WorldWideScience

Sample records for bactris gassipaes kunth

  1. Incidencia de enfermedades en pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth para palmito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arroyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidencia de enfermedades en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth para palmito. Se determinó la incidencia de enfermedades en cuatro variedades de palmito de pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, durante los 12 primeros meses de desarrollo. Tres de ellas sin espinas (Diamantes-1, Diamantes- 10 y Diamantes-20 y una con espinas (Utilis-Tucurrique. El ensayo se efectuó en la región de Guápiles, Costa Rica, de mayo del 2000 a abril del 2001. Los patógenos que se encontraron en las plantas de pejibaye fueron: Colletotrichum sp., (mancha negra de las hojas; Phytophthora palmivora, (pudrición cogollo u hoja guía; Drechslera setariae, (mancha de anillo; Lasiodiplodia theobromae (hoja deshilachada y Erwinia sp., (pudrición del tallo, quema de hojas y hoja guía. La variedad Utilis-Tucurrique, presentó la mayor susceptibilidad a todas las enfermedades, pero en ningún caso éstas llegaron a un nivel de importancia económica. La incidencia de Erwinia sp. y Phytophothora palmivora mostró mayor relación con la precipitación y alta temperatura.

  2. Chemical composition and functional properties of starch extracted from the pejibaye fruit (Bactris gasepaes Kunth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biano Alves de Melo Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the chemical composition and functional properties of the starch extracted from the pejibaye fruit (Bactris gasepaes Kunth.. The chemical characterization was evaluated from the determination of starch, amylose, amylopectin, total lipid, protein, ash, moisture and water activity. The water absorption index and the water solubility index were calculated for temperatures between 25 and 90ºC. Low contents of ash and protein were found. The studied starch has 14% moisture, according to the established by law. The water activity value was 0.55, which ensures its microbiological stability. A range of gelatinization between 65 to 70ºC was observed, close to the one of commercial starches. The solubility rate in water was 0.6119% and the absorption rate in water was 1.8252%. These results demonstrated that the starch from the pejibaye fruit has important characteristics for use in the food industry.

  3. Wild pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth var. chichagui in Southeastern Amazonia Pupunha brava (Bactris gasipaes Kunth var. chichagui no sudeste da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista F. da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution and morpho-genetic variation of wild and domesticated populations of a crop species are essential information for identifying a center of origin. The pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is the only domesticated neotropical palm, whose starchy-oily fruits are subsistence products and whose heart-of-palm is an expanding agribusiness. The origin of pejibaye is unresolved, but probably will be found in the distribution of type 1 B. gasipaes var. chichagui in southwestern Amazonia. A new area of occurrence of this type is reported around São Felix do Xingu, Pará, Brazil, 52°41' W 6°34' S, about 600 km northeast of the eastern-most known population, in central Mato Grosso, Brazil. The plants of this population are slightly less robust than other type 1 plants and have small fruit bunches (60-70 fruit, small fruit (0.45 g and 10 by 9 mm and seed (0.23 g and 6.5 by 7.4 mm, all smaller than previous descriptions. Although this find is disjunct from earlier reports, it is unlikely that other populations are absent between it and central Mato Grosso, expanding type 1 var. chichagui's distribution by 30% and redefining it as a typical element of the transition between humid and semi-humid forests across southern Amazonia, rather than an Andean element expanding into the region.As distribuições geográfica e da variação morfo-genética de populações silvestres e cultivadas de espécies agrícolas são informações essenciais para identificar o centro de origem de um cultivo. A pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth é a única palmeira domesticada nos Neotrópicos, cujos frutos amidosos e oleosos são produtos de subsistência e cujo palmito é um agronegócio em expansão. A origem da pupunha é desconhecida, mas provavelmente pode ser encontrada na distribuição de B. gasipaes var. chichagui do tipo 1, até agora encontrado apenas no sudoeste da Amazônia. Uma nova área de ocorrência deste tipo foi encontrada ao redor de

  4. Melhoria do rendimento e do processo de obtenção da bebida alcoólica de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) Improvement on beverage volume yield and on process of alcoholic beverage production from pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth)

    OpenAIRE

    Jerusa S. Andrade; Lílian Pantoja; Roberto N. Maeda

    2003-01-01

    Com frutos de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) e fermentação natural, índios na Amazônia produzem uma bebida alcoólica turva, densa, com resíduos de polpa, denominada de "caiçuma". Pesquisas realizadas no Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia mostram que com hidrólise enzimática do amido, fermentação por Saccharomyces cerevisiae e filtração adequada, a limpidez e características desejáveis podem ser obtidas. Este experimento teve por objetivo aumentar o rendimento em bebida e facilitar ...

  5. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon - implications for genetic resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adin, A.; Weber, J.C.; Sotelo Montes, C.; Vidaurre, H.; Vosman, B.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which ar

  6. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of Amazonian (Ecuador) Caryodendron orinocense Karst. and Bactris gasipaes Kunth seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Matteo; Viafara, Derwin; Neill, David; Asanza, Mercedes; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Maietti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, data concerning the composition of Caryodendron orinocense Karst. (Euphorbiaceae) and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (Arecaceae) seed oils are lacking. In light of this fact, in this paper fatty acids and unsaponifiable fraction composition have been determined using GC-MS, HPLC-DAD (Diode Array Detector), NMR approaches and possible future applications have been preliminary investigated through estimation of antioxidant activity, performed with DPPH test. For C. orinocense linoleic acid (85.59%) was the main component, lauric (33.29%) and myristic (27.76%) acids were instead the most abundant in B. gasipaes. C. orinocense unsaponifiable fraction (8.06%) evidenced a remarkable content of β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, squalene and vitamin E (816 ppm). B. gasipaes revealed instead β-sitosterol and squalene as main constituents of unsaponifiable matter (3.01%). Antioxidant capacity evidenced the best performance of C. orinocense seed oil. These preliminary results could be interesting to suggest the improvement of the population's incomes from Amazonian basin. In particular the knowledge of chemical composition of C. orinocense and B. gasipaes oils could be helpful to divulge and valorize these autochthones plants.

  7. Fertilización de almácigos de pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth y algunas relaciones fenológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arroyo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertilización de almácigos de pejibaye (Bactris gasi- paes Kunth y algunas relaciones fenológicas. Se realizó una prueba exploratoria de fertilización en almácigo de pejibaye, con los materiales comúnmente aplicados por los agricultores para promover el desarrollo de las plántulas. Adem ás, se utilizaron dichas plantas para estudiar las correlaciones entre varias de las variables morfológicas. Los resultados de la prueba de fertilización indican que los abonos foliares no fueron efectivos como práctica de cultivo y que los abonos orgánicos utilizados tampoco resultaron efectivos por cuanto no parecían estar debidamente descompuestos. El mejor tratamiento bajo las condiciones en que se realiz ó el experimento fue la aplicación al suelo de fosfato diamónico o DAP, el cual fue notoriamente superior a todos los demás tratamientos. Por otra parte, todos las variables de crecimiento estudiados resultaron altamente correlacionados entre sí: diámetro y peso del tallo, longitud de la lámina y vaina de las hojas, peso de la raíz, peso y número de las hojas y altura de la planta

  8. A new set of microsatellite markers for the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth): characterization and across-taxa utility within the tribe Cocoeae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billotte, N.; Couvreur, T.L.P.; Marseillac, P.; Brottier, P.; Perthuis, B.; Vallejo, M.; Noyer, J.L.; Jacquemoud, J.P.; Risterucci, A.M.; Pintaud, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    A (GA)n microsatellite-enriched library was constructed and a new set of 18 nuclear simple sequence repeat loci was isolated in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes. The loci were found to be highly variable in the target species and readily transferable to related Bactris species as well as to the Astroc

  9. Estimativa da repetibilidade em caracteres morfológicos e de produção de palmito em pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth Estimate of repeatability in morphological and heart of palm production characters in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson César Corrêa Padilha

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available No melhoramento da pupunheira, visando a produção de palmito, é primordial o conhecimento de parâmetros genéticos de caracteres produtivos associados aos morfológicos na seleção de plantas promissoras. Por ser uma palmeira perene com caráter de produção destrutivo, o coeficiente de repetibilidade consiste em uma estratégia desejável. Assim, estimou-se o coeficiente de repetibilidade entre oito caracteres morfológicos e oito de produção de palmito em pupunheiras da coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental. Para tanto, foram avaliadas 65 plantas com variação para número de estipes por planta. O coeficiente de repetibilidade, o número de estipes a serem cortados e o coeficiente de determinação foram obtidos através da análise da variância com um fator de variação, com número variável de observações. Quatro caracteres morfológicos apresentaram coeficientes de repetibilidade variando de 0,5317 a 0,6716, o que indica regularidade no comportamento das plantas de uma avaliação para outra. No entanto, apenas o comprimento da ráquis foliar mostrou número de medições necessárias para se obter predições com 95% de confiança. Todos os caracteres produtivos tiveram baixas magnitudes de repetibilidade de (0,1030 a 0,2202, o que expressa irregularidades na superioridade das plantas, além de exibirem números de medições elevados. Portanto, o comprimento da ráquis foliar pode ser usado na seleção de pupunheiras para palmito.Understanding the genetic parameters of the productive characters associated to the morphological is of utmost importance in selecting promising plants for peach palm breeding aiming at heart palm production. Since Bactris gasipaes is a perennial palm tree with a destructive production character, the repeatability coefficient is a desirable strategy to apply. Thus, the repeatability coefficient was estimated among eight morphological characters and eight heart of palm production

  10. Social and environmental indicators of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth research in São Paulo State - Brazil. Indicadores socioambientais da pesquisa com a pupunheira no Estado de São Paulo - Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Cristina ANEFALOS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective was to study the impact of the introduction in São Paulo State of the Amazonian palm, peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth as a heart-of-palm producer, to evaluate its influence on the local dynamics, by means of social-environmental indicators, under three distinct geographic conditions in São Paulo State. First, the North Coastal region, second, the Ribeira river Valley region, both within the Atlantic forest limits, where exists the possibility of the native ‘juçara palm’ to be threatened by extinction by the predatory exploitation of heart-of-palms. The third region is the São Paulo State plateau where the peach palm has been cultivated in several areas, as an economical alternative. As far as the research on the peach palm crop is concerned, when analyzing its technical parameters associated to higher soil erosion control, reduced soil compaction, rational use of chemical fertilizers and organic matter, higher awareness of the irrigation requirements in lower rainfall regions it is evident that there was meaningful aggregation of knowledge by farmers on the crop, which became an important sustainable agricultural innovation. In general, there was a positive environmental impact both in the North Coastal and the Ribeira river Valley region since the early implantation of the peach palm crop, whereas in the Plateau region no effect was observed. In all regions there was an improvement of the labour force skills, as well as an improvement of the basic living conditions of the small farmers. Despite the significant differences among the regions, concerning the edaphoclimaticpoint of view, requiring that distinct technological packages be adopted, and the social one, the peach palm crop represents for São Paulo State, an agricultural alternative environmentally sustainable, showing promising economic perspectives and significant social importance.O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os impactos

  11. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  12. An Integrated Hypothesis on the Domestication of Bactris gasipaes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Gea; Dufour, Dominique; Thomas, Evert; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Escobar Salamanca, Andrés Felipe; Giraldo Toro, Andrés; Rivera, Andrés; Salazar Duque, Hector; Suárez Baron, Harold; Gallego, Gerardo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Gonzalez Mejia, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) has had a central place in the livelihoods of people in the Americas since pre-Columbian times, notably for its edible fruits and multi-purpose wood. The botanical taxon includes both domesticated and wild varieties. Domesticated var gasipaes is believed to derive from one or more of the three wild types of var. chichagui identified today, although the exact dynamics and location of the domestication are still uncertain. Drawing on a combination of molecular and phenotypic diversity data, modeling of past climate suitability and existing literature, we present an integrated hypothesis about peach palm's domestication. We support a single initial domestication event in south western Amazonia, giving rise to var. chichagui type 3, the putative incipient domesticate. We argue that subsequent dispersal by humans across western Amazonia, and possibly into Central America allowed for secondary domestication events through hybridization with resident wild populations, and differential human selection pressures, resulting in the diversity of present-day landraces. The high phenotypic diversity in the Ecuadorian and northern Peruvian Amazon suggest that human selection of different traits was particularly intense there. While acknowledging the need for further data collection, we believe that our results contribute new insights and tools to understand domestication and dispersal patterns of this important native staple, as well as to plan for its conservation.

  13. An Integrated Hypothesis on the Domestication of Bactris gasipaes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Galluzzi

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth has had a central place in the livelihoods of people in the Americas since pre-Columbian times, notably for its edible fruits and multi-purpose wood. The botanical taxon includes both domesticated and wild varieties. Domesticated var gasipaes is believed to derive from one or more of the three wild types of var. chichagui identified today, although the exact dynamics and location of the domestication are still uncertain. Drawing on a combination of molecular and phenotypic diversity data, modeling of past climate suitability and existing literature, we present an integrated hypothesis about peach palm's domestication. We support a single initial domestication event in south western Amazonia, giving rise to var. chichagui type 3, the putative incipient domesticate. We argue that subsequent dispersal by humans across western Amazonia, and possibly into Central America allowed for secondary domestication events through hybridization with resident wild populations, and differential human selection pressures, resulting in the diversity of present-day landraces. The high phenotypic diversity in the Ecuadorian and northern Peruvian Amazon suggest that human selection of different traits was particularly intense there. While acknowledging the need for further data collection, we believe that our results contribute new insights and tools to understand domestication and dispersal patterns of this important native staple, as well as to plan for its conservation.

  14. An Integrated Hypothesis on the Domestication of Bactris gasipaes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Dominique; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Escobar Salamanca, Andrés Felipe; Giraldo Toro, Andrés; Rivera, Andrés; Salazar Duque, Hector; Suárez Baron, Harold; Gallego, Gerardo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Gonzalez Mejia, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) has had a central place in the livelihoods of people in the Americas since pre-Columbian times, notably for its edible fruits and multi-purpose wood. The botanical taxon includes both domesticated and wild varieties. Domesticated var gasipaes is believed to derive from one or more of the three wild types of var. chichagui identified today, although the exact dynamics and location of the domestication are still uncertain. Drawing on a combination of molecular and phenotypic diversity data, modeling of past climate suitability and existing literature, we present an integrated hypothesis about peach palm’s domestication. We support a single initial domestication event in south western Amazonia, giving rise to var. chichagui type 3, the putative incipient domesticate. We argue that subsequent dispersal by humans across western Amazonia, and possibly into Central America allowed for secondary domestication events through hybridization with resident wild populations, and differential human selection pressures, resulting in the diversity of present-day landraces. The high phenotypic diversity in the Ecuadorian and northern Peruvian Amazon suggest that human selection of different traits was particularly intense there. While acknowledging the need for further data collection, we believe that our results contribute new insights and tools to understand domestication and dispersal patterns of this important native staple, as well as to plan for its conservation. PMID:26658881

  15. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation; Avaliacao do palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processado por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-07-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  16. guadua Angustifolia Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La carga a compresión evaluada al límite de proporcionalidad en elementos cortos de Guadua angustifolia kunth fue relacionada con algunos parámetros físicos tales como el diámetro externo e interno, espesor de la pared, densidad aparente, número de entrenudos y contenido de humedad. Los elementos de Guadua fueron sometidos a compresión según las normas ISO-TC 165 dadas por el INBAR (1999. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que para predecir el comportamiento de la carga en el límite de proporcionalidad de elementos cortos de Guadua, los parámetros de mayor incidencia son el diámetro externo (De y el espesor total de la pared (e, para los cuales se obtuvo una correlación con un nivel de confianza del 95%. Un valor de 27,15 MPa con un coeficiente de variación del 16% fue encontrado para el esfuerzo a compresión evaluado al límite de proporcionalidad. Además se estableció un modelo aproximado para la densidad aparente de la Guadua según el contenido de humedad.

  17. Chemical composition of the fruit mesocarp of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) populations grown in central Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, Lúcia K O; Aguiar, Jaime P L; Yuyama, Kaoru; Clement, Charles R; Macedo, Sonja H M; Fávaro, Deborah I T; Afonso, Claudia; Vasconcellos, Marina B A; Pimentel, Sabria A; Badolato, Elsa S G; Vannucchi, Helio

    2003-01-01

    The percent composition, soluble and insoluble food fibers, oil fatty acids and minerals were determined in the mesocarp of fruits of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) populations grown in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Amino acids were also determined in one of the populations. The mean protein levels ranged from 1.8 to 2.7%, lipid levels ranged from 3.5 to 11.1%, the nitrogen free fraction ranged from 24.3 to 35%, food fiber ranged from 5.2% to 8.7%, and energy ranged from 179.1 to 207.4 kcal%. All essential, as well as non-essential, amino acids were present, with tryptophan and methionine presenting the lowest mean concentrations. The mono-unsaturated oleic acid predominated in the oil, ranging from 42.8 to 60.8%, and palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid, ranging from 24.1 to 42.3%. Among the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid was the most abundant, with a maximum of 5.4% in Pampa-8. The most important mineral elements were potassium, selenium and chromium, respectively corresponding to 12%, 9% and 9% of daily recommended allowances. Considering the nutritional potential of the fruit, we suggest its more frequent incorporation into the diet of the Amazonian population. PMID:12701237

  18. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  19. Desenvolvimento de panetone à base de farinha de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth
    Development of panettone made of peach palm flour (Bactris gasipaes Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. M. MONTEIRO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Atualmente vem crescendo consideravelmente a preocupação dos indivíduos com a saúde e a qualidade de vida. No entanto, com a correria da vida moderna e a falta de tempo, as pessoas valorizam muito os alimentos prontos, rápidos e fáceis de preparar, predominando um consumo desregrado de produtos refi nados, ricos em gorduras saturadas e pobres em nutrientes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo elaborar um panetone com adição de farinha de pupunha (FP, sensorialmente aceitável, e analisar sua composição química e estabilidade. A farinha utilizada na pesquisa foi processada no Laboratório de Nutrição do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Inicialmente foi realizado um experimento para determinar o percentual de farinha de trigo a ser substituída pela farinha de pupunha, sendo escolhida a formulação com 25% FP. Após elaboração do panetone foram realizadas análises físico-químicas, químicas, sensoriais e microbiológicas. O panetone de pupunha apresentou em sua composição química bons teores de proteína (7,78%, lipídios (12,5% e carotenoides (4,16 atividade equivalente de retinol/100g. O produto elaborado apresentou boa aceitabilidade, sendo que todos os consumidores manifestaram intenção positiva em adquiri-lo se for lançado no mercado. A análise microbiológica revelou que o produto se manteve estável pelo período de 90 dias. Assim, pode-se afi rmar que é possível produzir panetones com a substituição de 25% de farinha de trigo pela farinha de pupunha, agregando valor nutricional ao produto sem sinalização de rejeição pelo consumidor.

  20. Palmito de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. composição mineral e cinética de enzimas oxidativas Heart of palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.: mineral composition and kinetics of oxidative enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Ottoboni Galdino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A análise da presença de enzimas oxidativas como a peroxidase (POD e a polifenoloxidase (PPO e o controle da atividade destas enzimas são importantes na preservação e no processamento de alimentos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a atividade enzimática da polifenoloxidase (PPO e da peroxidase (POD do palmito de pupunha, bem como avaliar o comportamento destas enzimas frente ao tratamento térmico e assim calcular a cinética de inativação térmica das mesmas para suas porções termorresistente e termolábil. Para a extração de peroxidase (POD e polifenoloxidase (PPO de palmito, utilizou-se solução tampão fosfato de sódio 100 mM com diferentes pHs (5,5; 6,0; 6,5 e 7,0. O melhor pH de extração da POD foi 5,5 e da PPO, 6,5. Estes extratos foram tratados em diferentes temperaturas (65, 70, 75 e 80 °C por períodos de 1 a 10 minutos. A POD e a PPO sofreram um decréscimo de 70 e 80%, respectivamente, em relação às suas atividades iniciais. As energias de ativação, nas temperaturas estudadas, para a porção termolábil e termorresistente da peroxidase foram 154,0 e 153,0 kJ.mol-1, respectivamente, enquanto que para a polifenoloxidase foram 26,3 e 27,0 kJ.mol-1, respectivamente. Resultados apresentaram valores que estão dentro da faixa de energia de ativação reportada para o processo de inativação térmica de enzimas.Analysis of oxidative enzymes such as peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO and the control of the activity of these enzymes are important in food preservation and also in food processing. The aim of this work was to determine polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD enzymatic activity in heart of palm, as well as to evaluate enzyme behavior during thermal treatment, determining the kinetics of thermal inactivation of the heat resistant and heat labile portions. For the extraction of peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO from the heart of palm solution, 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer with different pH values (5.5; 6.0; 6.5 and 7.0 was used. Optimum pH for extraction was 5.5 and 6.5, for POD and PPO, respectively. These extracts were treated at different temperatures (65, 70, 75 and 80 °C for periods of 1 to 10 minutes. Decreases in POD and PPO activities of around 70 and 80%, respectively, in relation to their initial activities were observed. The activation energies, in the temperatures studied, for the heat labile and resistant portions of peroxidase were 154.0 and 153.0 kJ.mol-1, and of polyphenoloxidase, 26.3 and 27.0 kJ.mol-1, respectively. The results showed values that are in the range for activation energy reported for the thermal inactivation process of enzymes.

  1. New sesquiterpene lactones from Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Usuga, Nora Del Socorro; Malafronte, Nicola; Cotugno, Roberta; De Leo, Marinella; Osorio, Edison; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2016-09-01

    Eleven sesquiterpene lactones, including three new natural products (1-3), were isolated from the n-butanolic extract of Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth. aerial parts. The structure of all isolated compounds was elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS analyses. All compounds were tested for their antiproliferative activity on HeLa, Jurkat, and U937 cell lines. Compound 3, 2,3-dehydropsilostachyn C, showed cytotoxic activity with different potency in all cell lines. By means of flow cytometric studies, compound 3 was demonstrated to induce in Jurkat cells a G2/M cell cycle block, while in U937 elicited both cytostatic and cytotoxic responses. PMID:27491754

  2. Use of AFLPS to distinguish landraces of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes in brazilian Amazonia Uso de AFLPS para discriminar raças primitivas de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Clement

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the first inhabitants of western Amazonia domesticated pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae or peach palm for its fruits, today it is widely planted for its heart-of-palm. Like other domesticates, pejibaye presents a complex hierarchy of landraces developed before the conquest of the Americas. The existence of three landraces (Pará, Solimões, Putumayo was proposed along the Amazonas and Solimões Rivers, Brazil, based on morphological characteristics. There are some questions remaining about the intermediate landrace being an artifact of the morphometric analysis. AFLPs were used to evaluate the relationships among samples of these putative landraces. DNA was extracted from 99 plants representing 13 populations maintained in the Pejibaye Germplasm Bank, Manaus, AM; six primer combinations generated 245 markers via PCR, which were scored in an ABI Prism 310 sequencer and analyzed with GeneScan Software; Jaccard similarities were estimated and a dendrogram was generated with UPGMA. Two groups of plants were observed in the dendrogram instead of three, and were similar at 0.795. Each group contained two subgroups, similar at 0.815. One group (n=41 contained 73% Pará landrace plants, with one subgroup (n=22 containing 91% Pará, and the other (n=19 containing 53% Pará. The other group (n=58 contained 53% Solimões and 40% Putumayo landrace plants, with one subgroup (n=21 containing 52% Solimões and 43% Putumayo, and the other (n=35 containing 57% Solimões and 37% Putumayo. The first group confirmed the Pará landrace. The second group suggested that the Solimões landrace does not exist, but that the Putumayo landrace extends along the Solimões River to Central Amazonia.Os primeiros povos da Amazônia ocidental domesticaram a pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae por seu fruto, embora hoje seja muito plantada por seu palmito. Como outros cultivos domesticados, a pupunha apresenta uma hierarquia complexa de raças primitivas

  3. Lignoids Isolated from Nectandra turbacensis (Kunth Nees (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Macías-Villamizar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new 7,8-secolignan, as well as seven known compounds; were isolated from Nectandra turbacensis (Kunth Nees (Lauraceae (leaves and root bark. These compounds were identified as, one secolignan, turbacenlignan A (1; four diaryldimethylbutane lignans: meso-monomethyl dihydroguaiaretic acid (2, threo-dihydroguaiaretic acid (3, schineolignin B (4, and austrobailignan-5 (5;and three 7,7' -epoxylignans: henricine (6 and the identifiable mixture of veraguensin (7 and galgravin (8. Compounds 1-8, were first isolated from Nectandra turbacensis (Kunth Nees (Lauraceae (leaves and root bark and compounds 1, 6-8, were isolated for the first time from Nectandra genus.

  4. Cytotoxic Constituents from bark and leaves of Amyris pinnata Kunth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca-Suarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From leaves and bark of Amyris pinnata Kunth twelve compounds were isolated, corresponding to six lignans 1-6, three coumarins 7-9, a sesquiterpene 10, an oxazole alkaloid 11, and a prenylated flavonoid 12,. Metabolites were identified by spectroscopic techniques ( 1H and 13C NMR, EIMS and by comparison with published data in the literature. C ytotoxicity against leukemia, solid tumors, and normal cells was evaluated for all isolated compounds. Lignans were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds occurring in A. pinnata.

  5. ERIOCHLOA VILLOSA (THUNB. KUNTH (POACEAE IN THE ROMANIAN FLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIOCÂRLAN VASILE

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available he presence of a new plant species is signaled out here, for the 1st time in Romania, by the authors of this paper. This plant – Eriochloa villosa (Thunb. Kunth – is an invader one in the flora of Romania. It has been discovered inside the crops of flax, clover, sun flower, maize, at Livada, Satu Mare county. This species is a characteristic one for the rice crops, but it is growing also inside the wet meadows, along the river’s meadows.

  6. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae = Biologia reprodutiva de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Gomes da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic selfpollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia reprodutiva de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae e avaliar o papel dos visitantes florais em seu sucesso reprodutivo. Bowdichia virgilioides apresenta padrão de floração anual e do tipo cornucópica. A floração ocorre no início da estação seca, entre os meses de junho e agosto e a frutificação no meio desta estação, entre os meses de julho e outubro. Suas flores são de antese diurna e apresentam néctar como recurso floral. Durante a abertura floral, as anteras se encontram deiscentes e por esta razão há a adesão dos grãos de pólen no estigma da própria flor, promovendo o processo de autopolinização passiva. A esp

  7. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda R. Rosa; Arruda, Andréa F.; Egle M. A. Siqueira; Sandra F. Arruda

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotomet...

  8. Flavonoides e atividade antioxidante em Palicourea rigida Kunth, Rubiaceae Flavonoids and antioxidant activity in Palicourea rigida Kunth, Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa A. da Rosa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antioxidante, avaliada pelo método DPPH (1,1-difenil-2-picrilidrazila, e o teor em compostos fenólicos totais do extrato bruto metanólico e frações das folhas da espécie Palicourea rigida Kunth, Rubiaceae, foram quantificadas neste trabalho. Apesar da baixa atividade apresentada pelo extrato bruto (500 ppm, a fração acetato de etila apresentou atividade moderada (192 ppm e o maior teor de fenólicos totais dentre as frações ensaiadas. Assim, a fração acetato de etila foi submetida a procedimentos cromatográficos o que resultou no isolamento dos flavonoides quercetina 3-O-β-D-glicosídeo, quercetina 3-O-soforosídeo e isoraminetina 3-glicosídeo, cujas estruturas foram elucidadas por análise espectroscópica, incluindo RMN (1D e 2D e comparação com os dados da literatura.The antioxidant activity, evaluated by DPPH (1,1-difenil-2-picrilidrazila method, and the determination of the total phenolic compounds of the crude methanolic extract and fractions of the Palicourea rigida Kunth, Rubiaceae, leaves were quantified in this work. Despite weak activity exhibited by crude extract (500 ppm, the fraction ethyl acetate showed moderate activity (192 ppm, and the largest value for the phenolic compounds among all the assayed fractions. Then, the ethyl acetate fraction was submitted to the chromatography procedures which led to the isolation of the flavonoid quercetin 3-O-D-glicoside, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside and isorhamnetin 3-glicoside, which had the structures elucidated by spectroscopy analysis, including RMN (1D and 2D and comparison with literature data.

  9. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-03-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  10. La deshoja en el manejo de la "Bacteriosis" del palmito de pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arroyo-Oquendo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La des ho ja en el ma ne jo de la “Bac te rio sis” del palmi to de pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes. Entre los meses de mayo y setiembre del año 2004, se realizó un experimento en la Estación Experimental Los Diamantes en Guápiles, Costa Rica, en donde se estudió el efecto de la poda de hojas enfermas en el combate de la enfermedad conocida como “bacteriosis del palmito” de pejibaye, causada por la bacteria Pantoea stewartii y el hongo Fusarium sp., y la productividad de las plantas deshojadas nueve semanas después de la poda, así como las diferencias de comportamiento entre variedades. Se evaluaron cuatro variedades y cinco tratamientos de des ho ja. La re cu pe ra ción del fo lla je ocu rrió en to dos los tratamientos podados con igual velocidad, indicando que és ta fue ali men ta da por las re ser vas del ta llo. Por otra par te, el tratamiento testigo (sin poda mostró una producción signifi cativamente menor de hojas que aquellos podados, lo cual indica que la deshoja estimuló una rápida recuperación del follaje. La deshoja “a cua tro hojas” permitió la recuperación del ta llo al ni vel del tes ti go no po da do en cua tro se ma nas; y nueve semanas posteriores a la deshoja los tallos po dados “a tres hojas” también habían recuperado el peso y la longitud del pal mi to al ni vel del tes ti go. El nú me ro de ho jas en fer mas presente, nueve semanas después de la deshoja, correspondió con la drasticidad practicada de esa operación, a mayor deshoja menor número e intensidad de hojas en fermas. La va rie dad Dia man tes-10 fue la que mos tró el me nor nú me ro de hojas enfermas, bajo todos los tratamientos.

  11. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe3O4 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe2+ and Fe3+in NaOH or NH4OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 °C and 800 °C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  12. Estudo químico de alimentos formulados à base de palmito Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. (pupunha desidratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Marlene Azevedo Magalhães

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O coração da palmeira Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. (pupunha foi utilizado, sob forma desidratada, na formulação de uma sopa-creme para merenda escolar. Análises químicas do palmito e do coração da palmeira (açúcares redutores, lipídeos, proteínas totais, aminograma, fibras, calorias e minerais foram feitas tanto na forma in natura como na forma processada, bem como na de sopa-creme. Não foram encontradas diferenças relevantes em relação a essas determinações, podendo-se ressaltar a boa qualidade aminoacídica do coração da palmeira.

  13. Aplicação de biossólido na implantação da cultura da pupunheira Sewage sludge application on peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vinicio A. Vega

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de doses de biossólido aplicadas no sulco de plantio sobre a produção de fitomassa aérea de pupunheiras durante o primeiro ano do cultivo. O experimento foi instalado em Ubatuba (SP, tendo sido estudado quatro doses de lodo de esgoto (equivalentes a 0; 100; 200 e 400 kg ha-1 de N, em esquema de blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições e quatro tratamentos. Foram utilizadas mudas com 10 meses de idade e densidade de plantio de 5.000 plantas ha-1. As respostas da planta às doses de biossólido foram avaliadas mensalmente, por meio de alguns caracteres diretamente relacionados ao crescimento e à produção de palmito. Com base na altura da planta foi estimado o acúmulo periódico da fitomassa aérea fresca da haste principal, ao longo do tempo. Houve diferença estatística a partir do 5º mês de plantio para as diferentes doses, tempo em que a planta se adaptou ao campo e em que os nutrientes do biossólido começaram a ser assimilados. A resposta positiva no acúmulo de fitomassa aérea da pupunheira ao aumento de doses de biossólido antecipou o tempo para a primeira colheita na dose mais elevada, com 15% de plantas prontas para corte já aos 12 meses após a implantação da cultura. Houve também aumento no número de perfilhos por planta e na porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas em função das doses. Um ano após a aplicação de biossólido, pupunheiras da maior dose tinham, em média, cerca de 27 t ha-1 de fitomassa aérea total (base fresca, 3,3 perfilhos por planta e 77% de plantas perfilhadas.The effects of four doses of sewage sludge, applied in the planting furrow, on the aboveground biomass production of peach palm during the first year were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil, in field conditions. Four doses of biosolid (equivalent to 0; 100; 200 and 400 kg ha-1 of N were studied in a complete block experimental design, with six replications. Ten-month old seedlings from Putumayo landrace were utilized, in a planting density of 5,000 plants ha-1. Plant responses to biosolid doses were evaluated every month, by means of some traits directly correlated to peach palm growth and yield. Aboveground biomass (fresh weight base accumulation was estimated, based on plant height. Statistical differences among doses were detected five months after planting, probably due to plant acclimation and nutrient assimilation. Anticipation of heart-of-palm harvesting could be detected, with 15% of plants ready to be harvested when treated with the dose of 400 kg ha-1 of N. An increase occurred in the number of offshoots per plant and in the percentage of suckered plants per plot as a function of biosolid doses. One year after sludge application, in the maximum response treatment (400 kg ha-1 of N, was obtained 27 ton ha-1 of aboveground biomass, 3.3 offshoots per plant and 77% of palms with offshoots were obtained.

  14. Características do resíduo de mineração de areia como componente de substratos para a produção de mudas de pupunheira (Bactris Gasipaes Kunth)

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Augusta Garcia; Valéria Aparecida Modolo; Ana Maria Magalhães Andrade Lagôa; Edson Shigueaki Nomura; Luis Alberto Sáes

    2011-01-01

    O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características físicas, químicas e biológica do resíduo fino de mineração de areia como componente de substratos para a produção de mudas de pupunheira. Para isso, foram testados quatro substratos com as proporções de resíduo de mineração de areia:casca de arroz carbonizada (RA:CA): 1:0; 3:1; 1:1; 1:3, e comparados ao substrato testemunha: 3:1 (Latossolo Amarelo Podzólico álico:esterco de búfalo curtido). Utilizou-se o delineamento exp...

  15. Crescimento de mudas de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) utilizando resíduo de mineração de areia como componente de substratos

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Augusta Garcia; Valéria Aparecida Modolo; Ana Maria Magalhães Andrade Lagoa; Maria Luiza Sant’Anna Tucci; Norma de Magalhães Erismann; Domingos Sávio Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986613O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de mudas de pupunheira quando utilizado o resíduo fino de mineração de areia na composição de substratos. O experimento constou de cinco tratamentos, sendo quatro composições de diferentes proporções de resíduo de mineração de areia e casca de arroz carbonizada: 1:0; 3:1; 1:1; 1:3 e um substrato padrão composto por latossolo amarelo podzólico álico e esterco de búfalo curtido, na proporção 3:1. Utilizou-...

  16. Avaliação de Fungicidas para o Controle de Antracnose em Folhas de Pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Evaluation of Fungicides for Controlling Anthracnose on Leaves of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauri José Tessmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A antracnose, causada pelo fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, é uma doença foliar importante da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes nas fases de muda e planta jovem. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de fungicidas químicos no controle de antracnose em folhas de pupunheiras jovens, no Noroeste do Paraná. O ensaio foi conduzido com o delineamento experimental  em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos com fungicidas e uma testemunha  sem fungicida, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados os fungicidas chlorotalonil (2 g L-1, chlorotalonil+tiofanato metílico (1 + 0,4 g L-1, tebuconazole (0,2 g L-1, azoxistrobina (80 mg L-1 e calda Viçosa (3 g L-1 de ácido bórico; 5 g L-  de sulfato de cobre; 6 g L-1 de sulfato de zinco; 3,5 g L-1 de cal hidratada. Cada fungicida foi pulverizado cinco vezes, com intervalo de 15 a 20 dias entre as aplicações. Verificou-se que todos os tratamentos com fungicidas proporcionaram redução estatisticamente significativa na intensidade da doença em relação à testemunha sem fungicida (P=0,05. Os fungicidas mais eficientes no controle da doença foram chlorotalonil e a mistura de tiofanato metílico+chlorotalonil.  
    Leaf anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum loeosporioides, is the most important disease of seedlings and young peach palm plants (Bactris gasipaes. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy of some fungicides for controlling anthracnose on leaves of young peach palm (Bactris gasipaes, in Northwestern Paraná State, Brazil. An assay with randomized block design was carried out, with five different fungicides and a control, with four replicates. The fungicide evaluated were: chlorotalonil (2 g L- , chlorotalonil+methyl tiophanate (1 + 0,4 g L-1, tebuconazole (0,2 g L-1, azoxystrobin (80 mg L-1 and calda Viçosa (boric acid 3 g L-1; copper sulfate 5 g L-1; zinc sulfate 6 g L-1; hydrated lime

  17. A new species of Labania Hedqvist (Braconidae, Doryctinae from Costa Rica, reared from aerial root galls of Ficus obtusifolia Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Belokobylskij

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Doryctinae genus Labania Hedqvist, L. ficophaga sp. n. from Costa Rica is described. This new species was reared from aerial root galls of Ficus obtusifolia Kunth. An updated key to the five described species of Labania and digital pictures of L. ficophaga sp. n. and L. minuta Marsh are provided.

  18. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.; Arruda, Sandra F.

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  19. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart, Brazil’s Native Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD. Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  20. Recognition of potential beneficial fungi associated with chontaduro (bactris gasipaes h.b.k.) rhizosphere in the pacific region of valle del cauca, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Riascos Ortiz, Donald; Sarria-Villa, Greicy A.; Varon de Agudelo, Francia; Gomez Carabalí, Arnulfo; Mosquera Espinosa, Ana Teresa

    2012-01-01

    El chontaduro o pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K) es el principal cultivo de los agroecosistemas de la selva húmeda tropical de la costa pacífica colombiana. Esta región no aparece referenciada en la literatura científica a pesar de su alta biodiversidad e importancia agroecológica. El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar y caracterizar morfológicamente hasta género, hongos presentes en la rizósfera de B. gasipaes en dos sistemas de producción diferentes, localizados en Citronela y Sabaletas, ...

  1. Development of the pollen in the antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Giełwanowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. produced two types very small bisexual fl owers. In the Antarctic natural conditions chasmogamic and cleistogamic fl owers most often form fi ve stamina with short fi laments. Two microsporangia with a three-layer wall form in the anther. Microspore mother cells, which develop into microspores after meiosis, form inside the microsporangium. Microsporocytes of Colobanthus quitensis are surrounded with a thick callose layer, the special wall. After meiosis, the callose wall is dissolved and microspores are released from the tetrad. The production of proorbicules, orbicules and peritapetal membrane, and the construction of a complex sporoderm with numerous apertural sites were observed. When microspore and pollen protoplasts underwent necrosis, probably as a result of temperature and osmotic stress, sporoderm layers formed around microspores, and the cell tapetum did not disintegrate. However, woody wall layers did not accumulate in endothecium cells.

  2. FLAVONOIDES AISLADOS DE LAS INFLORESCENCIAS DE Piper hispidum Kunth (PIPERACEAE Y DERIVADOS ACETILADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir del extracto etanólico de las inflorescencias de la especie Piper hispidum Kunth (Piperaceae fueron aislados tres flavonoides: 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona, 5-hidroxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona y 2’,4’,6’-trimetoxidihidrochalcona. De las flavanonas aisladas fueron obtenidos los  derivados acetilados: 5-acetoxi-7-metoxiflavanona y  5-acetoxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona. Las estructuras fueron elucidadas empleando técnicas espectroscópicas y por comparación con datos de literatura. Los compuestos naturales y sus derivados fueron sometidos al bioensayo de letalidad frente a Artemia salina. El flavonoide 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona presenta la mayor actividad tóxica frente a los microcrustaceos CL50 1.8 µg/ml.

  3. Caracterización molecular de Guadua angustifolia Kunth mediante marcadores moleculares RAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Rugeles-Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guadua angustifolia Kunth es un bambú del Neotrópico que se distribuye principalmente en la región Andina. En la región del Eje Cafetero colombiano esta especie presenta gran importancia por su utilización en la construcción, industrialización y fabricación de muebles y artesanías. Para conocer la diversidad genética de nueve materiales superiores de G. angustifolia seleccionados previamente por sus características morfológicas y físico-mecánicas se realizó una caracterización molecular usando marcadores moleculares RAMs. Se obtuvo un valor de He = 0.31 y un porcentaje de loci polimórfico de 81.03% lo que indica una alta diversidad genética de los materiales evaluados.

  4. Ectomycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth in northwestern Argentina in relation to season and soil parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Alejandra; Pritsch, Karin; Arrigo, Nilda; Palma, Martha; Bartoloni, Norberto

    2005-01-01

    Colonisation ectomycorrhizienne d'Alnus acuminata Kunth au nord-ouest de l'Argentine en relation avec la saison et quelques paramètres du sol. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer, au cours de deux différentes saisons (août et printemps), les modèles de colonisation de l'aulne andin dans deux forêts naturelles en relation avec quelques paramètres de sol. Les paramètres de sol étudiés étaient la capacité au champ, le pH, la conductivité électrique, le P disponible, le N total et la matièr...

  5. Utilización de Candida guilliermondii aislada del corozo chiquito (Bactris guineensis en la producción de xilitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Cristina Herazo Camaño

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of Candida guilliermondii isolated of corozo chiquito (Bactris guineensis IN the production of xylitol Resumen.  La levadura Candida guilliermondii es objeto de estudio debido a su capacidad de producir xilitol aprovechando compuestos hemicelulósicos ricos en xilosa, dado esto, la cepa Candida guilliermondii aislada del fruto del corozo chiquito (Bactris guineensis fue usada en este estudio con el fin de evaluar su capacidad para producir xilitol sobre un sustrato hidrolizado de cascarilla de arroz. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar los parámetros fermentativos como producción de xilitol, productividad volumétrica (Qp y rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Yp/s durante la fermentación con la cepa nativa Candida guilliermondii. Se emplearon 200 ml de medio de cultivo hidrolizado de cascarilla de arroz, el cual contenía una concentración de xilosa de 27,5 g/L. La fermentación se llevó a cabo bajo las siguientes condiciones: temperatura 30 ºC, pH del medio 5,8, agitación 120 rpm e inóculo adaptado de 3 g/L. Los resultados mostraron que después de 120 horas de fermentación se obtuvieron 2,6 g/L de xilitol con productividad volumétrica (Qp de 0,02 g/L-h y rendimiento de sustrato en producto (Yp/s de 0,13 g/g. De esta manera, la cepa nativa Candida guilliermondii, aislada del fruto de Corozo chiquito (Bactris guineensis, produjo xilitol bajo condiciones específicas de fermentación. Palabras clave: xilosa, Candida guilliermondii, fermentación, levadura.  Abstract. The yeast Candida guilliermondii has been studied due to its ability to produce xylitol in xylose-rich hemicellulosic compounds, Candida guilliermondii strain isolated from the fruit of Corozo chiquito (Bactris guineensis was used in this study to assess their ability to xylitol production on these substrates. The aim of this study was to determine the fermentation parameters such as xylitol production, volumetric productivity (Qp and yield of

  6. Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth) effects on LDL oxidation in elderly people: an in vitro and in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Portella, Rafael de Lima; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; da Rosa, Edovando José Flores; RIBEIRO, EULER ESTEVES; DA CRUZ, IVANA BEATRICE MÂNICA; Suleiman, Leila; Soares, Felix Alexandre Antunes

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous experimental investigations have suggested that guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, supplied by EMBRAPA Oriental) consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of cardiovascular metabolic diseases and has positive effects on lipid metabolism, mainly related to low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. As LDL oxidation is an important initial event in the development of atherosclerosis, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to observe the potential effects of guaraná on LD...

  7. Produção de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes) para palmito sob diferentes espaçamentos, no Litoral do Estado do Paraná Production of three cuttings of Bactris gasipaes for heart-of-palm under different plant density in the Paraná State Coastal Region, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Edinelson José Maciel Neves; Álvaro Figueredo dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivos caracterizar as propriedades químicas do solo sob plantio de pupunheira
    (Bactris gasipaes) aos 24, 39 e 48 meses de idade e, quantificar na agroindústria, nessas idades, a produção de
    palmito em toletes, em rodelas e picado, em função de diferentes espaçamentos. Para tanto, em março de 2001,
    foram instaladas duas áreas experimentais localizadas nos Km 7 e Km 10 da Estrada Alexandra-Matinhos, Município
    de Paranaguá, P...

  8. TRADITIONAL USE OF A PROTECTED SPECIES (Litsea glaucescens Kunth IN THE “SIERRA DEL LAUREL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Martín Medina-Torres

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whenever a natural area is proposed to be a protected area, the information that supports the proposal is usually based on the physical environmental, rather than on the social environment and on the management of natural resource. This study was conducted from May 2004 to June 2005 whit the objective to analyze the process of exploitation of Mexican Bay Leaf (Litsea glaucescens Kunth in rural communities of Sierra del Laurel, a priority area in the state of Aguascalientes, México. Thirteen semi-structured interview were applied for local collectors and seven more were applied to inhabitants of the region to understand the trends in the use of resource. Three interviews were also applied to environmental officials from federal and local institutions to know about their position regarding the use of the Mexican Bay Leaf. A participative workshop with producers and collectors was conducted to document their opinion on the status of the population of this specie. Trend in utilization of the Mexican Bay Leaf have led it to be in danger of extinction: there is not organization nor legal utilization schemes among collectors that allow regeneration; the lack of institutional coordination, along whit inefficient implementation of laws and other legal instruments to regulate the management of natural resources, has contributed so that users have not adequate risk management procedures.

  9. LEAF MICROMOPHOMETRY OF PALICOUREA RIGIDA KUNTH. (RUBIACEAE FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO AND CAMPO RUPESTRE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate qualitative and quantitative leaf anatomical traits of Palicourea rigida Kunth. (Rubiaceae species occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado and Campo Rupestre ecosystems. Anatomical analysis was performed in fresh or fixed leaves processed with usual plant microtechnique. Leaves showed uniseriate epidermis in petiole and leaf blade which contains uniseriate nonglandular tricomes (tector type occurring only over the vascular bundles. Likewise, paracytic stomata were found only in abaxial side of the leaf surface. The mesophyll contains uniseriate palisade parenchyma and multiseriate spongy parenchyma (nine layers which showed cells with different morphology and size. Crystal idoblasts of different types were observed in both the petiole and leaf blade. Collateral vascular bundles were found both in the petiole and leaf blade. Leaf venation type was pinnate, campylodromous or brochydodromous. The micromorphometric analysis showed significant differences from plants of different environments for all leaf characteristics and Cerrado plants showed higher means for all evaluated traits. Therefore, the influence of environments may had modulated morphological responses in P. rigida, since no difference was found in the type or distribution of leaf tissues in Cerrado or Campo Rupestre.

  10. Amides from Piper as a Diuretic: Behind the Ethnopharmacological Uses of Piper glabratum Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruno Lima Prando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the genus Piper are known in Brazilian folk medicine as having diuretic activity. So, we propose to investigate the acute diuretic activity and the possible toxic effects of Piper glabratum Kunth, popularly known as false Jaborandi. Additionally, we propose to check whether there is any correlation between the biological activities of the crude extract (MEPG and its 2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-trans-cinnamoyl-pyrrolidine (MMCP in Wistar rats. The MEPG was fractioned by chromatography column and the MMCP was identified by analyses of 1H and 13C RMN spectral data and correlations. Both MEPG and MMCP were assayed for diuretic activity. The preparations obtained were orally administered in a single dose to rats. The urine excretion, pH, density, conductivity, and content of Na+, K+, Cl−, and HCO3- were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. Additionally, acute toxicity of the extract was also evaluated. MMCP at doses of 30 mg/kg was able to increase the urine volume, pH, and HCO3- excretion. Moreover, high dosage of MEPG showed important liver toxicity and elevated mortality when injected intraperitoneally. The results indicate that the MMCP shows important diuretic properties when administered in Wistar rats. Additionally, MEPG can induce important acute toxicity if given in high doses.

  11. Phytotoxic potential of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, E; Pontes, F C; Pereira, V C; Imatomi, M; Gualtieri, S C J

    2016-06-01

    The loss of leaves by plant species found in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) is an energetically expensive process due to adverse environmental conditions and predation by herbivory. The mature leaves have adaptations which minimize these events. However, the young individuals lack these structures and produce high leaf concentrations of secondary metabolites as a form of protection. These compounds can be used in bioprospection of natural herbicides. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxicity of hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles (Triticum aestivum L.) and evaluate the potential phytotoxic of ethyl acetate extract on germination, growth and cell size of metaxylem of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seedlings. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the elongation of wheat coleoptiles at all concentrations; however, the most promising results were observed in coleoptile fragments treated with the ethyl acetate extract. This treatment changed the mean germination time and the synchrony of sesame seeds, inhibited the growth of shoots and roots, reduced the dry weight of seedlings, led to abnormalities in the seedlings and reduced the length of the metaxylem cells in the sesame seedlings. These results demonstrated the phytotoxic potential of young leaf extracts of B. salicifolius and the high phytotoxicity of the ethyl acetate extract in the initial development of S. indicum. PMID:26959947

  12. Cytotoxic mechanism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth essential oil and its major compound nerolidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperotto, A R M; Moura, D J; Péres, V F; Damasceno, F C; Caramão, E B; Henriques, J A P; Saffi, J

    2013-07-01

    Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth is used in popular medicine as anti-inflamatory and against liver disorders. One of the most studied components of the plant is the essential oil for which chemical analysis revealed (E)-nerolidol as major compound. Recently, we have shown that P. gaudichaudianum essential oil possesses strong cytotoxic effects in mammalian V79 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model study. Treatment of the XV185-14c and N123 strains with essential oil and nerolidol led to cytotoxicity but did not induce mutagenicity. Our results revealed an important role of base excision repair (BER) as the ntg1, ntg2, apn1 and apn2 mutants showed pronounced sensitivity to essential oil and nerolidol. In the absence of superoxide dismutase (in sod1Δ mutant strain) sensitivity to the essential oil and nerolidol increased indicating that this oil and nerolidol are generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS production was confirmed by DCF-DA probing assay in Sod-deficient strains. From this, we conclude that the observed cytotoxicity to P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol is mainly related to ROS and DNA single strand breaks generated by the presence of oxidative lesions.

  13. INFLUENCE OF MYCORRHIZAS, ORGANIC SUBSTRATES AND CONTAINER VOLUMES ON THE GROWTH OF Heliocarpus popayanensis Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Zangaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work assessed, under nursery conditions, the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation on the initial growth of the woody species Heliocarpus popayanensis Kunth in containers of different sizes (nursery tubes of 50 or 250 cm3 containing composted cattle manure or organic Pinus spp bark compost diluted (0 to 100%, each 9% with low fertility soil. Plants in cattle manure grew more than plants grown in pine bark manure independent of tube size. AMF were more efficient in improving plant growth in 250 cm3 tubes than in 50 cm3 tubes independent of the substrates. Mycorrhizal plants grown in 50 cm3 tubes showed less growth than non-mycorrhizal ones irrespective of the substrates. Nevertheless, this growth depression decreased with an increase of substrates dilution with low fertility soil. In the higher dilutions, growth depression did not occur and there was a positive response to AMF inoculation. In addition, only mycorrhizal plantlets showed some growth in low fertility soil as the sole substrate. These results indicated that AMF affect plantlet growth positively or negatively depending on the combination of substrates, fertility level, and container size.

  14. Chemical studies on curuba (Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) L. H. Bailey) fruit flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Martínez, Natalia; Sinuco, Diana Cristina; Osorio, Coralia

    2014-08-15

    The odour-active volatiles of curuba fruit (Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) L. H. Bailey) were isolated by solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GC-MS analyses identified linalool, hexyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, and butyl acetate as key aroma compounds of this fruit. Other odorants relevant because of their contribution to the overall aroma were: 2-methylpropyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Sulphur compounds, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate and methional, were reported here for first time as odour-active volatiles in curuba. By HPLC-ESI-MS analyses of glycosidic mixtures and GC-MS analyses of volatiles released enzymatically with a glucosidase, (Z)-3-hexenyl β-D-glucopyranoside and linalyl β-D-glucopyranoside were identified as aroma precursors in P. mollissima fruit. Thermal treatment of the glycosidic mixture at native pH of fruit gave furanoid cis- and trans-linalool oxides, as well as, α-terpineol, compounds that exhibit flowery odour notes. Biogenic relationships among odour-active volatiles and their glycosidic precursors were also proposed. PMID:24679791

  15. Vibrational and Compositional Analysis Associated with the Color of Guadua angustifolia Kunth Variety Bicolor (GAKVB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational modes and compositional behavior of plant material of Guadua angustifolia Kunth Variety Bicolor (GAKVB and the characteristics associated with color changes were evaluated by Raman, infrared, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In the vibrational spectra, the frequencies of 1598, 2099, and 845 cm−1 were associated with yellow and blue pigments. These pigments can be found in natural organic dyes of vegetable origin, such as indigo blue (anil or pastel, extracted from Central American shrubs (Indigofera and indaco (Domenech, 2010, in some pigments synthesized in solid-state reactions from aluminum oxides, such as CaAl12O19, that have a turquoise color (Costa et al., 2009, and in Indian yellow (MgC19H16O11·5H2O. Using an immersion test, it was shown that the color was stable and that no loss of color occurred when photosynthesis was halted in the sample. The green and yellow stripes are assigned to Fe, N, Mg, and Si compounds. The yellow is due to decrease of Fe, Mg, and elemental Si. Results are obtained using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman measurements.

  16. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

  17. Análise morfo-histológica e fitoquímica de Verbena litoralis Kunth

    OpenAIRE

    Tasso de Souza, Tiago Juliano; Manfron, Melânia Palermo; Zanetti, Gilberto Dolejal; Hoelzel, Solange Cristina da Silva Martins; Pagliarin, Vera Pereira

    2005-01-01

    Foram determinados o perfil fitoquímico e parâmetros morfo-anatômicos de Verbena litoralis Kunth, planta reconhecida popularmente como medicinal, objetivando sua diagnose como insumo farmacêutico. O mesofilo bifacial, a disposição do esclerênquima, os tricomas glandulares e tectores, assim como a ausência de drusas e cristais de oxalato de cálcio são características significativas no controle botânico de qualidade desta espécie para a indústria farmacêutica. Como resultado da anál...

