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Sample records for bactrae hymenoptera trichogrammatidae

  1. Effects of heat stress on the quality of Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De S; He, Yu R; Zhang, Wei; Nian, Xiao G; Lin, Tao; Zhao, Rui

    2014-10-01

    Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an important natural enemy of many species of lepidopterous pests. The effects of heat stress temperature (33, 36, and 39 °C), duration of exposure (2, 4, 6, and 8 h), and developmental stage during exposure (embryo-first instar larvae, second instar larvae, prepupae, and pupae) on the development and reproduction of parasitoid T. bactrae were investigated in the laboratory. When exposed to 39 °C for 8 h during pupal stage, only 19.90% adults emerged from host eggs, and more than 14% were deformed (wings were folded or incomplete). Parasitoid females exposed to 39 °C for 8 h as prepupae only lived for 1.45 days and parasitized about 23.5 host eggs. Moreover, life-table parameters of T. bactrae were also influenced by exposure to heat stress temperatures during each preimaginal developmental stage. Based on these results, we propose that T. bactrae is susceptible to high temperatures, especially at 39 °C. Thus, this parasitoid may be more effectively controlling lepidopterous pests during cooler weather conditions. PMID:24810288

  2. [Biological studies on Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgala, María B Riquelme; Botto, Eduardo N

    2010-01-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, is one of the most important tomato pests in South America. In Argentina, management strategies include only chemical control. In this work, the parasitoid wasp Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja was evaluated as a potential natural enemy against this pest. Biological and population parameters were estimated by developing a life table under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1ºC, 14:10 photoperiod and 60 ± 10% RH. Three cohorts of 26-30 T. bactrae females each were placed with one of the three following treatments: 1 - Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) eggs on a piece of cardboard; 2 - S. cerealella eggs on a piece of tomato leaf, and 3- T. absoluta eggs on a piece on tomato leaf. The following parameters were estimated for each cohort: survival (egg to adult), longevity, fecundity and oviposition period of females, sex proportion of the F1, net rate of reproduction (Ro), mean generation time (T) and intrinsic rate of population increase (r m). Survival of the T. bactrae immatures was higher than 90% on both, S. cerealella and T. absoluta eggs. The female survival curves corresponded to type III and showed no significant differences among treatments. The three cohorts did not show significant differences between sex ratio, female longevity, oviposition period, fecundity and the population parameters studied. These results indicate that T. bactrae would be a potential biological control agent of T. absoluta. PMID:20878000

  3. Biological studies on Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, is one of the most important tomato pests in South America. In Argentina, management strategies include only chemical control. In this work, the parasitoid wasp Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja was evaluated as a potential natural enemy against this pest. Biological and population parameters were estimated by developing a life table under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1 degree C, 14:10 photo period and 60 ± 10% RH. Three cohorts of 26-30 T. bactrae females each were placed with one of the three following treatments: 1 - Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) eggs on a piece of cardboard; 2 - S. cerealella eggs on a piece of tomato leaf, and 3- T. absoluta eggs on a piece on tomato leaf. The following parameters were estimated for each cohort: survival (egg to adult), longevity, fecundity and oviposition period of females, sex proportion of the F1, net rate of reproduction (Ro), mean generation time (T) and intrinsic rate of population increase (rm). Survival of the T. bactrae immature was higher than 90% on both, S. cerealella and T. absoluta eggs. The female survival curves corresponded to type III and showed no significant differences among treatments. The three cohorts did not show significant differences between sex ratio, female longevity, oviposition period, fecundity and the population parameters studied. These results indicate that T. bactrae would be a potential biological control agent of T. absoluta. (author)

  4. Biological studies on Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgala, Maria B. Riquelme, E-mail: mbriquelme@cnia.inta.gov.a [Universidade Nacional de Lujan, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Zoologia Agricola; Botto, Eduardo N., E-mail: enbotto@cnia.inta.gov.a [Instituto de Microbiologia y Zoologia Agricola (IMYZA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, is one of the most important tomato pests in South America. In Argentina, management strategies include only chemical control. In this work, the parasitoid wasp Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja was evaluated as a potential natural enemy against this pest. Biological and population parameters were estimated by developing a life table under laboratory conditions at 25 {+-} 1 degree C, 14:10 photo period and 60 {+-} 10% RH. Three cohorts of 26-30 T. bactrae females each were placed with one of the three following treatments: 1 - Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) eggs on a piece of cardboard; 2 - S. cerealella eggs on a piece of tomato leaf, and 3- T. absoluta eggs on a piece on tomato leaf. The following parameters were estimated for each cohort: survival (egg to adult), longevity, fecundity and oviposition period of females, sex proportion of the F1, net rate of reproduction (Ro), mean generation time (T) and intrinsic rate of population increase (rm). Survival of the T. bactrae immature was higher than 90% on both, S. cerealella and T. absoluta eggs. The female survival curves corresponded to type III and showed no significant differences among treatments. The three cohorts did not show significant differences between sex ratio, female longevity, oviposition period, fecundity and the population parameters studied. These results indicate that T. bactrae would be a potential biological control agent of T. absoluta. (author)

  5. Evaluación de algunos insecticidas para el control de la «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae y su efecto residual sobre el parasitoide Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Efficacy of insecticides against the «tomato moth», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and their residual effects on the parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María B. Riquelme Virgala

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, es una plaga clave de este cultivo en Argentina. Su manejo integrado debería incluir una selección de productos fitosanitarios que sean eficaces para su control y, al mismo tiempo, selectivos respecto de sus enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de control de los insecticidas triflumurón, clorfenapir, abamectin y una cepa experimental de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt sobre la plaga, y el poder residual de los mismos sobre Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja. Se registró la mortalidad de la polilla cada cuatro días, desde la aplicación hasta la emergencia de los adultos. El efecto sobre el parasitoide, se evaluó a través del número de huevos parasitados por hembra expuesta durante 48 horas a folíolos tratados, y su mortalidad luego de 1, 3, 7, 14 y 30 días de la pulverización. Todos los productos ocasionaron una mortalidad de T. absoluta mayor al 65% después de 12 días de aplicados. El Bt fue el único insecticida que no afectó la supervivencia y el parasitismo de T. bactrae . Estos resultados aportan información de interés para la selección de plaguicidas, a emplearse en programas de manejo integrado.The «tomato moth», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick is one of the key pests of tomato crops in Argentina. The compatible use of chemical and biological control is the main purpose of integrated pest management. Selective pesticides that can be successfully used to control pest without adverse side effects on natural enemies are highly required. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of control of T. absoluta and the residual effect on the oophagous parasitoid, Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja of the following insecticides: triflumuron, abamectin, chlorfenapyr, and an experimental strain of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. Mortality of T. absoluta was evaluated every 4 days from pesticide spraying until adult emergency. The effect of pesticides on

  6. Toxicity of some insecticides used in maize crop on Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) immature stages

    OpenAIRE

    Jander R Souza; Geraldo A Carvalho; Alexandre P Moura; Marcelo H.G Couto; Jader B Maia

    2014-01-01

    Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize (Zea mays L.) crops in Brazil. The effects of beta-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, spinosad, etofenprox, triflumuron, alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) immature stages were evaluated. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), containing immatu...

  7. Selectivity of Organic Products to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, J T; Bueno, A F; Pomari-Fernandes, A F; Neves, P M O J

    2015-10-01

    The selectivity of various entomopathogens and one insecticide (chlorpyrifos = positive control) to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated in the laboratory, using the protocol established by the Working Group on "Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms" of the IOBC. The evaluated parameters were parasitism (%), adult emergence (%), and product repellency to the parasitoid when sprayed on host eggs prior to parasitism (free-choice and no-choice tests). Most of the studied entomopathogens (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Trichoderma harzianum) had no effects on biological parameters and were classified as harmless to T. pretiosum. Emergence of parasitoids (progeny viability) was reduced, but remained above 90%, when host eggs were sprayed with Baculovirus anticarsia prior to parasitism in the free-choice test, and B. anticarsia was therefore considered harmless. Chlorpyrifos (positive control) caused high adult parasitoid mortality in all bioassays. While T. pretiosum and the tested entomopathogens may be used simultaneously in integrated pest management programs, the use of chlorpyrifos should be avoided. PMID:26267248

  8. Ecotoxicity of insecticides of frequent use in tomatoes on Trichogramma achaeae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Saelices Martínez, Rosa Mª; López, A.; Amor Parrilla, Fermín; Bengochea Budia, Paloma; Fernández Gallego, Mª del Mar; Garzón Hidalgo, Agustín; Morales, Ignacio; Velázquez Cruz, Eduardo Javier; Medina Velez, Maria Pilar; Adán del Río, Ángeles; Estal Padillo, Pedro Del; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Budia Marigil, Maria Flor

    2013-01-01

    Since Tuta absoluta(Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) was detected in 2006 as a new pest in tomato crops in Spain, several natural enemies have been reported tocontrol this pest. In biological control programs, the native parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja&Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is used against T.absoluta. However, the most common control practice is based on use of pesticides,and in the frame of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, the knowledge on the acti...

  9. Sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA ITS2 region in two Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Ercan Sumer Fahriye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two egg parasitoid wasps, Trichogramma euproctidis (Girault and Trichogramma brassicae (Bezdenko (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae were identified in the study. The taxonomy of these wasps is problematic because of their small size and lack of distinguishable morphological characters. The DNA sequence variation from the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA was analyzed from these two Trichogramma species. This technique provides quick, simple and reliable molecular identification of Trichogramma species.

  10. Effects of insecticides used in corn on immature stages of Trichogramma atopovirilia (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    JADER BRAGA MAIA; GERALDO ANDRADE CARVALHO; RODRIGO LOPES DE OLIVEIRA; OLINTO LASMAR; MARIA ISABELLA SANTOS LEITE

    2013-01-01

    The chemical control of Spodopterafrugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is difficult because caterpillars live inside the corn (Zea mays) cob and they do not come into contact with insecticides. Research on the use of parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) has contributed to advances in alternatives for the control of this pest. However, there is little information on the effects of pesticides used in corn on these parasitoids. Therefore, the objective of this st...

  11. Eiparasitoide der Gattung Trichogramma Westwood in Deutschland : Vergleich und Diskussion der vorliegenden Faunenlisten (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Olaf; Schöller, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Die Notwendigkeit des vorliegenden Beitrags zur Trichogramma-Fauna in Deutschland hat folgende Gründe: 1) Die Erfassung der Fauna dient der Kenntnis und der Erhaltung der genetischen und biologischen Vielfalt im Sinne der Konvention zur Biodiversität. 2) Die Gattung Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) ist im biologischen Pflanzen- und Vorratsschutz weltweit von ökonomischem Nutzen. Das Spektrum möglicher Zielschädlinge umfasst in Deutschland mindestens 30 Schädlinge i...

  12. DESEMPENHO DE DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) EM OVOS DE Spodoptera eridania (CRAMER) (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    José Romário Carvalho; Dirceu Pratissoli; Hugo Bolsoni Zago; Lauana Pellanda de Souza; Carlos Magno Ramos Oliveira; Vinícius Pereira dos Santos; Kharen Priscilla de Oliveira Silva Salomão

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino and Zucchi, Trichogramma exiguum Pinto and Platner, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner and Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on eggs of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae). We used two populations of T. pretiosum (commercial and laboratory rearing) and a population of other species were used in the e...

  13. Pengaruh Trichogramma spp. Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Terhadap Telur Penggerek Batang Tebu (P. castaneae Hubr. Dan C. auricilius Dudgeon.)

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    Rizky, Liza Khairani

    2012-01-01

    Liza Khairani Rizky, "Effect of Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to the egg of Sugarcane Stem Borer (Phragmatoecia castaneae Hubr. and Chilo auricilius Dudg.) ", under supervised by Yuswani P. Ningsih and Syahrial Oemry. The research was conducted in the research and development (Risbang) of Sugarcane PTP Nusantara II (PERSERO) North Sumatera on April until Juni 2011. This study aimed to the effect of Trichogramma spp.to eggs of P. castaneae Hubr. and C. au...

  14. Insecticidal activity of essential oil of Prangos ferulacea (Umbelliferae) against Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Trichogramma embryophagum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    ERCAN, Fahriye SÜMER; BAŞ, Hatice; Koç, Murat; Pandir, Dilek; ÖZTEMİZ, Sevcan

    2013-01-01

    Essential oil vapors obtained by the hydrodistillation of Prangos ferulacea (Umbelliferae) were tested on the different stages of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and egg parasitoid Trichogramma embryophagum Hartig (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Extracts of the volatile fractions from P. ferulacea were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major compound of the essential oil was detected as 2,3,6-trimethyl benzaldehyde (66.59%) and the minor com...

  15. Temperature Effects on the Development and Reproduction of Three Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Species Reared on Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Eggs

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    Krechemer, F. S.; Foerster, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a generalist species and an important pest of Brassicaceae worldwide. Egg parasitoids are a feasible alternative for the control of this species. We evaluated the suitability of T. ni eggs as hosts for three Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) species and their tolerance to survive and develop within a range of temperatures between 15 and 30°C under laboratory conditions. The species evaluated were Tri...

  16. Effects of some insecticides used in maize (Zea mays L.) on preimaginal stages of Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

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    Kurtuluş, Alican; KORNOŞOR, Serpil

    2015-01-01

    Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is used for biological control of European corn borer Ostrinia nubilais Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), one of the key pest of maize (Zea mays L.) (Poales: Poaceae) in Turkey. Considering other pests, there is a need for integration of chemical control and T. evanescens releases. Therefore, effects of chemical insecticides on T. evanescens should be known. In this study, effects of insecticides chlorpyrifos ethyl, indoxacarb, ...

  17. Inter- and intraspecific variation of nutritional and environmental adaptation of egg-parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alkarrat, Hamdow

    2013-01-01

    The biology and the use of egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as a biological control agent has been studied since 1904 and more than one thou-sand scientific papers on Trichogramma have been published. However, there are still open questions about the impact of biotic and abiotic environmental factors on the biology of these beneficials, such as nutritional ecology, diapause, cold storage, plant-pest-Trichogramma-interactions, and, particularly, the in...

  18. Insecticide toxicity to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females and effect on descendant generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Ulysses R; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Brunner, Jay; Pereira, Fabrício F; Serrão, José E

    2009-02-01

    The effect of nine insecticides used in tomato production was evaluated on adults of two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) populations from Rive and Afonso Cláudio, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experiment was developed in an acclimatized chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 14 h photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), previously immersed in insecticides solutions were offered to females of both T. pretiosum populations. Bacillus thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron had lowest negative effects on parasitism and viability of individuals of these populations; however, abamectin and pyrethroids (betacyflurin 50 and 125 g/l and esfenvalerate) insecticides reduced parasitism rates. T. pretiosum emerged from A. kuehniella eggs treated with esfenvalerate but were not able to parasitize non treated eggs of this host. B. thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron may be used in integrated pest management programs to control tomato pests, because they have moderated negative effect on parasitoid wasps. PMID:18931909

  19. Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity. (author)

  20. Susceptibility to selected insecticides and risk assessment in the insect egg parasitoid Trichogramma confusum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Liping; An, Xuehua; Jiang, Jinhua; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming; Zhao, Xueping

    2013-02-01

    The parasitoid Trichogramma confusum Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an important natural enemy of many lepidopterans throughout the world. Extensive toxicological tests have clarified the toxic effects of insecticides on trichogrammatids, but only few studies have examined these effects on T. confusum. Among the seven classes of tested chemicals, organophosphates and carbamates exhibited the highest intrinsic toxicity to the parasitoid with LC50 values ranging from 0.037 (0.030-0.046) to 0.29 (0.23-0.38) and from 0.17 (0.15-0.19) to 1.61 (1.45-1.79) mg AI L(-1), respectively. They were followed by phenylpyrazoles, avermectins, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids, which induced variable toxicity responses with LC50 values ranging from 0.63 to 45.26, 1.06-21.73, 3.89-19.36, and 0.24-754.2 mg AI L(-1), respectively. In contrast, insect growth regulators (IGRs) showed the least toxicity to the parasitoid with LC50 values ranging from 3,907 (3,432-4,531) to 10,154 (8,857-12,143) mg AI L(-1). A risk quotient analysis indicated that neonicotinoids (except thiamethoxam), avermectins, pyrethroids, IGRs, and phenylpyrazoles are safe, but organophosphates and carbamates are slightly to moderately or dangerously toxic to T. confusum. This study provides informative data for implementing both biological and chemical control strategies in integrated pest management of lepidopterans. PMID:23448026

  1. Assessment of Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae for biological control in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

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    Marcus Alvarenga Soares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is the sixth most important crop in the world, and it is attacked by many pests, such as Erinnyis ello (L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae. This lepidopteran pest has natural enemies that can efficiently control its population, such as Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. The objective of this research was to assess the flight capacity, parasitism and emergence of Trichogramma pretiosum, T. marandobai and T. demoraesi and to select the most efficient species among them for biological control programs. The flight capacity of these species was assessed in test units consisting of a plastic PVC cylinder with a rigid, transparent plastic circle on the upper portion of the cylinder and an extruded polystyrene disk to close the bottom of the cylinder. A tube was placed in each test unit containing a card with 300 Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae eggs that had been parasitised by Trichogramma. These cards were later assessed to determine the parasitism rate and adult emergence of these natural enemies. Trichogramma pretiosum presented the highest flight capacity (68 ± 5%, parasitism (74 ± 2% and percentage of adults emerged (91 ± 3% in the laboratory, making this species suitable for mass rearing and release in biological control programs.

  2. Toxicity of some insecticides used in maize crop on Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae immature stages

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    Jander R Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize (Zea mays L. crops in Brazil. The effects of beta-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, spinosad, etofenprox, triflumuron, alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae immature stages were evaluated. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, containing immature stages of the parasitoid were dipped in water solution pesticides, to evaluate their effects on emergence and sex ratio of F1 parasitoids. For F2 parasitoids, emergence, parasitism capacity, and sex ratio were evaluated. Beta-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, and spinosad affected the emergence success of F1 T. pretiosum. Insects exposed to etofenprox and alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron during the egg-larval period and to lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam during the pupal stage also suffered reduction in the emergence. Beta-cypermethrin affected the sex ratio of F1 T. pretiosum from host eggs treated during the egg-larval period; spinosad affected it during the egg-larval period and the pupal stage, whereas chlorpyrifos did the same when applied during the pupal stage. Chlorpyrifos also affected the sex ratio of F2 parasitoids, but only when applied during the egg-larval period, whereas chlorfenapyr reduced this trait when applied during the pre-pupal phase. Chlorpyrifos and alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron affected the parasitism capacity of F1 females from eggs treated during the egg-larval period. Considering the overall effects, only etofenprox and triflumuron were selective on T. pretiosum when applied on parasitized A. kuehniella eggs. Further studies need to be carried out to verify the toxicity of the other pesticides under semi-field and field conditions.

  3. Seletividade de produtos naturais comerciais a Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Daiane Luckmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de produtos naturais a parasitoides é pouco conhecida. Em vista disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a seletividade de produtos naturais comerciais a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Os produtos utilizados foram Baicao®, Orobor® e Topneem®, nas concentrações recomendadas pelos fabricantes, e pulverizados sobre cartelas contendo ovos esterilizados de Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Teste com chance de escolha para parasitismo foi realizado, confinando-se uma fêmea de T. pretiosum com duas cartelas, uma pulverizada com o produto e outra considerada testemunha, avaliando-se a percentagem de parasitismo. O teste sem chance de escolha consistiu na pulverização dos tratamentos, em cartelas, previamente ou posteriormente ao parasitismo. Em ambos os testes, avaliaram-se o número de ovos parasitados, a percentagem de emergência e a longevidade de adultos. No teste com chance de escolha, os produtos Topneem® e Baicao® provocaram redução do parasitismo de T. pretiosum. No teste sem chance de escolha, Baicao®, pulverizado previamente sobre cartelas contendo ovos de A. kuehniella, interferiu negativamente na emergência de T. pretiosum. Houve redução do número de ovos parasitados quando Baicao® foi pulverizado no tratamento pré-parasitismo. Orobor® é seletivo a T. pretiosum nas condições de realização do experimento e não afetou negativamente os parâmetros avaliados. Baicao® não foi seletivo para T. pretiosum, afetou a maioria dos parâmetros avaliados e foi classificado como levemente nocivo quanto à toxicidade aos adultos do parasitoide, em condições de laboratório.

  4. Seletividade de herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho a adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of herbicides registered on corn to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Stefanello Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de 24 herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho foi avaliada a Trichogramma pretiosum em condições de laboratório (temperatura de 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas e luminosidade de 500 lux. Adultos de T. pretiosum foram colocados em contato com uma película seca dos herbicidas pulverizados sobre placas de vidro e avaliou-se a capacidade de parasitismo das fêmeas. A redução na capacidade de parasitismo dos tratamentos foi comparada com a da testemunha (água destilada e utilizada para classificar os herbicidas em 1, inócuo (99%. Os herbicidas Callisto, Equip Plus, Extrazin SC, Primóleo, Provence 750 WG e Siptran 500 SC são inócuos (classe 1; Agrisato 480 SL, Gesaprim GrDA, Glifos, Glyphosate Nortox, Gliz 480 SL, Polaris, Primatop SC, Sanson 40 SC, Trop e Zapp Qi, levemente nocivos (classe 2; Finale, Herbadox, Poast, Roundup Original, Roundup Transorb e Roundup WG, moderadamente nocivos (classe 3; e Gramoxone 200 e Primestra Gold, nocivos (classe 4 aos adultos de T. pretiosum, nas dosagens utilizadas. Os herbicidas nocivos (classes 2, 3 e 4 deverão passar para as etapas seguintes, que envolverão testes sobre as fases imaturas do parasitóide em condições de laboratório e adultos a campo.The selectivity of 24 herbicides registered on corn to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was assessed under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 ºC temperature, 70 ± 10% relative humidity, 14 4 photophase and brightness 500 lux. The adult parasitoids were submitted to a dry film of the herbicides applied on glass plates and the parasitism capacity of the females was evaluated. Reduced parasitism capacity in the treatments was compared with the negative control (distilled water and used to classify the herbicides into four categories: 1, harmless ( 99%. The herbicides Callisto, Equip Plus, Extrazin SC, Primóleo, Provence 750 WG and Siptran 500 SC were found to be harmless (class 1

  5. Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae); Efeito da disponibilidade de hospedeiro e de alimento nas caracteristicas biologicas de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Oliveira, Harley N. de; Oliveira, Regiane C. de; Zago, Hugo B. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: dirceu@npd.ufes.br, e-mail: hnoliveira@insecta.ufv.br; Vieira, Stella M.J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2004-03-15

    Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity. (author)

  6. The Effects of Different Irrigation Systems on the Inundative Release of Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) against Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Second Crop Maize

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTEMİZ, Sevcan; Kornoşor, Serpil

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation systems on the inundative release of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) against Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the second crop maize in the Çukurova region of Turkey in 1999 and 2000. O. nubilalis, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and T. evanescens were reared in a climatic room under constant temperature of 25 ± 1 ºC, relative h...

  7. Assessment of Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for biological control in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Alvarenga Soares; Germano Leão Demolin Leite; José Cola Zanuncio; Cleidson Soares Ferreira; Silma Leite Rocha; Veríssimo Gibran Mendes de Sá

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is the sixth most important crop in the world, and it is attacked by many pests, such as Erinnyis ello (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). This lepidopteran pest has natural enemies that can efficiently control its population, such as Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). The objective of this research was to assess the flight capacity, parasitism and emergence of Trichogramma pretiosum, T. marandobai and T. demoraesi and to select the most efficient species among them for b...

  8. Effects of Kaolin on Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Its Compatibility With the Natural Enemy, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Christina E; López-Olguín, Jesús F; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco-Mancebón, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important grapevine pest in Europe recently encountered in America. Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is amongst the most effective parasitoids for Lepidopteran species. Studies to evaluate the effect of kaolin, an inert, nontoxic mineral, on oviposition, egg hatch, and neonate mortality of these species were carried out. Efficacy on L. botrana neonate larvae, oviposition, and egg hatch was evaluated. Effects of kaolin on parasitism and emergence of T. cacoeciae from L. botrana and Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs were also evaluated. Lobesia botrana egg hatch and oviposition rates were reduced, and neonate larvae mortality was significantly greater in kaolin-treated arenas and when included in synthetic neonate larvae diet. Kaolin had no effect on T. cacoeciae parasitism in both hosts. There was only a slight but statistically insignificant effect on T. cacoeciae progeny emergence from L. botrana eggs and no effect from E. kuehniella. The results involving reductions in L. botrana oviposition and egg hatch and increase in larval mortality with kaolin suggest this compound may contribute to reduction in population densities and can be considered in rational integrated pest management strategies for L. botrana. Due to the laboratory results presented on parasitoid emergence, even though field bioassays would give a more exhaustive evaluation, it appears kaolin can be compatible with T. cacoeciae in L. botrana management. PMID:26803817

  9. Effect of ionizing (gamma and non-ionizing (UV radiation on the development of Trichogramma euproctidis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Tuncbilek Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using gamma and ultraviolet radiation as an alternative treatment to increase the efficiency of Trichogramma euproctidis (Girault 1911 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was investigated in the laboratory. The developmental and adult stages of T. euproctidis were exposed to gamma radiation of different doses (0-30 Gy and ultraviolet radiation of 254 nm wavelengths (UV-C for different durations (0-10 min to assess their effect on each of the instars and their potential in breaking the developmental cycle of the egg parasitoid. The LD50 values for eggs, prepupae, pupae and adults were 8.1, 10.0, 22.7 and 9.5 Gy for gamma radiation and 9.5, 0.12, 2.0 and 11.9 min for UV radiation, respectively. The pupa and adult stages were more radioresistant to both gamma and UV radiation. The most interesting and unexpected result obtained for the prepupal stage was that UV radiation has a greater effect on prepupal stages than gamma radiation.

  10. Sensory and immune genes identification and analysis in a widely used parasitoid wasp Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su-Fang; Kong, Xiang-Bo; Wang, Hong-Bin; Zhou, Gang; Yu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is one of the preponderant egg parasitoids of Dendrolimus spp., which are important defoliators of coniferous forests. This parasitoid wasp has been widely released to control pine caterpillar and other lepidopteran pests, but its control efficiency needs to be improved. Sensory systems are crucial for T. dendrolimi to locate hosts, and immunity is probably involved after egg deposition in the host cavity; however, few reports have focused on the molecular mechanism of olfactory detection and survival of T. dendrolimi. It is necessary to identify these genes before further functional research is conducted. In this study, we assembled and analyzed the transcriptome of T. dendrolimi using next-generation sequencing technology. The sequencing and assembly resulted in 38 565 contigs with N50 of 3422 bp. Sequence comparison indicate that T. dendrolimi sequences are very similar to those of another parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis. Then the olfactory, vision, and immune-related gene families were identified, and phylogenetic analyses were performed with these genes from T. dendrolimi and other model insect species. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree with odorant binding proteins of T. dendrolimi and their host Dendrolimus was constructed to determine whether convergent evolution exists. These genes can be valid targets for further gene function research. The present study may help us to understand host location and survival mechanisms of T. dendrolimi and to use them more efficiently for pest control in the future. PMID:26940718

  11. Temperature Effects on the Development and Reproduction of Three Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Species Reared on Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krechemer, F S; Foerster, L A

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a generalist species and an important pest of Brassicaceae worldwide. Egg parasitoids are a feasible alternative for the control of this species. We evaluated the suitability of T. ni eggs as hosts for three Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) species and their tolerance to survive and develop within a range of temperatures between 15 and 30 °C under laboratory conditions. The species evaluated were Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner, and Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares. Parasitism rate was affected by temperature, parasitoid species, and by the interaction between these two factors. Parasitoids developed and reproduced in the range of temperatures evaluated, but Trichog. acacioi failed to parasitize T. ni eggs at 30 °C. The highest parasitism rates of Trichog. atopovirilia and Trichog. pretiosum occurred at 20 and 25 °C and Trichog. acacioi at 25 °C, with parasitism rate above 70% in the three species. Parasitoid emergence was not affected by temperature or species. The estimated thermal constant and lower temperature threshold were 134.6 DD and 10.6 °C for Trichog. pretiosum and 130.1 DD and 11.2 °C for Trichog. atopovirilia. The results demonstrated that Trichog. pretiosum and Trichog. atopovirilia are the most suitable species for the control of T. ni, as they can remain active throughout the year in subtropical regions. PMID:26160802

  12. Seletividade de formulações de glyphosate a Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Side-effects of glyphosate formulations on Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Giolo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade de oito formulações de glyphosate (Roundup®, Roundup® WG, Roundup® Transorb, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® e Zapp® Qi registradas no Brasil sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum (Hym., Trichogrammatidae. Os experimentos consistiram na exposição de adultos do parasitóide a resíduos secos das formulações pulverizadas sobre placas de vidro, na concentração de 14,4 mg L-1 de equivalente ácido de glyphosate. O tratamento controle recebeu água destilada. Ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Anagasta kuehniella (Lep., Pyralidae foram ofertados para parasitismo. A capacidade de parasitismo por fêmea de T. pretiosum e a redução na capacidade, comparada com o tratamento controle, foram utilizadas para estimar a toxicidade do produto. As formulações foram classificadas em quatro categorias, conforme a redução no parasitismo: inócuo (99%. Os produtos fitossanitários afetaram diferentemente a capacidade de parasitismo de T. pretiosum. A seletividade das formulações de glyphosate foi dependente do tipo de sal. Aquelas à base de sal potássico (Zapp® Qi e de sal de amônio (Roundup® WG foram levemente nocivas a adultos do parasitóide. As demais à base de sal isopropilamina (Roundup®, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® e Roundup® Transorb foram moderadamente nocivas a adultos de T. pretiosum.A study was carried out in the laboratory to investigate the side-effects reported in Brazil of eight glyphosate formulations (Roundup®, Roundup® WG, Roundup® Transorb, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® and Zapp® Qi on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hym., Trichogrammatidae. The experiments were carried out by exposing the adult parasitoids to fresh pesticide residues applied on glass plates at a concentration of 14.4 mg L-1 of acid equivalent of glyphosate

  13. Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, 1978 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae criado em dois hospedeiros por diversas gerações Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, 1978 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae reared in two hosts for several generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O Trichogramma é um inimigo natural dos mais estudados e utilizados atualmente no mundo. A qualidade e o desempenho de Trichogramma podem ser influenciados por alguns fatores, tal como o hospedeiro alternativo utilizado na criação massal. Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi obter informações básicas sobre os aspectos biológicos de Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, criado nos hospedeiros alternativos Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv., 1819 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por 10, 20 e 30 gerações, e os possíveis efeitos nas características biológicas desse parasitóide. Em cada uma das gerações avaliadas, foram utilizadas 25 fêmeas de T. exiguum recém-emergidas de cada hospedeiro, as quais foram individualizadas em tubos de vidro que continham gotículas de mel de abelha. Cada fêmea recebeu uma cartela contendo 40 ovos do hospedeiro na qual estava sendo mantido. Foi permitido um parasitismo de 24 horas para essas cartelas, sendo as mesmas trocadas diariamente até a morte da fêmea.O número de ovos parasitados no primeiro dia, a capacidade de parasitismo e a longevidade de T. exiguum foi superior quando se utilizou ovos de A. kuehniella, ao longo das diferentes gerações, mostrando ser esse hospedeiro mais indicado para a criação massal de T. exiguum.Trichogramma is one the most studied and used natural enemies of insect pests in the world. The quality and the performance of Trichogramma can be influenced by some factors, like the kind of host used for its mass rearing. The objective of this research was to obtain some basic informations about the biological aspects of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, reared on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv., 1819 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for 10, 20 e 30 generations, and the effect of something on the

  14. DESEMPENHO DE DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE EM OVOS DE Spodoptera eridania (CRAMER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Romário Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino and Zucchi, Trichogramma exiguum Pinto and Platner, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner and Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae. We used two populations of T. pretiosum (commercial and laboratory rearing and a population of other species were used in the experiment. Cards azure, containing 20 eggs (age <12 h of S. eridania were exposed for 24 hours of parasitism. We evaluated the following biological parameters: number of eggs parasitized, percentage of emergence, number of individuals per egg, sex ratio, duration of egg-adult and longevity of the offspring. The parasitism differed among Trichogrammaspecies, ranging from 3.85 (19.25% and 9.90 (49.50% parasitized eggs per female. The emergence percentage was higher than 75%. The sex ratio was higher for T. pretiosum population Tbug (0.99, while the lower observed valuefor T. atopovirilia and T. exiguum, 0.77 and 0.79, respectively. The time from egg to adult was lower for the species T. pretiosum population Tbug, T. pratissolii and T. atopovirilia (9.00 days, respectively. The descendants of the population Tbug were those with greater longevity (2.85 days. Considering the results of parasitism, the species T. pretiosum and T. pratissolii demonstrated better rates, and thus promising for use in biological control program for S. eridania.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho dos parasitoides Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino e Zucchi, Trichogramma exiguum Pinto e Platner, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman e Platner e Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Spodopteraeridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Foram utilizadas duas populações de T. pretiosum (comercial e de criação de laborat

  15. Biological parameters of trichogramma chilonis ishii (trichogrammatidae: hymenoptera) feeding on sitotroga cerealella eggs at three constant temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted on the biological parameters of trichogramma chilonis ishii (trichogrammatidae: hymenoptera) feeding on grain moth, sitotroga cereallela eggs at three constant temperatures and five different ages of host eggs at insect pest management programme, national agricultural research centre, (narc) islamabad. The results revealed that maximum rate of parasitism was 95.70 +- 1.94 at 28 +- 1 degree c while minimum was 61.30 +-1.70 at 32 +- 1 degree c. maximum adult emergence and female ratio from parasitized eggs were 96.30% with 59.2+- 5.83 female ratio at 28 +-1 degree c while minimum was 51.10% with female ratio of 58.1 at 32+-1 degree c. The maximum developmental duration (9.6 +- 0.32 days) and adult longevity (4.3 +- 0.38 days) was at 24 +-1 degree degree c while minimum was 7.4 +-0.36 and 2.0 +- 0.56 days at 32 +- 1 degree c. The results indicate that temperature has a significant effect on the biological parameters of trichogramma and with increasing temperature developmental duration decreased. Similarly effect of host eggs age indicates that maximum parasitism and adult emergence were 97.40 +- 0.84% and 98.20 +- 0.94% on 2h old eggs while minimum parasitism was 24.6 +- 4.92% and adult emergence was 21.5 +- 1.33% from 72h old eggs. Adult longevity and female ratio was not significantly different at different ages of host eggs. Thus out of three tested temperatures, 28 +-1 degree c was more suitable for mass rearing of tricho-gramma and feeding 2-12h old eggs for maximum parasitism and adult emergence from parasitized eggs under laboratory condition of 28 +-1 degree c. (author)

  16. Sublethal and transgenerational effects of insecticides in developing Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) : toxicity of insecticides to Trichogramma galloi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mariana Abreu; Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; da Costa Gontijo, Pablo; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Lopes; de Oliveira, Harley Nonato

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the transgenerational effects of insecticides in developing Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Laboratory bioassays were performed in which five insecticides were sprayed on egg-larval, pre-pupal and pupal stages of the parasitoid. The interaction between insecticides and development stages of the parasitoid was not significant for the rate of F0 emergence. All insecticides significantly reduced the emergence of wasps, with the lowest emergence observed when they were applied to the pupal stage. For the sex ratio, only spinosad applied to the pre-pupal stage and triflumuron applied on the egg-larval and pre-pupal stages did not differ from the controls. Triflumuron applied to pre-pupae did not lead to any difference in the parasitism rate of the treated generation (F0) when compared to the control. There were no significant differences among survival curves for females of F0 when all insecticides were sprayed on the egg-larval stage. Both concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam reduced female pre-pupal survival, and all treatments reduced female pupal survival. In addition, we observed a transgenerational effect of the insecticides on emergence and sex ratio of next generation (F1). Lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam (Min) applied to the pre-pupae and pupae, the maximum rate of the same insecticides applied to the egg-larvae and pre-pupae, and spinosad applied to pre-pupae all significantly reduced the adults emergence of T. galloi F1 generation. Only triflumuron did not alter the F1 sex ratio. These bioassays provide a basis for better understanding the effects of insecticide use on beneficial parasitoids. PMID:25011923

  17. Effect of host availability and egg load in Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and its consequences on progeny quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso L. Hohmann

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to determine whether Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti manifested a somatic-gametic trade-off and whether it was affected by host availability and host size. Large wasps produced on Trichoplusia ni Hübner and limited to five or 15 T. ni eggs daily, produced a similar number of progeny as wasps offered hosts from emergence. Similar results were obtained when they were deprived of T. ni eggs for one, three, five, or ten days and then provided with unlimited hosts daily until death. In contrast, small wasps produced from Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier and deprived of T. ni eggs for one to three days suffered a significant reduction in progeny production. Regardless of size, the egg load of non-ovipositing wasps increased significantly with time and a positive relationship existed between the life span of a female and the length of time she was deprived of hosts.Experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar se fêmeas de Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae têm a habilidade de direcionar a alocação de recursos (reprodução/longevidade e se esse comportamento é afetado pela disponibilidade e pelo tamanho dos hospedeiros. Fêmeas de parasitóides grandes, oriundas de ovos de Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, expostas a cinco ou 15 ovos de T. ni, diariamente, produziram número similar de descendentes que aquelas fêmeas que tiveram acesso a número ilimitado de hospedeiros desde a emergência. Resultados similares foram obtidos quando elas foram mantidas temporariamente sem ovos de T. ni durante um, três, cinco ou dez dias, e então providas com um suplemento ilimitado de hospedeiros. Contrariamente, fêmeas pequenas, oriundas de ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, mantidas temporariamente sem ovos de T. ni durante um período de um a três dias, apresentaram uma redução significativa no número de descendentes produzidos. Independentemente do

  18. Evaluación de algunos insecticidas para el control de la «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) y su efecto residual sobre el parasitoide Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Efficacy of insecticides against the «tomato moth», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and their residual effects on the parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    María B. Riquelme Virgala; Eduardo N. Botto; César Lafalce

    2006-01-01

    La «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), es una plaga clave de este cultivo en Argentina. Su manejo integrado debería incluir una selección de productos fitosanitarios que sean eficaces para su control y, al mismo tiempo, selectivos respecto de sus enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de control de los insecticidas triflumurón, clorfenapir, abamectin y una cepa experimental de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sobre la plaga, y el poder residual de los m...

