilia; Moraes, Aline Pereira; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Species of the genera Psychotria and Palicourea are sources of indole alkaloids, however, the distribution of alkaloids within the plants is not known. Analysing the spatial distribution using desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) has become...... analyses. METHODOLOGY: Based upon previous structure elucidation studies, four alkaloids targeted in this study were identified using high resolution mass spectrometry by direct infusion of plant extracts, and their distributions were imaged by DESI-MSI via tissue imprints on a porous Teflon surface....... Relative quantitation of the four alkaloids was obtained by HPLC-MS/MS analysis performed using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. RESULTS: Alkaloids showed distinct distributions on the leaf surfaces. Prunifoleine was mainly present in the midrib, while 10...

  17. Antioxidant activity and phenol content of extracts of bark, stems, and young and mature leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg

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    E. Habermann

    Full Text Available Abstract Phenolic compounds are a group of plant secondary metabolites known to have a variety of bioactivities, including the ability to function as antioxidants. Because of the side effects of the use of synthetic substances, the search for natural and less toxic compounds has increased significantly. This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenol content of hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of the bark (suber and stems as well as the young and mature leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius. The extracts were obtained by extraction with organic solvents and subsequent fractionation by chromatographic partition coefficient. Preliminary tests for the presence of antioxidants were performed using bioautography in thin-layer chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method, and the phenol content of the extracts was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique. The results showed that 9 of the 12 extracts evaluated displayed very strong antioxidant activity and three displayed moderate activity. Aqueous extracts of the young leaves and bark and the ethyl acetate extract of the young leaves showed the highest levels of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC. A correlation was observed between TPC and antioxidant activity index (AAI with a correlation coefficient (r2 of 0.7999. Thus, the high phenol content of B. salicifolius extracts and its correlation with antioxidant activity provide substrates for further studies.

  18. MODELLING THE POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TREE SPECIES ON A NATIONAL SCALE IN COLOMBIA: APPLICATION TO PALICOUREA ANGUSTIFOLIA KUNTH AND PALICOUREA GUIANENSIS AUBL.

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    Armenteras Dolors

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The results in this study illustrate the methods of using the existing species' presentrecords and environmental data to produce a niche-based model based on Mahalanobis distances, and also to predict the distribution of a number of tree species in order to apply it on a national scale to a tropical country such as Colombia. The technique applied is based on the Mahalanobis distance, a generalised squared distance statistic. We used environmental data integrated into a GIS, and a georeferenced collection of localities of Palicourea angustifolia and Palicourea guianensis to produce and test the predictive models. We used record data for Warszewiczia coccinea to validate the model. The two Palicourea species show largely complementary potential ranges. P. angustifolia shows a clear Andean distribution with a presence in lower and upper mountain areas but not in the highlands or in the inter-Andean valleys. P. guianensis was predicted throughout most of the lowland areas of Colombia including lowland Amazonian forests, and most of the tropical savannas of Orinoquia. The model predicted an overlapping distribution of the two species of 93.9 km2. The Mahalanobian approach contributes to the development of biogeographically oriented modelling that makes the best use of the available data in data-scarce regions (such as most of the tropics. The technique provides key information about the environmental niche of the species being modelled, and allows comparisons between the species. The prediction achieved for the two species was considered satisfactory.

  19. Induction of quadrangular shapes to stems of Guadua angustifolia Kunth for the business development in the rural communities of Ecuadorian Amazon

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    Karina Carrera-Sánchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Local development at indigenous communities from Ecuadorian Amazonía, may develop their potentialities and improve families’ incomes. In sector San José, cantón Mera, province Pastaza (Ecuador, the induction of square shape in G. angustifolia stems was studied using an adjustable metallic mold during three time intervals (15, 30 and 45 days. Square shape in stems of G. angustifolia was observed once metallic mold was used in shoots proliferation stage with 50 cm of height. It was obtained a 60.93 % of perimeter of stem with plane surface and six induced nodes. Metallic molds affected in approximately 55% the elongation of induced nodes, limiting stems normal length. By means of the induction of square shape in stems of G. angustifolia, members from farmer’s communities may develop agricultural production and commercialization to generate micro-enterprising and improve their life quality

  20. Comparative anatomy of floral elaiophores in Vitekorchis Romowicz & Szlach., Cyrtochilum Kunth and a florally dimorphic species of Oncidium Sw. (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin L; Stpiczyńska, Małgorzata; Rawski, Michał

    2014-06-01

    Recently, molecular approaches have been used to investigate the phylogeny of subtribe Oncidiinae, resulting in the re-alignment of several of its genera. Here, a description is given of the structure of the floral elaiophores (oil glands) of four species formerly assigned to Oncidium Sw. Those of Vitekorchis excavata (Lindl.) Romowicz & Szlach., Cyrtochilum meirax (Rchb.f.) Dalström and a species of Oncidium displaying floral dimorphism, namely O. heteranthum Poepp. & Endl. var. album, are compared with that of Gomesa longipes (Lindl.) M.W. Chase & N.H. Williams, whose epithelial elaiophores are typical of many Oncidiinae, in order to extend our understanding of elaiophore diversity within this subtribe. Floral elaiophore structure was examined and compared at anthesis for all four species using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. In all species investigated, with the exception of C. meirax, the floral elaiophore occurs on the labellar callus and is of the intermediate type, possessing both glabrous and trichomatous regions. By contrast, although all four species produce lipid secretions, C. meirax lacks an obvious elaiophore. In each case, the secretory tissue is represented by a single-layered epidermis of cuboidal cells (trichomatous and/or atrichomatous). Palisade cells are absent. The secretion may be wax- or oil-like and is usually produced by smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). However, in C. meirax, where rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) predominates, oil accumulates as plastoglobuli within elaioplasts. These plastoglobuli are then discharged into the cytoplasm, forming oil bodies. In some species, oil usually accumulates within vesicles at the plasmalemma or in the periplasmic space before traversing the cell wall and accumulating beneath the cuticle, sometimes with distension of the latter. Gomesa longipes is unusual in its production of a heterogeneous secretion, whereas Vitekorchis excavata is equally remarkable for the protuberances found on the walls of its secretory cells. Anatomically, the secretory tissues of all four species, despite currently being assigned to four different genera, are remarkably similar and indicative of homoplasy. This supports previous investigations of the floral elaiophore in Oncidiinae, which showed that the same elaiophore characters may be shared by different clades, but not always by species of the same genus. Consequently, elaiophores are considered to be of limited value in investigating the phylogeny of this subtribe. Furthermore, floral dimorphism does not greatly modify elaiophore structure in the fertile flowers of Oncidium heteranthum var. album. Based on the presence or absence of well-defined elaiophores, the nature of the secretion and the cell ultrastructure, it is likely that floral oil may be produced in Oncidiinae in one of two ways: by the ER (mainly SER) or by plastids, most notably elaioplasts. Once the oil is discharged into the cytoplasm as oil bodies or oil droplets, there is little difference between the subsequent stages of oil secretion; the oil traversing the cytoplasm (often vesicle-mediated) and cell wall before accumulating beneath the cuticle. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion

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    Juan Alfredo Morales-Del-Rio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%. On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%, antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition, and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis.

  2. Chemical Constituents of Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia (Kunth) Meisn (Polygonaceae) and Its In Vitro α-Amilase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Naranjo, María; Suárez, Alirica; Gilardoni, Gianluca; Cartuche, Luis; Flores, Paola; Morocho, Vladimir

    2016-11-02

    The phytochemical investigation of Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia , collected in Loja-Ecuador, led to the isolation of nine known compounds identified as: lupeol acetate ( 1 ); cis - p -coumaric acid ( 2 ); lupeol ( 3 ); β-sitosterol ( 4 ) trans - p -coumaric acid ( 5 ); linoleic acid ( 6 ) (+)-catechin ( 7 ); afzelin ( 8 ) and quercitrin ( 9 ). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on analysis of NMR and MS data, as well as comparison with the literature. The hypoglycemic activity of crude extracts and isolated compounds was assessed by the ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. The hexane extract showed weak inhibitory activity on α-amylase, with an IC 50 value of 625 µg·mL -1 , while the other extracts and isolated compounds were inactive at the maximum dose tested. The results on α-glucosidase showed more favorable effects; the hexanic and methanolic extracts exhibited a strong inhibitory activity with IC 50 values of 48.22 µg·mL -1 and 19.22 µg·mL -1 , respectively. Four of the nine isolated compounds exhibited strong inhibitory activity with IC 50 values below 8 µM, much higher than acarbose (377 uM). Linoleic acid was the most potent compound (IC 50 = 0.42 µM) followed by afzelin, (+)-catechin and quercitrin.

  3. Phytoremediation applications in natural condition and in mesocosm: The uptake of cadmium by Lemna minuta Kunth, a non-native species in Italian watercourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiudioni, Filippo; Trabace, Teresa; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Palma, Achille; Manes, Fausto; Mancini, Laura

    2017-04-03

    Metal pollution in water and soil is an environmental and public health issue. Cadmium (Cd) is included in the list of priority hazardous substances in the European Water Framework Directive. Phytoremediation system is a cost-effective, plant-based approach that takes advantage of the ability of plants to concentrate elements and compounds from the environment and to metabolize various molecules in their tissues. We studied the presence and the importance of an invasive species, such as Lemna minuta, in the environment and the effects of Cd pollution on this species. Growth, removal, and tolerance were evaluated for different Cd concentrations and different times of plant exposure. Overall, the results show that L. minuta has a good capacity of growth, metal bioconcentration, and tolerance up to 3 days of exposure at 0.5 and 1.5 mg L -1 of Cd. In particular, L. minuta was able to accumulate Cd up to 3771 mg kg -1 on dry mass basis. We can conclude that L. minuta possesses a great capability of Cd absorption and accumulation, thus supporting a potential use of this species in designing a metal bioremediation system in phytoremediation field.

  4. Antifungal and phytotoxic activity of essential oil from root of Senecio amplexicaulis Kunth. (Asteraceae) growing wild in high altitude-Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Singh, Pratap; Kumar, Naresh; Prakash Sati, Om; Sati, Nitin

    2016-08-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate the essential oil from root of medicinally important plant Senecio amplexicaulis for chemical composition, antifungal and phytotoxic activity. The chemical composition analysed by GC/GC-MS showed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons in high percentage with marker compounds as α-phellandrene (48.57%), o-cymene (16.80%) and β-ocimene (7.61%). The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against five phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum. The oil demonstrated remarkable phytotoxic activity in tested concentration and significant reduction in seed germination percentage of Phalaris minor and Triticum aestivum at higher concentrations. The roots essential oil showed high yield for one of its marker compound (α-phellandrene) which makes it important natural source of this compound.

  5. Variabilidad genética del membrillo cimarrón (Malacomeles denticulata [Kunth] Jones) obtenida mediante marcadores Inter Secuencias Simples Repetidas o Intermicrosatélites (ISSR)

    OpenAIRE

    González-Cerritos, Daniela; Núñez-Colín, Carlos Alberto; Villordo-Pineda, Emiliano; Medina-Ramos, Gabriela; González-Chavira, Mario Martín

    2015-01-01

    Malacomeles denticulata es un fruto nativo de México al que recientemente se le ha encontrado características funcionales para proponerlo como una opción frutal. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo elucidar la variabilidad de doce poblaciones de M. denticulata mediante marcadores Inter Secuencias Simples Repetidas o Intermicrosatélites (ISSR). Todos los ISSR presentaron altos valores en el Contenido de Información Polimórfica (PIC, por sus siglas en inglés) y el índice de diferenciación pob...

  6. Avaliação da atividade "in vivo" da fosfatase ácida e do crescimento de progênies de pupunheira cultivadas em duas doses de nitrogênio e fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. A. Bovi

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, realizado em janeiro de 1995, visou avaliar a atividade da enzima fosfatase ácida em folhas de quatro progênies de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, cultivadas em duas doses de nitrogênio e duas de fósforo. Para tanto, utilizou-se a porção média da segunda folha mais jovem de perfilhos de palmeiras com quatro anos de idade. As plantas analisadas representam parcelas submetidas a duas doses de nitrogênio (N1 = 0, N2 = 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N e duas doses de fósforo (P1 = 0, P2 = 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5. A dose de potássio foi 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O. Análises dos elementos no solo e nas folhas foram efetuadas e correlações foram estimadas entre as características avaliadas e o crescimento e a produção de palmito dos quatro tratamentos. Foram observados valores médios de atividade da fosfatase ácida de 8,35; 4,58; 10,84, e 11,05 µmol h-1 g-1, para os tratamentos N2P2, N2P1, N1P2 e N1P1, respectivamente. Houve diferenças significativas de atividade entre doses de nitrogênio (10,95 e 6,47 µmol h-1 g-1, para N1 e N2, respectivamente e entre progênies (variando de 6,18 (G3 a 10,10 (G1 µmol h-1 g-1, indicando que esses dois fatores devem ser levados em conta em estudos dessa natureza. A atividade da fosfatase ácida apresentou correlação negativa com as características que avaliam o crescimento (biomassa aérea e radicular e a produção de palmito (peso e diâmetro das plantas estudadas, não se correlacionando com os teores de fósforo no solo ou no tecido foliar.

  7. Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK

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    Bovi Marilene Leão Alves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93 em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa". Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³, com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O, aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N e potássio (K e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P. As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare.

  8. Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Peach Palm

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    Charles R. Clement

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is a Neotropical palm domesticated by Native Americans. Its domestication resulted in a set of landraces (var. gasipaes, some with very starchy fruit used for fermentation, others with an equilibrium of starch and oil used as snacks. Which of the three wild types (var. chichagui was involved and where the domestication process began are unclear, with three hypotheses under discussion: an origin in southwestern Amazonia; or in northwestern South America; or multiple origins. We reevaluate one of the wild types, defining it as the incipient domesticate, and then evaluate these hypotheses using the Brazilian peach palm Core Collection and selected herbaria samples to: (1 model the potential distributions of wild and domesticated populations; (2 identify the probable origin of domestication with a phylogeographic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences; and (3 determine the dispersal routes after domestication using spatial analysis of genetic diversity based on 17 nuclear microsatellite loci. The two very small-fruited wild types have distinct distributions in the northern Andes region and across southern Amazonia, both under moderately humid climates, while the incipient domesticate, partly sympatric with the southern wild type, is also found along the Equatorial Andes, in a more humid climatic envelope, more similar to that of the domesticated landraces. Two distribution models for Last Glacial Maximum conditions (CCSM4, MIROC also suggest distinct distributions for the two wild populations. The chloroplast DNA phylogeographic network confirms the area of sympatry of the incipient domesticate and the southern wild type in southwestern Amazonia as the origin of domestication. The spatial patterns of genetic diversity confirm the proposal of two dispersals, one along the Ucayali River, into western Amazonia, northwestern South America and finally Central America; the other along the Madeira River into central and

  9. Comparación de harina de chontaduro entero (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K contra alimentos balanceados y maíz amarillo como fuentes de nutrientes en la alimentación de pollos de engorde

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    Cruz P. Julián F.

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Para elaborar la harina los frutos pre-cocidos se trozaron y secaron al sol. Se obtuvo 50 % de harina por kilogramo de fruto. La harina de chontaduro entero se ofreció separada de la harina de pescado a grupos de 10 pollos sin sexar de la línea Arbor Acres desde la primera semana de edad. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar y estuvo constituido por cuatro tratamientos: la ración balanceada que sirvió como testigo y O (T2, 50 (T3 Y 100 % (T4 de sustición del maíz amarillo por harina de chontaduro. Con la ración testigo los pollos alcanzaron los mayores pesos y el mayor consumo; los pollos con el mayor nivel de harina de chontaduro disminuyeron el consumo pero alcanzaron mayor peso que los de T 2 y T3. En el aspecto de costos, el testigo obtuvo los mejores resultados en la época de baja cosecha, pero fue superado por T4 en la época de alta cosecha de frutos de chontaduro.The whole chontaduro meal was obtained simple process which permitted conserve of the nutritional value. Efficiency of the meal were 50 % of fruit weight. The whole chontaduro meals were offered with fish meal to four groups of ten unsexed "Arbor Acres" broiler chicks one day old. Since the first weeks the chicks received 1I1etreatments diets. Four treatments were compared: control (T¡,100% yellow corn +fish meal (T2, 50% yellow com +50% whole chontaduro meal + fish meal (T3 and 100 % whole chontaduro meal + fish meal (T4 Feed consumption (10 weeks were: 7,563.30 (T1, 7228.50 (T2,7156.50(T3 and 7100.90 g (T4. Body weight were: 2605.00 (T ¡, 1 717.50 (T2, 1 718.50: (T3 and 1 780.50 9 (T 4. Net entry into high production of fruit of T4 to overcome the concentrate food.

  10. Morphology and anatomy of leaf miners in two species of Commelinaceae (Commelina diffusa Burm. f. and Floscopa glabrata (Kunth Hassk Morfologia e anatomia de minas foliares em duas espécies de Commelinaceae Commelina diffusa Burm. f. e Floscopa glabrata (Kunth Hassk

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    Paula Maria Elb

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In specialized literature, reports on anatomy of miners in host plants are few in number. These agents trigger excavations, or paths, by consumption of plant inner tissues by larvae of several insects. The aim of this work was to investigate leaf miner occurrence in Commelina diffusa (a cosmopolitan plant and Floscopa glabrata (an amphibious plant using anatomical techniques. The place where the plants were collected is subjected to seasonal floods, consequently both the species were exposed to the same weather conditions and seasonal floods. This study showed that members of Agromyzidae and Chironomidae families, which are Diptera endophytophagous larvae types, were responsible for the tunnels. Moreover, in Commelina diffusa Agromyzidae larvae were found, while in Floscopa glabrata three Chironomidae cephalic exuviae were found. The miners, as can be seen from anatomical studies, used only mesophyll parenchyma tissues for feeding, causing the formation of linear mines. In addition, in both the species, the epidermis and the medium-sized vascular units were kept intact, showing no structural modification, such as neoformation of tissues.Existem poucos relatos na literatura sobre anatomia de plantas parasitadas por agentes minadores, os quais promovem escavações ou caminhos através do consumo dos tecidos internos das plantas por larvas de diversos insetos. A proposta deste trabalho foi analisar anatomicamente a ocorrência de minas foliares em Commelina diffusa (planta cosmopolita e Floscopa glabrata (planta anfíbia causadas por espécies de larvas endofitófagas de dípteros, pertencentes a duas famílias: Agromyzidae e Chironomidae. O local onde as plantas foram coletas está sujeito a inundações sazonais, e as duas espécies foram submetidas às mesmas condições climáticas. Em Commelina diffusa foram encontradas larvas da família Agromyzidae e, em Floscopa glabrata observaram-se três exuvias cefálicas de Chironomidae. Os dados anatômicos revelaram que os minadores se alimentaram apenas dos tecidos parenquimáticos do mesofilo, formando minas lineares. Além disso, notou-se que a epiderme e as unidades vasculares de porte médio foram mantidos intactos em ambas as espécies, não apresentando alterações estruturais, como a neoformação de tecidos.

  11. Estresse salino no crescimento inicial e nutrição mineral de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud em solução nutritiva(1 Growth and mineral nutrition of (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud seedlings in nutrient solution under saline stress

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    Séfora Gil Gomes de Farias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade é um dos fatores que mais limitam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas na região semiárida. A sobrevivência destas em ambientes salinos dependerá de processos adaptativos, que envolvem absorção, transporte e distribuição de íons nos vários órgãos da planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a nutrição mineral de mudas de gliricídia cultivada em diferentes condições de salinidade, realizou-se um experimento em telado de náilon da Unidade Acadêmica de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos - PB. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em vasos de Leonard, contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon (50 % da concentração original, com as concentrações de NaCl: 0, 100 200 e 400 mmol L-1. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com uma planta por vaso. Aos 60 dias após a emergência, as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas quanto a altura, matéria seca e teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e Na na raiz, no caule e nas folhas. O aumento da salinidade promoveu reduções no crescimento e nos teores de macronutrientes, ocorrendo o inverso nos teores de Na, sobretudo na raiz. A gliricídia mostrou-se sensível à salinidade.Salinity is one of the most limiting factors to plant growth and development. Plant survival in saline environments depends on adaptive processes involving uptake, transport, and distribution of ions in plant organs. To evaluate growth and mineral nutrition of Gliricidia sepium seedlings under saline conditions, an experiment was carried out under nylon-mesh protection, at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Patos - PB. Seeds were sown in pots containing Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution with four NaCl levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 mmol L-1, with four replications (1 plant/pot in a completely randomized design. Sixty days after seedling emergence, the plant height and root, stem and leaf dry matter, and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na accumulation were measured in the plant tissues. All variables but Na were negatively affected by increasing NaCl levels in the nutrient solution, particularly in the root tissue. Results indicated the sensitivity of Gliricidia sepium to salinity.

  12. Germinação e maturidade fisiológica de sementes de Piptadenia Viridiflora (Kunth. Benth relacionadas a estádios de frutificação e conservação pós-colheita Germination and physiological maturity in seeds of Piptadenia Viridiflora (Kunth. Benth related to fruiting times and forms of post-harvest conservation

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    Ronaldo Cesário Pessoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito dos estádios de frutificação e formas de conservação na germinação e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de surucucu. Em 25 árvores na região de Vitória da Conquista, BA, foram realizadas coletas de frutos no período de 17/05 a 9/07 de 2007, em intervalos de sete dias a partir do início da frutificação, caracterizando oito estádios de desenvolvimento das vagens. Cada período de coleta foi definido por lotes diferenciados de sementes, sendo realizadas avaliações de massas fresca e seca de 100 sementes e teor de água. As sementes de cada uma das oito coletas foram mantidas em condições ambientais de laboratório, sendo subdivididas em dois lotes: em um lote, as sementes permaneceram no interior das vagens e, no outro, as vagens foram eliminadas. Após o período de 49 dias a partir do início da frutificação, massas fresca e seca de 100 sementes e teor de água foram determinados. Posteriormente, as sementes foram submetidas a testes de germinação em câmara tipo BOD, com temperatura de 25 ºC, em regime de fotoperíodo de 8 h de luz. Depois de cinco dias foi realizada a primeira contagem de germinação e aos 10 dias, avaliadas as seguintes características: porcentagem de germinação, plântulas anormais e classificação do vigor das plântulas (vigor alto, médio e baixo. A presença das vagens durante o período de conservação das sementes foi fator determinante para a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. A germinação e o acúmulo de matéria seca determinados por ocasião do teste de germinação aumentaram com o período de frutificação, atingindo o máximo aos 37 dias.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different fruiting stages and conservation techniques on the germination and physiological quality of surucucu seeds. Fruits were collected on eight occasions from 25 trees in the region of Vitória da Conquista - BA, in the period from 05/17 to 07/09 2007, at sevenday intervals from the beginning of the fruiting stage. Each collection period was characterized by distinct seed lots. Evaluations were made for green and dry weight of 100 seeds and water content. The seeds in each of the eight collections were maintained under room conditions in the laboratory, and were subdivided into two lots: in the first, the seeds remained inside their pods, while in the other the pods were eliminated. After a 49-day period from the beginning of fruiting, determinations were made for green and dry weight of 100 seeds and water content. The seeds were then submitted to germination tests in a BOD incubator adjusted to 25ºC, with an 8:16 hr (light:dark photoperiod. The first germination count was made after five days. At ten days, evaluations were made for germination percentage and abnormal seedlings, and plantlets were classified as to their vigor (high, medium, and low. Germination increased as the fruiting period progressed, and was directly related to dry matter accumulation in the seeds, as determined during the germination test.

  13. Respostas na germinação e no crescimento inicial de rabanete sob ação de extrato aquoso de Piper mikanianum (Kunth Steudel Responses in germination and early growth of radish under the influence of an aqueous extract of Piper mikanianum (Kunth Steudel

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    Junior Borella

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos alelopáticos de folhas de pariparoba sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial do rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.. Foram utilizados extratos de folhas maduras frescas nas concentrações 2, 4 e 8% (p/v, cujo pH e potencial osmótico foram aferidos. No bioensaio de germinação foram empregadas cinco repetições de 25 sementes distribuídas em placas de petri forradas com papel Germitest, umedecido com 7 mL de extrato ou água e mantidos a 25ºC em B.O.D. por cinco dias. A porcentagem de germinação (PG, velocidade de germinação (VG, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e índice de efeito alelopático (RI foram determinados. No bioensaio de crescimento inicial, sementes germinadas até atingirem 2 mm de protusão radicular foram transferidas para caixas Gerbox contendo papel Germitest e 15 mL de extrato ou água, permanecendo sete dias a 25ºC em B.O.D. para a avaliação do comprimento da radícula e do hipocótilo, da massa fresca e seca, do conteúdo de água e do teor de clorofila (a, b e total. Todos os parâmetros de germinação (PG, VG, IVG e RI foram afetados negativamente pelos extratos de P. mikanianum. O crescimento inicial foi influenciado pelos extratos, resultando em redução do comprimento da radícula e aumento do hipocótilo. Além disso, os extratos causaram redução da biomassa fresca e do conteúdo de água a 8% e incrementos dos teores de clorofila b e total a 2 e 4%. Assim, a espécie Piper mikanianum exerce efeito alelopático sobre o rabanete.This study evaluated the allelopathic effects of an extract from P. mikanianum leaves on the germination and early growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.. Leaf extracts were prepared at concentrations of 2, 4 and 8%. The pH and osmotic potential of the extracts were determined. Germination bioassay consisted of five replicates of 25 radish seeds distributed in Petri dishes with germitest paper and 7 mL of extract or water, and were kept at 25ºC in B.O.D. for five days. Germination percentage (PG, germination speed (VG, germination speed index (IVG and index of allelopathic effect (RI were determined. For bioassay initial growth, seeds were germinated until the protrusion of the radicle was 2 mm and transferred to Gerbox boxes containing germitest paper and 15 mL of extract or water, which were kept for seven days at 25ºC in B.O.D. to evaluate the length of the radicle and hypocotyl, fresh and dry mass, water content and chlorophyll content (a, b ​​and total. Leaf extracts from P. mikanianum negatively affected all parameters examined for germination (PG, VG, IVG and RI. The extracts affected the initial growth, causing reduction of the radicle length and stimulating the growth of the hypocotyl. In addition, the extracts at 8% concentration reduced fresh weight and water content. Extracts at concentrations of 2 and 4% increased the content of chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll. Thus, Piper mikanianum exerted an allelopathic effect on radish.

  14. Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene L. A. Bovi

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O uso eficiente de fertilizantes requer o conhecimento de seus efeitos tanto na biomassa aérea quanto na radicular, permitindo que se identifique uma adubação adequada do ponto de vista de uma melhor partição entre ambas. A massa de raízes secas por volume de solo vem sendo utilizada, principalmente em espécies perenes, como subsídio para estimativas de biomassa radicular. Com esse objetivo, foram estudados os efeitos da adubação NPK na densidade radicular de três progênies de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, cultivadas em um Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa", durante o ano de 1993. O delineamento foi um fatorial fracionado, composto por quatro doses crescentes de nitrogênio (0 a 400 kg/ha/ano de N, fósforo (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de P2O5 e potássio (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de K2O, em experimento integrado (progênies e adubação. As amostras foram coletadas por ocasião da primeira colheita de palmito (outubro de 1993, quando as plantas (cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m tinham cerca de dois anos de campo. Utilizou-se o método do trado, coletando-se, por parcela experimental, duas amostras na linha e duas na entrelinha. Houve diferenças entre genótipos (GE, com as progênies 2 e 3 apresentando, em média, maior densidade radicular que a progênie 1 (5,15 e 6,20 contra 2,61 g/dm³, respectivamente. A interação GE x PO (posição da amostra foi significativa, sendo que para as progênies 1 e 2 a maior densidade radicular foi obtida na linha (3,30 e 6,60 g/dm³ na linha, contra 1,92 e 4,70 g/dm³ na entrelinha, respectivamente, enquanto para a 3 a ordem foi inversa (5,57 g/dm³ na linha e 6,84 g/dm³ na entrelinha. Doses crescentes de potássio (K apresentaram efeitos lineares positivos e significativos (R² =0,93 a 0,97 na densidade radicular das três progênies, com acréscimos entre dose mínima e máxima variando de 18 a 28%. Não houve efeito significativo isolado de P, enquanto doses

  15. Estimating peach palm fruit surface area using allometric relationships Estimativa da área superficial de frutos de pupunheira por relações alométricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit surface area is an important trait in studies of developmental physiology, as well as in entomological and phytopathological research, where damage caused by insects and/or microorganisms needs to be quantified. Nonetheless, direct measurement of this trait is difficult, not very precise and destructive. This study establishes allometric relationships to estimate the surface area of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae fruits. Five fruits were harvested, at different maturation stages, from each of 18 plants. Image digitalization and edition methodology was adapted and compared with the traditional gravimetric method. Regression analysis and curve fitting were used to compare the two methods and establish allometric relationships among fruit surface area and fruit weight and size. The method based on image digitalization was twice as fast as the gravimetric method. Curve fitting for all pairs of independent and dependent variables was better with the image method. For most relationships, the best model was the exponential function (Y = ax b, although, due to its simplicity, the linear model is also adequated. The best allometric estimates of fruit surface area (Y were obtained using the product of fruit length by maximum width (x were: Y = 2.077 x 1.189 (R² = 94.8%; and Y = - 6.261 + 3.961 x (R² = 94.5%. Traits needed to establish this relationship are easily measured and non-destructive in nature. Validation of the allometric equations is essential when applied to other populations or landraces.A área superficial do fruto é de importância fundamental em estudos relacionados à fisiologia do desenvolvimento, bem como em pesquisas entomológicas e fitopatológicas, onde o dano causado por insetos e/ou microorganismos precisa ser quantificado. No entanto, a medição direta dessa característica é difícil, além de não muito precisa e destrutiva. Neste estudo foram estabelecidas relações alométricas visando estimar a

  16. 75 FR 68945 - Update of Noxious Weed Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ...: Cause impacts on ecosystem processes (alteration of hydrology, sedimentation rates, a fire regime... for ``Caulerpa taxifolia (Mediterranean clone)'', ``Eichornia azurea (Swarth) Kunth'', and ``Melaleuca...

  17. Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadena-Gonzalez, Ana Lucia; Sørensen, Marten; Theilade, Ida

    2013-01-01

    cumanensis Kunth, and Verbena littoralis Kunth. Introduced species were more important than native ones in Zetaquira, while there was no difference in importance in Campo Hermoso. While healers relied most on the uses of native species, amateur healers were inclined to rely on introduced species. Medicinal...

  18. O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. (Cyperaceae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsi Iob Boldrin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo taxonômico do gênero Eleocharis R. Br. para o Rio Grande do Sul foi desenvolvido através dos métodos tradicionais em taxonomia. Os dados foram obtidos através da bibliografia, revisão de herbários regionais e coleta de exemplares a campo. O gênero está representado no Rio Grande do Sul por 27 espécies: Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., E. bonariensis Nees, E. contracta Maury, E. dunensis Kük., E. elegans (Kunth Roem. & Schult., E. filiculmis Kunth, E. flavescens (Poir. Urb., E. geniculata (L. Roem. & Schult., E. interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., E. laeviglumis R. Trevis. & Boldrini, E. loefgreniana Boeck., E. maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult., E. minima Kunth var. minima, E. montana (Kunth Roem. & Schult., E. montevidensis Kunth, E. nudipes (Kunth Palla, E. obtusetrigona (Lindl. & Nees Steud., E. parodii Barros, E. quinquangularis Boeck., E. rabenii Boeck., E. radicans (Poir. Kunth, E. sellowiana Kunth, E. squamigera Svenson, E. subarticulata (Nees Boeck., E. viridans Kük. ex Osten, Eleocharis sp.1 e Eleocharis sp.2. O trabalho apresenta descrições, ilustrações, dados sobre distribuição geográfica, habitat e períodos de floração e frutificação das espécies, além de uma chave dicotômica para diferenciá-las.