  18. Morpho-anatomical and fingerprinting study of Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I. Manzano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: The specie Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob. (Asteraceae is a South American native wild bush that grows in various provinces of Ecuador and it has been used in traditional medicine for several diseases, highliting its use in treatment of leishmaniasis, a condition of high incidence in the country. Despite its medicinal use, there are few or none botanic, chemical nor biological studies for this species. Aims: In this paper it were comprised the morpho-anatomical characterization of leaves and stems and genetic identification of a DNA fraction of the leaves of V. patens, in order to provide the elements for proper characterization and contribute to the establishment of quality control. Methods: The macromorphological description was made in leaves and stems from the fresh plant. The micromorphological evaluation was performed by paraffin inclusion of the material with cross-section that were clarify in sodium hypochlorite for its posterior safranin and cresil’s blue stained and its glycerinated gel fixation respectively. On obtaining the DNA chloroplast it was followed the internal protocol established by Molecular Biology CIBE´s laboratory. In order to sequence isolated DNA fragments from leaves of V. patens, Macrogen Maryland, USA´S company services were hired. Results: Leaves and stems of the new specie’s micro morphological characteristics were described for the first time and new macro morphological characters were described too from stems particularly. Conclusions: Using molecular and macro-micromorphological assessments is corroborated the identity of the V. patens species growing in Ecuador coast.

  19. Biological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Phthirusa pyrifolia (Kunth Eichler Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero M.P.B. Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phthirusa pyrifolia (Kunth Eichler is claimed in medicinal practice in Brazil, to be useful in the treatment of respiratory diseases and liver injury, aphrodisiac effect, and also for to its antimicrobial properties, and is also used in Peru to treat fractures and sprains. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous extract from P. pyrifolia leaves in male rats submitted to oral administration. Animals in experimental protocol were submitted to natural oral ingestion of P. pyrifolia leaves aqueous extract over to 12 days. Total blood aliquots were collected for hormonal and biochemical-hematological analysis. After the treatment period, the rats were subcutaneously anesthetized, euthanized and afterwards orchidectomized. The biochemical parameters revealed a significant decrease in aspartate-aminotransferase, alanineaminotransferase and alkaline-phosphatase enzyme levels by about 40%, 27% and 52%, respectively. However, the extract does not cause liver injury and no impairment of renal function as well no affect any hematological parameters, but the histological analysis revealed a somatic action on the testes. The testosterone hormone levels of treated rats were drastically affected and showed a higher decrease (p<0.05 of about 82.31% than compared with the control, 46.0 (± 8.1 ng/dL and 260.0 (±4.1 ng/dL, respectively. We believe that the aqueous extract may be responsible to promote a decrease in the libido and reproduction in male rats, and induces hepatic-protective effects. Our results contribute towards validation of the traditional use of the plant.

  20. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Arias, N.P. [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Electronica y Computacion, Facultad de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Giraldo, O., E-mail: ohggiraldo@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}in NaOH or NH{sub 4}OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  1. Aspectos da anatomia foliar de algumas espécies de Paepalanthus Kunth, Eriocaulaceae da Serra do Cipó - Minas Gerais Aspects of leaf anatomy of some species of Paepalanthus Kunth, Eriocaulaceae from Serra do Cipó - Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Maria de Castro

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da anatomia foliar das espécies de Paepalanthus Kunth.: P. bromelioides Silv.; P. macropodus Ruhl.; P. miçrophyllus (Giull. Kunth; P. paulinus Ruhl.; P. robustus Silv.; P. scleranthus Ruhl. e P. speciosus (Bong. Koer. mostrou uma semelhança no número e distribuição dos feixes vasculares, Em P. robustus e, menos marcadamente, em P. speciosus, estes feixes de tamanhos diferentes, encontram-se distribuídos em séries, com os feixes menores mais próximos da epiderme adaxial. As folhas revelam características xerofíticas em diferentes graus. Chama-se a atenção para a formação de feixes vasculares anfivasais no ápice das folhas.The anatomical studies in species of Paepalanthus Kunth: P.bromelioides Silv.; P. macropodus Ruhl.; P. miçrophyllus (Giull. Kunth; P. paulinus Ruhl.; P. robustus Silv.; P. scleranthus Ruhl. and P. speciosus (Bong. Koem., show similarity in the number and distribution of the vascular bundles. In P. robustus and, to a lesser extent, in P. speciosus, theses bundles of differing sizes occur in series, the smaller ones being closer to the adaxial epidermis. The leaves exhibit varying degrees of xeromorphy. Attention is drawn to the development of anphyvasal vascular bundles in the leaf apices.

  2. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of the extracts from Smilax corbularia Kunth rhizomes in mice and rats (in vivo)

    OpenAIRE

    Wantana Reanmongkol; Pisit Bouking; Arunporn Itharat

    2007-01-01

    The effects of either ethanol or aqueous extract from rhizomes of Smilax corbularia Kunth (S. corbularia) on anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced edema in rats, antinociceptive activity using writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever were examined. Oral administration of the ethanol extract of S. corbularia rhizomes significantly suppressed the paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats while the aqueous extract had no effect...

  3. Caracterización fisicoquímica del aceite de la semilla de Píritu (Bactris piritu (H. Karst H. Wendl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linares, Oscar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research several physicochemical properties of Píritu (Bactris piritu (H. Karst H. Wendl seed and its crude oil were evaluated. Seeds were transformed into flour by crushing and drying ( 60 ºC for 12 h and its approximate composition was: moisture content 5.20 %; fat 39.40 %; protein 9.60 %; crude fiber 44.35 %; ash 1.45 %. The flour lipidic fraction was extracted with n-hexane. The following physicochemical characteristics of crude oil were determined: free acidity (0.13 % as oleic acid, iodine index (11.09 cg of I/g, peroxide value (0.30 meq O 2 /kg, refraction index (1.4445 at 60 ºC , Wiley melting point ( 33.5 ºC , saponification value (227.47 mg KOH/g, insaponifiable matter (1.00 %, AOM stability (37.88 h, solid fat content (81 % at 10 ºC or 68 % at 20 ºC . Lauric acid is the main the fatty acid (56.84 %. Píritu seed is an alternative raw material to obtain oil with characteristics similar to coconut oil.En esta investigación se evaluaron algunas propiedades físico-químicas de las semillas y el aceite crudo de la palma nativa píritu (Bactris piritu (H.Karst H. Wendl. Las semillas fueron transformadas en harina mediante molienda y secado (60 ºC durante 12 h, presentando la siguiente composición aproximada: humedad 5,20 %; grasa 39,40 %; proteína (Nx6, 25 9,60 %; fibra cruda 44,35 % y ceniza 1,45 %. La fracción lipídica de la harina fue extraída con n-hexano. Las características fisicoquímicas determinadas al aceite crudo fueron: acidez libre (0,13 % como ácido oleico, índice de iodo (11,09 cg de I2 /g, índice de peróxidos (0,30 meq de O2 /kg, índice de refracción ( 1,4445 a 60 ºC , punto de fusión Wiley (33,5 ºC , índice de saponificación (227,47 mg de KOH/g, materia insaponificable (1,00 %, estabilidad AOM (37,88 h, contenido de grasa sólida (81 % a 10 ºC y 68 % a 20 ºC . La composición en ácidos grasos mostró como ácido mayoritario al láurico C12:0 (56,84 %. En conclusi

  4. Croissance juvénile et comportement physiologique d'Andropogon gayanus Kunth var. bisquamulatus en conditions de stress hydrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Buldgen

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedling growth and physiological behaviour of Andropogon gayanus Kunth cv. bisquamulatus in water stress conditions.Several studies carried on the physiology of Andropogon gayanus Kunth cv. bisquamulatus were conducted in Belgium in a wind tunnel simulating climatic conditions close to those prevailing during the rainy season in Sahelo-Sudanese region. The first experiments simulated water supply of 15, 20 and 25 mm at the outset of a caryopse sowing in a sandy soil. The observations were focused on daily evaporation losses, seedling emergencies, their growth and the mortality evolution. Results show that an initial soil water reserve of 25 mm, i.e. about 22.5 % in volume in the upper layer, is necessary to ensure the seedling survival during a period of 15 days after emergence. After 27 days, 95 % of the seedlings were still clive. With an initial soil water reserve of 13.5 or 18 % in volume (15 and 25 mm treatment respectively, mortalities occur already 4 to 6 days after sowing and increase vert' rapidly over a 10—day period. Whatever the initial water reserve mat' be, seedling losses occur systematically for a soil water reserve under or equal to 5 mm (4.5 % in volume. Two subsequent experiments were also conducted in order to analyse the photosynthetic parameters and the water status of 6 plants of Andropogon gayanus in the rainy and the dry seasons and during two drying cycles imposed in the rainy season. The first experiment shows that the hydric potentiel is -0.44 MPa during the rainy season and louver than -1 MPa during the dry season. The stomacal conductance is high (more than 1 cm . s-1 during both seasons, but the rate of photosynthesis decreases by half (from 19.8 to 10.9 graoles CO2 . m-2 . s-1 during the dry season. When the graminea endures a drought period in the rainy season, the physiological parameters evolve slowly until the soil water reserve reaches.

  5. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  6. Post-harvest conservation of camu–camu fruits (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh using different temperatures and packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza GRIGIO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The camu-camu tree (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh is fruit-bearing tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae. This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the type of storage temperature and package which allow better conservation of the quality attributes of camu-camu. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized with three replications in a factorial arrangement (3x3x8, constituted of three different storage temperatures (laboratory ambiente or 25 ± 2 °C, 15 °C and 20 °C, three types of packages (no package, PET and PVC and fourteen days’ storage, the fruits being analyzed every two days. The fruits were evaluated as to fresh mass loss, pH, soluble solids contents, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, anthocyanins, chlorophylls A and B and maturation index (SS/AT. According to the results obtained, the quality attributes and ascorbic acid content were conserved for longer time in the fruits stored on PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene trays at 15 °C. It follows that the best temperature for the storage of camu-camu is 15 °C and the package that best keeps its quality attributes is the PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene tray.

  7. Optimization of the bamboo guadua angustifolia kunth in the elaboration of glued laminated elements for constructive use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, G. A.; Cruz, R. A.; Chávez, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Bamboo is considered one of the best timber resources in the world because for its mechanical properties and high sustainability; this research aims to improve the mechanical properties of the laminated glued bamboo Guadua Angustifolia Kunth (GAK) for use as structural elements, starting from de very manufacture process; this is important because it is possible to observe variations in the flexural strength and the elastic modulus in GAK samples taken from different heights and thickness of the culm. In order to analyze the influence of these final mechanical properties variations in the laminated, the height of the culm where samples are extracted (cepa, basa and sobrebasa) it is taken as a variable from where different types of laminated were manufactured, seeking to make optimal the configuration based in the transversal section area and the material strength. Three assemblies were designed varying the overlap of the adhesion lines and it concluded that the highest strength average values were obtained in the laminated composites manufactured with samples taken from the bottom of the culm (basa), which is possible because in these elements there are less adhesion lines than the other ones (middle, top and mixed) or the better matching of themselves.

  8. Kinetics of moisture loss and oil uptake during deep fat frying of Gethi (Dioscorea kamoonensis Kunth) strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, S S; Ravi, N; Negi, P S; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Investigation was carried out to study kinetics of moisture loss, oil uptake and tristimulus colour during deep fat frying of Gethi (Dioscorea kamoonensis kunth) strips. Deep fat frying of Gethi strips of size 6 × 6 × 40 mm was carried out in a laboratory scale fryer at different temperatures ranging from 120 to 180 °C. The investigation showed that the moisture loss and oil uptake followed the first order kinetics equation (r > 0.95, p oil uptake increased significantly (p oil uptake values was described using Arrhenius equation (r > 0.99, p oil uptake were found to be 41.53 KJ/mol and 27.12 KJ/mol respectively. The hunter colour parameters were significantly affected by frying temperature and frying time. The hunter lightness (L) value increased with respect to frying time initially, followed by decline and same trend was observed at higher temperatures of frying with elevated rate, whereas hunter redness (a) value increased significantly (p  0.99, p < 0.01). The other hunter colour parameters such as chroma, hue angle and total colour difference were markedly affected by frying temperature as well as frying time.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth in northwestern Argentina in relation to season and soil parameters Colonización micorrícico arbuscular de Alnus acuminata Kunth en el noroeste argentino en relación a la estacionalidad y a los parámetros edáficos

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Gabriela Becerra; Nilda Marta Arrigo; Norberto Bartoloni; Laura Susana Domínguez; María Noelia Cofré

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth at two natural forests in relation to soil parameters at two different seasons (autumn and spring). The soil parameters studied were field capacity, pH, electrical conductivity, available P, total N and organic matter. The percentage of AM colonization was estimated and correlated to soil properties and to two different seasons. The results indicate that the percentage of...

  10. Determinación de los valores de esfuerzos admisibles del bambú Guadua angustifolia Kunth del departamento de Tolima, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ardila Pinilla, César Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    En el año 2010 Colombia aprueba el uso la Guadua angustifolia Kunth como material estructural a través del Reglamento Colombiano de Construcción Sismo Resistente NSR-10 Título G. Contribuyendo con esta iniciativa del gobierno nacional, diferentes grupos de investigación en el país se han dado a la labor de reunir información alrededor de las características físicas y mecánicas de este material, con el fin de ir actualizando el reglamento y hacer más especializado y confiable su empleo en la c...

  11. Diseño e implementación de un prototipo no invasivo de medidor de agua para la Guadua angustifolia Kunth

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Andrés Salazar Jaramillo; Diana Carolina Pardo Saavedra; Mario Javier Vásquez Mesa; Gerardo Fonthal Rivera

    2011-01-01

    La demanda mundial de productos maderables, el desarrollo sostenible y la globalización de la economía, han generado en los últimos tiempos alternativas a nuevos mercados con perspectivas gigantes de industrializar productos novedosos; entre los cuales se encuentran productos a base de bambú, principalmente la especie Guadua "angustifolia Kunth" oriunda de Suramérica y Centroamérica. La Guadua "angustifolia" no solo sobresale por sus excelentes propiedades físico-mecánicas aplicables en const...

  12. Eficiencia fotoquímica del fotosistema II y crecimiento en plantas de curuba (Passiflora tripartita (Juss.) var. mollissima (Kunth)) bajo estrés salino

    OpenAIRE

    Fánor Casierra-Posada; Jaime E Peña-Olmos; Gregory Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    La curuba (Passiflora tripartita (Juss.) var. mollissima (Kunth)) es un cultivo importante en Colombia, especialmente en el departamento de Boyacá. A pesar de que el estrés osmótico es un limitante en la producción de este cultivo, existe poca información sobre su respuesta a la salinidad. En el presente estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en plantas de curuba bajo estrés salino. Las plantas se expusieron a concentraciones (mmol/kg de suelo) de 20, 40, 60, y 80...

  13. Eficiencia fotoquímica del fotosistema ii y crecimiento en plantas de curuba (passiflora tripartita (juss.) var. mollissima (kunth)) bajo estrés salino

    OpenAIRE

    Casierra-Posada, Fánor; Peña-Olmos, Jaime Ernesto; Vaughan, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    La curuba (Passiflora tripartita (Juss.) var. mollissima (Kunth)) es un cultivo importante en Colombia, especialmente en el departamento de Boyacá. A pesar de que el estrés osmótico es un limitante en la producción de este cultivo, existe poca información sobre su respuesta a la salinidad. En el presente estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en plantas de curuba bajo estrés salino. Las plantas se expusieron a concentraciones (mmol/kg de suelo) de 20, 40, 60, y 80...

  14. Utilização de Echinochloa Polystachya (Kunth) Hitchc. (POACEAE) na fitorremediação de solo contaminado com petróleo

    OpenAIRE

    Biazão,Thalita Colombo

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Devido à utilização mundial do petróleo e seus derivados, surge à possibilidade de acidentes por derramamento em solo, fazendo-se necessário o estudo de técnicas que possam ser aplicadas para remediação de contaminantes. A fitorremediação é uma das técnicas aplicada, que utiliza uma espécie vegetal e microbiota associada para a redução de contaminantes. O presente estudo avalia o potencial fitorremediador de Echinochloa polystachya (Kunth) Hitchc. em substrato contaminado com petróleo...

  15. ABEJAS VISITANTES DE Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S. F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: COMPORTAMIENTO DE FORRAJEO Y CARGAS POLÍNICAS BEES VISITING Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S .F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: FORAGING BEHAVIOR AND POLLEN LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Isabel Aguilar Sierra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En cuatro localidades de la zona de influencia del embalse Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia, se observó el comportamiento de 23 taxones de abejas durante sus visitas a Aspilia tenella (Kunth S. F. Blake; se registró el número de individuos y el tiempo total de visita y se midieron la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Los análisis de varianza indican que hubo una relación estadísticamente significativa en cuanto a los atributos considerados para las especies de abejas y una covariación significativa con las variables ambientales. Las pruebas de rangos múltiples muestran que Trigona nigerrima es la especie con los mayores valores promedio para el número de individuos y el tiempo de visita. En el estudio de las cargas polínicas se encontraron 30 tipos polínicos, dentro de los cuales A. tenella presentó el mayor porcentaje; Piper aduncum, Miconia minuti flora, Psidium guajava, Rapanea sp., Mimosa pudica y Psychotria sp., en su orden, son otras fuentes de polen importantes para varias de las especies de abejas. El análisis de agrupamiento para las abejas capturadas permitió diferenciar dos grupos: el primero incluye a 18 especies cuyas cargas polínicas que poseían una abundancia relativa de granos de polen de A. tenella por encima de 77%; el segundo grupo estaba conformado por cinco especies de abejas que recolectaron porcentajes mayores de otros tipos polínicos: Exomalopsis sp. 1 (90,4% de M. minuti flora; Lasioglossum sp. 1 y Coelioxys aff. mexicana (77,4% y 64,1% de P. aduncum, respectivamente; Exomalopsis sp. 2 (67,1% de P. guajava y Auglochloropsis vesta (55,5% de Rapanea sp.. Trigona fulviventris y Apis mellifera presentaron los valores más altos de riqueza de tipos polínicos en las cargas de polen; ello evidencia sus nichos tróficos amplios y su comportamiento generalista de visita.We observed the behavior of 23 species of wild bees visiting Aspilia tenella (Kunth S .F. Blake in four different localities of the Porce II dam

  16. Cutting diameter influence in the rooting of Tecoma stans (L. Juss. ex Kunth/ Influência do diâmetro de estacas no enraizamento de Tecoma stans (L. Juss. ex Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Leal

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Tecoma stans (L. Juss. ex Kunth (Bignoniaceae is a native tree from the Americas and Antilles and was introduced in Brazil for ornamental reasons, but became an invasive species in degraded areas and pastures in the south region. In Paraná State it is considered a noxious invasive species and its entrance, planting, transport, production and the commerce of its seedlings, seeds, pieces of stem and roots are forbidden. The aim of this research was to prove the rooting ability potential of hardwoody stem cuttings of Tecoma stans with different diameter thickness. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three treatments: T1 = stem diameter from 0.60 – 0.80 cm, T2 =stem diameter from 0.81 – 1.00 cm and T3 = stem diameter from 1.01 – 1.20 cm. The evaluated variables were: rooting rate, the number of sprouting per cutting, length of sprouting per cutting (cm, cutting rate with more than ten roots and length of the three larger roots formed per cutting (cm. All the cuttings showed 100% of rooting. The T2 and T3 treatments differed statistically from T1 treatment for sprouting length, while T2 differed from the others, for the roots length. The easiness of this species to propagate in a vegetative way reinforces and proves its invasive characteristics.Tecoma stans (L. Juss. ex Kunth (Bignoniaceae, árvore nativa das Américas e Antilhas, foi introduzida no Brasil para fins ornamentais e tornou-se uma espécie invasora de áreas degradadas e pastagens na região sul. No Estado do Paraná é considerada uma planta invasora nociva, proibida a sua entrada, o plantio, o transporte, a produção e o comércio de mudas, sementes, pedaços de caules e raízes. O trabalho teve como objetivo comprovar o potencial de enraizamento de estacas caulinares lenhosas de Tecoma stans com diferentes diâmetros de espessura. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos: T1 = diâmetro da estaca de 0,60 – 0

  17. Efeito hipoglicemiante da farinha do fruto de maracujá-do-mato (Passiflora nitida Kunth em ratos normais e diabéticos Hypoglycemic effect of Passiflora nitida Kunth fruit flour on normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A região amazônica é detentora de uma vasta biodiversidade de frutos, porém pouco explorada quanto o seu potencial nutricional e econômico. Dentre estes frutos destaca-se o maracujá-do-mato (Passiflora nitida Kunth, espécie silvestre, de fruto comestível, com sabor exótico e de boa aceitabilidade para consumo. No presente estudo objetivou-se analisar as características nutricionais do mesocarpo do fruto da P. nitida e avaliar o potencial hipoglicemiante em ratos normais e diabéticos. A farinha do mesocarpo do fruto foi elaborada e analisada quanto a composição centesimal. A atividade hipoglicemiante foi avaliada por meio de dois modelos experimentais em ratos Wistar. O mesocarpo apresentou baixa concentração de macronutrientes e alto teor de umidade, cinzas e fibras. No experimento agudo, após 15 minutos da administração da sacarose, os níveis glicêmicos foram de 146±12 mg dL-1 no grupo controle e 112±2,5 mg dL-1, no grupo que recebeu 1g kg-1 de peso da farinha. No experimento crônico, após 21 dias, houve redução de 493 mg dL-1 para 302 mg dL-1 (38,7 % e 195 mg dL-1 (60,4% na glicemia nos grupos que foram tratados com 20 e 40% de ração enriquecida com a farinha, respectivamente, em relação ao grupo diabético não tratado. Em ambos os modelos experimentais, a farinha do mesocarpo mostrou-se eficaz na redução da glicemia. O fruto de P. nitida mostrou-se um produto natural em potencial para o controle da glicemia no diabetes.The Amazon region has a vast biodiversity of fruits but is little explored as to its nutritional and economic potential. Among these fruits is "maracuja-do-mato" (Passiflora nitida Kunth, a wild species of edible fruit with exotic flavor and good acceptability for consumption. The aim of the present study was to analyze the nutritional characteristics of P. nitida fruit mesocarp and to evaluate its hypoglycemic potential in normal and diabetic rats. Flour from the fruit mesocarp was prepared and

  18. Produção de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes para palmito sob diferentes espaçamentos, no Litoral do Estado do Paraná Production of three cuttings of Bactris gasipaes for heart-of-palm under different plant density in the Paraná State Coastal Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinelson José Maciel Neves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos caracterizar as propriedades químicas do solo sob plantio de pupunheira
    (Bactris gasipaes aos 24, 39 e 48 meses de idade e, quantificar na agroindústria, nessas idades, a produção de
    palmito em toletes, em rodelas e picado, em função de diferentes espaçamentos. Para tanto, em março de 2001,
    foram instaladas duas áreas experimentais localizadas nos Km 7 e Km 10 da Estrada Alexandra-Matinhos, Município
    de Paranaguá, PR. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas de 100 plantas, quatro
    tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos seguintes espaçamentos: 3 m x 1 m ; 2 m
    x 1 m ; 2 m x 1 m x 1 m (linhas duplas e 1,5 m x 1 m x 1 m (linhas duplas. Foi feita adubação com N, P e K na época
    de plantio e aos 6 ; 9 ; 12 ; 18 ; 21 e 45 meses de idade, totalizando 86 g ; 47,8 g e 67,5 g por planta, respectivamente.
    Aos 42 meses de idade, foram distribuídos nas entrelinhas de plantio 16 kg de calcário dolomítico, correspondo
    a, aproximadamente, 2 t.ha-1. Foi possível concluir que: (i as quantidades de N, P, K e de calcário aplicadas
    promoveram mudanças nas características químicas do solo; (ii as densidades entre 5 mil e 6.666 plantas por
    hectare promoveram as maiores produções de palmito, nos sucessivos cortes realizados.The present study was developed to characterize the chemical properties of the soil under peach palm (Bactris gasipaes plantations at 24, 39 and 48 months old, and to quantify the heart-of-palm  production on a local industrial scale (packaged in various forms in glass jars. The experiment was set up in two areas, located along the Alexandra-Matinhos Road (km 7 and km 10 near Paranaguá county, State of Paraná, Brazil, in March of 2001. Randomized blocks were used as statistical design, having 100 plants per sample, with four  treatments and six replicates. Treatments

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body...... between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and a reduction in body weight. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  20. Esterases no exame da estrutura populacional de Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae Esterases for examining the population structure of Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylton Saturnino Teixeira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois sistemas enzimáticos (esterase e esterase-D, analisados pela técnica de eletroforese em gel de amido, em folhas jovens de plantas cultivadas em terra firme, de sementes provenientes de três amostras de populações naturais de camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae, procedentes de Iquitos, Boa Vista e Uatumã, revelaram a presença de 6 locos: Est-1, Est-2, Est-3, Est-4, Est-D1 e Est-D2. Dois dos seis locos gênicos examinados no presente estudo (Est-3 e Est-D2 mostraram-se polimórficos, sendo desse modo considerados valiosos no estudo de caracterização da estrutura populacional da espécie. Os padrões de polimorfismo revelados nos locos Est-3 e Est-D2 de camu-camu, são típicos de enzimas monoméricas e diméricas, respectivamente. O loco Est-3 apresentou um grande desbalanço genético dentro e entre as amostras populacionais examinadas, devido ao excessivo número observado de plantas heterozigóticas em relação ao número esperado. O loco Est-D2 apresentou um polimorfismo exclusivo para os alelos Est-D2¹,Est-D2² e Est-D2³, e um bom balanço genético na amostra populacional de Uatumã. Em função disso, dentre os demais locos gênicos aqui investigados, o loco Est-D2 parece ser o mais adequado para identificação e delimitação de prováveis estoques de camu-camu. Portanto, recomenda-se que esse loco esteja presente na lista dos marcadores isoenzimáticos a serem usados em futuras prospecções sobre genética populacional dessa espécie na região amazônica. Dados sobre a distribuição das freqüências alélicas, estimativas das distâncias genéticas, e estimativas de variação genética nos 6 locos de esterases examinados, foram eficazes na demonstração de diferenças genéticas entre as amostras populacionais examinadas da espécie. Os maiores valores de heterozigozidade média (0,1353; proporção de locos polimórficos (0,33 e número médio de alelos por loco (1,33 revelados na amostra

  1. Contribución al estudio fitoquímico de la parte aérea de piper cf. cumanense kunth (piperaceae Contribución al estudio fitoquímico de la parte aérea de piper cf. cumanense kunth (piperaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Amin , Jorge Emilio

    2011-01-01

    A partir de los extractos etanólicos de hojas e inflorescencias de la especie Piper cf. cumanense Kunth (Piperaceae) cultivada, se aislaron diferentes metabolitos y se identificaron dos nuevos compuestos, derivados de ácido benzoico, llamados “ácido cumanensico” y “ácido cumenico”; junto con cuatro compuestos conocidos como campesterol, estigmasterol, β–sitosterol y oxido de cariofileno. La elucidación estructural de los compuestos aislados se realizó utilizando técnicas espectroscópicas y...

  2. EFEK EKSTRAK AIR DAN HEKSAN HERBA SURUHAN Peperomia pellucida (L Kunth TERHADAP PENURUNAN KADAR ASAM URAT SERUM DARAH AYAM KAMPUNG JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Yunarto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Salah satu tanaman yang selama ini digunakan masyarakat sebagai pilihan obat tradisional untuk asam urat adalah suruhan (Peperomia pellucida (L Kunth. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji efek dari ekstrak air dan heksan herba suruhan terhadap penurunan kadar asam urat serum darah pada ayam kampung jantan. 40 ayam kampung jantan dibuat hiperurisemia dengan pemberian kombinasi antara jus hati ayam 4 ml/kg BB dan urea 1 mg/kg BB selama 12 hari. Hewan uji tersebut dibagi menjadi 8 kelompok. Kelompok I sebagai kontrol negatif dengan pemberian Polivinil Pirolidon (PVP 0,5%. Kelompok II diberi Allopurinol 10 mg/kg BB sebagai kontrol positif, kelompok III-V diberi ekstrak air 100; 200; 400 mg/Kg BB dan kelompok VI-VIII diberi ekstrak heksan 100; 200; 400 mg/Kg BB. Pemberian bahan uji mulai hari ke-13 sampai 20. Pada hari ke-15,18 dan 21 diambil serum darah hewan uji melalui vena lateralis sayap untuk diukur kadar asam uratnya serta dihitung persentase penurunan kadar asam urat . Hasil uji secara pre klinik hari ke-21, ekstrak air herba suruhan 200 mg/Kg BB mampu menurunkan kadar asam urat paling tinggi yaitu 62,49±2,80% dan penurunan kadar asam urat dengan ekstrak heksan paling tinggi hanya 19,62±3,95% pada dosis 400 mg/Kg BB. Potensi ekstrak air 200 mg/Kg BB sebanding dengan Allopurinol 10 mg/Kg BB. Ekstrak air dan heksan herba suruhan memiliki khasiat untuk menurukan kadar asam urat yang mengindikasikan bahwa kandungan kimia dalam herba suruhan dapat dikembangan menjadi obat antihiperurisemia. Kata kunci : Peperomia pellucida (L Kunth, asam urat, uji pre klinik, ekstrak air dan heksan Abstract One of the plants that had been used by the local people as a choice of traditional medicine for gout is suruhan (Peperomia pellucida (L Kunth. This research was conducted to examine the effects of water and hexan extract of suruhan to decrease  uric acid levels in cock. 40 cock made hyperuricemia with the administration combination of chicken

  3. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of the extracts from Smilax corbularia Kunth rhizomes in mice and rats (in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantana Reanmongkol

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of either ethanol or aqueous extract from rhizomes of Smilax corbularia Kunth (S. corbularia on anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced edema in rats, antinociceptive activity using writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever were examined. Oral administration of the ethanol extract of S. corbularia rhizomes significantly suppressed the paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats while the aqueous extract had no effect. Neither the ethanol extract nor aqueous extract significantly affected the antinociceptive tests in mice and yeast-induced fever in rats. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of S. corbularia rhizomes possess anti-inflammatory activity, and that its actions on the inflammation may be different from those of aspirin.

  4. EFECTO DE LA LUZ Y DEL ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO (AG3 EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE Minthostachys mollis KUNTH. GRISEB.(LABIATAE Effect of Light and Giberellic Acid (AG3 on the Germination of Minthostachys mollis Kunth. Griseb. (Labiatae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO SUÁREZ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb., es un arbusto perenne que crece en la región andina de Colombia; es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales donde es valorado por sus propiedades medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca y luz natural y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró inhibición de la germinación bajo condiciones de oscuridad. No se observó efecto de AG3 sobre la germinación. Los porcentajes de germinación fueron superiores a 80% para los tratamientos con luz (semilla fotoblástica positiva, donde el tratamiento con luz roja tuvo el efecto más significativo sobre el proceso de germinación.Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb., is a perennial shrub that grows in the Andean region of Colombia; this species is widely used by rural communities where it is valued for its medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of light (red light, white light, and natural light and gibberellic acid (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm on the process of germination of M. mollis. We found a strong inhibition of germination under conditions of darkness. We do not observe effect of AG3 on germination. The germination percentages obtained were above 80% (positive photoblastic seeds for the three proposed lighting treatments where red-light treatment had a most significant effect on the germination process.

  5. Diseño e implementación de un prototipo no invasivo de medidor de agua para la Guadua angustifolia Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Andrés Salazar Jaramillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La demanda mundial de productos maderables, el desarrollo sostenible y la globalización de la economía, han generado en los últimos tiempos alternativas a nuevos mercados con perspectivas gigantes de industrializar productos novedosos; entre los cuales se encuentran productos a base de bambú, principalmente la especie Guadua "angustifolia Kunth" oriunda de Suramérica y Centroamérica. La Guadua "angustifolia" no solo sobresale por sus excelentes propiedades físico-mecánicas aplicables en construcción, sino por la diversidad de aplicaciones que pueden ser motor de desarrollo social y económico de muchos países tropicales. Por lo tanto, lo que se plantea con este trabajo es mejorar la calidad de los diversos productos y derivados de la guadua a través de un adecuado control de la variable humedad, que determina la calidad de la materia prima; por medio de un dispositivo que pueda proporcionar una medida de cantidad de agua, sin dañar el material medido. Como valor agregado, el dispositivo se puede acoplar a las diferentes condiciones de crecimiento sin tener que cortar la planta, permitiendo así realizar medidas que verifiquen los saberes empíricos de la cultura sobre la guadua, arraigados en la población durante muchos años.

  6. Eficiencia fotoquímica del fotosistema II y crecimiento en plantas de curuba (Passiflora tripartita (Juss. var. mollissima (Kunth bajo estrés salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La curuba (Passiflora tripartita (Juss. var. mollissima (Kunth es un cultivo importante en Colombia, especialmente en el departamento de Boyacá. A pesar de que el estrés osmótico es un limitante en la producción de este cultivo, existe poca información sobre su respuesta a la salinidad. En el presente estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en plantas de curuba bajo estrés salino. Las plantas se expusieron a concentraciones (mmol/kg de suelo de 20, 40, 60, y 80 de NaCl. Como consecuencia, el área foliar de la planta se redujo 20.89, 42.91, 58.37 y 76.40%, respectivamente, en relación con plantas control (condiciones no salinas. La longitud total de tallos se redujo 9.97, 27.28, 42.79 y 55.77% y el peso seco total por planta en 23.89, 31.49, 39.60 y 61.26%. La eficiencia cuántica máxima del fotosistema II (Fv/Fm se redujo 11.29, 14.23, 38.89 y 92.25% bajo los tratamientos de salinidad; por tanto, la salinidad afectó drásticamente los parámetros de crecimiento y fluorescencia. La reducción en el área foliar se correlacionó con la reducción en la fotosíntesis. La reducción en peso seco también siguió la tendencia de la relación Fv/Fm, lo que sugiere que la mayoría de los impactos de la salinidad en las plantas de curuba se deben a los efectos negativos sobre la fotosíntesis.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of Choisya ternata Kunth essential oil, ternanthranin, and its two synthetic analogs (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Martins Gomes Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae is native to North America where it is popularly known as "Mexican orange". In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin-ISOAN and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate--MAN and PAN were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO obtained from C. ternata leaves (3-100 mg/kg, p.o., ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1-30 mg/kg, p.o. and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o., were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA. None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth in northwestern Argentina in relation to season and soil parameters Colonización micorrícico arbuscular de Alnus acuminata Kunth en el noroeste argentino en relación a la estacionalidad y a los parámetros edáficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Gabriela Becerra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth at two natural forests in relation to soil parameters at two different seasons (autumn and spring. The soil parameters studied were field capacity, pH, electrical conductivity, available P, total N and organic matter. The percentage of AM colonization was estimated and correlated to soil properties and to two different seasons. The results indicate that the percentage of AM colonization varied among soil types and was higher in spring than autumn. A significant positive correlation was found between AM colonization and electrical conductivity, organic matter and total Nitrogen. Results of this study provide evidence that AM colonization of A. acuminata can be affected by some soil parameters and seasonality.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el patrón de colonización micorrícico arbuscular (MA de Alnus acuminata Kunth en dos bosques del Noroeste Argentino, en relación a los parámetros edáficos y en dos estaciones del año (otoño y primavera. Los parámetros edáficos estudiados fueron: capacidad de campo, pH, conductividad eléctrica, fósforo disponible, N total y materia orgánica. Se cuantificó el porcentaje de colonización MA y se lo correlacionó con las variables estudiadas (parámetros edáficos y estaciones. Los resultados indican que el porcentaje de colonización MA varió entre los dos tipos de suelo y las estaciones, siendo mayor en primavera. Se observó correlación positiva significativa entre el porcentaje de colonización MA y la conductividad eléctrica, materia orgánica y N total. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la colonización MA de A. acuminata puede ser afectada por algunos parámetros edáficos y la estacionalidad.

  9. Determinação de taninos e metilxantinas no guaraná em pó (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Determination of tannins and methylxanthines in powdered guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Sousa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae são utilizadas como estimulante e os principais constituintes químicos são as metilxantinas e os taninos, tais como catequina e epicatequina. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar um método por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE para quantificar, simultaneamente, cafeína, teofilina, teobromina, catequina e epicatequina em pó de guaraná. Os valores obtidos foram comparados com os resultados encontrados no método espectrofotométrico da Farmacopéia Brasileira IV ed. Pelo método cromatográfico, os teores de metilxantinas e taninos totais foram de 4,04% e 1,48%, respectivamente. Os teores de metilxantinas e taninos totais, obtidos pelo método espectrofotométrico, foram de 4,88% e 4,05%, respectivamente. Acredita-se que, nas condições experimentais empregadas, o método espectrofotométrico não foi específico, quantificando outras substâncias fenólicas presentes no guaraná. Portanto, sugere-se o emprego desse método cromatográfico no controle de qualidade do guaraná em pó, por ser preciso, sensível, específico e rápido.The seeds of Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae, are used as a stimulant and the main chemical constituents are the methylxanthines and tannins, as catechin and epicatechin. This study aimed to investigate a method by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify both caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, catechin and epicatechin in powdered of P. cupana. The values obtained were compared with the results of the spectrophotometric method of the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia IV ed. For the chromatographic method, the levels of methylxanthines and total tannins were 4.04% and 1.48%, respectively. The levels of methylxanthines and total tannins obtained by the spectrophotometric method, were 4.88% and 4.05%, respectively. It is believed that, under our experimental conditions, the spectrophotometric method was not specific and

  10. Capacidad de enraizamiento de plantas matrices promisorias de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh en cámaras de subirrigación¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto Rodríguez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Camu camu es una fruta nativa de la Amazonía, que llama la atención por el alto contenido de vitamina C (6,116 mg/ 100 g de pulpa, está en proceso de domesticación, por lo cual se está investigando un método de propagación vegetativa que permita avanzar en el proceso de mejoramiento genético. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad rizogénica de plantas matrices promisorias de camu camu "Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh" según el aumento del número de hojas, mediante la técnica de estacas herbáceas en cámaras de subirrigación. El ensayo fue conducido mediante un Diseño de Bloques Completamente al Azar (DBCA con arreglo factorial 9Ax3B, con 3 repeticiones y 15 estacas por unidad experimental. El factor A, estuvo constituido por nueve plantas matrices y el factor B: pares de hojas con 3 niveles: 1; 2 y 3 pares. El enraizamiento fue evaluado después de 90 días. Se observó que existió interacción estadística significativa para las variables: porcentaje de enraizamiento, longitud y número de raíces. Para las variables porcentaje de callo y porcentaje de mortalidad se encontró efecto de la planta matriz y pares de hojas. Los resultados muestran que el porcentaje de enraizamiento estuvo influenciado por efectos intrínsecos adherentes a la variabilidad genotípica de las plantas matrices, presentando un alto grado de dispersión, que osciló entre 91,11 % y 0,00 %, mostrando una alta variabilidad y marcada influencia de la planta matriz sobre el proceso de rizogénesis, influyendo de manera altamente significativa en el enraizamiento. Con respecto al área foliar, estacas con 2 y 3 pares de hojas, independiente de la planta matriz, presentaron mayor capacidad de enraizamiento. Con base en estos resultados se concluye que el efecto de la variabilidad genotípica y el área foliar influyen de manera altamente significativa en el proceso de rizogénesis de estacas herbáceas de camu camu.

  11. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Piper auritum Kunth and Piper holtonii C. DC. against phytopathogenic fungi Composición química y actividad antifúngica de Piper auritum Kunth y Piper holtonii C. DC. contra hongos fitopatogénicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pineda M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi during pre - and postharvest of fruits may cause spoilage and result in a reduction in quality and quantity. The aim of the present work was to investigate the efficacy of four extracts (n-hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol and the essential oil of Piper auritum Kunth and P. holtonii C. DC. on the growth inhibition of three important postharvest pathogens of fruits (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botryodiplodia theobromae. The in vitro antifungal activity was assayed following the poisoned food technique. The results showed that both n-hexane extract (HE as essential oil (EO displayed a relative good control against the three pathogens, being the originating materials of P. holtonii the most actives. Mycelial growth of C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and B. theobromae was significantly inhibited at 400 μg mL-1. Additionally, the chemical composition of the bioactive materials was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Safrole (64.54/56.88% and apiol (64.24/57.20% were the major constituents of the EO/HE from P. auritum and P. holtonii respectively. Structural identification was also confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Both compounds exhibited significant antifungal properties. It can be concluded that EOs/HEs from P. auritum and P. holtonii, and their major constituents, have interesting applications to control plant pathogenic fungi.El crecimiento de hongos durante pre- y poscosecha de frutas puede causar el deterioro y resultar en una reduccion en la calidad y cantidad. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar la eficiencia de cuatro extractos (n-hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etilo, y metanol y el aceite esencial de Piperauritum Kunth y P. holtonii C. DC. en la inhibición del crecimiento de tres importantes patogenos de pre- y poscosecha de frutas (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides y Botryodiplodia theobromae. La actividad antifúngica in

  12. Aves endêmicas e ameaçadas de extinção da Estação Ecológica de Xitué e a contribuição do taquaruçu Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth para a riqueza local. Endemic and threatened birds of the Xitué Ecological Station and the contribution of the bamboo Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth to local richness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Zamorano ANTUNES

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O contínuo ecológico da Serra deParanapiacaba, no sul do Estado de São Paulo,é uma área de extrema importância para aconservação das aves. Dentro do contínuo, a EstaçãoEcológica de Xitué é a Unidade de Conservaçãocuja avifauna é menos conhecida. Em levantamentoefetuado em 2006 foram registradas em Xitué48 espécies endêmicas da Mata Atlântica e 8ameaçadas de extinção. Apesar de ser a espécievegetal dominante em vastos trechos da estação,o taquaruçu Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth parececontribuir pouco para a riqueza de espécies de avesencontradas. No entanto, entre estas espécies seencontra o criticamente ameaçado papa-capim-dataquaraSporophila falcirostris, granívoroespecializado em sementes de taquaras.The Paranapiacaba Range ecologicalcontinuum, in State of São Paulo southernBrazil, is an extremely important area to birdconservation. In Paranapiacaba Range the birds ofXitué Ecological Station remains poorly known.We surveyed the Xitué birds in 2006 and we found48 Atlantic Forest endemics species and 8 threatened.Although the bamboo Guadua tagoara (NeesKunth dominate many areas of Xitué, it contributedtoo little for bird richness. However, between thesebird species was the critically endangered Temminck’sSeedeater Sporophila falcirostris, specializedbamboo granivorous.

  13. Phytochemical and biological evaluation of Preskia bleo (Kunth) DC, a plant species used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ER positive and ER negative breast cancer cell lines were found to be 1.3 and 3.5 μg/ml, respectively. The aqueous extract was found to be non-cytotoxic. All the extracts tested were also found to be non-toxic against the brine shrimps up to 2,000 μg/ml of the extracts. This study demonstrated that the non-aqueous extracts of the leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) D.C exhibited a non-selective mode of action against breast cancer cells proliferation in-vitro. Their non-cytotoxic activities toward the non-tumour 3T3 mouse fibroblasts indicates that the extracts exhibited selective mode of inhibition between tumour and non-tumour cells. The results obtained support the reputation of the above species as anticancer plant. Further work to isolate the cytotoxic compounds and to investigate the in vivo antitumour activity in rat is in progress. (Author)

  14. Efficacy of 15 Herbicides on Eriochloa villosa (Thunb.) Kunth%15种除草剂对野黍的防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉莲; 黄春艳; 黄元炬; 王宇; 朴德万

    2014-01-01

    为筛选出有效防除大豆、玉米田野黍的除草剂,采用盆栽试验研究了4%烟嘧磺隆悬浮剂、69 g/L精唑禾草灵水乳剂、15%精吡氟禾草灵乳油、12.5%烯禾啶乳油等15种除草剂对野黍的防治效果。结果表明,在温室盆栽条件下,3种土壤处理除草剂90%乙草胺乳油、33%二甲戊灵乳油、48%异草松乳油在有效剂量1620、1125、1100.25 g/hm2(推荐药量的平均药量)时,施药后40 d,对野黍的株数防效及鲜重防效均为100%。4种茎叶处理剂69 g/L精唑禾草灵水乳剂(含安全剂喷雾量3%~5%)、50 g/L精喹禾灵乳油、108 g/L高效氟吡甲禾灵乳油及12.5%烯禾啶乳油在56.93、48.75、60.75、450 g/hm2(推荐药量的平均药量)时,施药后30 d株数防效和鲜重防效均为100%。%To select effective herbicides to control Eriochloa villosa ( Thunb.) Kunth in soybean and maize fields ,a pot culture experiment was conducted using 15 herbicides .The pre-emergence herbicides ,acetochlor 90%EC,pendimethal-in 33%EC and clomazone 48%EC at doses of 1 620,1 125,and 1 100 g/hm2,respectively,provided 100%control at 40 days after spraying in greenhouse .The post-emergence herbicides ,fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 69g/L EW containing 3%~5%safener,quizalofop-p-ethyl 50 g/L EC,haloxyfop-r-methyl 108 g/L EC and sethoxydim 12.5%EC,at doses of 57,49,61,and 450 g/hm2,respectively,controlled 100%E.villosa at 30 days after spraying.

  15. Estudo farmacognóstico e atividade in vitro sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária das folhas de Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae Pharmacognostic study and in vitro activity on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation of leaves of Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Passiflora (Passifloraceae é utilizado principalmente para tratar doenças do SNC e cardiovasculares. A espécie Passiflora nitida Kunth é comumente conhecida como “maracujá-do-mato". A literatura relata o consumo in natura dos frutos desta espécie pela população local para distúrbios gastrointestinais. Considerando o potencial farmacológico do gênero, este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar estudo de caracterização fitoquímica desta espécie e estudar os efeitos dos extratos aquoso (EA, etanólico (EE e hexânico (EH de suas folhas sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária. Para a caracterização fitoquímica foram realizados testes de cromatografia em camada delgada e ressonância magnética nuclear. O efeito dos extratos sobre a coagulação foi avaliado pelos testes de tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa. O efeito sobre a agregação plaquetária foi avaliado em plasma rico em plaquetas por método espectrofotométrico, usando adenosina difosfato (ADP e adrenalina (ADR como indutores da agregação. Os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram atividade coagulante pelo teste do TP e o EE apresentou atividade anticoagulante para o TTPa. Quando induzidos por ADP, os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram valores de concentração inibitória 50% (CI50, µg/mL de 450,5 ± 50,7; 511,2 ± 35,5 e 394,4 ± 8,9, respectivamente, e quando induzidos por ADR apresentaram valores de 438,7 ± 5,2; 21,0 ± 1,9 e 546,9 ± 49,9, respectivamente. O EE apresentou atividade inibitória sobre a agregação. A caracterização fitoquímica foi sugestiva da presença de flavonóides e cumarinas, aos quais podem ser atribuídos, em parte, os efeitos biológicos estudados.The Passiflora genus (Passifloraceae is mainly used to treat CNS and cardiovascular diseases. The Passiflora nitida Kunth species is commonly known as “maracujá-do-mato". The literature reports the in natura consumption of

  16. Detection of Hexaploid and Mechanisms of Polyploidy Formation in Allium wallichii Kunth%六倍体多星韭的发现及多星韭种内倍性组成及演化的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹晓菊; 黄瑞复; 翟书华

    2013-01-01

    采用染色体常规制片技术,对云南西北部和中部地区11个多星韭居群进行了细胞学分析.结果显示:(1)云南西北部多星韭二倍体、四倍体混合分布的太子阁和华首门四倍体居群中发现了三倍体(2n=3x=21),核型公式分别为:2n=3x=21=6m(2sat)+ 8sm]+(3m+4sm)和2n=3x=21=[4m(2sat)+ 10sm]+(2m+4sm十lst).三倍体含2条随体染色体,它的21条染色体含2个同源染色体组和一个与它们同源性稍差的染色体组.(2)在云南中部的多星韭四倍体居群中首次发现了六倍体,核型公式为2n=6x=42=15m(3sat)+27sm,核型类型2A.(3)结合核型特征及地理分布对多星韭三倍体和六倍体的成因进行分析,提示多星韭三倍体来源于二倍体与四倍体的杂交,六倍体是通过四倍体产生的未减数配子(n=4x=28)与正常减数配子(n=2x=14)的结合形成的.本研究结果支持多星韭的分化中心是云南西北部高海拔地区的观点,并结合前人的研究和本工作的结果,对多星韭种内的倍性组成和演化进行了分析和讨论.%In this study,we examined the chromosomes numbers and karyotypes of 11 populations of Allium wallichii Kunth from the northwest and central region of Yunnan.(1)Triploid individuals were found in two tetraploid populations which grew near diploid populations.The karyotypes were 2n=3x=21 =[6m (2sat) +8sm] + (3m+ 4sm) and 2n=3x=21 =[4m(2sat) + 10sm] + (2m+ 4sm+ lst),respectively.(2)Hexaploid seeds were found in tetraploid population for the first time.The karyotype were 2n=6x=42 =15m(3sat)+27sm.(3)Considering the karyotypes and cytogeographic information,it can be inferred that the triploid was formed via hybrid between diploid and tetraploid,while fusion of an unreduced tetraploid gamete(n=4x=28) with a reduced diploid gamete(n=2x=14) formed hexaploid.Our results supported that A.wallichii Kunth originated in the high elevation region of northwest Yunnan.In addition,combining both previous studies and our present

  17. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Alves-Pereira; Clement, Charles R.; Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. ...

  18. Physiochemical analysis and centesimal composition of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom grown in residues from the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Ceci Sales-Campos; Lidia Medina Araujo; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni; Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the nutritional composition of mushrooms produced in alternative substrates in agricultural and agro-industrial residues from the Amazon. C, N, pH, moisture, soluble solids, protein, lipids, total fibers, ashes, carbohydrates and energy were determined. Substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. and Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. Sawdust and from Bactris gasipaes Kunth and Saccharum officinarum stipe. Results showed that the nutri...

  19. Efecto del aceite esencial de orégano Lippia origanoides Kunth enel desempeño productivo de ponedoras marrón y la peroxidación lipídica de huevos enriquecidos con ácidos grasos poliinsaturados durante su almacenamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Cuadros, Ronnal Esneyder

    2014-01-01

    El uso del aceite esencial de orégano (AEO) (Lippia origanoides Kunth) en sistemas de alimentación de ponedoras es poco documentado, por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo consistió en la evaluación del efecto de inclusión del AEO sobre el desempeño productivo de las aves, el perfil de ácidos grasos de los lípidos de la yema del huevo, la estabilidad oxidativa durante el almacenamiento, la calidad sensorial y organoléptica de huevos enriquecidos con AGPI. Se utilizaron 216 ponedoras asigna...

  20. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Cyprus, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body weight, is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight subjects. One human intervention study from which no conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim was provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and a reduction in body weight.

  1. Control Effects of Six Herbicides on Different Leaf Age Eriochloa villosa (Thunb.) Kunth.%稀禾啶、烯草酮等6种除草剂对不同叶龄期野黍的防治效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何付丽; 陈丽丽; 郭晓慧; 黄长权; 赵长山

    2013-01-01

    The influences of different foliar-applied herbicides and application time on control effects against Eriochloa villosa (Thunb. ) Kunth. were investigated through pot-culture method. The results showed that Eriochloa villosa (Thunb. ) Kunth. could be controlled before 3 leaf age. The later herbicides applied,the worse control effects obtained,and the larger dosage needed. In order to control the 1-1.5 leaf age Eriochloa villosa (Thunb. ) Kunth. , it should apply: sethoxydim 12.5% EC, clethodim 240g/L EC, haloxyfop-P-methyl 10. 8% EC, fluazifop-P-butyl 15 % EC, quizalofop-P-ethyl 5 % EC and quizalofop-P-tefuryl 40g/L. EC was applied in a dosage of 131.25 g a. i. / hm2,90.00g a. i. /hm2,64. 80g a. i. /hm2,135.00g a. i. /hm2,71. 25g a. i. /hm2,36.00g a. i. /hm2,respectively. To control the 3 -3. 5 leaf age Eriochloa villosa (Thunb. ) Kunth. ,sethoxydim 12. 5% EC and haloxyfop-P-methyl 10. 8% EC could be applied,the application rate was 168. 75g a. i. /hm2 and 97. 20g a. i. /hm2,respectively. Sethoxydim 12. 5% EC could be exclusively used to control 4 and larger leaf age Eriochloa villosa (Thunb. ) Kunth at the dosage of 187. 50g a. i. /hm2.%为筛选出有效防治大豆田野黍的茎叶处理除草剂并探索适宜施药时期,采用盆栽试验研究了稀禾啶、烯草酮、高效氟吡甲禾灵、精吡氟禾草灵、精喹禾灵、喹禾糠酯对不同叶龄期野黍的防治效果.结果表明,防治一叶期至二叶一心期野黍可施用12.5%稀禾啶机油乳油131.25ga.i./hm2、240g/L烯草酮乳油90.00g a.i./hm2、10.8%高效氟吡甲禾灵乳油64.80g a.i./hm2、15%精吡氟禾草灵乳油135.00g a.i./hm2、5%精喹禾灵乳油71.25g a.i./hm2、40g/L喹禾糠酯乳油36.00g a.i./hm2,防治三叶期至三叶一心期野黍可施用12.5%稀禾啶机油乳油168.75g a.i./hm2、10.8%高效氟吡甲禾灵乳油97.20g a.i./hm2,仅12.5%稀禾啶机油乳油能有效防治四叶期以上野黍,施药量至少187.50g a.i./hm2.