  19. Seletividade de herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho aos estádios imaturos de Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of herbicides registered for corn at the immature stages of Trichogramma pretio sum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J Stefanello Jr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico tem sido um dos métodos mais utilizados para o manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho, no entanto o uso de herbicidas pode ocasionar efeitos adversos aos insetos benéficos, como os parasitoides de ovos. Nesse sentido, foi avaliada a seletividade de 12 herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho para as fases imaturas de Trichogramma pretiosum em condições de laboratório (temperatura de 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Os herbicidas foram diluídos em um volume proporcional a 200 L de água por hectare e pulverizados sobre ovos de lepidóptero contendo formas imaturas do parasitoide em seu interior, nas fases de ovo-larva, pré-pupa e pupa. Avaliou-se, então, a porcentagem de emergência dos parasitoides e, em função da comparação com a testemunha, classificaram-se os herbicidas em inócuo (classe 1, 99%. Os herbicidas Agrisato 480 SL, Finale, Glifos, Glifosato Nortox, Gliz 480 SL, Polaris, Roundup Original, Roundup Transorb, Roundup WG, Trop e Zapp Qi foram inócuos (classe 1 às diferentes fases imaturas de T. pretiosum e são considerados seletivos ao parasitoide. Gramoxone 200, embora tenha sido inócuo para as fases de ovo-larva e pré-pupa, foi considerado levemente nocivo (classe 2 para a fase de pupa. Nesse sentido, para melhor compatibilização do manejo químico das plantas daninhas e controle biológico de insetos, sugere-se que sejam utilizados, sempre que possível, aqueles herbicidas que permitem maior sobrevivência de T. pretiosum.- Chemical control has been one of the most widely used methods for weed mana gement in corn. However, the use of herbicides can cause adverse effects on beneficial insects, such as egg parasitoids. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the selectivity of 12 herbicides regis tered for corn at the immature stages of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae under laboratory conditions (temperature 25±1 o C

  20. Persistência de agrotóxicos indicados na produção integrada de pêssego a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Persistence of pesticides used in integrated peach production on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A persistência (duração da atividade nociva de cinco agrotóxicos indicados na Produção Integrada de Pêssego (PIP foi avaliada, expondo-se adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae ao contato com resíduos de inseticidas, pulverizados sobre folhas, a diferentes intervalos de tempo, baseando-se na metodologia sugerida pela International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC. Os resultados obtidos em relação à persistência, permitiu classificar os agrotóxicos, produto comercial/ingrediente ativo (g ou mL de produto comercial 100L-1, Dipterex 500/triclorfom (300, Sumithion 500 CE/fenitrotiona (150 e Tiomet 400 CE/dimetoato (120 como levemente persistentes (5-15 dias; o inseticida Malathion 1000 CE/malationa (200 como moderadamente persistente (16-30 dias e o fungicida/acaricida Kumulus DF/enxofre (600 como persistente (> 31 dias a adultos de T. pretiosum.The persistence (duration of harmful activity of five insecticides indicated in the Integrated Peach Production (IPP was evaluated by adult exposure of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae to insecticide residues on plant leaves at different time intervals after treatment using the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC based on the suggested methodology.The results obtained in relation to the disease persistence will permit to classify the pesticides, commercial formulation/active ingredient (g or mL commercial formulation 100L-1, Dipterex 500/trichlorphon (300, Sumithion 500 CE/fenitrothion (150 and Tiomet 400 CE/dimethoate (120 as slightly persistent (5-15 days; the insecticide Malathion 1000 CE/malathion (200 as moderately persistent (16-30 days and the fungicide Kumulus DF/sulphur (600 as persistent (>31 days to T. pretiosum adults.

  1. Efeito da ausência de hospedeiro e de alimento sobre aspectos biológicos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1540 Effect of the absence of host and of food on biological aspects of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1540

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    Ulysses Rodrigues Vianna

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de uso de parasitóides do gênero Trichogramma é grande para vários insetos-praga de importância agrícola. No entanto, aspectos biológicos, como a capacidade de parasitismo, a viabilidade e a razão sexual, são dependentes da disponibilidade de hospedeiro e do suprimento alimentar. Por esta razão, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito da ausência de alimento e do hospedeiro alternativo Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, em diferentes intervalos de tempo, sobre aspectos biológicos de três linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. As linhagens alimentadas parasitaram até 96 horas, e quando não foram alimentadas as linhagens um, dois e três de T. pretiosum parasitaram até às 60, 84 e 72 horas, respectivamente. Esses resultados indicam que o estresse alimentar afeta a capacidade de parasitismo de T. pretiosum após um período de ausência do hospedeiroThe use potential of Trichogramma genus parasitoids is huge for several insect-pests of agricultural importance. However, some biological aspects, such as parasitism capacity, viability and sexual ratio are dependent of the host availability and of food supply. This work evaluated the effect of food absence and of alternative host Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, absence, in different time intervals, over biological aspects of three Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae strains. The fed strains sponged up to 96 hours, and when the strains were not fed one, two and three of T. pretiosum sponged for 60, 84 and 72 hours, respectively. The results indicate that alimentary stress affects the parasitism capacity of T. pretiosum, after a period of host absence

  2. Biologia e exigências térmicas de cinco linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae criadas em ovos de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae Biology and thermal requeriments of five Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae strains, reared on eggs of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar a biologia e as exigências térmicas de cinco linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae coletadas em áreas comerciais de tomate, no Estado do Espírito Santo, em ovos da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, sob diferentes temperaturas constantes e flutuantes. A duração do ciclo de desenvolvimento (ovo-adulto das cinco linhagens de T. pretiosum criadas em ovos de T. absoluta foi afetada significativamente pela temperatura, na faixa das constantes (15 a 30°C. Esse mesmo fato não foi observado nas temperaturas alternadas (26/14 e 29/16°C. O desempenho das linhagens nas diferentes temperaturas mostrou que L2 e L5 apresentaram os melhores resultados quanto à taxa de emergência de seus descendentes. A razão sexual das cinco linhagens foi afetada pela temperatura, havendo diferença significativa entre os valores obtidos nas faixas das temperaturas (constante e alternada estudadas. As linhagens de T. pretiosum apresentaram uma temperatura base (tb que variou de 8,70 a 13,45°C, e uma constante térmica (K de 90,09 a 159,43 graus/dia.The objective of this research was to evaluate the biology and the thermal requeriments of five strains of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae collected in commercial areas of tomato, in Espírito Santo State, on eggs the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae under constant and alternating temperatures. The duration of the development cycle (egg-adult of the five strains of T. pretiosum reared in eggs of T. absoluta was affected significantly by the temperature, in the band of the constants (15 to 30°C. This same fact was not observed in the alternated temperatures (26/14 and 29/16°C. The performance of the strains in the different temperatures, showed that L2 and L5 presented the best results concerning the emergency rate of their descendants of viability

  3. Herbicidas e Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas Utilizados na Cana-de-Açúcar e sua Ação sobre Adultos de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Marina Antigo

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides and Plant Growth Regulators Used in SUGARCANE and their Action on Adult Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Abstract. During crop sugarcane management, several used pesticides can affect the performance of parasitoids, natural enemies of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius and consequently the biological control ofit. Thus, the objective was to evaluate in laboratory the effect of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in the sugarcane crops on survival and parasitism in adults of the eggs parasitoids, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi. The products tested were the herbicides Clomazone and Diuron + Hexazinone, and the plant regulators Sulfometuron-methyl and Trinexapac-ethyl, all in the higher recommended dosages for sugarcane. The eggs of D. saccharalis were immersed during 5 seconds in chemical solutions and, after dry for 1 hour, offered to T. galloi females with 20 repetitions. We evaluated the mortality and number of eggs parasitized by the F0 generation of T. galloi, as well as the emergence of the F1. The products were classified by their toxicity, according to the percentage of reduction in the survival, parasitism and emergence of the parasitoid. In relation to the survival of adult T. galloi, the number of eggs parasitized by F0 as well as the percentage of F1 emergence, clomazone and trinexapac-ethyl were classified as slightly harmful. Diuron+hexazinone and sulfometuron-methyl were harmless in all parameters, except for parasitism, where diuron+hexazinone was classified as slightly harmful. We conclude that clomazone, diuron+hexazinone, trinexapac-ethyl and sulfometuron-methyl, are harmless or slightly harmful the survival and parasitism (F0 of T. galloi adults and emergence (F1 of this parasitoid in the laboratory.

  4. EFECTOS TOXICOLÓGICOS DE EXTRACTOS DE MOLLE (Schinus molle) Y LANTANA (Lantana camara) SOBRE Chrysoperla externa (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE), Trichogramma pintoi (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) Y Copidosoma koehleri (HYMENOPTERA: ENCYRTIDAE) EN EL PERÚ Toxicological effects of extracts of Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle) and lantana (Lantana camara) on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), Trichogramma pintoi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Copidosoma koehleri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    José Iannacone O.; Gerardo Lamas M.

    2003-01-01

    Extractos de dos plantas; el molle (Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae) y la lantana (Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae), se evaluaron sobre huevos, larvas de primer estadio y pupas de Chrysoperla externa Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), y sobre estados inmaduros y adultos de los microhimenopteros Trichogramma pintoi Voegelé (Trichogrammatidae) y Copidosoma koehleri Blanchard (Encyrtidae), en bioensayos toxicológicos bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los extractos acuosos (F1) del molle y la lantana...

  5. Toxicidade de agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Toxicity of pesticides used in peach production on the egg parasitoids Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A toxicidade de dezesseis formulações comerciais de agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro foi avaliada em laboratório (temperatura 25±1oC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas, expondo-se adultos do parasitóide Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em contato com uma película seca dos produtos fitossanitários pulverizados sobre placas de vidro, mensurando-se posteriormente o número de ovos parasitados por fêmea. Reduções na capacidade de parasitismo em relação à testemunha (somente água foram utilizadas para classificar os produtos em inócuo (99%. Os agrotóxicos (% da formulação comercial na calda Captan 500 PM (0,240, Cobre Sandoz BR (0,240, Delan (0,125, Dodex 450 SC (0,175, Rovral SC (0,150 e Intrepid 240 SC (0,060 foram inócuos; Manzate 800 (0,200 foi levemente nocivo; Assist (2,000, Finale (1,000 e Roundup (original (3,000 foram moderadamente nocivos; Kumulus DF (0,600, Hokko Cihexatim 500 (0,050, Vertimec 18 CE (0,080, Imidan 500 WP (0,200, Tiomet 400 CE (0,120 e Trebon 100 SC (0,150 foram nocivos a T. atopovirilia.The toxicity of sixteen commercial formulations of pesticides used in peach production was assessed in the laboratory (25±1oC temperature, 70±10% relative humidity and 14h photophase on adults of egg parasitoids Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae by exposing the adult parasitoids to fresh dry pesticide film applied on glass plates and further evaluation of the capacity of parasitism per adult female. The reduction in capacity of parasitism compared with the control (treated with water was used to measure the effect of the chemical. Pesticides were then classified into four categories, according to the reduction in parasitization: 1, harmless (99%. The pesticides (% commercial formulation in spray water Captan 500 PM (0.240, Cobre Sandoz BR (0.240, Delan (0.125, Dodex 450 SC (0.175, Rovral SC (0

  6. REGISTRO DE ESPÉCIES DE Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE EM OVOS DE Erinnyis ello LINNAEUS (LEPIDOPTERA: SPHINGIDAE, EM MATO GROSSO DO SUL RECORD OF Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE SPECIES ON Erinnyis ello LINNAEUS (LEPIDOPTERA: SPHINGIDAE EGGS IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

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    Marcela Marcelino Duarte

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae é uma das principais pragas da cultura da mandioca e, dentre seus inimigos naturais, destaca-se o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Este trabalho registra a ocorrência de Trichogramma manicobai, Trichogramma marandobai e Trichogramma pretiosum em ovos de E. ello, encontrados em plantios de mandioca, no Mato Grosso do Sul.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Controle biológico; mandarová-da-mandioca; agricultura.

  7. EFECTOS TOXICOLÓGICOS DE EXTRACTOS DE MOLLE (Schinus molle Y LANTANA (Lantana camara SOBRE Chrysoperla externa (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE, Trichogramma pintoi (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE Y Copidosoma koehleri (HYMENOPTERA: ENCYRTIDAE EN EL PERÚ Toxicological effects of extracts of Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle and lantana (Lantana camara on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Trichogramma pintoi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and Copidosoma koehleri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iannacone O.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Extractos de dos plantas; el molle (Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae y la lantana (Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae, se evaluaron sobre huevos, larvas de primer estadio y pupas de Chrysoperla externa Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, y sobre estados inmaduros y adultos de los microhimenopteros Trichogramma pintoi Voegelé (Trichogrammatidae y Copidosoma koehleri Blanchard (Encyrtidae, en bioensayos toxicológicos bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los extractos acuosos (F1 del molle y la lantana a las concentraciones aplicadas no causaron efectos significativos en la mortalidad de las larvas (ensayo de residualidad y pupas (ensayo de inmersión de C. externa, pero los extractos hexánicos (F2; 10% de molle y lantana, y el acetónico (F3; 10% de lantana tuvieron efectos ovicidas por inmersión. Los adultos de T. pintoi fueron sensibles a casi todas las fracciones en ensayos de contacto-residualidad y los adultos de C. koehleri fueron sensibles al F1 de molle y a la F3 de lantana. La emergencia de ambas microavispas fue afectada principalmente por el F2 de molle y de lantana, y por el F3 de lantana en comparación con el control (agua destilada. Las fracciones F2 y F3 de lantana causaron los mayores efectos en los tres insectos. T. pintoi fue ligeramente más sensible a los extractos botánicos en comparación con C. koehleri. Se discute la posibilidad de uso de estos insecticidas botánicos en programas de Manejo Integrado de Plagas.Extracts of two plants, lantana (Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae and the Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae, were evaluated on eggs, first stage larvae and pupae of Chrysoperla externa Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, and on the immature and adult phases of the microhymenopterans Trichogramma pintoi Voegelé (Trichogrammatidae and Copidosoma koehleri Blanchard (Encyrtidae in toxicological bioassays under laboratory conditions. At the concentrations applied, aqueous extracts (F1 of lantana and Peruvian

  8. Ação transovariana de lufenuron (50 g/l sobre adultos de Spodoptera Frugiperda (j. e. smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e seu efeito sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Transovarian action of lufenuron on adults of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and its effect on the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a ação transovariana do lufenuron em Spodoptera frugiperda e sua seletividade ao parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum. Casais da praga foram isolados em gaiolas de PVC e alimentados com solução de mel a 10% na testemunha, e nos outros tratamentos, foi adicionado à solução de mel o regulador de crescimento de insetos Match® CE nas proporções de 12,5; 15,0 e 17,5 g i.a/l. Para verificação da ação transovariana, diariamente foram coletadas as posturas, contado o número de ovos e, posteriormente, o número de larvas eclodidas. Quarenta ovos provenientes de cada tratamento foram colados em cartelas de papel (cartolina e expostos ao parasitismo, dentro de tubos de vidro de 1,0 x 3,5 cm, contendo uma fêmea de T. pretiosum no seu interior. Cartelas contendo 40 ovos de S. frugiperda foram imersas em soluções de lufenuron com a mesma concentração dos tratamentos anteriores e, posteriormente, expostas ao parasitismo por T. pretiosum. O lufenuron afetou consideravelmente a viabilidade dos ovos de S. frugiperda. Pelos resultados obtidos nos ensaios, relativos ao parasitóide, demonstram-se a seletividade do regulador de crescimento lufenuron e a possibilidade de sua utilização em programas de Manejo Integrado, juntamente com o parasitóide de ovos T. pretiosum.The transovarian action of insect growth regulator lufenuron in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and its effects on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, were evaluated. Pest couples were isolated in PVC's cages and provided with 10% honey solution as control. In the others treatments, the honey solution was mixed with the insect growth regulator Match® CE using the following concentrations of 12.5; 15.0 and 17.5 g i.a./l. For verification of the transovarian action, the eggs were collected daily, with the number of the hatched larvae being subsequently counted. Forty eggs from each treatment were fixed in

  9. Ação de produtos naturais sobre a sobrevivência de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae e seletividade de inseticidas utilizados na produção orgânica de videira sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Action of natural products on the survival of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae and selectivity of insecticides used in the organic production of vine on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Wilson José Morandi Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho, foi estudado o efeito de formulações comerciais de inseticidas, com ênfase para os produtos permitidos na produção orgânica (nim, piretro natural e extrato pirolenhoso para o controle de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae e sua atuação sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, em laboratório. Os inseticidas Natuneem® (1500ppm de Azadirachta indica por litro e o extrato pirolenhoso (Biopirol 7 M®, nas dosagens de 250 e 500mL 100L-1, não foram eficientes no controle de A. sphaleropa quando aplicados sobre folhas de videira (Vitis sp. cultivar "Chardonnay", enquanto que o piretro natural (250 e 500mL 100L-1 resultou em mortalidade significativa de 77,65 e 85,88% dos insetos, respectivamente, 120 horas após a aplicação. O efeito secundário foi avaliado sobre adultos do parasitóide de ovos T. pretiosum, seguindo a metodologia da International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control (IOBC. Os inseticidas Natuneem® (500mL 100L-1, Biopirol 7 M® (500mL 100L-1 e Dipel DF® (100g 100L-1 foram inócuos (99% de redução no parasitismo, respectivamente, equivalendo-se ao efeito do fosforado Lebaycid 500® (100mL 100 L-1.This work was conducted to study the effect of commercial formulations of insecticides with emphasis on that allowed in the organic production (neem, natural piretro and pirolenhoso extract to control Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae and their performance on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae adults. The insecticides Natuneem® (1500ppm of azadirachtin L-1 and the pirolenhoso extract (Biopirol 7 M® (250 and 500mL 100L-1 were not efficient in the control of A. sphaleropa when applied over grapevine leaves (Vitis sp. cultivate Chardonnay. Natural piretro (250 and 500mL 100L-1 resulted in a mortality of 77.65 and 85.88% of insects, respectively 120 hours

  10. Study of dispersal as a selection criterion for Trichogrammatidae for biological control in cauliflower greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Tabone, Elisabeth; BARDON, Clément; Desneux, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is the most important pest of cultivated Brassica species worldwide, including several greenhouse crops, such as cauliflower seed crops. With the aim of selecting a candidate strain from the Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) for the control of diamondback moth in cauliflower greenhouses, we assessed the dispersal capacity of eight trichogrammatid strains, using sticky traps in a greenhouse cauliflower crop ...

  11. Biological characteristics of Trichogramma pretiosum and Trichogramma acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae), parasitoids of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea (Lep.: Geometridae), on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lep.: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dirceu Pratissoli; José Cola Zanuncio; Ulysses Rodrigues Vianna; Josimar Souza Andrade; Luiz Carlos Marozzi Zanotti; Alexandre Faria da Silva

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), parasitoids of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on the eggs of the alternative host Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) aiming to use them for biological control of this pest in avocado orchards. The cubic model presented better adjustment for duration of the life cycle of T. pretiosum and T. acacioi with the host A. kuehniella whi...

  12. Thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae), parasitoids of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea (Lep.: Geometridae), in eggs of two alternative hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Dirceu Pratissoli; José Cola Zanuncio; Ulysses Rodrigues Vianna; Josimar Souza Andrade; Tobias Baruc Moreira Pinon; Gilberto Santos Andrade

    2005-01-01

    This research studied the thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), parasitoids of Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), with eggs of the alternative hosts Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) aiming to use these natural enemies in biological control programs of this pest in avocado orchards. T. pretiosum needed 151.83 and 160.04 degree-days, above threshold of 10.70 and 10...

  13. Is Bactra bactrana (Kennel, 1901) a novel pest of sweet peppers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditakis, E; Morin, S; Baixeras, J

    2016-04-01

    This is the first report of Bactra bactrana (Kennel, 1901) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attacking a major solanaceous crop, sweet pepper Capsicum annuum L. The infestation was detected in two greenhouses at the area of Tympaki (Southern Crete, Greece). The moth larvae caused typical symptoms of a fruit borer with numerous small holes on the surface of the peppers and extensive damage on the inside of the fruit as a result of the feeding activity. Unknown factors facilitated this major shift in host range since B. bactrana is typically a stem borer of sedges. In addition, the pest status of B. bactrana is currently under question, as in both cases the infestations by the moth were associated with significant yield losses. B. bactrana was moderately controlled with chemicals registered for Lepidoptera management in sweet pepper due to the boring nature of the infestation. Some comparative taxonomic notes are provided to facilitate accurate pest discrimination of related Bactra species. Finally, biological attributes of the species are summarized and are discussed from pest control and ecological perspectives. Because Bactra species have been used in augmentative releases for the control of sage, the implications of our findings on the release of biocontrol agents are placed in perspective. PMID:26696371

  14. Parasitism Capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum and Trichogramma acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Sitotroga cerealella (Lep.: Gelechiidae

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and T. acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in eggs of the alternative host Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae aiming to use both species in biological control programs of Nipteria panacea Tierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera: Geometridae. The parasitism rhythm and total parasitism of these parasitoid species were affected by the temperature with higher values during the first 24 h of their life. Parasitism period was longer for T. pretiosum and T. acacioi at the lowest temperature.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley e de Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, visando o uso desses inimigos naturais em programas de controle biológico da praga do abacateiro Nipteria panacea Tierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera: Geometridae. O ritmo de parasitismo de T. acacioi e T. pretiosum variou com a temperatura, sendo maior nas primeiras 24 horas de vida desses parasitóides. Além disso, o período de parasitismo foi maior para essas duas espécies de parasitóides na menor temperatura, enquanto o parasitismo total por fêmea variou com a temperatura.

  15. KAPASITAS REPRODUKSI PARASITOID TELUR Trichogrammatoidea nana Zehntner (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae

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    - Sujak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma nana is one species of egg parasitoids that are polifag. insect pests that attack crops such as soybean pod borer and rice. Research conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology Research Institute for Tobacco and Fiber Crops Malang in March until June 2009 that aims to determine the reproductive capacity of T. nana on eggs  C. cephalonica. Reproductive capacity of T. nana allegedly using the net reproductive rate (Ro, estimatedtime of one generation (T, the capacity of population growth (r, and the rate of parasitoids per day (λ. T. nana were tested  came from the rice stem borer  eggs collected from the land in the district of East Java Beji Pasuruan. Eggs C.cephalonica which is used as the host is the result of breeding in the laboratory of Entomology Research Institute for Tobacco and Fiber Crops. The results showed that T. nana has greatpotential  as  biological agents.  Most  female  progeny  produced by adult females aged 1-2 days . On the first day produced 12 and 8 tails on the second day or 40% and 27% of the total of 30 females produced by a female during life.  Reproductive capacity of  T. nana on eggs C. cephalonica the net reproductive rate  Ro = 44.7, Capacity of population growth (r = 1.78,  parasitoid growth rate per day (λ=5.9, and mean - mean length of generation (T = 10, 9 days.

  16. Adult feeding and mating effects on the biological potential and parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to study the effects of adult feeding and mating on the biological potential and parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae to improve their use in biological control programs. Both species presented higher parasitism and longevity whenever adults were fed. Fed and unmated T. pretiosum females led to low parasitism whereas T. acacioi females did not present parasitism whatsoever. Egg viability of T. pretiosum was similar for fed and mated individuals, but T acacioi showed lower values for this parameter when unfed and without mating. Unmated females produced only males while mated ones had more than 60% female descendents for both Trichogramma species. Therefore, mated and fed female parasitoids should be released in crop systems to increase the biological control.Os efeitos do acasalamento e alimentação no potencial biológico e parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum e Trichogramma acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, foram estudados objetivando-se aprimorar o uso dessas espécies no controle biológico. O parasitismo e longevidade dos adultos de ambas as espécies foram maiores para fêmeas alimentadas e o parasitismo foi nulo e baixo para fêmeas acasaladas e não-alimentadas de T. acacioi e T. pretiosum, respectivamente. A viabilidade de ovos parasitados por T. pretiosum foi semelhante entre os tratamentos, mas para T. acacioi houve uma menor viabilidade do parasitismo realizado por fêmeas sem acasalamento e sem alimento. Descendentes de T. pretiosum e T. acacioi sem acasalamento produziram apenas machos, enquanto fêmeas acasaladas tiveram mais de 60% dos descentes fêmeas para as duas espécies de Trichogramma. Portanto, fêmeas acasaladas e alimentadas devem ser liberadas para o controle biológico.

  17. Thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea (Lep.: Geometridae, in eggs of two alternative hosts

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, with eggs of the alternative hosts Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae aiming to use these natural enemies in biological control programs of this pest in avocado orchards. T. pretiosum needed 151.83 and 160.04 degree-days, above threshold of 10.70 and 10.75°C, while these values were 158.50 and 155.46 degree-days, above threshold of 10.67 and 10.46°C for T. acacioi when exposed to eggs of A. kuehniella and S. cerealella, respectively.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar as exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum e T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitóides de Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, em ovos dos hospedeiros alternativos Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae visando utilizar estes inimigos naturais em programas de controle biológico desta praga em pomares de abacate. T. pretiosum apresentou temperaturas base (Tb de 10.70 e 10.75°C e constantes térmicas (K de 151.83 e 160.04 graus-dia, sendo estes valores de 10.67 e 10.46°C e 158.50 e 155.46 graus-dia para T. acacioi em ovos de A. kuehniella e S. cerealella, respectivamente.

  18. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Seletividade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

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    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: profmichele@gmail.com, e-mail: evertonloz@gmail.com, e-mail: pedroneves@uel.br; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados], e-mail: lfaalves@unioeste.br; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: jubarth@gmail.com, e-mail: vandapietrowski@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10{sup 9} conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  19. Biological characteristics of Trichogramma pretiosum and Trichogramma acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea (Lep.: Geometridae, on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lep.: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to study Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae on the eggs of the alternative host Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae aiming to use them for biological control of this pest in avocado orchards. The cubic model presented better adjustment for duration of the life cycle of T. pretiosum and T. acacioi with the host A. kuehniella which shows that development rate of these species increases with temperature within the range tested. The number of individuals of both Trichogramma species emerged per egg from this host was higher than one. The quadratic model was significant for viability of T. pretiosum and T. acacioi. This parameter was more affected by extreme temperatures and higher emergence rates of adults of both parasitoids species occurred at temperatures of 20, 25 and 30°C.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley e Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitóides de Nipteria panacea Thierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, sobre ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, visando à utilização desses inimigos naturais em programas de controle biológico dessa praga em pomares de abacateiro. O modelo cúbico foi significativo e apresentou o melhor ajuste para a duração do ciclo biológico de T. pretiosum e de T. acacioi no hospedeiro A. kuehniella, mostrando que a velocidade de desenvolvimento dessas espécies aumenta com a elevação da temperatura. O número de indivíduos por ovo de A. kuehniella, para as duas espécies de Trichogramma foi maior que um. O modelo quadrático apresentou melhor ajuste para a razão sexual de T. pretiosum e T. acacioi, com maior emergência de fêmeas desses parasitóides a 15°C e aumento da produção de machos com aumento da

  20. Laboratory fecundity as predictor of field success in Trichogramma carverae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Linda J; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2002-10-01

    Laboratory fecundity assessments are routinely used to determine the quality of commercially reared Trichogramma egg parasitoids before release for pest control, but there is little information on the relevance of this trait to the field success of Trichogramma. Herein, we characterize the parasitism success of strains of Trichogramma carverae Oatman & Pinto in the laboratory on a factitious (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier) and a natural (Epiphyas postvittana Walker) host. Differences in fecundity of the strains in the laboratory were consistent with a heritability of approximately 10%, allowing ranking of the strains from highest to lowest fecundity. The strains with particularly high and low fecundities were tested for successful parasitism in the field. Results of the field releases show that strain differences in laboratory fecundity did not influence field performance. The implications of this result for fecundity as a quality indicator for commercial stocks are discussed. PMID:12403416

  1. [Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids of Lepidopteran eggs in Lara State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, José; Vásquez, Carlos; Pérez B, Nieves L; Valera, Neicy; Ríos, Yolmar; Arrieche, Norayda; Querino, Ranyse B

    2007-01-01

    This work was conducted to determine the occurrence of Trichogramma wasp species in Lara State, Venezuela. Lepidopteran egg samples collected from various crop leaves were observed daily under laboratory conditions for emergence of Trichogramma species adult wasps. Trichogramma were also obtained from traps containing eggs from the hosts Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In the laboratory, specimens of Trichogramma species were mounted on microscope slides to show male genitalia and other morphological characters used for its identification. Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto and at El Parchal, Humocaro Bajo, Municipio Morán. T. atopovirilia also emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at Sabana Grande and from S. cerealella eggs used as traps in a pepper culture at Tintinal, Municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco. T. exiguum Pinto y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs used as traps or collected in cornfield at Totumito and at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto. T. pretiosum Riley emerged from Phthorimaea operculella Zeller eggs collected on stored potatoes at Monte Carmelo, Sanare. The identification of Trichogramma species in Lara State would be useful in the development of biological control programs for lepidopteran pests. PMID:17934619

  2. [Parasitism and superparasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Marciene D; Dos Santos, Maria C F; Beserra, Eduardo B; Torres, Jorge B; De Almeida, Raul P

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid Trichogramma has been used worldwide as biological control agent due to its wide geographic distribution, high specialization and efficacy against many lepidopteran pests. Biological and behavioral traits of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley parasitizing Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) eggs were studied aiming to a better understanding of the results from parasitism and superparasitism. The variables investigated were: host acceptance and contact time by T. pretiosum on parasitized host, percentage of parasitoid emergence, number of deformed individuals produced, egg-adult period, sex ratio, offspring female body size and longevity, and number of S. cerealella eggs parasitized/female. Parasitism rejection was observed on parasitized host eggs after 24, 72 and 120 h of parasitism. The rejection was higher for eggs parasitized after 72 h and 120 h of parasitism as compared to the eggs after 24 h of parasitism. T. pretiosum contact time on eggs after 24 h of parasitism was greater than on 72 and 120 h. The offspring produced from hosts from which a single parasitoid emerged were larger, exhibited no deformities and greater capacity of parasitism, different from those produced from eggs where two parasitoids emerged. Offspring longevity, however, was similar for females emerged from hosts from which one or two adults emerged. In conclusion, T. pretiosum was able to recognize previously parasitized eggs and the superparasitism reduced the parasitoid.reproductive success. PMID:19488513

  3. First record of parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko, 1968 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae in Slovenia

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    Tanja BOHINC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the parasitic wasp, which occurrence in Slovenia was first confirmed in August 2014 on egg layers of cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae from cabbage. The wasp Trichogrammma brassicae belongs among egg parasitoids and it is especially known as biological control agent of lepidopteran pests. In the beginning the wasp was used for controlling European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, later it becomes an important biological control agent of some other economically important lepidopteran pests. With the first confirmation of occurrence of T. brassicae in Slovenia first condition for its placing on the List of indegenous biological control agents - it contains the organisms which practical use in Slovenia is allowed - is fulfilled.