  19. Actividad antimicrobiana y análisis de la composición química de una fracción de las flores de Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mejía, C.; Osorio, J.; Barrera, M.; Rezek, Jan; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2015), s. 409-418 ISSN 1028-4796 Grant - others:European Regional Development Fund(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Acmella ciliata * alkamides * spilanthol Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry http:// sci elo.sld.cu/ sci elo.php?script= sci _arttext&pid=S1028-47962015000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso

  20. Ação do flúor dissolvido em chuva simulada sobre a estrutura foliar de Panicum maximum jacq. (colonião e Chloris gayana kunth. (capim-rhodes - Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Alba Lucilvânia Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum e Chloris gayana foram submetidas à chuvas simuladas com soluções de fluoreto de potássio (15mg ml-1 com objetivo de identificar as injúrias causadas pelo flúor (F-, como poluente atmosférico, na estrutura da lâmina foliar e fornecer subsídios para a seleção de características diagnósticas a serem utilizadas na bioindicação. Os principais sintomas foram clorose e necrose, principalmente no ápice e margens das lâminas. Nos cortes transversais, quatro tipos de alterações causadas pelo flúor são relacionadas: redução do número, tamanho e arranjo dos cloroplastos; necrose dos tecidos principalmente nas margens das folhas; erosões na superfície da folha e hipertrofia das células. Em C. gayana, no entanto, não foram observadas as alterações nos cloroplastos e os outros sintomas foram bem mais discretos que em P. maximum. A ocorrência de compostos fenólicos foi registrada pela coloração com fucsina em todas as regiões da lâmina onde foram observadas lesões. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura foi observado o achatamento e formação de concavidades nas paredes externas das células. Este experimento confirma a maior sensibilidade de P. maximum ao flúor e revela algumas características anatômicas de C. gayana que, entre outros fatores, podem estar contribuindo para a maior resistência desta espécie a este poluente.

  1. Desenvolvimento vegetativo da pupunheira irrigada por gotejamento em função de níveis de depleção de água no solo Effects of soil water depletion levels on the vegetative development of drip irrigated peach palm plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ramos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da irrigação complementar por gotejamento no desenvolvimento vegetativo de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth com três anos de idade. Durante 94 dias (agosto a novembro/97 foram estabelecidos quatro níveis de irrigação, baseados nas porcentagens de 25% (T1, 50% (T2, 75% (T3 de água disponível consumida em função da evapotranspiração de referência, medida em um par de lisímetros de lençol freático constante, e a testemunha (T4, sem irrigação, com turnos de rega de 2, 4 e 6 dias respectivamente. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro tratamentos, oito repetições e dezesseis plantas úteis por parcela. A resposta das plantas aos diferentes tratamentos foi avaliada por meio da taxa absoluta de crescimento das características diâmetro do estipe na região do colo, altura da planta, comprimento de ráquis, número de perfilhos, número de folhas e emissão de folhas novas. As avaliações tiveram início quatro dias antes da imposição dos tratamentos e foram repetidas aos 34; 68; 83; 98; 133 e 168 dias. Houve diferenças entre os tratamentos para número de folhas emitidas, diâmetro e altura da planta. O tratamento 1 (25% foi superior aos demais para número de folhas emitidas (pThe effects of soil water depletion levels on the vegetative development of drip irrigated three-years-old peach palm plants were evaluated. Four irrigation levels were established for a 94-day period (August to November of 1997, based on 25% (T1, 50% (T2 and 75% (T3 of available water consumed in function of the evapotranspiration of measured reference in a lysimeter of constant water table, and the control (T4 without irrigation. A split randomized block design, with four treatments, eight replications and sixteen inner plants per plot was utilized. Peach palm response to the different treatments was evaluated throughout the absolute growth rate of the

  2. Determination of fatty alcohols in D-004 active ingredient by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Delange, David; Rodriguez Leyes, Eduardo Antonio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo, Victor Luis

    2012-01-01

    D004, a new lipid extract purified from the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia [Kunth] F. Cook) fruits, has been shown to be effective in experimental models of prostate hyperplasia, and to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects

  3. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  4. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunth) Bak used in The Traditional Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Urinary Infections · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EH Mshelia, LT Zaria, AH ...

  5. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  6. LAS ESPECIES DE MUHLENBERGIA (POACEAE: CHLORIDOIDEAE DE ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Paul

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio taxonómico de las especies nativas argentinas del géneroMuhlenbergia, basado en el análisis de los especímenes depositados en 48 herbarios.Se analizan diversos aspectos relativos a la clasifi cación, la nomenclatura y lavariación morfológica de los caracteres. Muhlenbergia está representado enArgentina por 18 especies nativas. Se proporcionan claves para reconocer lasespecies presentes en el país, así como también descripciones de éstas, sinónimos,ilustraciones, distribución geográfica y algunos comentarios morfológicos yecológicos. Muhlenbergia breviaristata (Hack. Parodi y Muhlenbergia holwayorumHitchc., se reducen como sinónimos del híbrido Muhlenbergia angustata (J. PreslKunth × M. rigida (Kunth Kunth. Muhlenbergia diversiglumis Trin. se cita porprimera vez para la Argentina. Por otra parte, las especies Muhlenbergia tenella(Kunth Trin. y Muhlenbergia tenuissima (J. Presl Kunth se excluyen de la fl orade Argentina.

  7. Aspectos bionômicos de Eois tegularia (Guenée e Eois glauculata (Walker (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae e seus parasitóides Bionomic aspects of Eois tegularia (Guenée and Eois glauculata (Walker (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae and their parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Pasenow Braga

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Eois tegularia (Guenée, [1858] and Eois glauculata (Walker, [1863] larvae were studied by one year in semidec iduous forest at Canchim Farm (EMBRAPA, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil. Specimens were hosted by species of Piper Linnaeus (Piperaceae: P. mollicomum Kunth, P. amalogo Linnaeus, P. glabratum Kunth and P. gaudichaudianum Kunth. Some parasitoids were reared from the larvae of Eois Hübner, 1818 species, as follow. Hymenoptera: Cotesia Cameron, 1891, Apanteles Foerster, 1862, Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904, Dolichogenidea Viereck, 1911, Meteorus Haliday, 1835 (Braconidae; Mesochorus Gravenhorst, 1829, Venturia Schrottky, 1902 (Ichneumonidae; Elachertus Spinola, 1811 (Eulophidae; Perilampus Latreille, 1809 (Perilampidae, Diptera: Myiopharus Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 (Tachinidae.

  8. Actividad antiparasitaria de extractos de plantas colombianas de la familia Euphorbiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Fernanda Neira; Elena Stashenko; Patricia Escobar

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La familia Euphorbiaceae es un grupo heterogéneo de plantas distribuidas en el territorio colombiano utilizadas algunas de ellas, como plantas medicinales. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad tóxica de aceites esenciales (AE) y extractos de plantas obtenidos de la familia Euphorbiaceae contra tripanosomátidos. Materiales y métodos: Los AE de Croton pedicellatus Kunth (AE1) y C.leptostachyus Kunth (AE2) y el extracto de Phyllanthus acuminatus Vahl fueron obtenidos por hidrodestilac...

  9. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia.

  10. Origin and domestication of native Amazonian crops

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, R. Charles; De Cristo-Araujo, Michelly; Coppens D'Eeckenbrugge, Géo; Alves Pereira, Allessandro; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2010-01-01

    Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta), cacao (Theobroma cacao), pineapple (Ananas comosus), peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) and guaraná (Paullinia cupana), while hot peppers (Capsicum spp.), inga (Inga edulis), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) are being studied. Emerg...

  11. Useful palms (Arecaceae near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Balslev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the uses of 64 species of palms in 28 villages in Departamento de Loreto, Peru. There, the palms are of great use as food (Bactris gasipaes, Mauritia flexuosa, Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, for fiber production (Astrocaryum chambira, Aphandra natalia, for construction of houses (Euterpe precatoria, Iriartea deltoidea,Socratea exorrhiza, thatching (many species of Attalea, Lepidocaryum tenue and for many medicinal purposes (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua.

  12. Informe de personal de apoyo: Tournier, Horacio A. (2013-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Tournier, Horacio Alfio

    2014-01-01

    Proyectos de investigación en los cuales colabora: A) Evaluación de las propiedades antioxidantes, citotóxicas y farmacológicas de productos naturales. A1) Determinación de la actividad citotóxica de extractos y compuestos de plantas nativas argentinas y sudamericanas en un modelo de células en cultivo. A2) Caracterización de extractos de yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), corozo (Bactris guineensis) y curuba...

  13. C:\\Users\\AISA\\Desktop\\OBULBIGA MFxps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    species in terms of fodder and stem in the climatic condition of north Soudan. ... in the area. Keywords : Andropogon gayanus kunth, agropastoral people, rhythm of exploitation, forage, stems, Burkina. Faso. .... L'analyse statistique révèle une.

  14. 1023-IJBCS-Article-Dr Yonli Djibril

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    x x x x x. Schizachyrium sanguineum Alton x. Schoenepheldia gracilis Kunth. x x. Setaria pallide-fusca Stapf et C.E.. Hubbard. x x x. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench x x. Sporobolus festivus Hochst. x x x x. Sporobolus pyramidalis P. Beauv. x. Zea mays L. x x. Plantes hôtes de la famille des. Cyperacea. Bulbostylis barbata ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mshelia, EH. Vol 1, No 2 (2008) - Articles Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Screening of Asparagus Flagellaris (Kunth) Bak used in The Traditional Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Urinary Infections Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1998-0507. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  16. 2068-IJBCS-Article-Saidou Ousseina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    que Schoenefeldia gracilis Kunth., Aristida mutabilis Trin. et Rupr., Dactyloctenium aegyptiaca (L.) Willd., Tribulus terrestris L. (Ousseina, 2012) parsemée de plantes ligneuses (Maerua crassifolia. Forsk.,. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Acacia senegal (L.) Willd., Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne subsp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan,.

  17. Alnus acuminata in dual symbiosis with Frankia and two different ectomycorrhizal fungi (Alpova austroalnicola and Alpova diplophloeus) growing in soilless growth medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandra G. Becerra; Euginia Menoyo; Irene Lett; Ching Y. Li

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the capacity of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth), inoculated with Frankia and two ectomycorrhizal fungi (Alpova austroalnicola Dominguez and Alpova diplophloeus [Zeller and Dodge] Trappe and Smith), for nodulation and growth in pots of a soilless medium...

  18. Plant cells which aid in pollen digestion within a beetle's gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, Fred R; Cresti, M; Beach, James H

    1990-03-01

    The peach palm, Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., in Costa Rica, possesses unusual trichomes on the inflorescence epidermal surface. Certain cells of the trichome possess a thick, highly lignified cell wall and are consumed by the beetle Cyclocephala amazona L. before it ingests pollen from the same inflorescence. Chemical analyses show the trichome to possess no nutritive value. The thick-walled trichome cells pass intact through the beetle's digestive system, while ingested pollen is crushed. We suggest that the specialized plant cells function as gastroliths in the beetle's digestive tract.

  19. Neuropharmacological profile of ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Cifuentes, C; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar del Fresno, A M; Morales, C; Paredes, M E; Cáceres, A

    2001-08-01

    We carried out the Irwin's test with some different extracts of the aerial parts of Thidax procumbens L., the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp., and root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At dosage of 1.25 g dried plant/kg weight aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. demonstrated the most activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis, catalepsy and strong hypothermia. These extracts of both plants were assayed for effects on CNS and they caused very significant reductions in spontaneous locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and rectal temperature and they increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time.

  20. Effects of Minthostachys mollis essential oil and volatiles on seedlings of lettuce, tomato, cucumbre and Bidens pilosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Amelot, Miguel; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Avila Nuñez, Jorge Luis; Oliveros Bastidas, Alberto; Avendaño Meza, Marisabel

    2007-01-01

    Effects of Minthostachys mollis essential oil and volatiles on seedlings of lettuce, tomato, cucumbre and Bidens pilosa. (Alonso Amelot, Miguel; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Avila Nuñez, Jorge Luis; Oliveros Bastidas, Alberto y Avendaño Meza, Mairsabel) Abstract The extraction and chemical composition of essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb (Lamiaceae) and its inhibitory effects on germation and shoot/root elongation of lettuce, tomato, cucumber and Bidens pilosa (L...

  1. Análisis fitoquímico y efecto sinérgico protector de las hojas de minthostachys mollis y malva sylvestris sobre la mucosa gástrica de rattus rattus var. albinus

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Saavedra, Ericson Félix

    2010-01-01

    The peptic ulcer is a lesion that affects an area of the gastrointestinal mucose usually in the stomach or duodenum produced by a disbalance between defensives and protects factors. This report was oriented on determinating phytochemistry of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb, Malva sylvestris L., and analyze if these plants in study had synergistic protect effect in the acute injure of gastric mucose induced by ethanol in Rattus rattus var. albinus. Phytochemical screening was realized usin...

  2. Photosynthetic responses to temperature and light of Antarctic and Andean populations of Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) Respuestas fotosintéticas a la temperatura y a la luz de poblaciones antarticas y andinas de Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    ÁNGELA SIERRA-ALMEIDA; M. ANGÉLICA CASANOVA-KATNY; LEÓN A BRAVO; LUIS J CORCUERA; LOHENGRIN A CAVIERES

    2007-01-01

    Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth, 1831) Bartling (Caryophyllaceae) is characterized by a wide latitudinal distribution, ranging between the tropical high Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula. Although both habitat types are characterized by cold and freezing temperatures, important microclimatic differences exist during the growing season. Hence, important differences in the response of the photosynthetic apparatus to abiotic factors could be expected between Antarctic and Andean populations of C. q...

  3. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  4. New species of Lopesia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Urso-Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of gall midge, Lopesia eichhorniae sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera, associated with rhizomes of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth (Pontederiaceae is described. This is the first record of Lopesia galls in this species of macrophyte, quite common in natural and artificial lakes in Southeast Brazil. Illustrations of the adults (male and female, pupa, larva, and gall of the new species are presented.

  5. Reproductive biology of pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens) and the pollinator-nectar robber spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Leif Richardson; Judith L. Bronstein

    2012-01-01

    Floral visitor species are often assumed to act either mutualistically towards plants (as pollinators) or to exploit them (as nectar-robbers or as nectar or pollen thieves). We investigated the reproductive biology of pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens K. Kunth), a regionally abundant North American shrub, in relation to the wide spectrum of behaviours displayed by its flower-visiting insects. We recorded A. pungens population-level flowering phenology and nectar standing crop, and c...

  6. Efecto del stress por plomo en Ludwigia peploides e Hydrocotyle ranunculoides

    OpenAIRE

    Auguet, Silvana; Arreghini, Silvana; Serafini, Roberto José María; Arambarri, Ana M.; De Iorio, Alicia F.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands usually provide a natural mechanism to diminish the transport of toxic compounds to other compartments of the ecosystem by immobilizing heavy metals and storing them below ground in roots and/or soil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the Pb uptake and translocation into two aquatic plants - Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) P.H. Ravenand and Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f. - and to quantify potential histological changes by metal action. For this, an assay in greenhouse was carried out i...

  7. Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F Gutiérrez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómica del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth.Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae. Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation. To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P

  8. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Mayorga; Karen R. Pérez; Sully M. Cruz; Armando Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  9. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga,Pablo; Pérez,Karen R.; Cruz,Sully M.; Cáceres,Armando

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  10. REVISIÓN DE LAS ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO SPOROBOLUS (POACEAE: CHLORIDOIDEAE: SPOROBOLINAE DEL NOROESTE DE SUDAMÉRICA: PERÚ, ECUADOR, COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo-Cañas Diego

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio taxonómico de las especies de Sporobolus para el noroeste de Sudamérica. Se reconocen once especies para el área de estudio. Se incluyen las claves para determinar las especies así como las descripciones morfológicas y sus ilustraciones. Se discuten para cada una de las especies sus relaciones morfológicas, su distribución geográfica y sus preferencias ecológicas; adicionalmente, se relacionan sus usos y sus nombres comunes. Asimismo, se propone la lectotipificación para Sporobolus lasiophyllus Pilg. Por otra parte, se registran tres especies por primera vez para Colombia [Sporobolus pilifer (Trin. Kunth, Sporobolus tenuissimus (Mart. ex Schrank Kuntze y Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth]. Se excluyen de este tratamiento a Sporobolus brasiliensis (Raddi Hack. (=Eragrostis airoides Nees y Sporobolus domingensis (Trin. Kunth. Adicionalmente, se propone la adopción y la unificación de algunos términos morfológicos en agrostología, tales como caña, panoja, espiguilla, lema, antecio y cariopsis, en lugar de culmo, panícula, espícula, lemma, flósculo y cariopse-cariópside, respectivamente.

  11. Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides causando antracnose em frutos de pupunheira nos estados de Minas Gerais e Paraná Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnosis on peach palm fruits in Minas Gerais and Paraná States, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Vida

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes para palmito tem-se expandido para algumas regiões do Sudeste e Sul do Brasil, ocupando áreas abandonadas pela agricultura no espaço territorial de domínio da Mata Atlântica. Em plantas adultas de pupunheira, cultivadas para a produção de sementes nos estados de Minas Gerais e Paraná, verificou-se ocorrência de antracnose nos frutos, causando severa podridão. O fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides foi isolado de tecidos doentes e a sua patogenicidade aos frutos da pupunheira foi confirmada em condições controladas. Essa foi a primeira constatação da doença em frutos nos estados de Minas Gerais e Paraná.The cultivation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes for production of palm heart has increased in Southeast and Southern Brazil, in areas of domain of Atlantic Forest. Adult peach palm plants kept for seed production have suffered severe rot damages on fruits, resulting from coalescence of spots. The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from the damaged tissues and its pathogenicity to peach palm fruits was confirmed under controlled conditions. This is the first report of this disease damaging peach palm fruits in the Minas Gerais and Parana States.

  12. Amerindian names of Colombian palms (Palmae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marmolejo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A glossary of 1276 Amerindian names or name variants of palms is presented, representing at least 121 species in 64 aboriginal languages of Colombia. The species with documented names in the largest number of languages are Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua, Mauritia flexuosa,Euterpe precatoria, andAstrocaryum chambira, which are five of the most used palms in South America. The languages with the largest number of named species are uitoto (48, tikuna (47, muinane (43, siona (34, sikuani (31 and miraña (30. These figures reflect the detailed studies carried out with these ethnic groups, besides the palm diversity of their territories and their knowledge about it. The names are presented in three separate lists –arranged by species, by language, and a global list of names that includes references for each individual record.

  13. YURUPARÍ, MASKS AND POWER AMONG THE PIAROA FROM THE ORINOCO BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Antonio Mansutti Rodriguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In northwest Amazonia, among other kinds, two celebrations occur: one with masks dedicated to the harvest of Bactris gasipaes and other fruits, and another with sacred flutes that evoke extraordinary beings. When both coincide in a same village they occur at different moments. However, to the Piaroa and the Wirö peoples of the Orinoco basin, both ceremonies occur simultaneously at the same place. This paper shall describe participants and procedures of the ceremony and evaluate the gender and age based power game that comes to light during it. This ceremony consolidates alliances between the shamans and their communities with the masters who control animals and plants exploited by the Piaroa people, facilitates men’s expropriations and limits women power to the domestic sphere, and shifts a society with no major hierarchical organizations into a highly hierarchical one as long as the ceremony is occuring.

  14. Euphorbia latex: a possible source of hydrocarbons and rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, P; Teisseire, D

    1975-01-01

    Illustrated descriptions are given of 36 plants of potential economic value in underdeveloped tropical countries, classified by use. The plants are either wild or cultivated on a fairly local scale. Accounts of limitations and special requirements and lists of references, research contacts and sources of germ plasm are included for each species. The following tree and shrub species are included: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, C. chayamansa and hearts of several edible palm species including Euterpe edulis (vegetables); Durio species, Garcinia mangostana, Solanum quitoense, Bactris gaspiaes, Citrus grandis, Annona muricata and Pourouma cecropiaefolia (fruits); Orbignya martiana, Caryocar species, Jessenia polycarpa and Simmondsia chinensis (oil seeds); Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum, Cassia sturtii, Atriplex species and Prosopis tamarungo (forage (browse)); Mauritia flexuosa (fruit, wood, etc.); Euphorbia antisyphilitica (wax); and Parthenium argentatum (rubber).

  15. EFFECT OF LIGHT AND GIBERELLIC ACID (AG3) ON THE GERMINATION OF MINTHOSTACHYS MOLLIS (LABIATAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso José Luis; Melgarejo Luz Marina; Suárez Peñaranda Diego Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb. o muña es un arbusto perenne que crece naturalmente en las región andina de Colombia; esta especie es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales en donde es valorada por sus propiedades medicinales para tratar diferentes afecciones y como control de larvas de insectos transmisores de enfermedades; sin embargo, las poblaciones naturales de esta planta han sido fuertemente reducidas por acción antrópica, por lo tanto, es necesario generar tecnologías...

  16. Distribución y diversidad de las "muñas" género Minthostachys (Lamiaceae) en Huanuco, Perú.

    OpenAIRE

    Tello Villavicencio, Milka Nelly

    2011-01-01

    El 90% de lamiaceas denominadas “muñas” en Huánuco, Perú son especies del género Minthostachys y 10% restante de géneros relacionados. Las especies de Minthostachys encontradas fueron tres: Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb., con sus tres variedades, var. mollis, var. hybrida Schmidt-Leb. y var. mandoniana (Briq.) Schmidt-Leb., Minthostachys spicata (Benth.) Epling y Minthostachys latifolia Schmidt-Leb., así como una población sin identificar taxonómicamente, que probablemente es un híbrid...

  17. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Tratamiento de aguas eutrofizadas de la bahía interior de Puno, Perú, con el uso de dos Macrófitas

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez Monroy, Luis Llberto; Jahuira Huarcaya, Faustino Adolfo; Ibañez Quispe, Vladimiro

    2016-01-01

    La investigación tuvo como propósito determinar los niveles de Nitrógeno Total (NT) y Fósforo Total (PT) de las aguas contaminadas de la bahía interior de la ciudad de Puno, del sector denominado Isla Espinar, de la boca toma de muelle, sector Huaje, y evaluar la eficiencia de dos macrófitas, como el Elodea Canadensis Michax (llacho) y Myriophyllum Quitensis Kunth (hinojo) para la remoción del Nitrógeno y Fósforo. Para valorar las muestras, procedentes del sector Parinas de la Península de Ch...

  19. Clonación molecular de los genes GDP-L-galactosa fosforilasa, L-galactosa deshidrogenasa y L-galactono-1.4-lactona deshidrogenasa de la vía biosintética de vitamina C en Myrciaria dubia (camu camu)

    OpenAIRE

    Egoávil, Alina; Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana; Torres, Julián; Cobos, Marianela; Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana; Imán, Sixto A.; Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana; Marapara, Jorge L.; Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana; Castro, Juan C.; Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue realizar la clonación molecular de los genes que codifican las enzimas, GDP-L-galactosa fosforilasa (GGF), L-galactosa deshidrogenasa (GDH) y L-galactono-1,4-lactona deshidrogenasa (GLDH) de la ruta biosintética de vitamina C de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh. Los frutos fueron obtenidos de la Colección Nacional de Germoplasma de M. dubia del Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria. El ARN se purificó, se sintetizó el ADNc y amplificó con cebadores degenerados, s...

  20. La guadua: fundamentos para el diseño de estructuras agropecuarias

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Saraz, Jairo Alexander; González Castrillón, Eugenia; Cortés Marín, Elkin Alonso

    2010-01-01

    Resumen: la guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth), el bambú de América, ha influenciado el desarrollo de la cultura colombiana, principalmente en la Región Andina y de manera particular en el Eje cafetero, a través de su aprovechamiento en todo tipo de usos tales como vivienda, muebles, instrumentos musicales, conducción de agua, puentes, jaulas, y, en fin, en un sinnúmero de utensilios y espacios tan amplios como la necesidad y la imaginación lo han permitido. En los últimos años, la guadua ha ...

  1. O gênero Chloris (Poaceae) em Pernambuco, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Jefferson Rodrigues; Silva, Wegliane Campelo da; Costa-e-Silva, Maria Bernadete

    2013-01-01

    Com o objetivo de colaborar com o conhecimento da riqueza de Poaceae em Pernambuco, foi estudado o gênero Chloris Sw. As coletas foram realizadas no estado, bem como dados foram coligidos de levantamento em herbários da região. Foram registradas sete espécies de Chloris em Pernambuco: C. barbata Sw., C. elata Desv., C. exilis Renv., C. gayana Kunth, C. orthonoton Döll, C. pycnothrix Trin. e C. virgata Sw. O gênero apresenta distribuição ampla em todas as zonas fitogeográficas do estado. Chlor...

  2. As espécies de Coccoloba P. Browne (Polygonaceae) da Amazônia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Efigênia de

    2004-01-01

    O gênero Coccoloba está representado na Amazônia brasileira por 23 espécies: Coccoloba acuminata Kunth, C. arborescens (Vell.) R. A. Howard, C. ascendens Duss ex Lindau, C. brasiliensis Nees & Mart., C. charitostachya Standl., C. conduplicata Maguire, C. coronata Jacq., C. declinata (Vell.) Mart., C. densifrons Mart. ex Meisn., C. excelsa Benth., C. gentryi R. A. Howard, C. latifolia Lam., C. lehmannii Lindau, C. lucidula Benth., C. marginata Benth., C. mollis Casar., C. ovata Benth., C. ...

  3. The Species of Cocoloba P. Browne (Polygonaceae) from brasilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Efigênia de

    2004-01-01

    O gênero Coccoloba está representado na Amazônia brasileira por 23 espécies: Coccoloba acuminata Kunth, C. arborescens (Vell.) R. A. Howard, C. ascendens Duss ex Lindau, C. brasiliensis Nees & Mart., C. charitostachya Standl., C. conduplicata Maguire, C. coronata Jacq., C. declinata (Vell.) Mart., C. densifrons Mart. ex Meisn., C. excelsa Benth., C. gentryi R. A. Howard, C. latifolia Lam., C. lehmannii Lindau, C. lucidula Benth., C. marginata Benth., C. mollis Casar., C. ovata Benth., C. para...

  4. Desarrollo de un Protocolo de propagación in vitro de Geranium chilloense Wild. ex Kuth. Y Lupinus pubescens Benth. Para la obtención de plantas completas, para la primera etapa de restauración de las quebradas de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides Silva, Thaly Gabriela; Córdova Muñoz, Adriana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Geranium chilloense Willd. ex Kunth known as geranio de los Chillos, is an ornamental plant, native of Los Andes it can be found in a wild way in the ravines of the Metropolitan District of Quito and it is part of the history of the native flora of Quito since has been described from the Alexander Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland expedition in 1802. Lupinus pubescens Benth, also known as Ashpa chocho or Allpa chocho, is an herbaceous, native and ornamental plant due to the beauty of his flowers, de...

  5. Caracterização morfo-fisiológica e patogenicidade de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides da pupunheira Characterization morpho-physiological and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from peach palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudimar Mafacioli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolados de Colletotorichum sp. de folhas de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes com sintomas de antracnose foram comparados fenotipicamente, visando a sua caracterização e identificação. Foram analisados 17 isolados, oriundos dos Estados do Acre, Rondônia, Espírito Santo, São Paulo e Paraná. Caracterizaram-se os sintomas da doença e os isolados foram comparados em relação à forma e tamanho de conídios e apressórios, e quanto a coloração das colônias, crescimento micelial e esporulação em meio de cultura. A patogenicidade dos isolados foi confirmada em folhas de pupunheira destacadas. Todos os isolados foram identificados como Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e a fase meiospórica in vitro (Glomerella cingulata ocorreu apenas em um isolado procedente de Linhares, Espírito Santo.Isolates of Colletotrichum sp. obtained from leaves of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes showing symptoms of anthracnosis from several regions of Brazil were characterized and identified based on their phenotypic traits. A total of 17 isolates collected from the states of Acre and Rondônia, where the peach palm is originated as well as from Southern States such as Espirito Santo, São Paulo and Paraná, where peach palm has been introduced for the production of palm heart, were studied. Disease symptoms were characterized and the isolates were compared based on form and size of conidia and apressoria, color of the colony, mycelial growth and sporulation in vitro. The pathogenicity of all isolates was confirmed based on a detached leaf of peach palm assay. All isolates were characterized as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the occurrence of the meiosporic stage (Glomerella cingulata was observed only for one isolate.

  6. REVISIÓN TAXONÓMICA DE LOASACEAE EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguera Eliana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Loasaceae no ha sido estudiada taxonómicamente en Venezuela, por tal razón se realizó una revisión taxonómica que permitió reconocer las especies presentes en el país y los principales caracteres de importancia taxonómica para su reconocimiento. Se examinaron 102 especímenes de Loasaceae depositados en herbarios nacionales e internacionales. En Venezuela, Loasaceae está representada por tres subfamilias (Gronovioideae, Loasoideae y Mentzelioideae, cuatros géneros (Gronovia, Klaprothia, Nasa y Mentzelia y nueve especies (Gronovia scandens L., Klaprothia fasciculata (C. Presl Poston, K. mentzelioides Kunth, Nasa lindeniana (Urb. & Gilg Weigend, N. venezuelensis (Steyerm. Weigend, N. perijensis (Weigend Weigend, N. triphylla (Juss. Weigend subsp. papaverifolia (Kunth Weigend, Mentzelia aspera L., M scabra subsp. chilensis (Gay Weigend. Se proporcionan claves para las especies presentes en el país, descripciones, ejemplares examinados, sinónimos, ilustraciones, datos de distribución geográfica y ecología, y breves comentarios morfológicos. El indumento y la ornamentación de la cubierta seminal son los principales caracteres de valor taxonómico para distinguir las especies de Loasaceae venezolanas.

  7. Caracterización bromatológica de especies y subproductos vegetales en el trópico húmedo de Colombia

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    Dissa Enith Mosquera Perea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el potencial nutritivo para especies pecuarias de recursos locales existentes en el municipio de Quibdó, departamento del Chocó (Colombia, teniendo en cuenta la composición bromatológica y digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS en hojas de árbol del pan (Arthocarpus altilis Z., pacó (Gustavia superba Kunth. y achín (Colocasia esculenta Linn, cáscaras del fruto de chontaduro (Bractris gasipaess Kunth. y de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L.. El análisis bromatológico incluyó materia seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, ceniza (Cen, fibra detergente ácida (FDA, fibra detergente neutra (FDN, lignina detergente ácida (LDA y energía bruta (EB. Las hojas de achín y de árbol del pan presentaron los contenidos más altos de PB (27.78 y 19.38% y de EB (3911 y 3981 cal/g, respectivamente. Los valores de DIVMS más altos se presentaron en cáscaras de chontaduro (78.9% y hojas de achín (68.6%. En general, los recursos en estudio presentan valor nutritivo similar al de forrajes cultivados, por tanto, son una alternativa posible para la sustitución parcial de materias primas costosas en dietas para animales de granja.

  8. Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. em uma área de Caatinga da ESEC Raso da Catarina, BA, Brasil Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. in the Caatinga of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia State, Brazil

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    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do levantamento florístico-taxonômico da família Boraginaceae em um trecho de Caatinga da Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Bahia, Brasil. Foram encontrados sete espécies e três gêneros de Boraginaceae: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth, C. leucocephala Moric. e C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray e Heliotropium elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. e Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC. e T. salzmannii DC.. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e hábitat.A floristic-taxonomic survey of the family Boraginaceae was carried out in a fragment of Caatinga vegetation of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia, Brazil. Seven species and three genera of Boraginaceae were found: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth; C. leucocephala Moric.; C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray; H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. and Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC.; T. salzmannii DC.. Keys to identify genera and species are presented together with descriptions, illustrations, and comments on relationships among these taxa, distribution and habitat.