  2. Antiprotozoal alkaloids from Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Lucilia; Oliveira, Cecilia M.A. de; Faria, Emiret O.; Ribeiro, Laryssa C.; Carvalho, Brenda G., E-mail: lucilia@quimica.ufg.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus II, Samambaia, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Silva, Cleuza C. da; Santin, Silvana M.O. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Schuque, Ivania T.A.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Britta, Elisandra A.; Miranda, Nathielle [Departamento de Farmacia e Farmacologia, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Iglesias, Amadeu H. [Waters Technologies do Brasil LTDA, Barueri, SP (Brazil); Delprete, Piero G. [VHerbier de Guyane, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD), UMR AMAP, French Guiana (France)

    2012-07-01

    The continuity of the phyto chemical study of crude extracts of P. prunifolia's roots and branches led to the isolation of five indole-{beta}-carboline alkaloids. Among them, the 10-hydroxy-iso-deppeaninol and N-oxide-10-hydroxy-antirhine derivatives are described here for the first time. The structures were achieved through 1D and 2D NMR, IR and HRMS analyses. The branches and roots crude extracts and the alkaloids 14-oxoprunifoleine and strictosamide showed selective activity against L. amazonensis, with IC{sub 50} values of 16.0 and 40.7 {mu}g per mL, respectively. (author)

  3. Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Luz Lopes; Manoel Andrade Neto; Edilberto Rocha Silveira; Otilia Deusdênia Loiola Pessoa; Raimundo Braz-Filho

    2012-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3"-methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric method...

  4. Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Luz Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3"-methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data.

  5. Comportamento higroscópico da farinha de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Hygroscopic behavior of the pupunha flour (Bactris gasipaes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane D. Ferreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento higroscópico da farinha de pupunha obtida por secagem em estufa a 70°C. Obteve-se dados de equilíbrio de adsorção de umidade a 15°C e 35°C, através de um método estático, onde recipientes de 500mL, contendo soluções saturadas de sais, foram utilizados como ambientes geradores de umidades relativas constantes, na faixa de 11% a 97%, aos quais foram submetidas amostras do produto. A partir dos dados de equilíbrio foram construídas isotermas de adsorção de umidade, sendo observadas isotermas do tipo III e, ainda, que a umidade de equilíbrio diminui com o aumento da temperatura. Determinou-se o calor isostérico de adsorção para diferentes níveis de umidade de equilíbrio e a umidade equivalente à monocamada, observando-se valores inferiores a 5g H2O/100 g s.s. Verificou-se a aplicabilidade do modelo GAB na predição de dados de equilíbrio do produto. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a farinha de pupunha apresenta baixa higroscopicidade, ou seja, baixa afinidade por moléculas de água.It was studied the hygroscopic behavior of the pupunha flour obtained by drying in the oven at 70°C. It was collected data of moisture adsorption for two temperatures (15°C and 35°C, using the static method, where the recipients with the capacity of 500mL, having saturated salt solutions, it was used as environment generators of constant relative humidity, ranging from 11% to 97%, which were submitted the samples of the product. From the equilibrium data, it was built isotherms of moisture adsorption, being observed type III isotherms, but even that the equilibrium moisture for the product decreases with the temperature increase. It was determined the isosteric heat of adsorption for different levels of equilibrium moisture and the equivalent moisture to the monolayer, which were inferior of 5g H2O/100 g s.s. It was verified the application of the GAB model in the equilibrium data prediction for the product. According to the results obtained, the pupunha flour shows low hygroscopicity, low affinity for water molecule.

  6. Flavonoids and sesquiterpenes of Croton pedicellatus Kunth; Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-glucopyranosyl-3{sup -}methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data. (author)

  7. INFLUÊNCIA DA COMBINAÇÃO CALCÁRIO–GESSO AGRÍCOLA NA PRODUÇÃO DE MATÉRIA SECA DO SISTEMA RADICULAR E DA PARTE AÉREA DO CAPIM ANDROPOGON (Andropogon gayanus Kunth var. bisquamulatus cv. Planaltina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ricardo Evangelista

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo/UFLA, com o objetivo de testar diferentes combinações de calcário–gesso agrícola na produção de matéria seca do sistema radicular e da parte aérea da gramínea (Andropogon gayanus Kunth var. bisquamulatus cv. Planaltina, em latossolo vermelho-amarelo, proveniente da região dos Campos das Vertentes, MG. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental, em blocos casualizados, esquema fatorial 2 x 5, e foram combinados calcário calcítico (1,3 t.ha-1 e dolomítico (1,6 t.ha-1, com cinco doses de gesso agrícola (0,00; 0,38; 0,75; 1,13 e 1,50 t,ha-1, em quatro repetições. Empregaram-se colunas de PVC com 20 cm de diâmetro, divididas em duas seções de 15 cm de altura, unidas por fita adesiva e vedadas ao fundo com pratos plásticos. Foram feitos três cortes na parte aérea, e as raízes foram coletadas nas profundidades de 0-15 e 15-30 cm. De modo geral, a interação calcário–gesso se mostrou significativa sobre o crescimento da espécie estudada, que respondeu em termos de produção de matéria seca da parte aérea às doses de gesso, independentemente do tipo de calcário utilizado. A produção de matéria seca do sistema radicular na profundidade de 15-30 cm foi bastante dependente da aplicação de gesso, o que confirma a sua importância na correção da camada subsuperficial. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Andropogon gayanus, calcário, gesso agrícola, sistema radicular.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Composition of Senecio salignus Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtemoc Pérez González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA- induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36±4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%. The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9±2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity and composition of Senecio salignus Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Cuauhtemoc Pérez; Vega, Roberto Serrano; González-Chávez, Marco; Sánchez, Miguel Angel Zavala; Gutiérrez, Salud Pérez

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36 ± 4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%). The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9 ± 2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h. PMID:23691512

  10. Pollination in the Antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Giełwanowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis forms chasmogamic and cleistogamic flowers. Their structure signals the possibility of both cross-pollination and self-pollination. In favorable conditions (natural or laboratory, flowers open creating a possibility for cross-pollination. The occurrence of cleistogamy in the investigated species may be conditioned by abiotic factors: low temperature, high air humidity, and strong wind. In closed flowers, a part of pollen grains reaches the stigma surface, and the rest remains inside the microsporangium. Pollen grains germinate on the stigma surface or inside the microsporangium. Often, two or more pollen tubes grow from a single pollen grain. Closed flowers and the direct contact between the style stigma and anther prove the preference for autogamy. Autogamy ensures the reproductive success of the investigated plant in the exceptionally harsh Antarctic environment.

  11. YURUPARÍ: MÁSCARAS Y PODER ENTRE LOS PIAROAS DEL ORINOCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDER MANSUTTI RODRÍGUEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In northwest Amazonia, among other kinds, two celebrations occur: one with masks dedicated to the harvest of Bactris gasipaes and other fruits, and another with sacred flutes that evoke extraordinary beings. When both coincide in a same village they occur at different moments. However, to the Piaroa and the Wirö peoples of the Orinoco basin, both ceremonies occur simultaneously at the same place. This paper shall describe participants and procedures of the ceremony and evaluate the gender and age based power game that comes to light during it. This ceremony consolidates alliances between the shamans and their communities with the masters who control animals and plants exploited by the Piaroa people, facilitates men’s expropriations and limits women power to the domestic sphere, and shifts a society with no major hierarchical organizations into a highly hierarchical one as long as the ceremony is occuring.En el noroccidente amazónico se realizan, entre otras, dos tipos de fiestas: una enmascarada dedicada a la cosecha de Bactris gassipaes y otras frutas, y otra con flautas sagradas dedicada a evocar seres extraordinarios. Ellas, cuando coinciden en un mismo pueblo, se realizan en momentos diferentes. Sin embargo, en el caso de los Piaroas y Wirös de la cuenca del Orinoco, ambas fiestas coinciden entiempo y lugar. En este ensayo vamos a describir los personajes y procedimientos que son parte de la fiesta y a evaluar algunos de los juegos de poder de género y edad que en ella se expresan.Se trata de una fiesta que consolida alianzas de los shamanes y sus comunidades con los dueños de animales y plantas sometidas a la depredación piaroa, que institucionaliza la expropiación por los hombres y la redefinición hacia lo doméstico del poder femenino, y que transforma una sociedad sin grandes jerarquías en su citianeidad en una sociedad altamente jerarquizada mientras dura la fiesta.

  12. Efeitos da fertirrigação sobre a produção de palmito da pupunheira Fertirrigation in peach palm: effects on heart-of-palm yield

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Ramos; Marilene L.A. Bovi; Marcos Vinícius Folegatti; Adriano V. Diotto

    2004-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação de lâminas de irrigação e níveis de adubação nitrogenada na produção de palmito de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth), foi conduzido um experimento a campo, durante 22 meses, em Piracicaba (SP). Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 3 (nitrogênio) x 4 (lâminas). Os níveis de nitrogênio corresponderam a 0; 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, aplicados por meio de fertirrigações semanais. As...

  13. Physiochemical analysis and centesimal composition of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom grown in residues from the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceci Sales-Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the nutritional composition of mushrooms produced in alternative substrates in agricultural and agro-industrial residues from the Amazon. C, N, pH, moisture, soluble solids, protein, lipids, total fibers, ashes, carbohydrates and energy were determined. Substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. and Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. Sawdust and from Bactris gasipaes Kunth and Saccharum officinarum stipe. Results showed that the nutritional composition of P. ostreatus varied according to the cultivation substrate and that it can be considered important food due to its nutritional characteristics such as: high protein content; metabolizable carbohydrates and fiber; and low lipids and calories contents.

  14. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth, Boraginaceae Flavanonas isoladas das partes aéreas de Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth (Boraginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Andricia S. da Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g and eriodictyol (0.015 g. These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia.A análise fitoquímica das partes aéreas de Cordia globosa, coletadas no município de Picuí, PB, Brasil, resultou no isolamento e identificação estrutural da 7,4'-dimetilnarigenina (0,025 g e eriodictiol (0,015 g. Estas duas flavanonas são as primeiras agliconas, desta classe, isoladas no gênero Cordia.

  15. Seed germination of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, under water stress Germinação de sementes de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, sob estresse hídrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia M. de M. Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Bowdichia virgilioides (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae is a native tree species in Brazil characteristic of the savannah vegetation. Seeds of this species were submitted to different osmotic potentials induced by polyethyleneglycol (PEG-6000 in order to verify their resistance to drought conditions. Seeds were previously scarified with sulphuric acid and incubated at 25 ºC with an eight hours photoperiod, at osmotic potentials of 0.0, -0.1, -0.3, -0.5, -0.7, -0.9 and -1.1 MPa. It was found that water stress resistance limit ranged from -0.7 to -0.9 MPa. Significant reduction in germination velocity from -0.3 MPa, and final percentage of germination from -0.5 MPa in relation to control, were observed. Germination under drastic conditions of water stress was inhibited, but was restored with an increase of water availability.Bowdichia virgilioides (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae é uma espécie arbórea nativa do Brasil, característica da vegetação de cerrado, denominada principalmente de sucupira-preta. Sementes dessa espécie foram escarificadas com ácido sulfúrico e submetidas a diferentes potenciais osmóticos, induzidos por polietilenoglicol (PEG-6000, com o objetivo de avaliar a sua resistência a condições de seca. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar a 25 ºC, sob fotoperíodo de oito horas, nos potenciais osmóticos de 0,0, -0,1, -0,3, -0,5, -0,7, -0,9, e -1,1 MPa. Pelos resultados obtidos, observou-se que o limite de resistência da espécie ao estresse hídrico situa-se entre -0,7 e -0,9 MPa. A velocidade de germinação foi significativamente reduzida a partir de -0,3 MPa e a porcentagem final a partir de -0,5 MPa, em relação às sementes não submetidas ao estresse hídrico. Sob drásticas condições de estresse hídrico não houve germinação das sementes, que foi restabelecida com o aumento da disponibilidade de água.

  16. Composição de carotenoides em canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni Carotenoids composition of canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia da Silveira Agostini Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O canistel (P. campechiana é uma fruta nativa da América Central e México, ainda pouco conhecida no Brasil. Apresenta uma polpa amarelo-alaranjada, rica em carotenoides, que tem despertado interesse como potencial de vitamina A. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor de carotenoides e o valor provitamina A na polpa de canistel, assim como os teores de umidade e lipídeos na polpa e na semente. Os carotenoides foram separados por cromatografia em coluna aberta. O conteúdo de carotenoides totais foi de 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantina e neoxantina foram os carotenóides predominantes, somando 196 ± 5 μg/g. seguidos por zetacaroteno, betacaroteno 5,6-epóxido, betacaroteno e fitoflueno. A semente foi a parte do fruto que apresentou maior teor de lipídeos totais, com 4,6 ± 0,2 %, e a polpa, 0,61 ± 0,03 %. Os resultados indicam que o canistel apresenta teores de carotenóides totais muito elevados e pode ser considerado uma boa fonte de provitamina A (59 ± 6 RAE/100g, se comparado com outras frutas normalmente consumidas. No entanto, os principais carotenoides encontrados em sua polpa são destituídos de atividade provitamina A.Canistel (Pouteria campechiana is a native fruit from Central America and Mexico. This fruit still not known in Brazil, presents an orange-yellow pulp rich in carotenoids, which has attracted interest as a potential source of vitamin A. The purpose of this study was to determine the carotenoids content and pro-vitamin A values in the pulp of canistel, as well as the percentage of moisture and lipids in the pulp and seeds. Carotenoids were separated by open column chromatography. The content of total carotenoids was 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantin and neoxantin were the predominant carotenoids with 196 ± 5 μg/g followed by zeta-carotene, beta-carotene 5,6-epoxide, beta-carotene and phytofluene. The seeds presented higher levels of total lipids with 4.6 ± 0.2 %, while pulp had 0.61 ± 0.03 % of total lipid. These results indicate that this fruit presented very high levels of total carotenoids when compared to other fruits regularly consumed, and may be considered as a good source of pro-vitamin A (59 ± 6 RAE/100g. However, the main carotenoids found in Canistel have no pro-vitamin A activity.

  17. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de Calceolaria chelidonioides Humb. Bonpl. & Kunth. Antioxidant and anti-microbial activity from Calceolaria chelidonioides Humb. Bonpl. & Kunth.

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Deborah Q.; Edlaine R. Costa; Daniela S. Alviano; Alviano, Celuta S.; Ricardo M. Kuster; Fábio S. Menezes

    2006-01-01

    A espécie Calceolaria chelidonioides (Scrophulariaceae), até então inédita nas citações científicas, foi estudada sob o ponto de vista farmacológico buscando-se identificar possíveis atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante em metodologia in vitro. As partes aéreas dessa espécie demonstraram atividade antioxidante em modelo usando o radical livre DPPH. As flores de C. chelidonioides mostraram grande potencial antibacteriano frente à bactéria Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina MRSA,...

  18. Uso da terra e propriedades físicas e químicas de Argissolo Amarelo distrófico na Amazônia Ocidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações físicas e químicas em Argissolo Amarelo distrófico textura média/argilosa relevo plano, sob diferentes tipos de uso no assentamento Favo de Mel, município de Sena Madureira, Acre. A coleta de material de solo foi realizada no início da estação chuvosa (outubro/1999. Os tipos de usos avaliados foram: mata natural (testemunha, mata recém - desbravada e submetida à queima intensa, pupunha (Bactris gassipae com dois anos de cultivo e pastagem de braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha com quatro anos de cultivo. Em cada área, abriu-se uma trincheira, de onde se coletaram 12 amostras, em camadas delgadas, no intervalo de 0,0 a 0,60 m a partir da superfície do solo. Também coletaram-se amostras dos horizontes pedogenéticos. No material coletado, avaliaram-se: características físicas (granulometria, argila dispersa em água, densidade do solo, resistência do solo à penetração e parâmetros sedimentológicos e químicas (complexo sortivo, fósforo disponível, pH em água e em KCl, carbono orgânico, fósforo remanescente, substâncias húmicas e ferro pelo ataque sulfúrico. Verificou-se que, sob pastagem de braquiária, o solo apresentou os maiores valores de densidade no horizonte A, o que revela tendência à compactação. Os nutrientes avaliados e o carbono orgânico apresentaram baixos teores e estavam concentrados nos primeiros centímetros do solo. O potássio decresceu drasticamente na pastagem, graças, possivelmente, às perdas por erosão, queima e pastejo. A fração humina, dentre os compostos orgânicos, predominou nos quatro sistemas avaliados.

  19. Estimation of glycaemic index of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) cooked fruits and chips, and pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Gin; Gómez, Georgina; Pérez, Ana M; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana

    2012-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) is a physiological measure of a food's potential to increase postprandial blood glucose, as compared to the effect produced by food taken as reference, such as glucose or white bread. Currently researchers and consumers are interested in low GI foods, since their consumption is associated with better weight control and reduced risk of incidence of chronic diseases, like diabetes. In the present study, the GI value for peach palm cooked fruit, peach palm chips and pitahaya pulp was estimated. The methodology established by the FAO/WHO for determining the GI of food was used. A total of 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers were selected and they ingested the fore mentioned foods on different occasions, in 25 g portions of available carbohydrates, after 12-14 h overnight fast. Blood glucose levels were measured in 30 min intervals up to 120 min after ingestion. Average GI value was 48 +/- 11 for the pitahaya pulp and 35 +/- 6 for the peach palm cooked fruit, which may be classified as low glyceamic index foods. The GI of peach palm chips was 60 +/- 7, corresponding to a food with a moderate GI. The processing for producing the chips caused an increase in the GI value when compared to the cooked fruit, probably because the stages of miIling, moulding and baking promote availability of starch during hydrolysis by the digestive enzymes. PMID:24617026

  20. Estimation of glycaemic index of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) cooked fruits and chips, and pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Gin; Gómez, Georgina; Pérez, Ana M; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana

    2012-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) is a physiological measure of a food's potential to increase postprandial blood glucose, as compared to the effect produced by food taken as reference, such as glucose or white bread. Currently researchers and consumers are interested in low GI foods, since their consumption is associated with better weight control and reduced risk of incidence of chronic diseases, like diabetes. In the present study, the GI value for peach palm cooked fruit, peach palm chips and pitahaya pulp was estimated. The methodology established by the FAO/WHO for determining the GI of food was used. A total of 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers were selected and they ingested the fore mentioned foods on different occasions, in 25 g portions of available carbohydrates, after 12-14 h overnight fast. Blood glucose levels were measured in 30 min intervals up to 120 min after ingestion. Average GI value was 48 +/- 11 for the pitahaya pulp and 35 +/- 6 for the peach palm cooked fruit, which may be classified as low glyceamic index foods. The GI of peach palm chips was 60 +/- 7, corresponding to a food with a moderate GI. The processing for producing the chips caused an increase in the GI value when compared to the cooked fruit, probably because the stages of miIling, moulding and baking promote availability of starch during hydrolysis by the digestive enzymes.

  1. EFECTOS DE LA DENSIDAD DE SIEMBRA Y FERTILIZACIÓN SOBRE LA BACTERIOSIS DEL PALMITO DE PEJIBAYE (Bactris gasipaes K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Chaimsohn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el efecto de la densidad (3.333, 5.000 y 6.666 plantas/ha, el arreglo de siembra (rectangular y triangular y el tipo de fertilización (químico, orgánico y químico-orgánico sobre la incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad conocida como "bacteriosis del palmito", causada por la bacteria Pantoea stewartii (sin. Erwinia stewartii y el hongo Fusarium sp, en el periodo de julio de 2004 a agosto de 2005, en Guápiles, Costa Rica. El porcentaje de incidencia de la enfermedad varió de 14,1 a 80,8%. En las parcelas con el arreglo triangular hubo menor porcentaje de plantas enfermas. El porcentaje de incidencia de la bacteriosis fue mayor en las cepas de las parcelas fertilizadas con abono químico, seguido de aquellas fertilizadas con abono químico-orgánico y enmienda orgánica. La enfermedad se correlacionó de forma inversa a los contenidos de Ca, Mg, Zn, K y Mn del suelo, y al contenido foliar de Mn. Por otra parte, se correlacionó de forma directa con el contenido de Al del suelo, con los contenidos foliares de B y Cu, y con el porcentaje de interceptación de la radiación solar.

  2. Micorriza arbuscular em cupuaçu e pupunha cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central Arbuscular mycorrhiza in cupuaçu and peach palm cultivated in agroforestry and monoculture systems in the Central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira da Silva Junior

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a colonização micorrízica arbuscular em pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth e cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central, em duas épocas do ano, e também identificar características anatômicas da formação dessa simbiose nessas espécies. Foram realizadas coletas de solo e raízes em duas estações, seca e chuvosa. A colonização micorrízica arbuscular no cupuaçu e na pupunha é alterada pelo sistema de manejo adotado, com taxas maiores de colonização no monocultivo. A densidade total dos esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sob o cupuaçu não é alterada pelo sistema de manejo ou pela época do ano, ao contrário do que ocorre sob a pupunha. Nessa cultura, a densidade de esporos foi maior sob sistema agroflorestal no período seco. A colonização micorrízica na pupunha apresenta dois padrões anatômicos, Paris e Arum, enquanto no cupuaçu ocorre o padrão Arum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth and cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum, in agroforestry systems and monoculture in the Central Amazon region, and to identify anatomic characteristics of mycorrhizal colonization in these species. Soil and root samples were collected in the field, in the dry and rainy season. Mycorrhizal root colonization of cupuaçu and peach palm is affected by the management systems, with higher colonization rates in the monoculture system. Total spore density of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under cupuaçu is not affected by management systems or season, but under peach palm this variation is season dependent. Mycorrhizal colonization of Arum and Paris types occur in peach palm, and only Arum type occurs in cupuaçu.

  3. Micropropagation, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of extracts of Verbena litoralis Kunth (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia F. Braga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for Verbena litoralis and the study of the antinociceptive and antioxidant activities in extracts of this species. For the establishment in vitro, surface-sterilization procedures and PVPP showed high efficiency in fungal-bacterial contamination and phenol oxidation controls. Nodal segments cultivation in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (7.5 µM/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; 0.005 µM induced multiple shoots. Elongated shoots were rooted with IAA (0.2 µM. Acclimatization rates were elevated and the plants showed the typical features of this species. The hexanic fraction (HF of powdered leaves presented a radical scavenging activity with IC50 = 169.3 µg mL-1. HF showed a non-dose dependent analgesic activity in the writhing test; its antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test was restricted to 500 mg kg-1, which is the highest dose. The results of this study showed the potential of tissue culture on conservation and large scale multiplication and confirmed the traditional folk medicine use of V. litoralis.Este trabalho descreve um protocolo eficiente de micropropagação para Verbena litoralis e estuda as atividades antinociceptiva e antioxidante de extratos desta espécie. Para o estabelecimento in vitro, os procedimentos de desinfecção e o PVPP mostraram alta eficiência no controle da contaminação por fungos e bactérias e da oxidação fenólica. O cultivo de segmentos nodais em meio MS suplementado com 6-benziladenina (7,5 µM e ácido α-naftalenoacético (ANA; 0,005 µM induziu múltiplos brotos. Brotos alongados foram enraizados com AIA (0,2 µM. As taxas de aclimatização foram elevadas e as plantas apresentaram características típicas da espécie. A fração hexânica (FH de folhas trituradas apresentou atividade sequestradora de radicais livres com IC50 = 169,3 µg mL-1. A FH mostrou atividade analgésica não dose-dependente no teste das contorções abdominais; sua atividade antinociceptiva no teste de placa quente foi restrita a 500 mg kg-1, a dose mais elevada. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram o potencial da cultura de tecidos na conservação e multiplicação em larga escala de V. litoralis e confirmaram o uso tradicional dessa planta na medicina popular.

  4. In vitro and in vivo action of Piptadenia viridiflora (Kunth) Benth against Haemonchus contortus in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Costa, F; Bastos, G A; Soares, A C M; Costa, E G L; Vasconcelos, V O; Oliveira, N J F; Braga, F C; Duarte, E R; Lima, W S

    2016-06-15

    Anthelminthic resistant populations of Haemonchus contortus are a major problem in sheep rearing, but plant extracts may offer viable alternative treatments. In our preliminary studies, Piptadenia viridiflora was frequently selected by sheep grazing in the Cerrado. The present research evaluated its in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity. The HPLC chromatograms of P. viridiflora aqueous extract (AE) and ethanolic extract (EE) showed the presence of flavonoids. The total condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) was 0.2 and 1.01% in AE and EE, respectively. In an egg hatching inhibition (EHI) test, the LC90 of AE was 2.4mg/mL, and, of EE, was 2.1mg/mL. After tannin extraction, higher EHI and lower LC90 were observed. In a larval development inhibition test, the LC90 of AE was 13.66mg/g of fecal culture. The highest dose of AE administered to mice (203.0mg/kg bw) was well tolerated, suggesting low toxicity. In vivo, AE was orally administered to lambs at 283mg/kg bw, and, at weeks one, two, and three post-treatment, the mean fecal egg count (FEC) was significantly lower than in untreated lambs (Ptannin content and exhibited high anthelminthic efficacy in vitro and significantly reduced FEC. Tannins were not shown to be the principal components affecting EHI, hence it is necessary to isolate and characterize the principal active P. viridiflora compounds, and to assess their possible synergism. PMID:27198776

  5. Compatibility, Yield, and Quality of Matua Prairie Grass, Bromus Willdenowii (Kunth), With Legumes.

    OpenAIRE

    Guay, Jennifer Fincham

    2001-01-01

    Matua prairie grass has a potential to extend the grazing season in Virginia due to its higher early spring and fall production. However, little is known about the compatibility of Matua prairie grass with legumes or the effects of legumes on the yield and quality of Matua prairie grass/legume mixtures. An experiment was conducted in 1998 and 1999 to investigate the botanical composition, yield, and chemical composition of Matua prairie grass grown with legumes. Legume treatments consistin...

  6. Chemical sterilization in in vitro propagation of Arundina bambusifolia Lindl. and Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a great demand for simpler and less costly laboratory techniques and for more accessible procedures for orchid breeders who do not have the necessary theoretical basis to use the traditional seed and clone production methods of orchids in vitro. The aim of this study was to assess the use of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO as a decontaminant in the process of inoculating adult orchid explants of Arundina bambusifolia and Epidendrum ibaguenses. Solutions of NaClO (1.200, 2.400, 3.600, 4.800 and 6.000 mg L-1 - equivalent to 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mL L-1 of commercial bleach - CB were sprayed on the explants (1.0 mL and the culture medium (GB5, in the presence or absence of activated charcoal (2 g L-1. The explants used were nodal segments of field-grown adult plants. The procedures for inoculating the explants were conducted outside the laminar flow chamber (LFC, except for the control treatment (autoclaved medium and explant inoculation inside the LFC. The best results for fresh weight yield, height and number of shoots were obtained using NaClO in solution at 1.200 mg L-1 (equivalent to 50 mL L-1 commercial bleach with activated charcoal in the culture medium. Fresh weight figures were 1.10 g/jar for Arundina bambusifolia and 0.16 g/jar for Epidendrum ibaguenses. Spraying the NaClO solutions controls the contamination of the culture medium already inoculated with the explants.

  7. Acute toxicity, antiedematogenic activity, and chemical constituents of Palicourea rigida Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vanessa G; da Rosa, Elisa A; de Arruda, Laura L M; Rocha, Bruno A; Bersani Amado, Ciomar A; Santin, Silvana M O; Pomini, Armando M; da Silva, Cleuza C

    2016-03-01

    The phytochemical study of the leaves, roots, and flowers of Palicourea rigida led to the isolation of the triterpenes betulinic acid (1) and lupeol (2), the diterpene phytol (3), and the iridoid glycosides sweroside (4) and secoxyloganin (5). These compounds were identified using NMR 1H and 13C and comparing the spectra with published data. We studied the antiedematogenic activity of crude extracts from the organs, and of different fractions, in mice and found that the n-hexane fraction of the leaf extract significantly inhibited the ear edema resulting from croton oil administration. The crude extract from leaves was not acutely toxic to the mice. PMID:26927220

  8. Endophytic fungi community associated with the dicotyledonous plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae) in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Almeida Vieira, Mariana de Lourdes; Santiago, Iara Furtado; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

    2010-07-01

    This work describes the distribution and diversity of fungal endophytes associated with leaves of Colobanthus quitensis, a dicotyledonous plant that lives in Antarctica. A total of 188 fungal isolates were obtained from six different sites located across a 25.5-km transect through Admiralty Bay, at King George Island. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal gene was sequenced and the endophytic fungi were identified as species belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Cadophora, Davidiella, Entrophospora, Fusarium, Geomyces, Gyoerffyella, Microdochium, Mycocentrospora, and Phaeosphaeria. Davidiella tassiana was the prevalent species with 20.2% abundance. The endophytic fungal community showed low richness and high dominance indexes. Eleven endophytic taxa (58%) were fungi able to produce melanin in their hyphae, which may confer resistance against freezing temperatures and high rates of UV radiation and may increase their fitness in the extreme conditions of the Antarctic environment. In addition, phytopathogenic and decomposer species associated with healthy leaves of C. quitensis were found. The results obtained in this work show that C. quitensis is an interesting reservoir of saprobic and pathogenic fungal species, and could be a community model for further ecological and evolutionary studies, as well as studies of the adaptation mechanisms these microorganisms have to the extreme conditions in Antarctica. PMID:20455944

  9. An efficient method for in vitro callus induction in Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh "Camu Camu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Córdova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high variability in vitamin C production in Myrciaria dubia "camu camu", biotechnological procedures are necessary for mass clonal propagation of promising genotypes of this species. The aim was to establish an efficient method for in vitro callus induction from explants of M. dubia. Leaf and knot sex plants were obtained from branches grown in the laboratory and from fruit pulp collected in the field. These were desinfected and sown on Murashige-Skoog (1962 medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin(Kin. The cultures were maintained at 25±2°C in darkness for 2 weeks and subsequently with a photoperiod of 16 hours in light and 8 hours in dark for 6 weeks. Treatment with 2 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.1 mg/L BAP allowed major callus formation in the three types of explants. Calluswere generated from the first week (knots, fourth week (leaves and sixth week (pulp and these were friable (leaves and nodes and non-friable (pulp. In conclusion, the described method is efficient for in vitro callus induction in leaves, knots and pulp of M. dubia, been leaves and knots explants more suitable for callus obtention

  10. Chemins de fer en mutation dans l'Europe médiane / Antoine Kunth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kunth, Antoine

    2002-01-01

    Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa raudteestruktuuride arengust sotsialismiperioodist tänapäevani. Reformid ja erastamine. Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikide vahelistest raudteeliinidest. Tabelid. Joonis: Kümme Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa transpordikoridori.

  11. Test of alternative nursery propagation conditions for Lupinus Elegans kunth plants, and effects on field survival

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Alvarado-Sosa; Arnulfo Blanco-García; Roberto Lindig-Cisneros

    2007-01-01

    En condiciones de restauración ecológica que dificultan el establecimiento de las plantas a partir de semillas, el uso de plantas propagadas en vivero es recomendable a pesar del mayor costo. Lupinus elegans es una leguminosa perenne de corta vida que tiene potencial para ser usada en restauración y recuperación ecológica en su área de distribución natural en Norteamérica. El tamaño del contenedor y la edad al momento de transplantar son variables de importancia porque afectan la supervivenci...

  12. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Alves-Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H T = 0.82. The low levels of divergence [F ST (0.023, G ST' (0.005] and the high number of migrants (Nm -3.8 to 52.2 indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.

  13. Microbiological analysis of peach palm in natura submitted to {sup 60}Co radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Araujo, Michel M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: priscilavsilva@gmail.com, e-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Hojeije, Khalil Y. [Floresta Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The palm tree (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a species with high potential benefits, because of the nutritional value of its fruits that could be used both in human and animals feeding and mainly for peach palm extraction. It represents a great source of dietary fiber and a moderate source of magnesium and iron. Food irradiation is a worldwide technology that aims to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. Radiation processing, in the recommended doses, causes very few chemical alterations and nutritional losses in foods, being considered insignificant and/or similar to other food treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on microbiological counts of mesophilic aerobic in the peach palm in natura. Samples were irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy using a {sup 60}Co multipurpose irradiator. Radiation treatment appeared to be a useful alternative to reduce microbial contamination in the samples analyzed. (author)

  14. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECI SALES-CAMPOS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. (“marupá”, Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. (“pau-de-balsa” and Anacardium giganteum (“cajuí” sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (“pupunheira” stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse. The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18 – 21.5% varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  15. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Campos, Ceci; Araujo, Lidia M; Minhoni, Marli T A; Andrade, Meire C N

    2013-01-01

    The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. ("marupá"), Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. ("pau-de-balsa") and Anacardium giganteum ("cajuí") sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth ("pupunheira") stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse). The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18-21.5%) varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content. PMID:24141410

  16. Microbiological analysis of peach palm in natura submitted to 60Co radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The palm tree (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a species with high potential benefits, because of the nutritional value of its fruits that could be used both in human and animals feeding and mainly for peach palm extraction. It represents a great source of dietary fiber and a moderate source of magnesium and iron. Food irradiation is a worldwide technology that aims to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. Radiation processing, in the recommended doses, causes very few chemical alterations and nutritional losses in foods, being considered insignificant and/or similar to other food treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on microbiological counts of mesophilic aerobic in the peach palm in natura. Samples were irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy using a 60Co multipurpose irradiator. Radiation treatment appeared to be a useful alternative to reduce microbial contamination in the samples analyzed. (author)

  17. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Clement, Charles R; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2012-04-01

    Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H(T) = 0.82). The low levels of divergence [F(ST) (0.023), G(ST)' (0.005)] and the high number of migrants (Nm - 3.8 to 52.2) indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.

  18. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M; Arruda, Sandra F; Dourado, Lívia P S; da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  19. The production of Pleurotus sajor-caju in peach palm leaves (Bactris gasipaes and evaluation of its use to enrich wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernanda Bomfim Oliveira Cogorni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate of Pleurotus sajor-caju production in peach palm leaves and the addition of different fractions of mushroom powder to wheat flour to increase its nutritional value without changing its characteristics. The best yield (48.4%, biologic efficiency (4.5%, and Pr (0.36 g/day values were obtained using 20% inoculum fraction and 10% rice bran fraction. The Pleurotus sajor-caju fruiting body cultivated under these conditions had the following composition in 100 g: 29.91 g (carbohydrates, 42.92 g (proteins, 1.24 g (lipids, 15.93 g (fibers, 7.42 g (ashes, 1.6 g (phosphorus, 2.7 g (potassium, 8.73 mg (iron, 23.75 mg (sodium, 0.34 mg (thiamine, and 0.57 mg (riboflavin. The wheat flour with mushroom powder had reduced sugar content, but it did not have increased fat content. The fiber, protein, phosphorus, potassium, iron, and riboflavin contents were increased mainly when 10% mushroom powder was added to the wheat flour. Furthermore, this flour does not undergo drastic alterations in its physicochemical characteristics such as in moisture, wet gluten, color, and falling number.

  20. Photosynthetic performance of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae in a high-elevation site of the Andes of central Chile Desempeño fotosintético de Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae en los Andes de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANGÉLICA CASANOVA-KATNY

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis of Colobanthus quitensis and mesoclimatic conditions of air temperature and light intensity during the growing season were investigated at 2,650 m in the central Chilean Andes. On three typical days of the growing period (January, March and May, CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. In addition, a series of fluorescence response curves with increasing light intensity at different temperatures were performed to estimate the propensity of Andean C. quitensis populations to be photoinhibited. Net Photosynthesis (Pn was low (ca. 2.0 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 during the morning and noon in days with high photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, above 1,800 mmol photons m-2s-1. Pn increased in the afternoon (3.5-4.8 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 when PAR decreased to ca. 1,400 mmol photons m-2s-1 and leaf temperature were ca. 20 °C. Fv/Fm in the diurnal periods was between 0.7-0.75 without evidence of photoinhibition. Leaves at 15 and 22 °C exhibited a slow decrease of F PSII with the increase in actinic light intensity, although the fraction of reaction centers open (expressed by qP remained higher at 22 °C. NPQ was saturated at light intensities close to 500 mmol photons m-2s-1 in leaves at 22 °C and at higher intensities at 15 °C, suggesting that NPQ could be a mechanism of energy dissipation at high light intensity and high leaf temperature in the field. Our results indicated that C. quitensis is not photodamaged during the diurnal cycle and that the low Pn registered during some diurnal periods are likely to be related with photorespiration, which has been suggested as an efficient protective mechanism for photoinhibition in alpine plants. Our results are also compared with the photosynthetic performance of C. quitensis populations from the maritime AntarcticSe estudió la fotosíntesis de Colobanthus quitensis y las condiciones mesoclimáticas de temperatura del aire e intensidad lumínica a 2.650 m en los Andes de Chile central. Se midió la tasa de intercambio gaseoso y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en tres días típicos durante la estación de crecimiento (enero, marzo y mayo. Adicionalmente, se realizaron una serie de curvas de respuesta a incrementos en la intensidad lumínica a diferentes temperaturas para estimar la propensión de C. quitensis a la fotoinhibición. La fotosíntesis neta (Pn fue baja (ca. de 2,0 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 en la mañana y mediodía en días con alta radiación fotosintéticamente activa (PAR, sobre los 1.500 mmol fotones m-2s-1. La tasa de fotosíntesis aumentó en la tarde (3,5-4,8 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 cuando la radiación PAR disminuyó a alrededor de 1.000 mmol fotones m-2s-1. Fv/Fm osciló entre 0,7-0,75 en los registros de enero y marzo, decreciendo en mayo a 0,67. Hojas medidas a 15 y 22 °C mostraron un leve descenso en F PSII con el aumento en la intensidad de luz actínica, aunque la fracción de centros de reacción abiertos (expresados por qP fue mayor a 22 °C. NPQ fue saturado a intensidades lumínicas cercanas a 500 mmol photons m-2s-1 en hojas a 22 °C, y a intensidades mayores en hojas a 15 °C, sugiriendo que NPQ puede ser un mecanismo de disipación energética bajo condiciones de altas intensidades lumínicas y altas temperaturas en el campo. Nuestros resultados indican que C. quitensis no sufre fotodaño durante los ciclos diurnos, y probablemente, los bajos Pn registrados durante algunos periodos diurnos están relacionados con fotorrespiración, la cual ha sido sugerida como un mecanismo muy eficiente en la protección de plantas alpinas contra la fotoinhibición. Nuestros resultados también son comparados con el desempeño fotosintético de las poblaciones de C. quitensis en la Antártica marítima

  1. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de Byrsonima coccolobifolia (Kunth em uma savana amazônica Floral Biology and the reproductive system of Byrsonima coccolobifolia (Kunth in an amazonian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Mª Cordovil Benezar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A biologia reprodutiva de Byrsonima coccolobifolia, foi avaliada em uma população de savana do Estado de Roraima. A espécie é constituída de arbustos e arvoretas com altura inferior a 3m, de flores hermafroditas zigomorfas, pentâmeras, reunidas em inflorescências do tipo racemo terminal, produzidos em brotações novas, o cálice é composto por cinco sépalas, que apresentam um par de glândulas produtoras de óleo. A corola é formada por cinco pétalas albo-róseas e unguiculadas, o androceu é composto por dez estames com anteras de coloração amarela. A antese pode ser noturna ou diurna, estende-se por um período médio de 12 horas e as flores costumam ficar abertas e vistosas por um período adicional de 15 horas, quando se inicia a senescência. Foram registrados dois episódios de floração e o fogo parece ser um fator ambiental estimulador desta fenofase. Os visitantes florais predominantes foram abelhas das famílias Anthophoridae (Centris sp. e Xylocopa sp. e Apidae (Apis mellifera e Bombus sp.. Os resultados das polinizações controladas e o cálculo do índice de auto-incompatibilidade (ISI indicam que a espécie apresenta comportamento protogínico e é autocompatível, produzindo frutos em todos os tratamentos de autopolinização em proporções semelhantes à polinização natural, não sendo confirmada a produção de frutos apomíticos. Entretanto, os percentuais de frutos formados nos tratamentos de xenogamia foram significativamente superiores aos tratamentos de autofertilização, indicando que B. coccolobifolia apresenta um sistema reprodutivo misto com níveis elevados de alogamia e autogamia.The reproductive biology of Byrsonima coccolobifolia was evaluated in a savanna area of State of Roraima, Brazil. This is a woody species of bushes and small trees 3m tall. The flowers are hermaphrodite, pentamerous, zygomorphic, arranged in a terminal inflorescence, produced in new sprouts. Five sepals form the calyx, each one with a pair of oil-producing glands, called elaiophores. The corolla is pale-pink and formed by five clawed and fringed petals, and the androecium is composed of ten stamens with yellow-colored anthers. The anthesis can be nocturnal or diurnal, which lasts for an average of 12 hours, and the flowers usually remain open and pretty for 15 more hours after the end of the process, when senescing begins. Two flowering periods were registered and the fire seems to be a factor environmental stimulator of this phonological phase. The predominant floral visitors were bees of the families Anthophoridae (Centris sp. and Xylocopasp. and Apidae (Apis mellífera and Bombus sp.. Results of controlled pollination and the self-incompatibility index (ISI suggest that the species presents protogynous behavior and is self-compatible, producing fruits in all self-pollination treatments in similar proportions as under natural pollination. The production of apomict fruits was not confirmed. However, the percentages of fruits formed under xenogamy treatments were significantly superior to the fruit-set in self-fertilization. This suggests that the species presents a mixed reproductive system with high allogamy and autogamy levels.

  2. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003 Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyra Ramos Chaves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic self-pollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00 hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic self-pollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00 hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.

  3. Desenvolvimento inicial e crescimento in vitro de Cattleya violacea (Kunth Rolfe em diferentes concentrações de sacarose Initial development and in vitro growth of Cattleya violacea (Kunth Rolfe in different sucrose concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernandes Galdiano Júnior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar os aspectos da germinação e avaliar o efeito de concentrações de sacarose no crescimento in vitro de Cattleya violacea. Sementes provenientes de cápsulas fechadas foram semeadas em meio de cultura Murashige e Skoog (MS e a morfologia externa da semente à plântula foi fotodocumentada em estereomicroscópio e microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Plântulas com 90 dias após a semeadura foram repicadas em meio de cultura ½ MS (com metade da concentração de macronutrientes com diferentes concentrações de sacarose (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 g L-1, incubadas nas mesmas condições in vitro por mais 150 dias e em seguida as plântulas foram avaliadas quanto ao número de raízes, comprimento da maior raiz, número de folhas, comprimento da parte aérea, massa fresca e seca total. Os dados biométricos foram submetidos à análise estatística e a eles ajustadas curvas de regressão. As sementes apresentaram testa reticulada com uma extremidade micropilar (aberta e calazal (fechada; o embrião originou uma estrutura tuberiforme clorofilada denominada protocormo que pode apresentar rizóides, folíolos e quando provido de raiz é considerado plântula. A ausência de açúcar ou a maior concentração avaliada de sacarose foram prejudiciais ao crescimento da planta. A concentração de 27 g L-1 proporcionou maior crescimento in vitro possibilitando maior eficiência para a propagação massal dessa espécie de elevado potencial ornamental.The aims of this study were to analyze the initial germination aspects and evaluate the effect of sucrose concentrations on in vitro growth of Cattleya violacea. Mature seeds from closed pods were sowed on MS (Murashige and Skoog culture medium. The external morphology of seed and plantlets were documented by light and scanning electron microscopy. Plantlets with 90 days after sowing were subcultured on ½ MS (with half-strength macronutrients concentrations culture medium with different sucrose concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 g L-1, incubated under the same in vitro conditions during more 150 days followed by the evaluation of root number, root length, shoot length, fresh and dry weight. The biometric data were statistically analyzed and regression curves constructed. The seeds showed reticulate seed coat with a micropylar (opened and chalazal (closed end; the embryo results a chlorophyllated tuberiforme structure called protocorm, which may have rhizoids, leaflets and is considered plantlet when it has root. Absence of sucrose or the highest evaluated sucrose concentration was detrimental for plant growth. The concentration of 27 g L-1 provided the highest in vitro growth enabling great efficiency for mass propagation of this species of high ornamental potential.

  4. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogand Zareisedehizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed, Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.

  5. Phytochemical diversity of the essential oils of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) populations along an Edapho-climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Irabién, Luz María; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Acosta-Arriola, Violeta; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Díaz-Vera, Luciana; Dzib, Gabriel R; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is an important aromatic plant, mainly used as flavoring and usually harvested from non-cultivated populations. Mexican oregano essential oil showed important variation in the essential-oil yield and composition. The composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from 14 wild populations of L. graveolens growing along an edaphoclimatic gradient was evaluated. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the identification of 70 components, which accounted for 89-99% of the total oil composition. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses divided the essential oils into three distinct groups with contrasting oil compositions, viz., two phenolic chemotypes, with either carvacrol (C) or thymol (T) as dominant compounds (contents >75% of the total oil composition), and a non-phenolic chemotype (S) dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes. While Chemotype C was associated with semi-arid climate and shallower and rockier soils, Chemotype T was found for plants growing under less arid conditions and in deeper soils. The plants showing Chemotype S were more abundant in subhumid climate. High-oil-yield individuals (>3%) were identified, which additionally presented high percentages of either carvacrol or thymol; these individuals are of interest, as they could be used as parental material for scientific and commercial breeding programs.

  6. Ecological features of titica vine (Heteropsis flexuosa (Kunth GS Bunting in Rondônia State, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELLINY M. BENTES GAMA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the forest structure with H. flexuosa in Rondônia State, as a first step in developing sustainable harvest and conservation guidelines for the species. Crown attributes, total height (m and diameter at breast height ≥ 10 (cm of trees and palms with H. flexuosa were evaluated in three permanent plots (100 m x 150 m each randomized in 219 ha. A total of 22 botanical families hosted H. flexuosa. It was not observed any specific preference for the species standing up itself. Nevertheless it was frequently associated to Burseraceae, Leguminosae, Sapotaceae, Annonaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Apocynaceae, Moraceae and Myristicaceae and species with thick bark like Schweilera coriacea, Protium sp. and Licania membranaceae. The species was less frequent with taller and broader trees and tended to develop in understory light condition. Trunks or branches were the main position for the attaching of H. flexuosa (90.83% and a low frequency of other lianas was observed on the same host trees. These highlight the need to promote appropriate management practices for root harvesting and species conservation in order to maintain the species in open ombrophylus forest habitat.

  7. Establecimiento in vitro de Hypericum goyanesii Cuatrec. E Hypericum juniperinum Kunth, a partir del cultivo de semillas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkys Adriana Pérez Martínez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate germination culture media for the in vitro establishment Hypericum goyanesii e Hypericum juniperinum as ex situ conservation strategy for biotechnology of plant species belonging to the high-Andean ecosystem. The seeds were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and seeded into six treatments MS and MS with 50% reduction of its macro and microsales and vitaminas, with and without the addition of activated charcoal and pulp banana. Germination is favored by the use of banana pulp in MS medium with reducing salts and supplemented with activated charcoal. It was possible to show that sexual explants and H. goyanesii e H. goyanesii juniperinum were influenced positively variable germination percentage, by the use of organic substances to replace growth regulators.

  8. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC

    OpenAIRE

    Sogand Zareisedehizadeh; Chay-Hoon Tan; Hwee-Ling Koh

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date an...

  9. Perdas fermentativas e composição bromatológica da entrecasca de palmito pupunha ensilada com aditivos químicos Fermentative losses and chemical composition of pupunha palm by-products ensiled with chemical additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de aditivos químicos na ensilagem de resíduos (entrecasca da produção de palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes, Kunth. Utilizaram-se silos experimentais (baldes de 20 litros providos de aparatos para determinação gravimétrica de perdas por gases e efluentes. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: controle (sem aditivos; ureia (1% da MV e cal virgem (1% da MV. Decorridos 70 dias de armazenagem, os silos foram pesados, abertos e amostrados. As perdas por efluentes e gases aumentaram com a aplicação de cal virgem na ensilagem. As perdas totais de MS foram de 15,1; 14,4 e 26,6% nas silagens controle, ureia e cal, respectivamente. Em todas as silagens, houve redução no teor de FDN e elevação da fração FDA, o que indica desaparecimento da fração hemicelulose. A relação cálcio:fósforo aumentou substancialmente com a adição de cal virgem, de 4,1:1 na silagem controle para 15,6:1 na silagem com cal. O resíduo da extração do palmito pupunha pode ser classificado como alimento de média qualidade e alto teor de umidade. Os aditivos aplicados na ensilagem não são efetivos em reduzir as perdas fermentativas no processo de conservação.Feeding animals with agro-residues may reduce costs and environmental concerns. The agroindustrial wastes used as ruminant feeding are an alternative for ambient problems caused by it accumulation. This study aimed to evaluate chemical additives on the ensilage of residues of pupunha palm (Bactris gasipaes, Kunth production. Experimental silos (20 L buckets were used equipped with meters to determine gas and effluent DM losses. The experimental treatments were: control (no additives; urea (1% - wet basis and calcium oxide (1% WB. After 70 days storage, the silos were weighed, opened and sampled. Effluent and gas DM losses increased with the application of calcium oxide at ensiling. Total DM losses were 15.1, 14.4 and 26.6% for the Control, Urea and Calcium oxide

  10. Efeitos da fertirrigação sobre a produção de palmito da pupunheira Fertirrigation in peach palm: effects on heart-of-palm yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ramos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação de lâminas de irrigação e níveis de adubação nitrogenada na produção de palmito de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, foi conduzido um experimento a campo, durante 22 meses, em Piracicaba (SP. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 3 (nitrogênio x 4 (lâminas. Os níveis de nitrogênio corresponderam a 0; 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, aplicados por meio de fertirrigações semanais. As lâminas de irrigação foram equivalentes a 0; 50; 100 e 120% da evapotranspiração de referência (Eto, determinada em função de tanque classe A. A produção de palmito por planta foi avaliada dos 30 aos 34 meses após o plantio. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos (irrigação e adubação para todas as variáveis relacionadas à produção. Os tratamentos com menores lâminas e doses de nitrogênio apresentaram as menores produções. Levando-se em conta o crescimento da planta e a produção de palmito, os resultados indicam que irrigação com 100% da ETo e fertirrigação com 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N são as recomendadas para a pupunheira cultivada em condições de solo, clima e manejo cultural semelhantes às deste estudo.Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth yield responses were evaluated, using four irrigation levels and three nitrogen doses, in a field experiment carried out, during a 22-month period, in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. A randomized block trial in a factorial design was utilized. Nitrogen doses corresponded to 0; 200 and 400 kg ha-1 year-1 of N, whereas irrigation levels were equivalent to 0; 50; 100 and 120% of the daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo, determined by a class A evaporation pan. Weekly fertirrigations were applied using a diaphragm injection pump. Heart-of-palm yield was evaluated from 30 to 34 months. There were significant treatment (irrigation and fertilization effects for all yield

  11. Fotossíntese, condutância estomática e transpiração em pupunheira sob deficiência hídrica Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration in peach palm under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida José de Oliveira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Resultados de pesquisa envolvendo aspectos fisiológicos da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, fruteira nativa da América Tropical, são escassos. Procurando completar essa lacuna, um experimento sob deficiência hídrica foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, durante um período de 13 dias, utilizando plantas de 12 meses de idade. O objetivo principal foi avaliar as respostas da pupunheira à deficiência hídrica. As variáveis observadas foram: taxa de assimilação de CO2, transpiração, condutância estomática e potencial de água das folhas. As coletas dos dados foram realizadas diariamente em laboratório e sob fluxo de 1200 mim-2 s-1. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão. Verificou-se decréscimo no potencial de água da folha e nas trocas gasosas quando a irrigação foi interrompida por mais de seis dias. Valores mínimos foram obtidos no décimo dia, com redução de 92% da fotossíntese líquida, 87% da condutância estomática e 70% da transpiração. O menor potencial de água nas folhas (-1,9 MPa foi também observado nesse período. Houve recuperação total de todas as variáveis dois dias após reirrigação, com exceção da condutância estomática. A diminuição da condutância estomática e a queda mais rápida da taxa de transpiração que a queda na fotossíntese, indicam a existência de mecanismos de aclimatação em pupunheira, no sentido de diminuir as perdas de água, quando sob condição de estresse hídrico moderado.Research results on physiological aspects of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, a native fruit tree from tropical America, are scarce. Trying to fill this gap, a water deficit experiment was performed under nursery conditions during 13 days, utilizing 12 months old plants. The main objective was to evaluate peach palm responses to water deficit. The measured variables were: CO2 assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential

  12. Composição mineral de uma linhagem de Pleurotus ostreatus cultivada em resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica Mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus strain grown in wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceci Sales-Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os cogumelos do gênero Pleurotus são cultivados em diversos substratos lignocelulósicos, dada a atividade decompositora desses organismos proveniente de seu metabolismo enzimático. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a composição mineral de Pleurotus ostreatus e dos substratos de cultivo preparados à base de resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica. Foram analisados macro (P, K, Ca e Mg e micronutrientes (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn e Na dos cogumelos e dos substratos. Os substratos foram formulados a partir da serragem de Simarouba amara Aubl. (marupá, Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. (pau de balsa e de bagaços de Bactris gasipaes Kunth (pupunheira e de Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar. As amostras foram solubilizadas mediante digestão ácida (nítrico-peridrol. Os elementos Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn foram determinados por espectrometria de absorção atômica; o Na e K, por emissão atômica e o P, por colorimetria. A composição mineral do cogumelo variou com o substrato de cultivo. Os diferentes substratos possibilitaram a produção de um cogumelo rico em K, P, Mg e Fe, essenciais à nutrição e à saúde humana. O potássio foi o mineral de maior teor no cogumelo em todos os substratos testados (36,83-42,18 g.kg-1, seguido de fósforo (6,95-10,60 g.kg-1 e do magnésio (1,57-2,50 g.kg-1.Mushrooms belonging to the Pleurotus gender are grown in several lignocellulosic substrates due to the decomposing activity of these organisms that result from their enzymatic metabolism. The objective of the present study was to analyze the mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus and the cultivation substrates prepared with wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region. Macro (P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Na of mushroom and substrates were analyzed. Substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. and Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. sawdust and crushed Bactris gasipaes Kunth

  13. Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK Peach palm growth responses to NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93 em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa". Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³, com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O, aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N e potássio (K e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P. As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare.Palms have high nutrient demand. For this reason, the effects of NPK fertilization on the initial growth of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth were studied in a field experiment, from November 1990 to April 1993. The trial was set up on an allic, previously limed soil, in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º27'S, 45º04'W, 6 m asl; "Cfa" climate. A fractional factorial experimental design (½ of 4³ was utilized, with two blocks, one replication, 24 inner plants per

  14. Peach palm growth and heart-of-palm yield responses to liming Respostas de crescimento e produção de palmito da pupunheira à calagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. A. Bovi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of liming rates on growth and heart-of-palm yield of peach palm plants (Bactris gasipaes Kunth were studied in a two-year field experiment conducted in Pariquera-Açu, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Soils in this region are allic (sub group Ultic Haplorthox, with base saturation ranging from 15 to 26 % of the cation exchange capacity (CEC. A randomized complete block design, with five rates of dolomitic limestone (0, 0.7, 4.7, 8.7, and 14.6 Mg ha-1 and five replications was utilized. Individual plots were composed of 80 plants but only the inner rows (24 plants were used for data recording. Planting spacing was 2 x 1 m. There was a cubic effect of liming rates on growth and yield. Maximum heart-of-palm yield was estimated to be achieved at 4.3 Mg ha-1 of limestone application, corresponding to 51.4 % soil base saturation. A significant decrease in growth and yield was observed when large amounts of limestone were applied (8.7 and 14.6 Mg ha-1, probably due to a decreased micronutrient availability.Os efeitos de doses de calcário sobre o crescimento e a produção de palmito de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth foram estudados em experimento realizado em campo em Pariquera-Açu, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Solos dessa região são álicos (subgrupo Ultic Haplorthox, com saturação por bases variando de 15 a 26% da capacidade de troca catiônica. Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos completos dispostos ao acaso, com cinco doses de calcário dolomítico (0, 0,7, 4,7, 8,7 e 14,6 Mg ha-1 e cinco repetições. Parcelas individuais eram compostas por 80 plantas, das quais apenas as linhas mais internas (24 plantas foram utilizadas para análise dos dados. O espaçamento entre plantas foi 2 x 1 m. Foram observados efeitos cúbicos para doses de calcário tanto para o crescimento quanto para a produção. Estimativas indicam que máxima produção de palmito pode ser obtida com a aplicação de 4,3 Mg ha-1 de calcário, correspondendo a

  15. Relações alométricas para estimativa da fitomassa aérea em pupunheira Peach palm biomass estimates based on allometric relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vinicio A. Vega

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa da fitomassa aérea da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth por meio de relações alométricas tem aplicação teórica e prática, sendo essencial em estudos de fisiologia de crescimento, bem como para identificar respostas e predizer a produção. No presente trabalho foram avaliadas diferentes equações buscando o melhor ajuste alométrico representativo da fitomassa da pupunheira cultivada para a produção de palmito. Foram utilizadas palmeiras inermes, da raça Putumayo, em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento, cultivadas em Ubatuba (SP no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m. Selecionaram-se 117 plantas, com alturas entre 0,22 e 5,04 m e diâmetros entre 2,23 e 27,06 cm. Medidas diretas, relacionadas ao crescimento, foram realizadas antes do corte. Em seguida as plantas foram separadas em diferentes partes estruturais, sendo medidas, pesadas e secas, obtendo-se a massa da matéria seca. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão e ajuste de equações, tendo como variáveis independentes os caracteres facilmente mensuráveis e não destrutivos. A fitomassa da pupunheira pode ser estimada de forma precisa a partir de equações simples, valendo-se de relações alométricas. A altura da haste principal, medida do solo até a inserção da folha +1, foi o caráter preditório indireto ideal para estimar a fitomassa de pupunheiras em cultivo comercial. Identificou-se também que, do estádio de implantação ao início de colheita de palmito, a contribuição dos perfilhos para a fitomassa aérea total é pequena e pode ser desprezada.Biomass estimates based on allometric relationships have theoretical and practical application. These data are useful tools in growth analysis experiments and yield prediction. Several equations were studied to define the best allometric fit to peach palm grown for heart-of-palm purpose. Spineless peach palms (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, from Putumayo landrace, were utilized. The experiment, in a 2 x 1

  16. Seasonal growth variation of peach palms cultivated in containers under subtropical conditions Variação estacional do crescimento em pupunheiras cultivadas em recipientes em condição subtropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Sant'Anna Tucci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is grown in the São Paulo State, Brazil, under climate seasonal variation conditions, mainly temperature and rainfal with possible effects on plant physiology. Recently, due to a higher interest in carrying out physiological experiments on the species, there has been a requirement for more controlled experimental conditions. Therefore, with the aim of studying the seasonal variation of peach palm growth for heart-of-palm production, as well as the possibility of growing them until harvest in pots, for future utilization in physiological experiments, this work was carried out in Campinas, SP, Brazil, with 40 spineless peach palms. One year after seed germination, seedlings were transplanted to 80 L plastic pots, spaced 2 x 1 m, arranged in four rows of ten plants. All plants had vegetative growth evaluated monthly by measurements of main stem height, number of functional leaves, number of offshoots and length of leaf raquis. Seasonal variations were observed in terms of height and diameter growth as well as raquis length of the youngest leaf and in the evolution of the number of leaves. After two years, plants had an average height of 230 cm, six functional leaves and 11.7 offshoots. Positive correlations (P A pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth é cultivada no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, sob condições de variação estacional do clima, particularmente temperatura e precipitação pluviométrica, com possíveis efeitos na fisiologia das plantas. Recentemente, devido ao crescente interesse em se realizar experimentos sobre a fisiologia da espécie, tem havido necessidade de cultivá-la sob condições experimentais mais controladas. Com o objetivo de estudar a variação estacional do crescimento de pupunheiras, bem como a possibilidade de cultivá-las em recipientes até a colheita, para a realização de futuros experimentos fisiológicos, foi executado este trabalho, em Campinas, SP, com 40 pupunheiras

  17. Características físicas e químicas de frutos de pupunheira no Estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar física e físico-quimicamente frutos de 21 matrizes de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, visando a obter subsídios que permitam avançar com o programa de melhoramento genético, em especial para características da polpa do fruto. Os frutos provenientes de diferentes genótipos foram caracterizados quanto à dimensão dos frutos e caroço, umidade, proteínas, lipídeos, cinzas, fibras e carotenoides totais. Os resultados obtidos para as diferentes variáveis analisadas demonstraram diferenças entre os frutos obtidos de diferentes genótipos. A análise de proteínas apresentou valores que variaram de 4,20 a 6,79%, com destaque para a matriz B04-P20, que apresentou o maior valor. Para lipídeos, os teores variaram bastante, com valores entre 8,25 e 40,83%, destacando-se a matriz B02-P30 com o maior teor de lipídeos. Os teores de carotenoides totais das matrizes de pupunheira variaram de 8,02 a 124,90µg/g, com destaque para as matrizes B02-P30 (124,90µg/g e B05-P45 (123,04µg/g, indicando que a pupunha pode contribuir de maneira importante na ingestão de antioxidantes na dieta. De maneira geral, as análises físicas e físico-químicas dos frutos mostraram diferenças significativas entre as matrizes para os caracteres estudados, evidenciando ser um conjunto geneticamente promissor para a prática da seleção.