  4. Selectivity of neem to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Celso L; Silva, Flávia A C; Novaes, Tanara G de

    2010-01-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis are commonly found in avocado and persimmon orchards in northern Parana state. However, their abundance depends on whether insecticides are used or not to control the key lepidopteran pests Stenoma catenifer (Wals.) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and Hypocala andremona (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), respectively. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous neem seed extract (ANSE) at 15, 3 and 1.5%, and of an emulsifiable concentrate neem oil (ECNO) at 2.5, 0.5 and 0.25% on lifetime parameters of these trichogrammatids as a way of testing the feasibility of integrating the biological and chemical control methods. Chemicals were applied on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs before or after parasitization (one, three or five days). ANSE was more deleterious to both parasitoid species than ECNO, regardless of the concentration and the time of application. The chemicals acted on a concentration and time dependent manner. Treating the host with neem before parasitism was less deleterious to wasp emergence, especially for T. annulata. Pre-treatments (24h) of the host eggs with ECNO at concentrations varying from 0.5% to 0.25% did not affect T. pretiosum longevity, but 2.5% reduced T. annulata survival. Feeding wasps with honey mixed with 0.25% ECNO negatively affected T. annulata survival. PMID:21271068

  5. Composite asymmetry as an indicator of quality in the beneficial wasp Trichogramma nr. brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewa-Kapuge, S; Hoffmann, A A

    2001-08-01

    Trichogramma are egg parasitoids that are widely cultured for the control of moth pests in commercial insectaries. Stock quality is often maintained by releasing wasps from a mass culture in an area with target host eggs and initiating fresh stocks from parasitized eggs. Here we test if variability among individuals as measured by fluctuating asymmetry can be used as an additional method of quality control in Trichogramma nr. brassicae by comparing fluctuating asymmetry levels between a random sample of wasps before release and wasps that successfully reach host eggs. Although the asymmetry of individual traits was not associated with wasp fitness, a total asymmetry measure based on combining the uncorrelated asymmetries of nine traits did predict the ability of wasps to reach the eggs. PMID:11561839

  6. Trichogramma exiguum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) releases in North Carolina cotton: evaluation of heliothine pest suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, C P; Orr, D B; Van Duyn, J W; Borchert, D M

    2000-08-01

    Field studies were conducted in 1996 and 1997 to reevaluate the use of augmentative releases of Trichogramma wasps for heliothine management in cotton. In 1996, nine releases of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, spaced 3-4 d apart, were made into three 0.4-ha cotton plots. Six weekly releases were made in 1997, each containing two T. exiguum cohorts developmentally staggered by 45 degrees C degree-days. Field release rates, estimated from laboratory and field quality control data, averaged 108,357 T. exiguum female female per hectare per cohort per release in 1996 and 193,366 female female per hectare per cohort per release in 1997. In 1996, mean +/- SD adult emergence under laboratory conditions for released cohorts was 92 +/- 7%; 62 +/- 5% of emerged adults were females, 3 +/- 2% of females displayed brachyptery (nonfunctional wings), mean female longevity under laboratory conditions was 15 +/- 4 d, and mean +/- SD field emergence was 97 +/- 2%. Quality control measurements were similar in 1997. In 1996, mean +/- SD percent parasitism of heliothine eggs in field plots on the sampled dates ranged from 67 +/- 4 to 83 +/- 5% in T. exiguum release plots and 25 +/- 9 to 55 +/- 8% in control plots. In 1997, parasitism levels ranged from 74 +/- 4 to 89 +/- 5% in T. exiguum release plots and 18 +/- 18 to 69 +/- 11% in control plots. Despite increased parasitism levels in T. exiguum release plots, there were no significant differences in density of fifth instars, boll damage, or yield between T. exiguum release and control plots. Therefore, it is concluded that Trichogramma augmentation is not an effective heliothine management tool in North Carolina cotton. PMID:10985022

  7. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 109 conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  8. Hymenoptera. Chapter 12

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    Jean-Yves Rasplus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the first review of Hymenoptera alien to Europe. Our study revealed that nearly 300 species of Hymenoptera belonging to 30 families have been introduced to Europe. In terms of alien species diversity within invertebrate orders, this result ranks Hymenoptera third following Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Two third of alien Hymenoptera are parasitoids or hyperparasitoids that were mostly introduced for biological control purposes. Only 35 phytophagous species, 47 predator species and 3 species of pollinators have been introduced. Six families of wasps (Aphelinidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Braconidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae represent together with ants (Formicidae about 80% of the alien Hymenoptera introduced to Europe. The three most diverse families are Aphelinidae (60 species representing 32% of the Aphelinid European fauna, Encyrtidae (55 and Formicidae (42 while the Chalcidoidea together represents 2/3 of the total Hymenoptera species introduced to Europe. The first two families are associated with mealybugs, a group that also included numerous aliens to Europe. In addition, they are numerous cases of Hymenoptera introduced from one part of Europe to another, especially from continental Europe to British Islands. These introductions mostly concerned phytophagous or gall-maker species (76 %, less frequently parasitoids. The number of new records of alien Hymenoptera per year has shown an exponential increase during the last 200 years. The number of alien species introduced by year reached a maximum of 5 species per year between 1975 and 2000. North America provided the greatest part of the hymenopteran species alien to Europe (96 species, 35.3%, followed by Asia (84 species, 30.9% and Africa (49 species, 18%. Three Mediterranean countries (only continental parts hosted the largest number of alien Hymenoptera: Italy (144 spp., France (111 spp. and Spain (90 spp. but no correlation was found with the area of countries. Intentional

  9. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of pesticides used in peach orchard to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de dez formulações comerciais de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro foi avaliada em laboratório (25±1 ºC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas, através da exposição de adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley a resíduos secos dos produtos pulverizados sobre placas de vidro. O número de ovos parasitados por fêmea, foi mensurado e a redução no parasitismo (RP, em relação à testemunha (água, foi utilizada para classificar os compostos em: inócuos (99% RP. Os produtos fitossanitários captana, ditianona, mancozebe, metoxifenozida e óxido cuproso foram inócuos; glifosato e óleo mineral foram levemente nocivos e abamectina, cianamida e etofenproxi foram nocivos a T. pretiosum.The selectivity of ten commercial pesticide formulations used in peach orchard was evaluated in laboratory tests (25±1 ºC, RH 70±10% and 14 hours photophase by exposing the adult of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley to fresh dry pesticide film applied on glass plates. The number of eggs parasitized per adult female and the reduction in parasitism (RP compared to control (treated with water were used to measure the effect of the chemical in harmless (99% RP. The pesticides captan, copper oxide, dithianon, mancozeb and methoxyfenozide were harmless; gliphosate and mineral oil was slightly harmful and abamectin, cyanamide and etofenprox were harmful to T. pretiosum.

  10. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs; Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastori, Patrik L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: plpastori@yahoo.com.br; Monteiro, Lino B. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Fitotecnia e Fitossanitarismo]. E-mail: lbmonteiro@terra.com.br; Botton, Marcos [EMBRAPA, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Uva e Vinho]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br; Pratissoli, Dirceu [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal). E-mail: pratissoli@cca.ufes.br

    2007-11-15

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  11. Parasitism and super parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs; Parasitismo e superparasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marciene D.; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Entomologia; Santos, Maria C.F. dos; Beserra, Eduardo B. [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Almeida, Raul P. de [EMBRAPA Algodao, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    The parasitoid Trichogramma has been used worldwide as biological control agent due to its wide geographic distribution, high specialization and efficacy against many lepidopteran pests. Biological and behavioral traits of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley parasitizing Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) eggs were studied aiming to a better understanding of the Results from parasitism and super parasitism. The variables investigated were: host acceptance and contact time by T. pretiosum on parasitized host, percentage of parasitoid emergence, number of deformed individuals produced, egg-adult period, sex ratio, offspring female body size and longevity, and number of S. cerealella eggs parasitized/female. Parasitism rejection was observed on parasitized host eggs after 24, 72 and 120h of parasitism. The rejection was higher for eggs parasitized after 72h and 120h of parasitism as compared to the eggs after 24h of parasitism. T. pretiosum contact time on eggs after 24h of parasitism was greater than on 72 and 120h. The offspring produced from hosts from which a single parasitoid emerged were larger, exhibited no deformities and greater capacity of parasitism, different from those produced from eggs where two parasitoids emerged. Offspring longevity, however, was similar for females emerged from hosts from which one or two adults emerged. In Conclusion, T. pretiosum was able to recognize previously parasitized eggs and the super parasitism reduced the parasitoid.reproductive success. (author)

  12. Ocorrência de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em macieira Occurrence of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in apple tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-enroladeira Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick é nativa da América do Sul, sendo importante praga em macieira no Brasil. O controle é realizado exclusivamente com inseticidas, e o controle biológico é pouco explorado, motivo pelo qual há necessidade de conhecer os inimigos naturais da lagarta-enroladeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de parasitóides de ovos de B. cranaodes. Os levantamentos foram realizados de janeiro de 2000 a novembro de 2001, coletando posturas em folhas de macieiras, Hortência (Hydrangia macrophyla e Hera (Hedera sp., em Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina. No período, foram observadas 6,6% de posturas parasitadas, sendo que, destas, 22,3% dos ovos estavam parasitados. Os parasitóides foram identificados como Trichogramma pretiosum Riley. Este é o primeiro registro de ocorrência de T. pretiosum parasitando ovos de B. cranaodes em pomares comerciais de macieira no Brasil.Apple leaf roller, Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick is native from South America and it is one of the most important apple pests in Brazil. Its control is exclusively done by insectides and biological control isn't frequently applied. In this way is necessary to know the parasitoids associated with apple leaf roller. The objective of this study was to detect the parasitism occurrence on B. cranaodes eggs in the State of Santa Catarina (Brazil. From January 2000 to November 2001; 1,700 masses were collected on leaves of apple tree, Hydrangea macrophyla and Hedera sp. in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina State. During this period egg parasitism was registered in 6.6% of masses where 22.3% of the eggs suffered parasitism. The parasite identified was Trichogramma pretiosum. This is the first record of parasitizing of Trichogramma pretiosum in B. cranaodes eggs in commercial apple orchards in Brazil.

  13. Ocorrência de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) em macieira Occurrence of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on eggs of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple tree

    OpenAIRE

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro; Alexandre de Souza; Edson Luiz Belli; Ranyse Barbosa Querino da Silva; Roberto Antonio Zucchi

    2004-01-01

    A lagarta-enroladeira Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) é nativa da América do Sul, sendo importante praga em macieira no Brasil. O controle é realizado exclusivamente com inseticidas, e o controle biológico é pouco explorado, motivo pelo qual há necessidade de conhecer os inimigos naturais da lagarta-enroladeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de parasitóides de ovos de B. cranaodes. Os levantamentos foram realizados de janeiro de 2000 a novembro de 2001, coletando posturas ...

  14. EFECTO DE LA TEMPERATURA EN LA LONGEVIDAD, REPRODUCCIÓN, Y DESARROLLO DE Trichogramma nerudai Y Trichogramma dendrolimi (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE Effect of temperature on longevity, reproduction, and development of Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karinne Zúñiga H.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma nerudai Pintureau y Gerding, fue recientemente descrito en Chile y existe poca información acerca de la influencia de medio ambiente en su comportamiento. Por esta razón se realizó un estudio comparando a esta especie con T. dendrolimi, evaluando la longevidad, reproducción y estados de desarrollo a 15, 20, 25 y 30ºC. La longevidad y tiempo de desarrollo disminuyó en ambas especies a medida que la temperatura aumentó, siendo más afectadas las hembras de T. nerudai. La duración del ciclo de vida fue más largo en T. nerudai que en T. dendrolimi, independiente de la temperatura. El máximo parasitismo de huevos de Sitotroga cerealella lo realizó T. nerudai a 20 y 25ºC. Cada hembra de T. nerudai parasitó un total de 74,4 huevos, en promedio, comparado con hembras de T. dendrolimi cuya mayor parasitación fue de 43,7 huevos.Trichogramma nerudai Pintureau & Gerding, was recently described in Chile, and there is little information about the influence of the environment on its behavior. Therefore, a comparative study with Trichogramma dendrolimi was carried out evaluating the longevity, reproduction, and development stages of both species at 15, 20, 25, and 30ºC. Longevity and development time decreased for both species as temperature increased, T. nerudai females being most affected. The life span of T. nerudai was greater than T. dendrolimi regardless of temperature. Highest parasitism of Sitotroga cerealella eggs was observed with T. nerudai at 20º and 25ºC. On average, each T. nerudai female parasitized 74.4 S. cerealella eggs, whereas each T. dendrolimi female parasitized 43.7 eggs.

  15. Seletividade de herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho aos estádios imaturos de Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Selectivity of herbicides registered for corn at the immature stages of Trichogramma pretio sum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    G.J Stefanello Jr; A.D Grutzmacher; R.A Pasini; C Bonez; D.C Moreira; D Spagnol

    2011-01-01

    O controle químico tem sido um dos métodos mais utilizados para o manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho, no entanto o uso de herbicidas pode ocasionar efeitos adversos aos insetos benéficos, como os parasitoides de ovos. Nesse sentido, foi avaliada a seletividade de 12 herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho para as fases imaturas de Trichogramma pretiosum em condições de laboratório (temperatura de 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas). Os herbicidas for...

  16. Persistência de agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do milho ao parasitoide Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Persistence of pesticides used in corn field to the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Jorge Stefanello Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As altas produtividades na cultura do milho têm sido alcançadas em função de vários fatores técnicos, sendo o controle de pragas um dos mais importantes. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a persistência de agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do milho ao parasitoide Trichogramma pretiosum. Foram avaliadas as persistências de sete inseticidas e três fungicidas, os quais foram diluídos separadamente em 200L de água e pulverizados sobre folhas de videira. Essas folhas foram levadas ao laboratório e utilizadas dentro de gaiolas aos 3, 10, 17, 24 e 31 dias, onde permaneceram confinados os adultos do parasitoide para contaminação. A mortalidade dos adultos de T. pretiosum foi mensurada indiretamente em função do menor número de ovos parasitados do hospedeiro alternativo Anagasta kuehniella. Os resultados foram comparados com o tratamento testemunha e os agrotóxicos classificados conforme categorização da IOBC. Foram utilizadas quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Os fungicidas Opera, Priori Xtra e Folicur 200 EC foram de vida curta (classe 1. Os inseticidas Match EC e Sumithion 500 CE foram de vida curta (classe 1; Lorsban 480 BR e Safety foram moderadamente persistentes (classe 3 e Engeo Pleno, Karate Zeon 50 CS e Tracer foram persistentes (classe 4 aos adultos de T. pretiosum.The high yields in corn have been achieved due to various technical factors, being the pest control one of the most important. In this way, the objective was to evaluate the persistence of the pesticides used in corn field to the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum. It was evaluated the persistence of seven insecticides and three fungicides, which were separately diluted to 200L of water and sprayed on the vine leaves. These leaves were taken to the laboratory and used into cages at 3, 10, 17, 24 and 31 days, where remained confined the adults of the parasitoids to contamination. The adult mortality of T. pretiosum was measured according to the lower number of parasitized eggs of alternative host Anagasta kuehniella. The results were compared with the witness treatment and pesticides classified according to IOBC categorization. Four replicates for each treatment were used. The fungicides Opera, Priori Xtra and Folicur 200 EC were short life (class 1. The insecticides Match EC and Sumithion 500 CE were short life (class 1; Lorsban 480 BR and Safety were moderately persistent (class 3, and Engeo Pleno, Karate Zeon 50 CS and Tracer were persistent (class 4 to adults of T. pretiosum.

  17. Persistência de agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do milho ao parasitoide Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Persistence of pesticides used in corn field to the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Getulio Jorge Stefanello Júnior; Anderson Dionei Grutzmacher; Daniel Spagnol; Rafael Antonio Pasini; Cibele Bonez; Daiane Carvalho Moreira

    2012-01-01

    As altas produtividades na cultura do milho têm sido alcançadas em função de vários fatores técnicos, sendo o controle de pragas um dos mais importantes. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a persistência de agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do milho ao parasitoide Trichogramma pretiosum. Foram avaliadas as persistências de sete inseticidas e três fungicidas, os quais foram diluídos separadamente em 200L de água e pulverizados sobre folhas de videira. Essas folhas foram levad...

  18. Ação de alguns produtos fitossanitários para adultos de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Action of some phytossanitary products for Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Forti Broglio-Micheletti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar em laboratório, a 26±2°C; UR 60±10% e fotofase de 12 horas, a influência do herbicida metribuzin 480 SC, do inseticida químico carbaril 480 SC, do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch Sorokin e do óleo emulsionável de nim, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, sobre o parasitismo, a emergência e a longevidade de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988, criados em ovos de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794. Conduziu-se o ensaio utilizando-se 100 posturas, obtidas em laboratório, nas 24 horas após a oviposição, as quais foram tratadas por imersão e oferecidas aos parasitóides. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com dez tratamentos e dez repetições. O parasitismo foi prejudicado pelo nim nas concentrações de 0,33; 0,53 e 1%, seguido pelo carbaril a 4%, metribuzim a 2,14% e M. anisopliae (IPA 159E a 0,4%. A emergência do parasitóide foi reduzida quando se utilizou o carbaril, M. anisopliae (IPA 159E e metribuzim e, a longevidade foi afetada quando se empregou metribuzim e M. anisopliae (IPA 159E com uma variação média menor que 24 horas.The objective was to evaluate, in laboratory, at 26°C, UR 60±10% and 12 hours photophase, the influence of herbicide metribuzin 480 SC, the chemical insecticide carbaryl 480 SC, the entomophatogen Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch Sorokin and emulsionable neem oil, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, on the parasitism, emergency and longevity of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988, reared in eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794. The bioassay was conducted using one hundred postures, from laboratory rearing, in the 24 hours after oviposition, which were treated by immersion and offered to the natural enemies. The experimental design was entirely randomized with ten treatments and ten repetitions. The parasitism was harmed by neem in the concentrations (0.33, 0.53 and 1%, followed for carbaryl 4%, metribuzim 2.14% and M. anisopliae (IPA 159E 0.4%. The emergency of the parasitoid was reduced for the treatments: carbaryl, M. anisopliae (IPA 159E and metribuzim, and the longevity for metribuzim and M. anisopliae (IPA 159E with an average variation lower that 24 hours.

  19. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Selectivity of pesticides used in peach orchard to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo; Anderson Dionei Grützmacher; Cristiane Gindri Manzoni; Crislaine Alves Barcellos de Lima; Wagner da Roza Härter; Cristiane Müller

    2007-01-01

    A seletividade de dez formulações comerciais de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro foi avaliada em laboratório (25±1 ºC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas), através da exposição de adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley a resíduos secos dos produtos pulverizados sobre placas de vidro. O número de ovos parasitados por fêmea, foi mensurado e a redução no parasitismo (RP), em relação à testemunha (água), foi utilizada para classificar os compostos em: inócuos (99% RP)....

  20. Acute and population level toxicity of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate on an important egg parasitoid, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Moosa

    2011-08-01

    One focus of integrated pest management (IPM) is the use of biological and chemical control in an optimal way. The availability of selective pesticides is important as is information about both lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides on biocontrol agents. Acute and sublethal effects of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate exposure were studied on adult stage of egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal and the emergence rate and life table parameters were determined. The adult wasps were exposed to field recommended concentration (FRC) of the pesticides on glass plates. Field rates of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate caused 100 and 32% adult mortality, respectively. Based on concentration-response experiments, the LC(50) values of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate were 6.25 and 1,949 ppm, respectively. The effect of imidacloprid and fenpyroximate on larvae, prepupae and pupae of the parasitoid was tested by exposing parasitized eggs of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier or Cydia pomonella L. to the FRC. Imidacloprid and fenpyroximate reduced adult emergence by 10.7 and 29%, respectively, when S. cerealella eggs were used as the host and 10.9 and 24.9%, respectively, when C. pomonella eggs were used as the host. Population parameters of emerged adults from treated pre-imaginal stages by FRC of the pesticides were also studied. The parameters were longevity and progeny production of emergent adults and also intrinsic rate of increase (r ( m )), generation time (T) and doubling time (DT). Longevity and progeny production of the emergent adults was not affected by pesticide exposure in comparison to the control. In addition, none of population parameters such as r ( m ), T and DT were affected by pesticide exposure. The intrinsic rate of increase for the control, fenpyroximate and imidacloprid exposed populations were 0.388, 0.374, and 0.372 female offspring per female per day, respectively. Overall, results of this study suggest a relative compatibility between fenpyroximate and T. cacoeciae, but imidacloprid showed deleterious effects on adults of the parasitoid. PMID:21647819

  1. Effects of azadirachtin/Neemazal on different stages and adult life table parameters of Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Moosa; Hejazi, Mir Jalil; Hassan, Sherif Ali

    2004-06-01

    The effects of azadirachtin/Neemazal on adults, emergence, and life table parameters of Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal were studied. The adults were exposed to fresh residues of the insecticide applied on glass plates. Based on the dose-response study, the LC50 value was 1330 ppm or 13.3 microg (AI)/ml. The effect of Neemazal on three developmental stages of the parasitoid was tested by dipping parasitized Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) and Cydia pomonella (L.) eggs at the field-recommended concentration 3, 6, and 9 d after parasitization corresponding to larval, prepupal, and pupal stages. The emergence of adult parasitoids was adversely affected in both hosts, but the adverse effect was more in S. cerealella eggs compared with C. pomonella. The adult emergence was reduced by 73.3 and 33.76% in Sitotroga and Cydia eggs compared with controls, respectively. Longevity and progeny production of the emergent adults did not differ significantly from control. Neemazal affected stable population parameters (r(m), T, and DT) significantly. The intrinsic rate of increase for the control and Neemazal-exposed populations was 0.340 and 0.335 female offspring per female per day, respectively. Because some of postemergence life table parameters of adults were significantly reduced by the insecticide treatment, emergence rate of the parasitoid from treated eggs is not an adequate measure of ecological selectivity, and field studies are needed to determine the actual impact of neem on T. cacoeciae. PMID:15279270

  2. Optimizing Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) releases to control European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in bell pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Anna Virginia

    2007-01-01

    The effective dispersal ability of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma ostriniae Pang and Chen was assessed in potato fields on the Eastern Shore of Virginia in spring 2005 and 2006. Approximately 0.5 million T. ostriniae were released from a central release point in separate potato fields. Dispersal was monitored using yellow sticky card traps and European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, egg mass sentinels. Adult T. ostriniae dispersed quickly throughout the 0.4 ha (1 acre) sampling area...

  3. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  4. Parasitism and super parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parasitoid Trichogramma has been used worldwide as biological control agent due to its wide geographic distribution, high specialization and efficacy against many lepidopteran pests. Biological and behavioral traits of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley parasitizing Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) eggs were studied aiming to a better understanding of the Results from parasitism and super parasitism. The variables investigated were: host acceptance and contact time by T. pretiosum on parasitized host, percentage of parasitoid emergence, number of deformed individuals produced, egg-adult period, sex ratio, offspring female body size and longevity, and number of S. cerealella eggs parasitized/female. Parasitism rejection was observed on parasitized host eggs after 24, 72 and 120h of parasitism. The rejection was higher for eggs parasitized after 72h and 120h of parasitism as compared to the eggs after 24h of parasitism. T. pretiosum contact time on eggs after 24h of parasitism was greater than on 72 and 120h. The offspring produced from hosts from which a single parasitoid emerged were larger, exhibited no deformities and greater capacity of parasitism, different from those produced from eggs where two parasitoids emerged. Offspring longevity, however, was similar for females emerged from hosts from which one or two adults emerged. In Conclusion, T. pretiosum was able to recognize previously parasitized eggs and the super parasitism reduced the parasitoid.reproductive success. (author)

  5. The Side-effects of Pesticides on Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an Egg Parasite

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Kakakhel; Hassan, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    The standard methods of IOBC/WPRS were followed to test Vertimic @ 1.47 μL, 0.735 μL, Dimethoate @ 25.00 μL, 12.50 μL, 6.25 μL, Kumulus @ 0.675 μL, 0.336 μL and Touchdown @ 156.00 μL, 78.00 μL, 39.00 μL for their side-effects on Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal. The adult parasites were exposed to fresh pesticide residues. The control was sprayed with tap water. The results showed that these chemicals differed markedly in their toxicity. Among the tested pesticides, Dimethoate @ 25.00 μL, 12.50...

  6. Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera : trichogrammatidae) as a biological control agent of Chilo sacchariphagus (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) in Reunion Island : initial field trials

    OpenAIRE

    Soula B.,; Goebel F.R.,; Caplong P.,; Karimjee H.,; Tibere R.,; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    The spotted stalk borer, Chilo sacchariphagus Bojer, is a major pest of sugarcane in southern Asia, the Indian Ocean islands and Mozambique in southern Africa. Since 1999, a biological control programme has been developed on this pest in Reunion Island through a partnership between research and development organisations. Trichogramma chilonis Ishii has been shown to be the most naturally efficient parasitoid of the borer in Reunion, following a comparison of the bionomics of di...

  7. Effects of conventional pesticides on the preimaginal developmental stages and on adults of Trichogramma cordubensis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, António; Oliveira, Luísa; Garcia, Patrícia

    2001-01-01

    The effects of seven pesticides sprayed on hosts with parasitoids at different phases of egg to adult development (24, 24± 48, 48± 72, 72± 96, 120± 144, 192± 216 h) of Trichogramma cordubensis (Vargas & Cabello) were studied. The effect of these pesticides on the mortality of adult parasitoids upon contact with the hosts immediately or 24 h after the treatments was also tested. One organophosphate insecticide (trichlorfon), one organochlorine insecticide (endosulfan), two pyrethroids (delt...

  8. Laboratory Performance Predicts the Success of Field Releases in Inbred Lines of the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Aloisio; Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Reigada, Carolina; Stouthamer, Richard; Parra, José R. P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we assessed the relationship between the laboratory and field performance of different isofemale lines of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley. In comparative assays, we used three rare mitochondrial haplotypes as genetic markers of the isofemale lines, and by introgressing these mitochondrial haplotypes into each of 15 genetically different nuclear lines, also tested the assumption that mitochondria are neutral markers. In a laboratory trial, 45 isofemale lines (15 nuclear genotypes x three mitochondrial haplotypes) were ranked in three categories (best, intermediate and worst) according to the mean offspring production and the proportion of female offspring. Subsequently, lines from each of the three categories were selected for field releases to quantify field parasitism on Ephestia kuehniella. Temporally separate releases were done in a transgenic Bt cornfield, with four plots, each with 50 points of recapture. The points of recapture consisted of trap cards with eggs of E. kuehniella collected daily. The trap cards were maintained in the laboratory at 25°C until the adult wasps emerged, and the maternal identity of the wasps was determined using qPCR and high-resolution melt curve analysis to determine the mitochondrial haplotype. The results showed that these measures of laboratory performance (fecundity and offspring sex ratio) were good predictors of field success in T. pretiosum. We also report strong evidence discrediting the assumption that mitochondria are neutral, in view of the correlation between performance and mitochondrial haplotype. PMID:26730735

  9. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M; Unni, Deepak R; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. PMID:26578564

  10. Seasonal ecology and thermal constraints of Telenomus spp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), egg parasitoids of the hemlock looper (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Simon; Hébert, Christian; Blais, Julie; Berthiaume, Richard; Bauce, Eric; Brodeur, Jacques

    2012-12-01

    We describe seasonal patterns of parasitism by Telenomus coloradensis Crawford, Telenomus droozi Muesebeck, Telenomus flavotibiae Pelletier (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), and Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoids of the hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), after a 3-yr survey of defoliated stands in the lower St. Lawrence region (Quebec, Canada). Results from sentinel trap sampling indicate that T. coloradensis and T. droozi are the most common species, whereas parasitism by T. flavotibiae and Trichogramma spp. is rare. Telenomus coloradensis and T. droozi show similar seasonal periods of parasitism, both species being active in early spring (late April) at temperatures as low as 4°C. Using thermal threshold (T(0)) and thermal constant (K) for immature development of T. coloradensis males and females from egg to adult emergence, we estimated that the spring progeny emerges in the middle of the summer while hemlock looper eggs are absent from the forest environment. Parasitoid females would then mate and remain in the environment to 1) exploit alternate host species, 2) enter into quiescence and later parasitize eggs laid by hemlock looper females in the fall, 3) enter into a reproductive diapause and parasitize hemlock looper eggs only the next spring, or all of these. Although previous studies have shown that T. coloradensis can overwinter in its immature form within the host egg, our field and laboratory results indicate that in the lower St. Lawrence region, this species principally enters diapause as fertilized females, with a mean supercooling point of -30.6°C in the fall. PMID:23321076

  11. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Noort

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Afrotropical Cynipoidea are represented by 306 described species and 54 genera in four families: Cynipidae, Figitidae, Liopteridae and Ibaliidae, the latter represented by a single introduced species. Seven of these genera are only represented by undescribed species in the region. Seven new genus-level synonymies, one genus resurrected from synonymy, 54 new combinations, one combination reinstated, and one new replacement name are presented. We provide identification keys to the families, subfamilies and genera of cynipoid wasps occurring in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and southern Arabian Peninsula. Online interactive Lucid Phoenix and Lucid matrix keys are available at: http://www.waspweb.org/Cynipoidea/Keys/index.htm. An overview of the biology and checklists of species for each genus are provided. This paper constitutes the first contributory chapter to the book on Afrotropical Hymenoptera.

  12. HYMENOPTERA ALLERGENS: FROM VENOM TO VENOME

    OpenAIRE

    Edzard eSpillner; Simon eBlank; Thilo eJakob

    2014-01-01

    In Western Europe hymenoptera venom allergy primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of hymenoptera venom allergy research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extr...

  13. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilo, BM; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude-Elberink, JNG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula

  14. Side Effects of Fungicides Used in Cucurbitaceous Crop on Trichogrammaatopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae Efectos Secundarios sobre Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae de Fungicidas usados en Cucurbitáceas

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can control Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. On the other hand, pesticides may reduce the efficiency of natural enemies. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of fungicides used in the production of cucurbitaceous crops on Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner parasitizing D. hyalinata eggs. The fungicides used in bioassays were: azoxystrobin (0.08 g active ingredient [ai] L-1, chlorothalonil (2.00 g ai L-1, mancozeb (1.60 g ai L-1, tebuconazole (0.25 g ai L-1 and thiophanate-methyl (0.49 g ai L-1. Cardboards with 30 D. hyalinata eggs previously immersedin fungicide solutions and distilled water (control were offered separately to 20 newly emerged T. atopovirilia females in glass tubes. Parasitism, parasitism reduction, emergence, sex ratio, and number of individuals per egg were evaluated. The fungicides chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced parasitism of T. atopovirilia by 43.37, 27.64 and 18.51%, respectively. However, parasitism with azoxystrobin (79.21% was higher than the control (67.37% (P ≤ 0.05. Chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced emergence by 73.77, 75.62 and 79.35% (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Azoxystrobin and thiophanate-methyl reduced the sex ratio by 0.77 and 0.76 (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Fungicides did not reduce the number of individuals per egg. The fungicides azoxystrobin and mancozeb were selective for T. atopovirilia for most studied parameters suggesting that these products must have the priority in crop disease management to allow efficient biological control of T. atopovirilia against D. hyalinata.Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae pueden controlar Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Sin embargo, los plaguicidas pueden reducir la eficiencia de los enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia de los fungicidas utilizados en la

  15. Records of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in Northwestern Argentina Presencia de Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en el noroeste argentino

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    Marcelo J. Lizondo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is reported for the first time in Northwestern Argentina.La presencia de Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae fue detectada por primera vez en el noroeste argentino.

  16. Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) from Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, L.L.; Gates, M.W.; Graham, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    We collected a Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) in Salt Creek Canyon, Canyonlands National Park, San Juan County, Utah. This is the first record for D. texanus in Utah. Copyright ?? 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.

  17. Influência do Fotoperíodo no Parasitismo de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em Ovos de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Santana

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Trichogramma species are an important group of parasitoids that attack especially lepidopteran eggs. The quality and performance of this natural enemy may be influenced by factors such as alternative host used in the massal rearing, and differences in the temperature and photoperiod. Based on this, this study aimed to evaluate the number of parasitized eggs, % of females that parasitized, % emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi per egg of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius in the presence and absence of light. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (light and dark and 60 replications, being each experimental unit composed by 40 eggs of D. saccharalis which were placed in a glass tube with one female of T. galloi with age of 24 hours, previously fed with honey. The experiment was carried out at 25 ± 2 °C and 70 ± 10% relative humidity. In each one of the treatments, the parasitoid was removed from the tube after 12 hours. The highest number of parasitized eggs (12.9 and % of females that parasitized (83.3% was observed during the period with light. For the emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals per egg, there was no statistical difference. The results showed that the presence of light is essential for this biological control agent.

  18. Effects of methoxyfenozide, indoxacarb, and other insecticides on the beneficial egg parasitoid Trichogramma nr. brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewa-Kapuge, Swarna; McDougall, Sandra; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2003-08-01

    Trichogramma nr. brassicae is a common egg parasitoid of Helicoverpa species in Australian processing tomatoes, but its effectiveness can be severely curtailed by insecticide applications. To identify insecticides that are potentially compatible with this species, the effects of seven insecticides, including newly introduced compounds and a surfactant, were screened in laboratory and glasshouse assays for their toxicity to the wasps. Assays involved direct applications on adults, residual effects on adults, and applications on life stages still inside the host. Methoxyfenozide and indoxacarb were not toxic to Trichogramma in any assay when applied at field rates. Naled and chlorfenapyr caused 100% mortality when directly applied to adults, and 95% mortality when adults were exposed to residues of these chemicals within 24 h of application. The effects of naled residues were short lived (Naled and chlorfenapyr were also toxic when applied to Trichogramma developing inside host eggs, reducing emergence of adults by >25%. Imidacloprid, emamectin, and tau-fluvalinate were toxic in some experiments; they caused >97% mortality in adults 1 h after direct application and in residue assays they caused 23-64% mortality during the first 24 h. In field trials, methoxyfenozide had no harmful effects on emergence from sprayed parasitized eggs, whereas indoxacarb had a small impact (<8%) on emergence. Methoxyfenozide and indoxacarb are potentially suitable for inclusion in integrated pest management strategies for management of Helicoverpa because they do not influence adult survival or development of immature stages, whereas other chemicals need to be treated cautiously. PMID:14503578

  19. Trichogramma acacioi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae parasitism capacity at different temperatures and factitious hosts Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma acacioi em diferentes temperaturas e hospedeiros alternativos

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It was studied the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma acacioi on Anagasta kuehniella and Sitotroga cerealella eggs at different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ± 1°C. The parasitism of T. acacioi varied with temperature and host. The highest parasitism (³80% were observed during the first days after emergence in both hosts, at all tested temperatures. The accumulated parasitism varied with both host and temperature, being higher on A. kuehniella at 20°C, what shows good parasitoid species adaptation to this temperature. Thus, we conclude that the best host and best temperature to be used at mass-rearing of T. acacioi is A. kuehniella and 20ºC, respectively. Moreover, this Trichogramma species has great potential to be used in field releases at regions where average temperature is around 20ºC.Foi estudada a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma acacioi em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella e Sitotroga cerealella em diferentes temperaturas (15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 ± 1°C. O parasitismo de T. acacioi variou com a temperatura e hospedeiro. O maior parasitismo (³80% foi observado durante os primeiros dias após a emergência, em ambos hospedeiros e em todas as temperaturas estudadas. O parasitismo acumulado variou nas diferentes temperaturas e hospedeiros, sendo maior em A. kuehniella a 20ºC, o que mostra uma boa adaptação da espécie do parasitóide a essa temperatura. Assim, concluímos que o melhor hospedeiro alternativo e melhor temperatura para serem usadas em criações massais de T. acacioi é a A. kuehniella e 20ºC, respectivamente. Ainda, esta espécie de Trichogramma tem grande potencial para ser usada em liberações de campo em regiões onde a temperatura média está em torno de 20ºC.

  20. Influence of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the effects of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the natural biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) by the parasitoid Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) in Eucalyptus plantations. The number of E. apisaon eggs/leaf was higher in the center than in the edge of the plantations (23.5 ± 7.61 vs. 14.8 ± 3.14), but parasitism showed the reversed pattern (72.4% in the center and 80.5% in the edge). The results indicated that natural regulation exerted by T. maxacalii on populations of E. apisaon may be enhanced by the preservation of fragments of native vegetation surrounding Eucalyptus plantations. (author)

  1. Acceptability and suitability of eggs of false codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from irradiated parents to parasitism by trichogrammatoidea cryptophlebiae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We determined the acceptability and suitability of eggs of Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick) to parasitisation by Trichogrammatoidea cryptophlebiae Nagaraja under no choice and choice situations. Male and female moths were treated (T) with 150 or 200 Gy of gamma radiation, inbred or out-crossed to untreated (N) counterparts, and eggs laid by different crosses were offered to T. cryptophlebiae as host material. Newly laid (24 h old) eggs, as well as eggs that were 48 h and 72 h old were evaluated. In general, all egg treatments in the no choice experiments were acceptable for oviposition and suitable for parasitoid development. However, significant differences in the number of parasitised eggs were detected when one member of the host cross, particularly the female, was treated with gamma radiation or when the host egg age was greater than 24 h. No significant differences were detected in any of the choice experiments. Our results suggest that T. cryptophlebiae would accept, successfully develop in, and emerge from false codling moth eggs laid by the different crosses that would theoretically be present in the field under a sterile insect release programme for false codling moth and suggest that further evaluations combining releases of irradiated moths and parasitoids are warranted. (author)

  2. Suitability of Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae Eggs for Parasitisation by Trichogramma evanescens Westw and Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona B.R. El Mandarawy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller eggs at various ages (2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 or 72-h-old eggs, as a substitute host for rearing Trichogramma evanescens Westw. and Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal, were tested. Also, the effect of chilling on hatching and parasitism of E. kuehniella eggs (>24-h-old at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 chilling hours by the two Trichogramma species was studied. Eggs, at 28°C and 50-60% R.H., only 2 hold were not very attractive to the two parasitoid species. In general, the number of host eggs attacked, decreased with increasing age. The highest rate of parasitism occurred at 4 h and the lowest at 72 h. However, eggs of all ages proved suitable for the development of T. evanescens and T. cacoeciae, with no significant differences in the emergence rate from E. kuehniella eggs. Moreover, T. evanescens was more suitable for biological studies on of E. kuehniella eggs than T. cacoeciae. When E. kuehniella chilled eggs (>24-h-old for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 or 72 h, at -1°C, were exposed to the female of the two-trichogrammatid species, the rate of parasitism was diminished as the period of chilling increased. Prolonged exposure of eggs to cold resulted to the death of embryos and reduced hatching.