  9. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp: Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Composición química de cuatro aceites esenciales provenientes de Eupatorium spp. y su toxicidad para Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Hugo G. Lancelle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic and repellent properties of whole essential oils from four Eupatorium (Asteraceae species (E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker, and E. viscidum Hook. & Arn were investigated in different concentrations toward Tribolium castaneum Herbst adults. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation techniques from the aerial parts. The analysis was performed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Contact toxicity assays showed that all the evaluated essential oils were toxic. Furthermore, in all the cases mortality was dose dependent. The main repellency was observed for the essential oil recovered from E. buniifolium.Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  10. In vitro schistosomicidal effects of aqueous and dichloromethane fractions from leaves and stems of Piper species and the isolation of an active amide from P. amalago L. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, V S; Vieira, S C H; de Paula, R G; Rodrigues, V; Magalhães, L G; Cortez, D A G; Da Silva Filho, A A

    2014-09-01

    Dichloromethane and aqueous fractions from leaves and stems of Piper arboreum Aubl., P. aduncum L., P. amalago L., P. crassinervium H.B. & K., P. diospyrifolium Kunth, P. hispidum Sw. and P. xylosteoides (Kunth) Steud. were tested against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni. The in vitro activity was evaluated in terms of mortality, number of separated worms and number of worms with reduced motor activity. Most dichloromethane fractions from all Piper species showed moderate schistosomicidal activity, but aqueous fractions were not active. The dichloromethane fraction of P. amalago leaves (at 100 μg/ml) showed the highest activity, resulting in worm mortality, the separation of worm pairs and reduced motor activity. Chromatographic fractionation of the dichloromethane fraction of P. amalago leaves led to the isolation of its major compound, which was also tested against adults of S. mansoni. The isolated piperamide N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine, at 100 μ m, resulted in the mortality of all adult worms after 24 h of incubation. The findings suggest that species of Piper are potential sources of schistosomicidal compounds.

  11. Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test

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    Guadalupe García P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ageratina glabrata (Kunth R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studied, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts in an animal model of nociception exploiting thermal stimuli. NMR and mass analyses identified a new thymol derivative, 10-benzoiloxy-6,8,9-trihydroxy-thymol isobutyrate (1, which was computationally converted into a ring-closed structure to explain interaction with the COX-2 enzyme in a ligand-receptor docking study. The resulting docked pose is in line with reported crystal complexes of COX-2 with chromene ligands. Based on the present results of dichloromethane extracts from its dried leaves, it is safe to utter that the plant possesses analgesic effects in animal tests which are mediated through inhibition of COX-2 enzyme.

  12. Patrones de distribución espacial de árboles en un bosque estacionalmente seco del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape en el noroeste peruano

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    Reynaldo Linares-Palomino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de los patrones de distribución espacial de cuatro especies de árboles características de los bosques secos del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape en el noroeste peruano, inventariando seis parcelas de una hectárea cada una. Para ello se utilizó la versión modificada de la estadística K de Ripley. Eriotheca ruizii (K. Schum. A. Robyns (Bombacaceae, Bursera graveolens (Kunth Triana & Planch. (Burseraceae, Caesalpinia glabrata Kunth (Leguminosae y Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd. Spreng. (Cochlospermaceae presentan patrones que no son significantemente diferentes de un patrón completamente al azar en 11 de los 17 casos analizados. Al nivel de la escala espacial analizada, esto está en desacuerdo con el postulado general para bosques tropicales de que las especies vegetales tienden a encontrarse agrupadas. Estos resultados se analizan y discuten a la luz de los diversos factores que influyen en producirlos.

  13. Datos preliminares a la actualización de la flora de palmae del Perú: intensidad de herborización y riqueza de las colecciones

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    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available DONNEES PRELIMINAIRES A L’ACTUALISATION DE LA FLORE DES PALMIERS DU PEROU : INTENSITE DES COLLECTES ET RICHESSE DES COLLECTIONS. Une banque de données a été constituée à partir des informations recueillies sur les étiquettes de 2897 échantillons collectés au Pérou. Elle comprend 33 genres indigènes parmi lesquels Geonoma, Bactris, Chamaedorea et Hyospathe sont les plus collectés. De tous les échantillons, 73.9 % sont identifiés à l’espèce, totalisant 152 taxons. Le taux d’identification varie beaucoup d’un genre à l’autre. Les palmiers indigènes ont été collectés dans 47 provinces appartenant à 14 départements. La très grande majorité des échantillons proviennent de l’Amazonie et de la région subandine. Les sites de haute diversité et les régions peu prospectées sont mis en évidence. La discussion tient compte du degré de fiabilité des identifications des espèces et des informations géographiques des étiquettes, d’une part, de la représentativité de l’échantillon traité, d’autre part, pour finalement statuer sur l’efficacité opérationnelle d’une telle banque de données. Se ha constituido un banco de datos a partir de las informaciones contenidas en las etiquetas de 2897 muestras de herbario colectadas en el Perú. Éste incluye 33 géneros nativos. Los más colectados son Geonoma, Bactris, Chamaedorea, y Hyospathe. El 73.9 % de los especimenes están determinados a nivel de especie, con un total de 152 taxa. La tasa de determinación varía mucho de un género a otro. Se colectaron palmeras nativas en 47 provincias distribuidas en 14 departamentos. La gran mayoría de las muestras provienen de la Amazonia y de la región subandina. Se ponen en evidencia los lugares de alta diversidad, así como las regiones donde se colectó poco. Finalmente, se discute sobre la eficacia operacional del banco de datos, tomando en cuenta el grado de fiabilidad de las determinaciones a nivel de especie y de los

  14. Qualidade do palmito da palmeira real em conserva Industrial adaptability of the heart of palm from Archontophoenix alexandrae and A. cunninghamiana

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    Shirley Aparecida Garcia Berbari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o aproveitamento industrial e a qualidade do palmito da palmeira Real Australiana (Archontophoenix alexandrae e A. cunninghamiana em comparação aos palmitos das palmeiras Açaí (Euterpe oleracea e Pupunha (Bactris gasipaes. O palmito foi processado como conserva acidificada e pasteurizada e submetido às análises de comprimento e diâmetro dos toletes, peso bruto, líquido e drenado, espaço livre, vácuo, pH, avaliação microbiológica, cor e textura objetivas e avaliação sensorial quanto à cor, aparência, textura, sabor e preferência geral. Os resultados da pesquisa mostraram que o palmito da palmeira Real é adequado para processamento em forma de conserva acidificada e pasteurizada, apresentando características sensoriais semelhantes às das outras variedades. Do ponto de vista da estabilidade ao armazenamento, as análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas mostraram que o palmito da palmeira Real em conserva se apresentou estável durante o período de doze meses de armazenamento. Pode-se afirmar então, que a palmeira Real Australiana apresenta boa qualidade em termos de industrialização na forma de palmito em conserva acidificada e pasteurizada.The objective of this research was to evaluate the industrial adaptability of the heart of palm from Archontophoenix alexandrae e A. cunninghamiana in comparison with "Açaí" (Euterpe oleracea and "Pupunha" (Bactris gasipaes hearts. The heart of palm was canned acidified and pasteurized and analyzed in terms of stems length and diameter, the gross, net and drained weight, headspace; pH; vacuum; microbiological evaluation, objective color and texture and sensorial evaluation of color, appearance, texture, taste and general preference. The results showed that Australian royal palm is adequate for the process of acidified canning and pasteurization since it presented sensorial characteristics similar to other varieties. During 12 months of storage

  15. Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang

    1999-07-01

    The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for

  16. Desenvolvimento de mudas de pupunheira em Latossolo argiloso compactado artificialmente em subsuperfície Peach palm seedlings development in artificiality subsurface compacted clayly Latossol

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    Ivan Bordin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. cultivadas em amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico de textura argilosa compactado artificialmente em subsuperfície. As amostras de solo que foram compactadas a quatro níveis de densidade (1,0; 1,13; 1,28 e 1,44kg dm-3 estavam nas camadas intermediárias de 3,5cm de vasos de PVC de 20cm de diâmetro, que constavam de outras camadas superiores de 15cm e inferiores de 10cm. As avaliações foram realizadas em quatro épocas (4, 6, 8 e 10 meses. O aumento dos níveis de densidade do solo não influenciou no desenvolvimento da parte aérea das mudas de pupunheira. Independentemente da época estudada, os níveis de densidade do Latossolo argiloso não impediram a penetração das raízes da pupunheira.This study was carried out to evaluate the development of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. seedlings submitted to artificiality subsurface compacted layers of a clayly texture eutroferric Red Latossol. The compacted soil was at the middle ring of the PVC pots. They were 20cm of diameter, divided in tree rings with 15; 3,5 and 10cm from the up side. The soil was submitted to four density levels (1,0; 1,13; 1,28 and 1,44kg dm-3, which determined the treatments. The evaluations were accomplished in four times (4, 6, 8 and 10 months. The increase of the soil density levels didn't influence in the development of the aerial part of the peach palm seedlings. Independent of the studied time, the clayly Latossol density levels, didn't prevent the peach palm roots penetration.

  17. O uso do camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, para confecção de artesanato no Distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brasil The use of the camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, for handicraft in the District of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brazil

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    Ieda Maria Bortolotto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, conhecida localmente como camalote, é uma planta aquática nativa da América do Sul, abundante no Pantanal. Os índios Guató usavam essa planta no Pantanal para a confecção de esteiras para dormir. Atualmente a comunidade não indígena do distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, está fazendo artesanato com essa planta. O processo foi ensinado por uma índia Guató (74 anos que manteve a tradição de trançar o camalote. O uso do camalote para a confecção de artesanato é descrito aqui. O método utilizado inclui entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação participante. A extração do camalote é feita nos rios, corixos e lagoas da região. As folhas são cortadas e somente os pecíolos são transportados para casa, lavados em água corrente e colocados para secar ao sol. Depois de secos os pecíolos são trançados e costurados. A técnica original dos Guató consiste em costurar o artesanato com linhas confeccionadas com algodão (Gossypium sp. ou tucum (Bactris sp., atualmente substituídos por fios de nylon, em Albuquerque. O artesanato é vendido aos turistas.Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, known locally as camalote, is an aquatic plant indigenous to South America, abundant in the Pantanal, Brazil. Guató Indians used it for making sleeping mats in the Pantanal. The non-Indian community of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, nowadays, is also using it for the same purposes. An ancient Guató Indian 74 years old taught the process. The use of the camalote for handicraft in Albuquerque is described here. The methods of investigation included both semi structured interviews and participant observations. The extraction of the camalote is made on the rivers, corixos and lagoons of the area. The leaf blades are cut and only petioles are carried to the houses, washed in clear water, and dried in the sun. After dried, the petioles are woven and sewed. The Guató original technique consists of sewing the craft

  18. Caracterización ecológica de lombrices nativas (Pheretima sp., Eudovoscolex sp. y Periscolex sp. bajo diferentes usos del suelo (Guaviare, Colombia Ecological characterization of nature earthworm (Pheretima sp., Eudovoscolex sp. y Periscolex sp. under different soil uses (Guaviare, Colombia

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    Fuentes Baca Anamaría

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron las poblaciones de lombrices de tierr.a de las especies Pheretimasp., Eudovoscolexsp. y Periscolex sp., presentes en un Typic Dystropept del municipio El Retorno (Guaviare, Colombia, bajo ocho tipos de usos (pradera sin pastoreo, pradera con semipastoreo, arreglo silvopastoril, cultivos de chontaduro y cacao socolado, rastrojo de cinco años, rastrojo de segundo crecimiento y bosque, utilizando 10 unidades de muestreo por cobertura y evaluando parámetros de abundancia, densidad y biomasa en relación con algunas características físico-químicas del suelo. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas entre las cantidades totales de huevos y adultos en el sistema silvopastoril vs. las praderas y en la pradera con semipastoreo vs. pradera sin pastoreo y de adultos en la cobertura chontaduro (Bactrys gasipaes - kudzu vs. cacao (Theobroma cacao. En varios casos, las respuestas de biomasa y densidad no fueron coincidentes. Mientras que en bosque natural las especies se distribuyen por igual, en las demás coberturas se presentan diferentes patrones de distribución. Se encontraron correlaciones entre biomasa, densidad y abundancia de lombrices con los contenidos de fósforo y magnesio y con la densidad aparente del suelo.
    Earthworm populations of Pheretima sp., Eudovoscolex sp. and Periscolex sp found in Typic Dystropepts from El Retorno (Guaviare, Colombia were evaluated for eight different soil uses. Ten experimental units were used to evaluate abundance, density and biomass, as related to soil physico-chemical characteristics. Results showed significant differences between total amount of eggs and adults under forest pasture combinet use vs grazing, and, grazing plus partially grazing vs non-pasture grazing, and, adults in chontaduro (Bactrys gasipaes - Kudzu vs cacao (Theobroma cacao covering. Biomass and densities answers did not show similar results while in undisturbed forest the species have the same pattern

  19. Estudo sensorial de sopa-creme formulada à base de palmito Sensorial evaluation of cream soup formulated with heart of palm base

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    Marlene Azevedo Magalhães MONTEIRO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O coração da palmeira Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. (pupunha, foi utilizado sob forma desidratada na formulação de uma sopa-creme para merenda escolar. A análise sensorial dessa sopa-creme foi feita em duas partes. Testou-se a sopa-creme em adultos utilizando-se a escala hedônica variando de 1 a 9 pontos ( 1 -- "desgostei extremamente" e 9 -- "gostei extremamente", e, para crianças, a escala hedônica facial de 1 a 7 pontos ( 1- "desgostei extremamente" e 7 -- "gostei extremamente". Os resultados encontrados na análise sensorial revelaram não haver diferença significativa, quando comparadas as sopas-creme de palmito e coração da palmeira, para adultos; quanto às crianças, a sopa-creme de coração da palmeira alcançou o "gostei moderadamente". Esses podem ser considerados bons resultados, uma vez que o palmito não faz parte do hábito alimentar destas crianças.The utilization of the sub-product of processing of Bactris gasipaes was studied using a dehydration process for processed food (soup-cream to be used in school snacks. The sensorial analysis by a standard-formulation for soup-cream obtained by the early tests was made. An hedonic analysis ranging from 1 to 9 (1- "I extremely disliked it" and 9- "I extremely liked it" was used for sensorial analysis in adults; and a facial hedonic analysis ranging from 1 to 7 (1- "I extremely disliked it" and 7- "I extremely liked it" was used for children. The sensorial analysis revealed no diferences between the soup-cream of the heart of palm and that of the palm stipes for adults; for children, the rating of the soup-cream of palm stipes reached "I sort of liked it"> These can be taken as good results since heart of palm is not a common meal for the children in that sample.

  20. Nutrição mineral de mudas de pupunheira sob diferentes níveis de salinidade Mineral nutrition of peach palm seedlings under different salinity levels

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    Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available O potencial produtivo das plantas pode ser afetado por desordens nutricionais, induzidas pelo estresse salino. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência de diferentes níveis de salinidade na nutrição mineral de mudas de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., mediante o uso de solução nutritiva, em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram das seguintes doses (mmol L-1: 0,0 de Na e 0,5 de Cl; 1,0 de Na e 0,5 de Cl (controle; e 5,0, 15,0, 30,0, 60,0 e 120,0 de NaCl. Os teores dos macronutrientes variaram em razão da salinidade, e verificou-se que o P e K apresentaram seus teores reduzidos nas raízes, o K e o Ca, nas folhas e o S, nas diferentes partes, enquanto o Na e o Cl apresentaram teores incrementados nas diferentes partes da planta. As relações Na/K, Na/Ca, Na/Mg, Cl/N, Cl/P e Cl/S aumentaram, causando um desbalanço nutricional na planta.The productive potential of plants may be affected by nutritional disorders induced by saline stress. The objective was to study the influence of different salinity levels on mineral nutrition of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. seedlings in greenhouse conditions with nutritive solution. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the following dosages (mmol L-1: 0.0 of Na and 0.5 of Cl; 1.0 of Na and 0.5 of Cl (control; and 5.0, 15.0, 30.0, 60.0 and 120.0 of NaCl. The content of the macronutrients varied with the salinity, there was reduction of P and K in the roots, K and Ca in the leaves, and S in different parts of the plants. Therefore, there was increase of Na and Cl in different parts of the plant. The enhancement of the ratios Na/K, Na/Ca, Na/Mg, Cl/N, Cl/P and Cl/S induced a nutritional imbalance in the plant.

  1. Gamma radiation (Co60) effects on active substances and microbe burden of medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Agnol, L.

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of radioactivity on active vegetal substances, samples of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller., fructus), Guarana (Paulinia cupana, Kunth, semen), Gingko (gingko biloba, L., folium), and Kawa-Kawa (Piper methysticum G. Forst, rhizoma), were treated with scaling doses (0 to 25 KGy) of gamma radiation (Co 60 ). The 'blind test' methodology was used. The active substances from each sample were analysed by qualitative and quantitative methods after radiation. There were no significant differences seen between the control sample (0 KGy) and the irradiated samples. Microbe contamination was significantly reduced, about 10000 CFU/g, with the initial 5 KGy dose. It was concluded that gamma radiation can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce microbiologic contamination in medicinal plants. Before this procedure can be extended to other medicinal plants, more specific analytical methods are recommended to verify possible structural alterations in active vegetal molecules. (author)

  2. BASIC ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES of Ammannia auriculata var. arenaria (LYTHRACEAE

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    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define some anatomical characteristics of Ammannia auriculata Willd. var. arenaria (Kunth Koehne (Lythraceae to ensure a proper identification of the species and prevent confusion with other plants. Roots, leaves and stems of the plants were fixed in Formalin-Aceto-Alcohol (FAA, stained with various dyes, examined under a microscope and their photos were taken. The microscopic investigations of the plant parts revealed that 1 the leaf anatomy showed partly mezophyte character, the stem and roots beared aquatic characters with a wide aeranchymatic cortex and 2 thick lignified secondary xylem tissue in the roots and stems were located outwards of the stele. The results were compared with those of similar studies.

  3. Citoprotective effect of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia on three celular lines of mouse exposed in vivo to potassium bromate

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael, Alvis; Pino, José; Gonzáles, José; Francia, Juan C.; Shiga, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó in vivo la capacidad citoprotectora del fruto de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh Camu-camu frente al daño mutagénico producido por bromato de potasio (68,5 mg/k) sobre tres líneas celulares de ratón (hígado, riñón y células sanguíneas). Se utilizó ratones (n= 120) divididos en tres grupos los cuales bebieron ad libitum: TI= control negativo (solo agua) y el grupo TIII (control positivo); El grupo TII bebió el extracto acuoso (2% p/v) del fruto de camu-camu. A los diez días se inyect...

  4. Floristic diversity in agro-ecosystem livestock bovine of the Canton “El Carmen” in Manabi’s province, Ecuador

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    Justo A. Rojas Rojas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of 2013 the species that are part of the diversity of flora in agroecosystems cattle ranching bovine in Canton El Carmen, Manabí, Ecuador were determined. A total of 13 botanical species of which Sida acuta Burm. had the highest records with 29.7 % of dominance and a frequency of 51.0 %, followed by the species Senna obtusifolia (L. H. S. Irwin & Barneby, Desmodium tortuosum (Sw. DC, Pavonia sidifolia Kunth and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl. These five species were found to be the most dominant and frequent with respect to all the species found. The Jaccard coefficient showed 53,8 % similarity regarding diversity of plant species.

  5. Sensory and volatile profiles of monofloral honeys produced by native stingless bees of the brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira da; Sousa, Janaína Maria Batista; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Garruti, Deborah Dos Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely

    2018-03-01

    Monofloral honeys produced by stingless bees M. subnitida Ducke and M. scutellaris Latrelle in typical flowering of the Brazilian semi-arid Ziziphus juazeiro Mart (juazeiro), Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (velame branco) and Mimosa arenosa willd Poir (jurema branca) were characterized in relation to volatile and sensorial profile. It identified 11 sensory descriptors and 96 volatile compounds. It was noticed a strong effect of flowering in sensorial profile and volatile of honeys. Juazeiro honey stood out with a higher characteristic aroma, taste sweet, caramel flavor and levels of aromatic aldehydes; jurema honey has been described with herb and beeswax aroma and the presence of sulfur compounds and ketones; volatile acids associated with acid taste, medicinal taste and clove aroma characterized the velame branco honey. These results demonstrate that the knowledge of the sensory and aroma profile of these honeys can contribute to characterization of its floral and geographical identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp. Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Hugo G. LANCELLE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  7. Composição florística de uma comunidade savânica no Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil Floristic composition of a savanna community in Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil

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    Ana Cláudia Pereira de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available No município de Rio do Fogo foi registrada, em 1976, somente através de imagens de radar, uma comunidade de Cerrado para a qual, até então, não havia estudo in loco. Algumas questões foram elaboradas sobre essa comunidade: A região delimitada e descrita por meio de imagens de radar pode ser considerada Cerrado, do ponto de vista florístico? Qual a fitogeografia das espécies registradas nessa comunidade? Há ocorrência de espécies raras, endêmicas ou ameaçadas de extinção na composição florística dessa comunidade? Para responder a estas questões realizou-se o levantamento florístico em 400 ha, no período de agosto/2007 a setembro/2009. Os dados indicaram que das 94 espécies registradas em Rio do Fogo, 73 são associadas ao Cerrado, 69 também se distribuem na Caatinga, 60 na Floresta Atlântica, 47 na Floresta Amazônica, 14 no Pantanal e 11 no Pampa. Foram listadas pela primeira vez para o Rio Grande do Norte (RN 39 espécies; Stylosanthes gracilis Kunth (Fabaceae e Aristida laevis (Nees Kunth (Poaceae são citadas pela primeira vez para o Nordeste do Brasil. Aspilia procumbens Baker (Asteraceae apresentou distribuição restrita ao estado e insere-se na categoria criticamente em perigo; já Stilpnopappus cearensis Hubber na categoria vulnerável à extinção. Concluiu-se que essa área pode ser classificada floristicamente como pertencente ao domínio do Cerrado, podendo ser apontada como área-chave para a conservação.In the municipality of Rio do Fogo (in 1976 a savanna community was registered by radar that, until now, has not been studied in loco. Some questions were asked about this community: Is this area Cerrado, floristically? What is the phytogeography of plant species in this community? Do rare, endemic or endangered species occur in this community? To answer these questions a floristic inventory, from August 2007 to September 2009, was performed in 400 ha of this region. The data indicated that of the 94

  8. Composition and biological activity of essential oils against Metopolophium dirhodum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) cereal crop pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopa, Carolina Sánchez; Descamps, Lilian R

    2012-11-01

    Natural pesticides based on plant essential oils may represent alternative crop protectants. This study analysed the chemical constituents and bioactivities of essential oils from Schinus areira L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Tagetes terniflora Kunth against winged and wingless adults of Metopolophium dirhodum (Walk.). The major component of S. areira was α-phellandrene, that of R. officinalis was 1,8-cineole and that of T. terniflora was cis-ocimene. Rosemary essential oil was more effective than the others in immersion method tests. In contact toxicity, the rosemary oil was the most toxic to wingless adults and the S. areira leaf oil was the most toxic to winged adults. All the EOs produced some degrees of repellency in adults and effects on the reproduction and demographic parameters. These results showed that the essential oils from S. areira, R. officinalis and T. terniflora could be used as an alternative in the management of M. dirhodum. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Quantitative ethnobotany in an atlantic forest fragment of northeastern Brazil: implications to conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Luiz Vital F Cruz; De Albuquerque, Ulysses P

    2006-03-01

    An ethnobotanical study was executed in the rural community of the Municipality of "Rio Formoso", starting from the forest inventory accomplished in an Atlantic Forest remnant adjacent to the studied community. Using the methodology of quantitative ethnobotany allied to the ecological parameters (richness, relative frequency, relative density, relative dominance and importance value index) the following results were obtained: 42 inventoried species gathered in 26 families, presented from 1 to 27 means of use for the community. The largest use of the plants is related to obtaining wood in order to be used in house building, firewood production and charcoal. The largest use value was attributed to the Vouacapoua virgilioides (Kunth) Kuntze. The most frequent species were Tapirira guianensis Aubl. (Anacardiaceae), Thyrsodium schomburgkianum Benth. (Anacardiaceae), Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyem. & Frodin (Araliaceae) and Dialium guianense (Aubl.) Sandwith. (Leg-Caesalpinioideae).

  10. Assessment of Adiantum incisum, Alternanthera pungens and Trichodesma indicum as bio-insecticides against stored grain pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdar, N.; Yasmin, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the insecticidal potential of Adiantum incisum Forssk (Pteridaceae), Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae) and Trichodesma indicum L. (Boraginaceae). Aqueous, methanolic and n-hexane extracts of whole plants (roots, stem and leaves) were prepared using maceration technique. Insecticidal activities of aqueous, methanolic and n-hexane extracts of three plants (10, 20 and 30 mg/mL) were evaluated by impregnated filter paper insecticidal assay. Methanol and hexane extracts of Adiantum incisum gave effective LD 50 (15.3 mg/mL) against Callosobruchus chinensis and Sitophilus oryzae (LD5022 mg/mL) after 24 hours respectively. Present research elucidates the important phytochemicals (alkaloids, saponins and tannins) in three plants by FTIR and good insecticidal activity (LD50 < 25 mg/mL in 24 hours) against Callosobruchus chinensis and Sitophilus oryzae. Current study promotes further investigations for using these plant extracts as anti-feedants, repellents, fumigants and formulation of non-toxic bio-insecticides. (author)

  11. Development of tablets containing semipurified extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana

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    Traudi Klein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the technological feasibility of producing a semipurified extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae in tablet form, using a direct-compression process. Maltodextrin and gum arabic were used to produce the extract microparticles, in order to protect the microparticles against such factors as temperature, oxidation, and humidity. Using pharmacopoeial methodologies, technological and physicochemistry tests (determination of residual moisture, of bulk and tapped density, Hausner ratio, compressibility and compactibility index, appearance, mean weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time, determination of EPA amount in tablets and in vitro release profile were conducted. The formulation containing 200 mg of microparticles, 170 mg microcrystalline cellulose, and 10 mg lactose gave the best results in terms of hardness (116 N, friabilility (0.28%, mean weight (0.3821 g, and disintegration time (25 min for a tablet designed for oral administration. The results met pharmacopoeial specifications, and the tablets are suitable for oral administration.

  12. Experimental evaluation and simulation of volumetric shrinkage and warpage on polymeric composite reinforced with short natural fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jonnathan D.; Fajardo, Jorge I.; Cuji, Alvaro R.; García, Jaime A.; Garzón, Luis E.; López, Luis M.

    2015-09-01

    A polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composite is developed by extrusion and injection molding process. The shrinkage and warpage of high-density polyethylene reinforced with short natural fibers of Guadua angustifolia Kunth are analyzed by experimental measurements and computer simulations. Autodesk Moldflow® and Solid Works® are employed to simulate both volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts at different configurations: 0 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 40 wt.% reinforcing on shrinkage and warpage behavior of polymer composite. Become evident the restrictive effect of reinforcing on the volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts. The results indicate that volumetric shrinkage of natural composite is reduced up to 58% with fiber increasing, whereas the warpage shows a reduction form 79% to 86% with major fiber content. These results suggest that it is a highly beneficial use of natural fibers to improve the assembly properties of polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composites.

  13. Improvement of the Antioxidant Properties and Postharvest Life of Three Exotic Andean Fruits by UV-C Treatment

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    María J. Andrade-Cuvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three Andean fruits naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam., uvilla (Physalis peruviana L., and mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth were subjected to prestorage UV-C treatments (0, 8, or 12.5 kJ m−2 and evaluated weekly to select the most suitable dose for fruit quality maintenance during storage (21 days at 6°C. The highest dose retains quality through lower deterioration index for all three fruits and was selected to further analyze the effects on physicochemical and antioxidant properties during storage. UV-C exposure delayed softening in naranjilla and increased soluble solid content in uvilla. UV-C also improved the maintenance of antioxidant capacity (AC in mortiño and uvilla. Overall, results indicate that short prestorage UV-C exposure may be an effective nonchemical approach to supplement low temperature storage, maintain quality, and extend the postharvest life of Andean naranjilla, uvilla, and mortiño fruit.

  14. Conocimiento de seis especies arbustivas utilizadas como plantas nodrizas en el occidente de Guatemala

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    José Vicente Martínez-Arévalo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En la restauración de ecosistemas, una técnica es utilizar arbustos de la sucesión como nodriza. En la parte alta de San Marcos, Guatemala, se ha recurrido al menos a seis de ellos en el establecimiento de pino y pinabete: arrayán (Baccharis vaccinoides Kunth, salvia (Buddleia megalocephala Donn. Sm., mozote (Acaena elongata L., chicajol (Stevia polycephala Bertol, mora (Rubus trilobus Ser. y malacate (Symphoricarpos microphyllus Kunth. Se carece de la documentación de su comportamiento y características que puedan servir para utilizarlas ampliamente como plantas protectoras. En esta investigación se estudió características in situ y reproductivas de estas especies. Entre los principales resultados está que la altura de plantas es de 1.17 a 2.64 m y cobertura de 0.34 a 2.77 m2, con una amplia variación entre y dentro de especies. La cantidad de frutos/planta va desde 90 en S. microphyllus a 59,400 en B. vaccinioides. La propagación vegetativa en campo estuvo entre 48 a 92 %, mayor que cuando se realizó en vivero, donde B. vaccinoides, S. microphyllus y R. trilobus tuvieron mejor respuesta. La propagación por semilla muestra que las seis especies pueden reproducirse adecuadamente. Estos resultados permiten su reproducción en viveros para su uso en restauración ecológica.

  15. Diversidad de árboles y arbustos en fragmentos de bosque seco tropical en río Hato, Panamá

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    Omar R Lopez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En fragmentos de bosque seco tropical en Río Hato, Panamá, estudiamos la composición florística según los árboles y arbustos. Establecimos 61 parcelas de 100 m2 distribuidas de forma aleatoria, totalizando 0.61 hectáreas. En cada unidad de muestreo medimos todos los individuos presentes con un DAP >5.0 cm. Encontramos un total de 52 especies de árboles representadas en veinticinco familias, de las cuales Fabaceae, Burseraceae, Myrtaceae y Rubiaceae aportan mayor número de especies (~35%. La especie Sloanea terniflora (Sessé & Moç. ex DC. Standl se encontró en más del 60.6% de los cuadrantes estudiados y resultó además ser la especie con mayor dominancia relativa (23%, seguida de Anacardium excelsum (Bertero & Balb. ex Kunth Skeels, que con solo quince individuos de grandes diámetros presentó una dominancia relativa del 10%. La diversidad promedio reveló índices intermedios (3.13 índice de Shannon. A pesar del bajo número de especies en comparación con otros BS-T de la región, los fragmentos en Río Hato conservan elementos florísticos de importancia ecológica y para la conservación de los bosques secos. Garcinia madruno (Kunth Hammel, una de las especies más abundante es clave en la producción de frutos para la fauna. Otras especies de importancia son Manilkara sapota (L. P. Royen y Copaifera aromatica Dwyer, las cuales aún son utilizadas como recurso maderero. Es prioritario para Panamá establecer estrategias de conservación que salvaguarden estos fragmentos como fuente de especies del bosque seco tropical y refugio para la vida silvestre.