  18. Efeito da compactação do substrato no crescimento de mudas de pupunheira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael von Zuben Previtali

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, que vem sendo largamente cultivada no Brasil para produção de palmito, é propagada por sementes, sendo a formação de mudas a etapa bastante importante para o êxito do cultivo. Esta pesquisa foi realizada entre setembro de 2005 e agosto de 2006, em Campinas, SP, e teve por objetivo avaliar a compactação do substrato no crescimento da parte aérea de mudas de pupunheira. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos de PVC de 25 cm de diâmetro e 27 cm de altura, em substrato arenoso. Os níveis de compactação empregados, impostos mediante o uso de prensa hidráulica, foram: 0; 0,204; 2,037; 4,074; e 6,112 kg cm-2, que propiciaram as seguintes densidades: 1,11; 1,12; 1,64; 1,84; e 2,00 g cm-3, respectivamente. O efeito dos tratamentos sobre o crescimento das plantas foi avaliado por meio de medidas mensais das variáveis: altura da planta e altura da haste, diâmetro do colo e comprimento da folha mais jovem completamente expandida (folha +1. A densidade de 1,64 g cm-3 propiciou o maior crescimento em altura total e da haste, diâmetro do colo e comprimento da folha +1, que no fim do experimento corresponderam a 80 cm, 30 cm, 28 cm e 50 cm, respectivamente. Essa foi a densidade em que as mudas se tornaram aptas ao plantio no campo mais cedo, aos cinco meses.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alfredo Morales-Del-Rio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%. On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%, antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition, and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis.

  20. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham. forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Pineda Lopez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa.Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico.Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, orthophotographs were used: (UTM; GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa was estimated using an equation specific to species.Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%. The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41; the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1 was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico.Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit.Key words: Aboveground biomass; carbon storage; ecological corridors; fir forest.

  1. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham.) forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Lopez, M. R.; Sanchez-Velasquez, L. R.; Vazquez-Dominguez, G.; Rojo-Alboreca, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study.) Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa). Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, ortho photographs) were used: (UTM); GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa) was estimated using an equation specific to species. Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%). The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41); the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1) was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico. Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration) and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit. (Author) 55 refs.

  2. Analyses of Accumulation of Crude Protein and Decrease in its Content in the Growth of Chloris gayana Kunth and Desmodium intortum (Mill.) Urb.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimojo, Masataka; Tobisa, Manabu; Imura, Yoshimi; Bungo, Takashi; Koga, Naoki; Tao, Shao; Yunus, Muhammad; Yin, Zhao; Nakano, Yutaka; Goto, Ichiro; Masuda, Yasuhisa

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the accumulation of crude protein using equation (A) and to analyze the decrease in crude protein content using equation (B) in the growth of Rhodes grass (Rg) and Greenleaf desmodium (Gd). ARCP = 1/W * d (CP)

  3. Influencia de la maduración del fruto de Arbutus xalapensis Kunth sobre la germinación de semillas y embriones cigóticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Tovar-Rocha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determinó el efecto del estado de maduración del fruto en la germinación in vitro de semillas y embriones cigóticos deArbutus xalapensisKunt. Se colectaron frutos de 10 árboles en cada uno de los dos sitios de estudio y se clasifi caron según su tamaño y peso dentro de tres grupos caracterizados por el color del fruto: 1 a 6 frutos verde oscuro (FVO, 7 y 8 frutos verde-amarillo (FVA, y 9 y 10 frutos naranja-rojizo (FNR. De cada estado se seleccionaron 50 semillas y se colocaron en medio MS para evaluar su germinación. El experimento se repitió dos veces y los resultados obtenidos fueron sometidos a un análisis de comparación de medias de Tukey el cual indicó que los tres grupos de frutos presentan características de peso fresco y diámetro diferentes (P = 0.05, con un promedio de 6.3 g y de 0.21 mm para FVO, 9.5 g y 0.46 mm para FVA y 10.8 g y 0.70 mm para FNR. El análisis de microscopía estereoscópica demostró que todos los estados de maduración presentan semillas y embriones; los estados 1 al 4 presentan embriones no desarrollados, y en los estados 5 al 10 los frutos contienen un mayor número de semillas con embriones desarrollados y con una mayor germinación (7.6 a 8.8 semillas/unidad experimental. Se propone el uso de semillas provenientes de frutos de los estados de maduración 5 al 10 para la germinación adecuada de semillas de madroño, mientras que para los embriones cigóticos es necesario realizar estudios de prueba de medios de cultivo para su germinación.

  4. Histoquímica, contenido de fenoles totales y actividad antioxidante de hoja y de madera de Litsea glaucescens Kunth (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nery Alicia Tapia-Torres; Carmen de la Paz-Pérez-Olvera; Angélica Román-Guerrero; Alejandra Quintanar-Isaías; Eristeo García-Márquez; Francisco Cruz-Sosa

    2014-01-01

    Litsea glaucescens (laurel) es una especie distribuida ampliamente en México, sus principales usos se centran en la medicina tradicional en forma de infusiones y baños medicinales para el alivio de desórdenes ginecológicos y estomacales. Esta propiedad terapéutica es atri - buida a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos en el cuerpo de la planta. En el presente estudio se emplearon técnicas histoquímicas para localizar la presencia de compuestos fenólicos como lignina y taninos, así como lípido...

  5. Comparación de harina de chontaduro entero (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K contra alimentos balanceados y maíz amarillo como fuentes de nutrientes en la alimentación de pollos de engorde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz P. Julián F.

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Para elaborar la harina los frutos pre-cocidos se trozaron y secaron al sol. Se obtuvo 50 % de harina por kilogramo de fruto. La harina de chontaduro entero se ofreció separada de la harina de pescado a grupos de 10 pollos sin sexar de la línea Arbor Acres desde la primera semana de edad. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar y estuvo constituido por cuatro tratamientos: la ración balanceada que sirvió como testigo y O (T2, 50 (T3 Y 100 % (T4 de sustición del maíz amarillo por harina de chontaduro. Con la ración testigo los pollos alcanzaron los mayores pesos y el mayor consumo; los pollos con el mayor nivel de harina de chontaduro disminuyeron el consumo pero alcanzaron mayor peso que los de T 2 y T3. En el aspecto de costos, el testigo obtuvo los mejores resultados en la época de baja cosecha, pero fue superado por T4 en la época de alta cosecha de frutos de chontaduro.The whole chontaduro meal was obtained simple process which permitted conserve of the nutritional value. Efficiency of the meal were 50 % of fruit weight. The whole chontaduro meals were offered with fish meal to four groups of ten unsexed "Arbor Acres" broiler chicks one day old. Since the first weeks the chicks received 1I1etreatments diets. Four treatments were compared: control (T¡,100% yellow corn +fish meal (T2, 50% yellow com +50% whole chontaduro meal + fish meal (T3 and 100 % whole chontaduro meal + fish meal (T4 Feed consumption (10 weeks were: 7,563.30 (T1, 7228.50 (T2,7156.50(T3 and 7100.90 g (T4. Body weight were: 2605.00 (T ¡, 1 717.50 (T2, 1 718.50: (T3 and 1 780.50 9 (T 4. Net entry into high production of fruit of T4 to overcome the concentrate food.

  6. Invertebrates associated to Eichhornea azurea Kunth in a lagoon of the Upper Paraná River: composition, community attributes and influence of abiotic factors Invertebrados associados à Eichhornea azurea Kunth em uma lagoa do alto rio Paraná: composição, atributos da comunidade e influência de fatores abióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Flávia Batista-Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We evaluated the composition and community attributes of invertebrates associated to Eichhornia azurea at Cascalho Lagoon, Upper Paraná River, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, over a hydrological cycle, as well the possible influence of abiotic factors upon these attributes. METHODS: The samplings were conducted during 2010 in the rainy and dry periods at stands of E. azurea. The attributes evaluated were abundance, richness, diversity, evenness and dominance. The abiotic factors, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and turbidity were summarized by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. In order to verify possible differences between the mean values of the community attributes and the scores of the PCA axis in different periods, we employed null models analysis of variance. The influence of abiotic factors on each attribute was evaluated through Pearson correlations. RESULTS: We captured 3,052 individuals, distributed into 32 taxa, belonging to the phyllum Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda and Arthropoda. Among the assessed attributes, only abundance and richness varied significantly between periods, with higher values during the rainy period. Chironomidade was dominant in both periods, whereas Notonectidae and Cyclopoida were rare in the rainy, and Bivalve, Decapoda, Haliplidae, Trichoptera and Pyralidae, in the dry period. A temporal distinction was evident only for the PCA axis 1, which represented gradients in temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH. Among the community attributes, only abundance was significant and negatively correlated with this axis. CONCLUSION: We attested that: i the rainy period should add favorable conditions for invertebrates' higher richness and abundance in this macrophyte; ii only the later attribute was influenced by limnological gradients.OBJETIVO: Nós avaliamos a composição e atributos da comunidade de invertebrados associados à Eichhornia azurea na lagoa do Cascalho, alto rio Paraná, MS, Brasil, durante um ciclo hidrológico, bem como a possível influência de fatores abióticos sobre estes atributos. MÉTODOS: Amostragens foram realizadas em bancos de E. azurea durante os períodos chuvoso e seco em 2010. Os atributos avaliados foram abundância, riqueza, diversidade, equitabilidade e dominância. As variáveis limnológicas temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e turbidez foram sumarizadas através da Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA. Para verificar possíveis diferenças entre as médias dos atributos e dos escores do eixo 1 da PCA nos diferentes períodos utilizou-se análises de variância de modelos nulos. A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre cada atributo foi avaliada através de correlações de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Nós capturamos 3052 indivíduos, distribuídos em 32 táxons, pertencentes aos filos Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda e Arthropoda. Dentre os atributos avaliados, apenas a abundância e riqueza variaram significativamente entre os períodos, com maiores valores obtidos para o chuvoso. Chironomidade foi dominante em ambos os períodos enquanto Notonectidae e Cyclopoida foram raros no período chuvoso e Bivalve, Decapoda, Haliplidae, Trichoptera e Pyralidae no período seco. Distinção temporal foi evidente apenas para o eixo 1 da PCA, o qual representou gradientes de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido e pH. Dentre os atributos avaliados, somente a abundância apresentou correlação significativa e negativa com este eixo. CONCLUSÃO: Ficou evidente que: i o período chuvoso deve agregar condições favoráveis para a ocorrência de maior riqueza e elevada abundância de invertebrados nesta macrófita; ii somente este último atributo foi influenciado pelos gradientes limnológicos.

  7. Germinação e maturidade fisiológica de sementes de Piptadenia Viridiflora (Kunth. Benth relacionadas a estádios de frutificação e conservação pós-colheita Germination and physiological maturity in seeds of Piptadenia Viridiflora (Kunth. Benth related to fruiting times and forms of post-harvest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Cesário Pessoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito dos estádios de frutificação e formas de conservação na germinação e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de surucucu. Em 25 árvores na região de Vitória da Conquista, BA, foram realizadas coletas de frutos no período de 17/05 a 9/07 de 2007, em intervalos de sete dias a partir do início da frutificação, caracterizando oito estádios de desenvolvimento das vagens. Cada período de coleta foi definido por lotes diferenciados de sementes, sendo realizadas avaliações de massas fresca e seca de 100 sementes e teor de água. As sementes de cada uma das oito coletas foram mantidas em condições ambientais de laboratório, sendo subdivididas em dois lotes: em um lote, as sementes permaneceram no interior das vagens e, no outro, as vagens foram eliminadas. Após o período de 49 dias a partir do início da frutificação, massas fresca e seca de 100 sementes e teor de água foram determinados. Posteriormente, as sementes foram submetidas a testes de germinação em câmara tipo BOD, com temperatura de 25 ºC, em regime de fotoperíodo de 8 h de luz. Depois de cinco dias foi realizada a primeira contagem de germinação e aos 10 dias, avaliadas as seguintes características: porcentagem de germinação, plântulas anormais e classificação do vigor das plântulas (vigor alto, médio e baixo. A presença das vagens durante o período de conservação das sementes foi fator determinante para a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. A germinação e o acúmulo de matéria seca determinados por ocasião do teste de germinação aumentaram com o período de frutificação, atingindo o máximo aos 37 dias.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different fruiting stages and conservation techniques on the germination and physiological quality of surucucu seeds. Fruits were collected on eight occasions from 25 trees in the region of Vitória da Conquista - BA, in the period from 05/17 to 07/09 2007, at sevenday intervals from the beginning of the fruiting stage. Each collection period was characterized by distinct seed lots. Evaluations were made for green and dry weight of 100 seeds and water content. The seeds in each of the eight collections were maintained under room conditions in the laboratory, and were subdivided into two lots: in the first, the seeds remained inside their pods, while in the other the pods were eliminated. After a 49-day period from the beginning of fruiting, determinations were made for green and dry weight of 100 seeds and water content. The seeds were then submitted to germination tests in a BOD incubator adjusted to 25ºC, with an 8:16 hr (light:dark photoperiod. The first germination count was made after five days. At ten days, evaluations were made for germination percentage and abnormal seedlings, and plantlets were classified as to their vigor (high, medium, and low. Germination increased as the fruiting period progressed, and was directly related to dry matter accumulation in the seeds, as determined during the germination test.

  8. Estresse salino no crescimento inicial e nutrição mineral de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud em solução nutritiva(1 Growth and mineral nutrition of (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud seedlings in nutrient solution under saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séfora Gil Gomes de Farias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade é um dos fatores que mais limitam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas na região semiárida. A sobrevivência destas em ambientes salinos dependerá de processos adaptativos, que envolvem absorção, transporte e distribuição de íons nos vários órgãos da planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a nutrição mineral de mudas de gliricídia cultivada em diferentes condições de salinidade, realizou-se um experimento em telado de náilon da Unidade Acadêmica de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos - PB. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em vasos de Leonard, contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon (50 % da concentração original, com as concentrações de NaCl: 0, 100 200 e 400 mmol L-1. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com uma planta por vaso. Aos 60 dias após a emergência, as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas quanto a altura, matéria seca e teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e Na na raiz, no caule e nas folhas. O aumento da salinidade promoveu reduções no crescimento e nos teores de macronutrientes, ocorrendo o inverso nos teores de Na, sobretudo na raiz. A gliricídia mostrou-se sensível à salinidade.Salinity is one of the most limiting factors to plant growth and development. Plant survival in saline environments depends on adaptive processes involving uptake, transport, and distribution of ions in plant organs. To evaluate growth and mineral nutrition of Gliricidia sepium seedlings under saline conditions, an experiment was carried out under nylon-mesh protection, at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Patos - PB. Seeds were sown in pots containing Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution with four NaCl levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 mmol L-1, with four replications (1 plant/pot in a completely randomized design. Sixty days after seedling emergence, the plant height and root, stem and leaf dry matter, and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na accumulation were measured in the plant tissues. All variables but Na were negatively affected by increasing NaCl levels in the nutrient solution, particularly in the root tissue. Results indicated the sensitivity of Gliricidia sepium to salinity.

  9. Adubação orgânica e mineral para a produção de palmito da pupunheira na Amazônia Central Mineral and organic fertilization of peach palm for heart-of-palm production in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanders B. Chávez Flores

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produção de palmito do estipe principal e do primeiro perfilho da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, utilizando diferentes fontes e formas de adubação (orgânica e mineral num LATOSSOLO AMARELO na Amazônia Central. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados com três repetições, utilizando esquema fatorial 2 x 7, sendo os fatores: plantas com e sem espinhos no estipe oriundas de Yurimaguas, Peru; e diferentes formas de adubação (testemunha sem adubo; esterco de galinha de postura em cova (25 t ha-1; adubo mineral em cova (225-90-180 kg.ha-1 de N-P2O5-K2O; esterco de galinha de postura em cobertura (25 t ha-1; adubo mineral em cobertura (225-90-180 kg.ha-1; esterco de galinha de postura na cova (12,5 t ha-1 + adubo mineral em cobertura (112,5-45-90 kg.ha-1 e adubo mineral parcelado em 3 vezes (na cova 75 kg ha-1 de N, 90 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 60 kg.ha-1 de K2O + 2 aplicações iguais de 75 kg.ha-1 de N e 60 kg.ha-1 de K2O, todas as formas de adubação foram repetidas no 2º e 3º ano em cobertura. A aplicação de fertilizantes orgânico e mineral elevou o pH e a concentração de nutrientes disponíveis no solo. A produção de palmito no primeiro perfilho com espinhos (1407 kg.ha-1 foi maior que nas plantas sem espinhos (1037 kg.ha-1. A produção de palmito liquido foi maior nos tratamentos com esterco em cobertura (estipe principal 1551kg.ha-1 e perfilhos 3004kg.ha-1 e "esterco 50% na cova + adubo mineral em cobertura 50%" (planta principal 1545 kg ha-1 e perfilhos 2986 kg ha-1. A testemunha não atingiu altura de corte até aos 40 meses após o plantio.The production of heart-of-palm of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, both main shoot and first offshoot, was evaluated using different sources (organic and inorganic and schedules of fertilization on an OXISOL in Central Amazonia. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with three repetitions, with a 2 x 7 factorial, with types of plant (spineless and

  10. Densidade radicular de progênies de pupunheira em função de adubação NPK Root density of pejibaye progenies as a function of NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene L. A. Bovi

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O uso eficiente de fertilizantes requer o conhecimento de seus efeitos tanto na biomassa aérea quanto na radicular, permitindo que se identifique uma adubação adequada do ponto de vista de uma melhor partição entre ambas. A massa de raízes secas por volume de solo vem sendo utilizada, principalmente em espécies perenes, como subsídio para estimativas de biomassa radicular. Com esse objetivo, foram estudados os efeitos da adubação NPK na densidade radicular de três progênies de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, cultivadas em um Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa", durante o ano de 1993. O delineamento foi um fatorial fracionado, composto por quatro doses crescentes de nitrogênio (0 a 400 kg/ha/ano de N, fósforo (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de P2O5 e potássio (0 a 200 kg/ha/ano de K2O, em experimento integrado (progênies e adubação. As amostras foram coletadas por ocasião da primeira colheita de palmito (outubro de 1993, quando as plantas (cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m tinham cerca de dois anos de campo. Utilizou-se o método do trado, coletando-se, por parcela experimental, duas amostras na linha e duas na entrelinha. Houve diferenças entre genótipos (GE, com as progênies 2 e 3 apresentando, em média, maior densidade radicular que a progênie 1 (5,15 e 6,20 contra 2,61 g/dm³, respectivamente. A interação GE x PO (posição da amostra foi significativa, sendo que para as progênies 1 e 2 a maior densidade radicular foi obtida na linha (3,30 e 6,60 g/dm³ na linha, contra 1,92 e 4,70 g/dm³ na entrelinha, respectivamente, enquanto para a 3 a ordem foi inversa (5,57 g/dm³ na linha e 6,84 g/dm³ na entrelinha. Doses crescentes de potássio (K apresentaram efeitos lineares positivos e significativos (R² =0,93 a 0,97 na densidade radicular das três progênies, com acréscimos entre dose mínima e máxima variando de 18 a 28%. Não houve efeito significativo isolado de P, enquanto doses

  11. Estimating peach palm fruit surface area using allometric relationships Estimativa da área superficial de frutos de pupunheira por relações alométricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit surface area is an important trait in studies of developmental physiology, as well as in entomological and phytopathological research, where damage caused by insects and/or microorganisms needs to be quantified. Nonetheless, direct measurement of this trait is difficult, not very precise and destructive. This study establishes allometric relationships to estimate the surface area of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae fruits. Five fruits were harvested, at different maturation stages, from each of 18 plants. Image digitalization and edition methodology was adapted and compared with the traditional gravimetric method. Regression analysis and curve fitting were used to compare the two methods and establish allometric relationships among fruit surface area and fruit weight and size. The method based on image digitalization was twice as fast as the gravimetric method. Curve fitting for all pairs of independent and dependent variables was better with the image method. For most relationships, the best model was the exponential function (Y = ax b, although, due to its simplicity, the linear model is also adequated. The best allometric estimates of fruit surface area (Y were obtained using the product of fruit length by maximum width (x were: Y = 2.077 x 1.189 (R² = 94.8%; and Y = - 6.261 + 3.961 x (R² = 94.5%. Traits needed to establish this relationship are easily measured and non-destructive in nature. Validation of the allometric equations is essential when applied to other populations or landraces.A área superficial do fruto é de importância fundamental em estudos relacionados à fisiologia do desenvolvimento, bem como em pesquisas entomológicas e fitopatológicas, onde o dano causado por insetos e/ou microorganismos precisa ser quantificado. No entanto, a medição direta dessa característica é difícil, além de não muito precisa e destrutiva. Neste estudo foram estabelecidas relações alométricas visando estimar a

  12. Estimativas da área foliar e da biomassa aérea da pupunheira por meio de relações alométricas Leaf area and aboveground biomass estimates in peach palm using allometric relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ramos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Relações alométricas para estimativa da área foliar e da biomassa total em pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth têm sido empregadas por diversos autores, sendo úteis especialmente em pesquisas relacionadas à fisiologia vegetal. No entanto, área foliar e biomassa aérea são características de elevada plasticidade, podendo variar acentuadamente por causas genéticas e edafoclimáticas. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de identificar as equações mais adequadas para determinação da área foliar e da biomassa aérea (foliar e total da pupunheira, em condições de limitações sazonais hídricas e térmicas. Foram utilizadas 14 plantas de pupunheiras da raça Putumayo (Yurimaguas, cultivadas no espaçamento de 2,0 m x 1,0 m. Foram mensurados altura e diâmetro da haste principal, número de folhas, comprimento, espessura e largura da ráquis foliar de plantas apresentando altura entre 0,37 e 2,00 m, com duas plantas por altura. Obtiveram-se ainda as massas fresca e seca da ráquis, dos folíolos, dos palmitos e dos estipes das plantas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão e ajustes de equações. A equação para determinação da área foliar da pupunheira foi obtida pela regressão para o peso seco dos folíolos. Dentre os modelos testados, as equações não lineares do tipo Y= ax b e Y= a bx apresentaram melhor ajuste (R²>0,88. Os valores de área foliar, biomassa foliar e biomassa aérea total variaram de 0,84 a 14,06 m², de 0,78 a 2,45 kg planta-1 e de 0,14 a 4,44 kg planta-1, respectivamente. Dentre as características avaliadas, a altura da haste e a espessura da ráquis foliar se mostraram as mais adequadas para estimativa da área foliar, da biomassa foliar e da biomassa aérea total da pupunheira, tanto pela sua facilidade de mensuração, quanto pela sua alta correlação com os demais caracteres.Allometric relations for estimation of leaf area and biomass in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes

  13. 云贵高原多星韭二倍体—四倍体分布格局研究%Diploid and Tetraploid Distribution of Allium wallichii Kunth(Ailiaceae)in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟艳红; 杨莹; 星耀武; 纪运恒; 周浙昆

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of seventeen populations of Allium wallichii (Alliaceae) from the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau were examined. The polyploidy distribution pattern of this species was analyzed based on 412 newly studied plants from seventeen populations and published data. Nine diploid populations and six diploid-tetraploid mixed populations occur in central to northwest Yunnan,while twelve tetraploid populations occur in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Diploids are 2A type except ‘ Shangri-La d’ and Baoshan populations which are 3A type,tetraploids are 2A type except Huize and Hezhang populations which are 2B type. The asymmetry index (Al) comparison indicates that the tetraploids in northwestern Yunnan are likely to be more ancient than those in other areas. The karyotype similarity of diploids and tetraploids indicates a possible autopolyploid origin of tetraploids in this species.%采用染色体压片技术对云贵高原17个多星韭居群,共412株个体进行染色体数目和核型研究.结合已有的细胞学资料,对云贵高原多星韭多倍体分布格局进行了研究.9个二倍体居群、6个二倍体与四倍体混生居群分布于云南中部至西北部,12个四倍体居群分布于整个云贵高原.二倍体除香格里拉d和保山居群核型类型为3A型外,其余均为2A型,四倍体除会泽和赫章居群为2B型外,其余均为2A型.云南西北部四倍体核型不对称指数低于其它分布区,推测该地区四倍体可能起源较早.多星韭二倍体与四倍体核型类型和形态并无明显差异,表明多星韭四倍体可能为同源多倍体.

  14. Ação do flúor dissolvido em chuva simulada sobre a estrutura foliar de Panicum maximum jacq. (colonião e Chloris gayana kunth. (capim-rhodes - Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Alba Lucilvânia Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum e Chloris gayana foram submetidas à chuvas simuladas com soluções de fluoreto de potássio (15mg ml-1 com objetivo de identificar as injúrias causadas pelo flúor (F-, como poluente atmosférico, na estrutura da lâmina foliar e fornecer subsídios para a seleção de características diagnósticas a serem utilizadas na bioindicação. Os principais sintomas foram clorose e necrose, principalmente no ápice e margens das lâminas. Nos cortes transversais, quatro tipos de alterações causadas pelo flúor são relacionadas: redução do número, tamanho e arranjo dos cloroplastos; necrose dos tecidos principalmente nas margens das folhas; erosões na superfície da folha e hipertrofia das células. Em C. gayana, no entanto, não foram observadas as alterações nos cloroplastos e os outros sintomas foram bem mais discretos que em P. maximum. A ocorrência de compostos fenólicos foi registrada pela coloração com fucsina em todas as regiões da lâmina onde foram observadas lesões. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura foi observado o achatamento e formação de concavidades nas paredes externas das células. Este experimento confirma a maior sensibilidade de P. maximum ao flúor e revela algumas características anatômicas de C. gayana que, entre outros fatores, podem estar contribuindo para a maior resistência desta espécie a este poluente.

  15. Contribución al conocimiento del árbol de cirián (Crescentia alata Kunth.) variabilidad, selección, morfología, citogenética y fitoquímica.

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta Valverde, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    El cirián es un árbol medicinal con frutos esféricos que contiene iridoides y polifenoles los que confieren propiedades anti-inflamatorias, antioxidantes y antimicrobianas. La presente investigación se realizó en la región de Tierra Caliente, Michoacán, México en la Depresión del Balsas, la cual es uno de los refugios pleistocénicos más extensos de Norteamérica y centro de origen y domesticación del maíz; el árbol de cirián, es una especie emblemática de esta región y probablemente constituyó...

  16. Desenvolvimento vegetativo da pupunheira irrigada por gotejamento em função de níveis de depleção de água no solo Effects of soil water depletion levels on the vegetative development of drip irrigated peach palm plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ramos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da irrigação complementar por gotejamento no desenvolvimento vegetativo de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth com três anos de idade. Durante 94 dias (agosto a novembro/97 foram estabelecidos quatro níveis de irrigação, baseados nas porcentagens de 25% (T1, 50% (T2, 75% (T3 de água disponível consumida em função da evapotranspiração de referência, medida em um par de lisímetros de lençol freático constante, e a testemunha (T4, sem irrigação, com turnos de rega de 2, 4 e 6 dias respectivamente. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro tratamentos, oito repetições e dezesseis plantas úteis por parcela. A resposta das plantas aos diferentes tratamentos foi avaliada por meio da taxa absoluta de crescimento das características diâmetro do estipe na região do colo, altura da planta, comprimento de ráquis, número de perfilhos, número de folhas e emissão de folhas novas. As avaliações tiveram início quatro dias antes da imposição dos tratamentos e foram repetidas aos 34; 68; 83; 98; 133 e 168 dias. Houve diferenças entre os tratamentos para número de folhas emitidas, diâmetro e altura da planta. O tratamento 1 (25% foi superior aos demais para número de folhas emitidas (pThe effects of soil water depletion levels on the vegetative development of drip irrigated three-years-old peach palm plants were evaluated. Four irrigation levels were established for a 94-day period (August to November of 1997, based on 25% (T1, 50% (T2 and 75% (T3 of available water consumed in function of the evapotranspiration of measured reference in a lysimeter of constant water table, and the control (T4 without irrigation. A split randomized block design, with four treatments, eight replications and sixteen inner plants per plot was utilized. Peach palm response to the different treatments was evaluated throughout the absolute growth rate of the

  17. Determination of fatty alcohols in D-004 active ingredient by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D004, a new lipid extract purified from the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia [Kunth] F. Cook) fruits, has been shown to be effective in experimental models of prostate hyperplasia, and to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects

  18. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  19. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  20. Caracterización del borde de un relicto de bosque altoandino dominado por Chusquea scandens (Kunth y evaluación del efecto de disturbios experimentales sobre la regeneración natural en la Reserva forestal municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Ríos Orlando

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó en la Reserva Forestal Municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia, como parte del proyecto “Hacia un modelo de restauración del bosque”. Tiene como objetivos caracterizar el borde de avance del bosque, dominado por la especie Chusquea scandens y evaluar la regeneración de especies luego de disturbios experimentales a lo largo del borde de bosque. Con el primero se generó información preliminar del estado del borde de avance y del potencial que puede existir allí para la regeneración natural de la vegetación, el muestreo se realizó entre los meses de julio y octubre de 2003, en el cual se evaluaron algunas condiciones bióticas, abióticas y edáficas por medio del método línea intercepto a lo largo del gradiente pastizal-chuscal-bosque. El segundo estableció que tipo de disturbios son favorables para activar y potencializar la regeneración en los bordes de avance dominados por el chusque, los disturbios se basaron en reducir la competencia que hace el chusque por luz, así como también aumentar la disponibilidad de espacio para el establecimiento de otras especies. Para la caracterización del borde de avance se obtuvo que hacia el pastizal el chusque presenta una
    alta densidad que genera una zona de difícil acceso, lo cual puede funcionar como una barrera natural que reduce la influencia de especies de áreas abiertas en el interior del borde de avance, en donde se presentan peque��os claros donde el chuscal se reduce y se muestra una regeneración natural de especies. Además se estableció que a altas densidades del chusque se reducen las posibilidades de regeneración natural y la implantación de especies arbóreas, así como también, que la regeneración presentada hacia el interior del borde de avance está dominada por especies de borde y de bosque, siendo las herbáceas, enredaderas y arbustos las formas de crecimiento más importantes. Luego de los disturbios experimentales se obtuvo que las condiciones
    de sombra artificial sobre un terreno con remoción del suelo generan altas abundancias de especies, así como también la presencia de especies únicas. Se estableció además, que mantener la capa superficial del suelo es favorable para la regeneración debido a que se mantiene gran parte de las semillas viables acumuladas sobre el suelo.

  1. Minor components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, M. F.G.; Alves, R. E., Roca, María; Ruíz-Méndez, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the characterization of minor compounds in oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brazil, i.e. bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba), buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), inajá (Maximiliana maripa), pupunha (Bactris gasipaes) and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare). The concentration of minor glyceridic compounds, i.e. dimeric triacylglycerols (TAG), the oxidized TAG and diacylglycerols (DAG) related to oil quality, and the compounds of unsaponi...

  2. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia. PMID:11482789

  3. Monstera florescanoana (Araceae, a new species from central Veracruz, Mexico Monstera florescanoana (Araceae, una especie nueva de la región central de Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. Croat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Monstera florescanoana (Araceae, a new species in section Monstera, endemic to central Veracruz, Mexico, is described and illustrated. This species appears to be most closely related to Monstera siltepecana Matuda and Monstera dubia (Kunth Engl. et K. Krause.Se describe e ilustra Monstera florescanoana (Araceae, una nueva especie de la sección Monstera, endémica de la región central del estado de Veracruz, México. Esta especie parece estar más cercanamente relacionada a los taxones Monstera siltepecana Matuda y Monstera dubia (Kunth Engl. et K. Krause.

  4. New taxa of Aneilema R. Br. (Commelinaceae from southern and tropical East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Faden

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of Aneilema are described: A. indehiscens Faden, with subsp. indehiscens (Kenya, Tanzania and subsp. lilacinum Faden (Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa; A. arenicola Faden (Mozambique, South Africa; A. brunneospermum Faden (Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa; and A. tanaense Faden (Kenya. A new subspecies, Aneilema dregeanum Kunth subsp, mossambicense Faden (Mozambique, is also described, and A. johmtonii K. Schum. is lectotypified.

  5. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). 3. The genera Dioclea, Luzonia, and Macropsychanthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1998-01-01

    The genera Dioclea Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Luzonia Elmer, and Macropsychanthus Harms are briefly discussed. Keys to the species and notes to various taxa are given. Dioclea decandra Amshoff is proposed as a new name for Macropsychanthus ferrugineus Merr. Macropsychanthus lauterbachii Harms is lectoty

  6. Two new isospirostanol sapogenins from Reineckia carnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Wang; Na Han; Ling Li Chen; Zhi Hui Liu; Li Bo Zou; Jun Yin

    2012-01-01

    Two new isospirostanol sapogenins named (25R)-5β-spirostane-(1o,3o)-diol (1) and (25R)-5β-spirostane-(1α,2α,3α,4α)-tetrol (2) were isolated from the whole herb ofReineckia carnea (Andr.) Kunth.The structures of the sapogenins were elucidated by chemical and spectral methods.

  7. Trayectorias de crecimiento radial de especies maderables, yesquero blanco (Cariniana ianeirensis) y serebó (Schizolobium parahyba) en un bosque subhúmedo de la provincia Guarayos (Santa Cruz - Bolivia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero-Seas, A.; Toledo, M.; Zuidema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Dendrochronology allows to study variations in the growth of the trees. The following research questions were addressed: The growth trajectories of yesquero blanco (Cariniana ianeirensis Kunth) and serebó (Schizolobium parahyba Vell S. F. Blake) species that belong to different ecological guilds? An

  8. Ferns and lycophytes of Pernambuco State, Brazil: Metaxyaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Carneiro Leão Barros

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper elucidates part of the fern flora of Pernambuco State. Metaxyaceae is native to the state and is represented by a single species, Metaxya rostrata (Kunth C. Presl. Descriptions and illustrations, as well as geographical distribution and habitats, are presented.

  9. Chromosome studies on African plants. 11. The tribe Andropogoneae (Poaceae: Panicoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Spies

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Representative specimens of various species of the genera  Andropogon L.,  Cymbopogon Spreng.,  Elionurus Kunth ex Willd.,  Hyparrhenia Foum. and  Hyperthelia Clayton were cytogenetically studied. All specimens had a secondary basic chromosome number of ten. Polyploidy, either as alloploidy or segmental alloploidy. was frequent. The taxa studied represent mature polyploid complexes.  

  10. Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides causando antracnose em frutos de pupunheira nos estados de Minas Gerais e Paraná Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnosis on peach palm fruits in Minas Gerais and Paraná States, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    João Batista Vida; Dauri José Tessmann; Rudimar Mafacioli; Jaqueline Rosemeire Verzignassi; Álvaro Figueredo dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    O cultivo de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes) para palmito tem-se expandido para algumas regiões do Sudeste e Sul do Brasil, ocupando áreas abandonadas pela agricultura no espaço territorial de domínio da Mata Atlântica. Em plantas adultas de pupunheira, cultivadas para a produção de sementes nos estados de Minas Gerais e Paraná, verificou-se ocorrência de antracnose nos frutos, causando severa podridão. O fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides foi isolado de tecidos doentes e a sua patogenicidade ao...

  11. Indice botánico

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Achiote: 91, 94, 198 Aguaje: 156 Aji: 59, 74, 171 Alamo: 171 Algodón: 94, 110, 124 Aliso: 52 Alnus acuminata: ver aliso Aloes: 171 Altramuce: 44 Arachis hypogaea: ver maní Arracacha esculenta: 69 Arveja: 74 Asaí: ver palmera Bactris gasipaes: 141 Balsa palo de: 180 Befaría ledifolia: 64 Bertholetia excelsa: 154 Bixa orellana: ver achiote Bombax: 178 Bombonax: ver palmera Barbasco: 199 Cabeza de negro: ver Humiro Cacao: 194, 217 Café: 175, 179, 217 Camote: 62, 69, 74, 97, 182, 192 Caña de azúc...

  12. Efeito da suplementação com pupunha como fonte de vitamina A em dieta: estudo em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia K.O. Yuyama; Silvia M.F. COZZOLINO

    1996-01-01

    Foi estudado o efeito da suplementação com pupunha (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.), polpa cozida e transformada em farinha, como fonte de vitamina A, em dieta regional de Manaus, AM,Brasil, por meio do ensaio biológico com ratos. A metodologia utilizada foi da depleção dos animais em zinco e vitamina A, seguida da repleção com a dieta regional (DR), DR + pupunha, DR + vitamina A e dieta controle (DC). A dieta foi elaborada para famílias com rendimentos inferiores a dois salários-mínimos. Foram util...

  13. Mexican plants with hypoglycaemic effect used in the treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Heinrich, Michael

    2005-07-14

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome which affects more and more people in all countries over the world. In México, it is commonly treated with herbal extracts. Such treatment may be of considerable benefit especially during the early stages of the illness. In this review, we discuss species commonly used in México in the treatment of diabetes. A total of 306 species have records of a popular use in the treatment of this syndrome in México. Seven of these species--Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. (Cecropiaceae), Equisetum myriochaetum Schlecht & Cham (Equisetaceae), Acosmium panamense (Benth.) Yacolev (Fabaceae), Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché (Cucurbitaceae), Agarista mexicana (Hemsl.) Judd. (Ericaeae), Brickellia veronicaefolia (Kunth) A. Gray (Asteraceae), Parmentiera aculeata (Kunth) Seem. (Bignoniaceae)--are discussed in greater detail, highlighting our current knowledge about these botanicals, but also the enormous gaps in our knowledge, most notably as it relates to the species' toxicology, the pharmacokinetics of its active constituents and their metabolism. PMID:15964161

  14. Neuropharmacological profile of ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Cifuentes, C; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar del Fresno, A M; Morales, C; Paredes, M E; Cáceres, A

    2001-08-01

    We carried out the Irwin's test with some different extracts of the aerial parts of Thidax procumbens L., the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp., and root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At dosage of 1.25 g dried plant/kg weight aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. demonstrated the most activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis, catalepsy and strong hypothermia. These extracts of both plants were assayed for effects on CNS and they caused very significant reductions in spontaneous locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and rectal temperature and they increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. PMID:11448542

  15. Flavonoid glycosides and pharmacological activity of Amphilophium paniculatum

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud I Nassar; El-Sayed A Aboutabl; Eskander, Dina M.; Grace, Mary H.; Ezzel-Din A El-Khrisy; Amany A Sleem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nothing is reported on Amphilophium paniculatum (L.) Kunth. This study aimed at investigation of chemical constituents of the leaves of Amphilophium paniculatum, grown in Egypt, in addition to pharmacological evaluation. Materials and Methods: Isolation of a new compound, along with 5 known flavonoids. Pharmacological activities were carried out on different extracts of A. paniculatum leaves. Results: Identification of a new flavone glycoside, acacetin 8-C-β-D- glucopyranosy l-(1→...

  16. Productivity and nutritive value of bluestem grass fertilized with calcium and magnesium silicate

    OpenAIRE

    Cinthya Souza Santana; Laura Souza Santos; Greiciele de Morais; Luiz Arnaldo Fernandes; Luciana Castro Geraseev

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of application of calcium and magnesium silicate on the productivity, chemical composition and in situ ruminal degradation of bluestem grass (Andropogon gayanus Kunth, cv. Baeti; Embrapa 23) during the rainy and dry seasons. The design consisted of completely randomized blocks in a 6x2 factorial scheme (six silicate doses and two cutting seasons), arranged in plots subdivided over time. The plots were the calcium and magnesium silicate doses (0, 200, 400, 600, ...

  17. A New Spirostanol Saponin from Dioscorea futshauensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new spirostanol saponin presenting strong activity of inducing morphological deformation of Pyricularia oryzae mycelia was isolated from Dioscorea futshauensis R. Kunth by bioactivity-guided fractionation. The structure was established as (25S)-spirost-5-en-3β,27-diol-3-O- [ α-L-rhamnopyranosyl ( 1→2)-β-D -glucopyranosyl (l→3)]-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of chemical evidences and spectral analysis, especially by 2D-NMR techniques.

  18. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Mayorga; Karen R. Pérez; Sully M. Cruz; Armando Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  19. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OfTHREE NATIVE FRUITS FROM BRAZILIAN SAVANNAH (CERRADO)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Dias Bartolomeu ABADIO FINCO; Igor Galvão SILVA; Renata Botelho de OLIVEIRA

    2012-01-01

    Chemical and Physical analysis, Antioxidant activity (AA) and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) were evaluated on three Typical Savannah fruits: Buriti (Mauricia flexuosa), Cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica) and Murici (Byrsonima crassifólia H.B. K (L) Kunth). The nutritional composition found was in accordance to those available in the literature and the fruits can be considered as vitamin C food source. Buriti had the highest values ofantioxidant activity (IC50 value=17.31±5.3...

  20. Reproductive biology of pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens) and the pollinator-nectar robber spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Leif Richardson; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    Floral visitor species are often assumed to act either mutualistically towards plants (as pollinators) or to exploit them (as nectar-robbers or as nectar or pollen thieves). We investigated the reproductive biology of pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens K. Kunth), a regionally abundant North American shrub, in relation to the wide spectrum of behaviours displayed by its flower-visiting insects. We recorded A. pungens population-level flowering phenology and nectar standing crop, and c...

  1. Estudios anatómicos de tres especies de Lamiaceae usadas en medicina popular

    OpenAIRE

    Bonzani, Norma; Ariza Espinar, Luis

    1993-01-01

    En la presente contribución se estudia la anatomía caulinar y foliar de 3 especies de Lamiaceae: Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb. ("peperina"), Mentha citrata trata Ehrh. ("yerba mota") y Marrubium vulgare L. ("yerba del sapo"). Se dan los nombres científicos correctos, los nombres vulgares y su uso en medicina popular. Los detalles histológicos diferenciales son descriptos e ilustrados.

  2. Allometric models for estimating biomass and carbon in Alnus acuminata

    OpenAIRE

    William Fonseca; Laura Ruíz; Marylin Rojas; Federico Allice

    2013-01-01

    In order to quantify the climate change mitigation potential of forest plantations, information on total biomass and its growth rate is required. Depending on the method used, the study of the biomass behavior can be a complex and expensive activity. The main objective of this research was to develop allometric models to estimate biomass for different tree components (leaves, branches, stem and root) and total tree biomass in Alnus acuminata (Kunth) in Costa Rica. Additionally, models were de...

  3. Theoretical and experimental analysis of structural joints of glued laminated pressed bamboo guadua for a housing project

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Patricia; Olarte, Ana Milena; Takeuchi, Caori

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of connections between elements of glued laminated pressed bamboo guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth) for a housing project is presented in this article. The analysis was carried out in four stages: design, load test, numerical simulation and finite element modeling. Design connection was developed using the allowable stresses method. In load test, displacements were measured in order to identify the behavior of connections for different load increments. Numerical simulation was p...

  4. Quantitative ethnobotany of palms in northwestern South America: a comparative analysis in Amazonia, Andes and Chocó

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo

    This Doctoral Thesis is the result of an interdisciplinary work between 2010-2014 to document and analyze the use patterns and traditional knowledge of palms (Arecaceae) in northwestern South America. The work is based on field data collected over 18 months in four countries (Colombia, Ecuador...... fieldwork in Colombia and Ecuador. Chapter 1 presents a general introduction to the biocultural diversity of northwestern South America, the importance of palms in the region, and the aims of each of the six chapters of the Doctoral Thesis. The protocol used for gathering palm ethnobotanical data...... of one of the two species of the genus Bactris that were collected during fieldwork in the Choco of Colombia and that were new to science is presented in Chapter 7. Finally, Chapter 8 summarizes the main conclusions of the Doctoral Thesis...

  5. YURUPARÍ, MASKS AND POWER AMONG THE PIAROA FROM THE ORINOCO BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Antonio Mansutti Rodriguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In northwest Amazonia, among other kinds, two celebrations occur: one with masks dedicated to the harvest of Bactris gasipaes and other fruits, and another with sacred flutes that evoke extraordinary beings. When both coincide in a same village they occur at different moments. However, to the Piaroa and the Wirö peoples of the Orinoco basin, both ceremonies occur simultaneously at the same place. This paper shall describe participants and procedures of the ceremony and evaluate the gender and age based power game that comes to light during it. This ceremony consolidates alliances between the shamans and their communities with the masters who control animals and plants exploited by the Piaroa people, facilitates men’s expropriations and limits women power to the domestic sphere, and shifts a society with no major hierarchical organizations into a highly hierarchical one as long as the ceremony is occuring.

  6. Nematodes associated with five fruit trees in the state of Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Souza Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to conduct a survey on nematodes associated with five cultivated fruit trees growing in the Agroforestry System (AFS of the municipality of Oiapoque, Amapá, Brazil. Rhizosphere samples were collected from three points at the base of murici ( Byrsonima sp., soursop ( Annona muricata , cupuaçu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , passion fruit ( Passiflora sp. and peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes trees. Four species of phytonematodes were identified, namely Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Mesocriconema xenoplax and Rotylenchulus reniformis . The most prevalent and abundant species was R. reniformis , which was found in the rhizospheres of passion fruit, cupuaçu, soursop, and peach palm. The first record in Brazil of the nematode P. brachyurus , found in the roots of murici is reported here, and all of the nematode species identified here are the first records for fruit trees in the state of Amapá.

  7. Euphorbia latex: a possible source of hydrocarbons and rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, P.; Teisseire, D.

    1975-01-01

    Illustrated descriptions are given of 36 plants of potential economic value in underdeveloped tropical countries, classified by use. The plants are either wild or cultivated on a fairly local scale. Accounts of limitations and special requirements and lists of references, research contacts and sources of germ plasm are included for each species. The following tree and shrub species are included: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, C. chayamansa and hearts of several edible palm species including Euterpe edulis (vegetables); Durio species, Garcinia mangostana, Solanum quitoense, Bactris gaspiaes, Citrus grandis, Annona muricata and Pourouma cecropiaefolia (fruits); Orbignya martiana, Caryocar species, Jessenia polycarpa and Simmondsia chinensis (oil seeds); Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum, Cassia sturtii, Atriplex species and Prosopis tamarungo (forage (browse)); Mauritia flexuosa (fruit, wood, etc.); Euphorbia antisyphilitica (wax); and Parthenium argentatum (rubber).

  8. Estado de conservación de las poblaciones de tres palmas amenazadas del departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galeano Gloria

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el estado de conservación de Attalea amygdalina, Aiphanes duquei y Bactris gasipaes var. chichagüi, tres
    palmas amenazadas del Valle del Cauca (Colombia, dentro del proyecto “Evaluación y conservación del departamento del Valle del Cauca, basada en principio de planeación sistemática de la conservación”. Para la evaluación, se determinó la distribución actual, las densidades, las estructuras de edad y se identificaron los factores de vulnerabilidad de las poblaciones. Para el caso de Aiphanes duquei se estudiaron 0,65 ha (11 parcelas donde se encontraron densidades bajas y una estructura de edad de una población en crecimiento. Se estimaron unos 250 individuos adultos ocupando solamente 15 ha. Para Attalea amygdalina se estudiaron 0,4 ha (cuatro parcelas y se encontraron poblaciones con densidades altas y estructuras de edad de poblaciones en crecimiento, pero todas en hábitats muy fragmentados, de menos de 4 ha; se estimaron unos 4.000 adultos en el Valle del Cauca. Por último, para Bactris gasipaes var. chichagüi se estudiaron 0,85 ha (10 parcelas donde se encontraron en general densidades bajas y estructuras de edad incompletas y de
    poblaciones decreciendo. De acuerdo a esta información se propusieron medidas de conservación in situ y ex situ para cada especie.