  3. Evaluation for potential Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer. PMID:25026653

  4. Ants as predators of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) applied for biological control of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Pereira; Bento, Albino; Cabanas, J.E.; Torres, L.; Herz, A; Hassan, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    The detrimental effect of predators on Trichogramma cacoeciae March. releases to control the olive moth, Prays oleae Bern., in the Trás-os-Montes region (Northeast of Portugal), was evaluated during three releases against the flower generation of the pest in 2002. At 1 and 3 h and at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after each release, 30 Trichogramma releasing cards were examined in the field and predators were collected and identified. Furthermore, at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after each release, the pe...

  5. Impact of Vairimorpha sp. (Microsporidia: Burnellidae) on Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae), a hymenopteran parasitoid of the cabbage moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuld, M; Madel, G; Schmuck, R

    1999-09-01

    A multi-generation mass breeding colony of the cabbage moth, Plutella xylostella, was found to be infected with a microsporidium, Vairimorpha sp., which is passed transovarially between generations. The microsporidian infection had little impact on the fitness of this lepidopteran pest. However, when Trichogramma chilonis parasitized such infected host eggs, the offspring of this parasitoid species suffered from severe deficiencies. Microsporidian spores, ingested by parasitoid larvae together with the host egg nutrients, gave rise to stages which developed in various tissues of the parasitoid, such as the flight muscle and the nervous system. This infection resulted in a significantly increased rate of metamorphosis failure (related to host age) and reduced longevity and reproductive performance of the parasitoids. There are two main consequences arising from our findings if T. chilonis is to be used in an integrated control strategy against P. xylostella: (1) T. chilonis must be raised on Vairimorpha-free host eggs to receive viable and efficaceous parasitoids for release and (2) if natural populations of the cabbage moth in cruciferous crops are infected with Vairimorpha to a significant extent, the parasitoid must be released repeatedly within infested crop areas. PMID:10486223

  6. Effects of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg age, density, and UV treatment on parasitism and development of Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Fernando; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco, Vicente

    2009-10-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) supports the integration of all rational control methods available. Biological control is one of those control methods. Thus, the influence of Lobesia botrana Den. and Schiff. egg age, density, and sterilization by UV light on parasitism and progeny development of a Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal strain from La Rioja, Spain, was studied. Understanding this influence is important for the development of biological control programs. UV-killed eggs are widely used for mass rearing Trichogramma. Trichogramma cacoeciae preferred young eggs (0-72 h old), and the largest number of progeny were produced from these eggs, especially from 48- to 72-h-old eggs. The relationship between the number of eggs parasitized by T. cacoeciae and its density (within the range studied) was linear (R (2) adjusted = 0.93), with constant values (72.2-93.7%) for discovery rate (an estimator of searching capacity). UV treatment did not affect the number of progeny produced or parasitism tendency and was thus a helpful tool for the mass-rearing process. Based on its response to egg age and density, our T. cacoeciae strain showed potential for control of L. botrana. PMID:19825307

  7. Lethal and sublethal effects of essential oils from Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma cordubensis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, Cláudia da Silva

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Laboratory and field studies have shown that Trichogramma wasps are highly susceptible to most broadspectrum insecticides, reducing their efficacy as biological control agents. Thus, the integration of this biological control agent with other methods requires knowledge of the lethal and sublethal effects they may have on these natural enemies. To promote environmentally friendly pest control methods in Azorean crops, this research aimed at assessing the safety of essential oils of P...

  8. Nymphal development and feeding preference of Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) parasitised or not by Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, H N; De Clercq, P; Zanuncio, J C; Pratissoli, D; Pedruzzi, E P

    2004-08-01

    Predation by Podisus maculiventris nymphs, a predatory pentatomid, was evaluated with eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Pyralidae), parasitised or not by Trichogramma brassicae (pupae stage). Eggs of this pyralid were glued on rectangular cardboard and presented to nymphs of P. maculiventris as food. The pentatomid successfully reached adult stage when feeding on unparasitised eggs, indicating that flour moth eggs can be used as a factitious food for rearing this predator. Pentatomid nymphs that received only parasitised eggs died before reaching fourth instar. In choice tests, P. maculiventris showed a preference for preying on unparasitised eggs of E. kuehniella rather than those containing pupae of T. brassicae. These results show that it is possible to combine the use of P. maculiventris with releases of T. brassicae in control programs of lepidopteran pests. PMID:15622843

  9. Suitability of the pest-plant system Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) : Tomato for Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids and insights for biological control.

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, Antonio; Han, Peng; Tabone, Elisabeth; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest that has recently invaded Afro-Eurasia.[br/] Biological control, especially by Trichogramma parasitoids, is considered to be promising as a management tool for this pest. However, further development of Trichogramma-based biocontrol strategies would beneÞt from assessing the impact of released parasitoid offspring on the pest. Under laboratory conditions, we 1) compared the parasitismo...

  10. On the identity of Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), with a checklist and a key to Trichogramma species associated with Erinnyis ello (L.) (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jaci M; Querino, Ranyse B; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2014-01-01

    Specimens collected from eggs of the cassava hornworm Erinnyis ello, originally identified as T. demoraesi, were compared with the paratype of this species. Based on morphological analysis, the specimens from E. ello actually belong to Trichogramma marandobai Brun, Moraes and Soares, 1986. Therefore, T. demoraesi is not a parasitoid of the eggs of E. ello, a major pest of cassava. The main features separating the two species, and a checklist and key to the species of Trichogramma associated with E. ello are presented. PMID:25283901

  11. Radiation-induced substerility of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) integrated with the release of Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for area-wide control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mating competitiveness of Ostrinia furnacalis F1 male moths (progeny of male parents irradiated with 200 Gy) was compared with the mating competitiveness of untreated moths. These studies revealed that F1 male moths were involved in more than 50% of the matings with normal females. The flight ability and response towards sex pheromone was similar for F1 and untreated moths, although the number of F1 moths captured was slightly less than the number of untreated moths captured. The number of eupyrene sperm in the testes of P1 moths treated with 200 Gy was similar to the number of eupyrene sperm in the testes of normal moths. However, the number of sperm bundles was significantly reduced in the testes of 200 Gy F1 moths. Compared to normal moths, daily sperm descent into the duplex ejaculatorius was affected only at day 3 after eclosion of F1 moths. Sperm transfer to spermatheca by 200 Gy F1 male moths was less than that of their irradiated (200 Gy) parents and of normal moths. Successive releases of Trichogramma ostriniae in the egg stage of first and second generation Ostrinia furnacalis were combined with the release of F1 moths from male parents treated with 200 Gy. The combination of the F1 sterility technique with augmentative biological control suppressed the wild population of this pest in 500 hectares of field corn. (author)

  12. Suitability of the pest-plant system Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)-tomato for Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids and insights for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Biondi, Antonio; Han, Peng; Tabone, Elisabeth; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    The South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest that has recently invaded Afro-Eurasia. Biological control, especially by Trichogramma parasitoids, is considered to be promising as a management tool for this pest. However, further development of Trichogramma-based biocontrol strategies would benefit from assessing the impact of released parasitoid offspring on the pest. Under laboratory conditions, we 1) compared the parasitism of five Trichogramma species-strains on the pest-plant system T. absoluta-tomato, and 2) assessed various biological traits of parasitoids, mass-reared on a factitious host (Ephestia kuehniella Zeller), when developing on T. absoluta. In addition, we evaluated the overall efficiency of two specific Trichogramma species when released under greenhouse conditions in combination with a common natural enemy in tomato crop, the predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Parasitoids emerging from T. absoluta on tomato showed lower parasitism rates and poor biological traits, for example, wing deformations, reduced longevity, when compared with the control reared on the factitious host. Under greenhouse conditions, the parasitoids that developed on T. absoluta after initial releases contributed little to biological control of T. absoluta, and parasitism tended to be lower when the predator was present. However, a slightly higher T. absoluta control level was achieved by combining the predator and release of the parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti. This study shows that Trichogramma parasitoids may not build up populations on the T. absoluta-tomato system, but that Trichogramma parasitoids can be used in combination with M. pygmaeus to enhance biological control of the pest in tomato crops. PMID:24498728

  13. On-farm evaluation of inundative biological control of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) by Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in three European maize-producing regions

    OpenAIRE

    Razinger , Jaka; Vasileiadis, Vasileios P.; Giraud, Marion; Dijk, van, W.; Modic, Špela; Sattin, Maurizio; Urek, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A 2 year study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of biological control with optimally timed Trichogramma brassicae releases as an integrated pest management tool against the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), in on-farm experiments (i.e. real field conditions) in three European regions with dissimilar geoclimatic conditions and ECB pressure and conventional management (i.e. insecticide treated and untreated). RESULTS: Biological control with Trichogramma ...

  14. Hymenoptera Stings and the Acute Kidney Injury

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    Yashad Dongol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are a health concern. Apidae (bees, Vespidae (hornets, yellow jackets and wasps and Formicidae (ants are medically-important stinging insects under the order Hymenoptera. Clinical features from simple skin manifestations to severe and fatal organ injury are due to the hypersensitivity reactions and/ or the toxic effects of the venom inoculated. Here we discuss on Hymenoptera stings involving apids (honey bees and vespids (wasps, hornets and yellow jackets and their effect on renal function and associated morphological changes in the kidney. Despite the differences in venom composition and quantity released per sting in two insect groups, both lead to similar medical consequences, such as localised normal allergic reactions, mild to severe anaphylaxis and shock and multiple organ and tissue injury leading to multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI is one of the unusual complications of Hymenoptera stings and has the basis of both immune-mediated and toxic effects. Evidence has proven that supportive therapy along with the standard medication is very efficient in completely restoring the kidney function without any recurrence.

  15. HYMENOPTERA ALLERGENS: FROM VENOM TO VENOME

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    Edzard eSpillner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Western Europe hymenoptera venom allergy primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of hymenoptera venom allergy research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single major allergens to a molecular understanding of the entire venome as a system of unique and characteristic components. An increasing number of such components has been identified, characterized regarding function and assessed for allergenic potential. Moreover, advanced expression strategies for recombinant production of venom allergens allow selective modification of molecules and provide insight into different types of IgE reactivities and sensitization patterns. The obtained information contributes to an increased diagnostic precision in hymenoptera venom allergy and may serve for monitoring, reevaluation and improvement of current therapeutic strategies.

  16. Basophil-activation tests in hymenoptera allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Anthony E. J.; van der Heide, Sicco

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of basophil-activation markers may be useful in detecting IgIE-mediated sensitization but the relevance for application of the basophil-activation test in prediction of clinical reactivity in Hymenoptera allergy is very limited. For this reason, this test currently has no established

  17. Revision of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae

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    Michael Sharkey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The species of the two genera of Khoikhoiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae are revised. Thirteen species are recognized, of which five are new and eight were previously described: Khoikhoia anthelion Sharkey, sp. n., K. lission Mason, 1984, K. oligospilos Sharkey, sp. n., K. semiadusta Mason, 1983, K. solata Mason, 1983, K. townesi Mason, 1983, K. turneri Mason, 1984, Sania browni Sharkey, sp. n., S. capensis Mason, 1983, S. henryi Mason, 1983, S. marjoriae Mason, 1983, S. masneri Sharkey, sp. n., and S. masoni Sharkey, sp. n.. All are from the Cape Region of South Africa, and all but one species are confined to the western Cape. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to electronic interactive keys and to distribution maps are also included. Based on phylogenetic position and morphological characters, speculations on life history are made, and it is suggested that some species may be parasitoids of wood- or stem-boring Lepidoptera. The DELTA data matrix and images for the key are available at 10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.1.ik; Intkey files are available at 10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.2.ik; Lucid files in LIF and SDD format are available at doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.3.ik and doi:10.3897/zookeys.20.108.app.4.ik. Publishing of DELTA raw data will facilitate future workers to edit keys and to add newly discovered taxa.

  18. A new species of Aximopsis sensu lato Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) parasitic on Euglossa spp. (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Gates

    2009-01-01

    Aximopsis masneri Gates, sp. n., (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected nests of Euglossa sp. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in the Neotropical region with additional label data indicating E. variabilis and E. cybelia as hosts. It is compared with the nominate species of the nodularis species group of Aximopsis sensu lato to which it belongs.

  19. Influence of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Efeitos de remanescentes de Mata Atlantica no controle biologico de Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) por Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele e Pointel) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murta, Aline F.; Ker, Fabricio T.O.; Costa, Dalbert B. [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UnilesteMG), Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Controle Biologico de Pragas; Espirito-Santo, Mario M.; Faria, Mauricio L. [Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Dept. de Biologia Geral

    2008-03-15

    This study evaluated the effects of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the natural biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) by the parasitoid Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) in Eucalyptus plantations. The number of E. apisaon eggs/leaf was higher in the center than in the edge of the plantations (23.5 {+-} 7.61 vs. 14.8 {+-} 3.14), but parasitism showed the reversed pattern (72.4% in the center and 80.5% in the edge). The results indicated that natural regulation exerted by T. maxacalii on populations of E. apisaon may be enhanced by the preservation of fragments of native vegetation surrounding Eucalyptus plantations. (author)

  20. Seletividade de agrotóxicos indicados na produção integrada de pêssego a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae Side-effects of pesticides used in integrated production of peache onTrichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae

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    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de agrotóxicos indicados nas Normas Técnicas Específicas da Produção Integrada de Pêssego (NTE-PIP foi avaliada sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, utilizando-se da metodologia padronizada internacionalmente pela International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC. Os agrotóxicos (% ingrediente ativo na calda Orthocide 500 (0,120 e Persist SC (0,160 foram classificados como inócuos; Hokko Cihexatim 500 (0,025 e Roundup WG (1,387 foram levemente nocivos; Assist (1,512 foi moderadamente nocivo; Sevin 480 SC (0,173, Tiomet 400 CE (0,048, Dipterex 500 (0,150 e Kumulus DF (0,480 foram nocivos a adultos de T. pretiosum no teste de toxicidade inicial em laboratório.The side-effects of pesticides indicated in Technical Norms of the Integrated Production of Peache (NT-IPP was assessment on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, using the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC standard methodology. The pesticides (% active ingredient Orthocide 500 (0.120 and Persist SC (0.160 were considered harmless; Hokko Cihexatim 500 (0.025 and Roundup WG (1.387 were slightly harmful; Assist (1.512 was moderately harmful; Sevin 480 SC (0.173, Tiomet 400 CE (0.048, Dipterex 500 (0.150 and Kumulus DF (0.480 were harmful to parasitoids in inicial toxicity test on egg parasitoid T. pretiosum.

  1. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro nos estágios imaturos de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of pesticides used in peach production to immature stages of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliada em condições de laboratório a seletividade dos produtos fitossanitários (g ou mL produto comercial 100L-1 abamectina (80, carbaril (360, deltametrina (40, dimetoato (120, enxofre (600, etofenproxi (150, fentiona (100, fenitrotiona (150, fosmete (200, glufosinato de amônio (2L ha-1, óleo mineral (2000 e triclorfom (300, utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro, em relação a diferentes estágios imaturos de desenvolvimento do parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Os bioensaios consistiram na pulverização direta dos produtos fitossanitários sobre ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879, contendo, em seu interior, o parasitóide em distintos estágios de desenvolvimento. A porcentagem de emergência de adultos do parasitóide foi avaliada. Reduções na emergência (RE de adultos em relação à testemunha foram calculadas e os produtos fitossanitários classificados de acordo com índices propostos pela IOBC/WPRS. Produtos fitossanitários à base de abamectina, deltametrina, dimetoato, enxofre, etofenproxi, fosmete, glufosinato de amônio e óleo mineral não apresentaram reduções na emergência e foram classificados como inócuos (The selectivity of the pesticides (g or mL commercial product 100L-1 abamectin (80, carbaryl (360, deltamethrin (40, dimethoate (120, ethofenprox (150, fenthion (100, fenitrothion (150, glufosinate ammonium (2L ha-1, mineral oil (2000, phosmet (200, sulphur (600 and trichlorphon (300 used in peach orchards was evaluated under laboratory conditions, expounded in different immature stages of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Bioassays were carried out by direct applied of treatments on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 with the immature stages egg-larva, pre-pupa and pupa of T. atopovirilia. The percentage of emergence adult parasitoids was assessed. Reduction in the emergence adult compared with the control was measure and the pesticides were classified according to IOBC/WPRS. Abamectin, deltamethrin, dimethoate, ethofenprox, glufosinate ammonium, mineral oil, phosmet and sulphur were not affected and were harmless (<30%. The insecticides carbaryl, fenitrothion and trichlorphon affected the emergence adult in all developmental stages and were slightly harmful (30-79% or moderately harmful (80-99% according developmental stage. Fenthion affected to pre-pupa and pupa stages and was slightly harmful (30-79%. The association between biological and chemical control, in peach orchards, is possible for the pesticides harmless and immature stages of T. atopovirilia.

  2. Biologia e parasitismo de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner e Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) Biology and parasitism of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) on eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo B. Beserra; José Roberto P. Parra

    2004-01-01

    Comparou-se a capacidade de paratisimo e o desenvolvimento de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner e T. pretiosum Riley visando à seleção da espécie mais adequada para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório à temperatura de 25±2ºC, U.R. de 70±0% e fotoperíodo de 14L:10E. Tanto T. atopovirilia como T. pretiosum desenvolveram-se bem e mostraram-se adaptados a ovos de S. frugiperda, mesmo após serem criados por várias gerações em ...

  3. Biologia e exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae sobre ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Biology and thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

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    Regina da Silva Borba

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia de Trichogramma em laboratório, visando a sua utilização em programas de manejo integrado para o controle de Bonagota cranaodes na cultura da macieira. A biologia de Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja e de duas linhagens (L3 e L4 de Trichogramma pretiosum foi realizada sobre ovos de B. cranaodes. Além disso, suas exigências térmicas e o número anual de gerações também foram determinados. A linhagem L3 apresentou maior parasitismo (52,3%, no entanto, a viabilidade foi semelhante entre as linhagens estudadas, com ciclo evolutivo de 8,7 dias, longevidade de fêmeas de 10,65 dias, temperatura base de 11,35°C e constante térmica de 128,70GD. O número de gerações anuais dessa linhagem em laboratório foi de 47,22 e de 13,59 gerações para as condições da região de Vacaria - RS. O baixo parasitismo de T. bruni e da linhagem L4 de T. pretiosum pode estar ligado à camada de secreção existente sobre as posturas da praga. Embora este parasitismo seja considerado baixo, a utilização destas linhagens não pode ser descartada dentro do sistema de Produção Integrada da Maçã, devendo novos estudos serem realizados em condições de campo.This work was aimed at studyng the biology of Trichogramma in laboratory, in search of its use in integrated management programs to control Bonagota cranaodes in culture of the apple. The biology of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja and of two lineages (L3 and L4 of Trichogramma pretiosum on eggs of B. cranaodes was done such their thermal demands and annual number of generations. The line L3 presented more parasitism (52.3%, however, the feseability was similar among the lineages studied; with biological cycle of 8.7 days; the longevity of females was 10.65 days; low threshold temperature of 11.35°C and thermal requirement of 128.70 GD, the number of annual generations this line in laboratory was 47.22 and 13.59 for Vacaria-RS climate conditions. The low parasitism of the T. bruni and of the lineage L4 of T. pretiosum can be related to the layer of secretion presented on the laying of the pest. Although this parasitism is considered low, the use of these lineages cannot be discarded the Integrated Apple Production, systens. New studies shal be accomplished in field conditions.

  4. Ação transovariana de lufenuron (50 g/l) sobre adultos de Spodoptera Frugiperda (j. e. smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) e seu efeito sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Transovarian action of lufenuron on adults of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its effect on the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

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    Dirceu Pratissoli; Robson Thomaz Thuler; Fabrício Fagundes Pereira; Edvaldo Fialho dos Reis; Andrea Torres Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Avaliaram-se a ação transovariana do lufenuron em Spodoptera frugiperda e sua seletividade ao parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum. Casais da praga foram isolados em gaiolas de PVC e alimentados com solução de mel a 10% na testemunha, e nos outros tratamentos, foi adicionado à solução de mel o regulador de crescimento de insetos Match® CE nas proporções de 12,5; 15,0 e 17,5 g i.a/l. Para verificação da ação transovariana, diariamente foram coletadas as posturas, contado o número de ovos...

  5. Desempenho de Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae sob efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae performance in Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae eggs affected by Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar o efeito da bactéria entomopatogênica Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt sobre fêmeas adultas de Trichogramma pratissolii e sua progênie, este trabalho foi realizado com diferentes isolados de Bt e Bt kurstaki misturados ao alimento fornecido para o parasitóide antes de parasitar ovos de Anagasta kuehniella. Para tanto, suspensões de seis isolados de Bt E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, E-20 e o Bt kurstaki foram misturados em gotícula de mel (1:1, como fonte de alimento e mel puro como testemunha, e, em seguida, foram oferecidos simultaneamente cartelas com ovos do hospedeiro para o parasitismo. Foram utilizadas 20 repetições por tratamento. O experimento foi mantido em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1ºC, UR 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 14h. Foram avaliados os parasitismos diários, totais e acumulados; sobrevivência; emergência e razão sexual da progênie. Os tratamentos não afetaram o parasitismo, razão sexual e a longevidade, porém em alguns tratamentos (E-3, E-10, E-16 e E-20 foi observado efeito indireto sobre a emergência da progênie, o que implicaria a necessidade de mais liberações massais do parasitóide para alcançar os resultados esperados. Por outro lado, a aceleração do parasitismo verificada em todos os tratamentos sugere que adultos de T. pratissolii, quando submetidos à pressão de algum fator externo tendem a parasitar o mais rápido possível para assegurar a sobrevivência da progênie. Portanto, a combinação Bt + T. pratissolii pode favorecer a atuação do parasitóide em campo, principalmente em casos em que é necessária uma rápida redução dos níveis populacionais da praga.This work was carried out to detect at laboratory the possible side-effects provoked by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt strains on egg parasitoid Thichogramma pratissolii and its progeny. Six strains of Bt E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, E-20 and Bt kurstaki were assayed in honey drop to stimulate the feeding of the parasitoids in each treatment (1:1 and pure honey as check treatment and offered simultaneously displays with eggs of the host alternative Anagasta kuehniella. The experiment was maintained in a climatized chamber at 25 ± 1ºC, RH 70 ± 10% and photofase of 14hours. The survival, daily parasitism, accumulated parasitism and total parasitism and also the progeny's emergence and sexual ratio were analyzed. Bt isolates did not affect parasitism, sexual ratio and longevity, but some of them (E-3, E-10, E-16 e E-20 affected parasitoid progeny. In field conditions this could imply in more parasitoid liberations to the expected results. Otherwise, parasitism acceleration verified in all treatments suggest that when T. pratissolii adults pass on some extern pressure (stress they parasitize as soon as possible to assure progeny survival. The interaction Bt + T. pratissolii may increase the parasitoid preformance in the field, mainly when a rapid decrease of pest population is desirable.

  6. Biologia e parasitismo de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner e Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Biology and parasitism of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

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    Eduardo B. Beserra

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a capacidade de paratisimo e o desenvolvimento de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner e T. pretiosum Riley visando à seleção da espécie mais adequada para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório à temperatura de 25±2ºC, U.R. de 70±0% e fotoperíodo de 14L:10E. Tanto T. atopovirilia como T. pretiosum desenvolveram-se bem e mostraram-se adaptados a ovos de S. frugiperda, mesmo após serem criados por várias gerações em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella Zeller. Entretanto, fêmeas de T. atopovirilia foram mais agressivas e de maior especificidade à praga, já que apresentaram maior capacidade de parasitismo em posturas com diferentes barreiras físicas e maior aceitação pelo hospedeiro natural, em relação à A. kuehniella. Por este maior parasitismo e especificidade de T. atopovirilia aos ovos da praga, deve-se dar preferência à utilização desta espécie para controle de S. frugiperda.The parasitism capacity and development of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley were studied in order to select the most suitable species to control Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith. The experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25±2ºC, 70±10% RH and 14L:10D photoperiod. Both T. atopovirilia and T. pretiosum showed good development and adaptation to S. frugiperda eggs even after being reared for several generations in eggs of Anagasta kuehniella Zeller. However, T. atopovirilia females were more aggressive and showed higher specificity to the pest, with a higher parasitism capacity in eggs laid with different physical barriers and were more accepted by the natural host in comparison with A. kuehniella. Because of the higher parasitism rate and specificity of T. atopovirilia to the pest's egg this species should be given preference to control S. frugiperda.

  7. Biologia e exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) sobre ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Biology and thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on eggs of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Regina da Silva Borba; Mauro Silveira Garcia; Adalécio Kovaleski; Andressa Comiotto; Renata Loureiro Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia de Trichogramma em laboratório, visando a sua utilização em programas de manejo integrado para o controle de Bonagota cranaodes na cultura da macieira. A biologia de Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja e de duas linhagens (L3 e L4) de Trichogramma pretiosum foi realizada sobre ovos de B. cranaodes. Além disso, suas exigências térmicas e o número anual de gerações também foram determinados. A linhagem L3 apresentou maior parasitismo (52,3%), no entan...

  8. Bioatividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) nas gerações F1 e F2 Bioactivity of pesticides used in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) crop to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in F1 and F2 generations

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo Andrade Carvalho; José Roberto Postali Parra; Gilberto Casadei de Baptista

    2003-01-01

    A bioatividade de dezoito produtos químicos utilizados no controle de pragas e doenças do tomateiro, sobre duas linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (L9=Alegre, ES e L10= Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES), nas gerações F1 e F2, foi investigada em laboratório. Ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) contendo o parasitóide em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (ovo-larva, pré-pupa e pupa) foram tratados por meio de imersão nas respectivas caldas químicas. Os inseticidas triflumuron, clor...

  9. Inventory and bioecological aspects of parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae associated to Erinnys ello (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae in cassava crops = Inventário e aspectos bioecológicos de parasitóides do gênero Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae associados a Erinnys ello (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae em cultura da mandioca

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    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the population dynamics, to determinate thespecies of Trichogramma occurring in cassava crops in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, as well as to evaluate biological parameters of those parasitoids associated to Erinnys ello (Linnaeus, 1758. This study was carried out from January of 2000 to February of 2003, in plants taken at 15-days intervals. The collected eggs were kept in laboratorial climatic chambers at 25±2ºC, RH of 70±10% and 12h photophase. During the collecting period, variations were observed in the population dynamics of Trichogramma spp.. Variations were also observed in the months of high rainfall when, due to the high host occurrence, the parasitoids presented the highest population density. The average rate of natural parasitism of E. ello eggs was 52.6%, the sex ratio was 0.8, and deformation was 0.4%. Two species were notified on E. ello: Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983 and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879.Objetivou-se neste trabalho realizar o levantamento populacional, determinar as espécies de Trichogramma que ocorrem no município de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, associadas à cultura damandioca, bem como avaliar parâmetros biológicos desses parasitóides em Erinnys ello (Linnaeus, 1758. As coletas foram realizadas de janeiro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2003, em plantas tomadas ao acaso durante um período de busca de uma hora, em intervalos médios de 15 dias. Os ovos coletados foram mantidos no laboratório em câmaras climáticas reguladas a 25±2ºC, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Durante o período de realização desse estudo, observaram-se variações na flutuação populacional de Trichogramma spp., sendo que nos meses de elevada precipitação pluviométrica, em função da maior disponibilidade do hospedeiro, os parasitóides apresentaram maior densidade populacional. A taxa de parasitismo natural média realizada por Trichogramma spp. foi de 52,6%, a razão sexual foi de 0,8, a ocorrência de deformações foi de 0,4%, sendo notificadas duas espéciesem ovos de E. ello: Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983 e Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879.

  10. Inventory and bioecological aspects of parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) associated to Erinnys ello (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in cassava crops = Inventário e aspectos bioecológicos de parasitóides do gênero Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) associados a Erinnys ello (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) em cultura da mandioca

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho; Alexandre Pinho de Moura

    2006-01-01

    This work aimed to study the population dynamics, to determinate thespecies of Trichogramma occurring in cassava crops in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, as well as to evaluate biological parameters of those parasitoids associated to Erinnys ello (Linnaeus, 1758). This study was carried out from January of 2000 to February of 2003, in plants taken at 15-days intervals. The collected eggs were kept in laboratorial climatic chambers at 25±2ºC, RH of 70±10% and 12h photophase. Du...

  11. REGISTRO DE ESPÉCIES DE Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) EM OVOS DE Erinnyis ello LINNAEUS (LEPIDOPTERA: SPHINGIDAE), EM MATO GROSSO DO SUL RECORD OF Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) SPECIES ON Erinnyis ello LINNAEUS (LEPIDOPTERA: SPHINGIDAE) EGGS IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Marcelino Duarte; Carla Cristian Marques Arce; Vanessa Silva Rohden; Sérgio Arce Gomez; Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) é uma ...

  12. Bioatividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae nas gerações F1 e F2 Bioactivity of pesticides used in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. crop to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in F1 and F2 generations

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    Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A bioatividade de dezoito produtos químicos utilizados no controle de pragas e doenças do tomateiro, sobre duas linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (L9=Alegre, ES e L10= Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES, nas gerações F1 e F2, foi investigada em laboratório. Ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller contendo o parasitóide em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (ovo-larva, pré-pupa e pupa foram tratados por meio de imersão nas respectivas caldas químicas. Os inseticidas triflumuron, clorfluazuron, deltametrina, Bacillus thuringiensis, lambdacialotrina, teflubenzuron, acefato, pirimicarb e ciromazina, e os fungicidas benomil, iprodiona, clorotalonil e dimetomorf, independente da linhagem, não reduziram a longevidade das fêmeas de T. pretiosum da geração F1. Os inseticidas abamectin, cartap, metamidofós e lambdacialotrina afetaram a razão sexual de indivíduos da geração F1, e não reduziram a taxa de emergência de parasitóides da F2, independente do estágio de desenvolvimento e da origem da população de T. pretiosum. Parasitóides de Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES (L10 mostraram-se mais susceptíveis que os de Alegre, ES (L9 aos efeitos dos compostos avaliados. De modo geral, a fase de pupa de T. pretiosum, independente da população, apresentou maior tolerância aos produtos testados. Recomenda-se a realização de novos testes para outras populações desse parasitóide que serão utilizadas no controle de pragas, pois podem responder de forma diversa aos produtos fitossanitários avaliados.The bioactivity of eighteen pesticides commonly used to pests and diseases control on tomato, in two strains of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (L9=Alegre, ES and L10= Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES, Brazil in F1 and F2 generations, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The bioassays were conducted in a climatic chamber at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller containing the parasitoid in different phases of development (egg-larva, pre-pupa and pupa were treated by immersion in aqueous dilutions of the products. The insecticides triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, deltamethrin, Bacillus thuringiensis, lambdacyalothrin, abamectin, cartap and methamidophos, did not decrease the longevity of females T. pretiosum in F1 generation independently of the parasitoid strain. Abamectin, cartap, methamidophos and lambdacyalothrin affected the sexual ratio in F1, and did not decrease the emergence of parasitoids in F2 generation, independently of stage of development and origin. The L10 strain was more susceptible to all pesticides as compared to L9. The pupal stage of T. pretiosum was more tolerant to the products, independently of its origin. It is recommended new tests with other strains of this parasitoid which may respond differently to the products used, before field recomendations are made.

  13. Seletividade de Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimm. Zare & W. Gams (classe-forma: Hyphomycetes ao parasitóide Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimm. Zare & W. Gams (class-form: Hyphomycetes to the parasitoid Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Leandro Pin Dalvi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se no presente trabalho, as características biológicas de Trichogramma atopovirilia em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda sob influência do fungo Lecanicillium lecanii, com o objetivo de verificar, em laboratório, se este entomopatógeno é seletivo ao parasitóide. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos no setor entomologia do Núcleo de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico em Manejo Fitossanitário "NUDEMAFI". Os indicativos de seletividade adotados foram: número de ovos parasitados, porcentagem de emergência (viabilidade, número de indivíduos por ovo, razão sexual e longevidade das fêmeas que parasitaram. Nenhum desses parâmetros foi afetado pelo fungo, levando à conclusão de que o mesmo é seletivo a T. atopovirilia, possibilitando ser conveniente a utilização simultânea de ambos os agentes de controle biológico no Manejo Integrado de Pragas.The present work studied the biological characteristics of Trichogramma atopovirilia in eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda under influence of the fungus Lecanicillium lecanii, with the aim of verifing in laboratory if this entomopathogenic fungus is selective to the parasitoid. The studies were carried out in the entomology sector of Nucleus of Scientific & Technological Development in Phytossanitary Management (NUDEMAFI. The indicatives of selectivity adapted used were: number of parasited eggs, emergency percentage (viability, number of individuals for egg, sex ratio and longevity of the females that parasited. None of these parameters were affected by the fungus, leading to the conclusion that the same is selective to T. atopovirilia, possibiliting the simultaneous utilization of both agents of biological control into the Integrated Management of Pests.

  14. Eficiencia de tres especies del género Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) para el control de Spodoptera frugiperda Smith y Copitarsia decolora Guenée (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) en el cultivo de uchuva / Efficiency of three species of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda Smith and Copitarsia decolora Guenée (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Physalis peruviana crops

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Niño, María Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    El control biológico aumentativo de insectos es una herramienta de los programas de Manejo Integrado de Plagas. En los agroecosistemas, el control biológico es ejercido ampliamente por especies parasitoides, por lo cual es posible predecir que la presencia de recursos alimenticios, como los aportados por las plantas con flores, pueden tener un efecto positivo en la supervivencia, capacidad de búsqueda y tasa de parasitismo de estas especies. En Colombia el cultivo de la uchuva, recientemente ...

  15. Hymenoptera allergens: from venom to "venome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillner, Edzard; Blank, Simon; Jakob, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    In Western Europe, Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of Hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of HVA research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single major allergens to a molecular understanding of the entire "venome" as a system of unique and characteristic components. An increasing number of such components has been identified, characterized regarding function, and assessed for allergenic potential. Moreover, advanced expression strategies for recombinant production of venom allergens allow selective modification of molecules and provide insight into different types of immunoglobulin E reactivities and sensitization patterns. The obtained information contributes to an increased diagnostic precision in HVA and may serve for monitoring, re-evaluation, and improvement of current therapeutic strategies. PMID:24616722

  16. Hymenoptera venom review focusing on Apis mellifera

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    P. R. de Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera venoms are complex mixtures containing simple organic molecules, proteins, peptides, and other bioactive elements. Several of these components have been isolated and characterized, and their primary structures determined by biochemical techniques. These compounds are responsible for many toxic or allergic reactions in different organisms, such as local pain, inflammation, itching, irritation, and moderate or severe allergic reactions. The most extensively characterized Hymenoptera venoms are bee venoms, mainly from the Apis genus and also from social wasps and ant species. However, there is little information about other Hymenoptera groups. The Apis venom presents high molecular weight molecules - enzymes with a molecular weight higher than 10.0 kDa - and peptides. The best studied enzymes are phospholipase A2, responsible for cleaving the membrane phospholipids, hyaluronidase, which degrades the matrix component hyaluronic acid into non-viscous segments and acid phosphatase acting on organic phosphates. The main peptide compounds of bee venom are lytic peptide melittin, apamin (neurotoxic, and mastocyte degranulating peptide (MCD.