  16. Piperaceae C. Agardh da Estação Experimental Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG Piperaceae C. Agardh from the Experimental Station of "Mata do Paraíso", Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria de Carvalho-Okano

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu no levantamento dos representantes de Piperaceae na Estação Experimental Mata do Paraíso, no município de Viçosa, MG (20º42'S e 42º55'W, coberta por Floresta Estacionai Semidecidual Montana. No período de março/97 a junho/98 foram realizadas 30 visitas quinzenais à Estação para coleta de material botânico que se encontra depositado no herbário VIC da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram reconhecidos 18 táxons distribuídos nos gêneros Piper L. com 14 espécies, Ottonia Spreng. com três e Pothomorphe Miq. com uma espécie. As espécies mais abundantes foram Piper caldense C.DC., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth e Piper vicosanum Yunck. São apresentadas chaves para identificação dos gêneros e espécies, descrições, ilustrações e comentários.An inventory of the Piperaceae species was made at the Experimental Station of "Mata do Paraíso" in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State (20º42'S and 42º55'W, an area covered by the Semideciduous Mesophytic Montana Forest. Thirty visits were made fortnightly to the station, from March/1997 to June/1998, in order to collect botanical material which was deposited in the VIC herbarium (Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Eighteen taxa, represented by the genera Piper L. (14 species, Ottonia Spreng (3 species, and Potliotnorplie Miq. (1 species were recognized. The most abundant species were Piper caldense CDC, Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth and Piper vicosanum Yunck. Identification keys for the genera and species as well as species descriptions, illustrations and comments are presented.

  17. Flora vascular de açudes de uma região do semi-árido da Bahia, Brasil Pond vascular flora in the semi-arid region of Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram selecionados seis açudes que margeiam a Estrada do Feijão (BA 052, nos municípios de Feira de Santana e Angüera, entre as coordenadas 39º30'-39º00'W e 12º00'-12º30'S. Com a finalidade de se conhecer a flora vascular dos mesmos, esses tipos de plantas foram coletadas de agosto/1996 a dezembro/1997. Registraram-se 121 espécies distribuídas em 46 famílias. As famílias mais representativas foram: Cyperaceae, com 18 espécies (14,9%, Poaceae, com 13 (10,7%, Asteraceae, com 10 (8,3%, Scrophulariaceae e Fabaceae, com 6 (5,0%. As espécies que ocorreram em todos os açudes foram Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae, Echinochloa colona (L. Link (Poaceae, Nymphaea ampla (Salisb. DC. (Nymphaeaceae e Oxycarium cubense (Poepp. & Kunth. Lye (Cyperaceae.Six ponds were studied between August/1996 and December/1997 at the edge of State Highway BA 052, in the municipalities of Feira de Santana and Angüera, 39º30'-39º00'W and 12º00'-12º30'S.With the aim to know their vascular flora, one hundred and twenty-one species of vascular plants were collected, representing 46 families. The most frequent families were: Cyperaceae with 18 species (14.9%, Poaceae with 13 (10.7%, Asteraceae with 10 (8.3%, Scrophulariaceae and Fabaceae with 6 (5.0%. The species which were recorded in all lakes were: Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae, Echinochloa colona (L. Link (Poaceae, Nymphaea ampla (Salisb. DC. (Nymphaeaceae and Oxycarium cubense (Poepp. & Kunth. Lye (Cyperaceae.

  18. Genul Kniphofia Moench în colecția de plante netradiționale a Grădinii Botanice (Institut a Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei

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    Irina SFECLĂ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the bio-ecological and morphological description of the Kniphofia species in the non-traditional perennial plant collection of the Botanical Garden (Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. Six species of the genus Kniphofia Moench were used in the study: Kniphofia uvaria (L. Hook., K. ensifolia Bak., K. tukii Bak., K. nelsonii Mast, K. sarmentosa (Andr. Kunth, K. citrina Bak. Under the pedo-climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova, all species retain their biomorph, which demonstrates a high adaptation capacity. The most prolific species have been shown to be K. sarmentosa, K. tukii and K. ensifolia, which have the highest percentages of seed germination and vegetative multiplication. Rezumat. Acest articol include descrierea bioecologică şi morfologică a speciilor de knifofii în colecţia de plante perene netradiţionale a Grădinii Botanice (Institut a Academiei de Ştiinţe a Moldovei. Obiect de studiu au servit şase specii din genul Kniphofia Moench: Kniphofia uvaria (L. Hook., K. ensifolia Bak., K. tukii Bak., K. nelsonii Mast, K. sarmentosa (Andr. Kunth, K. citrina Bak. În condiţiile pedoclimatice ale Republicii Moldova, toate speciile îşi păstrează biomorfa, fapt ce demonstrează o capacitate de adaptare înaltă. Cele mai prolifice specii s-au dovedit a fi K. sarmentosa, K. tukii şi K. ensifolia, care prezintă cele mai înalte valori ale procentului de germinare a seminţelor şi ale coeficientului de multiplicare vegetativă.

  19. Enzyme characterisation, isolation and cDNA cloning of polyphenol oxidase in the hearts of palm of three commercially important species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Milton Massao; Melo, Geraldo Aclécio; Brombini Dos Santos, Adriana; Bottcher, Alexandra; Cesarino, Igor; Araújo, Pedro; Magalhães Silva Moura, Jullyana Cristina; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    Heart of palm (palmito) is the edible part of the apical meristem of palms and is considered a gourmet vegetable. Palmitos from the palms Euterpe edulis (Juçara) and Euterpe oleracea (Açaí) oxidise after harvesting, whereas almost no oxidation is observed in palmitos from Bactris gasipaes (Pupunha). Previous investigations showed that oxidation in Juçara and Açaí was mainly attributable to polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.14.18.1) activity. In this study, we partially purified PPOs from these three palmitos and analysed them for SDS activation, substrate specificity, inhibition by specific inhibitors, thermal stability, optimum pH and temperature conditions, Km and Ki. In addition, the total phenolic content and chlorogenic acid content were determined. Two partial cDNA sequences were isolated and sequenced from Açaí (EoPPO1) and Juçara (EePPO1). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR expression assays showed that Açaí and Juçara PPOs were strongly expressed in palmitos and weakly expressed in leaves. No amplification was observed for Pupunha samples. The lack of oxidation in the palmito Pupunha might be explained by the low PPO expression, low enzyme activity or the phenolic profile, particularly the low content of chlorogenic acid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution of the root system of peach palm under drip irrigation

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    Adriano da Silva Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of technologies has resulted in increased productivity and the more rational management of peach palm, with irrigation being an important tool for certain regions. Thus, studies leading to proper crop management are extremely important, such as the estimate of the effective depth of the root system, which is indispensable for proper irrigation management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different irrigation depths, as applied by drip irrigation, on the distribution of the root system of peach palm. This experiment was conducted in Ilha Solteira, São Paulo State, Brazil, with drip irrigation, with the two systems (flow of 0.0023 m3 h-1 consisting of four irrigation treatments corresponding to 0, 50, 100 and 150% of Class ‘A’ pan evaporation. After five years, an analysis of the Bactris gasipaes root system was performed at a distance of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 meters from the trunk, collecting sampling at two depths (0.0 to 0.3 m and 0.3 to 0.6 m via the auger method (volumetric analysis. We concluded that the effective depth of the root system used for irrigation management should be a maximum of 0.3 meters.

  1. Palmeras usadas por los indígenas Asháninkas en la Amazonía Peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sosnowska

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra el conocimiento e importancia de las palmeras en la vida de los nativos Asháninkas. Presentamos una descripción cualitativa y cuantitativa de 32 entrevistas, obtenidos durante la visita a siete comunidades nativas ubicadas en los márgenes de los ríos Perené y Tambo en el departamento Junín, Perú. Registramos 15 especies de palmeras usadas por los Asháninkas, agrupadas bajo cinco categorías de uso: alimenticio, construcción, herramienta, ornamental y medicinal. Las especies con usos más amplios son: Attalea phalerata, Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua y Socratea exorhiza. Las partes de las palmeras más utilizadas son los frutos, principalmente gracias a su valor comestible. La cercanía de las comunidades Asháninkas del valle del Perené a ciudades, influirían en un cambio en el tipo de vida tradicional, donde las palmeras son los más importantes recursos naturales utilizados por ellos. Sin embargo, en las comunidades del valle Tambo la vida tradicional, el conocimiento y practica en el uso de las palmeras esta aún vital

  2. Genetic analysis identifies the region of origin of smuggled peach palm seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristo-Araújo, Michelly; Molles, David Bronze; Rodrigues, Doriane Picanço; Clement, Charles R

    2017-04-01

    Seeds of a plant, supposedly a palm tree known popularly as peach palm (Bactris gasipaes), were seized by the Federal Police in the state of Pará, Brazil, without documentation of legal origin to authorize transportation and marketing in Brazil. They were alleged to be from the western part of Amazonas, Brazil, near the frontier with Peru and Colombia, justifying the lack of documentation. The species was confirmed to be peach palm. To determine the likely place of origin, a genetic analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the seized seeds and representative populations of peach palm from all of Amazonia, maintained in the Peach palm Core Collection, at the National Research Institute for Amazonia, using nine microsatellite loci. Reynolds' coancestry analysis showed a strong relationship between the seeds and the Pampa Hermosa landrace, around Yurimaguas, Peru. The Structure program, used to infer the probability of an individual belonging to a given population, showed that most seeds grouped with populations close to Yurimaguas, Peru, corroborating the coancestry analysis. The Pampa Hermosa landrace is the main source of spineless peach palm seeds used in the Brazilian heart-of-palm agribusiness, which motivated the smugglers to attempt this biopiracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed peach-palm by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; dos Santos Cruz, Cristiane Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplying the by-product of peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) on performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of feedlot lambs. Twenty Santa Ines lambs of 150 days average age and 22.4 ± 3.4 kg body weight were confined in individual pens. A completely randomized design was utilized with four experimental diets composed of: fresh peach-palm by-product enriched with urea, fresh peach-palm by-product + concentrate, silage of peach-palm by-product + concentrate, and silage of peach-palm by-product enriched with 15 % corn meal + concentrate. Intake was evaluated daily, and at the end of 42 days of experiments, lambs were slaughtered and the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass parts were evaluated. Performance and carcass characteristics showed differences between the animals' intake of total mixed rations (TMR) and only the diet with roughage. For the lambs that intaked TMR, the form of utilization of roughage (fresh or as silage) affected animal performance but did not change the carcass characteristics. Dry matter intake and feed conversion were influenced by the form of utilization of the silage (with and without additive). Providing fresh by-product plus concentrate improves lamb performance but does not interfere in the carcass characteristics, compared with the use of by-product in the form of silage.

  4. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogerio; Sebbenn, Alexandre M; Clement, Charles R

    2015-03-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99) and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0) were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202), providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112), suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20) participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy.

  5. Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops

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    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta, cacao (Theobroma cacao, pineapple (Ananas comosus, peach palm (Bactris gasipaes and guaraná (Paullinia cupana, while hot peppers (Capsicum spp., inga (Inga edulis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene, origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia.

  6. The presence of coconut in southern Panama in pre-Columbian times: clearing up the confusion.

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    Baudouin, Luc; Gunn, Bee F; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    The pre-Columbian presence of coconut on the Pacific coast of Panama is attested by a number of independent written accounts. However, recent papers question their accuracy and conclude that coconut was introduced to the region by the Spaniards after their conquests. Scope In order to examine the value of such claims, an extensive search was conducted of the relevant historical accounts of coconut in America and in the Orient. The Spanish chronicler Oviedo (1478-1557) is found to have effectively used fruit and seed size to distinguish coconut from other palms. In addition, it is shown that he has been inaccurately faulted with incorrectly representing a cluster of coconuts. The original drawing, a cluster of a native Bactris, was in the marginalia and was only assigned to coconut after Oviedo's death. Finally, the location is identified of a coastal Panamanian site described by Pedro Mártir de Anglería and where tidal dispersal of coconuts was observed. This previously overlooked evidence confirms the pre-historical presence of coconut in Panama. Genetic data indicate that it must have been brought there directly or indirectly from the Philippines. But when, where and by whom remains a subject of research. Further molecular marker studies, computer simulation of natural drift and archaeological research could contribute to this research.

  7. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers

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    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99 and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0 were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202, providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112, suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20 participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy.

  8. USOS DE LAS PALMAS EN LAS TIERRAS BAJAS DEL PACÍFICO COLOMBIANO

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    EVA DOLORES LEDEZMA-RENTERÍA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el conocimiento sobre usos de las palmas en el Pacífico colombiano, para orientar las investigaciones futuras y para definir patrones generales de uso en la región, estudiamos las fuentes de información que documentan usos en esta región. Se registraron 90 tipos de usos en 52 especies de palmas útiles en el Pacífico, que equivalen al 61 % de las palmas que crecen en la región. Los usos se agruparon en ocho categorías de uso y 30 subcategorías; las categorías de uso más importantes fueron construcción, utensilios y herramientas, y alimentación humana. Las especies que registraron mayor número de usos fueron Bactris gasipaes, Astrocaryum standleyanum, Oenocarpus bataua, Euterpe oleracea, Oenocarpus minor, Cocos nucifera, Attalea cuatrecasana, Iriartea deltoidea, Desmoncus cirrhifer y Wettinia quinaria.

  9. Estimación de biomasa por métodos alométricos, nutrimentos y carbono en plantaciones de palmito en Costa Rica

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    Adrián Ares

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El agroecosistema de palmito (Bactris gasipaes es un sistema de producción sostenible en los trópicos húmedos. Los métodos alométricos permiten predecir la producción de biomasa en forma no destructiva en cualquier momento y a partir de este dato determinar las fases de crecimiento del cultivo, los componentes de la biomasa y los nutrimentos asociados a cada componente, así como el rendimiento económico esperado de una plantación. Los objetivos generales del presente trabajo fueron obtener y validar funciones de predicción de la biomasa seca y de palmitos producidos en plantaciones comerciales, para correlacionarlos con la biomasa y la producción comercial de palmitos en las mismas. De esta manera, en varias fincas de la región Atlántica de Costa Rica se cosechó plantas de palmito y se separó sus componentes: follaje, pecíolos y tallos. Se utilizó modelos de regresión no lineales para calcular en forma independiente los coeficientes de las ecuaciones y así estimar los componentes de la biomasa y de la biomasa total. El diámetro basal fue una variable más efectiva para predecir la producción de biomasa que la altura hasta la hoja candela, la altura total y el número de

  10. Factores que influyen en la embriogénesis somática in vitro de palmas (Arecaceae

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    María Viñas

    2011-07-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE is an in vitro developmental pathway that exhibits a number of advantages over other techniques for regeneration of palms. This technique has great potential to overcome the limitations observed when trying to propagate these plants clonally using basal buds. Despite the known recalcitrance of palms for in vitro culture, good results can be obtained by using the appropriate growth regulators, explant type and developmental stage, as well as responsive genotypes. This has been partially observed in Phoenix dactylifera (date palm, Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm, Bactris gasipaes (peach palm and Cocos nucifera (coconut. Efficient protocols have been also generated in less-studied palms, such as Geonoma gamiova (an ornamental palm, Euterpe edulis (Assai palm and Areca catechu (areca palm. Induction of  SE has been achieved mainly through the use of auxins. Of these, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D has been used most frequently, although in some cases (such as in peach palm and African oil palm picloram and dicamba have been employed also with good results. The most commonly used explants are young inflorescences, apical buds and leaf-basal segments. Explant size and culture medium also play an important role in obtaining good results. This review presents a compilation of the most important publications on SE in this plant family and the effect of various factors on induction and development of this pathway. Key words: Culture medium; explants; genotype; plant growth regulators; regeneration

  11. Frutos tropicales como fuente de carotenoides: biosíntesis, composición, biodisponibilidad y efectos del procesamiento

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    Tania Chacón Ordóñez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los carotenoides son compuestos sintetizados a partir del isopentenil difosfato y pueden ser encontrados en una gran diversidad de frutos. Estos pigmentos han sido de interés por sus beneficios en la salud y sus aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria. Existen muchos factores que pueden afectar su concentración y biodisponibilidad para el ser humano; entre ellas las condiciones de cultivo, el manejo poscosecha y el procesamiento que se les dé a los frutos antes de ser consumidos. Esta revisión se enfoca en los conocimientos actuales sobre aspectos relevantes de los carotenoides en diferentes frutos tropicales como la acerola (Malpighia sp., camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia, mango (Mangifera indica, naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, papaya (Carica papaya, pitanga (Eugenia uniflora, pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia aculeata y zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota, para presentar el estado del conocimiento y recomendar aspectos importantes para futuras investigaciones en este campo.

  12. Frutos tropicales como fuente de carotenoides: biosíntesis, composición, biodisponibilidad y efectos del procesamiento

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    Tania Chacón Ordóñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los carotenoides son compuestos sintetizados a partir del isopentenil difosfato y pueden ser encontrados en una gran diversidad de frutos. Estos pigmentos han sido de interés por sus beneficios en la salud y sus aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria. Existen muchos factores que pueden afectar su concentración y biodisponibilidad para el ser humano; entre ellas las condiciones de cultivo, el manejo poscosecha y el procesamiento que se les dé a los frutos antes de ser consumidos. Esta revisión se enfoca en los conocimientos actuales sobre aspectos relevantes de los carotenoides en diferentes frutos tropicales como la acerola (Malpighia sp., camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia, mango (Mangifera indica, naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, papaya (Carica papaya, pitanga (Eugenia uniflora, pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia aculeata y zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota, para presentar el estado del conocimiento y recomendar aspectos importantes para futuras investigaciones en este campo.

  13. Carotenoid composition in oils obtained from palm fruits from the Brazilian Amazon

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    Santos, M. F.G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The oils obtained from native palm fruits are considered new sources of high added value phytochemicals, making it necessary to know the composition of the less studied species in order to evaluate their economic potential. The objective of this study is to identify and quantify the arotenoids in palm fruit oils from the Brazilian Amazon: bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare, by means of liquid phase extraction and HPLC-UV-vis. analysis. The results showed an extremely variable carotenoid content, from 13 mg·kg−1 in bacaba oil to more than 1000 mg·kg−1 in the tucumã one. The oils obtained from buriti, pupunha and tucumã displayed high concentrations of ß-carotene, corresponding to fruits with the series ß, ß dominant metabolism. Upon analyzing the carotenoid profile in bacaba oil for the first time, an extraordinary dominance of the ß, ε pathway was observed, proving them to be oils with high lutein and α-carotene contents. Although the ß, ß pathway dominates in inajá oil, the exclusive and high lycopene content implies that LCY-E is barely active in these fruits, in contrast to what has been evidenced so far. It is therefore of the utmost importance to characterize these new potential sources of carotenoids.Los aceites obtenidos a partir de frutos de palmeras nativas son considerados nuevas fuentes de fitoquímicos con alto valor añadido siendo necesario conocer la composición de las especies menos exploradas para evaluar su potencial económico. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar y cuantificar los carotenoides en aceites defrutos de palmeras provenientes de la Amazonia Brasileña: bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, uriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes y tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare, mediante extracción líquido:líquido y análisis por HPLC UV-vis. Los resultados mostraron un

  14. Minor components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits

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    Santos, M. F.G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the characterization of minor compounds in oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brazil, i.e. bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare. The concentration of minor glyceridic compounds, i.e. dimeric triacylglycerols (TAG, the oxidized TAG and diacylglycerols (DAG related to oil quality, and the compounds of unsaponifiable matter, i.e. hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, sterols and tocopherols have been determined. The results indicate that the extracted oils had good initial quality, with DAG as the major glyceridic compound. The contents of hydrocarbons (50-734 mg·kg–1 and aliphatic alcohols (80-490 mg·kg–1 were highly variable with inajá oil containing the highest contents. In the case of tocopherols, buriti (1567 mg·kg–1 and tucumã (483 mg·kg–1 oils had the highest contents and the presence of significant amounts of tocotrienols was only detected in inajá oil. Finally, high concentrations of sterols were found in all the samples, particularly in the oils from pupunha (4456 mg·kg–1 and tucumã (2708 mg·kg–1, with β-sitosterol being the major sterol in all the samples with percentages between 65 and 83%.El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización de los componentes menores presentes en los aceites obtenidos del mesocarpio de frutos de especies de bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupuña (Bactris gasipaes y tucumá (Astrocaryum vulgare, de importante producción en el Estado de Amapá, Brasil. Se determinaron las dos principales fracciones presentes en los aceites. Por una parte, los compuestos menores derivados de los componentes mayoritarios o triglicéridos (TAG: dímeros de TAG, TAG oxidados y diglicéridos (DAG relacionados con la calidad de los aceites y, por otra, los principales grupos

  15. Major components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits

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    Santos, M. F. G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Native palm trees belong to the Arecaceae family and are among the most useful plant resources in the Amazons. Despite its great diversity and various uses, few species have been study in detail, which makes it necessary to perform more comprehensive studies on the quality and composition of species not yet explored. This study deals with the characterization of the major compounds in the oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brasil, i.e. bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare. Physicochemical characteristics, fatty acids and triacylglycerol (TAG contents were analyzed by HPLC and GC. The proximate composition of the fruits was also analyzed. The results relating to acidity, peroxide value and polar compounds indicate good quality of the oils obtained. Oleic acid ranging from 39.2 to 71.6% and palmitic acid ranging from 20.8 to 39.6% were the two major fatty acids in all the samples. The oils from inajá were characterized by the presence of significant amounts of lauric (4.6% and miristic (10.7% acids while in bacaba, buriti, pupunha and tucumã, as in most edible vegetable oils, only the fatty acids of 16 and 18 carbon atoms were present. Accordingly, the major TAG species in all the samples were POP, POO and OOO. The mesocarp of the palm fruit had a high content in lipids ranging from 17.0% for pupunha to 38.3% for bacaba, expressed as dry basis.Las palmeras nativas de la familia Arecaceae constituyen recursos alimentarios de gran importancia en la región amazónica. A pesar de su diversidad y utilidad, muchas especies son poco conocidas por lo que son de interés los estudios dirigidos a conocer la calidad y composición de las especies menos exploradas para evaluar su potencial económico. El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización de los aceites obtenidos del mesocarpio

  16. Controle Químico de Antracnose em Mudas de Pupunheira em Viveiro Chemical Control of Anthracnose on Peach Palm Transplants in Orchard

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    Rudimar Mafacioli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A antracnose, causada pelo fungo Colletotrichum loeosporioides, é a principal doença da parte aérea da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes var gasipaes em viveiros de mudas no Centro-Sul do Brasil. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de novas formulações de fungicidas no controle de antracnose em mudas de pupunheira, na fase de viveiro. O ensaio foi conduzido no período de abril a agosto de 2006, com o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos com fungicidas e uma testemunha sem fungicida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por dez mudas. Foram avaliados os seguintes fungicidas através de pulverização da parte aérea: piraclostrobina+epoxiconazole (0,13 + 0,05 g.L-1, tetraconazole (0,1 g.L-1, tebuconazole (0,2 g.L-1, chlorotalonil (2 g.L-1 e chlorotalonil+tiofanato metílico(1 + 0,4 g.L-1. A severidade (percentagem da área foliar doente a doença foi avaliada quinze dias após a sétima aplicação (última. Verificou-se que todos os tratamentos com fungicidas proporcionaram redução estatisticamente significativa na intensidade da doença em relação à testemunha sem fungicida (P £ 0,05. Os tratamentos com os diferentes fungicidas não diferiram significativamente entre si. Os fungicidas avaliados proporcionaram índice de controle da doença de 68 % a 78 %.  
    Leaf anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum loeosporioides, is the most important disease of peach palm plants (Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes in nurseries in the Central and Southern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy of some new formulations of fungicides for controlling anthracnose transplants in orchards. An assay with randomized block design was carried out, with five different fungicides and a control, with four replicates. Each replicated had 10 plants. The fungicides evaluated were: piraclostrobin + epoxiconazole

  17. Caracterização fenotípica e genotípica de progênies de pupunheira para palmito Phenotypic and genotypic characterization in pejibayes progenies for palm heart

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    Gilberto Ken-Iti Yokomizo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. é considerada a espécie com maior potencial de produção de palmitos, em substituição aos tradicionais açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. e juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart.. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar alguns parâmetros genéticos associados à avaliação de 31 progênies de meios-irmãos de pupunheiras e classificar as melhores progênies pelo teste de médias de Scott-Knott. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições, com parcelas experimentais de cinco plantas. As avaliações dos caracteres de altura da planta no momento do corte (APC, diâmetro da planta na altura do colo (DPC e peso do palmito líquido (PPL foram realizadas aos 15, 26 e 37 meses após o plantio. A população avaliada apresentou variação genética disponível para seleção e não sofreu efeito de interação com os cortes; o caráter PPL deverá ser testado com maior número de repetições, sendo o caráter mais sensível a efeitos de cortes; a razão entre o coeficiente de variação genética e o coeficiente de variação do erro indica que existem dificuldades nos processos de seleção nos caracteres avaliados; a correlação genotípica entre os caracteres DPC e PPL apresenta-se promissora para facilitar a seleção indireta do caráter PPL pelo caráter DPC. O agrupamento de médias de Scott-Knott classificou as progênies em dois grupos.The pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. is the species with the best potential in supplying the production of palm heart, in substitution to açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. and juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart. species, traditionally produced. The objectives of this work were to estimate some genetic parameters associated to the evaluation of 31 pejibayes half-sib progenies and to classify the best progenies, using the Scott-Knott test for means classification. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications, and

  18. Asexual propagation of peach palm by division of the clump and extraction of the off-shoots Propagação assexuada em pupunheira por divisão da touceira variando o tempo de cicatrização dos perfilhos

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    Wanders BC Flores

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The peach palm (Bactris gasipaes is a native Amazonian palm tree that produces fruits and palm hearts, and is now attracting the interest of the farmers in other parts of Brazil given the economical potential of palm heart production. Traditionally the peach palm is propagated by seeds, which yield segregating progenies due to cross-pollination. To guarantee the uniformity and quality of elite selections, the alternative is the propagation of superior genotypes from off-shoots (tillers, because an efficient in vitro cultivation protocol does not exist. The objective of the present study was the development of a more appropriate technique of vegetative propagation by division of the clump, in order to multiply plants selected in the improvement program. A peach palm clump contains between 2 and 20 off-shoots after cutting for palm heart; these can be separated one from the other with iron wedges, and extracted immediately or left for recovery for subsequent extraction. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications, using a 3x5 factorial, where the factors were: height of the off-shoots (60 cm and recovery time after the separation of the off-shoots from the clump (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. The off-shoots between 30 and 60 cm and left around a month of recovery in the field after separation from the clump presented 65% of survival, while those left around four months presented 80% of survival.A pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes é uma palmeira nativa da Amazônia que produz frutos e palmitos e, atualmente está despertando o interesse dos produtores rurais em outras partes do Brasil por seu potencial econômico para produção de palmito. O método de propagação tradicionalmente utilizado na pupunheira é por sementes, a qual apresenta segregação importante devido à polinização cruzada. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma técnica mais apropriada de propagação da pupunheira por divisão de

  19. Composição florística e estrutura fitossociológica de dois fragmentos de floresta de restinga no Município de Bertioga, SP, Brasil Floristic and phytosociological analysis of two fragments of restinga forest in Bertioga, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Daniela Guedes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado em dois fragmentos de floresta de restinga (floresta inundável e floresta não inundável no Município de Bertioga, Estado de São Paulo, em uma área com extensão total aproximada de 3.000.000 m², pertencente ao condomínio residencial Riviera de São Lourenço. Para o levantamento fitossociológico foram instaladas 48 parcelas de 10×10 m distribuídas em blocos de 20×30 m e de 10×30 m, onde foram amostrados todos os indivíduos lenhosos com perímetro do caule à altura do peito (PAP igual ou superior a 10 cm. Foram levantados 893 indivíduos distribuídos em 83 espécies e 31 famílias. As espécies da floresta não inundável com maior valor de importância (VI foram: Manilkara subsericea (Mart. Dubard, Amaioua intermedia Mart. ex K. Schum., Didymopanax angustissimum A. Sampaio, Miconia cubatanensis Hoehne, Euterpe edulis Mart., Syagrus pseudococos (Raud. Glassm., Bactris setosa Mart., Guarea macrophylla Vahl. e Nectandra oppositifolia Ness & Mart. ex Mez. e na floresta inundável: Eriotheca pentaphylla (Vell. emend K. Schum. A. Robyns, Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Syagrus pseudococos, Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., Manilkara subsericea, Tabebuia obtusifolia (Cham Bureau, Didymopanax angustissimum, Sloanea guianensis (Aubl. Benth. e Amaioua intermedia. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,50 nats/ind. para a floresta inundável e 3,70 nats/ind. para a floresta não inundável.A phytosociological investigation in two fragments of restinga forest (flooded and nonflooded in Riviera de São Lourenço complex, Bertioga, São Paulo, was carried out. Each fragment in the phytosociological survey was studied using 10×10 m plots. These plots were distributed in blocks of 20×30 m and 10×30 m, for a total area of 4,800 m². The 893 individuals sampled in both fragments were distributed in 83 species and 31 families. The species with highest importance values (IV in the flooded restinga

  20. Composição e distribuição da vegetação herbácea em três áreas com fisionomias distintas na Praia do Peró, Cabo Frio, RJ, Brasil Composition and distribution of herbaceous vegetation in three areas of different aspect in Praia do Peró, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Sandra Zorat Cordeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A composição e a distribuição da vegetação herbácea da Praia do Peró foram caracterizadas em três áreas com topografias e fisionomias distintas, pelo método de parcelas. As três áreas são ocupadas pela comunidade psamófila-reptante, visualmente dividida em duas regiões: frontal, com espécies estoloníferas e suculentas, e posterior, com predomínio de espécies graminóides. Foram amostradas 38 espécies, das quais Paspalum maritimum Trim, Ipomoea imperati (Vahl. Griseb, Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. Sweet, Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth e Panicum racemosum (Beauv. Spreng. alcançaram os maiores valores de importância (VI. A topografia do ambiente, intimamente relacionada com a dinâmica de ondas de maré e tempestades, com aporte de areia oriunda dos ventos e das marés e com a ação antrópica, não influencia a distribuição das espécies vegetais encontradas, sendo considerada apenas como um componente influente na paisagem, estabelecido em conjunto com a comunidade vegetal, sendo esta última fortemente determinada pela distância em que se encontra em relação ao mar.The composition and the distribution of herbaceous vegetation of Praia do Peró were characterized in three areas with different topographic and aspect, by using the method of quadrats. The three areas are occupied by the creeping-psamophyte community, being visually divided into two regions: frontal, with stolonipherae and succulent species, and posterior, with predominance of grass species. Thirty-eight species were sampled, from which Paspalum maritimum Trim, Ipomoea imperati (Vahl. Griseb, Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. Sweet, Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth and Panicum racemosum (Beauv. Spreng. attained the highest values of importance (VI. The topography, intimately related with the dynamics of tidal waves and storms, with the deposit of sand brought by the winds and tides, and with the human action, doesn't influence the distribution of the vegetal species found

  1. Morphometry and retention time as forcing functions to establishment and maintenance of aquatic macrophytes in a tropical reservoir

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    M. B. Cunha-Santino

    Full Text Available Abstract Macrophytes may constitute an important resource for several chemical, physical and biological processes within aquatic ecosystems. This study considers that in tropical reservoirs with low retention time and with low values of shoreline development (DL, the expansion and persistence of aquatic macrophytes are mainly reported to local conditions (e.g., hydrodynamic and wind exposure rather than trophic status and depth of the euphotic zone. In this context, this study aimed at describing and comparing the incidence of aquatic macrophytes in a throughflowing, non-dendritic tropical reservoir. During February 2006 to November 2007, eight limnological surveys were performed quarterly within the Ourinhos Reservoir, and in the mouth areas of its tributaries. At the six sampling stations 30 variables were measured. The number of sites with plants varied between 21 and 38 and at the end of the 1st year the total richness was found. The sampling survey outcome the recognition of 18 species of aquatic macrophytes; Cyperaceae (2 genera and 1 species, Pontederiaceae (3 species and Onarograceae (3 genera were the families with higher diversity. Seven species (Typha domingensis Pers., Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell. Verdec, Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth, Eleocharis sp1, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth Lye always were present and were more frequent in the sites. The occurrence of emergent species predominated (45.9%, followed by submersed rooted (24.5%, free floating (19.5%, floating rooted (9.7% and free submersed (0.3%. Although limnological variables and the distribution of macrophytes have discriminated the same sampling points, the stepwise multiple linear regressions did not pointed out strong correspondences (or coherence among the most constant and distributed macrophyte species and the selected limnological variables, as well the trophic statuses. Seeing the low relationship among

  2. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos Mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis, by effect of ten botanical extracts

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    Diana D. Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco (Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco (Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla (Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote (Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común (Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha (Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare (Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.The plants with insecticide activities constitute a main compound of integrated pest management. Under this premise, the aim of the current research was to evaluate mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae larvae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacquin, employing ten plants with insecticide potential: Indian heliotrope (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Angel´s trumpets (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Wandering Jew (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Nettles-purge (Jathropa

  3. Anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de cuatro especies de Lupinus (Fabaceae Foliar and petiole anatomy of four species of Lupinus (Fabaceae

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    Juan Francisco Zamora-Natera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y compara la anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de 4 especies del género Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth y L. reflexus Rose que se distribuyen en un gradiente altitudinal en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Las hojas se fijaron en campo y se procesaron mediante la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Parte de las láminas se deshidrataron para caracterizar la superficie foliar por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las especies comparten la epidermis papilosa de paredes anticlinales con diferentes grados de ondulación, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas simples lineares y mesofilo bifacial. Los folíolos de L. montanus son glabros en la superficie abaxial, las estrías cuticulares sobre las células localizadas en la base de los tricomas es un rasgo característico de L. montanus y de L. reflexus. Las diferencias encontradas en espesor de la lámina y del mesofilo así como la abundancia de ceras epicuticulares pueden estar influenciadas por el ambiente. Distintivamente, el número y distribución de haces vasculares en los pecíolos difieren entre las 4 especies y podrían ser de utilidad para diferenciarlas si estos resultados se confirman al estudiar un mayor número de especies de Lupinus.The aims of this study were to describe and compare the foliar and petiole anatomy of 4 species of Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth, and L. reflexus Rose distributed in an elevation gradient at Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Leaves were fixed in the field and prepared using the paraffin embedding technique. In addition, part of the blades was dehydrated to describe leaf surface through the scanning electron microscope. The 4 species shared a papillose epidermis with undulated anticlinal walls in different degrees, stomata anomocytic, simple unicellular trichomes, and bifacial mesophyll. Leaflets of L. montanus are glabrous on the abaxial surface

  4. Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia

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    2013-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant species contribute significantly to folk medicine in Colombia. However, few local studies have investigated whether species used are introduced or native and whether there is a difference in importance of native and introduced medicinal plant species. The aim of the present study was to describe the use of medicinal plants within two municipalities, Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, both in the department of Boyacá, Colombia and to assess the importance of native and introduced plants to healers, amateur healers and local people. As local healers including amateur healers have no history of introduced species our working hypotheses (H1-2) were that H1: native and introduced medicinal plant species are of equal importance and H2: healers and amateur healers do not differentiate in their preferences between native and introduced medicinal plant species. Methods Ten villages were included in the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used including questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, in- depth interviews, and open talks. Voucher specimens were collected in home gardens and during field walks. For data analysis, we calculated use value indices and Jaccard index and tested for the above hypothesis using Spearman rank-correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney tests. Results Eighty medicinal plant species were described by locals as the most frequently used. Of these, 78 species were taxonomically identified, distributed within 41 families and 74 genera, which included 35 native species and 43 introduced. The highest valued families were: Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae. The species ranked highest according to their Use Values, in both municipalities, were Mentha suaveolens Ehrh., Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth, and Verbena littoralis Kunth. Introduced species were more important than native ones in Zetaquira, while there was no difference in importance in Campo Hermoso. While healers

  5. Morphometry and retention time as forcing functions to establishment and maintenance of aquatic macrophytes in a tropical reservoir.