  9. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  10. First description of the early stage biology of the genus Mygona: the natural history of the satyrine butterfly, Mygona irmina in eastern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeney, Harold F; Dyer, Lee A; Pyrcz, Tomasz W

    2011-01-01

    The immature stages and natural history of Mygona irmina Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Pronophilina) from northeastern Ecuadorian cloud forests are described based on 17 rearings. The dwarf bamboo, Chusquea c.f. scandens Kunth (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly on the bottom side of mature host plant leaves. Larvae take 102-109 days to mature from egg to adult. Adults are encountered most frequently on sunny days, flying rapidly over areas dominated by their food plant or feeding on the ground at mammal feces. Males are often encountered inside large forest gaps near patches of bamboo guarding perches in the mid-canopy.

  11. Bioactivity of the compounds isolated from Blepharocalyx salicifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequias P. Siqueira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is an endemic species that occurs at Southern America. This species was studied to intend to isolation of the active compounds that could be used in vitro model against leishmaniosis, tumoral cell and paracoccidioidomycosis. After Gel Permeation Chromatography, the ethanolic extract from leaves yielded sixteen fractions. Five compounds were isolated and assayed, showing activity against tumoral cells, from 3.33 to 12.83 µg.mL-1; Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis from 2.19 to 20.80 µg.mL-1 and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from 3.10 to 12.5 µg.mL-1.

  12. Evaluación de las propiedades mecánicas de la estructura interna de la guadua con un modelo matematico

    OpenAIRE

    JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO SARAZ; ALBEIRO ESPINOSA BEDOYA; García Galeano, Eduard A.

    2010-01-01

    Se caracterizo la estructura interna del Bambú-Guadua angustifolia kunth (GAK), en su zona media, encontrando la composición interna de este material compuesto, como son el porcentaje de la matriz (parénquima) y de fibras (células de fibras y tejido conductivo). Se determinó las propiedades mecánicas como la resistencia a tensión y a flexión en sentido tangencial, y la Relación de Poisson del material y la resistencia de la fibra. Se valido un modelo matemático para materiales compuestos prop...

  13. A New Furostanol Saponin from Dioscorea futshauensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongWeiLIU; GeXiaQU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new furostanol saponin presenting moderate bioacitivity of inducting morphological deformation of Pyricularia oryzae mycelia was isolated from Dioscorea futshauensis R.Kunth by bioacitivity-guided fractionation. The structure was established as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,26-diol-23(S)-methoxyl-(25R)-furost-5,20(22)-diene-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of chemical evidencesand spectral analysis,especially by 2D-NMR techniques.

  14. A New Furostanol Saponin from Dioscorea futshauensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new furostanol saponin presenting moderate bioactivity of inducing morphological deformation of Pyricularia oryzae mycelia was isolated from Dioscorea futshauensis R.Kunth by bioactivity-guided fractionation. The structure was established as 26-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-3b, 26-diol-23(S)-methoxyl-(25R)-furost-5,20 (22)-diene-3-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1?2)-b-D- glucopyranosyl (1?3)]-b-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of chemical evidencesand spectral analysis, especially by 2D-NMR techniques.

  15. Anatomía sistemática de la lámina foliar del género Distichils (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    López Soto, María Martina

    2012-01-01

    Se hizo un estudio anatómico-sistemático de seis especies y once variedades del género Distichlis Raf. Los taxa incluidos son: D. australis (Speg.) C. B. Villamil; D. humilis Philippi; D. palmeri (Vasey) Fassett; D. scoparia (Kunth) Arechav. var. scoparia y var. erinacea (Beetle) Nicora y D. spicata (L.) E. Greene, ésta última integrada, según Beetle, por nueve variedades: var. spicata, var. andina Beetle, var. borealis Beetle. var. divaricata Beetle. var. mendocina Beetl...

  16. Systematics of the genus Daubenya (Hyacinthaceae: Massonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Daubenya Lindl. was until recently thought to comprise the single species D. aurea Lindl. but is now considered to include the monotypic genera Androsiphon Schltr. and Amphisiphon W.F.Barker. as well as the species previously referred to the genus Neobakeria Schltr. Eight species are now recognized in the genus, including the new combinations Daubenya comata (Burch, ex Baker J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe and D. zeyheri (Kunth J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe. Each species is fully described and illustrated in black-and-white and in colour. A key to the species, and distribution maps are provided.

  17. Estudio del efecto del aceite esencial de orégano de monte (Lippia origanoides) del Alto Patía sobre la metanogénesis y la actividad fibrolítica del ecosistema ruminal

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Quiroz, Tatiana Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio evaluó por primera vez el aceite esencial de orégano (AEO) nativo colombiano Lippia origanoides Kunth (componente principal timol 70%) como modulador de la estructura de la comunidad de los metanógenos ruminales, la actividad fibrolítica y consecuentemente sobre la metanogenesis ruminal. En primera instancia se evaluó el efecto de la dosis del AEO sobre la producción de metano y DIVMS en fermentaciones in vitro utilizando como sustrato Penisetum cladestinum con cin...

  18. Detection and characterization of a Cucumber mosaic virus isolate infecting peperina, a species native to Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    P Rodríguez Pardina; Ojeda, M.; E Biderbost; L Di Feo

    2013-01-01

    Minthostachys mollis (Kunth.) Griseb., "peperina", un miembro de la familia Lamiaceae, es una especie aromática que se emplea en la farmacología moderna y en medicina. Está ampliamente distribuida en los Andes, desde Venezuela y Colombia hasta Argentina. En el último país, la principal área de explotación de peperina incluye el área serrana de la provincia de Córdoba, donde la especie es arrancada indiscriminadamente, lo que conlleva una pérdida irreversible de germoplasma. A los fines de pre...

  19. Monstera florescanoana (Araceae), a new species from central Veracruz, Mexico Monstera florescanoana (Araceae), una especie nueva de la región central de Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Croat, Thomas B.; Thorsten Krömer; Amparo Acebey

    2010-01-01

    Monstera florescanoana (Araceae), a new species in section Monstera, endemic to central Veracruz, Mexico, is described and illustrated. This species appears to be most closely related to Monstera siltepecana Matuda and Monstera dubia (Kunth) Engl. et K. Krause.Se describe e ilustra Monstera florescanoana (Araceae), una nueva especie de la sección Monstera, endémica de la región central del estado de Veracruz, México. Esta especie parece estar más cercanamente relacionada a los taxones Monster...

  20. Aislamiento térmico resultante de la bioforma caulirrósula de Espeletia SPP en los páramos de Monserrate, Chingaza, Ocetá, Nevado del Tolima y Nevado del Ruiz

    OpenAIRE

    Murcia Rodríguez, Miguel Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Se evaluó el comportamiento térmico de los compartimientos estructurales (abrigo de hojas muertas y necromasa peciolar) y funcionales (hojas adultas, banco de hojas jóvenes, zona de primordios foliares y ápice caulinar) de Espeletia grandiflora Kunth, E. incana Cuatrec. y E. hartwegiana Cuatrec., y del suelo, en relación con el ambiente, en siete localidades de las Cordilleras Central y Oriental de Colombia, entre 3300 y 4300 msnm. EI banco de hojas jóvenes se comportó de modo significativame...

  1. Caracterização da fauna edáfica em sistemas de manejo para produção de forragens no Estado do Piauí Characterization of edaphic fauna in management systems for forage production in the State of Piauí

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes; Danielle Ilze Barbosa da Silva; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira Araújo; Luiz Fernando Carvalho Leite; Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição da fauna em função da umidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de manejo para a produção de forragens com capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys), capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia), capim-Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth), Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) R. de Wit.) tendo como controle uma Mata dos Cocais. A coleta da fauna foi feita utilizando-se armadilhas do tipo Pitfall em duas épocas...

  2. Análisis teórico experimental de conexiones en elementos estructurales de bambú guadua laminado pegado prensado, para un proyecto de vivienda

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Luna; Ana Milena Olarte; Caori Takeuchi

    2014-01-01

    El análisis de las conexiones entre elementos fabricados en Bambú guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth) laminado pegado prensado para un proyecto de vivienda, es mostrado en este artículo. El análisis se ejecutó en cuatro etapas: diseño, prueba de carga, simulación numérica y modelación por elementos finitos. El diseño se realizó por el método de los esfuerzos de trabajo. En la prueba de carga fueron medidos desplazamientos para conocer el comportamiento de las conexiones para diferentes increme...

  3. Anatomia comparada das folhas de espécies de Peperomia (Piperaceae: I. Ontogênese do tecido aqüífero e dos estômatos Comparative leaf anatomy of Peperomia (Piperaceae: I. Ontogenesis of the aquiferous tissue and the stomata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathieli Keila Takemori

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das espécies de Peperomia apresenta tecido que reserva água na face adaxial de suas folhas. Esse tecido pode variar em espessura, determinando maior ou menor suculência à folha. A fim de se determinar a origem de estruturas anatômicas relevantes ao grupo, o presente trabalho descreveu o desenvolvimento do tecido especializado na reserva de água, bem como a ontogênese dos estômatos de P. catharinae Miquel, P. emarginella (Sw. C.DC., P. quadrifolia (L. Kunth e P. rotundifolia (L. Kunth. Para tanto, foram observadas folhas jovens do ápice caulinar e do primeiro nó subseqüente, em secções transversais e paradérmicas. As técnicas utilizadas foram as usuais para microscopia fotônica. Todas as espécies apresentaram tecido especializado na reserva de água, originado de divisões periclinais das células protodérmicas. A ontogênese estomática é mesoperígena, dando origem a estômatos anisocíticos, tetracíticos e estaurocíticos.Most species of Peperomia presents a water reservoir tissue on the adaxial surface of the leaf. This tissue can vary in thickness determining more or less succulence to the leaf. On purpose of determining the origin of important anatomic structures for this group, the present work describes the development of the water reservoir specialized tissue, as well as the stomata ontogenesis for P. catharinae Miquel, P. emarginella (Sw. C.DC., P. quadrifolia (L. Kunth and P. rotundifolia (L. Kunth. Young leaves from the stem apex and the first node were observed in cross and paradermic sections. The techniques were the usual for light microscopy. All the species presented the water reservoir specialized tissue originated from periclinal divisions of protodermal cells. The stomata ontogenesis is mesoperigenous and it gives rise to anisocytic, tetracytic and staurocytic stomata.

  4. Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe García P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ageratina glabrata (Kunth R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studied, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts in an animal model of nociception exploiting thermal stimuli. NMR and mass analyses identified a new thymol derivative, 10-benzoiloxy-6,8,9-trihydroxy-thymol isobutyrate (1, which was computationally converted into a ring-closed structure to explain interaction with the COX-2 enzyme in a ligand-receptor docking study. The resulting docked pose is in line with reported crystal complexes of COX-2 with chromene ligands. Based on the present results of dichloromethane extracts from its dried leaves, it is safe to utter that the plant possesses analgesic effects in animal tests which are mediated through inhibition of COX-2 enzyme.

  5. Micorrizas arbusculares en plantines de Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae inoculados con Glomus intraradices (Glomaceae Arbuscular mycorrhizas in Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae seedlings inoculated with Glomus intraradices (Glomaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Becerra

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se cita y describe por primera vez la asociación de Alnus acuminata Kunth «aliso del cerro» con el hongo formador de micorrizas arbusculares (MA Glomus intraradices Schenk & Smith. En un bioensayo en invernadero, se inocularon plantines de A. acuminata con fragmentos radicales de Medicago sativa L. colonizados por G. intraradices . Se describe la colonización MA y el tipo anatómico Arum . Se establece la funcionalidad de la simbiosis por la presencia de arbúsculos en las células corticales de la raíz.This work described for the first time the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM development in A. acuminata Kunth «andean alder» with G. intraradices Schenk & Smith. Seedlings of A. acuminata were inoculated with root fragments of Medicago sativa L. colonized by G. intraradices in a greenhouse. The Arum -type and AM colonization are described in A. acuminata seedlings. The presence of arbuscules in A. acuminata cortical cells define a functional symbiosis.

  6. Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. em uma área de Caatinga da ESEC Raso da Catarina, BA, Brasil Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. in the Caatinga of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do levantamento florístico-taxonômico da família Boraginaceae em um trecho de Caatinga da Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Bahia, Brasil. Foram encontrados sete espécies e três gêneros de Boraginaceae: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth, C. leucocephala Moric. e C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray e Heliotropium elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. e Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC. e T. salzmannii DC.. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e hábitat.A floristic-taxonomic survey of the family Boraginaceae was carried out in a fragment of Caatinga vegetation of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia, Brazil. Seven species and three genera of Boraginaceae were found: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth; C. leucocephala Moric.; C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray; H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. and Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC.; T. salzmannii DC.. Keys to identify genera and species are presented together with descriptions, illustrations, and comments on relationships among these taxa, distribution and habitat.

  7. Eichhornia meyeri A. G. Schultz : a new citation for the Pantanal basin at the Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Luz Sanches, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a taxonomic review for the Pontederiaceae Kunth family at the Pantanal basin, at the Mato Grosso and Malo Grosso do Sul states, we cite for the first time the occurence of Eichhornia meyeri A.G. Schultz in those states. For the identification of this species at the Pantanal basin, located at Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states, we re-describe E. meyeri and present data on the species ecology and ethimology. In addition, we present illustrations and a geographical distribution map for E. meyeri

    Como resultado de la revisión taxonómica de la familia Pontederiaceae Kunth para el Pantanal, en los estados de Mato Grosso y Mato Grosso do Sul fue citada por primera vez la presencia de Eichhornia meyeri A.G. Schultz. Para el reconocimiento de esta especie en el Pantanal Matogrossense fue redescrita y incluidos datos ecologicos, etimología, ilustraciones y mapa de distribución geográfica.

  8. Caracterización bromatológica de especies y subproductos vegetales en el trópico húmedo de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dissa Enith Mosquera Perea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el potencial nutritivo para especies pecuarias de recursos locales existentes en el municipio de Quibdó, departamento del Chocó (Colombia, teniendo en cuenta la composición bromatológica y digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS en hojas de árbol del pan (Arthocarpus altilis Z., pacó (Gustavia superba Kunth. y achín (Colocasia esculenta Linn, cáscaras del fruto de chontaduro (Bractris gasipaess Kunth. y de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L.. El análisis bromatológico incluyó materia seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, ceniza (Cen, fibra detergente ácida (FDA, fibra detergente neutra (FDN, lignina detergente ácida (LDA y energía bruta (EB. Las hojas de achín y de árbol del pan presentaron los contenidos más altos de PB (27.78 y 19.38% y de EB (3911 y 3981 cal/g, respectivamente. Los valores de DIVMS más altos se presentaron en cáscaras de chontaduro (78.9% y hojas de achín (68.6%. En general, los recursos en estudio presentan valor nutritivo similar al de forrajes cultivados, por tanto, son una alternativa posible para la sustitución parcial de materias primas costosas en dietas para animales de granja.

  9. Antimalarial activity of some Colombian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavito, G; Rincón, J; Arteaga, L; Hata, Y; Bourdy, G; Gimenez, A; Pinzón, R; Deharo, E

    2006-10-11

    Antimalarial activity of 10 vegetal extracts (9 ethanolic extracts and 1 crude alkaloid extract), obtained from eight species traditionally used in Colombia to treat malaria symptoms, was evaluated in culture using Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant (FcB2) strain and in vivo on rodent malaria Plasmodium berghei. The activity on ferriprotoporphyrin biomineralization inhibition test (FBIT) was also assessed. Against Plasmodium falciparum, eight extracts displayed good activity Abuta grandifolia (Mart.) Sandwith (Menispermaceae) leaves, Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. (Mimosaceae) leaves, Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl. (Solanaceae) aerial part, Croton leptostachyus Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) aerial part, Piper cumanense Kunth (Piperaceae) fruits and leaves, Piper holtonii C. DC. (Piperaceae) aerial part and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae) bark with IC(50) values ranging from <1 to 2.1 microg/ml, while in the in vivo model only Abuta grandifolia alkaloid crude extract exhibits activity, inhibiting 66% of the parasite growth at 250 mg/kg/day. In the FBIT model, five extracts were active (Abuta grandifolia, Croton leptostachyus, Piper cumanense fruit and leaves and Xylopia aromatica). PMID:16713157

  10. Conservation of the Palms (Arecaceae in the Solid Guamuhaya, county Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanny Suárez Oropesa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years a floristic study was carried out on the family Arecaceae, according to the vegetable formations and the altitude in the southeast region of Cienfuegos province in the Guamuaya Mountains, with the objective of knowing the state of conservation of the palms species of present. The work embraced nine towns in those that the presence of species of this gender was determined by means of the observation method, the collections were carried out in an aleatory and intensive way, keeping in mind the micros hábitats where they progress this group of plants. They were five species, two endemic local, one endemic national and two autochthonous. According to their conservation state they are threatened species. Coccothrinax crinita subsp brevicrinis Borhidi & Muñiz, with category of In Danger (IN; Coccothrinax miraguama subsp. roseocarpa (León Borhidi & Muñiz, Sabal maritima (Kunth Burret and Roystonea regia (Kunth O.F. Cook, smaller Concern (LC, intending In Critical Danger (CP to Coccothinax sp.

  11. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp: Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Composición química de cuatro aceites esenciales provenientes de Eupatorium spp. y su toxicidad para Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G. Lancelle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic and repellent properties of whole essential oils from four Eupatorium (Asteraceae species (E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker, and E. viscidum Hook. & Arn were investigated in different concentrations toward Tribolium castaneum Herbst adults. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation techniques from the aerial parts. The analysis was performed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Contact toxicity assays showed that all the evaluated essential oils were toxic. Furthermore, in all the cases mortality was dose dependent. The main repellency was observed for the essential oil recovered from E. buniifolium.Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  12. Comparative Studies of the Phytoextraction Capacity of Five Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal Contaminated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet BUTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The uptake capacity of the aquatic plants (Salvinia natans Kunth., Eichhornia crassipes Mart., Lemna minor L., Elodea canadensis Michx., Pistia stratiotes L. was analyzed in phytoextraction of Cu2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+. It was attend to study the plants capacity comparatively using mono and multimetallic systems. In particular, the chlorophyll, protein and carotenoids contents were studied during heavy metals uptake, in order to observe the stress effect on plants. The results obtained for the monometallic system showed that Salvinia natans Kunth. accumulated the highest quantity of Cu2+ (4.72 mg/g, Zn2+ (2.23 mg/g and Cd2+ (1.90 mg/g. The leaves of Lemna minor L. accumulated the highest concentration of Cu2+ (10.80 mg/g and Cd2+ (2.78 mg/g in multimetallic system. The water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L. translocated the highest quantity of Zn2+ in its roots (4.80 mg/g. The chlorophyll and the carotenoids levels decreased under the stress of heavy metals in both systems, while protein content increased under the influence of Cu2+ and Cd2+, but decreased for Zn2+.  The studied hydrophytes proved to be useful in the uptake of heavy metals in monometallic system and much more effective in the multimetallic system and showed great potential for further applications in the industrial and commercial wastewater treatments.

  13. Desenvolvimento de mudas de pupunheira em Latossolo argiloso compactado artificialmente em subsuperfície Peach palm seedlings development in artificiality subsurface compacted clayly Latossol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bordin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. cultivadas em amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico de textura argilosa compactado artificialmente em subsuperfície. As amostras de solo que foram compactadas a quatro níveis de densidade (1,0; 1,13; 1,28 e 1,44kg dm-3 estavam nas camadas intermediárias de 3,5cm de vasos de PVC de 20cm de diâmetro, que constavam de outras camadas superiores de 15cm e inferiores de 10cm. As avaliações foram realizadas em quatro épocas (4, 6, 8 e 10 meses. O aumento dos níveis de densidade do solo não influenciou no desenvolvimento da parte aérea das mudas de pupunheira. Independentemente da época estudada, os níveis de densidade do Latossolo argiloso não impediram a penetração das raízes da pupunheira.This study was carried out to evaluate the development of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. seedlings submitted to artificiality subsurface compacted layers of a clayly texture eutroferric Red Latossol. The compacted soil was at the middle ring of the PVC pots. They were 20cm of diameter, divided in tree rings with 15; 3,5 and 10cm from the up side. The soil was submitted to four density levels (1,0; 1,13; 1,28 and 1,44kg dm-3, which determined the treatments. The evaluations were accomplished in four times (4, 6, 8 and 10 months. The increase of the soil density levels didn't influence in the development of the aerial part of the peach palm seedlings. Independent of the studied time, the clayly Latossol density levels, didn't prevent the peach palm roots penetration.

  14. Qualidade do palmito da palmeira real em conserva Industrial adaptability of the heart of palm from Archontophoenix alexandrae and A. cunninghamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Aparecida Garcia Berbari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o aproveitamento industrial e a qualidade do palmito da palmeira Real Australiana (Archontophoenix alexandrae e A. cunninghamiana em comparação aos palmitos das palmeiras Açaí (Euterpe oleracea e Pupunha (Bactris gasipaes. O palmito foi processado como conserva acidificada e pasteurizada e submetido às análises de comprimento e diâmetro dos toletes, peso bruto, líquido e drenado, espaço livre, vácuo, pH, avaliação microbiológica, cor e textura objetivas e avaliação sensorial quanto à cor, aparência, textura, sabor e preferência geral. Os resultados da pesquisa mostraram que o palmito da palmeira Real é adequado para processamento em forma de conserva acidificada e pasteurizada, apresentando características sensoriais semelhantes às das outras variedades. Do ponto de vista da estabilidade ao armazenamento, as análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas mostraram que o palmito da palmeira Real em conserva se apresentou estável durante o período de doze meses de armazenamento. Pode-se afirmar então, que a palmeira Real Australiana apresenta boa qualidade em termos de industrialização na forma de palmito em conserva acidificada e pasteurizada.The objective of this research was to evaluate the industrial adaptability of the heart of palm from Archontophoenix alexandrae e A. cunninghamiana in comparison with "Açaí" (Euterpe oleracea and "Pupunha" (Bactris gasipaes hearts. The heart of palm was canned acidified and pasteurized and analyzed in terms of stems length and diameter, the gross, net and drained weight, headspace; pH; vacuum; microbiological evaluation, objective color and texture and sensorial evaluation of color, appearance, texture, taste and general preference. The results showed that Australian royal palm is adequate for the process of acidified canning and pasteurization since it presented sensorial characteristics similar to other varieties. During 12 months of storage

  15. Estudo sensorial de sopa-creme formulada à base de palmito Sensorial evaluation of cream soup formulated with heart of palm base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Azevedo Magalhães MONTEIRO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O coração da palmeira Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. (pupunha, foi utilizado sob forma desidratada na formulação de uma sopa-creme para merenda escolar. A análise sensorial dessa sopa-creme foi feita em duas partes. Testou-se a sopa-creme em adultos utilizando-se a escala hedônica variando de 1 a 9 pontos ( 1 -- "desgostei extremamente" e 9 -- "gostei extremamente", e, para crianças, a escala hedônica facial de 1 a 7 pontos ( 1- "desgostei extremamente" e 7 -- "gostei extremamente". Os resultados encontrados na análise sensorial revelaram não haver diferença significativa, quando comparadas as sopas-creme de palmito e coração da palmeira, para adultos; quanto às crianças, a sopa-creme de coração da palmeira alcançou o "gostei moderadamente". Esses podem ser considerados bons resultados, uma vez que o palmito não faz parte do hábito alimentar destas crianças.The utilization of the sub-product of processing of Bactris gasipaes was studied using a dehydration process for processed food (soup-cream to be used in school snacks. The sensorial analysis by a standard-formulation for soup-cream obtained by the early tests was made. An hedonic analysis ranging from 1 to 9 (1- "I extremely disliked it" and 9- "I extremely liked it" was used for sensorial analysis in adults; and a facial hedonic analysis ranging from 1 to 7 (1- "I extremely disliked it" and 7- "I extremely liked it" was used for children. The sensorial analysis revealed no diferences between the soup-cream of the heart of palm and that of the palm stipes for adults; for children, the rating of the soup-cream of palm stipes reached "I sort of liked it"> These can be taken as good results since heart of palm is not a common meal for the children in that sample.

  16. O uso do camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, para confecção de artesanato no Distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brasil The use of the camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, for handicraft in the District of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Maria Bortolotto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, conhecida localmente como camalote, é uma planta aquática nativa da América do Sul, abundante no Pantanal. Os índios Guató usavam essa planta no Pantanal para a confecção de esteiras para dormir. Atualmente a comunidade não indígena do distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, está fazendo artesanato com essa planta. O processo foi ensinado por uma índia Guató (74 anos que manteve a tradição de trançar o camalote. O uso do camalote para a confecção de artesanato é descrito aqui. O método utilizado inclui entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação participante. A extração do camalote é feita nos rios, corixos e lagoas da região. As folhas são cortadas e somente os pecíolos são transportados para casa, lavados em água corrente e colocados para secar ao sol. Depois de secos os pecíolos são trançados e costurados. A técnica original dos Guató consiste em costurar o artesanato com linhas confeccionadas com algodão (Gossypium sp. ou tucum (Bactris sp., atualmente substituídos por fios de nylon, em Albuquerque. O artesanato é vendido aos turistas.Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, known locally as camalote, is an aquatic plant indigenous to South America, abundant in the Pantanal, Brazil. Guató Indians used it for making sleeping mats in the Pantanal. The non-Indian community of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, nowadays, is also using it for the same purposes. An ancient Guató Indian 74 years old taught the process. The use of the camalote for handicraft in Albuquerque is described here. The methods of investigation included both semi structured interviews and participant observations. The extraction of the camalote is made on the rivers, corixos and lagoons of the area. The leaf blades are cut and only petioles are carried to the houses, washed in clear water, and dried in the sun. After dried, the petioles are woven and sewed. The Guató original technique consists of sewing the craft

  17. Nutrição mineral de mudas de pupunheira sob diferentes níveis de salinidade Mineral nutrition of peach palm seedlings under different salinity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available O potencial produtivo das plantas pode ser afetado por desordens nutricionais, induzidas pelo estresse salino. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência de diferentes níveis de salinidade na nutrição mineral de mudas de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., mediante o uso de solução nutritiva, em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram das seguintes doses (mmol L-1: 0,0 de Na e 0,5 de Cl; 1,0 de Na e 0,5 de Cl (controle; e 5,0, 15,0, 30,0, 60,0 e 120,0 de NaCl. Os teores dos macronutrientes variaram em razão da salinidade, e verificou-se que o P e K apresentaram seus teores reduzidos nas raízes, o K e o Ca, nas folhas e o S, nas diferentes partes, enquanto o Na e o Cl apresentaram teores incrementados nas diferentes partes da planta. As relações Na/K, Na/Ca, Na/Mg, Cl/N, Cl/P e Cl/S aumentaram, causando um desbalanço nutricional na planta.The productive potential of plants may be affected by nutritional disorders induced by saline stress. The objective was to study the influence of different salinity levels on mineral nutrition of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. seedlings in greenhouse conditions with nutritive solution. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the following dosages (mmol L-1: 0.0 of Na and 0.5 of Cl; 1.0 of Na and 0.5 of Cl (control; and 5.0, 15.0, 30.0, 60.0 and 120.0 of NaCl. The content of the macronutrients varied with the salinity, there was reduction of P and K in the roots, K and Ca in the leaves, and S in different parts of the plants. Therefore, there was increase of Na and Cl in different parts of the plant. The enhancement of the ratios Na/K, Na/Ca, Na/Mg, Cl/N, Cl/P and Cl/S induced a nutritional imbalance in the plant.

  18. Repetibilidade da produção de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos entre o caiaué e o dendezeiro Repeatability for bunch production in interspecific hybrids between caiaué and african oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Sánchez Chia; Ricardo Lopes; Raimundo Nonato Vieira da Cunha; Raimundo Nonato Carvalho da Rocha; Maria Teresa Gomes Lopes

    2009-01-01

    A hibridação interespecífica entre o caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth) Cortés) e o dendezeiro (E. guineensis Jacq.) tem sido explorada com o objetivo de desenvolver cultivares tão produtivas quanto as de dendezeiro, aliada à resistência a pragas e doenças, principalmente o amarelecimento fatal, elevada taxa de ácidos graxos insaturados e redução de porte características do caiaué. Por ser uma cultura perene com longo ciclo de produção, além dos altos custos para manutenção e avaliação dos exper...

  19. Development of tablets containing semipurified extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudi Klein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the technological feasibility of producing a semipurified extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae in tablet form, using a direct-compression process. Maltodextrin and gum arabic were used to produce the extract microparticles, in order to protect the microparticles against such factors as temperature, oxidation, and humidity. Using pharmacopoeial methodologies, technological and physicochemistry tests (determination of residual moisture, of bulk and tapped density, Hausner ratio, compressibility and compactibility index, appearance, mean weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time, determination of EPA amount in tablets and in vitro release profile were conducted. The formulation containing 200 mg of microparticles, 170 mg microcrystalline cellulose, and 10 mg lactose gave the best results in terms of hardness (116 N, friabilility (0.28%, mean weight (0.3821 g, and disintegration time (25 min for a tablet designed for oral administration. The results met pharmacopoeial specifications, and the tablets are suitable for oral administration.

  20. Development of tablets containing semipurified extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudi Klein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the technological feasibility of producing a semipurified extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae in tablet form, using a direct-compression process. Maltodextrin and gum arabic were used to produce the extract microparticles, in order to protect the microparticles against such factors as temperature, oxidation, and humidity. Using pharmacopoeial methodologies, technological and physicochemistry tests (determination of residual moisture, of bulk and tapped density, Hausner ratio, compressibility and compactibility index, appearance, mean weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time, determination of EPA amount in tablets and in vitro release profile were conducted. The formulation containing 200 mg of microparticles, 170 mg microcrystalline cellulose, and 10 mg lactose gave the best results in terms of hardness (116 N, friabilility (0.28%, mean weight (0.3821 g, and disintegration time (25 min for a tablet designed for oral administration. The results met pharmacopoeial specifications, and the tablets are suitable for oral administration.

  1. Drying of Echinodorus macrophyllus and autoclaving and lyophilization of the fluid-extract: effects on the pharmacochemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronam V. Flor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Some pharmaceutical industries of phytomedicines are using conservation procedures (drying, autoclaving, in an attempt to avoid medicinal plants degradation, and of their fluid-extracts. Or, by adopting techniques adequate to foods, which not always are appropriate. On this sense, there is less research with Brazilian plants, causing some difficulties for their use as raw material by the domestic industry. Thus, the effects of drying at various temperatures or irradiation with microwaves, as well as autoclaving or lyophilization of the fluid-extract of samples collected in natura of Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth Micheli, Alismataceae, on the pharmacochemical composition were analyzed. At the research for chemical groups, the preponderating presence of flavones and coumarin derivatives was observed. The chromatographic profiles of the flavonic extracts were analyzed by TLC and HPLC and the levels of total flavonoids were determined. According to the results obtained, qualitative and quantitative changes were caused by the various processes employed.

  2. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvio R. Mendes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  3. Gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) effects on active substances and microbe burden of medicinal plants; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama (Co{sup 60}) sobre principios ativos e carga microbiana de plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Agnol, L. [Herbarium Laboratorio Botanico Ltda, Colombo, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Garantia da Qualidade

    2001-04-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of radioactivity on active vegetal substances, samples of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller., fructus), Guarana (Paulinia cupana, Kunth, semen), Gingko (gingko biloba, L., folium), and Kawa-Kawa (Piper methysticum G. Forst, rhizoma), were treated with scaling doses (0 to 25 KGy) of gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}). The 'blind test' methodology was used. The active substances from each sample were analysed by qualitative and quantitative methods after radiation. There were no significant differences seen between the control sample (0 KGy) and the irradiated samples. Microbe contamination was significantly reduced, about 10000 CFU/g, with the initial 5 KGy dose. It was concluded that gamma radiation can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce microbiologic contamination in medicinal plants. Before this procedure can be extended to other medicinal plants, more specific analytical methods are recommended to verify possible structural alterations in active vegetal molecules. (author)

  4. Experimental evaluation and simulation of volumetric shrinkage and warpage on polymeric composite reinforced with short natural fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jonnathan D.; Fajardo, Jorge I.; Cuji, Alvaro R.; García, Jaime A.; Garzón, Luis E.; López, Luis M.

    2015-09-01

    A polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composite is developed by extrusion and injection molding process. The shrinkage and warpage of high-density polyethylene reinforced with short natural fibers of Guadua angustifolia Kunth are analyzed by experimental measurements and computer simulations. Autodesk Moldflow® and Solid Works® are employed to simulate both volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts at different configurations: 0 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 40 wt.% reinforcing on shrinkage and warpage behavior of polymer composite. Become evident the restrictive effect of reinforcing on the volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts. The results indicate that volumetric shrinkage of natural composite is reduced up to 58% with fiber increasing, whereas the warpage shows a reduction form 79% to 86% with major fiber content. These results suggest that it is a highly beneficial use of natural fibers to improve the assembly properties of polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composites.

  5. Longevidade de inflorescências de Epidendrum ibaguense tratadas com aminoetoxivinilglicina Extending vase life of cut Epidendrum ibaguense inflorescences with aminoethoxyvinylglycine

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Mapeli; Fernando Luiz Finger; Lucilene Silva Oliveira; José Geraldo Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do inibidor da síntese de etileno aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG) aplicado na forma de solução de condicionamento e pulverização sobre a abscisão e longevidade de inflorescências de Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth. As hastes foram colhidas e imediatamente condicionadas em solução com 0, 0,5, 1, 1,5 e 2 mM de AVG por 6, 12, 18 e 24 horas. Os mesmos tratamentos foram aplicados na forma de pulverização até o molhamento completo da inflorescência. O expe...

  6. The Genus Pithomyces in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. O. Marasas

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions are given of South African isolates of  Pithomyces sacchari (Speg. M. B. Ellis, Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt. M. B. Ellis and  Pithomyces karoo  Marasas & Schumann, sp. nov.  P. sacchari and P. chartarum were isolated from Medicago sativa L. seed.  P. chartarum was also isolated from dead leaves of Lolium perenne L. and  Sporobolus capensis (Willd. Kunth. plants from artificial pastures in the eastern Cape Province.  P. karoo was isolated from stems of Gnidia polycephala (C.A. Mey. Gilg and  Rhigozum trichotomum Burch, from the Karoo, Cape Province and from Avena sativa L. stubble collected in the Orange Free State.

  7. Aliso en simbiosis dual con frankia y endomicorrizas y respuesta a boro en un andisol

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Sierra, Marisol; Velásquez Restrepo, Jesús Oswaldo; Pinzón Sarmiento, Luz Mary

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. Se evaluó la respuesta del aliso (Alnus acuminata Kunth) a la inoculación dual con cepas de Frankia spp. y de hongos endomicorrizógenos con dos niveles de boro (B) (0,3 y 0,6 mg kg-1 suelo) y la aplicación de nitrógeno (N) (40 kg ha-1), fósforo (P) (30 mg kg-1 suelo) y un control sin inoculación ni elementos químicos. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con 41 tratamientos y 20 repeticiones. Para el análisis estadístico de componentes principales se empleó el programa Mul...

  8. Aliso en Simbiosis Dual con Frankia y Endomicorrizas y Respuesta a Boro en un Andisol Alder in Dual Symbiosis whith Frankia and Endomycorrhizae and Response at Boron in an Andisol

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Medina Sierra; Jesús Oswaldo Velásquez Restrepo; Luz Mary Pinzón Sarmiento

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. Se evaluó la respuesta del aliso (Alnus acuminata Kunth) a la inoculación dual con cepas de Frankia spp. y de hongos endomicorrizógenos con dos niveles de boro (B) (0,3 y 0,6 mg kg-1 suelo) y la aplicación de nitrógeno (N) (40 kg ha-1), fósforo (P) (30 mg kg-1 suelo) y un control sin inoculación ni elementos químicos. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con 41 tratamientos y 20 repeticiones. Para el análisis estadístico de componentes principales se empleó el programa Mul...

  9. Ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes and Gyrodon monticola with Alnus acuminata from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Alejandra; Nouhra, Eduardo; Daniele, Graciela; Domínguez, Laura; McKay, Donaraye

    2005-01-01

    Field ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes Moser, Matheny & Daniele (sp. nov) and Gyrodon monticola Sing. on Alnus acuminata Kunth (Andean alder, aliso del cerro) are described based on morphological and anatomical features. Ectomycorrhizal roots were sampled beneath fruitbodies of C. helodes and G. monticola from two homogeneous A. acuminata forest sites located in Tucuman and Catamarca Provinces in Argentina. C. helodes ectomycorrhizas showed a thick white to beige mantle exuding a milky juice when injured, were bluish toward the apex, and had hyphal strands in the mantle. G. monticola ectomycorrhizas showed some conspicuous features like highly differentiated rhizomorphs, inflated brown cells on the mantle surface, and hyaline and brown emanating hyphae with dolipores. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer provided a distinctive profile for each of the collections of fruitbodies and the mycorrhizal morphotypes. PMID:14648309

  10. Anatomical and molecular characterization of Lactarius aff. omphaliformis, Russula alnijorullensis and Cortinarius tucumanensis ectomycorrhizae on Alnus acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Alejandra; Beenken, Ludwig; Pritsch, Karin; Daniele, Graciela; Schloter, Michael; Agerer, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) of Lactarius aff. omphaliformis Romagn., Russula alnijorullensis (Sing.) Sing. and Cortinarius tucumanensis Mos. on Andean alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth) were characterized and identified. The identification of the fungal symbionts was achieved by morpho-anatomical observations of mycorrhizae and by comparison of ITS-RFLP patterns obtained from ECM and fruitbodies. L. aff omphaliformis ECM differed in some morphological details such as ramification and mantle type from ECM of the same species on A. glutinosa. L. aff omphaliformis ECM show an orange to ochre mantle containing latex cells, which stain with sulpho-vanillin, emanating hyphae without clamps. R. alnijorullensis ECM represent a typical Russula-type-ECM, light yellow to pinkish, the outer mantle being composed of triangular latex-filled cells staining with sulpho-vanillin, emanating hyphae without clamps. C. tucumanensis ECM exhibit a white (silvery) to yellowish brown mantle covered with soil particles, emanating hyphae with clamps. PMID:16596956

  11. The structural behaviour of laminated-guadua panels under parallel plane loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jacobo Pinilla Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Universidad Nacional de Colombia "Analysis, Design and Materials - GIES" research group tested two types of panels made from Guadua angustifolia Kunth and poly vinyl acetate (PVA as a first step in studying the behaviour of laminated guadua frames having panels of the same material under seismic load: type 1 panels had a solid cross-section and type 2 panels a sandwich cross-section.Each type of panel had three different heights and 10 replicates were tested for each type and height (60 trials in total.Each panel’s load compared to displacement curve was found; 0.34m and 0.63m type1 panels had initial elastic behaviour followed by inelastic behaviour while 0.98 m panels made of both types had an almost completely elastic behaviour until failure. All panels became crushed at their base; however, the main failure mechanism was warping.

  12. Conocimiento de seis especies arbustivas utilizadas como plantas nodrizas en el occidente de Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Martínez-Arévalo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En la restauración de ecosistemas, una técnica es utilizar arbustos de la sucesión como nodriza. En la parte alta de San Marcos, Guatemala, se ha recurrido al menos a seis de ellos en el establecimiento de pino y pinabete: arrayán (Baccharis vaccinoides Kunth, salvia (Buddleia megalocephala Donn. Sm., mozote (Acaena elongata L., chicajol (Stevia polycephala Bertol, mora (Rubus trilobus Ser. y malacate (Symphoricarpos microphyllus Kunth. Se carece de la documentación de su comportamiento y características que puedan servir para utilizarlas ampliamente como plantas protectoras. En esta investigación se estudió características in situ y reproductivas de estas especies. Entre los principales resultados está que la altura de plantas es de 1.17 a 2.64 m y cobertura de 0.34 a 2.77 m2, con una amplia variación entre y dentro de especies. La cantidad de frutos/planta va desde 90 en S. microphyllus a 59,400 en B. vaccinioides. La propagación vegetativa en campo estuvo entre 48 a 92 %, mayor que cuando se realizó en vivero, donde B. vaccinoides, S. microphyllus y R. trilobus tuvieron mejor respuesta. La propagación por semilla muestra que las seis especies pueden reproducirse adecuadamente. Estos resultados permiten su reproducción en viveros para su uso en restauración ecológica.

  13. 初探山慈姑及其伪品对酪氨酸酶活性的影响%Effects of Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino and Spurious Breed on Activity of Tyrosinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小容; 王慧娟; 贺定祥; 周英

    2009-01-01

    Objective The effects of Cremastra appendicidata (D. Don) Makino and spurious breed on the activity of tyrosinase were studied. Methods Tyrosinase activity was determined by the dopachrome method using L - DOPA as the substrate and the a-mount of dopachrome in the reactiom mixture was measured by spectrophotometer. Tyrosine was identified by TLC. Results The results showed that the Cremastra appendicidata ( D. Don) Makino significantly increased the activity of tyrosinase, but the Rhizo-ma Bletillae inhibited . The Cremastra appendicidata (D. Don) Makino, Iphigenia indica Kunth et Benth and Tinospora capilipes Gagnep had tyrosine. Conclusion Tyrosine is one of the major components of the Cremastra appendicidata (D.Don) Makino, Iphigenia indica Kunth et Benth and Tinospora capilipes Gagnep to stimulate the activity of tyrosinase.%目的 初探山慈姑及其伪品对酪氨酸酶活性的影响.方法 采用多巴色素法,底物为L-多巴,测定山慈姑及其伪品提取物对酪氨酸酶的激活作用;薄层色谱法对药材中的酪氨酸进行定性鉴别.结果 山慈姑的激活作用最高,丽江山慈姑和金果榄作用不明显,白及呈抑制作用;薄层检测显示山慈姑、丽江山慈姑和金果榄中含有酪氨酸.结论 初步认为酪氨酸为山慈姑等激活酪氨酸酶活性作用的主要成分之一.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates in mouse ears treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Pérez, Nallely; Ayala-Martínez, Maricela; Zepeda-Bastida, Armando; Meneses-Mayo, Marcos; Ojeda-Ramírez, Deyanira

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the application of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates, enriched or not with medicinal herbs, as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. Subjects and Methods: P. ostreatus was cultivated on five different substrates: Barley straw (BS) and BS combined 80:20 with medicinal herbs (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [BS/CA], Rosmarinus officinalis L. [BS/RO], Litsea glaucescens Kunth [BS/LG], and Tagetes lucida Cav. [BS/TL]). The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) (4 mg/ear) was studied using an acute inflammation model in the mouse ear induced with 2.5 μg/ear 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA). Results: Groups treated with BS/CA, BS/RO, and BS/LG aqueous extracts exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity (94.0% ± 5.5%, 92.9% ± 0.6%, and 90.4% ± 5.0% inhibition of auricular edema [IAO], respectively), and these effects were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the positive control indomethacin (0.5 mg/ear). BS/TL and BS were also able to reduce TPA-induced inflammation but to a lesser extent (70.0% ± 6.7% and 43.5% ± 6.6% IAO, respectively). Conclusions: Spent P. ostreatus substrate of BS possesses a slight anti-inflammatory effect. The addition of CA L. to mushroom substrate showed a slightly synergistic effect while RO L. had an additive effect. In addition, LG Kunth and TL Cav. enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of SMS. However, to determine whether there is a synergistic or additive effect, it is necessary to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of each medicinal herb. PMID:27127316

  15. Levantamento florístico de um trecho de floresta serrana no planalto de Garanhuns, Estado de Pernambuco - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2120 Flora survey of a mountain forest stretch in Garanhuns, state of Pernambuco - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesus Nogueira Rodal

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa contribuir para o conhecimento da flora dos brejos de altitude do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Foi realizado o levantamento florístico de um remanescente de floresta estacional semidecidual Montana, localizado na Fazenda Monteiro (8º53’25”S’ e 36º 29’34”W’, Garanhuns, Pernambuco. As coletas de material botânico tiveram início no mês de julho de 1998, representando os diferentes hábitos. O material coletado foi processado segundo os métodos usuais em taxonomia. Foram registradas 69 espécies, acomodadas em 58 gêneros e 31 famílias, com destaque pelo maior número de espécies para: Euphorbiaceae (06, Asteraceae e Caesalpiniaceae (05, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae e Solanaceae (04. Dentre as espécies ocorrentes na área em estudo, verificaram-se: Senna rizzinii Irwin & Barneby, Casearia sylvestris Swartz., Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. MorongThe aim of this paper is to contribute for the flora information of marsh forests in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. A flora survey of a semi-deciduous mountain stationary forest located in Garanhuns plateau, in Monteiro farm (latitude 8º53’25”S and longitude 36º29’34”, in Garanhuns, Pernambuco was carried out. The botanical material collection started in July 1998, representing different habits. The collected material was processed according to methods adopted in plant taxonomy. 69 species were recorded, allocated in 58 genre and 31 families, standing out by the greatest number of species to: Euphorbiaceae (06, Asteraceae and Caesalpiniaceae (05, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae and Solanaceae (04 each. Amongest the species studied, Senna rizzinii Irwin & Barneby, Casearia sylvestris Swartz, Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong were verified

  16. Frutos tropicales como fuente de carotenoides: biosíntesis, composición, biodisponibilidad y efectos del procesamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Chacón Ordóñez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los carotenoides son compuestos sintetizados a partir del isopentenil difosfato y pueden ser encontrados en una gran diversidad de frutos. Estos pigmentos han sido de interés por sus beneficios en la salud y sus aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria. Existen muchos factores que pueden afectar su concentración y biodisponibilidad para el ser humano; entre ellas las condiciones de cultivo, el manejo poscosecha y el procesamiento que se les dé a los frutos antes de ser consumidos. Esta revisión se enfoca en los conocimientos actuales sobre aspectos relevantes de los carotenoides en diferentes frutos tropicales como la acerola (Malpighia sp., camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia, mango (Mangifera indica, naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, papaya (Carica papaya, pitanga (Eugenia uniflora, pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia aculeata y zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota, para presentar el estado del conocimiento y recomendar aspectos importantes para futuras investigaciones en este campo.

  17. Enzyme characterisation, isolation and cDNA cloning of polyphenol oxidase in the hearts of palm of three commercially important species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Milton Massao; Melo, Geraldo Aclécio; Brombini Dos Santos, Adriana; Bottcher, Alexandra; Cesarino, Igor; Araújo, Pedro; Magalhães Silva Moura, Jullyana Cristina; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    Heart of palm (palmito) is the edible part of the apical meristem of palms and is considered a gourmet vegetable. Palmitos from the palms Euterpe edulis (Juçara) and Euterpe oleracea (Açaí) oxidise after harvesting, whereas almost no oxidation is observed in palmitos from Bactris gasipaes (Pupunha). Previous investigations showed that oxidation in Juçara and Açaí was mainly attributable to polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.14.18.1) activity. In this study, we partially purified PPOs from these three palmitos and analysed them for SDS activation, substrate specificity, inhibition by specific inhibitors, thermal stability, optimum pH and temperature conditions, Km and Ki. In addition, the total phenolic content and chlorogenic acid content were determined. Two partial cDNA sequences were isolated and sequenced from Açaí (EoPPO1) and Juçara (EePPO1). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR expression assays showed that Açaí and Juçara PPOs were strongly expressed in palmitos and weakly expressed in leaves. No amplification was observed for Pupunha samples. The lack of oxidation in the palmito Pupunha might be explained by the low PPO expression, low enzyme activity or the phenolic profile, particularly the low content of chlorogenic acid. PMID:21530289

  18. An analysis of modern pollen rain from the Maya lowlands of northern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Frutos tropicales como fuente de carotenoides: biosíntesis, composición, biodisponibilidad y efectos del procesamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Chacón Ordóñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los carotenoides son compuestos sintetizados a partir del isopentenil difosfato y pueden ser encontrados en una gran diversidad de frutos. Estos pigmentos han sido de interés por sus beneficios en la salud y sus aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria. Existen muchos factores que pueden afectar su concentración y biodisponibilidad para el ser humano; entre ellas las condiciones de cultivo, el manejo poscosecha y el procesamiento que se les dé a los frutos antes de ser consumidos. Esta revisión se enfoca en los conocimientos actuales sobre aspectos relevantes de los carotenoides en diferentes frutos tropicales como la acerola (Malpighia sp., camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia, mango (Mangifera indica, naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, papaya (Carica papaya, pitanga (Eugenia uniflora, pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., ora-pro-nobis (Pereskia aculeata y zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota, para presentar el estado del conocimiento y recomendar aspectos importantes para futuras investigaciones en este campo.

  20. Palmeras usadas por los indígenas Asháninkas en la Amazonía Peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sosnowska

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra el conocimiento e importancia de las palmeras en la vida de los nativos Asháninkas. Presentamos una descripción cualitativa y cuantitativa de 32 entrevistas, obtenidos durante la visita a siete comunidades nativas ubicadas en los márgenes de los ríos Perené y Tambo en el departamento Junín, Perú. Registramos 15 especies de palmeras usadas por los Asháninkas, agrupadas bajo cinco categorías de uso: alimenticio, construcción, herramienta, ornamental y medicinal. Las especies con usos más amplios son: Attalea phalerata, Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua y Socratea exorhiza. Las partes de las palmeras más utilizadas son los frutos, principalmente gracias a su valor comestible. La cercanía de las comunidades Asháninkas del valle del Perené a ciudades, influirían en un cambio en el tipo de vida tradicional, donde las palmeras son los más importantes recursos naturales utilizados por ellos. Sin embargo, en las comunidades del valle Tambo la vida tradicional, el conocimiento y practica en el uso de las palmeras esta aún vital

  1. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99 and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0 were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202, providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112, suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20 participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy.