  17. Comparative ultrastructure of ant spermatozoa (Formicidae: Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D E; Crichton, E G; Krutzsch, P H

    1990-12-01

    Mature spermatozoa from spermathecae of founding queens were obtained from 5 species of ants, representing the major subfamilies Myrmicinae (Acromyrmex versicolor, Crematogaster sp.) and Dolichoderinae (Tapinoma sessile, Conomyrma insana, Conomyrma wheeleri). The ultrastructure of ant spermatozoa has many features in common with that of higher insects and is similar to that of other Hymenoptera. Structural similarities to spermatozoa of other Hymenoptera include an acrosome containing an internal rod that extends into the nucleus, two elongate mitochondrial derivatives, a centriolar adjunct, and an axonemal arrangement of 9 + 9 + 2 that includes well-developed coarse, or accessory, tubules. Spermatozoa obtained from A. versicolor, a species that is known to store and utilize viable sperm from this supply for over 10 years, show greater development of the mitochondrial derivatives than do the other species. The most distinctive feature of ant spermatozoa in comparison to other Hymenoptera is the large size of the centriolar adjunct relative to the other organelles. The centriolar adjunct is located posterior to the nucleus, anterior to the mitochondrial derivatives, and opposite the axoneme. PMID:2280410

  18. Identifying and managing Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matron, Patricia Kane; Timms, Victoria; Fitzsimons, Roisin

    2016-05-25

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to the venom of insects from the Hymenoptera order and is a common cause of anaphylaxis. A diagnosis of venom allergy is made by taking an accurate medical, family and social history, alongside specific allergy testing. Systemic reactions to Hymenoptera venom occur in a small proportion of the population; these range from mild to life-threatening in severity. Treatment for local reactions involves the use of cold packs, antihistamines, analgesia and topical corticosteroids to help alleviate swelling, pain and pruritus. Venom immunotherapy is the treatment of choice for reducing the incidence of future anaphylactic reactions in individuals who have signs of respiratory obstruction or hypotension. Venom immunotherapy is the most effective treatment in reduction of life-threatening reactions to venom, and can improve quality of life for individuals. Treatment should only be provided by experienced staff who are able to provide emergency care for anaphylaxis and life-threatening episodes. A risk assessment to deliver treatment should be undertaken before treatment is commenced. PMID:27224630

  19. Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Landscape and Hymenoptera Biodiversity at Cianjur Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    YAHERWANDI; SYAFRIDA MANUWOTO; DAMAYANTI BUCHORI; PURNAMA HIDAYAT; LILIK BUDIPRASETYO

    2006-01-01

    Hymenoptera is one of the four largest insect order (the other three are Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera). There are curerently over 115 000 described Hymenoptera species. It is clear that Hymenoptera is one of the major components of insect biodiversity. However, Hymenoptera biodiversity is affected by ecology, environment, and ecosystem management. In an agricultural areas, the spatial structure, habitat diversity, and habitat composition may vary from cleared landscapes to structura...

  20. Hymenoptera Allergens: From Venom to “Venome”

    OpenAIRE

    Spillner, Edzard; Blank, Simon; Jakob, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    In Western Europe, Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) primarily relates to venoms of the honeybee and the common yellow jacket. In contrast to other allergen sources, only a few major components of Hymenoptera venoms had been characterized until recently. Improved expression systems and proteomic detection strategies have allowed the identification and characterization of a wide range of additional allergens. The field of HVA research has moved rapidly from focusing on venom extract and single m...

  1. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  2. A new species of Aximopsis sensu lato Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae parasitic on Euglossa spp. (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Michael Gates

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aximopsis masneri Gates, sp. n., (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected nests of Euglossa sp. (Hymenoptera, Apidae in the Neotropical region with additional label data indicating E. variabilis and E. cybelia as hosts. It is compared with the nominate species of the nodularis species group of Aximopsis sensu lato to which it belongs.

  3. Foraging behaviour of the egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga towards biological control of bruchid pests in stored cowpea in West Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebeek, van F.A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Seed beetles cause considerable losses in traditionally stored cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata Walp.) under subsistence farming conditions in West Africa. The indigenous egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatidae) is evaluated as a candidate for a conservation strategy of bi

  4. Dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga in two different habitats: stored cowpea pods and seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebeek, van F.A.N.; Antwi, K.K.; Huis, van A.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of two different habitats, stored cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers] pods and seeds, on the dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) was investigated, with Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) eggs as hosts. In the

  5. Corneal hymenoptera stings: A new therapeutic approach

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    Mauricio Vélez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We describe five cases, (4 children, with ocular sequelae from honeybee or wasp sting injuries to the eye treated with anterior chamber irrigation to reduce the venom concentration and subsequent complications. All patients were treated on the Ophthalmology Service of Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paul, Medellín, Colombia. Methods: Small case series. Patients with hymenoptera corneal sting injuries were treated in the operating room by performing an anterior chamber washout with balanced saline solution and triamcinolone in an effort to minimize the tissue damage induced by bee venom. Results: Early clearing of inflammation and more rapid recovery of baseline acuity was associated with early surgical intervention. Late complications included corneal decompensation, iris heterochromia, paralytic mydriasis, glaucoma and cataract; these complications are irreversible and sight threatening. Conclusion: Performing an early anterior chamber washout is a treatment option for this type of trauma, since it results in faster resolution and fewer late complications. 

  6. Hymenoptera Allergy and Mast Cell Activation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Patrizia; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Lombardo, Carla; Zanotti, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) can be diagnosed in patients with recurrent, severe symptoms from mast cell (MC)-derived mediators, which are transiently increased in serum and are attenuated by mediator-targeting drugs. When KIT-mutated, clonal MC are detected in these patients, a diagnosis of primary MCAS can be made. Severe systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom (HV) represent the most common form of anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis are predominantly males and do not have skin lesions in the majority of cases, and anaphylaxis is characterized by hypotension and syncope in the absence of urticaria and angioedema. A normal value of tryptase (≤11.4 ng/ml) in these patients does not exclude a diagnosis of mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis have to undergo lifelong venom immunotherapy, in order to prevent further potentially fatal severe reactions. PMID:26714690

  7. Catalogue of the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) fauna is summarized. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data and new material collected. In total 99 species belonging to 8 genera are from Iran: Apanteles Förster, 1862 (36 species), Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (34 species), Deuterixys Mason, 1981 (1 species), Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (4 species), Microgaster Latreille, 1804 (4 species), Microplitis Förster, 1862 (11 species), Pholesetor Mason, 1981 (4 species) and Protapanteles Ashmead, 1898 (5 species) in 4 tribes (Apantilini, Cotesiini, Microgastrini and Microplitini). A faunistic list with distribution data, and host records are given. Four species are new records for the fauna of Iran: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, 1969, A. ingenuoides Papp, 1971, Microplitis decipiens Prell, 1925 and M. marshallii Kokujev, 1898. PMID:26624699

  8. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Matthew J; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  9. Ovarian egg morphology in chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitizing gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae

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    Vårdal, H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide morphological egg data of 26 species of 5 chalcidoid families associated with cynipid galls (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae from western Palaearctic, including the first egg data for the family Ormyridae. Adult chalcidoid species were reared from galls, and eggs obtained from dissected female ovaries were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The shape of the eggs varies from oval to elongate and tapered at both ends. Eggs of Eurytomidae as well as some Eulophidae, Eupelmidae and Pteromalidae are equipped with a peduncle at the anterior end. We found a positive correlation between long eggs and long ovipositors and confirmed the expectation that eggs of endoparasitoids are generally shorter and narrower than eggs of ectoparasitoids. We were able to locate the sperm entrance or micropyle at the anterior pole of eggs of several species. It is situated at the anterior end of the egg and at the end of the peduncle when present. In addition, the eggshells of the endoparasitoid Sycophila biguttata (Swederus, 1795 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae and the ectoparasitoid Cecidostiba fungosa (Geoffroy, 1785 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, are for the first time described.En el presente trabajo se aportan datos morfol.gicos del huevo de 26 especies del Paleártico occidental pertenecientes a 5 familias de Chalcidoidea asociadas con agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, incluyendo los primeros datos del huevo de especies de Ormyridae. Los ejemplares adultos de las especies estudiadas fueron obtenidos por emergencia de agallas en laboratorio, los ovarios de las hembras diseccionados para obtener los huevos, que fueron finalmente estudiados utilizando técnicas de microscopía electronica de barrido. La forma de los huevos estudiados varía de ovalada a alargada y ahusada en ambos extremos. Los huevos de Eurytomidae, así como algunos de Eulophidae, Eupelmidae y Pteromalidae están provistos de un pedúnculo en el extremo anterior. Se encontr

  10. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, J F; Maia, D P; Moura, J C M S; Costa, V A; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-02-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes. PMID:22437404

  11. Tabela de vida de fertilidade de três espécies neotropicais de Trichogrammatidae em ovos de hospedeiros alternativos como critério de seleção hospedeira Fertility life table of three neotropical species of Trichogrammatidae on factitious hosts as a criterion for selection of hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia da Silva Dias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tabela de vida de fertilidade de três espécies neotropicais de Trichogrammatidae em ovos de hospedeiros alternativos como critério de seleção hospedeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar o hospedeiro alternativo que permita o melhor desenvolvimento das três espécies neotropicais de tricogramatídeos, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983; Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 e Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972, utilizando-se como parâmetro comparativo as tabelas de vida de fertilidade nos respectivos hospedeiros. Foram estimados a duração média de uma geração (T, taxa líquida de reprodução (Ro, razão infinitesimal (r m e a razão finita de aumento (λ. A tabela de vida de fertilidade pode ser utilizada para selecionar o hospedeiro alternativo mais adequado para as espécies de tricogramatídeos. Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae foi o hospedeiro alternativo mais adequado para criação de T. annulata e de T. bruni, enquanto que para T. atopovirilia, Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae e/ou C. cephalonica foram os hospedeiros mais adequados. Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae apresentou baixa capacidade de aumento populacional para as três espécies de parasitóides, sendo, portanto, uma espécie inadequada como hospedeiro alternativo para as mesmas.The objective of this work was to select the factitious host that permit the best development of three neotropical Trichogrammatidae species, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983; Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983, and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972, using the fertility life table on their respective hosts as a comparative parameter. Mean generation time (T, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and the finite rate of increase (λ were estimated. A fertility life table is useful to select the most adequate factitious hosts for the

  12. Karyotypes of parasitic Hymenoptera: Diversity, evolution and taxonomic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VLADIMIR E. GOKHMAN

    2006-01-01

    Haploid chromosome numbers (n) of parasitic Hymenoptera (= traditional Parasitica + Chrysidoidea) vary from 2 to 23. However, this range can be subdivided into three intervals with n = 14-23 (less derived parasitic wasps, e.g., some Ichneumonidae and Braconidae as well as Gasteruptiidae), 8-13 (many other parasitic Hymenoptera) and 2-7(Dryinidae, the majority of Chalcidoidea and some advanced Braconidae, e.g. Aphidiinae).The symmetric karyotype with a relatively high chromosome number (n = 14-17) and the prevalence of biarmed chromosomes must be considered as a groundplan feature of parasitic Hymenoptera. Independent reductions of chromosome numbers (n ≤ 10-11) occurred in some groups of the superfamily Ichneumonoidea as well as in the common ancestor of the Proctotrupoidea sensu lato, Ceraphronoidea, Cynipoidea and Chalcidoidea. Further multiple decreases in chromosome numbers (n ≤ 4-6) took place in some Braconidae, various lineages of the superfamily Chalcidoidea as well as in the family Dryinidae. Two main trends prevailed in the karyotype evolution of parasitic wasps: the reduction of chromosome numbers (mainly due to tandem fusions and less frequently due to centric ones) and karyotypic dissymmetrization (through an increase in size differentiation of chromosomes and/or in the share of acrocentrics in a chromosome set). Although karyotypic features of parasitic Hymenoptera can be used for solving taxonomic problems at various levels, this method is the most effective at the species level.

  13. In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueff, F.; Vos, B.; Przybilla, B.

    2013-01-01

    In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy Patients with a history of anaphylactic sting reactions require an allergological work-up (history, in-vitro tests, and skin tests) to clarify indications on venom immunotherapy and on the type of venom to be used. To demonstrate a venom sensitisatio

  14. Species Revision and Generic Systematics of World Rileyinae (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Michael William

    2008-01-01

    The subfamily Rileyinae (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) is redefined to contain 6 genera and 69 species for which keys are provided. Two morphological data sets, analyzed via maximum parsimony with PAUP*, yield hypotheses on the placement of Rileyinae within Eurytomidae and internal relationships of Rileyinae. Tables detailing host utilization for Eurytomidae (genera), Rileyinae (species), and confirmed/suspected plant associations for Rileyinae are included.

  15. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  16. A hymenopterist’s guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymenoptera exhibit an incredible diversity of phenotypes, the result of ~240 million years of evolution and the primary subject of more than 250 years of research. Here we describe the history, development, and utility of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) and its associated applications. These...

  17. Use of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as a biological control agent of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): An approach to integrated pest management in bell pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Vonny Martin

    2006-01-01

    Four to six separate inundative releases of ~30,000 to 50,000 T. ostriniae per 0.02 ha significantly reduced damage by O. nubilalis in bell pepper. Egg parasitization averaged 48.7% in T. ostriniae release plots, which was significantly higher than non-release plots (1.9%). Also, cumulative green pepper fruit damage averaged 8.7% in release plots, which was significantly less than non-release plots (27.3%). Pesticides tested against T. ostriniae were spinosad and methoxyfenozide. Spinosad...

  18. The Species of Aphelinoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) from Xinjiang%新疆光脉赤眼蜂属种类记述(膜翅目:赤眼蜂科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红英; 林乃铨

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, 3 species of genus Aphelinoidea Girault from Xinjiang are described and illustrated. Among which, A. (Aphelinoidea) shawanica is new to science, A. (Lathromeroides) dolichoptera (Novicky) and A. (Aphelinoidea) anatolica Novicky are first recorded in China. A key to the 3 species is provided. All specimens examined are deposited in Biological Control Research Institute, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.%本文简述了光脉赤眼蜂属Aphelinoidea Girault的研究历史及现状,并描述了采自新疆的光脉赤眼蜂属3个种,其中有1新种,2中国新记录种,同时提供了新疆光脉赤眼蜂属分种的分类检索表,另附主要形态特征图.所有标本保存在福建农林大学生物防治研究所.1. 长翅光脉赤眼蜂Aphelinoidea dolichoptera (Novicky),中国新记录(图1)Aphelinoidea dolichoptera (Novicky), 1933, Polsk. Pismo Ent., 12: 4.观察标本:1♀,2♂♂,新疆新源县,2001-Ⅵ-01,吴卫网扫;1♂,新疆乌鲁木齐市,2001-Ⅶ-25,崔卫东网扫.2. 沙湾光脉赤眼蜂Aphelinoidea shawanica,新种(图2)本种与 Aphelinoidea subexserta Novicky很相似,但本种前翅的缘毛较长,翅面纤毛较稀少;产卵管明显露出;触角棒节基部深褐色,端部淡黄色.正模:♀,新疆沙湾县,2001-Ⅶ-14,胡红英网扫;副模:1♀,同正模;2♀♀,新疆温泉县,2001-Ⅶ-16,胡红英网扫;2♀♀,石河子市150团,2001-Ⅶ-12,胡红英网扫.3. 土耳其光脉赤眼蜂Aphelinoidea anatolica Novicky, 中国新记录(图3) Aphelinoidea natolica Novicky, 1936, Zeit. Angew. Ent. Berlin, 23: 144.观察标本:2♀♀,1♂ ,新疆沙湾县,2001-Ⅶ-14,胡红英网扫;1♀,新疆温泉县,2001-Ⅶ-12,胡红英网扫;1♀,石河子市150团,2001-Ⅶ-12,胡红英网扫;4♀♀,3♂♂,新疆新源县,2001-Ⅵ-01,吴卫网扫;1♀,新疆呼图壁县,1999-Ⅷ-27,林乃铨网扫;1♂,新疆五家渠市,2001-Ⅶ-26,孙涛网扫;1♂,新疆和静县,2001-Ⅷ-08,胡红英网扫.2♀♀,新疆和硕县,2001-Ⅷ-07,胡红英网扫;3♀♀,3♂♂,新疆博湖县,2001-Ⅷ-07,胡红英网扫.

  19. Effect of early oviposition experience on host acceptance in Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and application of F1 sterility and T.principium to suppress the potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments with Trichogramma principium Sugonyaev and Sorokina females offered potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) eggs demonstrated that wasps rates of oviposition were highest the first day and decreased gradually thereafter. In addition, when T. principium females were sequentially offered eggs from 250-Gy irradiated parents or obtained from non-irradiated moths, the probability of host acceptance was not influenced by treatment of host eggs. In a concurrent laboratory study, a large cage test with combinant releases of T. principium and 250-Gy irradiated moths produced the greatest reduction in potato tuber moth F3-emerged progeny. Reductions obtained with irradiated moths alone, single release of irradiated moths with T. principium, and one or three releases of parasitoids were significantly higher than those in the control. From a pest management perspective, T. principium releases would synergistically complement the effects of F1 sterility against potato tuber moth infestation. (author)

  20. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers for DNA fingerprinting and genetic variability assessment of minute parasitic wasp species (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae) used in biological control programs of phytophagous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, B S; Dextraze, L; Boivin, G

    1993-06-01

    Biological control of insects that feed on our crops has become more practical in recent years by mass release of egg parasitoid microhymenoptera. Trichogramma species are now commercially reared and spread in commercial fields to control specific insect pests. Microhymenoptera species are, however, very small and morphologically indistinguishable within species, although strains of a given species differ in their efficiency to control specific insect pests. Traditional taxonomy is unable to differentiate microhymenoptera species at the strain level. It is becoming increasingly important to develop a reliable system to monitor genetic variations both within and between strains of commercially important microhymenoptera, to detect genetic drift occurring during several generations of multiplication, to protect patents, and to certify the lots of commercially released microhymenoptera. We have developed a system based on DNA markers to rapidly characterize individuals of five species of microhymenoptera from the genus Anaphes and Trichogramma including a new species of Anaphes not previously described. The main components of our system are a rapid and simple DNA micro-extraction method and fast DNA polymorphism analyses based on random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. PMID:8349128

  1. Potential use of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, R H L; Munk, T

    2004-12-01

    The larvae of small Diptera, such as Phoridae, from forensic cases are frequently identified by rearing out the adults. However, parasitoid Hymenoptera are often obtained instead. Rather than discarding these, it is suggested that, with a knowledge of their durations of development, they can be employed as surrogates for their hosts for estimating a minimum postmortem interval. Some data for a forensically important species of Phoridae parasitized by a species of Braconidae are presented. PMID:15642012

  2. New records of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera for the Italian fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Di Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available New distributional records on 55 ichneumonids (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae from Italy are provided. Of these, 47 species are new for Italy, including representatives of the subfamily Diacritinae and of the tribes Zimmeriini (Ichneumoninae and Pseudorhyssini (Poemeniinae; six species are new for Sardinia, one for Sicily and one for the Italian mainland. The hitherto unknown female of Baranisobas hibericus Heinrich, 1972 (Ichneumoninae is described.

  3. Larra bicolor Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae): its distribution throughout Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, J. Howard; Leppla, Norman C.; Sprenkel, Richard K.; Blount, Ann C.; Mizell, Russ F.

    2009-01-01

    We document the presence of Larra bicolor Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in 46 of Florida's 67 counties. The species is represented by two stocks. The first (released in 1981) originated in Pará, Brazil, but was obtained from Puerto Rico, and became established in Broward County in southern Florida. The second (released in 1988) originated in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, and became established in Alachua County in northern Florida. The Bolivian stock, aided by additional satellite ...

  4. Recruitment communication in stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini)

    OpenAIRE

    Nieh, James

    2004-01-01

    - The stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) have evolved sophisticated communication systems that allow foragers to recruit nestmates to good resources. Over the past 50 years, a growing body of research has shown that foragers can communicate three-dimensional resource location, uncovered several potential communication mechanisms, and demonstrated new information transfer mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms are unique to stingless bees and some may provide insight into how the a...

  5. Hymenoptera Parasitoid, a Suitable Biodiversity Resource for Vineyard Environmental Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Loni; Andrea Lucchi

    2014-01-01

    Vineyards host a high number of insect species and represent suitable environments to investigate the relationships among arthropod community and environmental biodiversity. Hymenoptera Braconidae summarize many of the attributes required to a reliable group of bioindicators. Indeed, they represent a complete assemblage of a family taxon and are quite well known from a taxonomical and faunistic point of view, occupying the top of the ecological (trophic) pyramid and occurring in very diverse ...

  6. Paridris Kieffer of the New World (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah Talamas; Lubomir Masner; Norman Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead)(Mexico (Tamaulipas) and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state)), Paridris armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela), Paridris convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama), Paridris dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz) south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás)), Paridris gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Un...

  7. A new species of the genus Homolobus Foerster from Ecuador (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Shaw, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    A new high elevation altitude species of the genus Homolobus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae), H. fuscinervis spec. nov. from Ecuador (Napo province, 2163 m elevation) is described and illustrated.

  8. First register of Helorus brethesi Oglobin, 1928 (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Heloridae) in Palmeira, PR, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cecília Dorfey; Andreas Köhler; Karine Schoeninger

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of Helorus brethesi Oglobin, 1928 (Hymenoptera: Heloridae) is reported in the town of Palmeira, Parana, Brazil, based on a specimen collected in a conventional tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) field with a Malaise trap.

  9. First register of Helorus brethesi Oglobin, 1928 (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Heloridae in Palmeira, PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Dorfey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Helorus brethesi Oglobin, 1928 (Hymenoptera: Heloridae is reported in the town of Palmeira, Parana, Brazil, based on a specimen collected in a conventional tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. field with a Malaise trap.

  10. Context dependent stridulatory responses of Leptogenys kitteli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to social, prey, and disturbance stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    By increasing the speed of stridulatory movements and the rates of stridulation pulses, individuals and groups of Leptogenys kitteli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) produce graded stridulatory responses to increasingly excitatory stimuli ranging from social interactions within a nest to prey items placed ...

  11. Two new species of the genus Wilkinsonellus Mason (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from northern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Long, K.D.; Achterberg, van, T.

    2003-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Wilkinsonellus Mason (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from northern Vietnam are described and illustrated: W. paramplus spec. nov. from Hoa Binh Province (northern Vietnam), and W. longicentrus spec. nov. from Ha Tinh Province (North Central Vietnam).

  12. Trophobiosis in the arboricolous ant .i.Liometopum microcephalum./i. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaghamerský, J.; Kašpar, J.; Petráková, L.; Šustr, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2013), s. 231-239. ISSN 1210-5759 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * arboricolous * ants * trophobiosis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2013

  13. Nesting Activity and Behavior of Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Elucidated Using Videography

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew I. McKinney; Yong-Lak Park

    2012-01-01

    Osmia cornifrons Radoszkowski (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is utilized as an alternate pollinator to Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in early-season fruit crops. This study was conducted to investigate nesting activities and associated behaviors of O. cornifrons. Osmia cornifrons nesting activity was recorded by using a digital video recorder with infrared cameras. Nesting behavior of ten female O. cornifrons was observed, and the number of nesting trips per hour was recorded. Trends i...

  14. A hymenopterists’ guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Seltmann; Matthew Yoder; Istvan Miko; Mattias Forshage; Matthew Bertone; Donat Agosti; Andrew Austin; James Balhoff; Marek Borowiec; Seán Brady; Gavin Broad; Denis Brothers; Roger Burks; Matthew Buffington; Heather Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Hymenoptera exhibit an incredible diversity of phenotypes, the result of ~240 million years of evolution and the primary subject of more than 250 years of research. Here we describe the history, development, and utility of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) and its associated applications. These resources are designed to facilitate accessible and extensible research on hymenopteran phenotypes. Outreach with the hymenopterist community is of utmost importance to the HAO project, and this p...

  15. Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Landscape and Hymenoptera Biodiversity at Cianjur Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHERWANDI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is one of the four largest insect order (the other three are Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera. There are curerently over 115 000 described Hymenoptera species. It is clear that Hymenoptera is one of the major components of insect biodiversity. However, Hymenoptera biodiversity is affected by ecology, environment, and ecosystem management. In an agricultural areas, the spatial structure, habitat diversity, and habitat composition may vary from cleared landscapes to structurally rich landscape. Thus, it is very likely that such large-scale spatial patterns (landscape effects may influence local biodiversity and ecological functions. Therefore, the objective of this research were to study diversity and configuration elements of agricultural landscapes at Cianjur Watershed with geographical information sytems (GIS and its influence on Hymenoptera biodiversity. The structural differences between agricultural landscapes of Nyalindung, Gasol, and Selajambe were characterized by patch analyst with ArcView 3.2 of digital land use data. Results indicated that class of land uses of Cianjur Watershed landscape were housing, mixed gardens, talun and rice, vegetable, and corn fields. Landscape structure influenced the biodiversity of Hymenoptera. Species richness and the species diversity were higher in Nyalindung landscape compare to Gasol and Selajambe landscape.

  16. Register of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele P. Camargo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Register of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Here we provide a description of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta with partial bilateral phenotypic asymmetry. The specimen was collected by cineol baittrap at Parque Estadual São Camilo, a conservation unit in western Paraná. The bee has mostly a female phenotype, except by the right half of its head, including the presence of 11 flagellomeres, ivory markings on scape and parocular area, by the pilosity of the right galea, and by deformed male characteristics on mid and hind tibiae of right legs.

  17. GRADACIJA SMREKINE OSE PREDIVICE Cephalcia arvensis (HYMENOPTERA: PAMPHILIIDAE) U SLOVENIJI

    OpenAIRE

    Meterc, Gregor; Borković, Danijel; Jurc, Maja

    2014-01-01

    U Sloveniji je prvi jak napad ose predivice iz roda Cephalcia (Hymenoptera, Symphyta, Pamphilidae) zabilježen u srpnju 2009. godine na padini Riflov vrh (koordinate: x = 492607, y = 155471) iznad grada Prevalje u sjevernom dijelu Slovenije. Napadnuto područje prostiralo se na površini od 106 ha u 60–90 godina staroj sastojini obične smreke (Picea abies) smještenoj na sjevernoj padini s nagibom 20 % i nadmorskoj visini između 600 i 800 metara. Drvna zaliha varira između 321 m3/ha i 408 m3/ha, ...

  18. Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: a new parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: um novo parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae is recorded as parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae é registrado como parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  19. Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae): a new parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae): um novo parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana; Marcelo T. Tavares

    2006-01-01

    Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) is recorded as parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) é registrado como parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae), no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  20. Espécies novas de Trigonisca Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae) New species of Trigonisca Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Maia Correia de Albuquerque; João Maria Franco de Camargo

    2007-01-01

    Algumas espécies novas de Meliponini do gênero Trigonisca Moure, 1950 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae) do Brasil e Panamá são descritas: T. roubiki sp. nov. (Panamá), T. variegatifrons sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, PA, MT), T. vitrifrons sp. nov. (Brasil: AM, PA), T. unidentata sp. nov. (Brasil: AM), T. meridionalis sp. nov. (Brasil: PA, MA, MT, MG, SP), T. bidentata sp. nov. (Brasil: RO), T. extrema sp. nov. (Brasil: AM) e T. hirticornis sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, PA); e são apresentados novos registros geo...

  1. Evaluación de la eficiencia de Trichogramma lopezandinensis (Hymenoptera: Irichogrammatidae) para el control de Teda solanivora (Lepidoptera: Ge lechuda e) en papa almacenada Evaluation of the efficiency of Tftchogramma lopezandinensis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to controlTecla solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in storage potato

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIA ALEJANDRA RUBIO C; BLANCA IRENE VARGAS A; ARISTÓBULO LÓPEZ-ÁVILA

    2004-01-01

    Se evaluó la eficiencia del parasitoide Trichogramma iopezandinensis Sarmiento en el control de la polilla guatemalteca Teda solanivora (Povolny) en papa almacenada. Se llevaron a cabo cuatro experimentos para determinar aspectos biológicos de la interacción en tres niveles tróficos constituidos por la papa almacenada, la plaga y el parasitoide. Estos experimentos comprendieron el diseño de un dispositivo de liberación del parasitoide, la determinación de las densidades y frecuencias de liber...

  2. On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melipona marginata var. torrida Friese, 1916, described from three workers putatively collected in Costa Rica, never had its identity properly recognized. Since its original description, no additional specimens have ever been collected in Costa Rica. It is argued here that Melipona torrida was based on mislabeled specimens and corresponds to Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, a form known only from southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. A lectotype is designated for Melipona torrida and notes on the type material of Melipona marginata obscurior are provided. Other known examples of species described from mislabeled specimens in Friese's Zur Bienenfauna von Costa Rica are discussed. It is pointed out that additional names proposed in this work, based on material from Costa Rica, might turn out to correspond to South American taxa. Also, the date of publication of this Friese's paper is discussed.

  3. Evaluation of insecticides for the control of Linepithema (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondillo, Aline; Chaves, Cindy Correa; Fialho, Flávio Bello; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2014-02-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for the spreading of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a soil scale that damages grapevine plants in southern Brazil. The effect of contact and ingestion of insecticides on the control of L. micans was evaluated in a greenhouse using grapevines (Vitis spp.) infested by L. micans. The insecticides thiamethoxam (250, 187.5, and 125 g/ha), fipronil (4, 5, and 50 ml/ha), and imidacloprid (650 g/ha) were sprayed on the ground, whereas toxic baits containing boric acid (0.5, 1.0, and 1.2%), pyriproxyfen (0.3 and 0.5%), and hydramethylnon (0.5%) were evaluated in different formulations. Hydramethylnon (toxic bait) and thiamethoxam (chemical barrier) were the most efficient active ingredients for the control of L. micans. PMID:24665704

  4. An annotated catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Fischer, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is given. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data. In total 78 species from 15 genera including Alloea Haliday, 1833 (1 species), Angelovia Zaykov, 1980 (1 species), Aphaereta Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Aspilota Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Chorebus Haliday, 1833 (42 species), Coelinidea Viereck, 1913 (2 species), Coloneura Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Dacnusa Haliday, 1833 (10 species), Dinotrema Foerster, 1862 (5 species), Idiasta Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Orthostigma Ratzeburg, 1844 (3 species), Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Protodacnusa Griffiths, 1964 (2 species), Pseudopezomachus Mantero, 1905 (2 species), and Synaldis Foerster, 1862 (3 species) are reported in this catalogue. Two species are new records for Iran: Coelinidea elegans (Curtis, 1829) and Dacnusa (Pachysema) aterrima Thomson, 1895. Also, a faunistic list with distribution data and host records is provided. PMID:26249881

  5. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae from Colombia

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    Ana Castro Huertas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox; Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron; Ageniella fallax (Arlé; Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron; Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; Aporus (Aporus cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus diverticulus (Fox; Aporus (Notoplaniceps canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks; Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox; Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans.

  6. Cytogenetic characterization of Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera, Apidae by fluorochromes

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    Jefferson de Brito Marthe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four colonies of the stingless bee Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera: Apidae were cytogenetically analyzed using conventional staining and the fluorochromes CMA3 e DAPI. The females have 2n = 34 chromosomes (2K=32+2. Some females, however, presented an additional large B acrocentric chromosome, to a total of 2n = 35. Chromosome B and the chromosomal pairs 2, 9 and 10 showed CMA3+ bands, indicating an excess of CG base-pairs. A clear association was verified between the P. helleri B chromosome SCAR marker and the presence of a B chromosome in P. cupira. The data obtained suggests that B chromosomes in P. helleri and P. cupira share a common origin.

  7. Oligonucleotide primers for targeted amplification of single-copy nuclear genes in apocritan Hymenoptera.

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    Gerrit Hartig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published nucleotide sequence data from the mega-diverse insect order Hymenoptera (sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants are taxonomically scattered and still inadequate for reconstructing a well-supported phylogenetic tree for the order. The analysis of comprehensive multiple gene data sets obtained via targeted PCR could provide a cost-effective solution to this problem. However, oligonucleotide primers for PCR amplification of nuclear genes across a wide range of hymenopteran species are still scarce. FINDINGS: Here we present a suite of degenerate oligonucleotide primer pairs for PCR amplification of 154 single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes from Hymenoptera. These primers were inferred from genome sequence data from nine Hymenoptera (seven species of ants, the honeybee, and the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. We empirically tested a randomly chosen subset of these primer pairs for amplifying target genes from six Hymenoptera, representing the families Chrysididae, Crabronidae, Gasteruptiidae, Leucospidae, Pompilidae, and Stephanidae. Based on our results, we estimate that these primers are suitable for studying a large number of nuclear genes across a wide range of apocritan Hymenoptera (i.e., all hymenopterans with a wasp-waist and of aculeate Hymenoptera in particular (i.e., apocritan wasps with stingers. CONCLUSIONS: The amplified nucleotide sequences are (a with high probability from single-copy genes, (b easily generated at low financial costs, especially when compared to phylogenomic approaches, (c easily sequenced by means of an additionally provided set of sequencing primers, and (d suitable to address a wide range of phylogenetic questions and to aid rapid species identification via barcoding, as many amplicons contain both exonic and fast-evolving intronic nucleotides.

  8. Parasitism capacity of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Regiane Cristina Oliveira de Freitas Bueno; Tatiana Rodrigues Carneiro; Adeney de Freitas Bueno; Dirceu Pratissoli; Odair Aparecido Fernandes; Simone Silva Vieira

    2010-01-01

    This work studied the parasitism capacity of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) eggs at 15, 20, 25, 28, 31, and 35°C, aiming to use this natural enemy in biological control programs in crops where S. frugiperda was considered pest. The parasitism during the first 24 h was 60.90, 81.65, 121.05, 117.55 and 108.55 parasited eggs per female from egg masses of approximately 150 eggs, at 15, 20, 25, 28 and 31°C, respectively....

  9. Espécies novas de Trigonisca Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae New species of Trigonisca Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Maia Correia de Albuquerque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Algumas espécies novas de Meliponini do gênero Trigonisca Moure, 1950 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae do Brasil e Panamá são descritas: T. roubiki sp. nov. (Panamá, T. variegatifrons sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, PA, MT, T. vitrifrons sp. nov. (Brasil: AM, PA, T. unidentata sp. nov. (Brasil: AM, T. meridionalis sp. nov. (Brasil: PA, MA, MT, MG, SP, T. bidentata sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, T. extrema sp. nov. (Brasil: AM e T. hirticornis sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, PA; e são apresentados novos registros geográficos de T. flavicans (Moure, 1950, T. intermedia Moure, 1989, T. dobzhanskyi (Moure, 1950, T. ceophloei (Schwarz, 1938, T. nataliae (Moure, 1950 e T. pediculana (Fabricius, 1804 e uma chave para identificação das espécies.Some new Meliponini species of the genus Trigonisca Moure, 1950 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae from Brazil and Panamá are described: T. roubiki sp. nov. (Panamá, T. variegatifrons sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, PA, MT, T. vitrifrons sp. nov. (Brazil: AM, PA, T. unidentata sp. nov. (Brazil: AM, T. meridionalis sp. nov. (Brazil: PA, MA, MT, MG, SP, T. bidentata sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, T. extrema sp. nov. (Brazil: AM and T. hirticornis sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, PA; additional geographic records from T. flavicans (Moure, 1950, T. intermedia Moure, 1989, T. dobzhanskyi (Moure, 1950, T. ceophloei (Schwarz, 1938, T. nataliae (Moure, 1950 and T. pediculana (Fabricius, 1804 and an identification key for species are presented.