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    Cunha-Santino, M B; Fushita, A T; Peret, A C; Bianchini-Junior, I

    2016-05-03

    Macrophytes may constitute an important resource for several chemical, physical and biological processes within aquatic ecosystems. This study considers that in tropical reservoirs with low retention time and with low values of shoreline development (DL), the expansion and persistence of aquatic macrophytes are mainly reported to local conditions (e.g., hydrodynamic and wind exposure) rather than trophic status and depth of the euphotic zone. In this context, this study aimed at describing and comparing the incidence of aquatic macrophytes in a throughflowing, non-dendritic tropical reservoir. During February 2006 to November 2007, eight limnological surveys were performed quarterly within the Ourinhos Reservoir, and in the mouth areas of its tributaries. At the six sampling stations 30 variables were measured. The number of sites with plants varied between 21 and 38 and at the end of the 1st year the total richness was found. The sampling survey outcome the recognition of 18 species of aquatic macrophytes; Cyperaceae (2 genera and 1 species), Pontederiaceae (3 species) and Onarograceae (3 genera) were the families with higher diversity. Seven species (Typha domingensis Pers., Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdec, Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth, Eleocharis sp1, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Lye) always were present and were more frequent in the sites. The occurrence of emergent species predominated (45.9%), followed by submersed rooted (24.5%), free floating (19.5%), floating rooted (9.7%) and free submersed (0.3%). Although limnological variables and the distribution of macrophytes have discriminated the same sampling points, the stepwise multiple linear regressions did not pointed out strong correspondences (or coherence) among the most constant and distributed macrophyte species and the selected limnological variables, as well the trophic statuses. Seeing the low relationship among limnological

  6. Structure and dynamics of the cyclopoid copepod (Crustacea assemblage associated with aquatic macrophytes in two lotic environments of the Upper Paraná river basin, Brazil Estrutura e dinâmica da assembléia de copépodos ciclopóides (Crustacea associados com macrófitas aquática em dois ambientes lóticos da bacia do alto rio Paraná, Brasil

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    Luiz Felipe Machado Velho

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variation was analyzed in the composition, diversity, and abundance of cyclopoid copepods associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth in two lotic environments of the Upper Paraná river basin. Sixteen cyclopoid taxa were identified. There were no differences in the composition of copepod species between environments or hydrological phases. Cyclopoids were generally more abundant during the low water phase. The most abundant species in both environments were Macrocyclops albidus albidus (Jurine and Microcyclops finitimus Dussart. Densities and some measurements of species richness were in general higher in the Ivinheima River, which has many associated floodplain lakes. This fact suggests the importance of associated lentic environments for patterns of abundance and species richness found in lotic environments. Low values for β diversity of the cyclopoid assemblage in both environments seem to indicate that the littoral region has low temporal heterogeneityAnalisamos a variação espacial e temporal da composição, diversidade e abundância dos copépodos ciclopóides associados à Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth em dois ambientes lóticos da bacia do alto rio Paraná. Foram identificados dezesseis táxons de ciclopóides. Não foram constatadas diferenças na composição de espécies entre os ambientes ou fases hidrológicas. Os ciclopóides foram, em geral, mais abundantes durante a fase de águas baixas. As espécies mais abundantes nos dois ambientes foram Macrocyclops albidus albidus (Jurine e Microcyclops finitimus Dussart. As densidades e algumas medidas de riqueza de espécies foram, em geral, maiores no rio Ivinheima, o qual apresenta muitas lagoas de várzea associadas. Esse fato sugere a importância de ambientes lênticos para os padrões de abundância e riqueza de espécies encontrados em ambientes lóticos. Os baixos valores de diversidade β para a assembléia de ciclopóides nos dois ambientes

  7. Chemical composition of canned heart of Cordyline spectabilis and the flour obtained from post-processing residue Caracterização da composição química de conserva de palmito de Cordyline spectabilis e da farinha obtida do resíduo após processamento

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    Cristiane Vieira Helm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The need for new products requires the use of local raw material, which is either processed rudimentarily, such as the heart of Cordyline spectabilis Kunth & Bouché, or sometimes not processed at all. The aim of this work was to store the heart of Cordyline spectabilis from the municipality of Campo Largo, state of Parana, Brazil, as canned food and evaluate the nutritional value. The residue obtained from this process was used to make flour. The nutritional composition of both products was determinade. Their chemical compositions, pH levels and acidity were also checked for quality and conservation. The canned uvarana heart featured high protein levels (4.68 g 100 g-1 and the flour presented high levels of fibre (69.11 g 100g-1. Both products presented low calorie levels (58.39 and 59.72 kcal 100 g-1, respectively, which suggests an interesting source of vitamin for food industry.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.265

    A necessidade de novos produtos estimula a utilização de matérias-primas regionais que não  são processadas ou que quando o são, é realizado de maneira bastante artesanal, como é o caso da uvarana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar uma conserva de palmito de uvarana (Cordyline spectabilis Kunth & Bouché procedentes do Município de Campo Largo, PR, e com o resíduo obtido do processamento da conserva elaborar uma farinha e determinar a composição nutricional dos dois produtos. Avaliaram-se a composição química dos produtos obtidos e o valor de pH e acidez das conservas, para avaliar o estado de conservação do produto. A conserva apresentou um alto teor proteico (4,68 g 100 g-1 e a farinha um alto teor de fibra alimentar (69,11 g 100 g-1 e ambos os produtos apresentaram um baixo valor calórico (58,39 e 59,72 kcal 100 g-1, respectivamente, o que sugere uma interessante fonte de suplemento alimentar para

  8. Sinopse das espécies de Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Synopsis of the species of Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae in Pernambuco state, Brazil

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    Juliana Santos Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi baseado na análise de materiais de herbário, referências bibliográficas e coletas, revelando a ocorrência de 35 espécies do gênero Croton para o estado de Pernambuco. A maior parte destas espécies tem distribuição exclusiva na zona fitogeográfica das Caatingas; Croton fuscescens Spreng., C. grewioides Baill. e C. blanchetianus Baill. estendem-se da zona da Mata até a zona das Caatingas; C. polyandrus Spreng. e C. sellowii Baill. ocorrem principalmente na faixa litorânea, em vegetação de restinga; C. argenteus L., C. jacobinensis Baill. e C. triqueter Lam. foram observados apenas na zona da Mata, e C. glandulosus L., C. heliotropiifolius Kunth, C. hirtus L' Her. e C. lundianus (Didr. Müll. Arg. apresentam ampla distribuição no Estado. São apresentadas chave de identificação, comentários sobre distribuição geográfica e habitats, juntamente com ilustrações de características diagnósticas das espécies.This study was based on the analysis of herbarium material, specialized bibliography and field collections, recording the occurrence of 35 species of the genus Croton for the state of Pernambuco. Most of these species are distributed exclusively in the Caatinga phytogeographic region; Croton fuscescens Spreng., C. grewioides Baill. and C. blanchetianus Baill. are found from the forest zone to the caatinga zone; C. polyandrus Spreng. and C. sellowii Baill. occur mainly along the coast, in restinga vegetation; C. argenteus L., C. jacobinensis Baill. and C. triqueter Lam. were observed only in the forest zone, and C. glandulosus L., C. heliotropiifolius Kunth, C. hirtus L' Her. and C. lundianus (Didr. Müll. Arg. are widely distributed. Identification keys, comments on geographic distribution and habitats and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics of the species are provided.

  9. Palynotaxonomy of Brazilian Viguiera (Asteraceae Species Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Viguiera (Asteraceae-Heliantheae

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    Mara Angelina Galvão Magenta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of improving inter-specific delimitation of the genus Viguiera Kunth in Brazil, a palynological analysis was undertaken with 27 taxa, representing around 77% of all occurring species. Samples were obtained from herbarium specimens and the pollen grains were analyzed through light and scanning electron microscopy. Characteristics, including the shape of the pollen grains, polar and equatorial diameter, aperture measurements, surface ornamentation and exine thickness, were registered and compared. The pollen grains were medium-sized (25 - 50 mm, isopolar and oblate spheroidal (prolate spheroidal in V. aspilioides Baker. The observed values corroborated the synonymity of some species and also highlighted certain micro-morphological differences, such as polar diameter and the dimensions of the colpus and endoaperture, thus confirming the groups of species delimitation obtained by morphologic and phylogenetic analyses.Com a finalidade de obter subsídios para a delimitação interespecífica do gênero Viguiera Kunth no Brasil, foi efetuado um estudo palinológico com 27 táxons, representando cerca de 77% das espécies ocorrentes. As amostras foram obtidas de material herborizado e o grão de pólen foi analisado sob microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram caracterizados quanto à forma, às dimensões e tipo da abertura, à ornamentação da superfície e à espessura da exina. Os grãos de pólen são médios (25 - 50mm, isopolares, oblato-esferoidais (prolato-esferoidais em V. aspilioides Baker, tricolporados, endoabertura lalongada, sexina espinhosa. Os valores obtidos corroboraram a sinonimização de algumas espécies e diferenças micro-morfológicas, tais como os valores do diâmetro polar, as dimensões do colpo e da endoabertura confirmaram algumas delimitações de grupos de espécies obtidas em análises filogenéticas de morfologia.

  10. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina Especies de moscas blancas (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae sobre plantas silvestres y cultivadas en la región hortícola de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Gustavo G. Gonsebatt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies of economic importance are polyphagous, being able to develop on a large number of cultivated and spontaneous plants. We recorded the whitefly species on vegetable and flower crops and the wild plants associated, under greenhouse and field conditions, for two years. We observed two species: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood and the Bemisia tabaci complex (Gennadius. T vaporariorum was recorded on 24 plant species (11 families, 12 and 8 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The B. tabaci complex was recorded only on flower production systems, on 19 plant species (11 families, 14 and 7 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The crops Glycine max (L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., the wild species Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. and Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken were hosts of both species. The only parasitoid recorded was Eretmocerus californicus near corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae from T. vaporariorum. This study, which is the first systematic survey of host plants in the region, intends to provide a better knowledge of the range of whiteflies host plants in Argentina.Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para

  11. Cryopreservation of peach palm zygotic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmacher, Douglas A; Saldanha, Cleber W; Clement, Charles R; Guerra, Miguel P

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation is a safe and cost-effective option for long-term germplasm conservation of non-orthodox seed species, such as peach palm (Bactris gasipaes). The objective of the present study was to establish a cryopreservation protocol for peach palm zygotic embryos based on the encapsulation-dehydration technique. After excision, zygotic embryos were encapsulated with 3 percent sodium alginate plus 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose, and pre-treated or not with 1 M sucrose during 24 h, followed by air-drying. Fresh weight water contents of beads decreased from 83 percent and 87 percent to 18 percent and 20 percent for pre-treated or non-pretreated beads, respectively, after 4 h of dehydration. Sucrose pre-treatment at 1 M caused lower zygotic embryo germination and plantlet height in contrast to non-treated beads. All the variables were statistically influenced by dehydration time. Optimal conditions for recovery of cryopreserved zygotic embryos include encapsulation and dehydration for 4 h in a forced air cabinet to 20 percent water content, followed by rapid freezing in liquid nitrogen (-196 degree C) and rapid thawing at 45 degree C. In these conditions 29 percent of the zygotic embryos germinated in vitro. However, plantlets obtained from dehydrated zygotic embryos had stunted haustoria and lower heights. Histological analysis showed that haustorium cells were large, vacuolated, with few protein bodies. In contrast, small cells with high nucleus:cytoplasm ratio formed the shoot apical meristem of the embryos, which were the cell types with favorable characteristics for survival after exposure to liquid nitrogen. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized and showed 41+/-9 percent and 88+/-4 percent survival levels after 12 weeks of acclimatization from cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved treatments, respectively.

  12. Soil quality indicators in a rhodic kandiudult under different uses in northern Parana, Brazil

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    Biana Harumi Kuwano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of soil, maintaining or improving its quality, is one of the goals of diversification in farmlands. From this point of view, bioindicators associated with C, N and P cycling can be used in assessments of land-use effects on soil quality. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical, microbiological and biochemical properties of soil associated with C, N and P under different land uses in a farm property with diversified activity in northern Parana, Brazil. Seven areas under different land uses were assessed: fragment of native Atlantic Forest; growing of peach-palm (Bactrys gasipaes; sugarcane ratoon (Saccharum officinarum recently harvested, under renewal; growing of coffee (Coffea arabica intercropped with tree species; recent reforestation (1 year with native tree species, previously under annual crops; annual crops under no-tillage, rye (Cecale cereale; secondary forest, regenerated after abandonment (for 20 years of an avocado (Persea americana orchard. The soil under coffee, recent reforestation and secondary forest showed higher concentrations of organic carbon, but microbial biomass and enzyme activities were higher in soils under native forest and secondary forest, which also showed the lowest metabolic coefficient, followed by the peach-palm area. The lowest content of water-dispersible clay was found in the soil under native forest, differing from soils under sugarcane and secondary forest. Soil cover and soil use affected total organic C contents and soil enzyme and microbial activities, such that more intensive agricultural uses had deeper impacts on the indicators assessed. Calculation of the mean soil quality index showed that the secondary forest was closest to the fragment of native forest, followed by the peach-palm area, coffee-growing area, annual crop area, the area of recent reforestation and the sugarcane ratoon area.

  13. Descomposición de residuos de cosecha y liberación de nutrimentos en plantaciones de palmito en Costa Rica

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    Gabriela Soto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de producción de palmito (Bactris gasipaes se caracteriza por la baja extracción de nutrimentos del suelo, resultado de la gran cantidad de residuos de cosecha dejados en el campo. Así, se planteó este trabajo con el objetivo de comprender mejor el patrón de descomposición y liberación de nutrimentos de este tipo de residuos durante los picos de baja y alta cantidad de lluvias en Guápiles, Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó durante 2 períodos de alta precipitación (entre julio y setiembre de 1998 y un período de poca lluvia (entre febrero y abril de 1999, en una plantación comercial de 16 años con suelos clasificados como Typic Hapludands. Como material de descomposición, se utilizó sólo residuos de la tercera hoja secos al aire y colocados en bolsas de descomposición de nylon y no los residuos de las 5 hojas cortadas al momento de la cosecha del palmito. Las bolsas se colocaron sobre la superficie del suelo dentro de la plantación y se recogieron a 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32 y 48 semanas después de iniciado el experimento. Con los porcentajes del residuo original seco y los contenidos de nutrimentos en el mismo material, se realizó un modelo de regresión en el tiempo. Las concentraciones iniciales en el material a descomponer en los 3 períodos de estudio variaron entre

  14. USOS DE LAS PALMAS EN LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA

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    LAURA MESA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de obtener un diagnóstico del estado actual de conocimiento sobre usos de las palmas en la Amazonia colombiana, se revisaron las principales fuentes de información. Treinta y seis de las 41 etnias indígenas consideradas tuvieron registros de uso. Se registraron 82 especies de palmas usadas (78% de las potenciales y 165 usos distribuidos en ocho categorías; todos los usos se presentan de manera detallada en un catálogo. Las categorías de uso más importantes fueron: utensilios y herramientas, construcción, y alimentación humana. Las diez especies más importantes fueron Bactris gasipaes, Euterpe precatoria, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea maripa, Oenocarpus minor, Astrocaryum chambira, Iriartea deltoidea, Oenocarpus bacaba y Socratea exorrhiza; la mayoría de ellas también han sido registradas como las más importantes en otras partes del Neotrópico. No se encontró ninguna información sobre usos de palmas para varios grupos indígenas, especialmente para las etnias cocama, letuama, piaroa, pisamira y yurí, para las cuales se requieren investigaciones detalladas. Se concluye que a pesar de los vacíos de información, los resultados muestran que las palmas son un recurso muy importante con un gran potencial, y una pieza fundamental para la seguridad alimentaria y el desarrollo sustentable de la Amazonia colombiana. Sugerimos la inclusión de las especies más importantes en programas de manejo y agroforestales, al igual que la implementación y popularización de técnicas de cosecha no destructivas. Recomendamos además que las investigaciones futuras estén enfocadas en desarrollar estrategias de manejo que garanticen el uso sostenible de todas estas especies útiles.

  15. Biomass estimation by allometric relationships, nutrients, and carbon associated to heart-of-palm plantations in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, A.; Boniche, Y.; Quesada, J.P.; Yost, R.; Molina, E.; Smyth, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) agroecosystems constitute a productive and sustainable land use for the humid tropics. Allometric methods allow to predict biomass non-destructively at any time and, subsequently, to determine the span of growth phases, biomass and nutrient pools, and economic yields. The overall goals of this study were to obtain and validate predictive functions of aboveground dry biomass, and to relate standing biomass with heart-of-palm yields as well. Towards this purpose, peach palm shoots were harvested and separated into components: foliage, petiole and stem, in the Atlantic region of Costa Rica. A non-linear seemingly unrelated regression (NSUR) procedure, which simultaneously fits the component equations that predict leaf, petiole and stem in order to assure biomass additivity, was used to generate the allometric equations. Basal diameter (BD) was a more effective predictor of biomass than height to the fork between the spear leaf and the first fully expanded leaf, total height and number of leaves. Regression models explained 70-89% of the variance in biomass components (foliage, petiole and stem) or total shoot biomass. Three growth stages were identified: establishment (0-1 years), fast growth (1-3 or 1-8 years depending on plant density) and maturity (> 8 years). Nutrient contents associated to above- and below-ground biomass were measured. For above-ground biomass nutrient contents were N (up to 150 kg ha-1)>K (up to 119 kg ha-1)>Ca (up to 45 kg ha-1)>Mg=S=P (between 15-17 kg ha-1). The below-ground biomass: above-ground biomass ratio increased with the plantation age [es

  16. Comparación bromatológica, microbiológica y sensorial de dos formulaciones de salchichas elaboradas con carne de conejo (Oryctolagus cuniculus

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    José Igor Hleap Zapata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluaron dos formulaciones diferentes de salchichas elaboradas con carne de conejo, utilizando como extendedores harina de chontaduro (Bactris gasipaes y almidón modificado de maíz. Ambas formulaciones consistieron en 60% de carne de conejo, 12% de grasa de cerdo y 4% del respectivo extensor, el porcentaje restante correspondió a hielo y condimentos. Los análisis bromatológicos mostraron los contenidos siguientes (base seca: (1 en carne = 60.90% de proteína, 33.65% de grasa, 4.46% de cenizas y 0.99% de carbohidratos; (2 en salchichas elaboradas con adición de harina de chontaduro = 15.96% de proteína, 13.55% de grasa, 4.10% de cenizas, 3.42% de carbohidratos y 60.63% de humedad; y (3 en salchichas elaboradas con adición de almidón modificado de maíz = 14.54% de proteína, 11.53% de grasa, 3.81% de cenizas, 3.99% de carbohidratos y 63.42% de humedad. Las pruebas microbiológicas consistieron en el análisis de los parámetros tradicionales de calidad y seguridad, además de mediciones sensoriales utilizando pruebas afectivas de preferencia, de grado de satisfacción y de aceptación que permitieron concluir que las salchichas elaboradas presentaron características de inocuidad para el ser humano y de gran aceptación gracias a sus buenas propiedades organolépticas, resultando productos tipo Premium según la NTC 1325.

  17. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos

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    Diana D. PÉREZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha ( Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio ( Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre ( Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco ( Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco ( Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla ( Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote ( Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común ( Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha ( Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare ( Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.

  18. Application of wood chips for soil mulching in the cultivation of ornamental grasses

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    Henschke Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of the soil. Mulching plays an important role in the maintenance of green spaces. Organic materials are still sought for the preparation of mulches. Recently interest in wood chips has grown. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mulching with pine and birch chips on the contents of phenolic compounds in the soil, as well as on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses – Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth. Lag. ex Griffiths, Panicum virgatum L. and Pennisetum alopecuroides L. The content of phenolic compounds in the soil steadily increased from spring to autumn. Mulching led to a substantial increase in the level of phenolic compounds. In the first year of cultivation more phenolic compounds were released by chips of pine than birch, while in the second year this difference did not occur. Mulching had a negative impact on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses, especially in the first year of cultivation. Ornamental grass sensitivity to the substances released from mulches decreased with the age of the plants and was dependent on the species – Bouteloua gracilis was found to be particularly sensitive.

  19. Análisis teórico experimental de conexiones en elementos estructurales de bambú guadua laminado pegado prensado, para un proyecto de vivienda

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    Patricia Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de las conexiones entre elementos fabricados en Bambú guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth laminado pegado prensado para un proyecto de vivienda, es mostrado en este artículo. El análisis se ejecutó en cuatro etapas: diseño, prueba de carga, simulación numérica y modelación por elementos finitos. El diseño se realizó por el método de los esfuerzos de trabajo. En la prueba de carga fueron medidos desplazamientos para conocer el comportamiento de las conexiones para diferentes incrementos de carga. La simulación numérica fue realizada en el programa ETABS® con la carga real impuesta en cada etapa de la prueba de carga. Finalmente, la modelación por elementos finitos se realizó en el programa ANSYS®. Se encontró que existen diferencias entre los resultados experimentales y los numéricos, las cuales pueden ser consecuencia de que las condiciones reales de la prueba de carga no corresponden exactamente a las consideraciones supuestas de diseño como nudos completamente rígidos o articulados.

  20. Augmentation of catecholamine release elicited by an Eugenia punicifolia extract in chromaffin cells

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    Ricardo de Pascual

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts of Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth DC., Myrtaceae, are used in Amazon region of Brazil to treat diarrhea and stomach disturbances, and as hypoglycemic medicine. We have recently shown that an aqueous extract of E. punicifolia augmented cholinergic neurotransmission in a rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. In this study, we investigated the effects of an E. punicifolia dichloromethane extract (EPEX in a neuronal model of cholinergic neurotransmission, the bovine adrenal chromaffin cell. EPEX augmented the release of catecholamine triggered by acetylcholine (ACh pulses but did not enhance ACh-evoked inward currents, which were inhibited by 30%. Since EPEX did not cause a blockade of acetylcholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase, it seems that EPEX is not directly activating the cholinergic system. EPEX also augmented K+-elicited secretion without enhancing the whole-cell inward calcium current. This novel and potent effect of EPEX in enhancing exocytosis might help to identify the active component responsible for augmenting exocytosis. When elucidated, the molecular structure of this active principle could serve as a template to synthesise novel compounds to regulate the exocytotic release of neurotransmitters.

  1. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis seed oil toxicity effect and Linamarin compound analysis

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    Salimon Jumat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh, mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth and ethanol (RSOeth were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds. Results FTIR spectrum of RSO did not show any presence of cyanide peak. The determination of cyanide by using colorimetric method was demonstrated no response of the cyanide in RSO and didn’t show any colored comparing with commercial cyanide which observed blue color. The results showed that no functional groups such as cyanide (C ≡ N associated with linamarin were observed. Toxicological test using rats was also conducted to further confirm the absence of such compounds. RSO did not show any toxic potential to the rats. Bioassay experiments using shrimps had been used as test organisms to evaluate the toxicity of linamarin extract from RSOh, RSOchl+mth and RSOeth and LC50 were found to be (211.70 %, 139.40 %, and 117.41 %, respectively. Conclusions This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO.

  2. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed oil toxicity effect and Linamarin compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimon, Jumat; Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar; Salih, Nadia

    2012-06-13

    The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell)) seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO) extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh), mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth) and ethanol (RSOeth) were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds. FTIR spectrum of RSO did not show any presence of cyanide peak. The determination of cyanide by using colorimetric method was demonstrated no response of the cyanide in RSO and didn't show any colored comparing with commercial cyanide which observed blue color. The results showed that no functional groups such as cyanide (C ≡ N) associated with linamarin were observed. Toxicological test using rats was also conducted to further confirm the absence of such compounds. RSO did not show any toxic potential to the rats. Bioassay experiments using shrimps had been used as test organisms to evaluate the toxicity of linamarin extract from RSO(h,) RSO(chl+mth) and RSO(eth) and LC50 were found to be (211.70 %, 139.40 %, and 117.41 %, respectively). This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO.

  3. Detection and characterization of a Cucumber mosaic virus isolate infecting peperina, a species native to Argentina

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    P Rodríguez Pardina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth. Griseb., "peperina", un miembro de la familia Lamiaceae, es una especie aromática que se emplea en la farmacología moderna y en medicina. Está ampliamente distribuida en los Andes, desde Venezuela y Colombia hasta Argentina. En el último país, la principal área de explotación de peperina incluye el área serrana de la provincia de Córdoba, donde la especie es arrancada indiscriminadamente, lo que conlleva una pérdida irreversible de germoplasma. A los fines de preservar este recurso nativo y fuente regional de ingresos, la especie está siendo domesticada. Durante este proceso, se observó la aparición de síntomas de un conspicuo mosaico amarillo, típico de infección viral. Análisis biológicos, serológicos y moleculares (RT-PCR, RFLP, clonado y secuenciación pusieron de manifiesto la presencia del subgrupo IA de Cucumber mosaic virus en las plantas domesticadas de peperina. El aislamiento viral estudiado está íntimamente relacionado con la raza Y previamente informada en Japón. Éste es el primer informe de un virus que infecta a la peperina.

  4. Revaluación de Philodendron hederaceum Schott (1829 como transferencia de Arum hederaceum Jacq

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    Dugand Armando

    1945-12-01

    Full Text Available La combinación Philodendron hederaceum: Schott, publicada en 1829 fide Endlicher y Schlechtendal 1831, se considera aquí como transferencia implícita pero válida de Arum hederaceum Jacq. (1760-1763. Los conceptos citados por algunos autores como "Arum hederaceum L." y "Arum hederaceum Willd." representan el mismo Arum hederaceum de Jacquin. "Ph. hederaceum Kunth 1841", excluyendo la referencia a "Martinica", también es el mismo Arum hetieraceum. Jacq. En cuanto a Ph. Jacquinii Schott 1856 es nombre superfluo y sinónimo de Philodendron hederaceum (Jacq, Schott, nombre este que se adopta aquí para la planta típica de Cartagena. EI nombre "Philodendron hederaceum Schott" de 1856, basado en una planta de la Martinica, representa un concepto distinto al de 1829 del mismo autor y por lo tanto se trata aquí como homónimo posterior ilegitimo.   Varios autores han considerado al Arum hetieraceum. Jacq. como especie dudosa, referible al Philodendron Hoftmannii Schott (1858 de Costa Rica. Por falta de material apropiado de aquel país no se puede resolver la cuestión por ahora. Ejemplares topotípicos, recientemente obtenidos no lejos de Cartagena, localidad clásica de Arum hederaceum. Jacq., han servido para esta revaluación.

  5. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

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    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.

  6. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil

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    D. C. Souza

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period and April (rainy period, 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m2 for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April, but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir. Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb. Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth. had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.

  7. Germination, seed diameter and pregerminative treatments in species with different purposes of use

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    Ricardo Vinicio Abril-Saltos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of vegetal species germination consents to know its characteristics and permits to understand the factors that influence this process. The aim of this research was to know the germination’s characteristics of some species, such as Eugenia stipitata McVaugh, Inga edulis Mart, Inga spectabilis (Vahl Wild, Piptocoma discolor (Kunth Pruski, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, and Verbena officinalis L., and also their reaction to pregerminative treatments depending on the seed’s diameter. This study was carried out in Pastaza, Province of Pastaza, Ecuador, between February and June, 2014. Different diameters of seeds and pregerminative treatments were used in species, which did not present germination percentages higher than 40%. In the first practice I. edulis and I. spectabilis exceeded this value without treatment. Other species had lower values. Seeds were classified considering two diameters and two doses of gibberellin acid, this was applied to, and evaluated in the E. stipitata. In addition, scarification with sulfuric acid was done. After 45 days of its application, 100 ppm of gibberellic acid with larger seed diameter reported higher percentages of germination in S. cayenennsis, and in E. stipitata, which also interacted with the scarification. V. officinalis and P. discolor, did not present any response to the applications made. I. edulis and I. spectabilis presented high germination percentages without pregerminative treatments, E. stipitata and S. cayenennsis showed response to seed diameter and the applied treatments, while P discolor and V. officinalis did not show any response.