  2. Minor components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, M. F.G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the characterization of minor compounds in oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brazil, i.e. bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare. The concentration of minor glyceridic compounds, i.e. dimeric triacylglycerols (TAG, the oxidized TAG and diacylglycerols (DAG related to oil quality, and the compounds of unsaponifiable matter, i.e. hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, sterols and tocopherols have been determined. The results indicate that the extracted oils had good initial quality, with DAG as the major glyceridic compound. The contents of hydrocarbons (50-734 mg·kg–1 and aliphatic alcohols (80-490 mg·kg–1 were highly variable with inajá oil containing the highest contents. In the case of tocopherols, buriti (1567 mg·kg–1 and tucumã (483 mg·kg–1 oils had the highest contents and the presence of significant amounts of tocotrienols was only detected in inajá oil. Finally, high concentrations of sterols were found in all the samples, particularly in the oils from pupunha (4456 mg·kg–1 and tucumã (2708 mg·kg–1, with β-sitosterol being the major sterol in all the samples with percentages between 65 and 83%.El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización de los componentes menores presentes en los aceites obtenidos del mesocarpio de frutos de especies de bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupuña (Bactris gasipaes y tucumá (Astrocaryum vulgare, de importante producción en el Estado de Amapá, Brasil. Se determinaron las dos principales fracciones presentes en los aceites. Por una parte, los compuestos menores derivados de los componentes mayoritarios o triglicéridos (TAG: dímeros de TAG, TAG oxidados y diglicéridos (DAG relacionados con la calidad de los aceites y, por otra, los principales grupos

  3. Carotenoid composition in oils obtained from palm fruits from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, M. F.G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The oils obtained from native palm fruits are considered new sources of high added value phytochemicals, making it necessary to know the composition of the less studied species in order to evaluate their economic potential. The objective of this study is to identify and quantify the arotenoids in palm fruit oils from the Brazilian Amazon: bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare, by means of liquid phase extraction and HPLC-UV-vis. analysis. The results showed an extremely variable carotenoid content, from 13 mg·kg−1 in bacaba oil to more than 1000 mg·kg−1 in the tucumã one. The oils obtained from buriti, pupunha and tucumã displayed high concentrations of ß-carotene, corresponding to fruits with the series ß, ß dominant metabolism. Upon analyzing the carotenoid profile in bacaba oil for the first time, an extraordinary dominance of the ß, ε pathway was observed, proving them to be oils with high lutein and α-carotene contents. Although the ß, ß pathway dominates in inajá oil, the exclusive and high lycopene content implies that LCY-E is barely active in these fruits, in contrast to what has been evidenced so far. It is therefore of the utmost importance to characterize these new potential sources of carotenoids.Los aceites obtenidos a partir de frutos de palmeras nativas son considerados nuevas fuentes de fitoquímicos con alto valor añadido siendo necesario conocer la composición de las especies menos exploradas para evaluar su potencial económico. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar y cuantificar los carotenoides en aceites defrutos de palmeras provenientes de la Amazonia Brasileña: bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, uriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes y tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare, mediante extracción líquido:líquido y análisis por HPLC UV-vis. Los resultados mostraron un

  4. Processamento de conservas de palmito caulinar de pupunha contendo diferentes graus de acidez Processing of canned stalk-of-palm containing different degrees of acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma das vantagens da pupunha (Bactris gasipaes para produção de palmito é seu rendimento, relativamente alto, de palmito caulinar, que pode ser processado de diversas formas. O procedimento de acidificação é essencial para a qualidade dessas conservas no sentido de resultar produtos seguros para o consumo. A pesquisa teve por proposta determinar a suficiência do procedimento de acidificação, aplicado ao processamento de conservas de palmito caulinar para abaixar o pH do palmito in natura até pH seguro dentro das conservas, que, segundo a norma oficial, deve permanecer no equilíbrio igual ou abaixo de 4,5. O processamento que projetou uma acidificação para produzir no equilíbrio pH 4,3 resultou em algumas conservas contendo valores de pH superiores a 4,5, portanto, em desacordo com a norma oficial. No entanto, nos processamentos em que foi projetado para o equilíbrio o pH 4,2 ou 3,9, todas as conservas foram seguras para o consumo. Assim, foi concluído que, para resultar em segurança alimentar, a execução do procedimento de acidificação deve projetar para o pH de equilíbrio um valor abaixo de 4,3, independentemente da salmoura escolhida para a conserva.One of the advantages of pupunha (Bactris gasipaes for the production of heart of palm is a relatively high heart of palm yield obtained from stems, which can be processed in a number of ways. The acidification procedure is essential for the quality of the canned when it comes to yielding products that are safe for consumption. This research aimed to determine whether the acidification procedure, when applied to the processing of canned stalk-of-palm, is sufficient to lower the pH value of fresh stalk-of-palm to a safe value, which, according to official regulations, should remain equal to or below 4.5 when in equilibrium. The processing that projected an acidification that would produce a pH value of 4.3 when in equilibrium resulted in some canned containing pH values higher

  5. Major components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, M. F. G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Native palm trees belong to the Arecaceae family and are among the most useful plant resources in the Amazons. Despite its great diversity and various uses, few species have been study in detail, which makes it necessary to perform more comprehensive studies on the quality and composition of species not yet explored. This study deals with the characterization of the major compounds in the oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brasil, i.e. bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare. Physicochemical characteristics, fatty acids and triacylglycerol (TAG contents were analyzed by HPLC and GC. The proximate composition of the fruits was also analyzed. The results relating to acidity, peroxide value and polar compounds indicate good quality of the oils obtained. Oleic acid ranging from 39.2 to 71.6% and palmitic acid ranging from 20.8 to 39.6% were the two major fatty acids in all the samples. The oils from inajá were characterized by the presence of significant amounts of lauric (4.6% and miristic (10.7% acids while in bacaba, buriti, pupunha and tucumã, as in most edible vegetable oils, only the fatty acids of 16 and 18 carbon atoms were present. Accordingly, the major TAG species in all the samples were POP, POO and OOO. The mesocarp of the palm fruit had a high content in lipids ranging from 17.0% for pupunha to 38.3% for bacaba, expressed as dry basis.Las palmeras nativas de la familia Arecaceae constituyen recursos alimentarios de gran importancia en la región amazónica. A pesar de su diversidad y utilidad, muchas especies son poco conocidas por lo que son de interés los estudios dirigidos a conocer la calidad y composición de las especies menos exploradas para evaluar su potencial económico. El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización de los aceites obtenidos del mesocarpio

  6. Factores que influyen en la embriogénesis somática in vitro de palmas (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Viñas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Factors affecting in vitro somatic embryogenesis of palms (Arecaceae Resumen La embriogénesis somática (ES es una vía de desarrollo in vitro que presenta una serie de ventajas sobre otras técnicas utilizadas para la regeneración de palmas. Esta técnica tiene gran potencial para superar las limitaciones observadas al tratar de propagar clonalmente estas plantas utilizando yemas basales. A pesar de la conocida recalcitrancia que presentan las palmas al cultivo in vitro, si se utilizan los reguladores de crecimiento apropiados, el tipo y el estado de desarrollo del explante adecuados, así como genotipos con buena respuesta, es muy probable que se obtengan buenos resultados. Esto ha sido demostrado parcialmente en Phoenix dactylifera (palma dátil, Elaeis guineensis (palma aceitera, Bactris gasipaes (pejibaye y Cocos nucifera (coco. También se ha logrado generar protocolos eficientes en otras palmas menos estudiadas, como Geonoma gamiova (una palma ornamental, Euterpe edulis (palmito dulce y Areca catechu (palma de betel. La inducción de ES se ha conseguido principalmente con el uso de auxinas. De ellas, la que se ha utilizado con más frecuencia es el ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, aunque en algunos casos (como en pejibaye y palma aceitera se ha usado picloram y dicamba, también con buenos resultados. Los explantes más utilizados han sido inflorescencias, ápices y segmentos basales de hojas, todos con un estado de desarrollo incipiente. También se ha visto que el tamaño del explante y el medio de cultivo juegan un papel importante en la respuesta. En este trabajo se presenta una recopilación de los trabajos más importantes sobre ES en esta familia de plantas y del efecto de varios factores sobre su establecimiento y desarrollo. Palabras clave: Explante; genotipo; medio de cultivo; regeneración; reguladores de crecimiento

  7. Asexual propagation of peach palm by division of the clump and extraction of the off-shoots Propagação assexuada em pupunheira por divisão da touceira variando o tempo de cicatrização dos perfilhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanders BC Flores

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The peach palm (Bactris gasipaes is a native Amazonian palm tree that produces fruits and palm hearts, and is now attracting the interest of the farmers in other parts of Brazil given the economical potential of palm heart production. Traditionally the peach palm is propagated by seeds, which yield segregating progenies due to cross-pollination. To guarantee the uniformity and quality of elite selections, the alternative is the propagation of superior genotypes from off-shoots (tillers, because an efficient in vitro cultivation protocol does not exist. The objective of the present study was the development of a more appropriate technique of vegetative propagation by division of the clump, in order to multiply plants selected in the improvement program. A peach palm clump contains between 2 and 20 off-shoots after cutting for palm heart; these can be separated one from the other with iron wedges, and extracted immediately or left for recovery for subsequent extraction. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications, using a 3x5 factorial, where the factors were: height of the off-shoots (60 cm and recovery time after the separation of the off-shoots from the clump (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. The off-shoots between 30 and 60 cm and left around a month of recovery in the field after separation from the clump presented 65% of survival, while those left around four months presented 80% of survival.A pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes é uma palmeira nativa da Amazônia que produz frutos e palmitos e, atualmente está despertando o interesse dos produtores rurais em outras partes do Brasil por seu potencial econômico para produção de palmito. O método de propagação tradicionalmente utilizado na pupunheira é por sementes, a qual apresenta segregação importante devido à polinização cruzada. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma técnica mais apropriada de propagação da pupunheira por divisão de

  8. Caracterização fenotípica e genotípica de progênies de pupunheira para palmito Phenotypic and genotypic characterization in pejibayes progenies for palm heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ken-Iti Yokomizo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. é considerada a espécie com maior potencial de produção de palmitos, em substituição aos tradicionais açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. e juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart.. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar alguns parâmetros genéticos associados à avaliação de 31 progênies de meios-irmãos de pupunheiras e classificar as melhores progênies pelo teste de médias de Scott-Knott. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições, com parcelas experimentais de cinco plantas. As avaliações dos caracteres de altura da planta no momento do corte (APC, diâmetro da planta na altura do colo (DPC e peso do palmito líquido (PPL foram realizadas aos 15, 26 e 37 meses após o plantio. A população avaliada apresentou variação genética disponível para seleção e não sofreu efeito de interação com os cortes; o caráter PPL deverá ser testado com maior número de repetições, sendo o caráter mais sensível a efeitos de cortes; a razão entre o coeficiente de variação genética e o coeficiente de variação do erro indica que existem dificuldades nos processos de seleção nos caracteres avaliados; a correlação genotípica entre os caracteres DPC e PPL apresenta-se promissora para facilitar a seleção indireta do caráter PPL pelo caráter DPC. O agrupamento de médias de Scott-Knott classificou as progênies em dois grupos.The pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. is the species with the best potential in supplying the production of palm heart, in substitution to açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. and juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart. species, traditionally produced. The objectives of this work were to estimate some genetic parameters associated to the evaluation of 31 pejibayes half-sib progenies and to classify the best progenies, using the Scott-Knott test for means classification. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications, and

  9. Comparación bromatológica, microbiológica y sensorial de dos formulaciones de salchichas elaboradas con carne de conejo (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Igor Hleap Zapata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluaron dos formulaciones diferentes de salchichas elaboradas con carne de conejo, utilizando como extendedores harina de chontaduro (Bactris gasipaes y almidón modificado de maíz. Ambas formulaciones consistieron en 60% de carne de conejo, 12% de grasa de cerdo y 4% del respectivo extensor, el porcentaje restante correspondió a hielo y condimentos. Los análisis bromatológicos mostraron los contenidos siguientes (base seca: (1 en carne = 60.90% de proteína, 33.65% de grasa, 4.46% de cenizas y 0.99% de carbohidratos; (2 en salchichas elaboradas con adición de harina de chontaduro = 15.96% de proteína, 13.55% de grasa, 4.10% de cenizas, 3.42% de carbohidratos y 60.63% de humedad; y (3 en salchichas elaboradas con adición de almidón modificado de maíz = 14.54% de proteína, 11.53% de grasa, 3.81% de cenizas, 3.99% de carbohidratos y 63.42% de humedad. Las pruebas microbiológicas consistieron en el análisis de los parámetros tradicionales de calidad y seguridad, además de mediciones sensoriales utilizando pruebas afectivas de preferencia, de grado de satisfacción y de aceptación que permitieron concluir que las salchichas elaboradas presentaron características de inocuidad para el ser humano y de gran aceptación gracias a sus buenas propiedades organolépticas, resultando productos tipo Premium según la NTC 1325.

  10. Soil quality indicators in a rhodic kandiudult under different uses in northern Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biana Harumi Kuwano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of soil, maintaining or improving its quality, is one of the goals of diversification in farmlands. From this point of view, bioindicators associated with C, N and P cycling can be used in assessments of land-use effects on soil quality. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical, microbiological and biochemical properties of soil associated with C, N and P under different land uses in a farm property with diversified activity in northern Parana, Brazil. Seven areas under different land uses were assessed: fragment of native Atlantic Forest; growing of peach-palm (Bactrys gasipaes; sugarcane ratoon (Saccharum officinarum recently harvested, under renewal; growing of coffee (Coffea arabica intercropped with tree species; recent reforestation (1 year with native tree species, previously under annual crops; annual crops under no-tillage, rye (Cecale cereale; secondary forest, regenerated after abandonment (for 20 years of an avocado (Persea americana orchard. The soil under coffee, recent reforestation and secondary forest showed higher concentrations of organic carbon, but microbial biomass and enzyme activities were higher in soils under native forest and secondary forest, which also showed the lowest metabolic coefficient, followed by the peach-palm area. The lowest content of water-dispersible clay was found in the soil under native forest, differing from soils under sugarcane and secondary forest. Soil cover and soil use affected total organic C contents and soil enzyme and microbial activities, such that more intensive agricultural uses had deeper impacts on the indicators assessed. Calculation of the mean soil quality index showed that the secondary forest was closest to the fragment of native forest, followed by the peach-palm area, coffee-growing area, annual crop area, the area of recent reforestation and the sugarcane ratoon area.

  11. Systematic screening of plant extracts from the Brazilian Pantanal with antimicrobial activity against bacteria with cariogenic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, F L; Salvador, M J; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Delbem, Ádina Cleia Bottazzo; Oliveira, M A C; Soares, C P; Freitas, L S F; Koga-Ito, C Y

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a bioprospection methodology regarding the antimicrobial potential of plant extracts against bacteria with cariogenic relevance. Sixty extracts were obtained from ten plants--(1) Jatropha weddelliana, (2) Attalea phalerata, (3) Buchenavia tomentosa, (4) Croton doctoris, (5) Mouriri elliptica, (6) Mascagnia benthamiana, (7) Senna aculeata, (8) Unonopsis guatterioides, (9) Allagoptera leucocalyx and (10) Bactris glaucescens--using different extraction methods - (A) 70° ethanol 72 h/25°C, (B) water 5 min/100°C, (C) water 1 h/55°C, (D) water 72 h/25°C, (E) hexane 72 h/25°C and (F) 90° ethanol 72 h/25°C. The plants were screened for antibacterial activity at 50 mg/ml using the agar well diffusion test against Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 19039, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35688, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556, Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 33478 and Streptococcus mitis ATCC 9811. The active extracts were tested to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), cytotoxicity and chemical characterization. Forty-seven extracts (78%) were active against at least one microorganism. Extract 4A demonstrated the lowest MIC and MBC for all microorganisms except S. gordonii and the extract at MIC concentration was non-cytotoxic. The concentrated extracts were slightly cytotoxic. Electrospray ionization with tandem mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that the extract constituents coincided with the mass of the terpenoids and phenolics. Overall, the best results were obtained for extraction methods A, B and C. The present work proved the antimicrobial activity of several plants. Particularly, extracts from C. doctoris were the most active against bacteria involved in dental caries disease. PMID:24603299

  12. Números cromosómicos en especies sudamericanas andinas de Lupinus (Leguminosae CHROMOSOME NUMBERS IN SOUTH AMERICAN ANDEAN SPECIES OF LUPINUS (LEGUMINOSAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Fiess Camillo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Se determinó el número cromosómico en 22 poblaciones de 16 especies del género Lupinus
    L. de la región Andina. Todos presentaron 2n=48 cromosomas con excepción de L.
    bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36. Estos son los primeros recuentos cromosómicos para L.
    arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L. chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L.
    lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P. Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus
    C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L. pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L.
    smithianus Kunth y L. tominensis Wedd. Este trabajo también confirmó recuentos
    cromosómicos para L. mutabilis Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 y L. bandelierae
    (2n=36. Los resultados claramente confirman que, citológicamente, la mayoría de los Lupinus
    andinos son más próximos de las especies norteamericanas qué a las del este de América del
    Sur
    Chromosome numbers were determined in 22 accessions of 16 Lupinus L. species from the
    Andean region. All had 2n=48 chromosomes, except L. bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36.
    These are the first chromosome countings for L. arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L.
    chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L. lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P.
    Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L.
    pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L. smithianus Kunth and L. tominensis Wedd.
    The present study also confirmed literature data on chromosome numbers of L. mutabilis
    Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 and L. bandelierae (2n=36. The results clearly
    confirm that, cytologically, the vast majority of Andean species are closer to the North
    American than to the eastern South American taxa

  13. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina Especies de moscas blancas (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae sobre plantas silvestres y cultivadas en la región hortícola de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G. Gonsebatt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies of economic importance are polyphagous, being able to develop on a large number of cultivated and spontaneous plants. We recorded the whitefly species on vegetable and flower crops and the wild plants associated, under greenhouse and field conditions, for two years. We observed two species: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood and the Bemisia tabaci complex (Gennadius. T vaporariorum was recorded on 24 plant species (11 families, 12 and 8 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The B. tabaci complex was recorded only on flower production systems, on 19 plant species (11 families, 14 and 7 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The crops Glycine max (L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., the wild species Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. and Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken were hosts of both species. The only parasitoid recorded was Eretmocerus californicus near corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae from T. vaporariorum. This study, which is the first systematic survey of host plants in the region, intends to provide a better knowledge of the range of whiteflies host plants in Argentina.Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para

  14. Anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de cuatro especies de Lupinus (Fabaceae Foliar and petiole anatomy of four species of Lupinus (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Zamora-Natera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y compara la anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de 4 especies del género Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth y L. reflexus Rose que se distribuyen en un gradiente altitudinal en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Las hojas se fijaron en campo y se procesaron mediante la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Parte de las láminas se deshidrataron para caracterizar la superficie foliar por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las especies comparten la epidermis papilosa de paredes anticlinales con diferentes grados de ondulación, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas simples lineares y mesofilo bifacial. Los folíolos de L. montanus son glabros en la superficie abaxial, las estrías cuticulares sobre las células localizadas en la base de los tricomas es un rasgo característico de L. montanus y de L. reflexus. Las diferencias encontradas en espesor de la lámina y del mesofilo así como la abundancia de ceras epicuticulares pueden estar influenciadas por el ambiente. Distintivamente, el número y distribución de haces vasculares en los pecíolos difieren entre las 4 especies y podrían ser de utilidad para diferenciarlas si estos resultados se confirman al estudiar un mayor número de especies de Lupinus.The aims of this study were to describe and compare the foliar and petiole anatomy of 4 species of Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth, and L. reflexus Rose distributed in an elevation gradient at Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Leaves were fixed in the field and prepared using the paraffin embedding technique. In addition, part of the blades was dehydrated to describe leaf surface through the scanning electron microscope. The 4 species shared a papillose epidermis with undulated anticlinal walls in different degrees, stomata anomocytic, simple unicellular trichomes, and bifacial mesophyll. Leaflets of L. montanus are glabrous on the abaxial surface

  15. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos Mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis, by effect of ten botanical extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana D. Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco (Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco (Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla (Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote (Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común (Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha (Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare (Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.The plants with insecticide activities constitute a main compound of integrated pest management. Under this premise, the aim of the current research was to evaluate mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae larvae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacquin, employing ten plants with insecticide potential: Indian heliotrope (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Angel´s trumpets (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Wandering Jew (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Nettles-purge (Jathropa

  16. Transpiration and stomatal resistance variations of perennial tropical crops under soil water availability conditions and water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ozinaldo Alves de Sena

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available During the dry and rainy seasons, determinations of stomatal resistance and transpiration of five tropical crops were carried out: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, coffee (Coffea arabica L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., guava (Psidium guajava L. and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. - Arg. trees. Experimental design was done at randomized complete blocks with five replications. During the dry season there was a decrease in values of stomatal resistance in the following order: guarana > coffee> cashew> guava > rubber, with values from 2.5 to 30.0 s.cm-1. During the rainy season the stomatal resistance values varied from 1.5 to 3.0 s.cm-1. The guarana and coffee crops showed higher resistance to water transpiration when compared to other crops. During the rainy season, the rubber tree continued to present lower stomatal resistance and, consequently, higher transpiration.O experimento foi realizado no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil, utilizando-se as culturas de guaranazeiro (Paullinia cupana Kunth, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. - Arg.. No período de seca (setembro/94 e de chuvas (novembro/94, realizaram-se determinações de resistência estomática (RE (s cm-1 e transpiração (T (µg cm-1 s-1 nas diferentes espécies. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. A partir das análises dos dados pode-se concluir: 1. diferenças significativas entre espécies, em termos das variáveis avaliadas no período de deficiência hídrica, com valores decrescentes de resistência estomática e crescente de transpiração na seguinte ordem: guaranazeiro > cafeeiro > cajueiro > goiabeira > seringueira; 2. Nas águas as diferenças entre espécies, para ambas as variáveis, foram menos evidentes, continuando a

  17. Palynotaxonomy of Brazilian Viguiera (Asteraceae Species Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Viguiera (Asteraceae-Heliantheae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Angelina Galvão Magenta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of improving inter-specific delimitation of the genus Viguiera Kunth in Brazil, a palynological analysis was undertaken with 27 taxa, representing around 77% of all occurring species. Samples were obtained from herbarium specimens and the pollen grains were analyzed through light and scanning electron microscopy. Characteristics, including the shape of the pollen grains, polar and equatorial diameter, aperture measurements, surface ornamentation and exine thickness, were registered and compared. The pollen grains were medium-sized (25 - 50 mm, isopolar and oblate spheroidal (prolate spheroidal in V. aspilioides Baker. The observed values corroborated the synonymity of some species and also highlighted certain micro-morphological differences, such as polar diameter and the dimensions of the colpus and endoaperture, thus confirming the groups of species delimitation obtained by morphologic and phylogenetic analyses.Com a finalidade de obter subsídios para a delimitação interespecífica do gênero Viguiera Kunth no Brasil, foi efetuado um estudo palinológico com 27 táxons, representando cerca de 77% das espécies ocorrentes. As amostras foram obtidas de material herborizado e o grão de pólen foi analisado sob microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram caracterizados quanto à forma, às dimensões e tipo da abertura, à ornamentação da superfície e à espessura da exina. Os grãos de pólen são médios (25 - 50mm, isopolares, oblato-esferoidais (prolato-esferoidais em V. aspilioides Baker, tricolporados, endoabertura lalongada, sexina espinhosa. Os valores obtidos corroboraram a sinonimização de algumas espécies e diferenças micro-morfológicas, tais como os valores do diâmetro polar, as dimensões do colpo e da endoabertura confirmaram algumas delimitações de grupos de espécies obtidas em análises filogenéticas de morfologia.

  18. Pollen morphology of Rubiaceae Juss. species occurring in an area of caatinga (dryland vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil Morfologia polínica de espécies de Rubiaceae ocorrentes em uma área de caatinga no estado da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Eduardo Amaral Silveira Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The palynology of the following 16 species of Rubiaceae, from Brejinho das Amestistas, was investigated: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigida Kunth, Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart., Richardia grandiflora Steud., Staelia aurea K. Schum., and Staelia galioides DC. The pollen grains were acetolysed to and their morphological characters were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy. They varied in size from small to large; were suboblate to subprolate; inaperturate (P. rigida, colpate and colporate in the remaining species, with an aperture number that varied from three to several. The exines were microreticulate in most species, reticulate (C. hirsutum, C. rigida and P. rigida, bireticulate (D. fruticosa, microechinate-perforated (C. hexandra, echinate-granulate (R. grandiflora, echinate-granulate-perforate (D. apiculata and D. teres, and psilate (P. asparagoides. Based on the results, palynological data can be used to distinguish these species.Rubiaceae foi representada na flora de Brejinho das Ametistas por dezesseis espécies, as quais foram tratadas palinologicamente no presente estudo: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigida Kunth, Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart., Richardia grandiflora Steud., Staelia aurea K. Schum., Staelia galioides

  19. Comportamiento de paneles de bambú guadua laminado ante cargas paralelas al plano The structural behaviour of laminated-guadua panels under parallel plane loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi Tam Caori Patricia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Como un primer paso en el estudio del comportamiento ante cargas sísmicas de pórticos de bambú guadua laminados con paneles del mismo material, el Grupo de Investigación “Análisis, Diseño y Materiales, GIES”, de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ensayó dos tipos de paneles elaborados con bambú Guadua angustifolia Kunth y poli (vinil acetato, PVA: los paneles tipo 1 de sección transversal maciza y los paneles tipo 2 de sección transversal tipo sándwich.
    Se consideraron tres alturas para cada tipo de panel y se ensayaron diez réplicas por altura y por tipo, para un total de sesenta ensayos.
    Para cada uno de los paneles ensayados se realizó una curva carga-desplazamiento. Los paneles tipo 1, con altura de 0,34 m y 0,63 m, mostraron un comportamiento elástico inicial seguido de un comportamiento inelástico, mientras que los paneles tipo 1 y 2 de 0,98 m de altura revelaron un comportamiento casi totalmente elástico hasta la falla. Todos los paneles sufrieron aplastamiento en la base; sin embargo, el principal mecanismo de falla fue el alabeo.
    The Universidad Nacional de Colombia "Analysis, Design and Materials - GIES" research group tested two types of panels made from Guadua angustifolia Kunth and poly vinyl acetate (PVA as a first step in studying the behaviour of laminated guadua frames having panels of the same material under seismic load: type 1 panels had a solid cross-section and type 2 panels a sandwich cross-section.
    Each type of panel had three different heights and 10 replicates were tested for each type and height (60 trials in total.
    Each panel’s load compared to displacement curve was found; 0.34m and 0.63m type1 panels had initial elastic behaviour followed by inelastic behaviour while 0.98 m panels made of both types had an almost completely elastic behaviour until failure. All panels became crushed at their base; however, the main failure mechanism was

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE LAS PROPIEDADES MECÁNICAS DE LA ESTRUCTURA INTERNA DE LA GUADUA CON UN MODELO MATEMATICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO SARAZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizo la estructura interna del Bambú-Guadua angustifolia kunth (GAK, en su zona media, encontrando la composición interna de este material compuesto, como son el porcentaje de la matriz (parénquima y de fibras (células de fibras y tejido conductivo. Se determinó las propiedades mecánicas como la resistencia a tensión y a flexión en sentido tangencial, y la Relación de Poisson del material y la resistencia de la fibra. Se valido un modelo matemático para materiales compuestos propuesto por Chandrupatla & Belegundu (1999, y se encontraron algunas ecuaciones que permiten predecir la resistencia del material en función de la resistencia de la fibra, y también para realizar modelos computacionales útiles para la industria de laminados de pisos en Bambuguadua. Los resultados experimentales no difirieron significativamente de los resultados obtenidos con los modelos matemáticos.

  1. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use. PMID:20645769

  2. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Lippia Species from the Brazilian Semiarid Region Traditionally Used as Antiseptic and Anti-Infective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana da Purificação Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lippia origanoides Kunth, Lippia alnifolia Schauer, and Lippia thymoides Martius and Schauer are shrubs used in the traditional Brazilian medicine as antiseptics, as well as in the treatment of infectious diseases. This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the methanolic extracts of these species, as new potential sources of antimicrobial drugs. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts was investigated against resistant yeasts and bacteria by agar disk diffusion. Then, the MIC determination of the most active species and its fractions in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water was performed. By the agar diffusion assay, all species were active against at least two microorganisms, giving evidence to support their use in the popular medicine. L. origanoides leaves exhibited the widest antimicrobial action, inhibiting the growth of two Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts; this activity was also confirmed by the MIC evaluation. The fractionation of L. origanoides crude extracts improved the activity in spectrum and intensity. The results obtained in this study indicate that L. origanoides may be a promising alternative in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and in the seeking of new antimicrobial drugs.

  4. Modelling initial mortality of Abies religiosa in a crown fire in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Temiño-Villota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objectives of this work were to determine which morphological and fire severity variables may help explain the mortality of adult Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. & Cham., to model the probability of this species after being affected by crown fire, and to obtain more elements to classify the sacred fir in terms of fire resistance. This type of studies are relevant to estimate the impact of crown fires on the climax forests that forms this species.Area of study: The burned forest was located in the southern Mexico City, borough.Material and methods: Morphological variables and fire severity indicators were collected for 335 Abies religiosa trees burned by a mixed severity fire. Logistic regression was used to analyze data and develop models that best explained tree mortality.Main results: Survival was 26.9%. The models for height (p≤0.0001, diameter at breast height (p=0.0082, crown length (p≤0.0001 and crown base height (p≤0.0001 were significant, with a negative relationship between each one of these variables and probability of mortality. The significant severity variables were lethal scorch height (p≤0.0001 and crown kill (p≤ 0.0001, which have a direct relationship with probability of mortality.Highlights: This species is moderately fire-resistant. Crown kill ≥ 70% markedly increases mortality. Silvicultural activities such as pruning, thinning and fuel management can reduce the risk of crown fires.

  5. Effect of water stress on the movement and distribution of water in Rhodesgrass and Job's tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodesgrass (Chloris gayana Kunth.) and Job's tears (Coix larcryma jobi L.) are known to be drought tolerant and drought susceptible forage crops, respectively. They were grown in a nutrient solution with water stress treatment (osmotic potential of the solution adjusted to -0.97 MPa using mannitol) and control (osmotic potential -0.05 MPa). Tritiated water (3H2O) was used as the tracer. In the water stress treatment, twenty four hours after the addition of 3H2O, relative 3H radioactivity in roots, stems, expanded leaves and expanding leaves in Rhodesgrass reached to 5, 45, 9 and 8% of that of the nutrient solution, respectively. The respective values in Job's tears were 48, 18, 5.5 and 4% indicating that the movement of 3H2O was remarkably higher in both crops under water stress conditions. The results suggested that water movement through plants differ according to plant species. A series of resistance exists along the pathway of water movement from the soil to atmosphere through the plant. The major resistance to the movement appears to exist in the nodes and/or basal stems which locate in transit position from one organ to another Resistance to water flow at the upper nodes as well as at the basal stems was higher in drought sensitive crop, Job's tears, than in Rhodesgrass

  6. Determination of the threshold odor concentration of main odorants in essential oils using gas chromatography-olfactometry incremental dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo, Maurizio; Gilardoni, Gianluca; Gandini, Carlo; Caccialanza, Gabriele; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni; Abdo, Susana; Layedra, Patricia

    2007-05-25

    An essential oil, obtained by steam distillation of Clinopodium tomentosum (Kunth) Govaerts (Lamiaceae), collected in Ecuador, was analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-MS techniques. To our knowledge, the composition of this essential oil is described here for the first time, both from the chemical and olfactometric viewpoints. A preliminary analysis by GC-MS and using Kovats' retention indexes, lead to characterize and quantify the oil constituents, while GC-O was then applied for the identification of the main odorants. By the incremental dilution method (AEDA, CHARM Analysis), applied to the GC-O technique, the flavor dilution (FD) chromatogram was obtained. In order to calculate the TOC values of the main odorants, the relationship between the odorant concentration at the sniffing port and that one in the injected solution was established. This relationship was calculated by comparing the injected amount with the TOC value of a reference compound (limonene), obtained by dynamic dilution olfactometry. A good agreement was found between calculated and measured TOC values of few odorants.

  7. Ethnopharmacological studies of Lippia origanoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo R. Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lippia origanoides Kunth. Verbenaceae, is of great importance in the Brazilian traditional medicine. Because of it, this work had the purpose to contribute to the ethnopharmacological knowledge of L. origanoides through an ethnobotanical survey conducted within quilombola(maroon communities of Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil. Among 254 plants cited in the survey, L. origanoides stood out among the ten most versatile species. The agreed main uses were to treat menstrual cramps, stomachache, and baby and postpartum colic. This could indicate a consensus of the informants to possible antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of L. origanoides.Therefore, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of L. origanoides extract (aerial parts were assessed through thermal (hot plate and chemical (formalin and acetic acid models of nociception. A dose-dependent reduction in acetic acid-induced writhing was observed after treating mice with L. origanoidesextract. The same extract also inhibited significantly formalin-induced licking response and proved to have a central antinociceptive effect, in the hot plate test. This work demonstrates that L. origanoides is used specially by quilombola women from Oriximiná for disorders of the genitourinary system and that biological activities of this species could contribute to these uses. Furthermore, it was also observed antispasmodic, analgesic and antimicrobial uses of other species of the genus Lippia (Goniostachyum section, rich in thymol and carvacrol.

  8. Allometric models for estimating biomass and carbon in Alnus acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fonseca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify the climate change mitigation potential of forest plantations, information on total biomass and its growth rate is required. Depending on the method used, the study of the biomass behavior can be a complex and expensive activity. The main objective of this research was to develop allometric models to estimate biomass for different tree components (leaves, branches, stem and root and total tree biomass in Alnus acuminata (Kunth in Costa Rica. Additionally, models were developed to estimate biomass and carbon in trees per hectare and for total plant biomass per hectare (trees + herbaceous vegetation + necromass. To construct the tree models, 41 sampling plots were evaluated in seven sites from which 47 trees with a diametric from 4.5 to 44.5 cm were selected to be harvested. In the selected models for the stem, root and total tree biomass, a r 2 >93.87 % was accomplished, while the r 2aj for leaves and branches was 88 %. For the biomass and carbon models for total trees and total plant biomass per hectare the r2 was >99 %. Average biomass expansion factor was 1.22 for aboveground and 1.43 for total biomass (when the root was included. The carbon fraction in plant biomass varied between 32.9 and 46.7 % and the percentage of soil carbon was 3 %.

  9. RAPD and microsatellite transferability studies in selected species of Prosopis (section Algarobia) with emphasis on Prosopis juliflora and P. pallida

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minu Sherry; Steve Smith; Ashok Patel; Phil Harris; Paul Hand; Liz Trenchard; Janey Henderson

    2011-08-01

    The genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comprises 44 species widely distributed in arid and semi-arid zones. Prosopis pallida (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth and P. juliflora (Sw.) DC. are the two species that are truly tropical apart from P. africana, which is native to tropical Africa (Pasiecznik et al. 2004), and they have been introduced widely beyond their native ranges. However, taxonomic confusion within the genus has hampered exploitation and better management of the species. The present study focusses primarily on evaluating the genetic relationship between Prosopis species from the section Algarobia, containing most species of economic importance, though P. tamarugo from section Strombocarpa is also included for comparison. In total, 12 Prosopis species and a putative P. pallida × P. chilensis hybrid were assessed for their genetic relationships based on RAPD markers and microsatellite transferability. The results show that P. pallida and P. juliflora are not closely related despite some morphological similarity. Evidence also agrees with previous studies which suggest that the grouping of series in section Algarobia is artificial.

  10. Profitability of yam production in Southern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asala S. W.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yam production is a component of farming activities by most farmers in the Southern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. However, many farmers do not seem to find farming a financially rewarding exercise. This study therefore aimed to find out the profit margin of yam production by farmers in this zone. A survey of farmers’ fields was carried out in 2013 in five major yam producing areas in Nigeria, namely; Benue, Kogi, Kwara, Niger Nassarawa States and Abuja Federal Capital Territory. Fifty four (54 respondents were recruited into the study sample using structured questionnaire and interview method. The farmers cultivated mainly Dioscorea rotundata Poir (white or guinea yam for commercial purposes while D. alata L. (water yam, D. cayenensis Lam (yellow yam, D. dumetorum Kunth (bitter yam and D. bulbifera L. (aerial yam are intercropped with D. rotundata for home consumption only. Yam production includes cultural operations such as heap preparation, staking and weed control. Some of the major constraints identified by the farmers were high cost of input such as planting materials (yam seed or setts, unreliable source of credit and unpredictable weather conditions. Net income benefit analysis revealed a positive return per hectare of land under yam production. The production of yam on one hectare of farm field will translate to a net profit of ₦450,000.00 equivalent to US $2,000.00. It was recommended that yam production could be a financially profitable endeavor if cost-reducing steps are engaged.

  11. Repellency, toxicity, and oviposition inhibition of vegetable extracts against greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Eduardo Mendoza-Garcia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a search for sustainable options of greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood management, the toxic and/or repellent potential of water, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae, Comocladia engleriana Loes (Anacardiaceae, Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae, Raphanus raphanistrum L. (Brassicaceae, and Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. aggr.* (Asteraceae were evaluated. Repellency was assessed by the cylinder method (olfactometer, while toxicity and oviposition inhibition were assessed by the leaf immersion method. Acetonic extracts did not cause any repellent or insecticidal effect. In contrast, 200 mg mL-1 water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and ethanolic extract of A. artemisiifolia had the highest repellent activity (76%, 72%, and 69%, respectively although their activity decreased gradually over time. Ethanolic extracts of P. auritum (66% and R. raphanistrum (56% at 200 mg mL¹ were highlighted as being toxic, while the most effective in inhibiting oviposition were water extracts of R. raphanistrum (76.1% and P. auritum (72.0% and ethanolic extract of P. auritum (69.5%; however, concentrations lower than 60 mg mL-1 caused oviposition stimulation. Our results suggest that water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and P. auritum represent a useful tool in integrated whitefly management.

  12. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G. GONSEBATT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. Los cultivos Glycine max (L. y Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., las especies silvestres Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. y Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken fueron hospedantes de ambas especies. El único parasitoide registrado fue Eretmocerus californicus cercano a corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre T. vaporariorum. Este estudio que constituye el primer relevamiento sistemático de plantas hospedantes en la región, aporta un mayor conocimiento sobre el rango de plantas hospedantes de las moscas blancas en Argentina.

  13. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M. B.; Diaz-Soltero, H.; Claps, L. E.; Saracho Bottero, A.; Triapitsyn, S.; Hasson, E.; Logarzo, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s. showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  14. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M B; Diaz-Soltero, H; Claps, L E; Saracho Bottero, A; Triapitsyn, S; Hasson, E; Logarzo, G A

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens.

  15. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis/Wangenh./K. Koch: A new species of the Allochthonous dendroflora in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobinac Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the alien species Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, carya-pecan, (Juglandaceae A. Richard ex Kunth that has not been mentioned so far in the dendroflora of Serbia. One tree was recorded within the first Serbian sugar factory in Čukarica that is now a protected cultural property in the City of Belgrade. The tree is about 35 years old and about 20 m high. The length of the trunk without branches is 6.0 m and the diameter at breast height is 57 cm. Carya-pecan is a native species of the southeastern part of North America, and is grown in Europe for edible fruits and quality wood. The recorded tree in Belgrade is fruitful and characterized by good vitality and rapid growth. Due to its special characteristics, it can have multiple practical application in the territory of Serbia for decoration in urban areas, for forest plantations and in orchards. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  16. PRELIMINARY FLORA OF ORCHIDACEAE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ABAETETUBA, PARÁ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Augusto Lobato Afonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae is one of the largest plant families in the world with approximately 20,000 species, of which 2,462 Occur in Brazil and 421 in the Pará State. Despite this large number of species, many municipalities in the State have never been sampled floristically, among them is the municipality of Abaetetuba, located in the middle region northeast Pará. Thus, this work aimed to conduct the floristic and taxonomic preliminary study of the Orchidaceae species in the Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil. Were conducted 41 field collections between January 2012 and May 2014. For collection and specimens herborization were followed usual techniques for vascular plants, and species identification were consulted specific bibliography and experts. For all species recorded are provided descriptions, taxonomic and ecological comments, information on geographical distribution in Brazil. In addition, it presents an identification key for the species Orchidaceae of Abaetetuba. In the municipality Orchidaceae is represented by 23 species belonging to 17 genera, being Epidendrum L. the more rich with three species. The most frequent species were Catasetum macrocarpum Rich. ex Kunth and Polystachya concreta (Jacq. Garay & H.R.Sweet. Except to Vanilla mexicana Mill. and V. palmarum (Salzm. ex Lindl. Lindl. classified as hemiepiphytes, all the other species were classified as holoepiphytes. Keywords: Eastern Amazon; Epiphytes, Orchids; Nort region.

  17. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  18. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, D C; Ferreira, J D; Bueno, P A A; Iwakura, L; Bueno, R O; Campiolo, J B

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period) and April (rainy period), 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m(2) for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April), but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir.) Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb.) Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth.) had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir. PMID:26628226

  19. RAPD and microsatellite transferability studies in selected species of Prosopis (section Algarobia) with emphasis on Prosopis juliflora and P. pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Minu; Smith, Steve; Patel, Ashok; Harris, Phil; Hand, Paul; Trenchard, Liz; Henderson, Janey

    2011-08-01

    The genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comprises 44 species widely distributed in arid and semi-arid zones. Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth and P. juliflora (Sw.) DC. are the two species that are truly tropical apart from P. africana, which is native to tropical Africa (Pasiecznik et al. 2004), and they have been introduced widely beyond their native ranges. However, taxonomic confusion within the genus has hampered exploitation and better management of the species. The present study focusses primarily on evaluating the genetic relationship between Prosopis species from the section Algarobia, containing most species of economic importance, though P. tamarugo from section Strombocarpa is also included for comparison. In total, 12 Prosopis species and a putative P. pallida x P. chilensis hybrid were assessed for their genetic relationships based on RAPD markers and microsatellite transferability. The results show that P. pallida and P. juliflora are not closely related despite some morphological similarity. Evidence also agrees with previous studies which suggest that the grouping of series in section Algarobia is artificial.

  20. Antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica of plants used in northeast Mexican traditional medicine. Bioactive compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Kavimngeles-Hernández, Isvar; Garza-González, Jesús Norberto; Hernández-García, Magda Elizabeth

    2014-12-15

    Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1) and chalepensin (2), respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  1. An apple plus a Brazil nut a day keeps the doctors away: antioxidant capacity of foods and their health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Carlos Kusano Bucalen; Percário, Sandro; Silva, José Carlos Costa Baptista; da Silva Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich foods scavenge free radicals and other reactive species, decreasing the risk of different non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to review the content of total antioxidant capacity of commonly foods comparing with experimental data and to explore the health benefits due to foods with moderate to high TAC. The TAC was analytically measured using the "Total Antioxidant Capacity" (NX2332) test from Randox® (UK) by spectrometry at 600 nm. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), "guaraná" (Paullinia cupana Kunth) powder, ready to drink boiled coffee (Coffea arabica L.), and milk chocolate (made from seeds of Theobroma cacao) had the highest TAC values, followed by collard greens (Brassica oleracea L.), beets (Beta vulgaris L.), apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), onions (Allium cepa L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Other foods also showed antioxidant capacity. The binomial antioxidant capacity of foods and health was extensively discussed according to science literature. Based on the high TAC content of Brazil nuts, guaraná, coffee, chocolate, collard greens, apples, beets, beans, oranges, onions and other foods, their regular dietary intake is strongly recommended to reduce the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. PMID:26572874

  2. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  3. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana D. PÉREZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha ( Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio ( Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre ( Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco ( Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco ( Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla ( Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote ( Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común ( Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha ( Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare ( Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.

  4. Genetic diversity and relationship in American and African oil palm as revealed by RFLP and AFLP molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcelos Edson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity, its organization and the genetic relationships within oil palm (Elaeis oleifera (Kunth Cortés, from America, and E. guineensis (Jacq., from Africa germplasm using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP. In complement to a previous RFLP study on 241 E. oleifera accessions, 38 E. guineensis accessions were analyzed using the same 37 cDNA probes. These accessions covered a large part of the geographical distribution areas of these species in America and Africa. In addition, AFLP analysis was performed on a sub-set of 40 accessions of E. oleifera and 22 of E. guineensis using three pairs of enzyme/primer combinations. Data were subjected to Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC and cluster analysis, with parameters of genetic diversity being also studied. Results appeared congruent between RFLP and AFLP. In the E. oleifera, AFLP confirmed the strong structure of genetic diversity revealed by RFLP, according to geographical origin of the studied material, with the identification of the same four distinct genetic groups: Brazil, French Guyana/Surinam, Peru, north of Colombia/Central America. Both markers revealed that genetic divergence between the two species is of the same magnitude as that among provenances of E. oleifera. This finding is in discrepancy with the supposed early tertiary separation of the two species.

  5. Mechanisms of Forest Restoration in Landslide Treatment Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reforestation after a landslide facilitates competition between herbaceous plants and arborous plants. Tangible variations in grassland areas in regions susceptible to landslides can only be found within collections of trees. A landslide area in the Sule Watershed was investigated. Relative illuminance results reveal that the Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth biomass in this landslide area increases with relative illuminance. A comparison of regions with tree islands indicates that the size of the grassland areas decreased and the number of tree islands increased during 2005–2010. Furthermore, a germination experiment in a soil-seed bank indicates that more woody plant species exist around the tree island than in other areas in the landslide region. Trees in a tree island change the micro-climate of the landslide region, and they gather as many nutrients and as much moisture as possible, enabling vegetation to expand around the tree island. Additionally, the area with Rhodes grass and its biomass declined annually in the tree island region. Investigation results show that tree islands and soil-seed banks are suited to reforestation in landslide regions. The pioneering research will assist regional landslide management in Taiwan.

  6. Anticonvulsant Effects of Lippia citriodora (Verbenaceae) Leaves Ethanolic Extract in Mice: Role of GABAergic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Amir; Farhang, Forogh; Vahedi, Habib; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Ejtemai Mehr, Shahram; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lippia citriodora Kunth is one of the Iranian traditional medicines for the treatment of convulsive disorders. The goal of this study is to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's leave ethanolic extract against electro- and chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. Methods: The anticonvulsant activity of the extract (200, 400, 800 mg/kg, per os, p.o.) was investigated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) and phenytoin (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) were used as reference drugs. In addition, for investigating the role of GABAergic system, flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was also injected before L. citriodora. Results: The extract had not any toxicity and significantly decreased the duration and increased the latency of the seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg). In the MES test, L. citriodora displayed statistically significant reduction in hind limb tonic extension duration in a nondose-dependent manner. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's extract in the PTZ model. Conclusions: The results propose that L. citriodora leave ethanolic extract has anticonvulsant activity against convulsive disorders. It seems that this plant's extract generates its antiseizure effect through GABAergic system potentiation. Further studies will be needed in order to investigate the exact mechanisms of it. Moreover, one may conclude that the present results are in accordance with the positive effect of L. citriodora extract to treat convulsion mentioned in old Iranian literature.

  7. Detection and characterization of a Cucumber mosaic virus isolate infecting peperina, a species native to Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rodríguez Pardina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth. Griseb., "peperina", un miembro de la familia Lamiaceae, es una especie aromática que se emplea en la farmacología moderna y en medicina. Está ampliamente distribuida en los Andes, desde Venezuela y Colombia hasta Argentina. En el último país, la principal área de explotación de peperina incluye el área serrana de la provincia de Córdoba, donde la especie es arrancada indiscriminadamente, lo que conlleva una pérdida irreversible de germoplasma. A los fines de preservar este recurso nativo y fuente regional de ingresos, la especie está siendo domesticada. Durante este proceso, se observó la aparición de síntomas de un conspicuo mosaico amarillo, típico de infección viral. Análisis biológicos, serológicos y moleculares (RT-PCR, RFLP, clonado y secuenciación pusieron de manifiesto la presencia del subgrupo IA de Cucumber mosaic virus en las plantas domesticadas de peperina. El aislamiento viral estudiado está íntimamente relacionado con la raza Y previamente informada en Japón. Éste es el primer informe de un virus que infecta a la peperina.

  8. Comparison of herbage yield, nutritive value and ensilability traits of three ryegrass species evaluated for the Irish Recommended List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 169 of the newest varieties of three ryegrass species, perennial (Lolium perenne L., Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and hybrid (Lolium boucheanum Kunth, from Recommended List trials in Ireland. The traits examined were yield, dry matter concentration, three nutritive value traits (in vitro dry matter digestibility, water-soluble carbohydrate on a dry matter basis and crude protein concentration and two ensilability traits (buffering capacity and water soluble carbohydrate concentration on an aqueous phase basis. Varietal monocultures of each species underwent a six cut combined simulated grazing and silage management in each of two years following sowing. Perennial ryegrass yielded less than both other species in one-year-old swards, but less than only Italian ryegrass in two-year-old swards, but generally had the higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein values. Italian ryegrass displayed the most favourable ensilability characteristics of the three species with perennial ryegrass less favourable and hybrid ryegrass intermediate. Overall, despite the high yields and favourable nutritive value and ensilability traits recorded, the general differences between the three ryegrass species studied were in line with industry expectations. These findings justify assessing the nutritive value and ensilability of ryegrass species, in addition to yield, to allow farmers select species that match farming enterprise requirements.

  9. Propagação vegetativa de camu-camu por meio de enxertia intergenérica na família Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguino Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth McVaugh], da família Myrtaceae, é encontrado em áreas inundáveis da Região Amazônica e utilizado como conservante em antioxidantes por seu alto teor de ácido ascórbico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar porta-enxertos desta família, adaptados a terra firme, visando à propagação vegetativa de camu-camu. Selecionaram-se duzentas e quarenta mudas de camu-camu, goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L., que receberam quatro tipos de enxertia, originando doze tratamentos de sessenta plantas, com cinco repetições. Apenas o porta-enxerto de camu-camu se mostrou compatível. A incompatibilidade entre camu-camu e os porta-enxertos de goiabeira e pitangueira foi demonstrada por análises anatômicas.

  10. SMOKE-SATURATED WATER FROM FIVE GRASSES GROWING IN JAPAN INHIBITS IN VITRO PROTOCORM-LIKE BODY FORMATION IN HYBRID CYMBIDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoke derived from the burning of plant material has been shown to stimulate seed growth of several species. In addition, several studies have reported that when smoke is condensed with water, smoke-saturated water (SSW can also stimulate the germination of orchid seeds. In this study, SSW was derived from burning the aerial part of five grasses growing in the wild in Shikoku, Japan (Arundinella hirta (Thunb. C. Tanaka var. hirta, Microstegium japonicum (Miquel Koidzumi, Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Paspalum thunbergii Kunth ex Steud., Themeda triandra Forssk. var. japonica (Willd. Makino, all of which flower between August and October. SSW was added at three concentrations (1, 5, 10%, v/w to solid, agarized Teixeira Cymbidium (TC medium to assess the impact on in vitro organogenesis of hybrid Cymbidium, specifically on new protocorm-like body (neo-PLB formation. The SSW of all five species strongly inhibited the formation of neo-PLBs at all concentrations relative to the control (no SSW added. Since PLBs are considered to be the equivalent of somatic embryos in orchids, and since SSW is able to stimulate the germination of zygotic embryos in other plant families, the mechanism of action is clearly different between zygotic and somatic embryos.

  11. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Pouteria campechiana on acetaminophen-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sivasudha, T; Sasikumar, J M; Christabel, P Hephzibah; Jeyadevi, R; Ananth, D Arul

    2014-03-01

    Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni. is used as a remedy for coronary trouble, liver disorders, epilepsy, skin disease, and ulcer. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of polyphenolic-rich P. campechiana fruit extract against acetaminophen-intoxicated rats. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of egg fruit were estimated followed by the determination of antioxidant activities. Treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract effectively scavenged the free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of the given concentrations in all antioxidant models. The presence of polyphenolic compounds were confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The animals were treated with acetaminophen (250 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) thrice at the interval of every 5 days after the administration of P. campechiana aqueous extract and silymarin (50 mg/kg). Acetaminophen treatment was found to trigger an oxidative stress in liver, leading to an increase of serum marker enzymes. However, treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract significantly reduced the elevated liver marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase) and increased the antioxidant enzymes (viz., superoxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. These results strongly suggest that P. campechiana fruit extract has strong antioxidant and significant hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.

  12. Accumulation of arsenic, lead, copper, and zinc, and synthesis of phytochelatins by indigenous plants of a mining impacted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Estrada, Blenda; Calderón, Jaqueline; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S

    2013-06-01

    Several native plants, able to grow in an unconfined mining impacted area that is now in close vicinity with urban areas, were evaluated for their ability to accumulate heavy metals. The main soil contaminants were As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Sampling of the rhizospheric metal polluted soil showed that Euphorbia prostrata Aiton, Parthenium incanum Kunth, and Zinnia acerosa (DC.) A. Gray were able to grow in the presence of high amounts of mixtures of these elements. The plants accumulated the metals in the above ground parts and increased the synthesis of thiol molecules. E. prostrata showed the highest capacity for accumulation of the mixture of elements (588 μg g DW(-1)). Analysis of the thiol-molecules profile showed that these plants synthesized high amounts of long-chain phytochelatins, accompanied by low amounts of monothiol molecules, which may be related to their higher resistance to As and heavy metals. The three plants showed translocation factors from roots to leaves >1 for As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Thus, by periodically removing aerial parts, these plants could be useful for the phytoremediation of semi-arid and arid mining impacted areas, in which metal hyper-accumulator plants are not able to grow.

  13. Evaluation of neurotransmitters involved in the anxiolytic and panicolytic effect of the aqueous fraction of Paullinia cupana (guaraná in elevated T maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel P. Rangel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of repeatedly administration of an aqueous fraction of Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae (guaraná seeds (8 mg/kg on rats submitted to the elevated T-maze, model of generalized anxiety and panic disorders. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (3 mg/kg, was used as a positive control. To evaluate possible neurotransmissions involvement, ineffective doses of metergoline (3 mg/kg - non-selective serotonin receptor antagonist, sulpiride (20 mg/kg - non-selective dopaminergic receptor antagonist or ketamine (0.125 mg/kg - non-selective glutamate receptor antagonist were acutely administered in association with the aqueous fraction of P. cupana. Both aqueous fraction and paroxetine decrease the inhibitory avoidance latencies of the elevated T-maze, indicating anxiolytic effect and increased one-way escape latencies from the open arm of the elevated T-maze, indicating a panicolytic effect. The pre-treatment with metergoline, sulpiride and ketamine blocked the anxiolytic effect of aqueous fraction. The panicolytic effect of aqueous fraction was blocked by both metergoline and sulpiride. These results show that the serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission systems are involved in anxiolytic effect promoted by aqueous fraction, whereas only the serotonergic and the dopaminergic neurotransmission systems are involved in the panicolytic effect promoted by aqueous fraction of P. cupana. The effects produced by paroxetine, were blocked only by metergoline, validating this experimental procedure.

  14. Análisis numérico de las especies de Prosopis L. (Fabaceae de las costas de Perú y Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia D. Burghardt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes revisiones coinciden en señalar 2 o 3 especies de Prosopis para el sur de Ecuador y norte de Perú: P. juliflora (SW DC, P. pallida (Humb. et Bonpl. ex Willd. Kunth y P. affinis Sprengel. En el presente trabajo se informa del análisis cuantitativo de caracteres foliares de especímenes del genero Prosopis, recolectados a lo largo de la costa desde Arequipa (Perú a Manta (Ecuador. Los resultados señalan tres grupos bien definidos. Del análisis comparativo de los tipos y ejemplares de herbario de todas las especies y sinónimos citados para la zona de estudio surge que los taxones existentes son: P. pallida, P. limensis Bentham, ambos de amplia distribución, y P. chilensis (Molina Stuntz emend Burkart restringido al valle del río Camaná. Estos tres taxones se corresponden con los tres grupos obtenidos del análisis numérico. Debe señalarse la exclusión del área de P. juliflora y P. affinis. Se sugiere no utilizar las numerosas variedades señaladas para P. pallida.

  15. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjara Silveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K. Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae, three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1, N-(2-phenethyl-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2 and (2E,7Z-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3. While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM.

  16. Chemical composition of essential oils of Piper jacquemontianum and Piper variabile from Guatemala and bioactivity of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sully M. Cruz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from two native species from Guatemala were studied for their chemical composition and the dichloromethane and methanol extracts for their biological activity. A GC-MS analysis of the essential oil from Piper jacquemontianum Kunth, Piperaceae, showed 34 constituents, consisting mainly of linalool (69.4%, while Piper variabile C. DC. essential oil had 36 constituents, camphor (28.4%, camphene (16.6% and limonene (13.9% being the major components. Dichloromethane extracts of both species were cytotoxic against MCF-7, H-460 and SF-268 cell lines (<7 µg/mL. Dichloromethane extract of P. jacquemontianum was slightly active against bacteria (0.5 mg/mL, was active against promastigotes of Leishmania (20.4-61.0 µg/mL, and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (51.9 µg/mL. The methanol extract of P. variabile showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum F32 (4.5 µg/mL, and the dichloromethane extract against Leishmania (55.8-76.3 µg/mL and T. cruzi (45.8 µg/mL. None of the extracts from the two species was active against Aedes aegypti larvae and Artemia salina nauplii.

  17. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1 and chalepensin (2, respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  18. Honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), leaf damage on Alnus species in Uganda: a blessing or curse in agroforestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeko, P; Edwards-Jones, G; Day, R K

    2002-10-01

    It is a dictum that Apis mellifera Linnaeus is innocuous in agricultural ecosystems. This study provides the first record of A. mellifera as a significant defoliator of Alnus species. Careful field observations coupled with microscopic examination provided convincing evidence implicating A. mellifera as the cause of leaf perforation on Alnus species in Uganda. Apis mellifera was observed foraging selectively on young Alnus leaves and buds in search of a sticky substance, apparently propolis. In so doing, the bee created wounds that enlarged and caused tattering of Alnus leaves as they matured. Biological surveys indicated that the damage was prevalent and occurred widely, particularly on Alnus acuminata Kunth in Uganda. Incidence of the Apis mellifera damage on Alnus acuminata peaked in the dry season, with up to 90% of leaves emerging per shoot per month damaged, and was lowest in the wet months during peak leaf emergence. Apis mellifera leaf damage was consistently higher on Alnus acuminata than A. nepalensis D. Don., on saplings than mature trees, and on sun exposed than shaded leaves. The activity of honeybees may be detrimental to the productivity of Alnus, yet the substance for which the insect forages on Alnus is a resource with potential economic importance. PMID:12241565

  19. Análisis teórico experimental de conexiones en elementos estructurales de bambú guadua laminado pegado prensado, para un proyecto de vivienda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de las conexiones entre elementos fabricados en Bambú guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth laminado pegado prensado para un proyecto de vivienda, es mostrado en este artículo. El análisis se ejecutó en cuatro etapas: diseño, prueba de carga, simulación numérica y modelación por elementos finitos. El diseño se realizó por el método de los esfuerzos de trabajo. En la prueba de carga fueron medidos desplazamientos para conocer el comportamiento de las conexiones para diferentes incrementos de carga. La simulación numérica fue realizada en el programa ETABS® con la carga real impuesta en cada etapa de la prueba de carga. Finalmente, la modelación por elementos finitos se realizó en el programa ANSYS®. Se encontró que existen diferencias entre los resultados experimentales y los numéricos, las cuales pueden ser consecuencia de que las condiciones reales de la prueba de carga no corresponden exactamente a las consideraciones supuestas de diseño como nudos completamente rígidos o articulados.