  10. TRICHOSPILUS DIATRAEAE CHERIAN & MARGABANDHU, 1942 (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE), UN NUEVO PARASITOIDE DE HYPSIPYLA GRANDELLA (ZELLER, 1848) (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) TRICHOSPILUS DIATRAEAE CHERIAN & MARGABANDHU, 1942 (HYMENOPTERA:EULOPHIDAE), A NEW PARASITOID OF HYPSIPYLA GRANDELLA (ZELLER, 1848) (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Zaché; Carlos F. Wilcken; Ronelza R. C Zaché; Everton P Soliman; Lorena San Román

    2010-01-01

    Primer reporte de Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitando pupas de lagarta Hypsipyla grandella, principal plaga forestal en América Latina y el Caribe, abriendo nuevas perspectivas para la utilización de este parasitoide en programas de control biológico de lagartas de importancia forestal.This is the first report of Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) found in the field parasitizing pupae of the Hypsipyla grandella, major forest pest in Latin America and the...

  11. First report of Dicopus longipes (Subba Rao (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea from India with new distribution data on some species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rameshkumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dicopus longipes (Subba Rao (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Mymaridae is recorded from India for the first time. New additional distribution records of Mymaridae from the southern Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala are documented.

  12. Phylogeography of two parthenogenetic sawfly species (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae): relationship of population genetic differentiation to host plant distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, C.; Barker, A.; Boevé, J.L.; Jong, de P.W.; Vos, de H.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the population genetic structure of two obligate parthenogenetic sawfly species, Aneugmenus padi (L.) Zhelochovtsev and Eurhadinoceraea ventralis (Panzer) Enslin (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Allozymes were used to detect genetic differences in larvae collected at different site

  13. Review of the species of Gugolzia Delucchi and Steffan (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Europe and Turkey, with descriptions of new species

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞANLAR, Mikdat; DOĞANLAR, Oğuzhan

    2010-01-01

    The species of Gugolzia (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) in Europe and Turkey were reviewed, and an identification key for differentiating the species is provided. Newly discovered diagnostic characters of the genus were added to the diagnoses given by earlier authors. Species were recorded as parasitoids of phytophagous Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). New host and distributions are for Gugolzia harmolitae, which was reared from Tetramesa romana feeding on shoots of Arundo d...

  14. Mischocyttarus (Kappa) santacruzi, a new species of social wasp (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) from Eastern Brazilian wet forest

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Raw

    2000-01-01

    The holotype female, allotype male and nest are described of a new species of social wasp, Mischocyttarus (Kappa) santacruzi (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) from Atlantic coastal forest, Bahia, State, eastern Brazil. Morphologically the species is close to M. (Kappa) adolphi Zikán.

  15. Description of a new genus of Doryctinae wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, S.A.G.; Penteado-Dias, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The new genus Lianus of subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is described and illustrated. The differences from other genera of Doryctinae are discussed. Both included species originate from the Atlantic forest at Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil.

  16. Description of a new genus of Doryctinae wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, S.A.G.; Penteado-Dias, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The new genus Lianus of subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is described and illustrated. The differences from other genera of Doryctinae are discussed. Both included species originate from the Atlantic forest at Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil.

  17. Phylogeny and host-symbiont interactions of thelytoky inducing Wolbachia in Hymenoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van M.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Summary and conclusions

    Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria, Rickettsia) are widespread in arthropods and can induce thelytoky (T) in parasitoids (Hymenoptera). Infection with thelytoky inducing Wolbachia (T- Wolbachia ) enables infected females to produce daughters from unfert

  18. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy in Mastocytosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedoszytko, Marek; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.; Golden, David B. K.

    2014-01-01

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a typical IgE-mediated reaction caused by sensitization to 1 or more allergens of the venom, and accounts for 1.5% to 34% of all cases of anaphylaxis. Patients suffering from mastocytosis are more susceptible to the anaphylactic reactions to an insect sting. This article

  19. Pauesia decurrens sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of a Cinara sp. (Homoptera: Aphididae) from California

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Petr; Zuparko, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 81, 3/4 (2005), s. 171-176. ISSN 0031-0603 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5007102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Insecta * Hymenoptera * Braconidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.308, year: 2005

  20. Medium for development of bee cell cultures (Apis mellifera: Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bee cell culture system was developed. A medium, WH2, for the production of cell cultures from hymenopteran species such as honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was developed. Multiple bee cell cultures were produced when using bee larvae and pupae as starting material and the modif...

  1. First record of Euplectrus floryae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)parasitizing Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    PATRÍCIA PAULA BELLON; KELLEN FAVERO; MARCELO TEIXEIRA TAVARES; HARLEY NONATO DE OLIVEIRA

    2013-01-01

    This is the first report of Euplectrus floryae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Brazil and also the first report of this species parasitizing larvae of Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) on cassava. The occurrence of E. floryae on larvae of this pest on cassava opens up the possibility to integrate this natural enemy in biological control programs for cassava crops.

  2. Invasive ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): A rare quest or increasingly common indoor pest in Europe?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Petr; Okrouhlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 4 (2015), s. 705-712. ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Formicidae * Tapinoma Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2014 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2015/04/16.pdf

  3. A new genus and subgenus of the subfamily Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belokobylskij, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Three new taxa belonging to the subfamily Euphorinae Foerster (Hymenoptera; Braconidae) are described and illustrated. Mama mariae gen. nov. & spec. nov. from southern Far East Russia and two species of the subgenus Chaetocentistes nov. of the genus Centistes Haliday. A key to species (i.e. Centiste

  4. Biology of Eurytoma sivinskii, an unusual eurytomid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurytomidae are diverse biologically, being entomophagous, phytophagous or both and typically attack egg, larval and/or pupal stages of their hosts. Here, we describe some aspects of the natural history of a recently described Mexican species, Eurytoma sivinskii (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) found att...

  5. Pseudorhaconotus enervatus, a new genus and species from Spain (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Achterberg, van, T.; Shaw, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudorhaconotus enervatus gen. nov. & spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) from Spain is described and illustrated. The new genus is similar to the genus Rhaconotus Ruthe, 1854, but differs by the lack of vein r-m of the fore wing and by the absence of dorsope on the first metasomal tergite.

  6. Pseudorhaconotus enervatus, a new genus and species from Spain (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Shaw, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudorhaconotus enervatus gen. nov. & spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) from Spain is described and illustrated. The new genus is similar to the genus Rhaconotus Ruthe, 1854, but differs by the lack of vein r-m of the fore wing and by the absence of dorsope on the first metasomal ter

  7. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae occurring in Brazil

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    Bolívar Garcete-Barrett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae recorded from Brazil: H. arechavaletae (Brèthes and H. duckei (Bertoni comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time.

  8. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) occurring in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R; Hermes, Marcel Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) recorded from Brazil: Hypodynerus arechavaletae (Brèthes) and Hypodynerus duckei (Bertoni) comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time. PMID:23794876

  9. First description of the karyotype of a eucharitid wasp ( Hymenoptera , Chalcidoidea , Eucharitidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Igor Silva; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Costa, Marco Antonio; Mariano, Cléa Santos Ferreira; Silva, Janisete Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The haploid karyotype of Kapala sp. ( Eucharitidae ), a parasite of the Neotropical ant Dinoponera lucida Emery, 1901 ( Hymenoptera , Formicidae ), is reported for the first time. It consists of four metacentric chromosomes. Chromosomes in the family Eucharitidae were unknown so far; therefore, our results confirm that multiple parallel chromosomal fusions have taken place in several lineages within the superfamily Chalcidoidea .

  10. Dinoponera lucida Emery (Formicidae: Ponerinae): the highest number of chromosomes known in Hymenoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, C. S. F.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Ramos, L. S.; Lacau, S.; Pompolo, S. G.

    We report the remarkable karyotype of Dinoponera lucida, a Brazilian endemic ponerine ant. Its chromosome number is 2n=106, most of the chromosomes are acrocentric and of very small size, and the karyotype formula is 88A+18M. A chromosome pair of the AMt type is reported. This is the largest number of chromosomes reported for the Hymenoptera order until now.

  11. First report of Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae), a seed parasite of pistachio, in Sicily (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Santi Longo; Pompeo Suma

    2011-01-01

    The pistachio seed wasp, Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik.(Hymenoptera, E urytomidae), is a new pest recently arrived in pistachio orchards in central-western Sicily (Italy). Information on the damaging effects of this seed wasp in the affected areas is provided.

  12. Macrocentrus sylvestrellae spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae), a parasitoid of Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Achterberg, van, C.

    2001-01-01

    A new species of the genus Macrocentrus Curtis, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae) described and illustrated: M. sylvestrellae spec. nov. from France and Italy. It is a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid of the pine stem borer Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg, 1840) (Lepidoptera; Pyraloidea: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), a noxious pest in Pinus plantations in southern Europe.

  13. First report of Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, a seed parasite of pistachio, in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Longo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pistachio seed wasp, Eurytoma plotnikovi Nik.(Hymenoptera, E urytomidae, is a new pest recently arrived in pistachio orchards in central-western Sicily (Italy. Information on the damaging effects of this seed wasp in the affected areas is provided.

  14. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided. PMID:26446545

  15. Temperature-dependent emergence of Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph; Son, Youngsoo; Park, Yong-Lak

    2009-12-01

    Japanese hornfaced bees Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) are used for pollination of spring blooming fruit crops such as apple, pear, and blueberry. Because O. cornifrons has a short adult life span, synchronization of bee emergence with bloom is critical to maximize crop pollination. This study was conducted to determine lower temperature thresholds (LTDs), optimum temperatures, and required degree-day accumulation for emergence of O. cornifrons adults. Patterns of temperature-dependent emergence of O. cornifrons adults at seven temperatures (3.9, 12.0, 18.6, 26.6, 30.3, 35.6, and 42.5 degrees C) were modeled and simulated with linear and nonlinear regression analyses. Results of this study showed that required degree-days (DD) for emergence of male and female O. cornifrons adults were 125.2 DD, with LTD of 8.9 degrees C and 179.8 DD, with LTD of 8.6 degrees C, respectively. The optimum temperatures for emergence were 36.5, 30.2, and 35.7 degrees C for male, female, and both sexes combined, respectively. This study indicated that emergence of O. cornifrons adults could be manipulated to synchronize with pollination periods of target fruit crops. PMID:20069827

  16. Paridris Kieffer of the New World (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Talamas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae. Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead (Mexico (Tamaulipas and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state, P. armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela, P. convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama, P. dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás, P. gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina, P. gorn Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Ohio south to Alabama, Georgia, P. invicta Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil: São Paulo, P. isabelicae Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Cuba, Dominican Republic, P. lemete Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Puerto Rico, P. minor Talamas, sp. n. (Cuba, P. nayakorum Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, P. pallipes (Ashmead (southeastern Canada, United States south to Costa Rica, also Brazil (São Paulo, P. psydrax Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Argentina, Mexico, Paraguay, United States, Venezuela, P. saurotos Talamas, sp. n. (Jamaica, P. soucouyant Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela. Paridris brevipennis Fouts, P. laeviceps (Ashmead, and P. nigricornis (Fouts are treated as junior synonyms of P. pallipes; Paridris opaca is transferred to Probaryconus. Lectotypes are designated for Idris aenea Ashmead and Caloteleia aenea Ashmead.

  17. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology]. E-mails: cclaudia@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; john.sivinski@ars.usda.gov; Matthews, Robert W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: rmatthew@uga.edu; Gonzalez, Jorge M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: jmgonzalez@neo.tamu.edu; Aluja, Martin [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: martin.aluja@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  18. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  19. Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Luan D. Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Foraging activity may be limited by temperature, humidity, radiation, wind, and other abiotic factors, all of which can affect energy costs during foraging. Ectatomma vizottoi's biology has only recently been studied, and no detailed information is available on its foraging patterns or diet in the field. For this reason, and because foraging activity is an important part of the ecological success of social insects, the present study aimed to investigate E. vizottoi's foraging strategies and dietary habits. First, we determined how abiotic factors constrained E. vizottoi's foraging patterns in the field by monitoring the foraging activity of 16 colonies on eight different days across two seasons. Second, we characterized E. vizottoi's diet by monitoring another set of 26 colonies during peak foraging activity. Our results show that E. vizottoi has foraging strategies that are similar to those of congeneric species. In spite of having a low efficiency index, colonies adopted strategies that allowed them to successfully obtain food resources while avoiding adverse conditions. These strategies included preying on other ant species, a foraging tactic that could arise if a wide variety of food items are not available in the environment or if E. vizottoi simply prefers, regardless of resource availability, to prey on other invertebrates and especially on other ant species.

  20. Hemocytes of the Rose Sawfly Arge ochropus (Gmelin) (Hymenoptera: Argidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, R; Sendi, J J; Brayner, F A; Alves, L C; Feitosa, A P S

    2016-02-01

    We characterized individual morphological types of the rose sawfly, Arge ochropus (Gmelin) (Hymenoptera: Argidae), hemocytes for the first time by means of light and differential interference contrast microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Four types of hemocytes were identified in the hemolymph of larvae and pupae of A. ochropus: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, and oenocytoids. Prohemocytes are the smallest type of hemocytes, rounded to ovoid cells with large nuclei. Plasmatocytes are polymorphic and variable in size. Granulocytes are oval and spherical cells variable in size, with variable number of rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and microtubules in the cytoplasm. Oenocytoids contain eccentric nucleus and cytoplasm with small mitochondria and few rough endoplasmic reticula. Differential hemocyte counts indicated that plasmatocytes are the most abundant hemocyte type during early instars while granulocytes are the most abundant hemocyte type in the last instar. The pattern of total hemocyte count changed during rose sawfly development and reached its peak in prepupae and then declined slowly in the pupal stage. PMID:26429582

  1. World species of the genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae

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    Charuwat Taekul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Scelioninae is a widespread group in the Old World, found from West Africa to northern Queensland, Australia. The species concepts are revised and a key to world species is presented. The genus is comprised of 6 species, including 2 known species which are redescribed: Platyscelio africanus Risbec (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe; and Platyscelio pulchricornis Kieffer (Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam. Five species-group names are considered to be junior synonyms of Platyscelio pulchricornis: Platyscelio abnormis Crawford, syn. n., Platyscelio dunensis Mukerjee, syn. n., Platyscelio mirabilis Dodd, syn. n., Platyscelio punctatus Kieffer, syn. n., and Platyscelio wilcoxi Fullaway. The following species are hypothesized and described as new taxa: Platyscelio arcuatus Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia; Platyscelio mysterium Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa; Platyscelio mzantsi Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (South Africa; and Platyscelio striga Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia.

  2. Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Shoemaker DeWayne

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level evolutionary relationships. Results We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb, retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Conclusions The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches.

  3. Reward Value Determines Memory Consolidation in Parasitic Wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Fatouros, N.E.; Figueroa, I.A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Smid, H.M.; Huigens, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can store learned information in their brains through a series of distinct memory forms. Short-lasting memory forms can be followed by longer-lasting, consolidated memory forms. However, the factors determining variation in memory consolidation encountered in nature have thus far not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that two parasitic wasp species belonging to different families, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Trichogramma evanescens (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatida...

  4. Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nests of Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 were obtained from trap-nests in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest (Baixa Grande and caatinga (Ipirá, in the State of Bahia. Nesting occurred in bamboo canes and in tubes of black cardboard with 5.8 cm (= small tube and 10.5 cm (= large tube in length and 0.6 and 0.8 cm in diameter, respectively. In both areas C. tarsata nested during the wet season producing four generations in Baixa Grande and three generations in Ipirá. The immatures of one generation underwent diapause at both sites. The bees constructed their nests with a mixture of sand and oil. In general, the cells were elongated and arranged in linear series with its opening pointing towards the nest entrance. Completed nests had two to three cells in small tubes, one to seven cells in large tubes, and two to 13 cells in bamboo canes. The nest plug resembled an uncompleted cell and was externally covered with oil. The cells were provisioned with pollen, oil, and nectar. Nests were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and other not identify bee species.Ninhos de Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 foram obtidos através da utilização de ninhos-armadilha, em áreas de floresta estacional semi-decídua (Baixa Grande e de caatinga (Ipirá, no Estado da Bahia. A nidificação ocorreu em gomos de bambus e em tubos de cartolina preta, estes com comprimentos de 5,8 cm (= tubos pequenos e 10,5 cm (= tubos grandes, e diâmetro de 0,6 e 0,8 cm, respectivamente. Em ambas as áreas C. tarsata nidificou durante a estação úmida, produzindo quatro gerações anuais em Baixa Grande e três em Ipirá. Os imaturos de uma das gerações passaram por diapausa em ambos os locais. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de areia e óleo. Em geral, as células foram alongadas e arranjadas em série linear, com sua abertura dirigida para a entrada do ninho. Os ninhos completados tinham de duas a três células nos tubos pequenos

  5. Testing baits to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Kent M; Cooper, Monica L; Sime, Karen R; Nelson, Erik H; Battany, Mark C; Rust, Michael K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid baits were evaluated for control of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and associated mealybug and soft scale pests in California vineyards. In 2003, liquid baits with small doses ofimidacloprid, boric acid, or thiamethoxam dissolved in 25% sucrose water resulted in lower ant and mealybug densities and fruit damage, compared with an untreated control. Similar treatments in a soft scale-infested vineyard showed only a reduction of ant density and fruit infestation in only the boric acid and thiamethoxam treatments. In 2004, commercial and noncommercial formulations of liquid baits reduced ant densities in three separate trials, but they had inconsistent effects on mealybug densities and fruit infestation; granular protein bait had no effect. Using large plots and commercial application methodologies, liquid bait deployed in June resulted in lower ant density and fruit infestation, but it had no effect on mealybug density. Across all trials, liquid bait treatments resulted in lower ant density (12 of 14 trials) and fruit damage (11 of 14 sites), presenting the first report of liquid baits applied using commercial methodologies that resulted in a reduction of ants and their associated hemipteran crop damage. For commercialization of liquid baits, we showed that any of the tested insecticides can suppress Argentine ants when properly delivered in the crop system. For imidacloprid, bait dispensers must be protected from sunlight to reduce photodegradation. Results suggest that incomplete ant suppression can suppress mealybug densities. However, after ant populations are suppressed, there may be a longer period before hemipteran populations are effectively suppressed. Therefore, liquid baits should be considered part of a multiseason program rather than a direct, in-season control of hemipteran pest populations. PMID:18613568

  6. Relative attractiveness of baits to Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Margaret C; Robinson, Wayne A

    2007-04-01

    Exotic ant incursions are becoming more frequent around the globe, and management with toxic baits is a suitable strategy for most species. Crazy ants, (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), however, are notoriously difficult to attract to commercial baits, which are generally tailored to the preferences of fire ants. We tested P. longicornis preferences for various food types and commercial ant baits. Baits trialed were commercially available products Amdro, Maxforce, Xstinguish (nontoxic monitoring version), Presto, and tuna (in spring water), sugar water (25%), boric acid (1% in 25% sugar water), and deionized water. Tuna and Xstinguish, along with sugar water and sugar water + boric acid, were the most attractive baits to P. longicornis foragers. The granular baits (Maxforce, Amdro, and Presto) were not as attractive to P. longicornis foragers. A decrease in temperature from summer (30 degrees C) to autumn (23 degrees C) trials did not seem to affect the food preferences of P. longicornis. Although P. longicornis recruitment was substantially lower during trials where there was concurrent high native ant abundance and diversity, P. longicornis still recruited to preferred baits in numbers higher than any other species. Given that tuna is impractical for management programs, the effectiveness of boric acid, sweet liquid baits in eliminating P. longicornis colonies should be compared with that of the toxic version of Xstinguish. If both are effective at eliminating colonies, we recommend sweet liquid baits containing boric acid be used for small-scale incursions (one or two nests), but a more practicable solid bait, such as Xstinguish, be used for larger scale incursions (numerous nests). PMID:17461077

  7. Fertility signals in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramkova, A.; Schulz, C.; Twele, R.; Francke, W.; Ayasse, M.

    2008-06-01

    In eusocial Hymenoptera, queen control over workers is probably inseparable from the mechanism of queen recognition. In primitively eusocial bumblebees ( Bombus), worker reproduction is controlled not only by the presence or absence of a dominant queen but also by other dominant workers. Furthermore, it was shown that the queen dominance is maintained by pheromonal cues. We investigated whether there is a similar odor signal released by egg-laying queens and workers that may have a function as a fertility signal. We collected cuticular surface extracts from nest-searching and breeding Bombus terrestris queens and workers that were characterized by their ovarian stages. In chemical analyses, we identified 61 compounds consisting of aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, and fatty acid esters. Nest-searching queens and all groups of breeding females differed significantly in their odor bouquets. Furthermore, workers before the competition point (time point of colony development where workers start to develop ovaries and lay eggs) differed largely from queens and all other groups of workers. Breeding queens showed a unique bouquet of chemical compounds and certain queen-specific compounds, and the differences toward workers decrease with an increasing development of the workers’ ovaries, hinting the presence of a reliable fertility signal. Among the worker groups, the smallest differences were found after the competition point. Egg-laying females contained higher total amounts of chemical compounds and of relative proportions of wax-type esters and aldehydes than nest-searching queens and workers before the competition point. Therefore, these compounds may have a function as a fertility signal present in queens and workers.

  8. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae

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    Vladimir Gokhman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896 is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862 and L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for L. boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979 (n = 9, whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the L. heterotoma clade. Like L. boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for G. xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insect communities.

  9. Assessment of potential fumigants to control Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) associated with Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph B; Park, Yong-Lak; West, Todd P; Tobin, Patrick C

    2009-12-01

    With the recent decline of honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), there is a need for alternative or supplemental crop pollinators, such as Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). However, O. cornifrons propagation could be impeded by a cleptoparasitic mite, Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker. We investigated the effects of formic acid and wintergreen oil on mortality of C. krombeini hypopi and O. cornifrons adults by determining the lethal concentration of each compound on each species. On average, >4.8 and >1.8 h were required to cause mortality in O. cornifrons adults when 176.7 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil, respectively. Estimates of LC50 for C. krombeini hypopi treated with formic acid and wintergreen oil were 54.3 and 271.3 ppm, respectively. This study showed that C. krombeini could be controlled effectively without inducing O. cornifrons adult mortality based on concentration and duration of fumigation. PMID:20069836

  10. Diversity of the euglossine bee community (Hymenoptera, Apidae) of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme do Carmo Silveira; Anderson Machado Nascimento; Silvia Helena Sofia; Solange Cristina Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Diversity of the euglossine bee community (Hymenoptera, Apidae) of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil. Euglossine bees, attracted to scent baits of cineole, eugenol and vanillin, were collected with entomological nets, from December 1998 to November 1999. Samplings were carried out once a month simultaneously by two collectors positioned in two different sites in an Atlantic Forest remnant in northeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 859 male euglossine bees, belonging t...

  11. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps.

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    Martin Kaltenpoth

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes. Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of

  12. Análisis de los nidos de algunas Osmia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) nidificantes en cavidades preestablecidas

    OpenAIRE

    Vicens, Narcís; Bosch, Jordi; Blas, Marina

    1993-01-01

    Nests of some cavity-nesting Osmia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Nests of seven Osmia species (0. cornuta, 0 . rufa, O. tricornis, 0. coerulescens, 0. fulviventris, 0. latreillei, and 0 . submicans) nesting in preestablished holes were obtained through placement of trap-nests in the field. Analyses of nests provided data on nest architecture (number of cells per nest, materials used for nest construction), structure of provisions (including types of pollens collected), structure of cocoons and...

  13. Fenología de los bracónidos (Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea, Braconidae) del Pirineo andorrano

    OpenAIRE

    Falcó Garí, J. V.; Oltra Moscardó, M. T.; Moreno Marí, J.; Pujade-Villar, J.; Jiménez Peydró, R.

    2006-01-01

    Phenology of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea) at Andorra has been conducted/studied using a Malaise trap after a one-year cycle during 1993. A total of 1.892 specimens, representing 23 subfamilies and 79 genera were sampled. About 93.7% of the captures were koinobiont braconids, whereas 6.3% belonged to idiobiont braconids. The annual phenology has been characterized through the correlation between the evolution of ...

  14. 90 Improving the Diagnosis of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: Component Resolved Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes, Liliana; Balzer, Lukas; Simon, Blank; Seismann, Henning; Darsow, Ulf; Spillner, Edzard; Ring, Johannes; Ollert, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background Up to 3% of the general population suffers from potentially life-threatening systemic reactions after honeybee and wasp stings. Unfortunately, there are still individuals who have a convincing history of an anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic, making difficult the decision for immunotherapy. Our aims were to evaluate the feasibility of using recombinant allergens in the Basophil activation test (BAT) for the diagnosis of Hymenoptera allergy and to develop a high-t...

  15. Meliponini neotropicais: o gênero Partamona Schwarz, 1939 (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia R. M. Pedro; João M.F. Camargo

    2003-01-01

    Neotropical Meliponini: the genus Partamona Schwarz, 1939 (Hymenoptera, Apidae). The systematics and biogeography of Partamona Schwarz, a Neotropical genus of stingless bees (Meliponini, Apinae, Apidae), are revised. Seventeen new species are described: P. epiphytophila sp. nov., P. subtilis sp. nov., P. nhambiquara sp. nov., P. batesi sp. nov., P. yungarum sp. nov., P. vitae sp. nov., P. ferreirai sp. nov., P. gregaria sp. nov., P. auripennis sp. nov., P. nigrilabris sp. nov., P. combinata s...

  16. On the egg parasitoids of Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera: Argidae, an invasive pest species from Japan

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    Emilian Pricop

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the parasitic Hymenoptera reared from Aproceros leucopodaTakeuchi, 1939 eggs and also we give notes regarding the different parasitoids of this invasive saw fly.Asecodes (Teleopterus erxias (Walker, 1848 was reared for the first time from the eggs of Aprocerosleucopoda. From unidentified eggs on Ulmus minor we also reared Anastatus bifasciatus (Geoffroy,1785. From pupae of A. leucopodae emerged also few specimens of an ichneumonid wasp.

  17. The genus Macroteleia Westwood (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s. l., Scelioninae) from China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Huayan; Norman Johnson; Lubomir Masner; Xu Zaifu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Macroteleia Westwood (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s. l., Scelioninae) from China is revised. Seventeen species are recognized based on 502 specimens, all of which are new records for China. Seven new species are described: Macroteleia carinigena sp. n. (China), Macroteleia flava sp. n. (China), Macroteleia gracilis sp. n. (China), Macroteleia salebrosa sp. n. (China), Macroteleia semicircula sp. n. (China), Macroteleia spinitibia sp. n. (China) and Macroteleia striatipleuro...

  18. Formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) associadas a pomares de citrinos na região do Algarve

    OpenAIRE

    Zina, Vera Mónica Henriques Leitão Franco

    2008-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica - Instituto Superior de Agronomia Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) may play an important economic role in citrus orchards, either by causing damage in trees or induce pest’s outbreaks, due to interactions with injurious honeydew-producing insects, or even by being potential predators of other arthropods. In order to deepen knowledge about the ant species associated to citrus orchards, in the southern region of Portugal, Algarve, samples were c...

  19. Toxicity of Spirotetramat on Solitary Bee Larvae, Osmia Cornuta (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), in Laboratory Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sgolastra Fabio; Tosi Simone; Medrzycki Piotr; Porrini Claudio; Burgio Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we assessed, under laboratory conditions, the toxicity of an active substance on solitary bee larvae of Osmia cornuta (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). A field-realistic dose of the systemic insecticide spirotetramat was applied to the mass provisions. The insecticide’s effects on several life-cycle parameters were studied in males and females. Our results showed a significantly shorter post-emergence longevity in bees exposed to spirotetramat during the larval stage, compared to the...

  20. 89 Is Basophil Specific Response to Hymenoptera Venom Related to T Regulatory Cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Kucera, Petr; Hulikova, Katarina; Cvackova, Milada; Planska, Daniela; Riegerova, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    Background The exact mechanism of systemic hypersensitivity to venom is not exactly understood. It is suggested T cells with regulatory potential can downregulate other T cell subsets and effector cells, ex. mast cell or basophils. We focused on relationship of specific basophil reactivity in relationship to proportion of regulatory T cells. Methods Forty-five patients with history of systemic symptoms of allergy to Hymenoptera venom were included. Basophil reactivity before the treatment and...

  1. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of Fipronil and Imidacloprid on Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Adan del Rio, Angeles; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Bengochea Budia, Paloma; Budia Marigil, Maria Flor; Estal Padillo, Pedro Del; Medina Velez, Maria Pilar; Aguado Cortijo, Pedro Luis

    2011-01-01

    Psyttalia concolor (Szèpligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid of several species of tephritid (Diptera) larvae, such as Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Here, we report on the effects of imidacloprid and fipronil on P. concolor females, when different routes of exposure were evaluated: residual contact (cover and bait sprays) and via treatment of host species. Moreover, the persistence of the bait formulated compound also was studied. Fo...

  2. Species of Lepidoptera defoliators of Eucalyptus as new host for the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira; Teresinha Vinha Zanuncio; José Cola Zanuncio; Dirceu Pratissoli; Marcelo Teixeira Tavares

    2008-01-01

    Pupae of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) and Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) were obtained from Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake plants, respectively. Specimens of a parasitoid emerged from T. arnobia pupae and also found parasitising T. leucoceraea pupae in the field were identified as Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). This is the first report on P. elaeisis parasitizing T. arnobia and T. leucoceraea pu...

  3. De kortsnuitbloedbij Sphecodes majalis nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Raemakers, I.

    2004-01-01

    Sphecodes majalis, a new bee species for the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Apidae) A population of Sphecodes majalis was found on a limestone grassland near Maastricht (Limburg). On several occasions more than 10 female and several male specimen were observed. Sphecodes majalis is a parasite of Lasioglossum pallens, which was recorded for the first time in the Netherlands in 1997. Since then L. pallens has become well established in the southern part of the province of Limburg. At the locality wh...

  4. Cold storage possibilities of a larval parasitoid, Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    TUNCA, Hilal; NazanYEŞİL, Ayşe; ÇALIŞKAN, Türkan Feyza

    2014-01-01

    The effects of cold storage on the biology of the larval parasitoid Venturia canescens were tested. Storage studies were conducted in two stages, pre-adult and adult stage of the larval parasitoid, Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Pre-adult stage of parasitoid was stored in last larval stage of the hosts, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at 5, 10, 15°C for 1, 3, 5, 7, and 15 days. Simila...

  5. Diversity and host associations of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in the farmlands of western Iran

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nazari, Y.; Zamani, A. A.; Masoumi, S. M.; Rakhshani, E.; Petrović-Obradović, O.; Tomanović, S.; Starý, Petr; Tomanović, Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2012), s. 559-584. ISSN 0374-1036 Grant ostatní: University of Zabol(IR) 89-9198; The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (RS) III43001; The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (RS) OI173006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Braconidae * Aphidiinae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2012

  6. Inbreeding and building up small populations of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Nogueira - Neto

    2002-01-01

    A study of the viability of small populations of Hymenoptera is a matter of importance to gain a better zoological, ethological, genetical and ecological knowledge of these insects, and for conservation purposes, mainly because of the consequences to the survival of colonies of many species of bees, wasps, and ants. Based on the Whiting (1943) principle, Kerr & Vencovski (1982) presented a hypothesis that states that viable populations of stingless bees (Meliponini) should have at least 40 co...

  7. Review of the world species of Exoryza (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with description of five new species

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Triana, Jose L.; Whitfield, James B.; Smith, M. Alex; Dapkey, Tanya; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    The world species of the genus Exoryza (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) are revised. Ten species are recognized, including five new, authored by Fernandez-Triana: mariabustosae, richardashleyi, ritaashleyae, rosamatarritae and yeimycedenoae. The species Dolichogenidea oryzae Walker, 1994 is considered as related to Exoryza – although is not formally transferred to that genus. A dichotomous key to all species, descriptions and illustrations are provided. The only region where the genu...

  8. Potential of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as biocontrol agent of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleopetera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ngamo, T. S. L.; Kouninki, H.; Ladang, Y. D.; NGASSOUM, M.B.; Mapongmestsem, P. M.; Hance, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleopetera: Bruchidae) is a major pest of stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in Africa and particularly in northern Cameroon. Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoid of its larval stages, could be used in the biological control of this grain pest. In field conditions, 5 months samples in small holder granaries established the phenological relationship between this parasitoid and its host. Large amount of A. calandrae ma...

  9. Ooencyrtus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), egg parasitoids of the pistachio green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Mohammad; Mehrnejad, M Reza

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with three species of Ooencyrtus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) obtained from eggs of the green stink bug, Brachynema germarii (Kolenati) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) infesting pistachio plants in Iran. Two new species, Ooencyrtus iranicus Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov. and O. pistaciae Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov., are described, and O. telenomicida (Vassiliev) is newly recorded from Iran, redescribed and illustrated. A key to some species considered similar to the species treated here is also given. PMID:27395169

  10. A new species of Westralianus Boucek 1988 (Hymenoptera:Torymidae: Megastigminae) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞANLAR, Mikdat

    2011-01-01

    A new species of the Australian genus Westralianus Boucek (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Torymidae) is described from Altınözü, Hatay, Turkey. Some new diagnostic characters of the genus are provided by inclusion of a second species in the genus. The new species, W. altinoezus n.sp., is compared with the type species, W. microstigma Boucek 1988. The new species was recorded as a parasitoid of caterpillars of an unknown species of Lepidoptera living in galls of Gymnosporangium confusum (Uredinale...

  11. A contribution to the knowledge of Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with six new records from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    S. Farahani; A. A. Talebi; E. Rakhshani

    2013-01-01

    A survey was conducted for identification of Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the northern provinces of Iran. The specimens were collected using Malaise traps during 2010-2011. In all, 9 species in four genera consisting of Allurus Förster, Dinocampus Förster, Peristenus Nees and Perilitus Nees were collected and identified. The genus Allurus is recorded for the first time from Iran. Six species are newly recorded for the Iranian fauna including Allurus muricatus (Haliday), P...

  12. Phylogeny and population genetic structure of ant genus Acropyga (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Milan; Matos Maravi, Pavel F.; Borovanská, Michaela; Zima, Jan; Youngerman, E.; Pierce, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2016), s. 28-40. ISSN 1445-5226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant ostatní: Marie Curie Fellowship(CZ) PIOFGA2009-25448; Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations(CZ) CZ.1.05/3.2.00/08.0144 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acropyga * Hymenoptera * Papua New Guinea Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2014

  13. Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Aparecida Nickele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Colony migration is a poorly studied phenomenon in leaf-cutting ants. Here we report on the emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant A. heyeri in Brazil. The colony emigrated to a new location 47.4 m away from the original nest site, possibly because it had undergone considerable stress due to competitive interactions with a colony of Acromyrmex crassispinus.

  14. Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Aparecida Nickele; Marcio Roberto Pie; Wilson Reis Filho

    2012-01-01

    Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Colony migration is a poorly studied phenomenon in leaf-cutting ants. Here we report on the emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant A. heyeri in Brazil. The colony emigrated to a new location 47.4 m away from the original nest site, possibly because it had undergone considerable stress due to competitive interactions with a colony of Acromyrmex crassispinus.

  15. Characterization and Generation of Male Courtship Song in Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bredlau, Justin P.; Mohajer, Yasha J.; Cameron, Timothy M.; Kester, Karen M.; Fine, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Male parasitic wasps attract females with a courtship song produced by rapid wing fanning. Songs have been described for several parasitic wasp species; however, beyond association with wing fanning, the mechanism of sound generation has not been examined. We characterized the male courtship song of Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and investigated the biomechanics of sound production. Methods and Principal Findings Courtship songs were recorded using high-speed videogr...

  16. Poles Apart: Comparing Trends of Alien Hymenoptera in New Zealand with Europe (DAISIE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Darren; Edney-Browne, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Developing generalisations of invasive species is an important part of invasion biology. However, trends and generalisations from one part of the world may not necessarily hold elsewhere. We present the first inventory and analysis of all Hymenoptera alien to New Zealand, and compare patterns from New Zealand with those previously published from Europe (DAISIE). Between the two regions there was broad correlation between families with the highest number of alien species (Braconidae, Encyrtida...