  8. Changes in the essential oil composition of leaves of Echinodorus macrophyllus exposed to

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    Thiago M. Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth Micheli, Alismataceae, were exposed to different doses of γ-radiation (0.00, 1.00, 3.00, 5.00, 10.00, and 20.00 kGy and the chemical composition of their essential oils was investigated. The extractive process of the essential oil was more favored when the leaves were irradiated. The essential oil components were identified by correlation between GC-FID data and retention parameters obtained from the Kováts method. Moreover, GC-MS analyses of the essential oils were correlated with fragmentation profiles in the NIST standard mass fragmentation data bank. The essential oil of E. macrophyllus contains biologically active constituents of different chemical classes. Acyclic monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes showed increase in concentration when the leaves were exposed to γ-radiation. On the other hand, the component concentrations of some chemical classes were lightly decreased, i.e., for bicyclic monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, carboxylic esters, and carotenoid derivatives.

  9. Modelling initial mortality of Abies religiosa in a crown fire in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temiño-Villota, S.; Rodríguez-Trejo, D.A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Ryan, K.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The objectives of this work were to determine which morphological and fire severity variables may help explain the mortality of adult Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. & Cham., to model the probability of this species after being affected by crown fire, and to obtain more elements to classify the sacred fir in terms of fire resistance. This type of studies are relevant to estimate the impact of crown fires on the climax forests that forms this species. Area of study: The burned forest was located in the southern Mexico City, borough. Material and methods: Morphological variables and fire severity indicators were collected for 335 Abies religiosa trees burned by a mixed severity fire. Logistic regression was used to analyze data and develop models that best explained tree mortality. Main results: Survival was 26.9%. The models for height (p≤0.0001), diameter at breast height (p=0.0082), crown length (p≤0.0001) and crown base height (p≤0.0001) were significant, with a negative relationship between each one of these variables and probability of mortality. The significant severity variables were lethal scorch height (p≤0.0001) and crown kill (p≤ 0.0001), which have a direct relationship with probability of mortality. Highlights: This species is moderately fire-resistant. Crown kill ≥ 70% markedly increases mortality. Silvicultural activities such as pruning, thinning and fuel management can reduce the risk of crown fires. (Author)

  10. Análisis numérico de las especies de Prosopis L. (Fabaceae de las costas de Perú y Ecuador

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    Alicia D. Burghardt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes revisiones coinciden en señalar 2 o 3 especies de Prosopis para el sur de Ecuador y norte de Perú: P. juliflora (SW DC, P. pallida (Humb. et Bonpl. ex Willd. Kunth y P. affinis Sprengel. En el presente trabajo se informa del análisis cuantitativo de caracteres foliares de especímenes del genero Prosopis, recolectados a lo largo de la costa desde Arequipa (Perú a Manta (Ecuador. Los resultados señalan tres grupos bien definidos. Del análisis comparativo de los tipos y ejemplares de herbario de todas las especies y sinónimos citados para la zona de estudio surge que los taxones existentes son: P. pallida, P. limensis Bentham, ambos de amplia distribución, y P. chilensis (Molina Stuntz emend Burkart restringido al valle del río Camaná. Estos tres taxones se corresponden con los tres grupos obtenidos del análisis numérico. Debe señalarse la exclusión del área de P. juliflora y P. affinis. Se sugiere no utilizar las numerosas variedades señaladas para P. pallida.

  11. An apple plus a Brazil nut a day keeps the doctors away: antioxidant capacity of foods and their health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Carlos Kusano Bucalen; Percário, Sandro; Silva, José Carlos Costa Baptista; da Silva Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich foods scavenge free radicals and other reactive species, decreasing the risk of different non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to review the content of total antioxidant capacity of commonly foods comparing with experimental data and to explore the health benefits due to foods with moderate to high TAC. The TAC was analytically measured using the "Total Antioxidant Capacity" (NX2332) test from Randox® (UK) by spectrometry at 600 nm. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), "guaraná" (Paullinia cupana Kunth) powder, ready to drink boiled coffee (Coffea arabica L.), and milk chocolate (made from seeds of Theobroma cacao) had the highest TAC values, followed by collard greens (Brassica oleracea L.), beets (Beta vulgaris L.), apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), onions (Allium cepa L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Other foods also showed antioxidant capacity. The binomial antioxidant capacity of foods and health was extensively discussed according to science literature. Based on the high TAC content of Brazil nuts, guaraná, coffee, chocolate, collard greens, apples, beets, beans, oranges, onions and other foods, their regular dietary intake is strongly recommended to reduce the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases.

  12. Comparison of herbage yield, nutritive value and ensilability traits of three ryegrass species evaluated for the Irish Recommended List

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    Burns G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 169 of the newest varieties of three ryegrass species, perennial (Lolium perenne L., Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and hybrid (Lolium boucheanum Kunth, from Recommended List trials in Ireland. The traits examined were yield, dry matter concentration, three nutritive value traits (in vitro dry matter digestibility, water-soluble carbohydrate on a dry matter basis and crude protein concentration and two ensilability traits (buffering capacity and water soluble carbohydrate concentration on an aqueous phase basis. Varietal monocultures of each species underwent a six cut combined simulated grazing and silage management in each of two years following sowing. Perennial ryegrass yielded less than both other species in one-year-old swards, but less than only Italian ryegrass in two-year-old swards, but generally had the higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein values. Italian ryegrass displayed the most favourable ensilability characteristics of the three species with perennial ryegrass less favourable and hybrid ryegrass intermediate. Overall, despite the high yields and favourable nutritive value and ensilability traits recorded, the general differences between the three ryegrass species studied were in line with industry expectations. These findings justify assessing the nutritive value and ensilability of ryegrass species, in addition to yield, to allow farmers select species that match farming enterprise requirements.

  13. Comportamiento de paneles de bambú guadua laminado ante cargas paralelas al plano

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    Juan Jacobo Pinilla Rodríguez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Como un primer paso en el estudio del comportamiento ante cargas sísmicas de pórticos de bambú guadua laminados con paneles del mismo material, el Grupo de Investigación “Análisis, Diseño y Materiales, GIES”, de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ensayó dos tipos de paneles elaborados con bambú Guadua angustifolia Kunth y poli (vinil acetato, PVA: los paneles tipo 1 de sección transversal maciza y los paneles tipo 2 de sección transversal tipo sándwich.Se consideraron tres alturas para cada tipo de panel y se ensayaron diez réplicas por altura y por tipo, para un total de sesenta ensayos.Para cada uno de los paneles ensayados se realizó una curva carga-desplazamiento. Los paneles tipo 1, con altura de 0,34 m y 0,63 m, mostraron un comportamiento elástico inicial seguido de un comportamiento inelástico, mientras que los paneles tipo 1 y 2 de 0,98 m de altura revelaron un comportamiento casi totalmente elástico hasta la falla. Todos los paneles sufrieron aplastamiento en la base; sin embargo, el principal mecanismo de falla fue el alabeo.

  14. Colonization by Chironomidae larvae in decomposition leaves of Eichhornia azurea in a lentic system in Southeastern Brazil.

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    da Silveira, Lidimara Souza; Martins, Renato Tavares; da Silveira, Guilherme Augusto; Grazul, Richard Michael; Lobo, Danielle Pinheiro; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the colonization of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae during the decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Commelinales: Pontederiaceae) leaves in a lake in southeastern Brazil in two seasons of the year. The experiment was conducted from September to November 2007 and February to April 2008. In each period, 21 litter bags were used, each containing 10 g of dried leaves. Three bags were removed after 2, 5, 8, 12, 25, 45, and 65 days of colonization. The decomposition rate of the E. azurea leaves was rapid in both seasons, with no significant difference between them. The Chironomidae showed higher density than the other invertebrates. Goeldichironomus, Tonytarsus, and Corynoneura were the most abundant genera of Chironomidae. The invertebrate density increased during the experiment, differing within days but not between seasons. The faunal composition differed between the decomposition phases (initial and final), but did not differ between the seasons (dry and wet). The taxa Ablabesmyia, Caladomyia, Chironomus, Goeldichironomus, and Parachironomus were the most closely related to the final days of the experiment. Litter was the main food item found in the gut contents of the organisms of all the genera analyzed, both at the beginning and end of the decomposition. We believe that the feeding activity combined with the high larval density is an important factor contributing to the rapid decomposition of the E. azurea leaves. In conclusion, the succession process along the detritus chain of E. azurea was more important in structuring the assemblage of Chironomidae larvae than seasonal variations.

  15. Effects of intermittent acid rain on proline and antioxidant content on medicinal plant “Pereskia bleo”

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    Sulandjari; Dewi, W. S.

    2018-03-01

    Global warming due to CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions from human activities have led to climate change and environmental degradation. The acid rain, with the pH of rainwater below 5.6, is a serious environmental problem. Arising from air pollution and potentially harmful to health, it can damage old buildings and distract the growth and physiological metabolism of sensitive plants. How does the influence of climate change on medicinal plants such as Pereskia bleo? The leaf of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. contains high antioxidants with benefits for anti-cancer, anti-tumor, anti-rheumatic, and anti-inflammatory. This research aims to investigate the influence of acid rain on the proline level and antioxidant content of Pereskia bleo. Having been carried out from June to August in Jogjakarta, this study was conducted through the use of artificial acid rain with pH 5.8, 4.9, 3.7 and 2.9, by adding sulfate acid (H2SO4) to rainwater. The interval of intermittent watering acid rain to the plants is once a day, twice a day, and once in three days with three replications for six weeks. The results showed that Acid rain with a pH less than 4.9 and the intermittent interval of acid rain twice a day and once in three days significantly suppresses growth and chlorophyll content. In contrast, it increases the proline and antioxidant levels as a tolerant action of the plant.

  16. Experiences in the containerized tree seedlings forest nurseries production

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    Eduardo González-Izquierdo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work summarizes the results of the research carried out by the team of forest nurseries at Sustainable Forest Management Group in Pinar del Río University Forest Research Centre in the last 25 years. The characteristics of seedlings quality are presented, the best growing media, the water management to harden the forest species under the ecological conditions of more and more lingering periods of drought. The studied forest species were: Talipariti elatum (Sw. Fryxell, Pinus tropicalis Morelet , Swietenia mahagon(L.Jacq. Swietenia macrophylla King, Caesalpinia violacea (Mill. Stand, Genipa americana L, Gerascanthus gerascanthoides (Kunth Borhidi y Cedrela odorata L. y Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden. The main results can be summarized in the following way: the size of the containers oscillates between 90 and 300 cubic centimeters; the growing media combines organic and composted components fundamentally of Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus ssp bark., with proportions that they vary according to the species and the disposability of these components in the nurseries where the plants take place; for the water management hardening procedures were used by watering in last month of the cultivation. In general the economic analyses demonstrated the decrease of the production costs for seedlings with the employment of this novel technology, the same as their advantages on the traditional technology of seedlings production in polybags: humanization of manpower work in forest nursery, reduction of costs production, improvement of produced seedling quality and productivity increase of their workers.

  17. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

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    Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1 and chalepensin (2, respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  18. Modelling initial mortality of Abies religiosa in a crown fire in Mexico

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    Salomé Temiño-Villota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objectives of this work were to determine which morphological and fire severity variables may help explain the mortality of adult Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. & Cham., to model the probability of this species after being affected by crown fire, and to obtain more elements to classify the sacred fir in terms of fire resistance. This type of studies are relevant to estimate the impact of crown fires on the climax forests that forms this species.Area of study: The burned forest was located in the southern Mexico City, borough.Material and methods: Morphological variables and fire severity indicators were collected for 335 Abies religiosa trees burned by a mixed severity fire. Logistic regression was used to analyze data and develop models that best explained tree mortality.Main results: Survival was 26.9%. The models for height (p≤0.0001, diameter at breast height (p=0.0082, crown length (p≤0.0001 and crown base height (p≤0.0001 were significant, with a negative relationship between each one of these variables and probability of mortality. The significant severity variables were lethal scorch height (p≤0.0001 and crown kill (p≤ 0.0001, which have a direct relationship with probability of mortality.Highlights: This species is moderately fire-resistant. Crown kill ≥ 70% markedly increases mortality. Silvicultural activities such as pruning, thinning and fuel management can reduce the risk of crown fires.

  19. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae) and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity.

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    Silveira, Narjara; Saar, Julia; Santos, Alan Diego C; Barison, Andersson; Sandjo, Louis P; Kaiser, Marcel; Schmidt, Thomas J; Biavatti, Maique W

    2016-06-11

    From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K.) Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae), three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E)-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1)), N-(2-phenethyl)-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2) and (2E,7Z)-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3). While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively) while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM) with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM).

  20. Effects of evaporation pressure and antifoam concentration and the use of a flocculant and adjuvant on the quality of sugar honey and panela

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    Luz Esperanza Prada Forero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of multi-effect evaporators on panela (unrefined whole cane sugar production process requires, besides the technological adjustment, to maintain product characteristics; this condition revealed the lack of knowledge of the effect of evaporation pressure on the quality of panela. In order to fill part of this gap, this study sought to determine the effect of both the concentration of antifoam and the use of a flocculant (Heliocarpus popayanensis Kunth and an adjuvant (lime on the quality of sugar honey and panela, when evaporation is performed at different atmospheric pressures. In order to achieve this, the present study worked on two completely randomized experimental designs with four replications, a density of evaporation heat flow of 27.78 kW/m2 and juice from the CC85-46 variety. In the first design, two variables were studied: evaporation pressure and use of flocculant and adjuvant with a 4x2x2 factorial arrangement without antifoam. In the second design, variables evaporation pressure and quantity of antifoam with a 4x3 factorial arrangement without flocculant nor adjuvant were studied. The results show that the quality of the product deteriorates in pressurized systems (glucoside coefficient increases up to 200%, is not affected by the use of 50 μL of antifoam per liter of clarified juice and improved by the use of flocculant (turbidity is reduced by 55%. Solidification and hardness improve with the addition of the adjuvant, but this increased 48% color and 24% turbidity.

  1. The Effects of Gliricidia-Derived Biochar on Sequential Maize and Bean Farming

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    Ana Castro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The addition of biochar to soils can improve soil fertility and increase agricultural productivity. We carried out a field experiment in which biochar produced from Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp. was added to low-fertility Brazilian planosol and tested to increase the yield of maize (Zea mays and snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in sequential, organic cultivation. Biochar was applied at a 15 t/ha rate, combined or not with Azospirillum Brasiliense inoculation and organic fertilizer (Bokashi. The application of biochar resulted in an increase in soil pH and of the content of macronutrients such as phosphorus and potassium. Contrary to evidence from elsewhere, biochar had a limited effect on increasing maize yield. In the case of beans, when combined with fertilizer, biochar increased the production of beans pods and biomass, but the significant increase was observed only for inoculation. Beans are the principal component of Brazilian diet and increasing productivity of beans is of upmost importance for the poorest in Brazil, and in other tropical countries.

  2. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis/Wangenh./K. Koch: A new species of the Allochthonous dendroflora in Serbia

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    Bobinac Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the alien species Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, carya-pecan, (Juglandaceae A. Richard ex Kunth that has not been mentioned so far in the dendroflora of Serbia. One tree was recorded within the first Serbian sugar factory in Čukarica that is now a protected cultural property in the City of Belgrade. The tree is about 35 years old and about 20 m high. The length of the trunk without branches is 6.0 m and the diameter at breast height is 57 cm. Carya-pecan is a native species of the southeastern part of North America, and is grown in Europe for edible fruits and quality wood. The recorded tree in Belgrade is fruitful and characterized by good vitality and rapid growth. Due to its special characteristics, it can have multiple practical application in the territory of Serbia for decoration in urban areas, for forest plantations and in orchards. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  3. Photosynthetic limitations in two Antarctic vascular plants: importance of leaf anatomical traits and Rubisco kinetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Patricia L; Bravo, León A; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Vallejos, Valentina; Sanhueza, Carolina; Font-Carrascosa, Marcel; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Javier Peguero-Pina, José; Galmés, Jeroni

    2017-05-17

    Particular physiological traits allow the vascular plants Deschampsia antarctica Desv. and Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. to inhabit Antarctica. The photosynthetic performance of these species was evaluated in situ, focusing on diffusive and biochemical constraints to CO2 assimilation. Leaf gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence, leaf ultrastructure, and Rubisco catalytic properties were examined in plants growing on King George and Lagotellerie islands. In spite of the species- and population-specific effects of the measurement temperature on the main photosynthetic parameters, CO2 assimilation was highly limited by CO2 diffusion. In particular, the mesophyll conductance (gm)-estimated from both gas exchange and leaf chlorophyll fluorescence and modeled from leaf anatomy-was remarkably low, restricting CO2 diffusion and imposing the strongest constraint to CO2 acquisition. Rubisco presented a high specificity for CO2 as determined in vitro, suggesting a tight co-ordination between CO2 diffusion and leaf biochemistry that may be critical ultimately to optimize carbon balance in these species. Interestingly, both anatomical and biochemical traits resembled those described in plants from arid environments, providing a new insight into plant functional acclimation to extreme conditions. Understanding what actually limits photosynthesis in these species is important to anticipate their responses to the ongoing and predicted rapid warming in the Antarctic Peninsula. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. PRELIMINARY FLORA OF ORCHIDACEAE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ABAETETUBA, PARÁ, BRAZIL

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    Edgar Augusto Lobato Afonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae is one of the largest plant families in the world with approximately 20,000 species, of which 2,462 Occur in Brazil and 421 in the Pará State. Despite this large number of species, many municipalities in the State have never been sampled floristically, among them is the municipality of Abaetetuba, located in the middle region northeast Pará. Thus, this work aimed to conduct the floristic and taxonomic preliminary study of the Orchidaceae species in the Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil. Were conducted 41 field collections between January 2012 and May 2014. For collection and specimens herborization were followed usual techniques for vascular plants, and species identification were consulted specific bibliography and experts. For all species recorded are provided descriptions, taxonomic and ecological comments, information on geographical distribution in Brazil. In addition, it presents an identification key for the species Orchidaceae of Abaetetuba. In the municipality Orchidaceae is represented by 23 species belonging to 17 genera, being Epidendrum L. the more rich with three species. The most frequent species were Catasetum macrocarpum Rich. ex Kunth and Polystachya concreta (Jacq. Garay & H.R.Sweet. Except to Vanilla mexicana Mill. and V. palmarum (Salzm. ex Lindl. Lindl. classified as hemiepiphytes, all the other species were classified as holoepiphytes. Keywords: Eastern Amazon; Epiphytes, Orchids; Nort region.

  5. Antiproliferative constituents in plants 9. Aerial parts of Lippia dulcis and Lippia canescens.

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    Abe, Fumiko; Nagao, Tsuneatsu; Okabe, Hikaru

    2002-07-01

    The antiproliferative constituents in the MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of Lippia dulcis Trev. and Lippia canescens Kunth (Verbenaceae) were investigated. Activity-guided chemical investigation of the MeOH extracts resulted in the isolation of the three bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes [(+)-hernandulcin (1), (-)-epihernandulcin (2), and (+)-anymol (3)] and four phenylethanoid glycosides [acteoside (4), isoacteoside (5), martynoside (6), and a new diacetylmartynoside (7)] from the former, and four phenylethanoid glycosides [acteoside (4), isoacteoside (5), arenarioside (8), and leucosceptoside A (9)] and three flavones [desmethoxycentaureidin (10), eupafolin (11), and 6-hydroxyluteolin (12)] from the latter. Antiproliferative activity of the isolated compounds against murine melanoma (B16F10), human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1), and human uterine carcinoma (HeLa) cells was estimated. (+)-Anymol (3), acteoside (4), isoacteoside (5), arenarioside (8), eupafolin (11), and 6-hydroxyluteolin (12) had GI50 values of 10-16 microM against B16F10 cell. Desmethoxycentaureidin (10) and eupafolin (11) showed high inhibitory activity against HeLa cell growth (GI50 9 microM, and 6 microM, respectively).

  6. Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm.

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    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Dias, S G

    2014-05-01

    Plankton communities and macrofauna associated to aquatic macrophyte stands in a shallow water-supply reservoir (21°14'09″S; 48°18'38″W) on an aquaculture farm were compared to evaluate the relationship between organism densities and some abiotic features of the reservoir. Water and communities associated were sampled at two sites, one in an area with the predominance of Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth and the other with the predominance of Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Communities associated with macrophytes were sampled with floating quadrants (0.5 m2); the macrophytes were washed and plankton and macrofauna were fixated with 4% formalin and 1% lugol iodine; the specimens were then identified and counted. Plankton and macrofauna communities associated with S. auriculata and E. azurea had a similar diversity of species but different (pmacrophytes presence in the shallow reservoir is a strong predictor of favourable conditions to maintain great diversity plankton community and macrofauna associated with plants. The role of macrophytes is important for not only stabilising the clear-water state and maintaining high diversity of organisms associated, but also it seems to be a good alternative to maintaining desirable water-supply quality for aquaculture farms.

  7. Floristic composition and community structure of epiphytic angiosperms in a terra firme forest in central Amazonia

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    Mariana Victória Irume

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey aimed to describe the floristic composition and structure of the epiphytic community occurring in a terra firme forest in the city of Coari, Brazil, in the Amazon region. Data collection was performed with a 1.5 ha plot method, with which upland, slope and lowland habitats were sampled. All angiosperm epiphytes and their host plants (diameter at breast height > 10 cm were sampled. We recorded 3.528 individuals in 13 families, 48 genera and 164 species. Araceae was the most prevalent family with regard to the importance value and stood out in all related parameters, followed by Bromeliaceae, Cyclanthaceae and Orchidaceae. The species with the highest epiphytic importance values were Guzmania lingulata (L. Mez. and Philodendron linnaei Kunth. The predominant life form was hemiepiphytic. Estimated floristic diversity was 3.2 (H'. The studied epiphytic community was distributed among 727 host plants belonging to 40 families, 123 genera and 324 species. One individual of Guarea convergens T.D. Penn. was the host with the highest richness and abundance of epiphytes. Stems/trunks of host plants were the most colonized segments, and the most favorable habitat for epiphytism was the lowlands, where 84.1% of species and 48.2% of epiphytic specimens were observed.

  8. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Vismia macrophylla leaves and fruits collected in Táchira-Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Alexis; Rojas, Janne; Rojas, Luis; Velasco, Judith; Morales, Antonio; Peñaloza, Yonel; Díaz, Clara

    2015-02-01

    Hydrodistillation of Vismia macrophylla Kunth (Hypericaceae) leaves (L) and fruits (F) yielded 1.3%, v/w, and 5.6%, v/w, of essential oil, respectively. GC and GC-MS analyses showed the presence of twenty-four (96.4%, L) and thirty-one (96.6%, F) components, respectively. Major compounds identified in the leaf oil were γ-bisabolene (44.4%) and β-bisabolol (14.9%), while those in the fruit oil were germacrene-D (12.1%), 6-cadinene (10.7%) and γ-bisabolene (22.3 %). Oil obtained from the fruits of V. macrophylla showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. aureus ATCC 25923 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212) as well as Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922), with MIC values ranging from 150 μL/mL to 740 μL/mL. Oil obtained from leaves were active only on the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus (100 μL/mL) and E. faecalis (500 μL/mL), but also showed antiyeast activity against Candida albicans CDC-B385 and C. krusei ATCC 6258 (600 μL/mL, each).

  9. Ethnopharmacological studies of Lippia origanoides

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    Danilo R. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Lippia origanoides Kunth. Verbenaceae, is of great importance in the Brazilian traditional medicine. Because of it, this work had the purpose to contribute to the ethnopharmacological knowledge of L. origanoides through an ethnobotanical survey conducted within quilombola(maroon communities of Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil. Among 254 plants cited in the survey, L. origanoides stood out among the ten most versatile species. The agreed main uses were to treat menstrual cramps, stomachache, and baby and postpartum colic. This could indicate a consensus of the informants to possible antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of L. origanoides.Therefore, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of L. origanoides extract (aerial parts were assessed through thermal (hot plate and chemical (formalin and acetic acid models of nociception. A dose-dependent reduction in acetic acid-induced writhing was observed after treating mice with L. origanoidesextract. The same extract also inhibited significantly formalin-induced licking response and proved to have a central antinociceptive effect, in the hot plate test. This work demonstrates that L. origanoides is used specially by quilombola women from Oriximiná for disorders of the genitourinary system and that biological activities of this species could contribute to these uses. Furthermore, it was also observed antispasmodic, analgesic and antimicrobial uses of other species of the genus Lippia (Goniostachyum section, rich in thymol and carvacrol.

  10. Potential of dispersion of Tecoma stans and chemical attributes of some soils of the Paraná state

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    Celina Wisniewski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work correlated invasiveness characteristic (potential dispersion of Tecoma stans (L. Jussieu ex. Kunth(BIGNONIACEAE known as a Yellow-Bell. Open field test was developed starting from stakes in vases with four different types soilsof the Paraná State, conduced to randomized block design with four treatments and five replications. The soils were analyzedregarding the pH, CTC, level of C, Al+³, macro and micronutrients, and content of sand, silt and clay. After 6 months the leaf area, dryweight of leaves and potential dispersion, calculated by given numeric values from 1 to 4 for phonological phases presented. Themacro and micronutrients content (except K and Fe were high in all the soils. The correlations between dispersion potential and pHand the V% were positive and significant and with effective CTC, the Fe and clay content were negative. It was not found significantcorrelations between the dispersion potential and biomass or leaf area. Positive and significant correlations of biomass and leaf areawith macro (except P and micronutrients (except Cu apparently indicate that if the evaluation had been accomplished at the end of theflowering period of the species, nutritional relationships with the dispersion potential would be clearer, although it can be concludedthat the species has a preference for less acid soils.

  11. STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS TANAMAN BAWAH, DAN JENIS-JENIS YANG BERMANFAAT SEBAGAI TANAMAN OBAT DI KAWAASAN HUTAN LINDUNG KALIURANG

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    SUTOMO SUTOMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Low layer plants as one of component in forest ecosystem today still lack of attention due to the limited information about them. Low layer plants plays an important role in forest ecosystem, and also they are potential to be use as a medicinal plants, genetic resources and other uses that are not yet revealed. For that reason reseach about Low Layer Plants ; Community Structure and Their Use as Medicinal Plants need to be conducted. The objective of this research was to get the information about : (1 Community structure of low layer plants in compartment seven Kaliurang protection forest and (2 Species that are use as a medicinal pants. To fulfill this goal, small plots of 1 x 1 m along forest pathways were made in sampling area. Result showed that as many as 47 species of low layer plants were found in sampling area. There were five main species which has high importance value index : Eupatorium riparium Regel. with importance value index 21,29%, followed by Eleusine indica Gaertn.17,82 % , Oplismenus burmanii Beauv. 14,61 %, Diplazium proliferum 14,04% and Panicum reptans Kunth. 11,27 %. From those 47 species, as many as 10 species are known as a medicinal plants, they are : Melastoma malabathricum L., Physalis angulata Heyne, ex. Wall., Ageratum conyzoides Linn., Elephantopus scaber Linn., Psidium guajava Linn., Justicia gendarussa Linn., Alocasia macrorhiza Schott., Eleusine indica Gaertn., Villebrunea rubescens Bl. and Phyllanthus niruri L.

  12. Avaliação da atividade tóxica em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata de extratos de quatro espécies do gênero Eleocharis (Cyperaceae

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    A.L.T.G. Ruiz

    Full Text Available O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. compreende cerca de 200 espécies, ocorrendo em ambientes úmidos tais como brejos e margens de rios e lagos. Procurando novos agentes moluscicidas, os extratos de Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., Eleocharis maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult. e Eleocharis sellowiana Kunth foram testados para atividade moluscicida, contra caramujos adultos e desovas, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. O extrato hexânico de Eleocharis acutangula (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 476,00 mg/mL, enquanto os demais extratos apresentaram CL50 >> 10³ mg/mL, sugerindo baixa toxicidade. O extrato hidro-etanólico de Eleocharis sellowiana (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 24,27 mg/mL mas inativo contra indivíduos adultos. Os demais extratos testados não apresentaram atividade moluscicida.

  13. Chemical composition of essential oils of Piper jacquemontianum and Piper variabile from Guatemala and bioactivity of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts

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    Sully M. Cruz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from two native species from Guatemala were studied for their chemical composition and the dichloromethane and methanol extracts for their biological activity. A GC-MS analysis of the essential oil from Piper jacquemontianum Kunth, Piperaceae, showed 34 constituents, consisting mainly of linalool (69.4%, while Piper variabile C. DC. essential oil had 36 constituents, camphor (28.4%, camphene (16.6% and limonene (13.9% being the major components. Dichloromethane extracts of both species were cytotoxic against MCF-7, H-460 and SF-268 cell lines (<7 µg/mL. Dichloromethane extract of P. jacquemontianum was slightly active against bacteria (0.5 mg/mL, was active against promastigotes of Leishmania (20.4-61.0 µg/mL, and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (51.9 µg/mL. The methanol extract of P. variabile showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum F32 (4.5 µg/mL, and the dichloromethane extract against Leishmania (55.8-76.3 µg/mL and T. cruzi (45.8 µg/mL. None of the extracts from the two species was active against Aedes aegypti larvae and Artemia salina nauplii.

  14. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Gustavo G. GONSEBATT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. Los cultivos Glycine max (L. y Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., las especies silvestres Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. y Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken fueron hospedantes de ambas especies. El único parasitoide registrado fue Eretmocerus californicus cercano a corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre T. vaporariorum. Este estudio que constituye el primer relevamiento sistemático de plantas hospedantes en la región, aporta un mayor conocimiento sobre el rango de plantas hospedantes de las moscas blancas en Argentina.

  15. Response Analysis of eight native species of high Andean forest with two methods of propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda Sandra Liliana; Garzon Alvaro Ernesto; Cantillo Miguel Angel; Torres Monica Patricia; Silva Luis Jairo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to generate information on the native tree species represent an alternative in the ecological restoration of the Colombian high Andean forests, according to its dynamo-genetic characteristics. We have chosen and spread the species: Baccharis latifolia (R and P), Bocconia frutescens L., Cordia cylindrostachya (R and P), Diplostephium rosmarinifolium (Benth), Drymis granadensis L f., Eupatorium angustifolium (Kunth), Palicourea vaginata Benth, and Palicourea linearifolia Wernham. The species include a morphological description of flowers, fruits and seeds, and ISTA tests. The spread experiments were made in the nurseries of the Universidad Distrital and La Florida park. For the sexual spread, we have used as treatments four gibberellins concentrations and three shadow conditions, while the vegetative spread consisted of two diameters and ive indol butiric acid (IBA) concentrations. Results have shown that pre-germination treatments are needed for Bocconia frutescens y Palicourea vaginata, in order to increase the probability and germination rate. On the other hand, shadow conditions are needed for Baccharis latifolia, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium, Drymis granadensis, Eupatorium angustifolium and Palicourea vaginata, as their seeds exhibit photoblastic characteristics. Due to the Cordia cylindrostachya and Palicourea linearifolia seed attack by insects (Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera) their sexual spread is highly limited. Finally, regarding the species response to the IBA and diameter combinations, each species responded in a different manner. Additionally, regarding the vegetative spread, the species Bocconia frutescens, Cordia cylindrostachya, Palicourea vaginata, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium and Drymis granadensis were very difficult to spread

  16. Response Analysis of eight native species of high Andean forest with two methods of propagation; Analisis de la respuesta de ocho especies nativas del bosque alto andino ante dos metodos de propagacion

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    Liliana, Castaneda Sandra; Ernesto, Garzon Alvaro; Angel, Cantillo Miguel; Patricia, Torres Monica; Jairo, Silva Luis

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this research was to generate information on the native tree species represent an alternative in the ecological restoration of the Colombian high Andean forests, according to its dynamo-genetic characteristics. We have chosen and spread the species: Baccharis latifolia (R and P), Bocconia frutescens L., Cordia cylindrostachya (R and P), Diplostephium rosmarinifolium (Benth), Drymis granadensis L f., Eupatorium angustifolium (Kunth), Palicourea vaginata Benth, and Palicourea linearifolia Wernham. The species include a morphological description of flowers, fruits and seeds, and ISTA tests. The spread experiments were made in the nurseries of the Universidad Distrital and La Florida park. For the sexual spread, we have used as treatments four gibberellins concentrations and three shadow conditions, while the vegetative spread consisted of two diameters and ive indol butiric acid (IBA) concentrations. Results have shown that pre-germination treatments are needed for Bocconia frutescens y Palicourea vaginata, in order to increase the probability and germination rate. On the other hand, shadow conditions are needed for Baccharis latifolia, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium, Drymis granadensis, Eupatorium angustifolium and Palicourea vaginata, as their seeds exhibit photoblastic characteristics. Due to the Cordia cylindrostachya and Palicourea linearifolia seed attack by insects (Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera) their sexual spread is highly limited. Finally, regarding the species response to the IBA and diameter combinations, each species responded in a different manner. Additionally, regarding the vegetative spread, the species Bocconia frutescens, Cordia cylindrostachya, Palicourea vaginata, Diplostephium rosmarinifolium and Drymis granadensis were very difficult to spread.