  20. Potential of dispersion of Tecoma stans and chemical attributes of some soils of the Paraná state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Wisniewski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work correlated invasiveness characteristic (potential dispersion of Tecoma stans (L. Jussieu ex. Kunth(BIGNONIACEAE known as a Yellow-Bell. Open field test was developed starting from stakes in vases with four different types soilsof the Paraná State, conduced to randomized block design with four treatments and five replications. The soils were analyzedregarding the pH, CTC, level of C, Al+³, macro and micronutrients, and content of sand, silt and clay. After 6 months the leaf area, dryweight of leaves and potential dispersion, calculated by given numeric values from 1 to 4 for phonological phases presented. Themacro and micronutrients content (except K and Fe were high in all the soils. The correlations between dispersion potential and pHand the V% were positive and significant and with effective CTC, the Fe and clay content were negative. It was not found significantcorrelations between the dispersion potential and biomass or leaf area. Positive and significant correlations of biomass and leaf areawith macro (except P and micronutrients (except Cu apparently indicate that if the evaluation had been accomplished at the end of theflowering period of the species, nutritional relationships with the dispersion potential would be clearer, although it can be concludedthat the species has a preference for less acid soils.

  1. para palmito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Chaimsohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Densidades de siembra, arreglos espaciales y fertilización en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes cv Diamantes-10 para palmito. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Los Diamantes (Guápiles, Costa Rica, el 3 de octubre del 2003, cuyo objetivo fue la evaluación del efecto de diferentes densidades de siembra (3.333, 5.000 y 6.666 plantas/ha, arreglos espaciales, y diversos métodos de fertilización (química, orgánica, sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de pejibaye para producción de palmito. Se consideraron las variables diámetro y altura del tallo primario y el número de hojas y rebrotes como indicadores de producción. El período de evolución abarcó sólo los primeros 25 meses de crecimiento en el campo. El número de hojas, la altura y el diámetro del tallo no mostraron diferencias de respuesta relevantes. Sólo el número de rebrotes disminuyó al aumentar la densidad de la población, cuando se midió a los 15 meses de edad. El efecto de la fertilización se hizo evidente después de la primera cosecha, realizada a los 20 meses, debido al aumento de la competencia entre plantas, ahora más desarrolladas. Fue entonces cuando la fertilización química indujo la producción de un mayor número y vigor de los rebrotes. Sin embargo, las prácticas evaluadas 25 meses después de la siembra, no habían infl uido hasta ese momento en el número de palmitos cosechados, ni tampoco había afectado las características físicas de los sectores foliar y caulinar del palmito.

  2. Composición florística de las etapas de sucesión primaria sobre afloramientos rocosos del Parque Nacional Natural El Tuparro, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Zamora Óscar Andrés

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En un afloramiento granítico del PNN El Tuparro, en Vichada, Colombia, se investigaron los cambios en
    diversidad y composición florística en el proceso de sucesión vegetal primaria. Se evaluaron cinco etapas
    de sucesión (rasante, herbácea, arbustiva, Bosquecito de Syagrus y Bosque de Attalea. En la sucesión a largo plazo, la diversidad y riqueza vegetal aumentan desde la etapa de criptógamas (iniciales hasta los Bosques de Attalea (tardías; al avanzar el proceso, se presenta igualmente un aumento en la complejidad estructural. Se presenta un desarrollo y reemplazo gradual de nuevos estratos vegetales desde los inicios de la sucesión hasta las etapas tardías. Se registraron 238 especies distribuidos en 72 familias. Para la etapa de Criptógamas se encontró en total de siete especies donde los más importantes por su cobertura son líquenes rupícolas y Eleocharis ayacuchensis, 45 especies distribuidos en 28 familias para la etapa herbácea destacándose Vellozia lithophila y especies de Pepinia, 108 especies distribuidos en 45 familias en la etapa arbustiva destacándose Tibouchina sp. Pepinia patentiflora y Tabebuia orinocensis, 104 especies distribuidos en 44 familias para el Monte de Syagrus con predominio de Syagrus inajai, Myrcianthes sp. y Tabebuia barbata, 83 especies distribuidos en 37 familias para el Bosque de Attalea donde se destaca A. regia, Anaueria sp. y Bactris sp. A lo largo de la sucesión se destacan especies del género Pepinia (Bromeliaceae, Vellozia lithophila, Plumeria inodora y lianas como Malouetia sp. y especies de Ipomoea debido a su alta capacidad de reproducción vegetativa constituyendo la línea de avanzada de los parches de vegetación sobre la roca. Los mayores índices de diversidad se registran en las etapas intermedias debido a la variedad de microambientes presentes en los parches, así como por el sobrelapamiento de especies de las etapas tempranas y tardías. Los resultados obtenidos

  3. Observaciones sobre el gualapán (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Hispinae y otras limitantes entomológicas en cultivos de chontaduro en el Bajo Anchicayá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcón Andrés

    2005-06-01

    with this problem. An integrated ecological approach is proposed. Key words: Bactris gasipaes, Alurnus sp, Foliage’s plague, entomological complex, integrated approach, Pacific Coast, Colombia.

  4. Pérdidas de suelo y nutrientes bajo diferentes coberturas vegetales en la zona Andina de Colombia Soil and nutrient loss under different vegetation covers in Colombia's Andean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alexander Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural El Ciprés, ubicada en la vereda Bellavista, municipio de El Dovio (Valle del Cauca. La vereda se encuentra en la zona Andina de la cordillera occidental, en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1700 y 1800 m.s.n.m., con una temperatura promedio de 18 °C. Según la clasificación climática de Holdridge, corresponde a una zona de bosque húmedo Montano Bajo, con una precipitación promedio entre 2500 y 2700 mm/año, una humedad relativa de 90% y una pendiente del suelo de 62%. Las mediciones se hicieron en parcelas de escorrentía de 32 m² cada una y siete tipos de coberturas: guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth, bosque secundario, pastura (Brachiaria decumbens, café (Coffea arabica; banco de proteína (Trichanthera gigantea, caña forrajera (Saccharum officinarum y cultivo limpio conformado por yuca (Manihot esculenta, maíz (Zea mays y arracacha (Arracacia zanthorrhiza Brancroft. Para la evaluación se midieron las pérdidas de suelo y los nutrientes calcio, magnesio, potasio y fósforo en un periodo de 7 meses. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P Soil and nutrient (calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus losses were measured over a 7-month period in the El Ciprés Natural Reserve, located in the Bellavista rural community, municipality of El Dovio, in the western cordillera of the Andes of the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. At 1700-1800 meters above sea level, the area presents an average temperature of 18 °C, an average annual precipitation of 2500-2700 mm, 90% relative humidity, and a 62% slope. According to the Holdridge climate classification system, it corresponds to a lower montane rain forest. Measurements were taken in runoff plots, each 32 m², with seven types of vegetation cover: giant bamboo (Guadua angustifolia Kunth; secondary forest; pastures (Brachiaria decumbens; coffee (Coffea arabica; protein bank (Trichanthera gigantea; forage cane (Saccharum officinarum

  5. Repetibilidade da produção de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos entre o caiaué e o dendezeiro Repeatability for bunch production in interspecific hybrids between caiaué and african oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Sánchez Chia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A hibridação interespecífica entre o caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth Cortés e o dendezeiro (E. guineensis Jacq. tem sido explorada com o objetivo de desenvolver cultivares tão produtivas quanto as de dendezeiro, aliada à resistência a pragas e doenças, principalmente o amarelecimento fatal, elevada taxa de ácidos graxos insaturados e redução de porte características do caiaué. Por ser uma cultura perene com longo ciclo de produção, além dos altos custos para manutenção e avaliação dos experimentos de melhoramento genético, é necessário definir o período mínimo de avaliação para que a seleção dos híbridos seja realizada com eficiência e mínimo dispêndio de tempo e recursos. Este estudo teve como objetivo estimar os coeficientes de repetibilidade dos caracteres número de cachos, peso total de cachos e peso médio de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos e definir o número de anos consecutivos de avaliação necessário para seleção eficiente dos melhores cruzamentos e indivíduos. Os coeficientes de repetibilidade foram estimados pelos métodos da análise de variância, componentes principais com base na matriz de covariância (CPCV e de correlações, e análise estrutural com base na matriz de correlações. O método dos CPCV demonstrou ser o mais adequado para o estudo da repetibilidade da produção de cachos, indicando quatro anos consecutivos de avaliação para selecionar progênies, representadas por dez plantas, com coeficientes de determinação (R² superiores a 85%, e que para seleção individual de plantas são necessários pelo menos seis anos consecutivos de avaliação para atingir R² superior a 80%.Interspecific hybridization between the caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth Cortés and the african oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq. has been exploited with the objective of developing varieties as productive as African oil palm and with the pest and disease resistance, reduced height and high levels

  6. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw. Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae, Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché K. Koch. (Araceae, Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass. (Asteraceae, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Poir. Kunth ex DC., Pterocarpus hayesii Hemsl., Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose H.S. Irwin & Barneby., Cinnamomum chavarrianum (Hammel Kosterm. (Fabaceae, Nectandra membranacea (Sw. Griseb., Persea povedae W.C. Burger. (Lauraceae, Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae, Guarea glabra Vahl., Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (Meliaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae, Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Piperaceae, Clematis dioica L. (Ranunculaceae, Prunus annularis Koehne. (Rosaceae, Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. (Siparunaceae, Solanum arboreum Dunal., Witheringia solanacea L'Hér. (Solanaceae, Ticodendron incognitum Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez. (Ticodendraceae, Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz. (Tiliaceae y Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. (Urticaceae. Los extractos alcohólicos frescos y secos, fueron evaluados por su actividad inhibitoria de la parasitemia causada por Plasmodium berghei en ratones Swiss. Al realizar las prueba de CI50 las plantas en que esa actividad fue muy relevante fueron (en mg kg-1 de peso: 12 para la corteza de B. frutescens, 18 para la raíz de H. appendiculata, 14 para la raíz de I. deltoidea, 4 para el fruto inmaduro de M. longipes, 21 para la raíz de N. membranacea, 19 para las hojas tiernas de P. povedae y 16 para el fruto inmaduro de S. tecaphora. Los extractos frescos presentaron una mayor actividad antimalárica que los sometidos a desecación. Este estudio es

  7. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.Três bioensaios de letalidade com o crustáceo de água salgada Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (teste convencional em microplaca de 96 poós Artoxkit microbiotest M e o crustáceo de água doce Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae (Thamnotoxkit microbiotest F, foram comparados utilizando extratos de dez espécies de plantas da Guatemala. Foi previamente observado que cinco delas possuem atividade anti

  8. Uso de plantas medicinais na região de Alto Paraíso de Goiás, GO, Brasil The utilization of medicinal plants in the region of Alto Paraíso of Goiás, GO, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Domingues de Souza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Os conhecimentos tradicionais dos usos mais comuns dados aos vegetais podem ser resgatados pela etnobotânica e utilizados para a valorização das plantas do Cerrado no processo de desenvolvimento econômico. Este estudo foi conduzido no município de Alto Paraíso de Goiás, localizado na microrregião denominada Chapada dos Veadeiros, a uma distância de 230 km de Brasília. O levantamento etnobotânico teve como alvo comunidades do entorno do Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros e da cidade de Alto Paraíso. Foram realizadas entrevistas em aberto com os moradores locais, tentando buscar informações em níveis sócio-culturais distintos, enfocando quais plantas são mais utilizadas e suas indicações no combate a enfermidades. Observou-se que as espécies vegetais do cerrado têm uma gama considerável de utilização humana para quase todos os estratos, ervas, arbustos e árvores. Quanto às espécies arbóreas, predomina a utilização da entrecasca e sementes. A comunidade utiliza a biodiversidade nativa uma vez que 69% das 103 espécies citadas pelos entrevistados como úteis pertenceram à flora nativa. No elenco das dez espécies medicinais mais utilizadas, foram coincidentes na indicação de todos os entrevistados: chapéu de couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth Micheli, arnica (Lychnophora ericoides Mart., plantas nativas de porte herbáceo/arbustivo; as arbóreas nativas, jatobá (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne, tingui (Magonia pubescens A. St.-Hil. e o barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville e duas ruderais, carrapicho (Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze e mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., de porte herbáceo/arbustivo. Outro ponto importante evidenciado foi que, apesar do grande potencial de exploração extrativista vegetal, estes recursos estão sendo utilizados de forma indiscriminada, sem um programa eficiente de manejo sustentado.Ethnobotany allows rescuing traditional knowledge of the

  9. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae Comportamiento alimentario de las larvas del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae que se crían en el aerénquima de Pontederiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae, digging a mine near the epidermis and forming several holes to the exterior. T. romus Bickel & Hernández develop in E. azurea (Sw. Kunth petioles; the mine is curved and short compared with other Thrypticus species. T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández develops in Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, and digs the mine between the epidermis and the big central cell of the petioles. T. taragui Bickel & Hernández breeds in submersed stems of P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, and forms a mine close to the epidermis with branches to the central vascular stele. The mines of T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus and T. azuricola could not be associated with the corresponding species. Neither predators nor parasites were found associated with the group, but some cases of cannibalism were observed when two mines were confluent. The truncatus group species have a very specific feeding habit, live completely enclosed within host plant tissues, and feed on the sap obtained from holes chewed in the vascular bundles of the petioles, possibly using yeast as supplementary nourishment. Extensive field collections and laboratory tests indicate that each species in the truncatus group is associated with a specific host plant in the Pontederiaceae. Such specialization suggests a long association between the members of this group and their respective host plants.Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae, que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms

  10. Sinopse das espécies de Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae na Amazônia brasileira Sinopse of the species of Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae in Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silva do Rosário

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de Marlierea Cambess. na Amazônia Brasileira tem como principal objetivo atualizar os dados sobre a morfologia e taxonomia das espécies da região, bem como fornecer subsídios para esclarecer a separação de Marlierea de Myrcia DC. ex Guill., conforme sugerem alguns autores. Na Amazônia Brasileira, Marlierea está representada por 11 espécies (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M. subulata McVaugh, M. summa McVaugh, M. umbraticola (Kunth O. Berg e M. velutina McVaugh e uma mal conhecida (M. obumbrans (O. Berg Nied., habitando principalmente áreas de formações florestais. O gênero se caracteriza pelo hábito arbóreo ou arbustivo; folhas opostas (exceto em M. velutina que pode apresentar folhas opostas e/ou alternas; as inflorescências em panículas (de fascículos, racemos, cimeiras ou dicásios; botões florais geralmente fechados, abertura irregular do cálice, em 4-5 lobos, pétalas freqüentemente ausentes. Os Estados do Amazonas e Pará representam os dois principais centros de distribuição dessas espécies, sendo M. spruceana e M. umbraticola as espécies mais comuns. Marlierea obumbrans será melhor estudada posteriormente, devido apresentar sua delimitação taxonômica confusa entre Myrcia e Marlierea.A morphological study of Marlierea Cambess. occurring in Amazonian Brazil was carried out in order to obtain a better understanding of the morphology and taxonomy of all species in the region and to provide data to elucidate the taxonomic segregation of Marlierea from the morphologically similar Myrcia DC. ex Guill. In Amazonian Brazil, Marlierea is represented by 11, primarily forest, species (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M

  11. Karyotypic studies and morphological analysis of some reproductive features in five species of Conyza (Astereae: Asteraceae from Northeastern Argentina Estudios cariotípicos y análisis morfológico de algunos caracteres reproductivos en cinco especies de Conyza (Astereae: Asteraceae del Noreste de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Urdampilleta

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The cosmopolitan genus Conyza Less. comprises about 100 species, 22 of which occur in Argentina. Current taxonomic treatments, largely based on exomorphological characters, are insufficient to characterize and circumscribe some of their polymorphic species. Interspecific variations in inflorescences typology and capitula structure, as well as karyotypic aspects, were studied in five species of Conyza that naturally occur in Misiones Province (Argentina: C. blakei (Cabrera Cabrera, C. bonariensis (L. Cronquist var. bonariensis, C. glandulitecta Cabrera, C. primulaefolia (Lam. Cuatrec. & Lourteig, C. sumatrensis (Retz. E. Walker var. sumatrensis and C. sumatrensis (Retz. E. Walker var. floribunda (Kunth J. B. Marshall. Chromosome numbers for C. bonariensis, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis and C. sumatrensis var. floribunda, all with 2n= 54 and C. primulaefolia (2n= 72, were confirmed; two new counts are reported: C. blakei (2n= 54 and C. glandulitecta (2n= 54. All karyotypes were compared, and related with the variation both in flower number per capitula as well as typology of the inflorescence. The results obtained considering the different sources of evidence, demonstrated a close relationship between C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis and C. sumatrensis var. floribunda, that exhibit characteristics that may be considered primitive for the genus; C. primulaefolia shows the most advanced ones while C. blakei, C. bonariensis and C. glandulitecta occupy an intermediate position.El género cosmopolita Conyza Less. comprende alrededor de 100 especies, de las cuales 22 habitan en Argentina. Los tratamientos taxonómicos actuales, largamente basados en caracteres exomorfológicos, son insuficientes para caracterizar y circunscribir algunas de sus especies polimórficas. Variaciones interespecíficas en la tipología de las inflorescencias y estructura del capítulo, así como aspectos cariotípicos, fueron estudiados en cinco especies de Conyza que

  12. Degradação de pastagens na Região Amazônica: propriedades físicas do solo e crescimento de raízes Pasture degradation in the Amazon region: soil physical properties and root growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marques Lopes Muller

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar: (i a relação entre a degradação de pastagens de colonião manejadas com queima, e as modificações nas propriedades físicas e morfológicas de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo da Amazônia; (ii o crescimento radicular de pastagens com diferentes níveis de degradação; (iii o potencial de recuperação de pastagens degradadas de colonião com a introdução de andropógon. Numa propriedade rural da Região de Marabá, PA, foram estudados quatro tipos de pastagem: pastagem produtiva de colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq.; pastagem de colonião em declínio produtivo; pastagem de colonião degradada (capoeira; pastagem de colonião degradada e recuperada com andropógon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth. Como referência das propriedades do solo antes do desmatamento, estudou-se, também, uma reserva de mata nativa. A queima das pastagens foi prática usual, e apesar disso, estas não foram adubadas. A degradação da pastagem diminuiu a cobertura do solo e o deixou exposto à chuva e ao pisoteio do gado, o que resultou em aumento da densidade do solo na camada superficial e diminuição do grau de floculação da argila e da porosidade total. A diminuição da produção da parte aérea na pastagem degradada foi acompanhada de diminuição do número de raízes no perfil do solo, e da concentração do sistema radicular próximo à superfície. O andropógon demonstrou bom potencial para recuperação das áreas de pastagens degradadas, na Região Amazônica.The objective of this study was to evaluate: (i the relation between the degradation of burned Guinea grass pastures and the modifications of some physical and morphological properties of an Amazonian Ultisol; (ii the root growth of pastures in different degradation stages; and (iii the potential of rehabilitation of degraded Guinea grass pastures by introducing Gamba grass. On a farm at the eastern Amazon, region of Marabá, PA, Brazil, four pasture types were

  13. Efeito do "fluxo sazonal mínimo da inundação" sobre a composição e estrutura de um campo inundável no Pantanal de Poconé, MT, Brasil "Minimum seasonal flow" effects on the composition and structure of a flooding grassland in Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rebellato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da sazonalidade hídrica sobre a composição e a estrutura de um campo inundável. Foram utilizadas 30 parcelas (armações de 0,5 m×0,5 m para as coletas de cada período (chuvoso e estiagem, onde estimou-se o grau de cobertura das espécies. Calculou-se alguns parâmetros fitossociológicos, índices de diversidade e similaridade entre os dois períodos. Foram amostradas 48 espécies, em 35 gêneros, distribuídos em 20 famílias. As famílias com o maior número de espécies foram Cyperaceae (10, Poaceae (seis e Euphorbiaceae (cinco. As terófitas destacaram-se com 41,02% e hemicriptófitas com 23,08%. A diversidade e a riqueza foram maiores no período chuvoso (S = 41, H' = 4,01 e D = 0,91 em relação ao período de estiagem (S = 26, H' = 3,29 e D = 0,85, sendo a similaridade igual a Sa = 55,88%. Algumas espécies como Bacopa myriophylloides Wettst., Cyperus haspan L. ssp. juncoides (Lam. Kük., Digitaria fuscescens (J. Presl Henrard, Eleocharis mínima Kunth, foram indicadoras de umidade, enquanto Euphorbia thymifolia L., Wedelia brachycarpa Baker, Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq. P.H. Raven, Hydrolea spinosa L., de estiagem. Foram 12 espécies que caracterizaram o campo entre os dois períodos, destacando-se com altos valores de cobertura relativa (CRi e freqüência relativa (FRi com variações destes parâmetros entre os dois períodos.The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal effect of wet and dry periods on the composition and structure of flooding grassland. Thirty quadrats (0,5 m×0,5 m were used in each period (wet and dry to estimate the degree of covering of the species. Phytosociological parameters, diversity and similarity indices were calculated between periods. Forty eight species were collected, 35 genera distributed in 20 families. Cyperaceae (10, Poaceae (six and Euphorbiaceae (five were the families with the highest number of species. Therophytes were the most

  14. Campo rupestre recém-queimado na Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil: plantas de rebrota e sementes, com espécies endêmicas na rocha Recently burnt 'campo rupestre' in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil: resprouters and seeders, with endemic rock species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Paula Santos Neves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O fogo é um distúrbio recorrente em muitas áreas da Chapada Diamantina, geralmente originado por ação antrópica e que ocasiona rápidas mudanças nas comunidades. Este trabalho objetiva conhecer a composição e estrutura da vegetação de uma área de campo rupestre recém-queimada no Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil, situada entre 700 e 800 m acima do nível do mar, visando discussão das estratégias de regeneração das espécies mais conspícuas e das similaridades florísticas entre áreas com e sem distúrbio recente de fogo. Foi realizado um censo das espécies de plantas vasculares ocorrentes em 16 parcelas de 10x10 m, sendo as coberturas estimadas em cinco subparcelas de 2x2 m de cada parcela. Foram encontradas 85 espécies de 34 famílias, sendo 11 de monocotiledôneas, 22 de eudicotiledôneas e uma de monilófita. A espécie mais abundante foi Panicum trinii Kunth (Poaceae e a mais frequente Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. (Fabaceae. O índice de Shannon foi 3,4. A área estudada agrupou-se com a área de afloramento rochoso em altitude menos elevada (38% de similaridade. É possível que o fogo seja mais frequente nessas áreas menos isoladas, em relação às dos topos de morros. As espécies dominantes se restabeleceram principalmente a partir de gemas de sistemas subterrâneos e aéreos. Uma das espécies mais frequentes, Dactylaena microphylla Eichler, estabeceu-se de sementes. Espécies endêmicas sensíveis à ação do fogo sobrevivem em ilhas de vegetação nos afloramentos rochosos.Fire is a recurrent disturbance in many areas of Chapada Diamantina, generally set by human activity that drives rapid changes in communities. This study aims to investigate the composition and structure of 'campo rupestre' vegetation in a recently burned area, between 700 and 800 m above sea level, at Chapada Diamantina National Park, Bahia, Brazil, and to discuss the strategies of regeneration for the most

  15. Macrófitas aquáticas de ilhas flutuantes (baceiros nas sub-regiões do Abobral e Miranda, Pantanal, MS, Brasil Aquatic macrophytes of floating mats (" baceiros" in the Abobral and Miranda Pantanal Wetlands, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Otávio Pivari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A associação entre as formas biológicas flutuante e epífita, relacionadas a macrófitas aquáticas, constitui o que se chama genericamente de ilha flutuante. Esta denominação é aplicada ao estabelecimento de uma ou mais epífitas sobre indivíduos vivos de espécies flutuantes, como sinônimo de camalotal ou, ainda, para se referir à vegetação flutuante que se desenvolve sobre um solo orgânico em decomposição (histossolo. Realizou-se o levantamento das espécies presentes em cinco baceiros nas sub-regiões pantaneiras do Abobral e Miranda e o estabelecimento das similaridades florísticas entre estes, a fim de evidenciar aspectos da dinâmica sucessional de ilhas flutuantes. Foram encontradas 66 espécies de macrófitas aquáticas epífitas, distribuídas em 27 famílias, sendo Cyperaceae e Poaceae as mais representativas. O número de espécies por baceiro variou de 7 a 39, sendo os táxons comuns a todos esses Ludwigia leptocarpa (Nutt. H. Hara e Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth Palla, ao nível específico, e Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Onagraceae, Poaceae e Polygonaceae, com relação às famílias. Outras formas biológicas, além da epífita, foram encontradas associadas aos baceiros, ou ainda, se mostraram adaptadas às condições do histossolo, podendo ser consideradas " epífitas casuais" . Baceiros em estágios sucessionais mais próximos apresentam maior similaridade florística e, no geral, quanto mais avançada a sucessão natural, maior a riqueza específica.The association between floating and epiphytic biological forms, regarding aquatic macrophytes, creates what are called floating mats. This concept refers to the establishment of one or more epiphytes on live individuals of floating species, as a synonym of " camalotal," or applied to floating vegetation that grows on organic soil in decomposition (histosol. A checklist of species was made of five floating mats in the Abobral and Miranda Pantanal Wetlands and

  16. Longevidade de inflorescências de Epidendrum ibaguense tratadas com aminoetoxivinilglicina Extending vase life of cut Epidendrum ibaguense inflorescences with aminoethoxyvinylglycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Mapeli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do inibidor da síntese de etileno aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG aplicado na forma de solução de condicionamento e pulverização sobre a abscisão e longevidade de inflorescências de Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth. As hastes foram colhidas e imediatamente condicionadas em solução com 0, 0,5, 1, 1,5 e 2 mM de AVG por 6, 12, 18 e 24 horas. Os mesmos tratamentos foram aplicados na forma de pulverização até o molhamento completo da inflorescência. O experimento foi conduzido em um esquema fatorial entre tempo de aplicação e doses de AVG, mais doses de AVG aplicadas em pulverização nas flores, e o delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, com três hastes por unidade experimental. Independentemente do modo de aplicação do AVG, as concentrações utilizadas promoveram aumento da longevidade das flores em aproximadamente 70% em comparação ao controle, com resposta máxima nas concentrações de 1,5 e 2 mM. Apercentagem de abscisão de flores foi reduzida em todos os tratamentos com AVG, principalmente quando se utilizou pulverização, com decréscimo na abscisão acumulada superior a 80% nas concentrações entre 1 e 2 mM de AVG.A aplicação de AVG prolongaa longevidadee reduz a abscisãode flores de Epidendrum ibaguense.This work evaluated the influence of the aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, when applied in pulsing solution or sprayed, on the abscission and longevity of cut star orchid (Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth inflorescences. The cut stems were placed in solutions with 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mM AVG concentrations immediately after the harvest for periods of 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours. The same treatment concentrations were sprayed on the inflorescences until runoff. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with factorial treatments of rate and duration plus rate of application to the flowers, with five replicates, with three

  17. Aliso en Simbiosis Dual con Frankia y Endomicorrizas y Respuesta a Boro en un Andisol Alder in Dual Symbiosis whith Frankia and Endomycorrhizae and Response at Boron in an Andisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Medina Sierra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó la respuesta del aliso (Alnus acuminata Kunth a la inoculación dual con cepas de Frankia spp. y de hongos endomicorrizógenos con dos niveles de boro (B (0,3 y 0,6 mg kg-1 suelo y la aplicación de nitrógeno (N (40 kg ha-1, fósforo (P (30 mg kg-1 suelo y un control sin inoculación ni elementos químicos. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con 41 tratamientos y 20 repeticiones. Para el análisis estadístico de componentes principales se empleó el programa Multibiplot. Las variables respuesta correspondieron a la biomasa seca aérea y sus contenidos de N, P, Calcio (Ca y cenizas (cen. Se encontró que los tratamientos de P y N y las cepas nativas de Frankia spp. (UdeA902, UdeA904 y CUNMS502 combinados con hongos micorrizógenos (UdeA1905 y Glomus fistulosum respectivamente, favorecieron el rendimiento y contenido de N del aliso. La aplicación de B en algunos casos mejoró el rendimiento y en otros lo afectó negativamente; pero potenció la respuesta de algunas inoculaciones especialmente cuando estuvo presente G. fistulosum aún en el caso de estar acompañado de la cepa de Frankia (CUNMS502. Esta cepa, que presentó bajo rendimiento en otros tratamientos, se vio favorecida notablemente con la adición de B. La inoculación dual es efectiva para favorecer el manejo forestal del aliso siempre y cuando se haga la selección adecuada de las cepas, lo cual puede además condicionar la respuesta a algunos nutrientes como en el caso del B.Abstract. It was evaluated the response of alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth to the dual inoculation of strains of Frankia spp. and endomycorrhizal fungi with two levels of boron (B (0.3 and 0.6 mg kg-1 soil and the application of nitrogen (N (40 kg ha-1, phosphorus (P (30 mg kg-1 soil and a control without inoculation or chemical elements. The experimental design was completely randomized; it was composed kg-1of 41 treatments and 20 replications. The statistical analysis consisted

  18. Determinação dos teores de umidade e cinzas de amostras comerciais de guaraná utilizando métodos convencionais e análise térmica Determination of humidity and ash content of guarana commercial samples using conventional method and thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Paullinia cupana Kunth, vegetal popularmente conhecido como guaraná, é uma planta da família Sapindaceae predominante na região amazônica. A baixa qualidade deste produto pode ser atribuída a espécies e variedades menos nobres, técnicas de colheita e/ou de processamento inadequado ou, ainda, devido à adição de substâncias que não fazem parte de sua composição natural. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar, a partir da termogravimetria (TG/termogravimetria derivada (DTG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC, o comportamento térmico de amostras comerciais de guaraná em pó existentes no Brasil e estabelecer um estudo comparativo entre os métodos convencionais e termogravimétrico para determinação dos teores de umidade e cinzas. A similaridade entre os perfis das curvas TG/DTG e DSC indicam que não há diferenças entre as amostras. A utilização da TG mostrou que é possível reduzir o tempo de análise, utilizar menor quantidade de amostra, assim como, fazer a determinação simultânea dos teores de umidade e cinzas. Em relação ao método convencional, erros de análise inerentes à manipulação das amostras são minimizados. As técnicas termoanalíticas mostram-se como ferramentas potenciais para a obtenção de parâmetros tecnológicos, em controle de qualidade, torrefação e condições adequadas de armazenamento.Paullinia cupana Kunth a vegetable popularly known as guarana, belongs to the Sapindaceas plant family and is predominant in the Amazon region. The low quality of this product can be attributed to the species and less noble varieties, harvest techniques and/or inadequate processing or, yet due to addition of substances that are not included in its natural composition. The main goal of this work was to evaluate from thermogravimetry (TG/derivative thermogravimetry (DTG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the thermal behavior of powdered guarana samples in the Brazilian market in order to

  19. Flora cactológica y especies asociadas en el área natural protegida Sierra Corral de los Bandidos, Nuevo León, México Cactus list and asociated plants of the protected natural area Sierra Corral de Los Bandidos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Carmona-Lara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El área natural protegida (ANP Sierra Corral de los Bandidos ubicada en la sierra Madre Oriental, al noroeste de Monterrey, sufre el impacto de actividades antropológicas asociadas al matorral submontano (ganadería, agricultura, colecta y urbanismo, disminuyendo sus recursos naturales y amenazando sus especies endémicas, principalmente cactáceas. El propósito del estudio fue conocer la diversidad de cactáceas y especies asociadas en zonas de amortiguamiento y núcleo. Para ello se determinaron índices de riqueza y similitud utilizando un muestreo estratificado con cuadrantes a lo largo de transectos orientados por gradientes altitudinales según su zonificación. En total se registraron 112 taxa (30 cactáceas, 87 (24 cactáceas en zona de amortiguamiento y 80 (19 cactáceas en zona núcleo. Por su densidad, frecuencia y abundancia sobresalieron Echinocereus stramineus (Engelm. Engelm. ex F. Seitz, Cylindropuntia leptocaulis F. M. Knuth in Backeb et F. M. Knuth, Mammillaria melanocentra Poselg., Neolloydia conoidea (DC Britton et Rose, (Cactaceae; Erioneuron avenaceum (H. B et K. Tateoka, (Poaceae; Viguiera stenoloba S. F. Blake; Zexmenia hispida (Kunth A. Gray, (Asteraceae y Agave lechuguilla Torr, (Agavaceae. Existe diferencia significativa entre las poblaciones de cactus de las zonas del ANP, según Jacquard (13%, Sörensen (38% y Morisita (0.44. Ocho cactáceas (7 endémicas están registradas en algún estatus de la NOM-ECOL-059, 2001.The Sierra Corral de los Bandidos is a natural protected area located in the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range northwest of Monterrey city. This preserve suffers the impact of human activities in the form of cattle ranching, agriculture, harvest of wild plants, and urbanism, diminishing its natural resources and threatening its endemic species, especially from the cactaceae family. The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the diversity of cacti and associated species in the buffer and

  20. Caracterização da fauna edáfica em sistemas de manejo para produção de forragens no Estado do Piauí Characterization of edaphic fauna in management systems for forage production in the State of Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição da fauna em função da umidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de manejo para a produção de forragens com capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, capim-Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. R. de Wit. tendo como controle uma Mata dos Cocais. A coleta da fauna foi feita utilizando-se armadilhas do tipo Pitfall em duas épocas do ano: setembro de 2007 e março de 2008, período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente. Os sistemas com capim-Tifton, capim-Tanzânia e Leucena mostraram maior número de indivíduos nos dois períodos avaliados. A queimada ocorrida no capim-Andropogon antes da primeira coleta resultou em uma redução na abundância e diversidade da fauna edáfica. Os maiores valores em riqueza, diversidade e uniformidade de fauna foram obtidos na amostragem realizada no período úmido. A mata mostrou maior diversidade e equitabilidade nos dois períodos avaliados. Em situação de estresse hídrico alguns grupos como Formicidae e Collembola predominaram nos sistemas de manejo diminuindo a uniformidade, enquanto no período úmido vários grupos mostraram boa representatividade o que favoreceu a uniformidade. A análise multivariada de componentes principais evidenciou que os sistemas com mata, capim-Tifton e capim-Tanzania e Leucena mostraram associação com vários grupos da fauna edáfica nos dois períodos avaliados enquanto que o sistema com capim-Andropogon, que sofreu queimada, apresentou afinidade apenas com o grupo Heteroptera, no período seco.The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of fauna as a function of soil moisture in different fodder-production management systems of Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, Andropogon Grass (Andropogon gayanus Kunth and

  1. Estudos morfoanatômicos da semente e da plântula de espécies de Anileiras (Indigofera L., Leguminosae Morpho-anatomical studies of seeds and seedlings of wild indigo, "anileira", Indigofera- Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Villela Paulino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O nome popular "anileira" designa Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. e I. truxillensis Kunth, muito semelhantes quanto à morfologia externa. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar se caracteres da semente e plântula apresentavam valor diagnóstico para este grupo, já que tais caracteres têm sido muito utilizados na Taxonomia de Leguminosae. A superfície e morfoanatomia de sementes e cotilédones foram estudadas por microscopias eletrônica de varredura e de luz, e as etapas do desenvolvimento das plântulas descritas. Embora as plântulas sejam semelhantes, caracteres de sementes (tamanho, forma, ornamentação da superfície, forma do hilo e tamanho do embrião e cotilédones (forma, organização do parênquima lacunoso na nervura central e distribuição de metabólitos nos tecidos apresentaram valor diagnóstico para as espécies. I. anil distingue-se de I. suffruticosa por suas sementes maiores e cotilédones com borda acuminada. I. truxillensis caracteriza-se por apresentar sementes cilíndricas e cotilédones reniformes contendo gotas de óleo e alcalóides. Nossos dados, a morfologia externa dos frutos (curvos em I. anil e I. suffruticosa, e retos em I. truxillensis e, ainda, a anatomia foliar (células parenquimáticas grandes e fenólicas no floema de I. suffruticosa e sua ausência em I. anil sugerem que I. anil, I. suffruticosa e I. truxillensis não devem ser sinonimizadas.The common name "wild indigo" specifies Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. (legitimate name and I. truxillensis Kunth (legitimate name that are very similar due to their external morphology. This work analyzed diagnostic characteristics of seeds and seedlings of these species since such features are widely used in taxonomic approaches within Leguminosae. We studied surface features and morpho-anatomy of seeds and cotyledons with scanning electronic microscopy and light microscopy, and described seedling phases. Although seedlings are similar

  2. Reproductive biology of pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens and the pollinator-nectar robber spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Richardson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Floral visitor species are often assumed to act either mutualistically towards plants (as pollinators or to exploit them (as nectar-robbers or as nectar or pollen thieves. We investigated the reproductive biology of pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens K. Kunth, a regionally abundant North American shrub, in relation to the wide spectrum of behaviours displayed by its flower-visiting insects. We recorded A. pungens population-level flowering phenology and nectar standing crop, and conducted experiments documenting its breeding system, in an Arizona upland habitat in 1998 and 1999. Floral visitors were observed over 38 hr. We recorded frequencies of six foraging behaviours within and among individuals of each visitor species.Arctostaphylos pungens flowers in late winter. During this period it is the only abundant floral resource for a diverse array of generalist insects in its habitat. We observed 1206 floral visits by 46 taxa. Most floral visitors pursued mixed behaviours: at the species and/or individual level, they foraged both legitimately and as nectar-robbers or thieves. The most commonly mixed behaviours were legitimate pollen collection (which likely resulted in pollen transfer and secondary nectar-robbing (which was highly unlikely to do so. As A. pungens was found to be largely self-incompatible, robbing and thieving visits should be detrimental to reproductive success.Although theoretical analyses often assume that exploiters must be punished or excluded for mutualism to persist evolutionarily, exploitation is in fact ubiquitous within cooperative interactions in nature. In manzanita, very few floral visitor species could be classified as exclusively beneficial or detrimental to plants: rather, they exhibited multiple foraging strategies, with no evidence of plant control. Such pollinator-nectar robber spectra appear to be common, and constitute an important challenge to current understanding of how mutualism can persist.

  3. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina José

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl were Crescentia cujete L. (flu, Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough, Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation, Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq. Kunth (pruritic ailments, Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation, Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic Mentha sativa L. (nervousness, Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites, Origanum vulgare L. (earache, Plantago major L. (inflammation and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation. The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study

  4. Pérdidas de suelo y nutrientes bajo diferentes coberturas vegetales en la zona Andina de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alexander Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural El Ciprés, ubicada en la vereda Bellavista, municipio de El Dovio (Valle del Cauca. La vereda se encuentra en la zona Andina de la cordillera occidental, en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1700 y 1800 m.s.n.m., con una temperatura promedio de 18 °C. Según la clasificación climática de Holdridge, corresponde a una zona de bosque húmedo Montano Bajo, con una precipitación promedio entre 2500 y 2700 mm/año, una humedad relativa de 90% y una pendiente del suelo de 62%. Las mediciones se hicieron en parcelas de escorrentía de 32 m² cada una y siete tipos de coberturas: guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth, bosque secundario, pastura (Brachiaria decumbens, café (Coffea arabica; banco de proteína (Trichanthera gigantea, caña forrajera (Saccharum officinarum y cultivo limpio conformado por yuca (Manihot esculenta, maíz (Zea mays y arracacha (Arracacia zanthorrhiza Brancroft. Para la evaluación se midieron las pérdidas de suelo y los nutrientes calcio, magnesio, potasio y fósforo en un periodo de 7 meses. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P < 0.05 entre las coberturas evaluadas. Las pérdidas más altas de suelo y nutrientes ocurrieron bajo cultivos limpios (2.61 t/ha y las más bajas en guadua (0.08 t/ha. Estos resultados sugieren ventajas de los bosques de guadua en esta zona de Colombia, ya que además de contribuir a la conservación de los suelos y al mantenimiento de la fertilidad, es una alternativa económica complementaria para los productores rurales a partir de su manejo y aprovechamiento.

  5. Pérdidas de suelo y nutrientes bajo diferentes coberturas vegetales en la zona Andina de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez José Alexander

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural El Ciprés, ubicada en la vereda Bellavista, municipio de El Dovio (Valle del Cauca. La vereda se encuentra en la zona Andina de la cordillera occidental, en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1700 y 1800 m.s.n.m., con una temperatura promedio de 18 °C. Según la clasificación climática de Holdridge, corresponde a una zona de bosque húmedo Montano Bajo, con una precipitación promedio entre 2500 y 2700 mm/año, una humedad relativa de 90% y una pendiente del suelo de 62%. Las mediciones se hicieron en parcelas de escorrentía de 32 m2 cada una y siete tipos de coberturas: guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth, bosque secundario, pastura (Brachiaria decumbens, café (Coffea arabica; banco de proteína (Trichanthera gigantea, caña forrajera (Saccharum officinarum y cultivo limpio conformado por yuca (Manihot esculenta, maíz (Zea mays y arracacha (Arracacia zanthorrhiza Brancroft. Para la evaluación se midieron las pérdidas de suelo y los nutrientes calcio, magnesio, potasio y fósforo en un periodo de 7 meses. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P < 0.05 entre las coberturas evaluadas. Las pérdidas más altas de suelo y nutrientes ocurrieron bajo cultivos limpios (2.61 t/ha y las más bajas en guadua (0.08 t/ha. Estos resultados sugieren ventajas de los bosques de guadua en esta zona de Colombia, ya que además de contribuir a la conservación de los suelos y al mantenimiento de la fertilidad, es una alternativa económica complementaria para los productores rurales a partir de su manejo y aprovechamiento.

  6. TRIAGEM PRELIMINAR DA PRESENÇA DE INULINA EM PLANTAS ALIMENTÍCIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Misturini ROSSI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inulina e oligofrutose são polímeros de frutose encontrados em diferentes espécies vegetais e amplamente pesquisados com relação aos seus benefícios para saúde e propriedades tecnológicas na indústria de alimentos. Atualmente a chicória (Chichorium intybus é a fonte principal de inulina para aplicação industrial, mas outras espécies vegetais como Helianthus tuberosus L. (alcachofra de Jerusalém e Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob. (yacon, batata-yacon ou yacon-dos-andes têm sido pesquisadas com relação ao seu conteúdo de inulina e oligofrutose. Um levantamento preliminar do conteúdo de inulina foi realizado em 4 espécies vegetais, em sua maioria não cultivada, colhidas na região de Porto Alegre. Para isso, as raízes ou bulbos foram triturados e homogeneizados em água quente para extração da inulina, e os extratos fi ltrados analisados em HPLC. A triagem preliminar detectou a presença de inulina em todos os extratos analisados, sendo que o yacon-gaúcho (Smallanthus connatus (Spreng. H. Rob. e araruta (Maranta arundinacea L. se destacaram como as espécies de maior conteúdo de inulina dentre as plantas analisadas, com 43,18 e 45,83% de inulina em base seca, respectivamente, seguidas pelo radite nativo (Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton, que apresentou 21,05% de inulina em base seca. Estas foram superiores à batatayacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, também analisado e que apresentou 13,37% de inulina (base seca, resultado este condizente com outros já descritos na literatura.

  7. Efecto citoprotector del camu-camu Myrciaria dubia en tres líneas celulares de ratón expuestos in vivo a bromato de potasio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis Rafael

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó in vivo la capacidad citoprotectora del fruto de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh Camu-camu frente al daño mutagénico producido por bromato de potasio (68,5 mg/k sobre tres líneas celulares de ratón (hígado, riñón y células sanguíneas. Se utilizó ratones (n= 120 divididos en tres grupos los cuales bebieron ad libitum: TI= control negativo (solo agua y el grupo TIII (control positivo; El grupo TII bebió el extracto acuoso (2% p/v del fruto de camu-camu. A los diez días se inyectó una dosis única de KBr03 (68,5 mg/kg peso corporal vía intraperitoneal, a los grupos TII y TIII. El tratamiento con camu-camu continuo 35 días más, luego los ratones fueron eutanizados para determinar la frecuencia del daño al DNA mediante el protocolo del ensayo cometa alcalino. El grupo TII mostró en todas las líneas celulares el efecto citoprotector del camu-camu (p< 0,05. El efecto dañino al DNA por la acción oxidativa del KBrO3 es inhibido por el extracto acuoso del fruto de camu camu, probablemente por la presencia de los agentes antioxidantes como el Acido ascórbico y los flavonoides.

  8. Medicinal plants for the treatment of “nervios”, anxiety, and depression in Mexican Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Laura Guzmán Gutiérrez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The term “nervios” is referred as a folk illness recognized by Mexican Traditional Medicine, and also widely reported across many countries in Latin America. “Nervios” are characterized by a “state of bodily and mental unrest”, which decreases the ability to achieve daily goals. The causes are varied; in fact, any situation that alters the emotional state or mood is interpreted as a possible triggering agent. Depression and anxiety are psychiatric disorders, which share symptoms, or can be included in the same group of disorders with “nervios”. The therapies are designed to reassure health, i.e. “calm the nerves”. For this propose, the oral administration of plants infusions is common. In this review we compile information regarding the plants used for the treatment of “nervios” in México, along with those for which reports of anxiolytic or/and antidepressive activity exist. We found 92 plant species used in folk medicine for the treatment of “nervios”, among these, sixteen have been studied experimentally. The most studied plant is Galphimia glauca Cav., Malpighiaceae, which current clinical studies have validated its efficacy in patients, and their active components, the triterpenes galphimine A, B, and C, identified. Interestingly only nine plants were found to be reported in folk medicine for the treatment of sadness or/and depression, but their antidepressant activity has not been investigated. However, among the plants used in folk medicine for treatment of “nervios”, several, as Litsea glaucescens Kunth, Lauraceae, have been proven to show antidepressant activity in experimental models, and some of their active compounds have been determined. These species could be a potential source of compounds with activity in the central nervous system.

  9. Priming effects on seed germination in Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae) and Cordia megalantha (Boraginaceae), two tropical deciduous tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-López, Sandra; Soriano, Diana; Velázquez, Noé; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Gamboa-deBuen, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    Successful revegetation necessarily requires the establishment of a vegetation cover and one of the challenges for this is the scarce knowledge about germination and seedling establishment of wild tree species. Priming treatments (seed hydration during a specific time followed by seed dehydration) could be an alternative germination pre-treatment to improve plant establishment. Natural priming (via seed burial) promotes rapid and synchronous germination as well as the mobilisation of storage reserves; consequently, it increases seedling vigour. These metabolic and physiological responses are similar to those occurring as a result of the laboratory seed priming treatments (osmopriming and matrix priming) applied successfully to agricultural species. In order to know if natural priming had a positive effect on germination of tropical species we tested the effects of natural priming on imbibition kinetics, germination parameters (mean germination time, lag time and germination rate and percentage) and reserve mobilisation in the seeds of two tree species from a tropical deciduous forest in south-eastern México: Tecoma stans (L Juss. Ex Kunth) and Cordia megalantha (S.F Blake). The wood of both trees are useful for furniture and T. stans is a pioneer tree that promotes soil retention in disturbed areas. We also compared the effect of natural priming with that of laboratory matrix priming (both in soil). Matrix priming improved germination of both studied species. Natural priming promoted the mobilisation of proteins and increased the amount of free amino acids and of lipid degradation in T. stans but not in C. megalantha. Our results suggest that the application of priming via the burial of seeds is an easy and inexpensive technique that can improve seed germination and seedling establishment of tropical trees with potential use in reforestation and restoration practices.

  10. Sorghum expressed sequence tags identify signature genes for drought, pathogenesis, and skotomorphogenesis from a milestone set of 16,801 unique transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Lee H; Liang, Chun; Shah, Manish; Sun, Feng; Wang, Haiming; Reid, St Patrick; Gingle, Alan R; Paterson, Andrew H; Wing, Rod; Dean, Ralph; Klein, Robert; Nguyen, Henry T; Ma, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Xin; Morishige, Daryl T; Mullet, John E; Cordonnier-Pratt, Marie-Michèle

    2005-10-01

    Improved knowledge of the sorghum transcriptome will enhance basic understanding of how plants respond to stresses and serve as a source of genes of value to agriculture. Toward this goal, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cDNA libraries were prepared from light- and dark-grown seedlings, drought-stressed plants, Colletotrichum-infected seedlings and plants, ovaries, embryos, and immature panicles. Other libraries were prepared with meristems from Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc. that had been photoperiodically induced to flower, and with rhizomes from S. propinquum and johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L. Pers.). A total of 117,682 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained representing both 3' and 5' sequences from about half that number of cDNA clones. A total of 16,801 unique transcripts, representing tentative UniScripts (TUs), were identified from 55,783 3' ESTs. Of these TUs, 9,032 are represented by two or more ESTs. Collectively, these libraries were predicted to contain a total of approximately 31,000 TUs. Individual libraries, however, were predicted to contain no more than about 6,000 to 9,000, with the exception of light-grown seedlings, which yielded an estimate of close to 13,000. In addition, each library exhibits about the same level of complexity with respect to both the number of TUs preferentially expressed in that library and the frequency with which two or more ESTs is found in only that library. These results indicate that the sorghum genome is expressed in highly selective fashion in the individual organs and in response to the environmental conditions surveyed here. Close to 2,000 differentially expressed TUs were identified among the cDNA libraries examined, of which 775 were differentially expressed at a confidence level of 98%. From these 775 TUs, signature genes were identified defining drought, Colletotrichum infection, skotomorphogenesis (etiolation), ovary, immature panicle, and embryo.

  11. The Evolution of Photoperiod-Insensitive Flowering in Sorghum, A Genomic Model for Panicoid Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Hugo E; Zhou, Chengbo; Tang, Haibao; Khadke, Prashant P; Das, Sayan; Lin, Yann-Rong; Ge, Zhengxiang; Clemente, Thomas; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Hash, C Thomas; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-09-01

    Of central importance in adapting plants of tropical origin to temperate cultivation has been selection of daylength-neutral genotypes that flower early in the temperate summer and take full advantage of its long days. A cross between tropical and temperate sorghums [Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc.×S. bicolor (L.) Moench], revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL), FlrAvgD1, accounting for 85.7% of variation in flowering time under long days. Fine-scale genetic mapping placed FlrAvgD1 on chromosome 6 within the physically largest centiMorgan in the genome. Forward genetic data from "converted" sorghums validated the QTL. Association genetic evidence from a diversity panel delineated the QTL to a 10-kb interval containing only one annotated gene, Sb06g012260, that was shown by reverse genetics to complement a recessive allele. Sb06g012260 (SbFT12) contains a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) protein domain characteristic of members of the "FT" family of flowering genes acting as a floral suppressor. Sb06g012260 appears to have evolved ∼40 Ma in a panicoid ancestor after divergence from oryzoid and pooid lineages. A species-specific Sb06g012260 mutation may have contributed to spread to temperate regions by S. halepense ("Johnsongrass"), one of the world's most widespread invasives. Alternative alleles for another family member, Sb02g029725 (SbFT6), mapping near another flowering QTL, also showed highly significant association with photoperiod response index (P = 1.53×10 (-)  (6)). The evolution of Sb06g012260 adds to evidence that single gene duplicates play large roles in important environmental adaptations. Increased knowledge of Sb06g012260 opens new doors to improvement of sorghum and other grain and cellulosic biomass crops.

  12. Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM. PMID:20645716

  13. In-situ Protection Management and Conservation Study of Some Medicinal Plants%一些药用植物自然状态下管理和保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan SHER; Z.D.KHAN; A.U.KHAN; Farrukh HUSSAIN

    2005-01-01

    In-situ study on eleven commercially important species viz;Adiantum capillus-veneris L,Bergenia ciliata (Haw) Sternb,Colchicum luteum Baker,Polygonum amplexicaule D.Den,Cuminum cyminum L,Dioscorea deltoidea Wall Kunth,L Morchella esculenta L,Paeonia emodi Wall ex H Kf,Podophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Chatt & Mukh,Valeriana wallichii DC and Viola serpens Wall ex Roxb was conducted in four locations viz; Malam (1 400 to 2 000m),Bargin (1 700 to 2 300m),Biakand (1 500 to 2 100m) and Shinko (2 100 to 2 700m).The data was recorded from both protected and unprotected sites of each site.Each site had 3 altitudinal sampling point.The density, herbage coverage and fresh biomass were determined in each locations for every species.All the investigated parameters generally showed an increase of 3 to 6 times over unprotected sites in each locations.Morchella esculenta,Dioscorea deltoidea,Colchicum luteum and Podophyllum hexandrum were absent in all unprotected sites while other species had low values in these sites.The investigated parameters of Colchicum luteum,Bergenia ciliata,Paeonioa emodi,Dioscorea deltoidea and Podophyllum hexandrum generally increased with the increasing elevation.Soil analysis,soil and air temperatures were recorded for each site.The air and soil temperature were slightly higher in open areas than in the protected site and showed decrease with increasing elevation.While the soil fertility was relatively high in protected sites as compared to unprotected area.The study shows that protection promotes the growth, distribution and occurrence of medicinal plants.It is possible with the participation of local communities to conserve these resources.