  17. Cuticular lipids of the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): Chemistry and behavioural function

    OpenAIRE

    Kühbandner, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Animals communicate with each other by means of optical, acoustic, tactile, electrical and chemical signals. This doctoral thesis deals with the contact sex pheromone of the parasitic wasp species Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Males respond to the cuticular lipids of conspecific females by stereotypic courtship behaviour. Young males and pupae of either sex also produce the cuticular lipids that release courtship behaviour in conspecific males. However, with increasin...

  18. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  19. Material capturado e utilizado na alimentação de Polybia (Trichothorax) Sericea (Olivier, 1791) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lígia Letízio Machado; Nivar Gobbi; Valter Vieira Alves Junior

    1988-01-01

    As presas utilizadas por Polybia (Trichothorax) sericea compreendem 6 ordens de insetos (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera e Odonata) e 1 ordem de Arachnida (Araneae), com preferência por larvas de Lepidoptera. A média de proteína transportada é de 15,3 mg e o peso diário estimado é de 522,6 mg, o que indica mais de 12000 presas por ano.The prey items utilized by Polybia (Trichothorax) sericea comprise 6 orders of Insecta (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera and Odon...

  20. Tanzawana flavomaculata (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae), a new genus and species of parasitoid of Fagineura crenativora (Tenthredinidae, Nematinae), a serious pest of beech tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kyohei; Taniwaki, Tooru; Kasparyan, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new genus, and a new species, of parasitoid--Tanzawana flavomaculata Watanabe & Kasparyan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ctenopelmatinae)--based on material collected in Honshu, Japan. As T. flavomaculata is found on Fagineura crenativora Vikberg & Zinovjev, 2000 (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a serious pest of beech tree, this parasitoid is an important natural enemy of F. crenativora that can be used for the biological control of this pest. PMID:26624663

  1. Improved sensitivity to venom specific-immunoglobulin E by spiking with the allergen component in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruo Yoshida

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The measurement of sIgE following spiking of rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 by conventional testing in Japanese subjects with sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom, respectively, improved the sensitivity for detecting Hymenoptera venom allergy. Improvement testing for measuring sIgE levels against hornet and paper wasp venom has potential for serologically elucidating Hymenoptera allergy in Japan.

  2. The effect of linear distance on the parasitism of house fly hosts (Diptera: Muscidae) by Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common pupal parasitoid of pest flies in livestock facilities. Biological control for fly control using parasitoids has had variable success. The lack of efficacy in some trials may be a consequence of the insufficient knowledge of parasi...

  3. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  4. Description of two new species of Tetracneminae Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from India with key to the species

    OpenAIRE

    Tirunagaru Krishnachaitanya; Sagadai Manickavasagam

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Tetracneminae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae) are described from the material collected from Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu states of India. They are: Charitopus montibus sp. nov. and Eotopus elongare sp. nov. A key to the Indian species of both genera is provided.

  5. FIRST RECORD IN ITALY OF PSYLLAEPHAGUS BLITEUS RIEK (Hymenoptera Encyrtidae) PARASITOID OF GLYCASPIS BRIMBLECOMBEI MOORE (Hemiptera Psyllidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Caleca, V.; LO VERDE, G; Maltese, M.

    2011-01-01

    Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera Encyrtidae), parasitoid of the red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera Psyllidae), has been recorded for the first time in Italy in September 2011. The arrival of P. bliteus in Sicily is due to an accidental introduction, probably together with its host, as already happened in New Zealand, Brazil, Spain and Morocco.

  6. Preliminary taxonomic study of the genus Praon (Hymenoptera:Braconidae:Aphidiinae) and its host associations in Iran

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakhshani, E.; Talebi, A. A.; Manzari, S.; Tomanovic, Ž.; Starý, Petr; Rezwani, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2007), s. 19-34. ISSN 0259-9996 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : genus Praon * Hymenoptera * Iran Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. A new species of the Camponotus aureopilus VIEHMEYER, 1914 species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shattuck, S.; Janda, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2009), s. 251-253. ISSN 1994-4136 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR KJB612230701 Grant ostatní: U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-02-11591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : taxonomic description * Hymenoptera * Formicidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  8. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  9. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes USBombus, a large dataset that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the US was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affi...

  10. Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina) presence in commercial Bombus impatiens Cresson and feral Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, eight commercial and three feral bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson and Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer respectively, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies were tested for the presence of Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina), a yeast known to attract small hive beetles (SHB) (Aethina ...

  11. Review of species of the genus Adelurola Strand, 1928, with a key to species ( Hymenoptera , Braconidae , Alysiinae )

    OpenAIRE

    Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Yari, Zahra; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Ehsan Rakhshani,; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The alysiine genus Adelurola Strand, 1928 ( Hymenoptera , Braconidae ) is revised. Illustrated re-descriptions and a key to all known species of this genus are given. The following new combination is proposed: Dapsilarthra eurys (Chen & Wu, 1994), comb. n. Adelurola amplidens (Fischer, 1966) and Adelurola asiatica Telenga, 1935 are recorded for the first time from Iran and Kyrgyzstan, respectively.

  12. Review of species of the genus Adelurola Strand, 1928, with a key to species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Yari, Zahra; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Ehsan Rakhshani; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The alysiine genus Adelurola Strand, 1928 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) is revised. Illustrated re-descriptions and a key to all known species of this genus are given. The following new combination is proposed: Dapsilarthra eurys (Chen & Wu, 1994), comb. n. Adelurola amplidens (Fischer, 1966) and Adelurola asiatica Telenga, 1935 are recorded for the first time from Iran and Kyrgyzstan, respectively. PMID:27047244

  13. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  14. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...

  15. Orientopius Fischer (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae new for Europe, with first notes on its biology and description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Achterberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Orientopius Fischer, 1966 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae is reported for the first time from Europe and the West Palaearctic region, its biology (parasitoids of Phytobia spp. is given for the first time and a new species (O. europaeus sp. n. is described from France and Bulgaria.

  16. Selection of Trichogramma strains and determination of number of parasitoids to be released to control Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae); Selecao de linhagens de Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) e determinacao do numero de parasitoides a ser liberado para o controle de Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rosa Maria da Silva; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: rmsmolina@ig.com.br, e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br

    2006-12-15

    In order to select Trichogramma strains to control G. aurantianum, the biological characteristics of 13 Trichogramma species/strains were evaluated. After selection, the ideal number of T. pretiosum (G18 strain) to be released per G. aurantianum egg was determined in greenhouse tests. The selection test for species/strains was carried out in an incubator adjusted to 25 +- 1 deg C, RH 70 +- 10%, and a 14 h photo phase. The ideal number of parasitoids was estimated in cages covered with a piece of voile-type fabric. The cycle duration for the 13 Trichogramma species/strains varied from 10.2 to 11.9 days. The Atp strain (T. atopovirilia) showed greater parasitism capacity, with an average of 23.3 parasitized eggs and 77.5% parasitism in 24 hours. The G18 strain (T. pretiosum) came next, with an average of 16.8 parasitized eggs and 56.1% parasitism during the same time interval. The emergency, longevity of males, and sex ratio for the 13 species/strains were similar. The number of adults emerged per egg was 1.8 for strains G11 (T. pretiosum) and Br10 (T. bruni), which were different from the G3 strain (T. pretiosum) only, with 1.3 adults per egg. With regard to female longevity, distinct values were observed only between T. pretiosum strains Tp and L2, with 6.3 and 9.3 days, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions, the estimated ratio of 36 T. pretiosum parasitoids per G. aurantianum egg allowed the highest percentage of parasitism (89%). Therefore, Trichogramma spp. has a potential to control G. aurantianum, as long as a large number of parasitoids is released per unit area. (author)

  17. Seleção de linhagens de Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae e determinação do número de parasitóides a ser liberado para o controle de Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae Selection of Trichogramma strains and determination of number of parasitoids to be released to control Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae

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    Rosa Maria da Silva Molina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de selecionar linhagens de Trichogramma para o controle de G. aurantianum, avaliaram-se as características biológicas de 13 linhagens/espécies deste parasitóide. A partir desta seleção, determinou-se o número ideal de T. pretiosum (linhagem G18 a ser liberado por ovo de G. aurantianum em testes de telado. O teste de seleção de linhagens/espécies foi realizado em câmara climatizada regulada a 25±1ºC, UR: 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 14h. O número ideal de parasitóides foi estimado em gaiolas recobertas com tecido do tipo "voile". A duração do ciclo de vida das 13 linhagens/espécies de Trichogramma variou de 10,2 a 11,9 dias. A linhagem Atp (T. atopovirilia apresentou maior capacidade de parasitismo, com uma média de 23,3 ovos parasitados e 77,5% de parasitismo em 24 horas, vindo a seguir a linhagem G18 (T. pretiosum com média de 16,8 ovos parasitados e 56,1% de parasitismo no mesmo intervalo de tempo. As 13 linhagens/espécies tiveram desempenho semelhante quanto à emergência, longevidade de machos e razão sexual. O número de adultos emergidos por ovo foi de 1,8 para as linhagens G11 (T. pretiosum e Br10 (T. bruni, as quais diferiram apenas da linhagem G3 (T. pretiosum, esta com 1,3 indivíduo/ovo. Para a longevidade de fêmeas foram encontrados valores distintos apenas entre as linhagens de T. pretiosum Tp e L2, com 6,3 e 9,3 dias, respectivamente. A proporção estimada de 36 parasitóides por ovo de G. aurantianum possibilitou a maior porcentagem de parasitismo por T. pretiosum (89% nas condições de telado. Portanto, Trichogramma spp. apresentam potencial de controle de G. aurantianum, desde que liberados em grandes quantidades por unidade de área.In order to select Trichogramma strains to control G. aurantianum, the biological characteristics of 13 Trichogramma species/strains were evaluated. After selection, the ideal number of T. pretiosum (G18 strain to be released per G. aurantianum egg was determined in greenhouse tests. The selection test for species/strains was carried out in an incubator adjusted to 25±1ºC, RH 70 ± 10%, and a 14 h photophase. The ideal number of parasitoids was estimated in cages covered with a piece of voile-type fabric. The cycle duration for the 13 Trichogramma species/strains varied from 10.2 to 11.9 days. The Atp strain (T. atopovirilia showed greater parasitism capacity, with an average of 23.3 parasitized eggs and 77.5% parasitism in 24 hours. The G18 strain (T. pretiosum came next, with an average of 16.8 parasitized eggs and 56.1% parasitism during the same time interval. The emergency, longevity of males, and sex ratio for the 13 species/strains were similar. The number of adults emerged per egg was 1.8 for strains G11 (T. pretiosum and Br10 (T. bruni, which were different from the G3 strain (T. pretiosum only, with 1.3 adults per egg. With regard to female longevity, distinct values were observed only between T. pretiosum strains Tp and L2, with 6.3 and 9.3 days, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions, the estimated ratio of 36 T. pretiosum parasitoids per G. aurantianum egg allowed the highest percentage of parasitism (89%. Therefore, Trichogramma spp. has a potential to control G. aurantianum, as long as a large number of parasitoids is released per unit area.

  18. Influence of rough handling on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) nest establishment in commercial orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Cory A; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Bosch, Jordi

    2011-06-01

    Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) can be used to pollinate fruit trees. Populations are sometimes difficult to sustain because some female bees fail to establish at provided nesting sites. We address the hypothesis that rough handling of overwintered O. lignaria results in decreased establishment. We tested this by shaking (200 rpm for 2 min) overwintering bees as a proxy for rough handling. Bees were then released in an orchard, and nest establishment of shaken and unshaken bees was recorded. There was no significant difference in the proportion of shaken and unshaken females that nested, indicating that rough handling of overwintering bees does not discourage nest establishment. PMID:21735890

  19. Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovskii (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae, new to Korea and the first host record of Allobethylus Kieffer

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    Jongok Lim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovskii (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae is newly recognized from South Korea. The genus can be easily recognized from other genera in Scleroderminae by having the head wider than it is long, the antenna with 10 flagellomeres, the clypeus with short projected median lobe, and the metasomal tergite II longer than the combined length of remained tergites. Description and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics of Pararhabdepyris paradoxus Gorbatovskii are provided. In addition, the present paper provides the first host record of Allobethylus Kieffer of Scleroderminae from the world. A revised key to genera and species of South Korean Scleroderminae is also presented.

  20. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Polymorphic microsatellite loci for Diachasma alloeum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew A; Powell, Thomas H Q; Lobo, Neil F; Noor, Mohamed A F; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2008-03-01

    Here, we report the isolation of 21 novel primers for amplification of microsatellite loci in Diachasma alloeum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Diachasma alloeum is a larval parasitoid of the apple maggot fly (Rhagoletis pomonella), which is an economically significant agricultural pest species and a textbook example of sympatric speciation via host-plant shifting. These microsatellite markers will prove useful both for assessing genetic relationships between different host-associated populations of D. alloeum, as well as for future R. pomonella biological control programmes. We also report the cross-species amplification of several loci for Diachasmimorpha mellea and Diachasma ferrugineum, parasitoids of R. pomonella and R. cingulata, respectively. PMID:21585796

  1. Ciclo vital de Pegoscapus aff. silvestrii (Hymenoptera:Agaonidae), polinizador de Ficus andicola (Moraceae)

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    Sarmiento M. Carlos E.; Jansen G. Sergio

    2006-01-01

    La relación entre las plantas del género Ficus (Moraceae) y las avispas de la familia Agaonidae (Hymenoptera) ha
    cautivado a los científicos durante las últimas seis décadas, siendo los temas más comúnmente tratados
    aquellos que involucran co-evolución, mutualismo en la relación planta animal y el estudio de las proporciones
    de sexo en las poblaciones de avispas que emergen de los frutos de cada especie de Ficus. A pesar de esto, son pocos los estudios que tra...

  2. Ciclo de desarrollo de Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula, Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera, Trigonini

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    Villa Lopera Antonio

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudió el ciclo de desarrollo de una abeja sin aguijón: Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula. Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera. Trigonini. Los resultados fueron los siguientes: El periodo comprendido entre la postura del huevo y la emergencia del imago, es, en las obreras, de 36.5 días en promedio. La duración del ciclo se hace mayor a medida que las celdas se alejan del centro del panal. Se determinaron 3 instares larvales y 5 fases pupales para obreras.

  3. Primer registro de Trypoxylon mexicanum para la Hispaniola,Antillas Mayores (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Crabronidae)

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    Julio A. Genaro

    2009-01-01

    Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) mexicanum (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) pertenece al grupo albitarse, el cual incluye a las especies mayores del género. Su distribución nativa abarca América Central, desde México hasta Panamá. En este trabajo se menciona por primera vez para la Hispaniola, Antillas. Es difícil imaginarse una especie conspicua como esta sin haber sido detectada anteriormente por algún naturalista o especialista en himenópteros aculeatos, por lo que considero un arribo reciente a la isla...

  4. Dinâmica populacional e ecologia do forrageamento de Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 (hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nickele, Mariane Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A tribo Attini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) compreende 14 gêneros de formigas que estão envolvidas em um mutualismo obrigatório com fungos. As formigas cortadeiras, Atta e Acromyrmex, são consideradas as principais pragas de florestas plantadas de Pinus e Eucalyptus, no entanto, na região sul do Brasil, as espécies de Acromyrmex são mais comuns. O objetivo geral deste estudo foi avaliar a dinâmica populacional de formigas cortadeiras do gênero Acromyrmex em plantios de Pinus taeda e estu...

  5. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise, Coccidae (sagtedopluise en Kerriidae (lakdopluise is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhouding tussen die miere en dopluise, bekend as mirmekofilie, is fakultatief van aard. Die wipstertmier blyk ook nie spesifiek te wees wat betref die plant waarop hulle nes maak nie.

  6. Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Danúncia Urban

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melostelis gen. nov. é proposto para um novo Anthidiini cleptoparasita. São descritas e ilustradas duas espécies novas: Melostelis amazonensis sp. nov. de Manaus, Amazonas e Larocanthidium chacoense sp. nov. de Porto Murtinho, Mato Grosso do Sul. São dados a conhecer os machos de Epanthidium bolivianum Urban, 1995 e Epanthidium araranguense Urban, 2006 e, registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil, na sub-região do chaco, Ketianthidium zanolae Urban, 2000 e Epanthidium bolivianum.

  7. A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina from northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz R. R. Faria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae from northeastern Brazil. Eufriesea pyrrhopyga sp. nov. a short-tongued Eufriesea is described as a new species. It can be easily recognized for its predominantly violet lower frons and thorax, violet tergum 1 contrasting with the strong reddish coloration on the lateral portions of terga 2 to 4 and on entire terga 5 and 6, and head pubescence with contrasting colors, white on the lower two-thirds of the face and black on upper frons and vertex. This new species, collected in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil, apparently is restricted to the Pernambuco endemic center, and seems to be highly endangered.

  8. Aspilota -group ( Hymenoptera : Braconidae : Alysiinae ) diversity in Mediterranean Natural Parks of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo; Sergey Belokobylskij; Jose Vicente Falcó-Garí; Ricardo Jiménez-Peydró

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This work analyses the biodiversity of the Aspilota -group ( Hymenoptera : Braconidae : Alysiinae ) in three Mediterranean Natural parks: Natural Park of La Font Roja, Natural Park of Las Lagunas de la Mata-Torrevieja and Natural Park of La Tinença de Benifassà. Samples were carried out from April 2004 to December 2007. In total, 822 specimens, belonging to 52 species, were collected. Alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the Tinença Park was proven to have higher dive...

  9. Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae diversity in Mediterranean Natural Parks of Spain

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    Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the biodiversity of the Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae in three Mediterranean Natural parks: Natural Park of La Font Roja, Natural Park of Las Lagunas de la Mata-Torrevieja and Natural Park of La Tinença de Benifassà. Samples were carried out from April 2004 to December 2007. In total, 822 specimens, belonging to 52 species, were collected. Alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the Tinença Park was proven to have higher diversity than the Font Roja and Torrevieja. Also, the structure of the Aspilota-group community was analysed.

  10. Diversidad de las abejas nativas de la tribu Meliponini (Hymenoptera, Apidae) en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Leopoldo J.

    2016-01-01

    Las abejas (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) constituyen un grupo de insectos diverso y ampliamente distribuido que comprende alrededor de 18000 especies descriptas y representa uno de los grupos de insectos más importantes por su papel en la polinización de numerosas plantas con flores. En nuestro país están representadas cinco familias de abejas: Colletidae, Andrenidae, Halictidae, Megachilidae y Apidae. En esta última las tribus Apini, Meliponini, Bombini y Euglossini conforman un grupo monofilétic...

  11. Review of the Mexican species of Erythmelus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), with description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Larralde, Adriana J; Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Huber, John T; González-Hernández, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican species of Erythmelus Enock (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) are revised. A key to females of 13 species is provided in both English and Spanish. Two new taxa are described-E. maya Guzmán-Larralde & Triapitsyn, sp. n. and E. tigres Guzmán-Larralde & Triapitsyn, sp. n. Six species are newly recorded from Mexico-E. angustatus Ogloblin, E. cingulatus Ogloblin, E. clavatus Ogloblin, E. gracilis (Howard), E. nanus Dozier, and E. noeli (Dozier), besides new geographic records for E. miridiphagus Dozier, E. picinus (Girault), E. psallidis Gahan, and E. rex (Girault) which were previously known from the country. PMID:26248908

  12. Três espécies novas do gênero Chorisoneura (Blattellidae, Chorisoneuriinae coletadas em ninhos de Sphecidae (Hymenoptera do Estado do Acre, Brasil Three new species of the genus Chorisoneura (Blattellidae, Chorisoneuriinae collected in Sphecidae nests (Hymenoptera from Acre State, Brazil

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    Sonia Maria Lopes

    Full Text Available Three new species of Chorisoneura Brunner, 1865 from Acre State, Brazil collected in nests of Podium Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae are described. Illustrations of genitalia are presented.

  13. Nesting Activity and Behavior of Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae Elucidated Using Videography

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    Matthew I. McKinney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmia cornifrons Radoszkowski (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae is utilized as an alternate pollinator to Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae in early-season fruit crops. This study was conducted to investigate nesting activities and associated behaviors of O. cornifrons. Osmia cornifrons nesting activity was recorded by using a digital video recorder with infrared cameras. Nesting behavior of ten female O. cornifrons was observed, and the number of nesting trips per hour was recorded. Trends in daily activity were determined with regression analysis, and chi square analysis was used to determine if O. cornifrons spent a greater amount of time performing certain activities. The percentage of time required to gather nesting resources and complete nest construction activities was recorded from the video footage. Results of this study showed that pollen gathering was the most time-consuming gathering activity, requiring 221.6±28.69 min per cell and cell provisioning was the most time-consuming intranest activity, requiring 28.9 min ± 3.97 min. We also found that O. cornifrons activity was correlated with time of day, temperature, and precipitation. Various nesting behaviors, including cell provisioning and partitioning, oviposition, grooming, resting and sleeping, nest-searching, and repairing behaviors, are described in this paper.

  14. A hymenopterists’ guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions

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    Katja Seltmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera exhibit an incredible diversity of phenotypes, the result of ~240 million years of evolution and the primary subject of more than 250 years of research. Here we describe the history, development, and utility of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO and its associated applications. These resources are designed to facilitate accessible and extensible research on hymenopteran phenotypes. Outreach with the hymenopterist community is of utmost importance to the HAO project, and this paper is a direct response to questions that arised from project workshops. In a concerted attempt to surmount barriers of understanding, especially regarding the format, utility, and development of the HAO, we discuss the roles of homology, “preferred terms”, and “structural equivalency”. We also outline the use of Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs and posit that they are a key element necessary for increasing the objectivity and repeatability of science that references hymenopteran anatomy. Pragmatically, we detail a mechanism (the “URI table” by which authors can use URIs to link their published text to the HAO, and we describe an associated tool (the “Analyzer” to derive these tables. These tools, and others, are available through the HAO Portal website (http://portal.hymao.org. We conclude by discussing the future of the HAO with respect to digital publication, cross-taxon ontology alignment, the advent of semantic phenotypes, and community-based curation.

  15. Description of the first Neotropical species of Bassettia Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini from Panama

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    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Bassettia Ashmead, 1887, Bassettia caulicola (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini, from Panama is described. The new species induces galls on the stems of Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae sect. Quercus. The diagnostic characteristics, distribution data, and biology of the new species are given. The new species is included in the existing key for the identification of the Nearctic species of Bassettia. The morphological diagnosis of Bassettia and the first record of this genus in the Neotropical region are noted.Se describe una nueva especie de Bassettia Ashmead, 1887, Bassettia caulicola (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini, de Panamá. La nueva especie induce agallas en los tallos de Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae secc. Quercus. Se aportan los caracteres diagnósticos de la nueva especie, su distribución y su biología. La nueva especie es incluida en la clave de identificación de la especies de Bassettia del Neártico. Se amplían los datos diagnósticos morfológicos del género Bassettia así como se comenta el primer registro de este género en la región neotropical.

  16. Induction of Specific Immunotherapy with Hymenoptera Venoms Using Ultrarush Regimen in Children: Safety and Tolerance

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    Alice Köhli-Wiesner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective. Ultrarush induction for specific venom immunotherapy has been shown to be reliable and efficacious in adults. In this study its safety and tolerance in children was evaluated. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 102 ultrarush desensitizations carried out between 1997 and 2005 in 94 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Diagnosis and selection for immunotherapy were according to recommendations of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Systemic adverse reactions (SARs were described using the classification of H. L. Mueller. Results. All patients reached the cumulative dose of 111.1 μg hymenoptera venom within 210 minutes. Six patients (6% had allergic reactions grade I; 2 patients (2% grade II and 5 patients (5% grade III. Three patients (3% showed unclassified reactions. SARs did not occur in the 15 patients aged 4 to 8 years and they were significantly more frequent in girls (29% compared with boys (12% (=0.034, multivariant analysis and in bee venom extract treated patients (20% compared to those treated with wasp venom extract (8% (OR 0.33, 95% Cl 0.07–1.25. Conclusion. Initiation of specific immunotherapy by ultrarush regimen is safe and well tolerated in children and should be considered for treating children with allergy to hymenoptera venom.

  17. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) First record of Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Argentina and its association with larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Valverde; D. Carolina Berta; Marcelo Geronimo Gomez

    2012-01-01

    Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina). Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is reported for the first time for Argentina. It is also reported parasitizing larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Le...

  18. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: fanniidae no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae is reported. Pupae of F. pusio were collected in traps using human feces to attract the adults. Ten pupae were obtained, of which two were parasitized by S. nigroaenea, thus demonstrating a parasitism rate of 20.0%.

  19. A rare but successful reproductive tactic in a social wasp (Hymenoptera:Vespidae): Use of heterospecific nests Una táctica reproductiva rara pero exitosa en una avispa social (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Uso de nidos de otras especies

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRÉ R. DE SOUZA; NEWTON J. J. SILVA; FÁBIO PREZOTO

    2012-01-01

    Successful heterospecific use of abandoned nests has been reported in birds. Although the same behavior has been observed in wasps, the success of such tactic has not been demonstrated. We described two cases in which the social wasp Polistes versicolor successfully reared its brood in empty nests of the social wasps Mischocyttarus drewseni and Mischocyttarus cassununga (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). We showed that this is a rare but a viable reproductive tactic for both solitary and associative fo...

  20. Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitóide de dípteros muscóides coletado em Itumbiara, Goiás Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoid of muscoids dipterous collected in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori

    2004-01-01

    This work reports the occurrence of parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitizing pupae of flies (Diptera) in different substrata in Itumbiara, Goiás. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. From May 1998 through April 2002, 737 parasitoids were collected in human feces, cattle liver, chicken, fish and cattle kidney. The prevalence of parasitism was ...

  1. Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) as a natural enemy to Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in Brazil Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) como inimigo natural de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori; L. A. Pereira; O. M. S. Filho

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which wascollected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individual...

  2. Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitóide de dípteros muscóides coletado em Itumbiara, Goiás Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitoid of muscoids dipterous collected in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Marchiori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the occurrence of parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing pupae of flies (Diptera in different substrata in Itumbiara, Goiás. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. From May 1998 through April 2002, 737 parasitoids were collected in human feces, cattle liver, chicken, fish and cattle kidney. The prevalence of parasitism was 67.8%.

  3. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  4. Prey identification in nests of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae using DNA barcodes

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prey identification in nests of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae using DNA barcodes. Geometrid larvae are the only prey known for larvae of the Neotropical potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 was amplified from geometrid larvae collected from cells of H. andeus in the Azapa Valley, Arica Province, and used to provide taxonomic identifications. Two species, Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 and Macaria mirthae Vargas, Parra & Hausmann, 2005 were identified, while three others could be identified only at higher taxonomic levels, because the barcode reference library of geometrid moths is still incomplete for northern Chile.

  5. Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Rogéria I. R. Lara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil. A survey of the parasitoid wasp Pelecinus polyturator (Drury, 1773 (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae was carried out with five Malaise traps/area in five areas in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil, between November 2009 and October 2010. The sampling effort in each locality amounted to 1,825 trap-days. Data were obtained from a total of 317 exemplars of P. polyturator, corresponding to 108 females and 209 males. The average sex ratio of the studied population was 0.52. The highest occurrence of P. polyturator was observed between November and March with frequency peak in January; about 95% of the specimens studied were captured at altitudes close to 1,000 m above sea level.

  6. Material capturado e utilizado na alimentação de Polybia (Trichothorax Sericea (Olivier, 1791 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Vera Lígia Letízio Machado

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available As presas utilizadas por Polybia (Trichothorax sericea compreendem 6 ordens de insetos (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera e Odonata e 1 ordem de Arachnida (Araneae, com preferência por larvas de Lepidoptera. A média de proteína transportada é de 15,3 mg e o peso diário estimado é de 522,6 mg, o que indica mais de 12000 presas por ano.The prey items utilized by Polybia (Trichothorax sericea comprise 6 orders of Insecta (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera and Odonata and 1 order of Arachnida (Araneae, with a preference for larvae of Lepidoptera. The average protein weight transported was 15.3 mg, and the estimated daily weight was 522.6 mg, which indicates more than 12,000 prey a year.

  7. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Willian Moura Aguiar; Maria Cristina Gaglianone

    2012-01-01

    Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine...

  8. Indigenous Knowledge of the Edible Weaver Ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Joost Van Itterbeeck; Niane Sivongxay; Bounthob Praxaysombath; Arnold van Huis

    2014-01-01

    Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-)cultivating and farming edible insects. Such developments can draw on both western science and indigenous knowledge. Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae, of which particularly the queen brood is commonly consumed ...

  9. First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) in the Azapa valley, northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Méndez-Abarca; Enrique A. Mundaca; Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-01-01

    First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) in the Azapa valley, northern Chile. Some aspects about the nesting biology of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869) are reported for the first time. Observations were carried out at the Azapa valley, coastal desert of northern Chile. A total of sixty nests were collected and examined, each composed by 1-14 cells, most of them found attached to concrete lamp posts. The only pre...

  10. Learning Ability and Factors Influencing Nest Establishment of the Solitary Bees Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vorel, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the use of solitary bees as an alternative to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) for pollination of commercial crops has increased, in part as a response to ongoing problems faced by commercial honey bee populations. Two solitary bee species have exhibited great commercial potential: the blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria Say, and the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). However, growth of O. lignaria and M. rotundata ...

  11. Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) as a natural enemy to Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marchiori C.H.; Pereira L.A.; Filho O.M.S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which wascollected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individual...

  12. Eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), from İstanbul, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CEBECİ, Hacı Hüseyin; Grabenweger, Giselher; Ayberk, Hamit

    2011-01-01

    The eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in İstanbul were determined for the first time. Horse chestnut leaves infested with leafminers were collected in 2008 and adult parasitoids were obtained in emergence cages in the laboratory. A total of 10 eulophid parasitoid species were identified, 5 of which, namely Cirrospilus viticola (Rondani), Pnigalio mediterraneus (Fe...

  13. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of northeastern Iran: Aphidiine-aphid-plant associations, key and description of a new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakhshani, E.; Kazemzadeh, S.; Starý, Petr; Barahoei, H.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Ćetković, A.; Popović, A.; Bodlah, I.; Tomanović, Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, 9 DEC (2012), Article 143. ISSN 1536-2442 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (RS) III43001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Trioxys metacarpalis n.sp. * tritrophic associations * Hymenoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2012 http://www.insectscience.org/12.143/i1536-2442-12-143.pdf

  14. Parasitism, Emergence, and Development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Pupae of Different Ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host–parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under labor...

  15. Three new species and new distributional data for five rare species of Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Li, Cheng-de

    2016-01-01

    Eight species of Aphelinus Dalman (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) from China are reviewed. Three species, A. pseudonepalensis sp. nov., A. truncaticlavus sp. nov. and A. maculigaster sp. nov. are newly described, four species, A. meghalayanus Hayat, A. huberi Hayat, A. sharpae Hayat, and A. maculatus Yasnosh are reported as new to China, and A. asychis Walker is newly reported from Tibet, China. A key to the Chinese species of Aphelinus based on females is given. PMID:27394454

  16. POLLINATION EFFECTIVENESS OF APIS CERANA FABRICUS AND APIS MELLIFERA LINNAEUS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN JATROPHA CURCAS L. (EUPHORBIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    TRI ATMOWIDI; PUJI RIYANTI; ANDENG SUTRISNA

    2008-01-01

    Pollinators are well known to provide key ecosystem. Animal pollinators are thought to contribute between 15 and 30% of global food production and bees are recognized to be the most important taxon. h e pollination eff ectiveness of two species of bees, Apis cerana and A. mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) was studied. h ree cages, made of insect screen were set up. Each cage contains three individual plants. One colony of A. mellifera and A. cerana...

  17. Parasitic Hymenoptera reared from the insects on Heracleum platytaenium Boiss. (Apiaceae) with new faunistic and biological records

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇAK, Erhan; Mustafa ÖZDEMİR

    2012-01-01

    Some parasitic hymenopterans were reared from their host insects found on the stems and branches of Heracleum platytaenium Boiss., which contains furanocoumarins that are insect repellents and suppress growth in some species. Plant materials with insects were collected from the vicinity of Kızılcahamam in Ankara Province in July-September 2008. The parasitoids (Hymenoptera) and their hosts were Didyctium brunnea (Belizin) (Eucolidae) from puparia of Lasiambia albidipennis (Strobl) (Diptera: C...

  18. Review of the genus Canalirogas van Achterberg & Chen (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae) from Vietnam, with description of ten new species

    OpenAIRE

    Khuat Dang,Long; van Achterberg, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The Vietnamese species of the genus Canalirogas van Achterberg & Chen, 1996 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) are revised. Ten species are new to science, viz., Canalirogas affinis sp. n., C. cucphuongensis sp. n., C. curvinervis sp. n., C. eurycerus sp. n., C. hoabinhicus sp. n., C. intermedius sp. n., C. parallelus sp. n., C. robberti sp. n., C. vittatus sp. n. and C. vuquangensis sp. n. One species is new for the Vietnamese fauna: Canalirogas spilonotus (Cameron, 1905) and C. balgooyi v...

  19. Review of the genus Canalirogas van Achterberg & Chen (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae) from Vietnam, with description of ten new species

    OpenAIRE

    Khuat Dang Long; Cornelis van Achterberg

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Vietnamese species of the genus Canalirogas van Achterberg & Chen, 1996 ( Hymenoptera : Braconidae : Rogadinae ) are revised. Ten species are new to science, viz., Canalirogas affinis sp. n., Canalirogas cucphuongensis sp. n., Canalirogas curvinervis sp. n., Canalirogas eurycerus sp. n., Canalirogas hoabinhicus sp. n., Canalirogas intermedius sp. n., Canalirogas parallelus sp. n., Canalirogas robberti sp. n., Canalirogas vittatus sp. n. and Canalirogas vuquangensis sp. n. One spe...

  20. First record of Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae as parasitoid of Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

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    Augusto Loni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world.

  1. First record of Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall ( Hymenoptera , Braconidae , Doryctinae ) as parasitoid of Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) ( Coleoptera , Cerambycidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Loni; Costanza Jucker; Sergey Belokobylskij; Daniela Lupi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall ( Hymenoptera : Braconidae ) was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) ( Coleoptera : Cerambycidae ), an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world.

  2. Self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings-an EAACI Task Force Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilò, M B; Cichocka-Jarosz, E; Pumphrey, R; Oude-Elberink, J N; Lange, J; Jakob, T; Bonadonna, P; Fernandez, J; Kosnik, M; Helbling, A; Mosbech, H; Gawlik, R; Niedoszytko, M; Patella, V; Pravettoni, V; Rodrigues-Alves, R; Sturm, G J; Rueff, F

    2016-07-01

    An anaphylactic reaction due to a Hymenoptera sting is a clinical emergency, and patients, their caregivers as well as all healthcare professionals should be familiar with its recognition and acute management. This consensus report has been prepared by a European expert panel of the EAACI Interest Group of Insect Venom Hypersensitivity. It is targeted at allergists, clinical immunologists, internal medicine specialists, pediatricians, general practitioners, emergency department doctors, and any other healthcare professional involved. The aim was to report the scientific evidence on self-medication of anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings, to inform healthcare staff about appropriate patient self-management of sting reactions, to propose indications for the prescription of an adrenaline auto-injector (AAI), and to discuss other forms of medication. First-line treatment for Hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis is intramuscular adrenaline. Prescription of AAIs is mandatory in the case of venom-allergic patients who suffer from mast cell diseases or with an elevated baseline serum tryptase level and in untreated patients with a history of a systemic reaction involving at least two different organ systems. AAI prescription should also be considered in other specific situations before, during, and after stopping venom immunotherapy. PMID:27060567

  3. Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain

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    Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain. The study of parasitoid Hymenoptera is of significance for the assessment of diversity in a given area because of their role in the regulation of insects populations. The present work analyses diversity within Alysiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Forested Estate of Artikutza, located in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya, western Pyrenees, Spain. Collection of specimens was spread over two years and was carried out in two different habitats: mixed forest and beech forest. A total of 2,270 specimens, belonging to 22 separate genera, were captured. Subsequently, alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the beech forest was proven to host greater diversity than the mixed forest. A sampling strategy was adopted for the analysis of Alysiinae phenology and its relationship with environmental climatic conditions; as a result, a direct relationship between phenology and temperature was attested.