  17. Karyotype with 210 chromosomes in guaraná (Paullinia cupana 'Sorbilis').

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Danival Vieira; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Filho, Firmino José do Nascimento; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco

    2007-05-01

    The genus Paullinia includes the economically important P. cupana, known as guaraná in Brazil and more recently in the world market. Native Americans of the Maué and Andirá tribes cultivated P. cupana 'Sorbilis' in central Amazon, and the Barés cultivated the 'Typica' variety in the upper Negro River (Brazil). Cytological studies in the Sapindaceae family have concentrated on the diversity in number (from 2n = 14 to 96) and size of the chromosomes. In Paullinia, seven species have been karyotyped and all show 2n = 24. Meristem maceration, cellular dissociation and air-drying techniques were used for cytogenetic preparations and DNA content was determined by flow cytometry. Chromosome characterization and DNA content of Paullinia cupana Kunth 'Sorbilis' (Mart.) Ducke (Sapindaceae) were studied. The high chromosome number (2n = 210) fall into two cytomorphological groups: (a) a metacentric and submetacentric group showing 25 sets of three pairs of chromosomes (2-76); (b) a group containing only acrocentric showing 12 sets of two pairs of chromosomes (82-105), a homologous submetacentric pair (1) and an acrocentric pair (81). Mean nuclear DNA content of guaraná was 2C = 22.8 pg. A karyogram was set up showing a high chromosome number complement.

  18. Mechanisms of Forest Restoration in Landslide Treatment Areas

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    Yi-Chang Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reforestation after a landslide facilitates competition between herbaceous plants and arborous plants. Tangible variations in grassland areas in regions susceptible to landslides can only be found within collections of trees. A landslide area in the Sule Watershed was investigated. Relative illuminance results reveal that the Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth biomass in this landslide area increases with relative illuminance. A comparison of regions with tree islands indicates that the size of the grassland areas decreased and the number of tree islands increased during 2005–2010. Furthermore, a germination experiment in a soil-seed bank indicates that more woody plant species exist around the tree island than in other areas in the landslide region. Trees in a tree island change the micro-climate of the landslide region, and they gather as many nutrients and as much moisture as possible, enabling vegetation to expand around the tree island. Additionally, the area with Rhodes grass and its biomass declined annually in the tree island region. Investigation results show that tree islands and soil-seed banks are suited to reforestation in landslide regions. The pioneering research will assist regional landslide management in Taiwan.

  19. Parámetros indicadores de valor nutritivo en cinco pastos tropicales en la época lluviosa en el trópico seco de Cota Rica

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    Rafael Angel Arroyo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay was carried out in Hojancha, Guanacaste to evaluate the nutritive values of the following grasses: jaragua (Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees, african star grass (Cynodon nlenfuensis (L(Pers, transvala (Digitaria decumbens veranero (Andropogon gayanus(Kunth y congo (Brachiaria ruziziensis(Germain et Everard, under three cut intervals (28, 35 and 42 days. The evaluated variables were: Dry Matter Production (DMP, kg/ha/cut, In vitro Dry Matter Digestibility (IVDMD, %, Digestible Dry Matter (DDM, kg/ha/cut, Crude Protein Content (CP, %, Crude protein production (CPP, kg/ha/cut, Digestible Crude Protein Production (DCPP, kg/ha/cut, Ruminal Dry Matter Disappeareance (RDMD, %/hour, Ruminal Dry Matter Disappeareance Mean Time (RDMDMT, hours. The largest DMP was found for the veranero grass at 28 and 35 day intervals (1527,5 and 2424,4 kg/ha/cut while at the 42 day interval the congo grass (2886,8 kg/ha/cut had the largest DMP, followed by veranero grass with 2705,0 kg/ha/cut. The veranero and transvala grasses showed the highest RDMD and RDMDMT as compared to the other grasses in the study, as a consequence of their better chemical composition. Between the jaragua and veranero grasses there were no differences with respect to their chemical composition and ruminal characteristics. The poorest DMP, chemical composition (excluding CP and RDMD was shown by the african star grass.

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE LAS PROPIEDADES MECÁNICAS DE LA ESTRUCTURA INTERNA DE LA GUADUA CON UN MODELO MATEMATICO

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    JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO SARAZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizo la estructura interna del Bambú-Guadua angustifolia kunth (GAK, en su zona media, encontrando la composición interna de este material compuesto, como son el porcentaje de la matriz (parénquima y de fibras (células de fibras y tejido conductivo. Se determinó las propiedades mecánicas como la resistencia a tensión y a flexión en sentido tangencial, y la Relación de Poisson del material y la resistencia de la fibra. Se valido un modelo matemático para materiales compuestos propuesto por Chandrupatla & Belegundu (1999, y se encontraron algunas ecuaciones que permiten predecir la resistencia del material en función de la resistencia de la fibra, y también para realizar modelos computacionales útiles para la industria de laminados de pisos en Bambuguadua. Los resultados experimentales no difirieron significativamente de los resultados obtenidos con los modelos matemáticos.

  1. A taxonomic revision of the genus Ceiba Mill. (Bombacaceae

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    Gibbs, Peter

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this taxonomic revision of Ceiba Mill, (in which we include Chorisia Kunth we recognize 17 species, seven of which we group in the C. insignis. species aggregate. One new species is described, C. lupuna P.E. Gibbs & Semir from Peru, which is referred to the C. insignis agg., and one new subspecies, C. aesculifolia subsp. parvifolia (Rose P.E. Gibbs & Semir is recognized. Distribution maps are provided for 16 species (that for C. pentandra is restricted to the New World, and six species are illustrated.En esta revisión taxonómica de Ceiba, que incluye el género Chorisia, se reconocen 17 especies, siete de las cuales se agrupan en el complejo C. insignis. Se describe una nueva especie, C. lupuna P.E. Gibbs & Semir, del Perú, que pertenece al complejo de C. insignis, asf como una nueva subespecie, C. aesculifolia subsp. parvifolia (Rose P.E. Gibbs & Semir. Se incluyen mapas de distribuci6n de 16 especies (aunque en el caso de C. pentandra solo se representa su distribución americana y se dibujan detalles diagnósticos de seis especies.

  2. RAPD and microsatellite transferability studies in selected species of Prosopis (section Algarobia) with emphasis on Prosopis juliflora and P. pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Minu; Smith, Steve; Patel, Ashok; Harris, Phil; Hand, Paul; Trenchard, Liz; Henderson, Janey

    2011-08-01

    The genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comprises 44 species widely distributed in arid and semi-arid zones. Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth and P. juliflora (Sw.) DC. are the two species that are truly tropical apart from P. africana, which is native to tropical Africa (Pasiecznik et al. 2004), and they have been introduced widely beyond their native ranges. However, taxonomic confusion within the genus has hampered exploitation and better management of the species. The present study focusses primarily on evaluating the genetic relationship between Prosopis species from the section Algarobia, containing most species of economic importance, though P. tamarugo from section Strombocarpa is also included for comparison. In total, 12 Prosopis species and a putative P. pallida x P. chilensis hybrid were assessed for their genetic relationships based on RAPD markers and microsatellite transferability. The results show that P. pallida and P. juliflora are not closely related despite some morphological similarity. Evidence also agrees with previous studies which suggest that the grouping of series in section Algarobia is artificial.

  3. Antinociceptive esters of N-methylanthranilic acid: Mechanism of action in heat-mediated pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Radulović, Niko S; Miltojević, Ana B; Boylan, Fabio; Dias Fernandes, Patrícia

    2014-03-15

    Recently, we identified a new natural antinociceptive alkaloid ternanthranin, isopropyl N-methylanthranilate (ISOAN), from the plant species Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae). In this work we concentrated on the elucidation of its mechanism of action in comparison with two other esters of this acid (methyl (MAN) and propyl (PAN)). Mice orally pre-treated with ISOAN, MAN or PAN (at 0.3, 1 and 3mg/kg) were less sensitive to chemical or thermal stimuli in different nociception models (formalin-, capsaicin- and glutamate-induced licking response, tail flick and hot plate). All compounds (1 and 3mg/kg) showed significant activity in the peripheral nociception models, as well as a dose-dependent spinal antinociceptive effect in the tail flick model. We observed that glibenclamide was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of ISOAN in the hot plate model suggesting the involvement of K(+)ATP channels. The antinociceptive effect of MAN and PAN may be related to adrenergic, nitrergic and serotoninergic pathways. In addition, the antinociception of PAN was reverted by naloxone implying that the opioid pathway participates in its activity. The cholinergic and cannabinoid systems were found not be involved in the onset of the antinociceptive effects of any of the esters. In conclusion, isopropyl, methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates produced significant peripheral and central antinociception at doses lower than that of morphine, the classical opioid analgesic drug, without causing toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial endophytes enhance phytostabilization in soils contaminated with uranium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Muhammad Tayyab; Najam-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Idrees, Muhammad; Ullah, Inayat; Afzal, Muhammad

    2017-10-03

    The combined use of plants and bacteria is a promising approach for the remediation of polluted soil. In the current study, the potential of bacterial endophytes in partnership with Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth was evaluated for the remediation of uranium (U)- and lead (Pb)-contaminated soil. L. fusca was vegetated in contaminated soil and inoculated with three different endophytic bacterial strains, Pantoea stewartii ASI11, Enterobacter sp. HU38, and Microbacterium arborescens HU33, individually as well as in combination. The results showed that the L. fusca can grow in the contaminated soil. Bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and phytoremediation capacity: this manifested in the form of a 22-51% increase in root length, 25-62% increase in shoot height, 10-21% increase in chlorophyll content, and 17-59% more plant biomass in U- and Pb-contaminated soils as compared to plants without bacterial inoculation. Although L. fusca plants showed potential to accumulate U and Pb in their root and shoot on their own, bacterial consortia further enhanced metal uptake capacity by 53-88% for U and 58-97% for Pb. Our results indicate that the combination of L. fusca and endophytic bacterial consortia can effectively be used for the phytostabilization of both U- and Pb-contaminated soils.

  5. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew B; Cates, Rex G; Lawrence, Michael; Soria, J Alfonso Fuentes; Espinoza, Luis V; Martinez, Jose Vicente; Arbizú, Dany A

    2015-04-01

    Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. RESULTS suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene.

  6. Propagação vegetativa de camu-camu por meio de enxertia intergenérica na família Myrtaceae

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    Suguino Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth McVaugh], da família Myrtaceae, é encontrado em áreas inundáveis da Região Amazônica e utilizado como conservante em antioxidantes por seu alto teor de ácido ascórbico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar porta-enxertos desta família, adaptados a terra firme, visando à propagação vegetativa de camu-camu. Selecionaram-se duzentas e quarenta mudas de camu-camu, goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L., que receberam quatro tipos de enxertia, originando doze tratamentos de sessenta plantas, com cinco repetições. Apenas o porta-enxerto de camu-camu se mostrou compatível. A incompatibilidade entre camu-camu e os porta-enxertos de goiabeira e pitangueira foi demonstrada por análises anatômicas.

  7. Ability of a Generalist Seed Beetle to Colonize an Exotic Host: Effects of Host Plant Origin and Oviposition Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo-Suárez, A; Repizo, A; Robles, J; Diaz, J; Bustamante, S

    2017-08-01

    The colonization of an exotic species by native herbivores is more likely to occur if that herbivore is a generalist. There is little information on the life-history mechanisms used by native generalist insects to colonize exotic hosts and how these mechanisms are affected by host properties. We examined the ability of the generalist seed beetle Stator limbatus Horn to colonize an exotic species. We compared its host preference, acceptability, performance, and egg size when ovipositing and developing on two native (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth and Senegalia riparia (Kunth)) and one exotic legume species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)). We also analyzed the seed chemistry. We found that females recognize the exotic species as an unfavorable host for larval development and that they delayed oviposition and laid fewer and larger eggs on the exotic species than on the native species. Survivorship on the exotic host was 0%. Additionally, seeds of the native species contain five chemical compounds that are absent in the exotic species, and the exotic species contains three sterols, which are absent in the native legumes. Genetically based differences between beetles adapted to different hosts, plastic responses toward new hosts, and chemical differences among seeds are important in host colonization and recognition of the exotic host. In conclusion, the generalist nature of S. limbatus does not influence its ability to colonize L. leucocephala. Explanations for the colonization of exotic hosts by generalist native species and for the success of invasive species must be complemented with studies measuring local adaptation and plasticity.

  8. Effects of peach palm oil on performance, serum lipoproteins and haemostasis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldizán, G; Oviedo, M; Michelangeli, C; Vargas, R E

    2010-12-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to study the comparative effects of peach palm oil (PPO, Bactris gasipaes H.B.K), crude palm oil (CPO, Elaeis guinenesis), maize oil (MO) and beef tallow (BT) on serum total and lipoprotein cholesterol levels and haemostatic factors in broiler chickens. 2. Four experimental diets were formulated to be isocaloric (14·2 MJ AME(N)/kg) and isonitrogenous (230 g CP/kg). PPO was extracted from the whole dry fruit with hexane. Each fat was added to the diet in an amount equivalent to 25% of total dietary calories. Six replicate groups of eight male broiler chicks were assigned randomly to each dietary treatment. Diets were fed on ad libitum basis. The experiment lasted 42 d. 3. At 42 d, birds were fasted overnight and three chickens/dietary treatment were utilised to draw blood for lipoprotein separation. Various haemostatic factors were determined in thrombocyte-poor plasma. Thrombocyte aggregation was assayed in whole blood. 4. No significant differences were detected in body-weight gain or feed efficiency between the chickens fed on the PPO diet and those receiving the CPO, MO or BT diets. Total serum cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL(C)) were not significantly affected after consuming the PPO, CPO and MO diets. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL(C)) was reduced only by the MO diet. Birds fed on the PPO diet had a significantly lower [corrected] LDLC/HDLC ratio compared with other dietary treatments 5. Thrombocyte count and thrombin time were not significantly affected by the experimental diets. Dietary oils significantly affected prothrombin time, fibrinogen concentration and thrombocyte aggregation. PPO and MO diets elicited the lowest fibrinogen levels compared to the CPO and BT diets. Thrombocyte aggregation in broilers fed on the PPO diet was similar to that of the CPO, MO and BT diets. 6. The results suggest that PPO might efficiently provide up to

  9. Efeito da suplementação com pupunha como fonte de vitamina A em dieta: estudo em ratos

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    Lucia K.O. Yuyama

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito da suplementação com pupunha (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., polpa cozida e transformada em farinha, como fonte de vitamina A, em dieta regional de Manaus, AM,Brasil, por meio do ensaio biológico com ratos. A metodologia utilizada foi da depleção dos animais em zinco e vitamina A, seguida da repleção com a dieta regional (DR, DR + pupunha, DR + vitamina A e dieta controle (DC. A dieta foi elaborada para famílias com rendimentos inferiores a dois salários-mínimos. Foram utilizadas ratas albinas adultas pós-parto, cada qual com 6 filhotes machos, que receberam ração à base de caseína lavada com EDTA a 1%, sem adição de Zn e vitamina A, por 25 dias, com a finalidade de obtenção de animais recém-desmamados deficientes nestes dois nutrientes. O período de repleção dos animais, recém-desmamados, foi de 30 dias e o delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 4 tratamentos de 8 animais cada. A suplementação efetuada seguiu as recomendações do "Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets". Os parâmetros empregados para a avaliação da utilização de vitamina A foram as concentrações de vitamina A no fígado e plasma e o crescimento dos animais. Ao final do experimento, observou-se que os animais que consumiram a ração à base da dieta regional de Manaus, suplementada com pupunha e vitamina A, apresentaram, respectivamente, concentração significativamente maior de vitamina A no fígado, 43,3 ± 6,5 µg/g e 42,0 ± 4,3 µg/g em relação à dieta regional, 5,5 ± 1,1 µg/g (p<0,05. A quantidade de zinco presente na dieta regional de Manaus, 10,7 mg diários, foi biodisponível quando avaliada pela concentração de zinco nos fêmures. Os resultados sugerem que existe necessidade de suplementação da dieta regional de Manaus com vitamina A para a manutenção das reservas hepáticas, podendo, para tanto, ser utilizada a fonte natural da pupunha.

  10. para palmito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Chaimsohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Densidades de siembra, arreglos espaciales y fertilización en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes cv Diamantes-10 para palmito. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Los Diamantes (Guápiles, Costa Rica, el 3 de octubre del 2003, cuyo objetivo fue la evaluación del efecto de diferentes densidades de siembra (3.333, 5.000 y 6.666 plantas/ha, arreglos espaciales, y diversos métodos de fertilización (química, orgánica, sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de pejibaye para producción de palmito. Se consideraron las variables diámetro y altura del tallo primario y el número de hojas y rebrotes como indicadores de producción. El período de evolución abarcó sólo los primeros 25 meses de crecimiento en el campo. El número de hojas, la altura y el diámetro del tallo no mostraron diferencias de respuesta relevantes. Sólo el número de rebrotes disminuyó al aumentar la densidad de la población, cuando se midió a los 15 meses de edad. El efecto de la fertilización se hizo evidente después de la primera cosecha, realizada a los 20 meses, debido al aumento de la competencia entre plantas, ahora más desarrolladas. Fue entonces cuando la fertilización química indujo la producción de un mayor número y vigor de los rebrotes. Sin embargo, las prácticas evaluadas 25 meses después de la siembra, no habían infl uido hasta ese momento en el número de palmitos cosechados, ni tampoco había afectado las características físicas de los sectores foliar y caulinar del palmito.

  11. con fósforo en la zona norte de Costa Rica

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    Jimmy Boniche

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar el efecto de la fertilización con P y mejorar la tecnología de su aplicación en plantaciones comerciales de pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes para palmito, en un suelo clasificado como Fluvaquentic Dystrudepts, se evaluó 0, 9, 18, 33, 48 y 108 kg.ha-1 de P2O5 sobre el crecimiento y rendimiento de palmito durante el primer año, y el doble de estas cantidades durante los 24 meses siguientes. Se determinó la disponibilidad de nutrimentos en el suelo a 2 profundidades, así como la concentración de estos en las hojas y pecíolos 3 y 5, y en las raíces. La fertilización con P no afectó en forma importante el crecimiento de las plantas o la producción de palmitos. El número de rebrotes se incrementó, pero el efecto de regresión cuadrática no fue significativo. Tampoco se afectó la concentración de otros nutrimentos en el suelo. Las soluciones extractoras Olsen modificado y Mehlich-3, se relacionaron positivamente con las cantidades de P aplicadas, aunque la solución Olsen modificado extrajo cantidades mayores. La cantidad de P disponible a 0-5 cm de profundidad, así como la correlación entre ambas soluciones extractoras, fue mayor que en el estrato de 5-20 cm. Al muestrear las hojas 3 y 5, los pecíolos, las raíces gruesas y la materia seca, se encontró que los pecíolos se asociaron en forma importante con las cantidades aplicadas de P. Las adiciones de P, aumentaron linealmente las concentraciones de Ca, K, y Mg en los pecíolos. Se recomienda aplicar P al suelo en plantaciones establecidas de 10000 plantas.ha-1 en una dosis de mantenimiento máxima de 30 kg.ha-1.año-1 de P2O5; muestrear los pecíolos como órganos indicadores, realizar el muestreo de suelos preferiblemente de 0-5 cm de profundidad y utilizar la solución extractora de Olsen modificado en el análisis de suelos.

  12. [Effect of supplementation with peach palm as source of vitamin A: study with rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, L K; Cozzolino, S M

    1996-02-01

    The effect of supplementation with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.), as an alternative source of vit. A, in the regional diet of Manaus, AM, Brazil, in which the pulp was cooked and transformed into flour, was studied. The biological trial involved rats which were depleted in zinc and vitamin A, followed by repletion using the regional diet (RD), RD plus peach palm and RD plus vitamin A. The parameters used to determine the utilization of vitamin A were the vitamin A concentrations in the liver and plasma, and the growth of the animals. The diet was prepared according to the data of Shrimpton and Giugliano for families earning less than two legal minimum salaries. Adult post-partum rats were used, with six male pups each, which received a diet based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, without the addition of zinc or vitamin A for a period of 25 days, for the purpose of obtaining newly-weaned animals which were deficient in Zn and Vit.A. A control group received a diet also based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, but with all the nutrients in the quantities suggested by the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. The repletion period of the newly-weaned rats was of 30 days and the experimental design was entirely randomized with four groups of eight rats each. The diet supplementation followed the recommendations of the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that rats which consumed the diet based on the regional diet of Manaus supplemented with either peach palm or vitamin A showed a significantly greater concentration of vitamin A in the liver, 43.3 +/- 6.5 micrograms/g, 42.0 +/- 4.3 micrograms/g, respectively in relation to the regional diet, 5.5 +/- 1.1 micrograms/g (p < 0.05). The amount of zinc present in the regional diet, 10.7 mg per day, was bioavailable as determined by the concentration of zinc in the femurs. The results suggest that the regional diet of Manaus needs to be supplemented with vitamin A to maintain the

  13. Observaciones sobre el gualapán (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Hispinae y otras limitantes entomológicas en cultivos de chontaduro en el Bajo Anchicayá

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    Alarcón Andrés

    2005-06-01

    with this problem. An integrated ecological approach is proposed. Key words: Bactris gasipaes, Alurnus sp, Foliage’s plague, entomological complex, integrated approach, Pacific Coast, Colombia.

  14. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

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    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.Três bioensaios de letalidade com o crustáceo de água salgada Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (teste convencional em microplaca de 96 poós Artoxkit microbiotest M e o crustáceo de água doce Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae (Thamnotoxkit microbiotest F, foram comparados utilizando extratos de dez espécies de plantas da Guatemala. Foi previamente observado que cinco delas possuem atividade anti

  15. Repetibilidade da produção de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos entre o caiaué e o dendezeiro Repeatability for bunch production in interspecific hybrids between caiaué and african oil palm

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    Gilson Sánchez Chia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A hibridação interespecífica entre o caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth Cortés e o dendezeiro (E. guineensis Jacq. tem sido explorada com o objetivo de desenvolver cultivares tão produtivas quanto as de dendezeiro, aliada à resistência a pragas e doenças, principalmente o amarelecimento fatal, elevada taxa de ácidos graxos insaturados e redução de porte características do caiaué. Por ser uma cultura perene com longo ciclo de produção, além dos altos custos para manutenção e avaliação dos experimentos de melhoramento genético, é necessário definir o período mínimo de avaliação para que a seleção dos híbridos seja realizada com eficiência e mínimo dispêndio de tempo e recursos. Este estudo teve como objetivo estimar os coeficientes de repetibilidade dos caracteres número de cachos, peso total de cachos e peso médio de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos e definir o número de anos consecutivos de avaliação necessário para seleção eficiente dos melhores cruzamentos e indivíduos. Os coeficientes de repetibilidade foram estimados pelos métodos da análise de variância, componentes principais com base na matriz de covariância (CPCV e de correlações, e análise estrutural com base na matriz de correlações. O método dos CPCV demonstrou ser o mais adequado para o estudo da repetibilidade da produção de cachos, indicando quatro anos consecutivos de avaliação para selecionar progênies, representadas por dez plantas, com coeficientes de determinação (R² superiores a 85%, e que para seleção individual de plantas são necessários pelo menos seis anos consecutivos de avaliação para atingir R² superior a 80%.Interspecific hybridization between the caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth Cortés and the african oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq. has been exploited with the objective of developing varieties as productive as African oil palm and with the pest and disease resistance, reduced height and high levels

  16. Longevidade de inflorescências de Epidendrum ibaguense tratadas com aminoetoxivinilglicina Extending vase life of cut Epidendrum ibaguense inflorescences with aminoethoxyvinylglycine

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    Ana Maria Mapeli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do inibidor da síntese de etileno aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG aplicado na forma de solução de condicionamento e pulverização sobre a abscisão e longevidade de inflorescências de Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth. As hastes foram colhidas e imediatamente condicionadas em solução com 0, 0,5, 1, 1,5 e 2 mM de AVG por 6, 12, 18 e 24 horas. Os mesmos tratamentos foram aplicados na forma de pulverização até o molhamento completo da inflorescência. O experimento foi conduzido em um esquema fatorial entre tempo de aplicação e doses de AVG, mais doses de AVG aplicadas em pulverização nas flores, e o delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, com três hastes por unidade experimental. Independentemente do modo de aplicação do AVG, as concentrações utilizadas promoveram aumento da longevidade das flores em aproximadamente 70% em comparação ao controle, com resposta máxima nas concentrações de 1,5 e 2 mM. Apercentagem de abscisão de flores foi reduzida em todos os tratamentos com AVG, principalmente quando se utilizou pulverização, com decréscimo na abscisão acumulada superior a 80% nas concentrações entre 1 e 2 mM de AVG.A aplicação de AVG prolongaa longevidadee reduz a abscisãode flores de Epidendrum ibaguense.This work evaluated the influence of the aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, when applied in pulsing solution or sprayed, on the abscission and longevity of cut star orchid (Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth inflorescences. The cut stems were placed in solutions with 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mM AVG concentrations immediately after the harvest for periods of 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours. The same treatment concentrations were sprayed on the inflorescences until runoff. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with factorial treatments of rate and duration plus rate of application to the flowers, with five replicates, with three

  17. The availability of Piperaceae and the search for this resource by Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Carolliinae in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

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    Isaac Passos de Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A study about the species of Piperaceae that are consumed by a colony of Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72 ha was carried out. Five available species of Piperaceae were found in the park: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth and Piper sp. C. perspicillata fed on all of these species. During the spring, the most abundant item was P. amalago, but the consumption of P. aduncum was the highest. At the beginning of the summer, P. crassinervium was the most abundant and most consumed item. At the end of the summer and during the fall, P. gaudichaudianum was the most abundant and consumed item, even in May, when P. amalago was the most abundant item. During the winter, the most highly available items were P. aduncum, Piper sp. and P. amalago, and the ones that were consumed the most were Piper sp., P. gaudichaudianum and P. aduncum. The results have shown that the preferences of C. perspicillata in the park are related to the greater abundance or the higher energetic value of the available Piperaceae. The greater search for the most energetic and least abundant species, which happened in the spring and winter, is related to the energy gain, that is, the species searches for food that will provide a greater quantity of energy per unit of consumption; and the greater search for the most abundant item, which occurred in the summer and fall, is related to saving the energy used in the search for food.Estudou-se quais espécies de piperáceas são consumidas por uma colônia de Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 localizada do Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72ha. Foram encontradas no parque: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth e Piper sp. C. perspicillata alimentou-se de todas essas espécies. Durante a primavera, o item mais abundante foi P. amalago, porém o

  18. Pérdidas de suelo y nutrientes bajo diferentes coberturas vegetales en la zona Andina de Colombia Soil and nutrient loss under different vegetation covers in Colombia's Andean region

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    J. Alexander Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural El Ciprés, ubicada en la vereda Bellavista, municipio de El Dovio (Valle del Cauca. La vereda se encuentra en la zona Andina de la cordillera occidental, en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1700 y 1800 m.s.n.m., con una temperatura promedio de 18 °C. Según la clasificación climática de Holdridge, corresponde a una zona de bosque húmedo Montano Bajo, con una precipitación promedio entre 2500 y 2700 mm/año, una humedad relativa de 90% y una pendiente del suelo de 62%. Las mediciones se hicieron en parcelas de escorrentía de 32 m² cada una y siete tipos de coberturas: guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth, bosque secundario, pastura (Brachiaria decumbens, café (Coffea arabica; banco de proteína (Trichanthera gigantea, caña forrajera (Saccharum officinarum y cultivo limpio conformado por yuca (Manihot esculenta, maíz (Zea mays y arracacha (Arracacia zanthorrhiza Brancroft. Para la evaluación se midieron las pérdidas de suelo y los nutrientes calcio, magnesio, potasio y fósforo en un periodo de 7 meses. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P Soil and nutrient (calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus losses were measured over a 7-month period in the El Ciprés Natural Reserve, located in the Bellavista rural community, municipality of El Dovio, in the western cordillera of the Andes of the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. At 1700-1800 meters above sea level, the area presents an average temperature of 18 °C, an average annual precipitation of 2500-2700 mm, 90% relative humidity, and a 62% slope. According to the Holdridge climate classification system, it corresponds to a lower montane rain forest. Measurements were taken in runoff plots, each 32 m², with seven types of vegetation cover: giant bamboo (Guadua angustifolia Kunth; secondary forest; pastures (Brachiaria decumbens; coffee (Coffea arabica; protein bank (Trichanthera gigantea; forage cane (Saccharum officinarum

  19. Macrófitas aquáticas da lagoa de Jijoca de Jericoacoara, Ceará, Brasil Aquatic macrophytes of Jijoca of Jericoacoara lagoon, Ceará, Brazil

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    Lígia Queiroz Matias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A lagoa de Jijoca de Jericoacoara situa-se no litoral do Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil (2º50'10'' e 2º55'32''S - 40º28'32'' e 40º24'09''W, sendo bordejada em sua extremidade Norte por dunas e por vegetação de tabuleiro nas demais faces. Realizou-se o levantamento da composição florística e da estrutura da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas presentes na lagoa. As amostras das plantas foram coletadas e depositadas no herbário EAC. Densidade, freqüência e cobertura das espécies foram amostradas em 10 transectos plotados em áreas com boas condições de conservação de suas margens, evitando-se áreas urbanas e de atividade agropecuária adjuntas à lagoa. Apresenta-se a lista de 45 espécies ocorrentes, suas formas biológicas e dados da estrutura da comunidade. As espécies com maior índice do valor de importância (IVI foram Eleocharis mutata (L. Roem. & Schult., Paspalidium geminatum Stapf, Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retz. Kunth, Nymphoides indica (L. Kuntze e Echinodorus tenellus (Mart. Buchen. A forma de vida predominante foi "plantas enraizadas ao substrato - anfíbias tolerantes à seca". Em relação à profundidade, ocorre aumento da diversidade de espécies de áreas mais profundas para 0-0,5m de espessura da lâmina d'água.The Jijoca of Jericoacoara lake is located at Ceará Coastal Zone, Northeast of Brazil (2º50'10'' e 2º55'32''S - 40º28'32'' e 40º24'09''W, and it has sand dunes on the Northern shore and arboreal semi-deciduous vegetation around the other lakesides. A floristic and communities structure survey of aquatic flora was conducted. Plant samples were collected and included in the EAC Herbarium. The density, frequency, and cover were measurements used in describing communities by intercept transect sampling. Sampling was carried out in Jijoca of Jericoacoara lake at 10 localities, except areas with human impact, such as urban and agricultural areas. A list of 45 species, their life forms and vegetation