  14. Taxonomical and ecological characteristics of the desmids placoderms in reservoir: analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlene Aparecida Felisberto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of river-dam axis and abiotic factors on the composition of Closteriaceae, Gonatozygaceae, Mesotaeniaceae and Peniaceae in a tropical reservoir METHODS: Water samples for physical, chemical and periphyton analysis were collected in April and August 2002 in different regions along the axis of the river-dam of Rosana Reservoir, River Basin Paranapanema. The substrates collected, always in the litoranea region, were petioles of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth. To examine the relationship of abiotic variables with reservoir zones and between the floristic composition of desmids, we used principal component analysis (PCA and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA RESULTS: The results of the PCA explained 81.3% of the total variability in the first two axes. In the first axis, the variables of conductivity, water temperature and the pH were related to the sampling regions of April with higher values, while for the month of August, nitrate, total phosphorus and dissolved oxygen showed higher values. We identified 20 taxa, distributed in the genera Closterium (14, Gonatozygon (4, Netrium (1 and Penium (1. Spatially, the higher taxa were recorded in the lacustrine region for both collection periods. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA summarized 62.2% of total data variability of taxa in the first two axes, and in August, Closterium incurvum Brébisson, C. cornu Ehrenberg ex Ralfs and Gonatozygon monotaenium De Bary, were related to higher values of turbidity and nitrate to the lacustrine and intermediate regions CONCLUSION: Thus, the formation of groups was due to the regions along the longitudinal axis, then the seasonal period, which must be related to the low current velocity, the higher values of temperature and the water transparency, especially in late summer

  15. Phenology of the oil palm interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Hormaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the most important oil crops in the world. Because of its high productivity and perennial nature, it has been expanding quickly. Commercial plantations consist mostly of the African palm E. guineensis Jacq. However, producers in Latin America are increasingly planting the O × G interspecific hybrid, a cross between African palm (E. guineensis and the American palm (E. oleifera (Kunth Cortés. This interspecific hybrid has emerged as a promising solution to diseases such as the bud rot of oil palm because of the apparent partial resistance of this genotype to the disease. This work studied and described the phenology of the O × G interspecific hybrid. The phenology stages were coded using the BBCH scale. The scale for the phenophases was defined using a three-digit code. Due to the nature of the palm, no descriptions were used for stage two (formation of side shoots/tillering and stage four (development of harvestable vegetative plant parts or vegetative reproductive organs because these stages do not apply to oil palm. The scale was constructed using germinating seeds, pre-nursery and nursery plants and five year-old palms. For the description of the stem elongation, different age palms of the same O × G hybrid were used. Observations were performed during an 18-month period. Additionally, the interval for the change from one phenology stage to another was determined both in days and degree-days (DD. The interspecific O × G hybrid required 6408 DD from when the spear leaf unfolds until the bunch was ripened and harvested, and 4427.6 DD from leaf unfolding to anthesis.

  16. Estimación mediante RAPD's de la diversidad genética en Guadua en el departamento del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio M. Juan Diego

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Mediante RAPD's se analizaron 120 muestras foliares de 12 biotipos de Guadua angustifolia Kunth clasificados morfológicamente, procedentes de la cuenca del río Cauca, en el departamento del Cauca, Colombia, para determinar diversidad genética. El ADN se extrajo mediante el protocolo modificado de Dellaporta (1983. Se emplearon los cebadores; OPF-12, OPG-19, OPN-19 y OPP-16 con mayor número de bandas polimórficas. El índice de Shannon (HT = 0.4556 ± 0.1849 señaló diversidad genética total alta y diversidad entre los biotipos y al interior de ellos. El Índice de estructura genética (Gst = 0.5200 e Indice de migración efectiva (Nm = 0.4615 definieron biotipos bien diferenciados. El análisis de similaridad conformó tres grupos a un coeficiente de 0.64. El grupo G1 incluyó los biotipos Curvado, Rayada frecuente, Amarilla Playón, Rayada ancha, Rayada escasa, Convexa, Amarilla, Hembra, Verde irregular y algunos individuos de verde alta. El grupo G2, Verde alta y Macho. El grupo G3, Rayada negra. El estudio molecular agrupó los individuos de forma similar al estudio morfológico, con excepción de los individuos del biotipo Hembra.

    Palabras claves: Guadua angustifolia, caracterización molecular, variación genética.

  17. Karyotype Analysis of Sapodilla and Egg-fruit-tree%人心果和蛋黄果染色体核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 王家保; 陈业渊; 李松刚; 罗石荣

    2011-01-01

    Two species of tropical fruit in Sapotaceae, sapodilla [ Manilkara zapota (Linnaeus) P. van Royen ]and egg-fruit-tree [ Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni ] were used as materials, whose chromosome number and karyotype were studied. Results showed that: Chromosome number of sapodilla is 26, that of egg-fruit-tree is 28. The karyotype type of the two species are 2B and 1A respectively. Karyotype formula are 18m + 8sm and 26m + 2sm. The asymmetry index and the constitution of relative length of the two species are very different.%研究了山榄科的2种优稀热带果树--人心果及蛋黄果的染色体计数及其染色体形态与核型分析.结果表明:人心果体细胞染色体2n=2X=26,核型类型为2B型,核型公式为18m+8sm,染色体相对长度组成为2L+12M:+8M1+4S,不对称系数为61.71%;蛋黄果体细胞染色体2n=2X=28,核型类型为1A型.核型公式为26m+2sm,染色体相对长度组成为2L+10M2+16M1,不对称系数为59.193%.

  18. EFFECT OF LIGHT AND GIBERELLIC ACID (AG3 ON THE GERMINATION OF MINTHOSTACHYS MOLLIS (LABIATAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb. o muña es un arbusto perenne que crece naturalmente en las región andina de Colombia; esta especie es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales en donde es valorada por sus propiedades medicinales para tratar diferentes afecciones y como control de larvas de insectos transmisores de enfermedades; sin embargo, las poblaciones naturales de esta planta han sido fuertemente reducidas por acción antrópica, por lo tanto, es necesario generar tecnologías de propagación que permitan la recuperación y conservación de las poblaciones naturales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca, luz natural y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró un efecto negativo de la oscuridad en el proceso de germinación y no se observó efecto del AG3 sobre la germinación de M. mollis en presencia de la luz. Los porcentajes de germinación obtenidos en los tratamientos de iluminación fueron superiores al 80% sobresaliendo el tratamiento de luz roja que arrojó los mejores resultados tanto en el porcentaje como en la velocidad de germinación. Los resultados indican que la germinación en M. mollis es dependiente de la luz debido a que sus semillas son fotoblásticas positivas.

  19. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina HERNÁNDEZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae, que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae, minando cerca de la epidermis y abriendo varios orificios al exterior. La larva de T. romus Bickel & Hernández crece en E. azurea (Sw. Kunth, formando una mina curva, corta en comparación con las otras especies. La larva de T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández se desarrolla en Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, excavando la mina entre la epidermis y la gran celda central de los pecíolos. Por último, la larva de T. taragui Bickel & Hernández se cría en tallos sumergidos de P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, formando una mina subepidérmica con ramificaciones hacia la estela central del tallo. No se pudieron asociar las minas correspondientes a las especies T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus y T. azuricola. No se encontraron predadores ni parásitos de larvas o pupas, se observaron casos de canibalismo entre larvas cuando el trazado de dos minas confluye. Las especies del grupo truncatus poseen un modo de alimentación sumamente específico, confinadas al aerénquima, se alimentan de la savia extraída de los orificios roídos en los haces vasculares de los pecíolos y tallos, posiblemente con levaduras simbiontes como suplemento para la nutrición. Numerosas colecciones en el campo y pruebas en el laboratorio, indican que estos insectos están asociados con plantas hospedadoras específicas dentro de la misma familia. Esta especialización sugiere una larga asociación insecto-hospedadora.

  20. The Evolution of Photoperiod-Insensitive Flowering in Sorghum, A Genomic Model for Panicoid Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Hugo E; Zhou, Chengbo; Tang, Haibao; Khadke, Prashant P; Das, Sayan; Lin, Yann-Rong; Ge, Zhengxiang; Clemente, Thomas; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Hash, C Thomas; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-09-01

    Of central importance in adapting plants of tropical origin to temperate cultivation has been selection of daylength-neutral genotypes that flower early in the temperate summer and take full advantage of its long days. A cross between tropical and temperate sorghums [Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc.×S. bicolor (L.) Moench], revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL), FlrAvgD1, accounting for 85.7% of variation in flowering time under long days. Fine-scale genetic mapping placed FlrAvgD1 on chromosome 6 within the physically largest centiMorgan in the genome. Forward genetic data from "converted" sorghums validated the QTL. Association genetic evidence from a diversity panel delineated the QTL to a 10-kb interval containing only one annotated gene, Sb06g012260, that was shown by reverse genetics to complement a recessive allele. Sb06g012260 (SbFT12) contains a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) protein domain characteristic of members of the "FT" family of flowering genes acting as a floral suppressor. Sb06g012260 appears to have evolved ∼40 Ma in a panicoid ancestor after divergence from oryzoid and pooid lineages. A species-specific Sb06g012260 mutation may have contributed to spread to temperate regions by S. halepense ("Johnsongrass"), one of the world's most widespread invasives. Alternative alleles for another family member, Sb02g029725 (SbFT6), mapping near another flowering QTL, also showed highly significant association with photoperiod response index (P = 1.53×10 (-)  (6)). The evolution of Sb06g012260 adds to evidence that single gene duplicates play large roles in important environmental adaptations. Increased knowledge of Sb06g012260 opens new doors to improvement of sorghum and other grain and cellulosic biomass crops. PMID:27335143

  1. Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R A F; Gandolfi, S

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography. PMID:19675929

  2. ASPECTS OF THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF KELP GULL LARUS DOMINICANUS (CHARADRIIFORMES, LARIDAE IN THREE ISLANDS NORTH OFF PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between November and December 2004, an evaluation was done of some aspects of breeding biology of the kelp gull Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823 in Lobos de Afuera, Lobos de Tierra and Foca islands, located off northern Peru. An association was found between the colonies of this species with the South American sea lion Otariaflavescens (Shaw, 1800 in Lobos de Afuera and Foca, with the blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii (Milne-Edwards, 1882 in Lobos de Afuera and Lobos de Tierra, the peruvian pelican Pelecanus thagus (Molina, 1782 in Lobos de Afuera, and with the Humboldt penguin Spheniscus humboldti (Meyen, 1834 in Foca. Egg predation and kleptoparasitism of S. nebouxii was common for this species in the three islands. Regarding the selection of nesting areas, it was noted that the Kelp Gull used different types of substrates such as rock, gravel, flagstone, boulders and seashells and that the nests were built using the resources of the site, mainly seaweeds and feathers and, in the Foca case, using leaves from sapote Capparis scabrida (Kunth, 1821. The nests were located in high and windy areas of the islands next to cracks and large rocks, from slopes of less than 15º to cliffs. Apparently, the timing of nest initiation was the same in the three islands, starting around the third week of October; in most cases were found three eggs in the nests. Factors are discussed that could affect the biological characteristics of the Kelp Gull in northern Peru and its differences with other breeding areas.

  3. Deciphering Staphylococcus sciuri SAT-17 Mediated Anti-oxidative Defense Mechanisms and Growth Modulations in Salt Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohsin; Azeem, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad T; Saleem, Seemab; Riaz, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity severely affects plant nutrient use efficiency and is a worldwide constraint for sustainable crop production. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, with inherent salinity tolerance, are able to enhance plant growth and productivity by inducing modulations in various metabolic pathways. In the present study, we reported the isolation and characterization of a salt-tolerant rhizobacterium from Kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth]. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed its lineage to Staphylococcus sciuri and it was named as SAT-17. The strain exhibited substantial potential of phosphate solubilization as well as indole-3-acetic acid production (up to 2 M NaCl) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (up to 1.5 M NaCl). Inoculation of a rifampicin-resistant derivative of the SAT-17 with maize, in the absence of salt stress, induced a significant increase in plant biomass together with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes. The derivative strain also significantly accumulated nutrients in roots and shoots, and enhanced chlorophyll and protein contents in comparison with non-inoculated plants. Similar positive effects were observed in the presence of salt stress, although the effect was more prominent at 75 mM in comparison to higher NaCl level (150 mM). The strain survived in the rhizosphere up to 30 days at an optimal population density (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1)). It was concluded that S. sciuri strain SAT-17 alleviated maize plants from salt-induced cellular oxidative damage and enhanced growth. Further field experiments should be conducted, considering SAT-17 as a potential bio-fertilizer, to draw parallels between PGPR inoculation, elemental mobility patterns, crop growth and productivity in salt-stressed semi-arid and arid regions. PMID:27375588

  4. Ação de extratos de plantas medicinais sobre a motilidade do trato gastrointestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.B. Potrich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muitas plantas são utilizadas pela população para o tratamento e a cura de doenças. Entre elas encontram-se a Persea major Kopp, Piper mollicomum Kunth. e Serjania erecta Radlk. as quais são utilizadas para diversas enfermidades, inclusive para tratar distúrbios do trato gastrointestinal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos dos extratos dessas três plantas sobre a motilidade gastrointestinal. Camundongos Swiss foram tratados com os extratos pela via oral 1 hora antes da administração de uma solução semisólida de carboximetilcelulose 1,5% e vermelho de fenol 0,05% e, após 15 minutos, o esvaziamento gástrico e o trânsito intestinal avaliados. O extrato hidroalcoólico da P. major (100 a 1000 mg Kg-1, p.o. e o extrato hidroalcoólico da P. mollicomum (100 e 300 mg Kg-1, p.o. aumentaram o trânsito intestinal. No entanto, somente o extrato da P. major (100 e 300 mg Kg-1 também aumentou o esvaziamento gástrico. O extrato etanólico da S. erecta (100 a 1000 mg Kg-1, p.o. não alterou a motilidade gastrointestinal. Estes resultados sugerem que a Persea major e a Piper mollicomum mereçam estudos mais aprofundados em busca de princípios ativos ou matéria vegetal efetiva para o tratamento de distúrbios do trato gastrointestinal como a constipação.

  5. Coeficientes de repetibilidade genética de caracteres em pupunheira Genetic repeatability coeficient of caracters in peach palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tomé de Farias Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a pupunheira é uma planta muito útil na alimentação, seja como fonte de frutos seja para palmito. O interesse pela pupunheira como produtora de palmito deve-se a características de precocidade de produção, rusticidade, perfilhamento, palatabilidade. Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos, como a repetibilidade em pupunheira, são importantes por constituir ferramentas fundamentais no direcionamento de um programa de melhoramento genético. O objetivo do trabalho foi estimar os coeficientes de repetibilidade dos caracteres altura da planta, diâmetro da planta à altura do colo e peso de palmito em três avaliações, em pupunheira, por meio dos seguintes procedimentos estatísticos: análise de variância, componentes principais e análise estrutural. Foram também determinados os números de repetições necessárias para proporcionar níveis de certeza da predição do valor real do indivíduo. Os coeficientes de repetibilidade dos caracteres diâmetro à altura do colo e peso de palmito líquido são de baixa magnitude (inferiores a 0,4, indicando irregularidade de comportamento de uma avaliação para outra. Para o caráter altura da planta, três avaliações são necessárias para ter-se predições com confiabilidade de 80% .Para o mesmo percentual de confiabilidade, são necessárias seis avaliações para os caracteres diâmetro à altura do colo e peso de palmito líquido.In Brazil, the Bactris gasipaes palm is a very useful plant for food as a source of fruits or heart palm. The interest for this species is due to the precocity of the heart palm production, rusticity, straightening up, and palatability of the heart palm. Estimates of genetic parameters, such as repeatability, are very important and fundamental for breeding program. The objective of this research was to estimate the repeatability coefficients of the characters: plant height, plant diameter and heart palm weight, using variance analysis, principal

  6. Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudi Klein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGuaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae is well known for its dietary and pharmaceutical potential, and the semipurified extract of guaraná shows antidepressant and panicolytic effects. However, the low solubility, bioavailability and stability of the semipurified extract limit its use as a component of pharmaceutical agents. Delivery of the semipurified extract in a microparticle form could help to optimize its stability. In this study, microparticles containing semipurified extract of guaraná were obtained by the spray-drying technique, using a combination of maltodextrin and gum arabic. The raw materials and microparticles produced were characterized by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The drug content and antioxidant capacity were also evaluated. In vitrodissolution tests using flow cell dissolution apparatus, were carried out to investigate the influence of formulation parameters on the release of semipurified extract of guaraná from the microparticles. The spray-drying technique and the processing conditions selected gave satisfactory encapsulation efficiency (80–110% and product yield (55–60%. The mean diameter of microparticles was around 4.5 µm. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity demonstrated that microparticles can protect the semipurified extract of guaraná from the effect of high temperatures during the process maintained the antioxidant capacity. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated an interaction between semipurified extract of guaraná and gum arabic: maltodextrin in the microparticles, and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that the profile curves of the microparticles are similar to the adjuvants used in drying, probably due to the higher proportion of adjuvants compared to semipurified extract of guaraná. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrate that all formulations complete dissolution within 60 min

  7. Plants screening for roadside slope protection by mixture seeding in Yichang-Changyang section of Shanghai-Chengdu freeway%沪蓉西高速公路宜昌-长阳段混播护坡植物筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学平; 张洪江; 张翔; 江玉林; 李海芬; 曹传林; 王金娟

    2011-01-01

    Three indices including early growth ability, stress resistance, growth potential were used to evaluate 19 tree plants and 8 herbaceous plants based upon introduce and observation of the experiment plants in Yichang-Changyang section of Shanghai-Chengdu freeway in Hubei Province.Value of subjection was calculated based on classifying analysis, ranking series and comprehensive assessment.Results show that the lndigofera pseudotinctoria have the best performance, Solanum deflexicarpum,Desmodium sinuatum, Cynodon dactylon, Melia azedarach, Robinia pseudoacacia, Lespedeza cunecta,Virex negundo, Paspalum notatum rank the second, Festuca arundinacea, Eragrostis curvula, Cudrania tricuspidata, Rhus chinensis, Dodonaea viscosa, Senna obtusifolia, Rhamnus utilis, Ailanthus altissima rank the third, Lotus corniculatus, Pterocarya kunth, Kummerrowia stipulacea, Sapiu sebiferum,Eremochloa ophiuroides, Trifolium repens rank the forth, Pinus massoniana rank the poorest; Cajanus cajan, Tephrosia candid and Crotaria assamica grew fast in the seeding year, but nearly all failed survive the winter.%在沪蓉西高速公路宜昌-长阳段引种植物观测的基础上,选择初期生长力、抗逆性、生长势3个指标评价19种木本植物、8种草本植物的表现,并以隶属度值为基础进行3个指标的分类排序与等级划分及综合评价.结果表明:供试植物中以马棘表现最优,苦刺、波叶山蚂蟥、狗牙根、苦楝、刺槐、截叶胡枝子、荆条、百喜草表现良好,高羊茅、弯叶画眉草、柘树、盐肤木、坡柳、决明、冻绿、臭椿表现中等,百脉根、枫杨、鸡眼草、乌桕、假俭草、白三叶等表现较差,马尾松表现最差;木豆、山毛豆、猪屎豆第1年生长速度十分迅速,但抗寒性差,持续能力差.

  8. CHOICE OF MACROPHYTE SUBSTRATE IN THE USE OF DIATOMS AS INDICATORS OF POND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT: PRELIMINARY DATA ON THE CASE OF ALALAY POND (COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Morales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alalay Pond is a 230-hectare, shallow aquatic ecosystem within Cochabamba, the third largest city in Bolivia. With the aim to determine the suitability of epiphytic diatoms for water quality assessment in the pond and to choose a substrate that would hold a representative bioindicator epiphytic community, the macrophytes Schoenoplectus californicus subsp. tatora (Kunth T. Koyama, Typha dominguensis Pers., Myriophyllum verticillatum L. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. were selected and differences in diatom community composition and structure were tested. Diatoms were collected during four sampling campaigns in the March-September, 2011 period, from three stations contiguous to the pelagic zone and prepared for analysis using standard, internationally used protocols. In all, 27 samples were collected from which 28 taxa characteristic of eutrophic environments were identified and 17 others could not be assigned names from the literature. Although many of the species are shared among sampling sites, the epiphytic communities developing at each station were different in structure and composition. Although, there are marked temporal variations in community features on each of the macrophytes, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indexes, as well as canonical correspondence analysis, showed no marked differences within a single campaign and station among the 4 macrophytes. Shifts in structure and composition are denoted less commonly by species replacement and more often by changes in percent relative abundance of dominant and rare species. Very few species are restricted to a station or seem to show strong preference for a particular substrate. Taking into account growth, structural and ecological characteristics, as well as some phenological features of the macrophytes, S. californicus subsp. tatora and T. dominguensis are the most suitable substrates for water quality assessments in the pond. As demonstrated by multivariate analyses, among-site and time

  9. Composição bromatológica e produtividade do capim-andropógon em diferentes idades de rebrota em sistema silvipastoril = Bromatological composition and productivity of Andropogon grass at different ages of resprout in silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlúcia da Silva Bezerra Lacerda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a composição e produtividade do capim-andropógon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth. em diferentes idades de rebrota, associado às espécies arbóreas pau-d’arco (Tabebuia serratifolia e jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril no período chuvoso, em Teresina, Piauí.Adotou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas os ambientes (sombreamento com jatobá e pau-d’arco e área aberta e posições (nascente e poente, e as subparcelas as idades (35, 49 e 63 dias, com cinco repetições. Houve interação ambiente x idade para MS na planta, FDN e FDA na planta e nas folhas e NIDN nas folhas. A PB nas folhas à sombra foi superior (9,65 ± 0,94% em relação à área aberta (9,16 ± 1,41%. Houve efeito linear decrescente (p The study evaluated composition and productivity of Andropogon grass at different ages of resprout, associated with the species Tabebuiaserratifolia and Hymenaea courbaril, during the rainy period, in Teresina, Piauí. A random blocks design was adopted, in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with subdivided parcels, being the parcels theenvironments (shading with Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and open area and position (rising and setting, and subparcels the ages (35, 49 and 63 days, with five repetitions. There wasinteraction between the environment and age for DM in the plant, NDF and ADF in the plant and leaves, and NDIN in leaves. The CP in leaves in the shade was higher (9.65 ± 0.94% compared to the open area (9.16 ± 1.41%. There was a linear effect (p < 0.01 of the age on CPin the plant and leaves. From days 47.7 and 48.8 there was a reduction in the leaf/steam ratio of Andropogon grass under T. serratifolia and H. courbaril, respectively. The culture of the grass in silvopastoral systems is viable, due to the stability in the composition of DM and ADF in the ratios of NDIN and ADIN in the plant and leaves, as well as for CP in plant and NDF in leaves, with

  10. Study on the Drought Resistance of Some Ornamental Plants on Roof%屋顶观赏植物的抗旱性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小京; 刘进平; 吴小波; 李晓慧

    2011-01-01

    以佛甲草(Sedum lineare Thunb)、鸭跖草(Commelina communis L.)、太阳花(Portulaca grandiflora Hook.)、鸢尾(Iris tectorum Maxim.)、常春藤(Caulis hederae Sinensis)、吉祥草(Reineckea carnea Kunth)、露草(Mesembryanthemum cordifolium L.f.)等7种植物为试验材料进行耐旱性试验,筛选适合贵阳市屋顶绿化的植物材料,为当地今后屋顶绿化植物的应用提供科学的理论依据.结果表明,7种植物在干旱胁迫下,表现出相对含水量逐渐降低、可溶性糖与丙二醛含量逐渐升高、细胞膜透性逐渐增大、过氧化物酶活性与叶绿素含量先升后降的趋势.综合各植物的表现,7种植物的抗旱性从高到低依次为太阳花>佛甲草>常春藤>露草>吉祥草>鸢尾>鸭跖草.%The drought resistance of seven ornamental plants (Sedum lineare Thunb, Commelina communis L., Portulaca grctndiflora rlook., Iris tectorum Maxim, , Conlis hederoe Sinensis , Heineekea corneo Ivunth and. Itlesembryanthemiim cordifoli-urn L. F.) was studied in order to select perfect ornamental plants suited for Guiyang roof garden. The results showed that for seven plants under drought stress, the relative water content reduced; the content of soluble sugar and MDA increased; their plasma membranes penetrability increased gradually; POD activities and chlorophyll content increased firstly, and then decreased. Overall, the drought resistance degree from high to low of the seven plants was P. Grandiflora > S. Lineare > C. Hederae > M. Cordifolium > R. Cornea > I. Tectorum > C. Communis.

  11. Aplicação exógena de quitosana no sistema antioxidante de jaborandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dousseau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de eliciadores em plantas é utilizada em estudos de fisiologia para compreensão dos mecanismos de defesa ao ataque de herbívoros ou infecção por patógenos. Em virtude disso, foi avaliado o efeito do eliciador exógeno quitosana no sistema antioxidante enzimático de jaborandi (Piper mollicomum Kunth. Foram avaliadas as atividades das enzimas ascorbato peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT e superóxido dismutase (SOD e as concentrações de peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 e malonaldeído (MDA, ambas análises para verificar a peroxidação lipídica. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados (DBC, constituído de um fatorial (5x2 composto pelos controles sem quitosana (plantas sem pulverização e plantas pulverizadas apenas com o solvente de diluição da quitosana e concentrações de quitosana (2,5; 5,0 e 10,0 g L-1 em dois estádios de desenvolvimento foliar (em desenvolvimento e completamente expandida. Nas folhas completamente expandidas, o sistema antioxidante foi mais ativo. A CAT teve maior participação no sequestro de radicais livres, induzido pela aplicação da quitosana em ambos os estádios de desenvolvimento foliar. A APX foi induzida somente nas folhas completamente expandidas e na maior concentração de quitosana. O método do MDA foi melhor para evidenciar a diferença nos teores de peróxido de hidrogênio, em função do estresse induzido pela quitosana. De acordo com os resultados obtidos neste ensaio, pode-se sugerir que, nas plantas de jaborandi, as enzimas antioxidativas são requisitadas em resposta ao eliciador em questão, a quitosana, compondo, assim, o mecanismo de defesa dessas plantas.

  12. COMPOSITION AND BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY AGAINST BENEFICIAL AND PATHOGENIC BACTERIA OF OREGANO ESSENTIAL OILS FROM FOUR CHEMOTYPES OF Origanum AND Lippia GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Betancourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios demuestran la actividad antibacterial de distintos quimiotipos de aceites esenciales de orégano (OEO, carvacrol y timol, contra bacterias patógenas Gram positivas y Gram negativas, pero muy poca información está disponible sobre el efecto de los OEO en bacterias benéficas. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la composición y concentración mínima bactericida (CMB de OEO de quimiotipos del género Origanum: O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH, O. majorana (OM y O. vulgare L. (OL cultivados en Colombia, frente Lippia origanoides Kunth (LO nativo del Alto Pa-tía en Colombia y O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum cultivado en Grecia (OG. Los OEO se ob-tuvieron por arrastre de vapor, la composición se determinó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas y la actividad antibacteriana mediante el método de dilución en caldo y cultivo en agar. Se evaluaron tres quimiotipos de OEO: OH y OG tipo-carvacrol, LO y OL tipo-timol y OM rico en compuestos sabinilo. Las variedades de orégano producidas bajo condiciones de invernadero a alta altitud mostraron un alto contenido de precursores. Un valor similar de concentración mínima bactericida contra Salmonella enteritidis (0.098 mg/mL fue observada para carvacrol, OH y LO. La más baja actividad bactericida contra las bacterias benéficas Lactobacillusacidophilusy Bifidobacterium breve fue observada para OM (6.25 mg/mL y LO (50 mg/mL, respectivamente. Estos resultados mostraron que LO, nativo de Colombia presentó un efecto antibacteriano comparable a OH y carvacrol contra enterobacterias patógenas y una baja actividad bactericida contra las bacterias benéficas. Estos resultados mostraron un efecto bactericida selectivo contra bacterias benéficas y patógenas de los quimiotiposOriganum ssp. y L. origanoides. Se comprobó un buen potencial de L. origanoides para uso como aditivo antimicrobiano para la salud humana y animal.

  13. Caracterización morfológica y molecular de Leptochloa dubia (Poaceae en Chihuahua, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morales-Nieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El gigante [Leptochloa dubia(Kunth Nees.] es una importante gramínea forrajera nativa de México, cuyas poblaciones naturales se han reducido debido a malas prácticas de pastoreo. En este trabajo se analizó la variabilidad morfológica y genética de 32 poblaciones del gigante en el estado de Chihuahua, México. Nueve características morfológicas fueron evaluadas en estas poblaciones, después de dos años de trasplantadas y establecidos en un jardín de observación y bajo condiciones de temporal. La variabilidad genética se determinó utilizando los perfiles de amplificación de cuatro pares de iniciadores u oligonucleótidos. El análisis de componentes principales mostró que los tres primeros componentes explicaron el 75.3% de la variación morfológica. Los cuatro pares de iniciadores produjeron un total de 186 bandas, de las cuales el 56.45% presentó polimorfismo. La combinación de iniciadores EcoRI-AAC+MseI-CAG detectó el mayor porcentaje de polimorfismo (69.57% y 32 bandas polimórficas. El coeficiente de Dice y análisis de agrupamiento generaron cinco grupos. La variabilidad genética y morfológica encontrada en las diferentes poblaciones, podrían servir de base para la selección de ecotipos de gigante para diversos propósitos como producción de semilla, retención de suelo, restauración de ecosistemas y forraje para libre pastoreo o de corte, entre otros. Así también, los resultados de este trabajo son la base para iniciar programas de mejoramiento genético en esta especie.

  14. Almacenamiento de carbono en especies predominantes de flora en el lago Chinchaycocha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Medrano Yanqui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la cantidad de carbono que almacenan las especies predominantes de flora del lago Chinchaycocha. Métodos: La investigación fue de tipo básica, de corte transversal y con un nivel exploratorio-comparativo. El estudio se hizo en tres ecosistemas dentro del humedal: bofedal, pajonal y totoral, las áreas fueron identificadas con ayuda de imágenes satelitales Landsat. El procedimiento estuvo basado en la recolección de muestras divididas en: biomasa aérea, biomasa radicular y muestras de suelo, hallándose el contenido de carbono de cada una. Resultados: En el totoral se obtuvo que Schoenoplectus californicus Var. Tatora almacena 30,65 tC/ha y Juncos arcticus Var. Andicola 8,70 tC/ha. En el pajonal Deyeuxia recta Kunth almacena 7,02 tC/ha en su biomasa aérea y 8,41 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular. En el bofedal: Plantago tubulosa almacena 0,81 t C/ha en su biomasa aérea y 1,88 t C/ha en su biomasa radicular, Eleocharis albibracteata almacena 0,22 t C/ha en su biomasa aérea y 2,95 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular, y Limosella australis almacena 0,22 tC/ha en su biomasa aérea y 0,38 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular. En el almacenamiento de carbono en suelos se determinó 774,76 tC/ ha en pajonales y 684,58 tC/ha en bofedales. Conclusiones: Se concluye que en el lago Chinchaycocha el ecosistema que brinda mayor almacenamiento de carbono es el totoral, seguido por el pajonal y en menor proporción el bofedal. Asimismo los suelos son considerados los mayores sumideros de carbono.

  15. Estudio bromatológico y de digestibilidad in-situ dela gramínea chusque (Chusquea scandens K a diferentes edades de corte .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dueñas-Tamayo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El  chusque  es un planta que hace parte de  los sistemas silvopastoriles naturales en el  trópico alto y, por ende, es aprovechada como alimento para los animales que pastan en dichos sistemas; no obstante, esta planta no cuenta con ningún reporte científico  que  indique  el  valor  y  los  aportes nutricionales que brinda a  los  rumiantes que  la consumen.  Con  esta  investigación  se  logró determinar  la  calidad  nutricional  del  chusque (Chusquea scandens, KUNTH por medio de un análisis bromatológico, digestibilidad aparente de la materia seca,  egradabilidad  in  situ  de  la proteína  (P,  fibra en detergente neutro  (FDN,  fibra en detergente acido  (FDA, contenido celular  (CC, complejo  lignina-celulosa  (CLC ý cenizas (C, a diferentes edades de corte del rebrote  (30, 45 y 60 días. Se empleó como testigo positivo (forraje de buena calidad alfalfa cortada a una edad de rebrote de 25 días y como  testigo negativo (forraje de mala calidad el kikuyo de más de 120 días. La unidad experimental estuvo constituida por dos muestreos con periodos de incubación en rumen de 96, 72, 48, 24, 12 y 0 h. Luego de  la realización del  trabajo  de  campo  y  de  las  pruebas  de laboratorio,  los  resultados  determinaron que  el chusque presenta un alto contenido de P, pero éste no es asimilable por efecto del complejo lignina-celulosa que  se encuentra elevado en  las muestras estudiadas. De  igual manera se encontró que el chusque  tiene un alto grado de FDN-FDA, además es  un  alimento  con  alto  contenido  celular transformándolo en un forraje energético.

  16. 忽地笑酌-生育酚甲基转移酶基因LaTMT的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis on γ-tocopherol methyltransferase gene LaTMT from Lycoris ;aurea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡黎丽; 徐晟; 马蕊; 汪仁; 夏冰

    2016-01-01

    采用RACE技术从忽地笑也Lycoris aurea ( L'Hér.) Herb.页叶片中克隆获得γ-生育酚甲基转移酶(γ-TMT)基因,命名为LaTMT。序列分析结果显示:该基因cDNA全长1458 bp,其中开放阅读框( ORF)长1017 bp,编码338个氨基酸残基。 LaTMT基因编码蛋白质的理论相对分子质量37560,理论等电点pI 8.70,为亲水性蛋白,无跨膜结构但具有信号肽结构;并具有S-腺苷甲硫氨酸( SAM)甲基转移酶保守结构域,包含3个SAM结合位点;该蛋白的二级结构中包含44.08%的α-螺旋、32.84%的无规则卷曲、12.72%的延伸链和10.36%的β-转角。序列比对和系统进化树分析结果显示:LaTMT蛋白属于S-腺苷甲硫氨酸-依赖性γ-生育酚甲基转移酶家族,与其他植物γ-TMT蛋白的一致性为64%~75%;在 NJ系统树上, LaTMT蛋白与单子叶植物γ-TMT蛋白聚为同一大类,并与油棕( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) EgTMT和美洲油棕也Elaeis oleifera ( Kunth) Cortés页EoTMT聚为同一类,亲缘关系最近。基因表达分析结果显示:LaTMT基因可在大肠杆菌中成功表达,且表达量随异丙基硫代半乳糖苷( IPTG)诱导时间的延长而增加;在忽地笑的根、叶片、花苞、子房、雄蕊、花瓣和鳞茎中LaTMT基因均可表达,其中在叶片中的相对表达量最高,在子房、雄蕊和鳞茎中的相对表达量相对较低,具有明显的组织特异性。研究结果表明:忽地笑LaTMT基因在进化过程中具有很高的保守性;该基因主要定位于叶绿体中,并与忽地笑对非生物逆境胁迫的抗性相关。%Using RACE method,γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) gene was cloned from leaf of Lycoris aurea ( L'Hér.) Herb., which was named LaTMT. The result of sequence analysis shows that full-length cDNA of LaTMT gene is 1 458 bp, in which, length of open reading frame ( ORF) is 1 017 bp, and 338 amino acid residues are encoded. Theoretical relative molecular mass of the protein encoded by

  17. Fertilization and cover crop effects on soil nitrogen and plant nutrition in a young guarana plantation Efeitos da fertilização mineral e da cobertura do solo sobre a dinâmica do Nitrogênio e na nutrição de plantas jovens de guaraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucerina Trujillo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit tree production is gaining an increasing importance in the central Amazon and elsewhere in the humid tropics, but very little is known about the nutrient dynamics in the soil-plant system. The present study quantified the effects of fertilization and cover cropping with a legume (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth. on soil nitrogen (N dynamics and plant nutrition in a young guarana plantation (Paullinia cupana Kunth. (H.B. and K. var. sorbilis (Mart. Ducke on a highly weathered Xanthic Ferralsol. Large subsoil nitrate (NO3- accumulation at 0.3-3 m below the guarana plantation indicated N leaching from the topsoil. The NO3- contents to a depth of 2 m were 2.4 times greater between the trees than underneath unfertilized trees (P0.05. Even without a legume intercrop, large amounts of NO3- were found in the subsoil between unfertilized trees. Subsoil NO3- between the trees could be utilized, however, by fertilized guarana. This can be explained by a more vigorous growth of fertilized trees which had a larger nutrient demand and exploited a larger soil volume. With a legume cover crop, however, more mineral N was available at the topsoil which was leached into the subsoil and consequently accumulated at 0.3-3 m depth. Fertilizer additions of P and K were needed to increase subsoil NO3- use between trees.A produção de fruteiras está ganhando grande importância na Amazônia Central e em outras partes dos trópicos úmidos mas, muito pouco ainda é conhecido sobre a dinâmica de nutrientes no sistema solo-planta. O presente estudo quantificou os efeitos da fertilização mineral e da cobertura do solo com uma leguminosa (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb Benth. sobre a dinâmica do N no solo e sobre a nutrição de plantas jovens de guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth. (H.B. and K. var. sorbilis (Mart. Ducke, em um Latossolo Amarelo muito argiloso. Grande acúmulo de nitrato (NO3- encontrado na profundidade de 0,3 - 3,0m abaixo do plantio de guaraná

  18. Phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon contents of macrophytes in lakes lateral to a tropical river (Paranapanema River, São Paulo, Brazil Conteúdos de fósforo, nitrogênio e carbono de macrófitas em lagoas laterais a um rio tropical (Rio Paranapanema, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lucia Rodrigues Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this paper was to determine the phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon contents of aquatic macrophyte species during two periods of the year in the land-water transition zone of three lakes lateral to the Paranapanema River (São Paulo; METHODS: Plants, water, and sediment were collected during two distinct periods (August 1998 and February 1999 in three transects perpendicular to littoral zones of the sampled sites. For the determination of the phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon contents of aquatic macrophyte species, aerial and submerged plant structures (leaves, roots, and stems were used; RESULTS: In Camargo Lake, which has a poor connection with the river during the dry period (August 1998, the highest nitrogen content was obtained for Salvinia auriculata Aublet, while the highest phosphorus contest was observed for Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth. During the rainy season (February 1999, Echinochloa polystachya (H.B.K. Hitch was the species with the highest phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon contents. In Coqueiral Lake (a lake with great connectivity to the river, the highest phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations during the dry period were observed for Cyperus esculentus L. Similar carbon contents were found for both C. esculentus and Eichhornia azurea. During the rainy season, the species with the highest phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations were E. polystachya, Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq. P.H.Raven, and Polygonum spectabile Mart. Considering the plants recorded during the dry period in Cavalos Lake, which is isolated from the river, Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vellozo Verdcourt was the species with the highest phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations. During the rainy period, C. esculentus and E. azurea had the highest nitrogen concentration. All the aquatic macrophyte species presented similar carbon contents. The highest phosphorus concentration was that of C. esculentus; CONCLUSIONS: The bottom of Camargo and Coqueiral Lakes (both

  19. 3种植物提取物及其组合对稻田天敌群落的影响%Impact of Plant Extracts and Their Combination on the Natural Enemy Community in Paddy Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平生; 梁广文; 曾玲

    2011-01-01

    The diversity index was used to evaluate the impact of plant extracts on natural enemy community in rice paddy fields. Results showed when alcohol extracts from Mikania micrantha Kunth or Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson at the concentration lower than 2.0 g· 100mL-1 were sprayed, the diversity index ( H') and evenness index ( E) of spider, predators and parasitoids all increased compared with water control, indicating that they were safe to these natural enemies. In contrast, the alcohol extracts from M. Micrantha and C. Odorata at the concentration higher than 2.0 g-100mL-1 had toxic effects on predator, spider and parasitoid to some extent; toxic effects grew steadily with increase in extract concentration and spray times. Azadirachtin, extracts from Melia azedarach L., and their different combination with the alcohol extracts from M. Micrantha and C. Odorata had strong toxic effects on natural enemy in paddy fields. Therefore, spraying concentration and times of these plant extracts should be reduced to protect natural enemy community.%应用生物多样性指数,评价了3种植物乙醇提取物及其组合对稻田主要天敌群落多样性的影响.结果表明,薇甘菊Mikania micrantha Kunth乙醇提取物2.0g·l00mL-1以下及其组合、香泽兰Chromolaena odorata (L.)King & Robinson乙醇提取物2.0g·100mL-1以下及其组合,蜘蛛、捕食性天敌昆虫和寄生性天敌昆虫的多样性指数(H')与均匀度指数(E)较清水对照均有不同程度的提高;薇甘菊乙醇提取物2.0g·100mL-1以上对捕食性天敌昆虫、香泽兰乙醇提取物2.0g·100mL-1以上对蜘蛛和寄生性天敌昆虫均有一定的毒杀作用,且随着浓度的提高和施用次数的增加,其毒杀作用增强;而印楝素(现代苦楝油Melia azedarach L.的提取物)与其他2种植物提取物(0.01g·mL-1)的不同组合均对稻田天敌类群均有较强的毒杀作用.因此建议降低香泽兰乙醇提取物与印楝素的使用浓度或

  20. 冀西北马铃薯田杂草群落分布及防控对策%Distribution of Weed Communities and Control Strategies in Potato Fields in the Northwest of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉慧; 康爱国; 赵志英; 冯青

    2014-01-01

    调查表明,冀西北马铃薯田杂草种类约32种,隶属于18科;以藜、萹蓄、卷茎蓼、苦荞、苣荬菜、草地风毛菊、狗尾草、野黍等为优势种群,个别地块牻牛儿苗比例偏高。2012年出现频率最高的是狗尾草,为41.77%;其次为野黍(18.99%)、牻牛儿苗(18.70%)、苦荞(5.32%)、卷茎蓼(3.40%)和萹蓄(3.30%)。同一生态区域不同年份马铃薯田之间,不同农田生态区域坡梁地与下湿滩地杂草群落结构存在差异。一些马铃薯田狗尾草、野黍、苣荬菜、草地风毛菊杂草比重上升,传播蔓延加快。采取农业措施及化学防除相结合的综合防治技术,可有效控制马铃薯田草害发生与危害。%Thirty-two weed species belonging to 18 families were found in potato fields in the northwest of Hebei Prov-ince.The dominant species mainly include Chenopodium album L.,Polygonum aviculare L.,P.convolvulus L.,Fagopy-tum tataricum (L.) Gaertn,Sonchus brachyotus DC.,Saussurea amara,Setaria viridis (L) Beauv,and Eriochloa villosa ( Thunb.) Kunth.Erodium stephanianum Willd.predominated in several individual regions .The most frequent weed in 2012 was S.viridis (42%),followed by E.villosa (9%),E.Stephanianum(19%),F.tataricum(5%),P.convolvulus (3%) and P.aviculare(3%).The structure of weed communities in potato fields varied among years within an ecore-gion or in diverse ecoregions such as sloping land and hummock under wet beach .The proportion of some weeds ,inclu-ding S.viridis,E.villosa,S.arvensis and S.amara is increasing in some potato fields;they are also spreading rapidly . Adopting an integrated management technology ,that is agricultural measures combined with chemical control methods ,can effectively control weeds and prevent their damage in potato fields .

  1. Efeito hipolipidêmico do suco de camu-camu em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Cássia Schwertz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial hipolipidêmico do suco de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh em ratos dislipidêmicos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 72 ratos (Rattus norvegicus var. albinus machos adultos da linhagem Wistar, com peso médio de 200g. O experimento foi dividido em duas fases: indução da dislipidemia e tratamento. Para indução da dislipidemia, todos os ratos receberam ração hiperlipídica (ração comercial adicionada a 10,0% de banha suína, 1,0% colesterol e 0,1% de ácido cólico durante 21 dias. Na fase de tratamento, 40 ratos dislipidêmicos foram divididos aleatoriamente em 5 grupos (n=8, sendo 3 deles submetidos a tratamento com diferentes concentrações de suco de camu-camu (0,4mL.kg-1, 4,0mL.kg-1 e 10mL.kg-1 por 14 dias, 1 grupo submetido a tratamento com quercetina (10mL.kg-1 e 1 grupo hiperlidêmico. Estes dois últimos foram mantidos como parâmetro, ao lado do grupo basal. Para avaliar o efeito modulador do suco de camu-camu no perfil lipídico dos ratos, foram verificadas as concentrações de triacilgliceróis, colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta intensidade e lipoproteína de baixa intensidade, no plasma, assim como os níveis de colesterol fecal e hepático. Também foram observados o controle da ingestão de ração e a avaliação da massa corporal. RESULTADOS: As diferentes doses de suco de camu-camu e de quercetina apresentaram efeitos moduladores do perfil lipídico, ou seja, redução de triacilgliceróis, colesterol total, excreção fecal de colesterol, bem como redução do colesterol hepático. Salienta-se que os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a concentração de 10mL.kg-1. Em relação à massa corporal, os ratos que receberam essa concentração de suco de camu e quercetina mantiveram peso significativamente inferior ao obervado nos demais tratamentos, tanto no início quanto ao final da intervenção. Resultado similar foi observado quanto ao consumo

  2. Resistencia a la flexión de la guadua Agustifolia kunt a escala natural.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González C Eugenia

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En los laboratorios de productos forestales y en el de construcciones rurales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellín, se realizaron dieciocho (18 ensayos de flexión estática a escala natural con luces entre 2,50 y 3,50 metros de la sobrebasa del elemento, las cuales son las más utilizadas y recomendadas para este tipo de esfuerzo, donde el material seleccionado corresponde a la especie Guadua (Angustifolia kunth, colectada en la Finca Cotové ubicada en Santafé de Antioquia y cuya zona de vida corresponde a un bosque seco tropical (bs-t. Las pruebas fueron realizadas basadas en las Normas COPANT 455 (1972 para selección y colección de muestras de madera, 459 acondicionamiento de maderas destinadas a ensayos físicos y mecánicos y 460 para la determinación del contenido de humedad y las normas de la American Society for Testing and Materials, 1975. Estas normas son empleadas para maderas macizas, por lo tanto debieron ser ajustadas a las condiciones particulares de la guadua circular hueca de acuerdo a la metodología utilizada por González y Díaz 1992. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de las ecuaciones de diseños para elementos de guadua sometidos a flexión estática, los valores de esfuerzos unitarios en el límite proporcional (RLP, módulo de elasticidad (MOE y el esfuerzo de rotura (MOR, los cuales fueron comparados con los valores obtenidos por González y Días, 1.992, cuyos ensayos fueron hechos bajo probetas, obteniéndose variaciones menores del 7% entre estos, y a la vez se hallaron unos coeficientes de varianza con rangos entre el 20 y el 30% para los parámetros establecidos los cuales fueron considerados aceptables. Para la obtención de los parámetros anteriores se tuvieron en cuenta aspectos como la longitud, diámetro promedio, espesor de las paredes medidas en los extremos, el contenido de humedad en base seca y la carga de falla del elemento. Finalmente, se recomienda utilizar las ecuaciones de

  3. Análisis filogenético de Paepalanthus (Eriocaulaceae Andinos seleccionados con énfasis en las especies presentes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Favio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Paepalanthus Kunth, el más grande de la familia Eriocaulaceae, comprende aproximadamente 485 especies
    distribuidas en el neotrópico con unos pocos representantes en las regiones tropicales de África. En América, se encuentra desde México hasta Bolivia y Brasil, con una distribución altitudinal disyunta entre tierras bajas como los llanos de Colombia y Venezuela, los tepuyes de Venezuela y Guyana y la región amazónica de Colombia, Venezuela y Brasil, y regiones de alta montaña como los páramos de Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador y Perú. Estudios recientes con base en especies brasileñas y caracteres tanto morfológicos como anatómicos, sugieren que Paepalanthus es un grupo polifilético. El presente estudio se realizó con el propósito de integrar en un análisis filogenético tanto especies de zonas altas como de zonas bajas de Paepalanthus con el fin de evaluar la monofilia del grupo mediante un muestreo más riguroso, y de explorar las posibles relaciones biogeográficas de las especies de páramo. Los resultados confirman que Paepalanthus es un grupo polifilético, con P. saxicola en la
    base de las eriocaulaceae muestreadas, seguida por un grado conformado en su orden por especies de Philodice, Leiothrix y Blastocaulon. Enseguida, se encuentra el clado mayor formado por un subclado donde están (P. subtilis (P. barkleyi-P. lamarckii-P. tortilis. El segundo subclado presenta a P. fasciculatus en la base, seguida de dos subclados menores, uno de ellos conformado por especies de Paepalanthus, Tonina y Lachnocaulon, y el otro por especies de los géneros Actinocephalus, Leiothrix, Syngonanthus, Eriocaulon y la mayoría de las especies de Paepalanthus propias de los páramos. De esta forma, el subgénero Psilandra representado por la especie P. saxicola se propone como el más basal y el subgénero Platycaulon, que resulta monofilético con el muestreo disponible, es el grupo más anidado dentro de la

  4. Photosynthetic responses to temperature and light of Antarctic and Andean populations of Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae Respuestas fotosintéticas a la temperatura y a la luz de poblaciones antarticas y andinas de Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁNGELA SIERRA-ALMEIDA

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth, 1831 Bartling (Caryophyllaceae is characterized by a wide latitudinal distribution, ranging between the tropical high Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula. Although both habitat types are characterized by cold and freezing temperatures, important microclimatic differences exist during the growing season. Hence, important differences in the response of the photosynthetic apparatus to abiotic factors could be expected between Antarctic and Andean populations of C. quitensis. We studied the relationship between net photosynthesis, leaf temperature and light intensity in two populations of C. quitensis, one from La Parva in the Andes of central Chile and the other from King George Island, in the Maritime Antarctic. Plants from both populations were grown in the laboratory at 15 °C under 250 μmol photons m-2 s-1, with a 16/8 h light/dark photoperiod. Twenty plants (about two months old of each population were transferred to a 4 °C chamber with the same light and photoperiod conditions as above to assess the photosynthetic acclimation capacity. At 15 °C, populations differed in their optimum leaf temperature for photosynthesis, being 24.0 °C in individuals from the Andes and 18.6 °C in individuals from the Antarctic. In contrast, Antarctic individuals showed the highest net photosynthesis rate under both temperature treatments, with the lowest light compensation and saturation points. Antarctic individuals had higher photosynthetic activity at lower temperatures compared to individuals from the Andes. Our results suggest that C. quitensis has adapted photosynthetic performance of individuals growing in different localities to the prevailing climatic conditions. Differences in photosynthetic responses to temperature and light are discussed in relation to ecotypic differentiation between two populations studiedColobanthus quitensis es una especie ampliamente distribuida, que crece desde los Andes tropicales hasta la Pen

  5. Prediction of potential invasion range of alien plant Peperomia pellucida in China%外来入侵植物草胡椒在我国的潜分布范围预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董旭; 陈秀芝; 娄玉霞; 郭水良

    2013-01-01

    Summary In recent years,new alien plants have constantly been invading China as a result of an increase of foreign exchanges.Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth,a species that originated from tropical America,is one of the alien species recently found in Shanghai.Its potential geographical distribution range and habitats of the species are still unknown.Scientists have applied a variety of ecological niche models to predict the risk of exotic plant invasions in China.Among these ecological niche models,maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model has higher accuracy of predicted results with small sample size. According to 12 environmental variables from the global climate environment database (http://www. worldclim.org/) and 649 occurrence records of P.pellucida in the world from the global biodiversity database (http://data.gbif.org/welcome.htm) and the Chinese Virtual Herbarium (http://www.cvh.org.cn/cms/),a prediction of P.pellucida potential distribution was conducted using MaxEnt model and ArcGis 9.3 software.In this prediction,12 environmental variables were used,including precipitation of wettest month,mean diurnal temperature range,isothermality,precipitation of warmest quarter,mean temperature of coldest quarter,variance in precipitation seasonality,precipitation of coldest quarter,temperature annual range,altitude,precipitation of driest month,mean temperature of warmest quarter,and mean temperature of driest quarter.When modeling,the occurrence data and environmental variables were firstly imported into the MaxEnt,and 75% of the occurrence data to predict the risk(training data)and the other(testing data)to test the accuracy were used.The raster layer of P.pellucida was gotten in the global potential distribution in ASCII format,then was imported into ArcGis for further analyses,and the potential suitable areas of P.pellucida in China was gotten.Finally,the result was confirmed by the ROC(receiver operating characteristics) curve analytical method,and the AUC(area under

  6. Adaptability and Reproductive Characteristics of Mikania micrantha H.B.K under Different Habitats%异质环境下入侵植物薇甘菊的适应性与繁殖特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐高峰; 申时才; 张付斗

    2014-01-01

    薇甘菊(MikaniamicranthaH.B.Kunth)为世界上最具有入侵性和危害性的外来入侵物种之一,对其控制与管理已成为长期以来世界性难题。了解入侵植物薇甘菊在异质环境下的适应性与繁殖特性对安全有效预警、监测和防治该入侵物种具有重要意义。本文于薇甘菊盛花期,根据薇甘菊入侵生境的光照条件、群落结构和生长方式差异,在薇甘菊常见的4种入侵生境(林地、荒地、农田和和河边)选取10个样地,调查研究了不同生境条件下薇甘菊的开花结实和繁殖分配,并运用植物叶片功能性状的研究方法研究了不同生境条件下薇甘菊的比叶面积(SLA)、叶干物质比例(LMF)和茎干物质比例(SMF)的3种叶片功能性状。研究结果表明,生境条件对薇甘菊的开花结实和繁殖分配具有显著影响。其中抛荒农田(样地Ⅷ)和河流边缘(样地Ⅸ和Ⅹ)薇甘菊的总花数、种子量、生殖枝茎生物量分配和花生物量分配均显著大于其他生境,显示在有利于其生长的条件下,薇甘菊种群倾向于有性繁殖;而在不利于薇甘菊生长的低光照林地(样地Ⅰ)和种间竞争强的农田红薯地(样地Ⅵ)生境条件下,薇甘菊的总花数和种子量明显小于其他生境,但营养枝叶生物量分配显著大于其他样地,而茎生物量分配值则处于中间值,表明在不利于其生长的生境条件下,薇甘菊通过提高营养枝茎的生物量分配和叶的生物量分配来适应,其种群则更倾向于克隆繁殖。通过分析不同生境条件下薇甘菊的叶片功能性状,结果表明,在不利于薇甘菊生长的低光照林地(样地Ⅰ)和种间竞争强的农田红薯地(样地Ⅵ)生境条件下,薇甘菊的叶面积和茎干物质比例(SMF)显著小于其他样地,且彼此差异不显著;但比叶面积(SLA)和叶干物质比例(LMF)则显著大于其他

  7. Explained: Why many surveys of distant galaxies miss 90% of their targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ève, Switzerland), Göran Östlin and Jens Melinder (Stockholm University, Sweden), J. Miguel Mas-Hesse (CSIC-INTA, Madrid, Spain), Claus Leitherer (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA), Hakim Atek and Daniel Kunth (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France), and Anne Verhamme (Oxford Astrophysics, U.K.). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".