  20. Flora cactológica y especies asociadas en el área natural protegida Sierra Corral de los Bandidos, Nuevo León, México Cactus list and asociated plants of the protected natural area Sierra Corral de Los Bandidos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

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    María del Pilar Carmona-Lara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El área natural protegida (ANP Sierra Corral de los Bandidos ubicada en la sierra Madre Oriental, al noroeste de Monterrey, sufre el impacto de actividades antropológicas asociadas al matorral submontano (ganadería, agricultura, colecta y urbanismo, disminuyendo sus recursos naturales y amenazando sus especies endémicas, principalmente cactáceas. El propósito del estudio fue conocer la diversidad de cactáceas y especies asociadas en zonas de amortiguamiento y núcleo. Para ello se determinaron índices de riqueza y similitud utilizando un muestreo estratificado con cuadrantes a lo largo de transectos orientados por gradientes altitudinales según su zonificación. En total se registraron 112 taxa (30 cactáceas, 87 (24 cactáceas en zona de amortiguamiento y 80 (19 cactáceas en zona núcleo. Por su densidad, frecuencia y abundancia sobresalieron Echinocereus stramineus (Engelm. Engelm. ex F. Seitz, Cylindropuntia leptocaulis F. M. Knuth in Backeb et F. M. Knuth, Mammillaria melanocentra Poselg., Neolloydia conoidea (DC Britton et Rose, (Cactaceae; Erioneuron avenaceum (H. B et K. Tateoka, (Poaceae; Viguiera stenoloba S. F. Blake; Zexmenia hispida (Kunth A. Gray, (Asteraceae y Agave lechuguilla Torr, (Agavaceae. Existe diferencia significativa entre las poblaciones de cactus de las zonas del ANP, según Jacquard (13%, Sörensen (38% y Morisita (0.44. Ocho cactáceas (7 endémicas están registradas en algún estatus de la NOM-ECOL-059, 2001.The Sierra Corral de los Bandidos is a natural protected area located in the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range northwest of Monterrey city. This preserve suffers the impact of human activities in the form of cattle ranching, agriculture, harvest of wild plants, and urbanism, diminishing its natural resources and threatening its endemic species, especially from the cactaceae family. The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the diversity of cacti and associated species in the buffer and

  1. Patterns of nectar production and composition, and morphology of floral nectaries in Helicteres guazumifolia and Helicteres baruensis (Sterculiaceae: two sympatric species from the Costa Rican tropical dry forest

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    Loretta Goldberg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Helicteres guazumifolia Kunth and Helicteres baruensis Jacq. (Sterculiaceae are two sympatric species of shrubs common along the North Western tropical dry forest of Costa Rica. i recorded their nectar production within a 24 hour cycle. i also describe the morphology of extrafloral nectaries with scanning electron microscopy. in H. guazumifolia secretion was restricted to the first day of flower life span, shortly after anthesis (0600 hr - 1800 hr. Flowers secreted on average 15.63 ±8.45 µl (N=409. Nectar is composed of three main sugars: sucrose, fructose and glucose (mainly sucrose. A total of 17 free amino acids were identified: mainly proline, arginine, threonine and tyrosine, with a concentration above 70 Ng/µl. values were different for H. baruensis. Nectar secretion was confined to the second day after anthesis, starting at 1600 hr and ending at 0600 hr the following day. Flowers secreted on average 77.03 ±64.99 µl (N=163 of nectar. Nectar is also composed of three main sugars; however, it showed a tendency to be hexose-rich, having more fructose and glucose than sucrose. There were also 17 free amino acids, mainly proline, alanine, tyrosine, arginine and threonine. Patterns of nectar production are different between the two species for timing, and for amount and composition of nectar secretion. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 161-177. Epub 2009 November 30.Helicteres guazumifolia Kunth y Helicteres baruensis Jacq. (Sterculiaceae son dos especies simpátricas de arbustos comunes en el bosque tropical seco de la zona noroeste de Costa Rica. Registré los patrones de producción de néctar de las dos especies según la hora del día o de la noche cuando hubo secreción de néctar. En H. guazumifolia se limitó al primer día del período de vida floral, desde el inicio de la antesis a las 0600 hr hasta las 1800 hr. Las flores secretaron en promedio 15.63 ±8.45 µl (N=409 de néctar. El néctar está compuesto por tres az

  2. Campo rupestre recém-queimado na Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil: plantas de rebrota e sementes, com espécies endêmicas na rocha Recently burnt 'campo rupestre' in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil: resprouters and seeders, with endemic rock species

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    Sâmia Paula Santos Neves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O fogo é um distúrbio recorrente em muitas áreas da Chapada Diamantina, geralmente originado por ação antrópica e que ocasiona rápidas mudanças nas comunidades. Este trabalho objetiva conhecer a composição e estrutura da vegetação de uma área de campo rupestre recém-queimada no Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil, situada entre 700 e 800 m acima do nível do mar, visando discussão das estratégias de regeneração das espécies mais conspícuas e das similaridades florísticas entre áreas com e sem distúrbio recente de fogo. Foi realizado um censo das espécies de plantas vasculares ocorrentes em 16 parcelas de 10x10 m, sendo as coberturas estimadas em cinco subparcelas de 2x2 m de cada parcela. Foram encontradas 85 espécies de 34 famílias, sendo 11 de monocotiledôneas, 22 de eudicotiledôneas e uma de monilófita. A espécie mais abundante foi Panicum trinii Kunth (Poaceae e a mais frequente Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. (Fabaceae. O índice de Shannon foi 3,4. A área estudada agrupou-se com a área de afloramento rochoso em altitude menos elevada (38% de similaridade. É possível que o fogo seja mais frequente nessas áreas menos isoladas, em relação às dos topos de morros. As espécies dominantes se restabeleceram principalmente a partir de gemas de sistemas subterrâneos e aéreos. Uma das espécies mais frequentes, Dactylaena microphylla Eichler, estabeceu-se de sementes. Espécies endêmicas sensíveis à ação do fogo sobrevivem em ilhas de vegetação nos afloramentos rochosos.Fire is a recurrent disturbance in many areas of Chapada Diamantina, generally set by human activity that drives rapid changes in communities. This study aims to investigate the composition and structure of 'campo rupestre' vegetation in a recently burned area, between 700 and 800 m above sea level, at Chapada Diamantina National Park, Bahia, Brazil, and to discuss the strategies of regeneration for the most

  3. Determinação dos teores de umidade e cinzas de amostras comerciais de guaraná utilizando métodos convencionais e análise térmica Determination of humidity and ash content of guarana commercial samples using conventional method and thermal analysis

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    Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Paullinia cupana Kunth, vegetal popularmente conhecido como guaraná, é uma planta da família Sapindaceae predominante na região amazônica. A baixa qualidade deste produto pode ser atribuída a espécies e variedades menos nobres, técnicas de colheita e/ou de processamento inadequado ou, ainda, devido à adição de substâncias que não fazem parte de sua composição natural. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar, a partir da termogravimetria (TG/termogravimetria derivada (DTG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC, o comportamento térmico de amostras comerciais de guaraná em pó existentes no Brasil e estabelecer um estudo comparativo entre os métodos convencionais e termogravimétrico para determinação dos teores de umidade e cinzas. A similaridade entre os perfis das curvas TG/DTG e DSC indicam que não há diferenças entre as amostras. A utilização da TG mostrou que é possível reduzir o tempo de análise, utilizar menor quantidade de amostra, assim como, fazer a determinação simultânea dos teores de umidade e cinzas. Em relação ao método convencional, erros de análise inerentes à manipulação das amostras são minimizados. As técnicas termoanalíticas mostram-se como ferramentas potenciais para a obtenção de parâmetros tecnológicos, em controle de qualidade, torrefação e condições adequadas de armazenamento.Paullinia cupana Kunth a vegetable popularly known as guarana, belongs to the Sapindaceas plant family and is predominant in the Amazon region. The low quality of this product can be attributed to the species and less noble varieties, harvest techniques and/or inadequate processing or, yet due to addition of substances that are not included in its natural composition. The main goal of this work was to evaluate from thermogravimetry (TG/derivative thermogravimetry (DTG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the thermal behavior of powdered guarana samples in the Brazilian market in order to

  4. Anatomia de espécies anfíbias de Cyperaceae de lagoas do semi-árido, BA, Brasil Anatomy of amphibious Cyperaceae species from lakes in the semi-arid region of Bahia State, Brazil

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    Kelly Regina Batista Leite

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a anatomia de raízes, rizomas, folhas e escapos de Cyperus odoratus L., Oxycaryum cubense (Poep. & Kunth Lye e Pycreus macrostachyos (Lam. Raynal (Cyperaceae-Poales de lagoas do semi-árido da Bahia visando caracterizar anatomicamente as espécies e levantar estruturas adaptativas à forma de vida anfíbia. As espécies apresentam raízes com epiderme unisseriada, córtex com exoderme e lacunas de ar. Os rizomas apresentam feixes vasculares anfivasais ou colaterais no cilindro vascular. As folhas apresentam epiderme unisseriada, com células de parede periclinal externa mais espessada que a interna, estômatos somente na face abaxial, parênquima clorofiliano alternado com lacunas de ar e feixes vasculares colaterais. Os escapos apresentam epiderme unisseriada, feixes de fibras distribuídos perifericamente alternados com parênquima clorofiliano, lacunas de ar e feixes vasculares colaterais. Oxycaryum cubense difere de Cyperus odoratus e Pycreus macrostachyos por apresentar raízes com pêlos longos, rizomas e estolões com feixes vasculares colaterais, folhas com bordo agudo, e ausência de estrutura Kranz nas folhas e escapos. Características anatômicas como: lacunas de ar observadas principalmente nas raízes, células buliformes na face adaxial da epiderme foliar, hipoderme, reduzido número de elementos xilemáticos e pouca lignificação nas paredes celulares dos tecidos nos diferentes órgãos estudados são consideradas importantes na adaptação dessas plantas anfíbias às lagoas temporárias do semi-árido da Bahia.We examined the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves, and scapes of Cyperus odoratus L., Oxycaryum cubense (Poep. & Kunth Lye, and Pycreus macrostachyos (Lam. Raynal (Cyperaceae-Poales from temporary lakes in the semi-arid region of Bahia in order to characterize the anatomy and examine structural adaptations to amphibious lifestyle. All species had roots with uniseriate epidermal cells, cortex with exoderm

  5. Aliso en Simbiosis Dual con Frankia y Endomicorrizas y Respuesta a Boro en un Andisol Alder in Dual Symbiosis whith Frankia and Endomycorrhizae and Response at Boron in an Andisol

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    Marisol Medina Sierra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó la respuesta del aliso (Alnus acuminata Kunth a la inoculación dual con cepas de Frankia spp. y de hongos endomicorrizógenos con dos niveles de boro (B (0,3 y 0,6 mg kg-1 suelo y la aplicación de nitrógeno (N (40 kg ha-1, fósforo (P (30 mg kg-1 suelo y un control sin inoculación ni elementos químicos. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con 41 tratamientos y 20 repeticiones. Para el análisis estadístico de componentes principales se empleó el programa Multibiplot. Las variables respuesta correspondieron a la biomasa seca aérea y sus contenidos de N, P, Calcio (Ca y cenizas (cen. Se encontró que los tratamientos de P y N y las cepas nativas de Frankia spp. (UdeA902, UdeA904 y CUNMS502 combinados con hongos micorrizógenos (UdeA1905 y Glomus fistulosum respectivamente, favorecieron el rendimiento y contenido de N del aliso. La aplicación de B en algunos casos mejoró el rendimiento y en otros lo afectó negativamente; pero potenció la respuesta de algunas inoculaciones especialmente cuando estuvo presente G. fistulosum aún en el caso de estar acompañado de la cepa de Frankia (CUNMS502. Esta cepa, que presentó bajo rendimiento en otros tratamientos, se vio favorecida notablemente con la adición de B. La inoculación dual es efectiva para favorecer el manejo forestal del aliso siempre y cuando se haga la selección adecuada de las cepas, lo cual puede además condicionar la respuesta a algunos nutrientes como en el caso del B.Abstract. It was evaluated the response of alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth to the dual inoculation of strains of Frankia spp. and endomycorrhizal fungi with two levels of boron (B (0.3 and 0.6 mg kg-1 soil and the application of nitrogen (N (40 kg ha-1, phosphorus (P (30 mg kg-1 soil and a control without inoculation or chemical elements. The experimental design was completely randomized; it was composed kg-1of 41 treatments and 20 replications. The statistical analysis consisted

  6. Degradação de pastagens na Região Amazônica: propriedades físicas do solo e crescimento de raízes Pasture degradation in the Amazon region: soil physical properties and root growth

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    Marcelo Marques Lopes Muller

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar: (i a relação entre a degradação de pastagens de colonião manejadas com queima, e as modificações nas propriedades físicas e morfológicas de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo da Amazônia; (ii o crescimento radicular de pastagens com diferentes níveis de degradação; (iii o potencial de recuperação de pastagens degradadas de colonião com a introdução de andropógon. Numa propriedade rural da Região de Marabá, PA, foram estudados quatro tipos de pastagem: pastagem produtiva de colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq.; pastagem de colonião em declínio produtivo; pastagem de colonião degradada (capoeira; pastagem de colonião degradada e recuperada com andropógon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth. Como referência das propriedades do solo antes do desmatamento, estudou-se, também, uma reserva de mata nativa. A queima das pastagens foi prática usual, e apesar disso, estas não foram adubadas. A degradação da pastagem diminuiu a cobertura do solo e o deixou exposto à chuva e ao pisoteio do gado, o que resultou em aumento da densidade do solo na camada superficial e diminuição do grau de floculação da argila e da porosidade total. A diminuição da produção da parte aérea na pastagem degradada foi acompanhada de diminuição do número de raízes no perfil do solo, e da concentração do sistema radicular próximo à superfície. O andropógon demonstrou bom potencial para recuperação das áreas de pastagens degradadas, na Região Amazônica.The objective of this study was to evaluate: (i the relation between the degradation of burned Guinea grass pastures and the modifications of some physical and morphological properties of an Amazonian Ultisol; (ii the root growth of pastures in different degradation stages; and (iii the potential of rehabilitation of degraded Guinea grass pastures by introducing Gamba grass. On a farm at the eastern Amazon, region of Marabá, PA, Brazil, four pasture types were

  7. Estudos morfoanatômicos da semente e da plântula de espécies de Anileiras (Indigofera L., Leguminosae Morpho-anatomical studies of seeds and seedlings of wild indigo, "anileira", Indigofera- Leguminosae

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    Juliana Villela Paulino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O nome popular "anileira" designa Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. e I. truxillensis Kunth, muito semelhantes quanto à morfologia externa. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar se caracteres da semente e plântula apresentavam valor diagnóstico para este grupo, já que tais caracteres têm sido muito utilizados na Taxonomia de Leguminosae. A superfície e morfoanatomia de sementes e cotilédones foram estudadas por microscopias eletrônica de varredura e de luz, e as etapas do desenvolvimento das plântulas descritas. Embora as plântulas sejam semelhantes, caracteres de sementes (tamanho, forma, ornamentação da superfície, forma do hilo e tamanho do embrião e cotilédones (forma, organização do parênquima lacunoso na nervura central e distribuição de metabólitos nos tecidos apresentaram valor diagnóstico para as espécies. I. anil distingue-se de I. suffruticosa por suas sementes maiores e cotilédones com borda acuminada. I. truxillensis caracteriza-se por apresentar sementes cilíndricas e cotilédones reniformes contendo gotas de óleo e alcalóides. Nossos dados, a morfologia externa dos frutos (curvos em I. anil e I. suffruticosa, e retos em I. truxillensis e, ainda, a anatomia foliar (células parenquimáticas grandes e fenólicas no floema de I. suffruticosa e sua ausência em I. anil sugerem que I. anil, I. suffruticosa e I. truxillensis não devem ser sinonimizadas.The common name "wild indigo" specifies Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. (legitimate name and I. truxillensis Kunth (legitimate name that are very similar due to their external morphology. This work analyzed diagnostic characteristics of seeds and seedlings of these species since such features are widely used in taxonomic approaches within Leguminosae. We studied surface features and morpho-anatomy of seeds and cotyledons with scanning electronic microscopy and light microscopy, and described seedling phases. Although seedlings are similar

  8. Caracterização da fauna edáfica em sistemas de manejo para produção de forragens no Estado do Piauí Characterization of edaphic fauna in management systems for forage production in the State of Piauí

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    Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição da fauna em função da umidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de manejo para a produção de forragens com capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, capim-Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. R. de Wit. tendo como controle uma Mata dos Cocais. A coleta da fauna foi feita utilizando-se armadilhas do tipo Pitfall em duas épocas do ano: setembro de 2007 e março de 2008, período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente. Os sistemas com capim-Tifton, capim-Tanzânia e Leucena mostraram maior número de indivíduos nos dois períodos avaliados. A queimada ocorrida no capim-Andropogon antes da primeira coleta resultou em uma redução na abundância e diversidade da fauna edáfica. Os maiores valores em riqueza, diversidade e uniformidade de fauna foram obtidos na amostragem realizada no período úmido. A mata mostrou maior diversidade e equitabilidade nos dois períodos avaliados. Em situação de estresse hídrico alguns grupos como Formicidae e Collembola predominaram nos sistemas de manejo diminuindo a uniformidade, enquanto no período úmido vários grupos mostraram boa representatividade o que favoreceu a uniformidade. A análise multivariada de componentes principais evidenciou que os sistemas com mata, capim-Tifton e capim-Tanzania e Leucena mostraram associação com vários grupos da fauna edáfica nos dois períodos avaliados enquanto que o sistema com capim-Andropogon, que sofreu queimada, apresentou afinidade apenas com o grupo Heteroptera, no período seco.The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of fauna as a function of soil moisture in different fodder-production management systems of Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, Andropogon Grass (Andropogon gayanus Kunth and

  9. Sinopse das espécies de Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae na Amazônia brasileira Sinopse of the species of Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae in Amazonian Brazil

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    Alessandro Silva do Rosário

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de Marlierea Cambess. na Amazônia Brasileira tem como principal objetivo atualizar os dados sobre a morfologia e taxonomia das espécies da região, bem como fornecer subsídios para esclarecer a separação de Marlierea de Myrcia DC. ex Guill., conforme sugerem alguns autores. Na Amazônia Brasileira, Marlierea está representada por 11 espécies (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M. subulata McVaugh, M. summa McVaugh, M. umbraticola (Kunth O. Berg e M. velutina McVaugh e uma mal conhecida (M. obumbrans (O. Berg Nied., habitando principalmente áreas de formações florestais. O gênero se caracteriza pelo hábito arbóreo ou arbustivo; folhas opostas (exceto em M. velutina que pode apresentar folhas opostas e/ou alternas; as inflorescências em panículas (de fascículos, racemos, cimeiras ou dicásios; botões florais geralmente fechados, abertura irregular do cálice, em 4-5 lobos, pétalas freqüentemente ausentes. Os Estados do Amazonas e Pará representam os dois principais centros de distribuição dessas espécies, sendo M. spruceana e M. umbraticola as espécies mais comuns. Marlierea obumbrans será melhor estudada posteriormente, devido apresentar sua delimitação taxonômica confusa entre Myrcia e Marlierea.A morphological study of Marlierea Cambess. occurring in Amazonian Brazil was carried out in order to obtain a better understanding of the morphology and taxonomy of all species in the region and to provide data to elucidate the taxonomic segregation of Marlierea from the morphologically similar Myrcia DC. ex Guill. In Amazonian Brazil, Marlierea is represented by 11, primarily forest, species (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M

  10. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

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    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw. Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae, Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché K. Koch. (Araceae, Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass. (Asteraceae, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Poir. Kunth ex DC., Pterocarpus hayesii Hemsl., Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose H.S. Irwin & Barneby., Cinnamomum chavarrianum (Hammel Kosterm. (Fabaceae, Nectandra membranacea (Sw. Griseb., Persea povedae W.C. Burger. (Lauraceae, Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae, Guarea glabra Vahl., Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (Meliaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae, Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Piperaceae, Clematis dioica L. (Ranunculaceae, Prunus annularis Koehne. (Rosaceae, Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. (Siparunaceae, Solanum arboreum Dunal., Witheringia solanacea L'Hér. (Solanaceae, Ticodendron incognitum Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez. (Ticodendraceae, Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz. (Tiliaceae y Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. (Urticaceae. Los extractos alcohólicos frescos y secos, fueron evaluados por su actividad inhibitoria de la parasitemia causada por Plasmodium berghei en ratones Swiss. Al realizar las prueba de CI50 las plantas en que esa actividad fue muy relevante fueron (en mg kg-1 de peso: 12 para la corteza de B. frutescens, 18 para la raíz de H. appendiculata, 14 para la raíz de I. deltoidea, 4 para el fruto inmaduro de M. longipes, 21 para la raíz de N. membranacea, 19 para las hojas tiernas de P. povedae y 16 para el fruto inmaduro de S. tecaphora. Los extractos frescos presentaron una mayor actividad antimalárica que los sometidos a desecación. Este estudio es

  11. Macrófitas aquáticas de ilhas flutuantes (baceiros nas sub-regiões do Abobral e Miranda, Pantanal, MS, Brasil Aquatic macrophytes of floating mats (" baceiros" in the Abobral and Miranda Pantanal Wetlands, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    Marco Otávio Pivari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A associação entre as formas biológicas flutuante e epífita, relacionadas a macrófitas aquáticas, constitui o que se chama genericamente de ilha flutuante. Esta denominação é aplicada ao estabelecimento de uma ou mais epífitas sobre indivíduos vivos de espécies flutuantes, como sinônimo de camalotal ou, ainda, para se referir à vegetação flutuante que se desenvolve sobre um solo orgânico em decomposição (histossolo. Realizou-se o levantamento das espécies presentes em cinco baceiros nas sub-regiões pantaneiras do Abobral e Miranda e o estabelecimento das similaridades florísticas entre estes, a fim de evidenciar aspectos da dinâmica sucessional de ilhas flutuantes. Foram encontradas 66 espécies de macrófitas aquáticas epífitas, distribuídas em 27 famílias, sendo Cyperaceae e Poaceae as mais representativas. O número de espécies por baceiro variou de 7 a 39, sendo os táxons comuns a todos esses Ludwigia leptocarpa (Nutt. H. Hara e Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth Palla, ao nível específico, e Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Onagraceae, Poaceae e Polygonaceae, com relação às famílias. Outras formas biológicas, além da epífita, foram encontradas associadas aos baceiros, ou ainda, se mostraram adaptadas às condições do histossolo, podendo ser consideradas " epífitas casuais" . Baceiros em estágios sucessionais mais próximos apresentam maior similaridade florística e, no geral, quanto mais avançada a sucessão natural, maior a riqueza específica.The association between floating and epiphytic biological forms, regarding aquatic macrophytes, creates what are called floating mats. This concept refers to the establishment of one or more epiphytes on live individuals of floating species, as a synonym of " camalotal," or applied to floating vegetation that grows on organic soil in decomposition (histosol. A checklist of species was made of five floating mats in the Abobral and Miranda Pantanal Wetlands and

  12. Preferência alimentar, efeito da planta hospedeira e da densidade larval na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Feeding preference, host-plant and larval density effects on survivorship and growth rates of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Vidica Bianchi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Dez espécies de passifloraceas ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul foram avaliadas em relação à preferência alimentar e performance larval de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae: Passifora alata Dryander, 1781; P. amethystina Mikan, 1820; P. caerulea Linnaeus, 1753; P. capsularis Linnaeus, 1753; P. edulis Sims, 1818; P. elegans Masters, 1872; P. misera Humbold, Bonpland et Kunth, 1817; P. suberosa Linnaeus, 1753; P. tenuifila Killip, 1927 e P. warmingii Masters, 1872. O efeito da densidade larval na performance foi também testado em P. edulis: grupos de uma, duas, quatro, oito, dezesseis, trinta e duas, e sessenta e quatro larvas. A preferência das larvas foi avaliada com base em teste utilizando-se discos foliares, com e sem chance de escolha. As larvas obtiveram maior sobrevivência em P. misera, P. tenuifila e P. edulis. Nenhuma sobreviveu em P. alata, P. capsularis, P. amesthystina, P. suberosa e P. warmingii. As larvas escolheram P. edulis nos testes com chance de escolha. Ingeriram quantidades semelhantes de P. tenuifila, P. misera e P. caerulea nos testes sem chance de escolha. A taxa de crescimento larval e o tamanho dos adultos foi maior quando criadas em P. misera, quando comparado com P. edulis. A sobrevivência foi significativamente reduzida nos grupos com uma, duas e quatro larvas, o que pode explicar em parte o comportamento gregário desta espécie. Concluiu-se que poucas espécies de passifloráceas além de P. edulis podem constituir-se em hospedeiras potenciais de D. juno juno no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Numa perspectiva ecológica, no entanto, muitas destas hospedeiras alternativas apresentam limitações a respeito de sua adequabilidade, tamanho ou abundância da planta.Ten passion vine species from Rio Grande do Sul were evaluated regarding larval feeding preference and performance of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779: Passifora alata Dryander, 1781; P. amethystina Mikan, 1820; P. caerulea Linnaeus

  13. FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY IN AGROECOSYSTEMS USING TRADITIONAL AND ROTATIONAL CATTLE GRAZING IN PASO DE OVEJAS, VERACRUZ, MEXICO

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    Marcelo Bautista-Tolentino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage biomass and chemical composition of Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs were assessed in monoculture (P or associated with trees of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (PGu or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp (PGs, under traditional (TG or rotational (RG cattle grazing regimes, by season of the year (windy: October-February, dry: March-June, and rainy: July-September and annually. Annual forage production (kg DM ha-1 under RG and TG was 8049±586 and 4170±319, respectively; 5441±2225 in P-TG, 2022±82 in PGs-TG, 12326±2094 in PGu-TG, 9612±1331 in PGs-RG, and 7976±737 in PGu-RG. Gliricidia sepium produced 1448±2 and 1660±3 kg DM ha-1 year-1 under PGs-TG and PGs-RG, respectively. Forage yield across plant associations and grazing regimes was higher in the rainy season (5333.6±56.7 kg DM ha-1, and decreased in the windy (2462±349.0 kg DM ha-1 and dry seasons (252.9±2 kg DM ha-1. The PGu system had the highest crude protein content annually (21.8 % and by season (23.1 %, windy, and also showed the least neutral detergent fiber content during the year (55.2 % and by season (55.2 %, rainy. Biomass production and chemical composition of M. maximus in monoculture or associated with G. ulmifolia and G. sepium can be increased by modifying the traditional grazing regimes to a more intensive rotational system during the growth period of the year.

  14. EFFECT OF LIGHT AND GIBERELLIC ACID (AG3 ON THE GERMINATION OF MINTHOSTACHYS MOLLIS (LABIATAE

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    Diego Fernando Suárez Peñaranda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb. o muña es un arbusto perenne que crece naturalmente en las región andina de Colombia; esta especie es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales en donde es valorada por sus propiedades medicinales para tratar diferentes afecciones y como control de larvas de insectos transmisores de enfermedades; sin embargo, las poblaciones naturales de esta planta han sido fuertemente reducidas por acción antrópica, por lo tanto, es necesario generar tecnologías de propagación que permitan la recuperación y conservación de las poblaciones naturales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca, luz natural y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró un efecto negativo de la oscuridad en el proceso de germinación y no se observó efecto del AG3 sobre la germinación de M. mollis en presencia de la luz. Los porcentajes de germinación obtenidos en los tratamientos de iluminación fueron superiores al 80% sobresaliendo el tratamiento de luz roja que arrojó los mejores resultados tanto en el porcentaje como en la velocidad de germinación. Los resultados indican que la germinación en M. mollis es dependiente de la luz debido a que sus semillas son fotoblásticas positivas.

  15. DIAGNÓSTICO TAXONÓMICO DE LA FAMILIA TENUIPALPIDAE (ACARI: TETRANYCHOIDEA EN EL VALLE DEL CAUCA (COLOMBIA

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    Mesa Nora Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Varias especies de ácaros de la familia Tenuipalpidae, especialmente las del géneroBrevipalpus Donnadieu, son reconocidas como vectores de enfermedades viralesen diferentes cultivos comerciales. La falta de estudios taxonómicos en esta familiade ácaros en Colombia y la posibilidad de introducir en forma accidental especiesde estos ácaros planos, son una amenaza para la bioseguridad de la producciónfrutícola del país. El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir a la identificación de lasespecies de Tenuipalpidae en la vegetación silvestre y cultivada en el departamentodel Valle del Cauca y confirmar la identidad taxonómica de las especies deBrevipalpus en cítricos, guayaba, maracuyá, café y orquídeas. Las recoleccionesde ejemplares se realizaron en épocas seca y lluviosa en varios municipios deldepartamento. El montaje de los ácaros se realizó en medio Hoyer. La especiepredominante en todas las localidades y en los hospedantes recolectados fueBrevipalpus phoenicis Geijskes (1939. Por el contrario, B. obovatus Donnadieuse encontró en poblaciones muy bajas en limón Tahití y mandarina en algunaslocalidades de Palmira. Tenuipalpus anacardii De León se presentó en Anacardiumexcelsum (Bertero y Balb. ex Kunth Skeels, en el municipio de Roldanillo y T.pacificus Baker se encontró en el corregimiento de Rozo, municipio de Palmira,sobre plantas importadas de un cultivo comercial de Dendrobium sp., mientrasque Dolichotetranychus floridanus (Banks solamente se encontró sobre Ananascomosus (L. Merr., en muestras recolectadas en Cali

  16. Pérdidas de suelo y nutrientes bajo diferentes coberturas vegetales en la zona Andina de Colombia

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    J. Alexander Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural El Ciprés, ubicada en la vereda Bellavista, municipio de El Dovio (Valle del Cauca. La vereda se encuentra en la zona Andina de la cordillera occidental, en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1700 y 1800 m.s.n.m., con una temperatura promedio de 18 °C. Según la clasificación climática de Holdridge, corresponde a una zona de bosque húmedo Montano Bajo, con una precipitación promedio entre 2500 y 2700 mm/año, una humedad relativa de 90% y una pendiente del suelo de 62%. Las mediciones se hicieron en parcelas de escorrentía de 32 m² cada una y siete tipos de coberturas: guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth, bosque secundario, pastura (Brachiaria decumbens, café (Coffea arabica; banco de proteína (Trichanthera gigantea, caña forrajera (Saccharum officinarum y cultivo limpio conformado por yuca (Manihot esculenta, maíz (Zea mays y arracacha (Arracacia zanthorrhiza Brancroft. Para la evaluación se midieron las pérdidas de suelo y los nutrientes calcio, magnesio, potasio y fósforo en un periodo de 7 meses. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P < 0.05 entre las coberturas evaluadas. Las pérdidas más altas de suelo y nutrientes ocurrieron bajo cultivos limpios (2.61 t/ha y las más bajas en guadua (0.08 t/ha. Estos resultados sugieren ventajas de los bosques de guadua en esta zona de Colombia, ya que además de contribuir a la conservación de los suelos y al mantenimiento de la fertilidad, es una alternativa económica complementaria para los productores rurales a partir de su manejo y aprovechamiento.

  17. Новые данные по фауне комаров-звонцов (Diptera, Chironomidae) Туниса

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    Булааба, С.; Крашенинников, А.

    2014-01-01

    В р. Медведице выявлено семь видов макрофитов (Sagittaria sagittifolia L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha angustifolia L., Butomus umbellatus L., Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, Eleocharis palustris (L.) R. Br., Glyceria arundinaceae Kunth), живые ткани которых заселяются личинками хирономидминеров. Наиболее заселяемым макрофитом (2298,65 экз/кг) является стрелолист обыкновенный. Из семи изученных видов хирономид максимальная численность в растительных тканях характерна для личинок Endochir...

  18. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae

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