  4. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae from Thailand.

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    Sirikarn Sanpa

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae. Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca.

  5. A revision of Evaniscus (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae using ontology-based semantic phenotype annotation

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    Patricia Mullins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical evaniid genus Evaniscus Szépligeti currently includes six species. Two new species are described, Evaniscus lansdownei Mullins, sp. n. from Colombia and Brazil and E. rafaeli Kawada, sp. n. from Brazil. Evaniscus sulcigenis Roman, syn. n., is synonymized under E. rufithorax Enderlein. An identification key to species of Evaniscus is provided. Thirty-five parsimony informative morphological characters are analyzed for six ingroup and four outgroup taxa. A topology resulting in a monophyletic Evaniscus is presented with E. tibialis and E. rafaeli as sister to the remaining Evaniscus species. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other relevant biomedical ontologies are employed to create semantic phenotype statements in Entity-Quality (EQ format for species descriptions. This approach is an early effort to formalize species descriptions and to make descriptive data available to other domains.

  6. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  7. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

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    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  8. Gene variation, population differentiation, and sociogenetic structure of nests of Partamona seridoensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carlo Rivero Moura; Martins, Celso Feitosa; Ferreira, Kátia Maria; Del Lama, Marco Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Gene variation and the differentiation of two populations of Partamona seridoensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) from the Caatinga biome, a semiarid ecosystem unique to Brazil, were estimated through allozymic and microsatellite analyses. These populations exhibited similar low degrees of enzyme gene variation. Observed genotype frequencies at the allozyme and microsatellite loci were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the two populations. Both markers demonstrated that the two populations are not genetically homogeneous and must be considered distinct populations. The occurrence of private alleles at the allozyme and microsatellite loci corroborates this differentiation, sustaining the hypothesis of a low level of interpopulation gene flow. The phenotypic segregations clearly demonstrated that the progeny inside each nest were the result of mating between the queen of the colony and only one male. PMID:21938561

  9. New records and three new species of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea from Iran

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    Franco Strumia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the distribution of 52 cuckoo wasp species (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae from Iran are given. One genus and 27 species (including 3 new species: 52% of the captured material are new records for the country. In addition, three new species, Chrysis gianassoi sp. nov., Chrysis majidi sp. nov. and Chrysis unirubra sp. nov. are described and illustrated, and diagnostic characters are provided to identify them. Chrysis turcica du Buyson, 1908 is removed from synonymy with Chrysis peninsularis du Buysson, 1887. Chrysis bilobata Balthasar, 1953 is confirmed as valid species and illustrated. The composition of the Iranian Chrysididae fauna is compared with that of South Palaearctic countries. The large proportion of new record and new species (≈52% indicates that the fauna of Iranian Chrysididae is rich and diverse but has not yet been thoroughly studied. The majority of new record were obtained from mountainous sites above 1000 m above sea level, indicating the rich biodiversity of this biotope.

  10. Social wasp communities (Hymenoptera Vespidae at different altitudinal levels in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Carlos Humberto Bueno de Albuquerque

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have described changes in richness and abundance of insect groups along altitudinal gradients, but there is little information about social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae in this regard. This study evaluated the influence of altitude on the diversity of these insects in fragments of semideciduous forest in a tropical altitude climate. Three different elevations in southern Minas Gerais, from 997 to 2080 meters, were studied. Sampling was carried out on 24 days in a ten-month period by active collection. A total of 34 species were found, distributed in 11 genera. At Level 01, 27 species were recorded, and at Level 02, there were 19 species, while Level 03 showed 11 species. The most frequent genus in the sudy area was Polybia, This study showed that in high-altitude tropical climate areas above 1800 meters, diversity decreases substantially and that the number of species that nest by swarming and build nests with protective cover increases.

  11. Changes in follicular cells architecture during vitellogenin transport in the ovary of social Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnau, Milton; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Gonçlaves, Wagner Gonzaga; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Vitellogenins are the major yolk proteins, synthesized in the fat body, released into the hemolymph and captured by the developing oocytes, but the mechanisms by which these proteins cross the follicular cell layer are still poorly understood. This study describes the actin distribution in follicular cells during vitellogenin transport to the oocyte in social Hymenoptera represented by bees Apis mellifera and Melipona quadrifasciata, the wasp Mischocyttarus cassununga and the ant Pachycondyla curvinodis. In oocytic chambers of vitellogenic follicles, vitellogenin was found within the follicular cells, perivitelline space and oocyte, indicating a transcellular route from the hemolymph to the perivitelline space. The cortical actin cytoskeleton in follicular cells underwent reorganization during transport of vitellogenin across this epithelium suggesting that in the ovary of social hymenopterans, vitellogenin delivery to oocytes requires a dynamic cytoskeletal rearrangement of actin filaments in the follicular cells. PMID:26077636

  12. Parasitism capacity of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae eggs

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    Regiane Cristina Oliveira de Freitas Bueno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the parasitism capacity of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae eggs at 15, 20, 25, 28, 31, and 35°C, aiming to use this natural enemy in biological control programs in crops where S. frugiperda was considered pest. The parasitism during the first 24 h was 60.90, 81.65, 121.05, 117.55 and 108.55 parasited eggs per female from egg masses of approximately 150 eggs, at 15, 20, 25, 28 and 31°C, respectively. Females of T. remus reached parasitism higher than 80% at 15, 20, 25, 28 and 31ºC at 5, 27, 8, 2, and 2 days, respectively. At 35ºC, there was no parasitism. The highest parasitism rates occurred at 20, 25, 28 and 31°C. T. remus female longevity varied from 15.7 to 7.7 days from 15 to 31°C. The highest tested temperature (35°C was inappropriate for T. remus development. At that temperature, female longevity was greatly reduced (1.7±0.02 and egg viability was null. All T. remus survival curves were of type I, which showed an increase in mortality rate with time.Este trabalho estudou a capacidade de parasitismo de Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae nas temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 28, 31 e 35ºC objetivando usar esse inimigo natural em programas de controle biológico em culturas onde S. frugiperda é considerada praga. O parasitismo ocorrido nas primeiras 24 h foi de 60,90; 81,65; 121,05; 117,55 e 108,55 ovos parasitados por fêmea em massas ovos com aproximadamente 150 ovos, nas temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 28 e 31ºC. Fêmeas de T. remus causaram mais de 80% do parasitismo dos ovos nas temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 28 e 31ºC aos 5, 27, 8, 2 e 2 dias, respectivamente. Na temperatura de 35ºC não houve parasitismo. As maiores taxas de parasitismo ocorreram nas temperaturas de 20, 25, 28 e 31ºC. A longevidade média de fêmeas de T. remus nas temperaturas compreendidas entre 15

  13. Host egg age of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera, Coreidae) and parasitism by Gryon pennsylvanicum (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peverieri, Giuseppino Sabbatini; Furlan, Paola; Benassai, Daniele; Caradonna, Sarah; Strong, Ward B; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2013-04-01

    Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera, Coreidae) is native to Western North America and is a serious pest for seed production of conifers. The pest was accidentally introduced into Europe in the 1990s. Since then, seed loss has been recorded in Pinus pinea (L.) forests, with a negative impact on the commercial production of pine nuts. Classical biological control of this pest in P. pinea stands is an attractive proposition. Previous work showed that the egg-parasitoid Gryon pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) had promising life history traits in laboratory studies using L. occidentalis eggs as host. In the present work, the effect of host egg age on parasitization rate was evaluated in the laboratory, using choice and no-choice tests. Host eggs ranged in age from control using this egg-parasitoid. PMID:23786048

  14. A contribution to the knowledge of Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, with six new records from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Farahani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted for identification of Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae in the northern provinces of Iran. The specimens were collected using Malaise traps during 2010-2011. In all, 9 species in four genera consisting of Allurus Förster, Dinocampus Förster, Peristenus Nees and Perilitus Nees were collected and identified. The genus Allurus is recorded for the first time from Iran. Six species are newly recorded for the Iranian fauna including Allurus muricatus (Haliday, Peristenus pallipes Curtis, Peristenus relictus (Ruthe, Perilitus (Townesilitus bicolor (Wesmael, Perilitus foveolatus Reinhard and Perilitus rutilus (Nees. Morphological diagnostic characters and geographical distribution of the species are briefly discussed. A key is presented for identification of the genera and species in the studied area.

  15. Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae wasp community in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the species composition of the subfamily Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae along an altitudinal gradient in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru collected in 2009 and 2010. Eighteen species were recorded in three genera of Ophioninae: Alophophion, Enicospilus y Ophion. Five species are recorded for the first time in Peru: Ophion polyhymniae Gauld, 1988; Enicospilus cubensis (Norton, 1863; E. guatemalensis (Cameron, 1886; E. cressoni Hooker, 1912 y E. mexicanus (Cresson, 1874. Subfamily composition varies with the elevation. The highest species richness (S=11 was found at 2150 m and the lowest (S=3 at 3116 m. Enicospilus is more diverse from low to mid elevation, Ophion from mid to high elevation and Alophophion occurs predominantly at high elevation.

  16. Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure 1892 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Angeline David; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure, 1829 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia was done using specimens deposited in Centre for Insects Systematics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (CIS, UKM). Type and non-type specimens were loaned from several repositories namely Zoological Museum of Amsterdam Netherlands (ZMAN), Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM), British Natural History Museum London (BMNH) and Department of Agricultural Malaysia (DOA) for identification and comparison. The specimens were identified to the species level which gives rise to five species namely Xanthopimpla conica Cushman, 1925, Xanthopimpla despinosa leipephelis Townes & Chiu, 1970, Xanthopimpla flavolineata Cameron, 1907, Xanthopimpla punctata (Fabricius, 1781) and Xanthopimpla tricapus impressa Townes & Chiu, 1970. A dichotomous key and descriptions for five Xanthopimpla spesies were provided. Photos and illustrations of carina on propodeum were also included in this paper.

  17. Species of Lepidoptera defoliators of Eucalyptus as new host for the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

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    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll and Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were obtained from Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake plants, respectively. Specimens of a parasitoid emerged from T. arnobia pupae and also found parasitising T. leucoceraea pupae in the field were identified as Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. This is the first report on P. elaeisis parasitizing T. arnobia and T. leucoceraea pupae in natural conditions in Brazil. P. elaeisis also parasitized these hosts and Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae and Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in the laboratory. The production and release of P. elaeisis could be an efficient alternative for controlling Lepidoptera defoliators in eucalyptus plantations.Pupas de Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll e Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram coletadas em Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, respectivamente. Espécimes de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae emergiram de T. arnobia e foram encontrados sobre pupas de T. leucoceraea em plantas de eucalipto no campo. Esse é o primeiro relato de P. elaeisis parasitando pupas de T. arnobia e T. leucoceraea em condições naturais no Brasil. Além desses hospedeiros, P. elaeisis parasitou em laboratório Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae e Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. A produção de P. elaeisis e sua liberação em eucaliptais podem representar uma alternativa eficiente de controle de lagartas

  18. Epidemiology of allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings in Irish school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, Aisling

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this was to study generate the first epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy among school children in Ireland. Questionnaires, including six sting-specific questions (1), were distributed to the parents of primary school children aged 6-8 and 11-13, divided equally between rural and urban backgrounds. From 110 schools, 4112 questionnaires were returned. A total of 1544 (37.5%) children had been stung in their lifetime. Among the total, 5.8% of children stung experienced a large local reaction, 3.4% had a mild (cutaneous) systemic reaction (MSR) and 0.8% experienced a moderate\\/severe systemic reaction (SSR); these figures respectively represent 2.2%, 1.3% and 0.2% of the total study group. On logistic regression analysis, older children and rural children were at a higher risk of being stung (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-2.; OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8 respectively). Rural dwellers and asthma sufferers were more likely to experience an SSR (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.4-13.5 and OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.8-4.3, respectively). Hymenoptera stings are more common in rural than urban dwelling Irish children. Asthma imparted a greater risk of SSR in this study population. Severe reactions are unusual overall, occurring in <1% of those stung, a lower prevalence than in Israeli teenagers but in keeping with other European reports relating to young children.

  19. Parasitism of Tuta absoluta in tomato plants by Trichogramma pretiosum Riley in response to host density and plant structures Parasitismo de Tuta absoluta por Trichogramma pretiosum Riley em resposta a densidade do hospedeiro e estruturas da planta

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Arantes Faria; Jorge Braz Torres; Adriana Maria Vieira Fernandes; Angela Maria Isidro Farias

    2008-01-01

    One important factor determining the efficacy of parasitoids is the way they exploit different host patch. This study evaluated the response of females of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to the oviposition sites of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on processing tomato plants. In fully developed caged tomato plants T. absoluta moths were released, followed by the release of T. pretiosum females 12h later. After 24h of parasitoid release, the moth...

  20. Selection of Trichogramma for inundative biological control : a study of behavioural variations among strains and species of an egg-parasite genus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of the potential for biological control of lepidopterous pests on cabbage crops in the Netherlands, by means of inundative releases of the egg parasite Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). The objective of this study is to investigate the usefulness of a predictive approach to the development of a biological control program. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the three basic elements of this study: the principles of biological control, the use of Tric...

  1. Impact of Two Ant Species on Egg Parasitoids Released as Part of a Biological Control Program

    OpenAIRE

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Basso, César; Pintureau, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid wasp, was tested in Uruguay to reduce populations of lepidopteran pests on soybeans. It was observed that the commercial parasitoid dispensers, which were made of cardboard, were vulnerable to small predators that succeeded in entering and emptying the containers of all the eggs parasitized by T. pretiosum. Observations in a soybean crop showed that the only small, common predators presen...

  2. SELETIVIDADE DE FUNGICIDAS UTILIZADOS NA CULTURA DO TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicum esculentum, MILL.) A Trichogramma pretiosum

    OpenAIRE

    José Romário de Carvalho; Dirceu Pratissoli; João Paulo Pereira Paes; Vitor Zuim; Priscila Stinguel; Kharen Priscilla de Oliveira Silva Salomão

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, RH 70 ± 10% and 14h photophase), the selectivity of 18 fungicides in tomato to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), which is one of the natural enemies more employees in biocontrol. Cards with Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were treated with fungicides (treatments) and submitted to parasitism by 24 hours. The parameters evaluated were: percentage of parasitism, percent emergence and s...

  3. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitoids of Lepidoptera caterpillars feeding on Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bueno dos Reis Fernandes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae were obtained. Seven species of Ichneumonidae were reared from leaf rollers: Meniscomorpha sp. (Banchinae and Leurus caeruliventris (Cresson (Metopiinae from Dichomeris sp. (Gelechiidae; Mesochorus sp.1 (Mesochorinae [as a parasitoid of Hypomicrogaster sp. (Braconidae, Microgastrinae], Campoplex sp. (Campopleginae and Leurus sp. from Olethreutinae sp. (Tortricidae; Sphelodon annulicornis Morley (Banchinae and Eutanygaster brevipennis Cameron (Cremastinae were also reared from two unidentified species of Gelechiidae. The other eight species were reared from the larvae of exposed feeders: Diradops sp. (Banchinae from Miselia albipuncta Hampson (Noctuidae, Casinaria sp. (Campopleginae from Hymenomima conia Prout (Geometridae, Charops sp. (Campopleginae from Bagisara paulensis Schaus (Noctuidae and Oxydia vesulia (Cramer (Geometridae, two species of Hyposoter Förster (Campopleginae from Semaeopus sp. (Geometridae and H. conia, two species of Microcharops Roman (Campopleginae from B. paulensis and an unidentified species of Limacodidae and Mesochorus sp. 2 [reared from what was probably Aleiodes sp. (Braconidae, Rogadinae] from an unidentified species of Noctuidae.Parasitóides da família Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera foram obtidos durante um inventário de larvas de Lepidoptera sobre Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. As larvas de Lepidoptera foram coletadas sobre as plantas que ocorrem nas bordas de caminhos em três áreas preservadas de mata do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Quinze esp

  4. Structural Examination of the Dufour's Gland of the Cavity-nesting Bees Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dufour’s gland of two solitary cavity-nesting bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were examined with microscopy to determine the structure and arrangement of the gland as part of the sting apparatus. The Dufour’s glands of these two bee species are similar ...

  5. Non-target host risk assessment of the idiobiont parasitoid Bracon celer (Hymenoptera:Bracondiae) for biological control of olive fly in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The non-target risk posed by the African fruit-fly parasitoid, Bracon celer Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was assessed as part of a classical biological program for the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in California, USA. Behavioral and reproductive ...

  6. A new species of Copidosomyia Girault (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from India, with a key to global species and additional distribution records of encyrtids from India

    OpenAIRE

    Sagadai Manickavasagam; Tirunagaru Krishnachaitanya

    2016-01-01

    A new taxon, Copidosomyia abdulkalami sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is described from the material collected from Yercaud, Tamil Nadu, India, a key to global species of Copidosomyia is provided and additional distribution records of encyrtids from the state of Andhra Pradesh, India are also presented.

  7. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  8. Taxonomic and behavioral components of faunal comparisons over time: The bees of Boulder County past and present (Colorado, USA) (Hymenoptera: Anthophila)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historical and recent studies of Boulder County, Colorado (USA) bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) illustrate the potential and the pitfalls of using comparative collection data to evaluate faunal composition and change over time. A compilation of bee records from Boulder Co., CO (USA) (Scott et al., 2...

  9. Podagrion charybdis Fernando (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Torymidae parasitic on ootheca of Tendodera fasciata (Olivier (Insecta: Mantodea: first record from India and redescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Sureshan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Podagrion charybdis Fernando (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Torymidae is being reported for the first time from India based on specimens reared from the ootheca of Tendodera fasciata (Olivier (Insecta: Mantodea: Mantidae. The species is being reported subsequent to the original description with the new host record, is redescribed and illustrated.

  10. Assessment of Impact of Insecticides on Anagrus nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymanidae), an Egg Parasitoid of the Rice Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Anagrus Nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymanidae) is a major natural enemy of the rice planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). It plays an important role in the IPM of the rice planthopper. Contact and oral toxicity and residual effect of fourteen pesticide...

  11. The prevalence of the parasitic nematode Sphaerularia sp. in the overwintering gynes of Parapolybia spp. (Hymenoptera, Polistinae

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    Fuki Morooka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I report for the first time the parasitization of overwintering gynes of Parapolybia species by the entomogenous nematode Sphaerularia sp. (Tylenchidae. The nematode was found in 42% of the overwintering wasp clusters examined but occurred in only 6% of individual wasps. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes among group hibernating hymenoptera is briefly discussed and compared with that in solitary hibernating hymenopterans.

  12. Comparison of the Olfactory Preferences of Four Species of Filth Fly Pupal Parasitoid Species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for Hosts in Equine and Bovine Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) can be purchased for biological control of these flies. ...

  13. Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) Emigração de uma colônia da formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Aparecida Nickele; Marcio Roberto Pie; Wilson Reis Filho

    2012-01-01

    Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Colony migration is a poorly studied phenomenon in leaf-cutting ants. Here we report on the emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant A. heyeri in Brazil. The colony emigrated to a new location 47.4 m away from the original nest site, possibly because it had undergone considerable stress due to competitive interactions with a colony of Acromyrmex crassispinus.Emigração de uma colônia da form...

  14. Fenología de los bracónidos (Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea, Braconidae del Pirineo andorrano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcó Garí, J. V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Phenology of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea at Andorra has been conducted/studied using a Malaise trap after a one-year cycle during 1993. A total of 1.892 specimens, representing 23 subfamilies and 79 genera were sampled. About 93.7% of the captures were koinobiont braconids, whereas 6.3% belonged to idiobiont braconids. The annual phenology has been characterized through the correlation between the evolution of the collected braconids and the weather (meteorological conditions. The maximum of the populations were registered between the two rain periods. In fact, the family Braconidae shows an abundance peak from middle of May to end of August, due to the xerothermic conditions of the andorran locality.



    La fenología de la familia Braconidae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea ha sido estudiada mediante una trampa Malaise en Andorra durante el año 1993. Han sido colectados 1.892 bracónidos (excepto Aphidiinae, pertenecientes a 23 subfamilias y 79 géneros. El 93,7% de los bracónidos capturados representa la estrategia biológica koinobionte frente al 6,3% de idiobiontes. La correlación de las capturas de los bracónidos con las condiciones meteorológicas ha permitido caracterizar la fenología anual de éstos. La evolución anual de las poblaciones alcanza sus máximos en el período comprendido entre las dos épocas de lluvias, pudiéndose señalar un único pico para la familia Braconidae, el cual transcurre desde mediados de mayo a finales de agosto, debido a las condiciones xerotérmicas de la localidad andorrana.

  15. Primera cita de Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para Argentina y de su asociación con larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae First record of Aleiodes laphygmae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae for Argentina and its association with larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Valverde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez para Argentina Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae y como parasitoide de larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, en plantaciones de soja en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina. Se provee información biológica como hábitos, hospedadores y distribución.Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, is reported for the first time for Argentina. It is also reported parasitizing larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in soybeans crops in Tucumán province (Argentina. Biological information on habits, hosts and distribution is provided.

  16. Chakra, a new genus of Scelioninae (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from India, along with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keloth, Rajmohana; Kamalanathan, Veenakumari

    2014-01-01

    A new genus and one new species of Scelioninae (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea: Platygastridae) is described and illustrated from India: Chakra Rajmohana and Veenakumari, gen. nov. and Chakra sarvatra Rajmohana and Veenakumari, sp. nov. The new genus is most similar to Opisthacantha Ashmead and differs from it in the presence of a unique sculpture on the head and mesosoma: large and round tubercles separated by sinuous, narrow furrows; the position of lateral ocelli; the dorsally extended prominent interantennal prominence and the fore wing with stigmal and postmarginal veins distinctly longer than the marginal vein. PMID:24989743

  17. On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel G. Hermes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter. The use of vegetable matter in nest building is not widespread among the Eumeninae, and is reported for the first time for the two species of potter wasps Pirhosigma superficiale and P. limpidum. These wasps make mostly spherical mud nests over which they attach small pieces of unmasticated plant matter. Use of plant fragments in this group of wasps is interpreted as camouflage behavior.

  18. A new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae from ootheca of Liturgusa Saussure (Mantodea, Liturgusidae from Central Amazonas, Brazil

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    Christer Hansson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Horismenus Walker, H. liturgusae Hansson & Schoeninger (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, is described from material reared from an ootheca of an unidentified mantid species of genus Liturgusa Saussure (Mantodea: Liturgusidae. The new species is compared to H. argus Hansson, a species it is very similar to. Horismenus liturgusae sp. n. is gregarious and 49 adult specimens developed in the ootheca. This is the first record of a Horismenus species parasitizing mantids, and the first record of a Horismenus species from an ootheca.

  19. Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain. The study of parasitoid Hymenoptera is of significance for the assessment of diversity in a given area because of their role in the regulation of insects populations. The present work analyses diversity within Alysiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Forested Estate of Artikutza, located in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya, western Pyrenees, Spain. Collection of specimens was spread over two years and was carried out in two different habitats: mixed forest and beech forest. A total of 2,270 specimens, belonging to 22 separate genera, were captured. Subsequently, alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the beech forest was proven to host greater diversity than the mixed forest. A sampling strategy was adopted for the analysis of Alysiinae phenology and its relationship with environmental climatic conditions; as a result, a direct relationship between phenology and temperature was attested.Biodiversidade na Alyssinae subfamília (Hymenoptera, Braconidae no Parque Natural Peñas de Aya (Espanha. O estudo dos himenópteros parasitóides é significativo para uma avaliação da diversidade em determinada área por causa do seu papel no controle das populações de insetos. O presente trabalho analisa a diversidade no taxon Alysiinae (Himenóptero, Braconidae na área de floresta de Artikutza, localizada no Parque Natural de Peñas de Aya, Pirinéus ocidentais, Espanha. A coleta de espécimes dividiu-se em dois anos e foi realizada em dois habitats diferentes: floresta mista e floresta de faias. No total, foram capturados 2.270 exemplares pertencentes a 22 gêneros distintos. Subsequentemente, as variedades alfa, beta e gama foram analisadas, comprovando-se que a floresta de faias apresenta uma diversidade maior que a floresta mista. Adotou-se a estratégia de amostra para análise da fenologia da Alysiinae e da sua relação com

  20. Type specimens of Hymenoptera deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (excluding Aculeata

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    Helena C. Onody

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper lists the type specimens of Hymenoptera, excluding Aculeata, deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. We record all labels contents and also additional information from MZSP registers, published material, and other available sources. High resolution photographs of holotypes, lectotypes and syntypes are available through links to Specimage - the image database of The Ohio State University, where they are archived. The collection comprises a total of 332 type-specimens (32 holotypes, 266 paratypes, 12 syntypes, 20 paralectotypes and two lectotypes of eight superfamilies, 18 families, 31 subfamilies, 43 genera and 83 species.

  1. Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Marcel Gustavo Hermes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Taxonomic information on Neotropical Eumeninae is provided. A new species, Pachodynerus fessatus sp. nov. is described from southeastern São Paulo, Brazil. Additional material of Pachodynerus sericeus (Fox was examined, representing the first further specimens after the original description and including the previously unknown male. The examination of new material of the genus Stenonartonia adds some new distribution records and shows some previously unrecorded individual variation for some species. The males of Stenonartonia guaraya Garcete-Barrett and Stenonartonia rejectoides Garcete-Barrett are described for the first time.

  2. Occurrence of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae parasitizing Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in Brazil

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B nymphs on cotton plants was observed during a research on resistance of cotton genotypes to this whitefly. The experiment was set in a greenhouse at the Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples of the parasitized nymphs were collected and maintained in laboratory to monitor the parasitism and obtain the adult parasitoids. A total of 129 adult parasitoids were obtained, including one Encarsia inaron (Walker, 13 En. lutea (Masi, and 115 Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae. This is the first report of Er. mundus in Brazil.

  3. A new species of the genus Asthenara Förster, 1869 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Mexico with identification key.

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    Reshchikov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The genus Asthenara Förster, 1869, belonging to the tribe Pionini of the subfamily Ctenopelmatinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae), comprises eight described species (Yu et al. 2012). Two of them are distributed in the Palaearctic Region, and six in the Neotropical region. One Neotropical species is known from Costa Rica (Gauld et al. 1997), the remaining five from Mexico (Kasparyan 2006). Kasparyan (2006) provided a key to the species from the Mexico. To date, no species of the genus have been described from Nearctic region or south of Costa Rica. In this article a new species belonging to Asthenara, collected in the Mexican state of Jalisco is described. PMID:27615834

  4. Review of the genus Canalirogas van Achterberg & Chen (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae from Vietnam, with description of ten new species

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    Khuat Dang Long

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Vietnamese species of the genus Canalirogas van Achterberg & Chen, 1996 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae are revised. Ten species are new to science, viz., Canalirogas affinis sp. n., C. cucphuongensis sp. n., C. curvinervis sp. n., C. eurycerus sp. n., C. hoabinhicus sp. n., C. intermedius sp. n., C. parallelus sp. n., C. robberti sp. n., C. vittatus sp. n. and C. vuquangensis sp. n. One species is new for the Vietnamese fauna: Canalirogas spilonotus (Cameron, 1905 and C. balgooyi van Achterberg & Chen, 1996, is synonymized with it (syn. n.; a lectotype is designated for Troporhogas spilonotus. A key to the Vietnamese species of the genus is also provided.

  5. ¿MULTIPLICAR Tetrastichus howardi (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE) EN LA ORUGA DE LA SEDA AFECTA SU BIOLOGÍA?

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    Nahara Gabriela Piñeyro; Fabricio Fagundes Pereira; Felipe Luis Gomes Borges; Camila Rossoni; Antonio de Souza Silva; Samir Oliveira Kassab

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENLa multiplicación sucesiva de parasitoides en hospederos alternativos, puede afectar las características biológicas y comprometer los sistemas de cría masiva de estos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la multiplicación de Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff, 1893) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) en pupas del hospedero alternativo Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), durante tres generaciones. Y si eso afecta su desempeño reproductivo, cuando se cría, posteriormente, en pup...

  6. Function of the Dufour’s gland in solitary and social Hymenoptera

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    Aniruddha Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The poison gland and Dufour’s gland are the two glands associated with the sting apparatus in female Apocrita (Hymenoptera. While the poison gland usually functions as an integral part of the venom delivery system, the Dufour’s gland has been found to differ in its function in various hymenopteran groups. Like all exocrine glands, the function of the Dufour’s gland is to secrete chemicals, but the nature and function of the secretions varies in different taxa. Functions of the Dufour’s gland secretions range from serving as a component of material used in nest building, larval food, and pheromones involved in communicative functions that are important for both solitary and social species. This review summarizes the different functions reported for the Dufour’s gland in hymenopterans, illustrating how the Dufour’s gland secretions can be adapted to give rise to various functions in response to different challenges posed by the ways of life followed by different taxa. Aspects of development, structure, chemistry and the evolution of different functions are also touched upon briefly.

  7. Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae as an indicator of toxicity of herbicides registered for corn in Brazil

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    Claubert W.G de Menezes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plants in agricultural systems benefits natural enemies. Herbicides are used in weed management in corn (Zea mays L. to reduce competition and productivity losses, but they can impact natural enemies and contaminate the environment. The objective was to evaluate toxicity of herbicides on pupae parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. The treatments were represented by the host pupae Tenebrio molitor L., 1785 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and herbicides atrazine, nicosulfuron, paraquat, and tembotrione in commercial doses compared to a control treatment with water. Pupae of T. molitor were immersed in the solution of herbicides and exposed to parasitism by six females of P. elaeisis each. The herbicides atrazine and paraquat were highly toxic and, therefore, not selective to P. elaeisis. Nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of P. elaeisis (0.20 ± 0.03, which may affect subsequent generations. Moreover, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis, showing results comparable to the control. Floristic diversity of weeds can increase food source, habitat, shelter, breeding places and microclimates for insect parasitoids but herbicides formulations can be toxic and these products can affect P. elaeisis or its hosts by direct or indirect contact, showing the importance of selectivity studies for this natural enemy. However, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis and it can be recommended for programs of sustainable management of weeds in corn crop with this parasitoid.

  8. Virulence of four entomopathogenic nematode species for plum sawfly, Hoplocampa flava L. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae

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    TC Ulu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The yellow sawfly Hoplocampa flava is an important pest of plum all around the world. Larvae feed on the seed with damaged fruit falling prematurely. There are many studies on the control of other pests with entomopathogenic nematode (EPN, but few on the control of plum sawfly. The present study was conducted to determine virulence of four EPN species: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. marelatus, Steinernema carpocapsae Tur-S4 and S. feltiae Tur-S3 against plum sawfly Hoplocampa flava L. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae under laboratory conditions. For each nematode species, six different doses (3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 Infective Juveniles (IJs /larva were applied against last instar larvae of H. flava. Assays were done in 24 well tissue culture plates filled with 10 % (w/v moist silver sand. The most virulent species was H. bacteriophora which had LD50 and LD90 values of 6.51 and 15.46 IJs, respectively. The least virulent was S. carpocapsae Tur-S4 with LD50 and LD90 values of 16.617 and 33.779 IJs, respectively.

  9. The foraging behavior of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Tazerouni Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Host stage preference, functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae were investigated under defined laboratory conditions (20±1°C; 60±5% relative humidity; 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Nicholson’s model and linear regression were used to determine per capita search-efficiency and the interference coefficient, respectively. There was a significant difference between the rates of parasitism on different stages of D. noxia. The highest parasitism percentage was observed on the third instar nymphs of D. noxia in both choice and no-choice preference tests. Results of logistic regression revealed a type II functional response. The estimated values of search-efficiency (a and handling time (Th were 0.072 h-1 and 0.723 h, respectively. The maximum attack rate was calculated to be 33.22. The per capita search-efficiency decreased from 0.011 to 0.004 (h-1 as parasitoid densities increased from 1 to 8. Therefore, different host-parasitoid ratios can affect the efficacy of D. rapae.

  10. Distribution of Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) within Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) nests: implications for population management.

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    McKinney, Matthew I; Park, Yong-Lak

    2013-06-01

    Chaetodactylus krombeini (Baker) (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) is a cleptoparasitic mite that negatively affects propagation of Osmia spp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for orchard pollination in the USA. This study was conducted to determine the effect of C. krombeini on mortality of male and female Osmia cornifrons, the Japanese hornfaced bee. A total of 107 O. cornifrons nests were examined to determine within-nest distribution of C. krombeini with regression analyses. A total of 30 mite-free O. cornifrons nests were observed and within-nest distribution of male and female O. cornifrons was determined with non-linear regression analyses. In addition, cocoons from 20 mite-infested O. cornifrons cells were examined to determine whether C. krombeini could be found inside cocoons of O. cornifrons. The results of this study showed that female O. cornifrons and C. krombeini were found more frequently in the inner part of the nest, and male O. cornifrons were found mostly in the center of the nest. No C. krombeini were found inside O. cornifrons cocoons. These results indicate that C. krombeini have a greater negative impact on mortality in the egg and larval stages of female O. cornifrons than in male O. cornifrons. Implications for management of C. krombeini and O. cornifrons populations for orchard pollination are discussed in this article. PMID:23100109

  11. Toxicity of Spirotetramat on Solitary Bee Larvae, Osmia Cornuta (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae, in Laboratory Conditions

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    Sgolastra Fabio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assessed, under laboratory conditions, the toxicity of an active substance on solitary bee larvae of Osmia cornuta (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae. A field-realistic dose of the systemic insecticide spirotetramat was applied to the mass provisions. The insecticide’s effects on several life-cycle parameters were studied in males and females. Our results showed a significantly shorter post-emergence longevity in bees exposed to spirotetramat during the larval stage, compared to the control. The observed reduction in longevity was 18 and 15%, respectively, in males and females. Mortality rate and other biological traits (larval and spinning duration, emergence time, food/body conversion rate did not show significant differences between the two treatments. The method described in this study can be used to test the effects of toxic substances (i.e. agrochemicals on bees. Moreover, it can constitute a basis for the development of a standardised protocol in the first tier of the Environmental Risk Assessment for solitary bees.

  12. Lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on Osmia lignaria and clothianidin on Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

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    Abbott, V A; Nadeau, J L; Higo, H A; Winston, M L

    2008-06-01

    We examined lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on Osmia lignaria (Cresson) and clothianidin on Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). We also made progress toward developing reliable methodology for testing pesticides on wild bees for use in pesticide registration by using field and laboratory experiments. Bee larvae were exposed to control, low (3 or 6 ppb), intermediate (30 ppb), or high (300 ppb) doses of either imidacloprid or clothianidin in pollen. Field experiments on both bee species involved injecting the pollen provisions with the corresponding pesticide. Only O. lignaria was used for the laboratory experiments, which entailed both injecting the bee's own pollen provisions and replacing the pollen provision with a preblended pollen mixture containing imidacloprid. Larval development, emergence, weight, and mortality were monitored and analyzed. There were no lethal effects found for either imidacloprid or clothianidin on O. lignaria and M. rotundata. Minor sublethal effects were detected on larval development for O. lignaria, with greater developmental time at the intermediate (30 ppb) and high doses (300 ppb) of imidacloprid. No similar sublethal effects were found with clothianidin on M. rotundata. We were successful in creating methodology for pesticide testing on O. lignaria and M. rotundata; however, these methods can be improved upon to create a more robust test. We also identified several parameters and developmental stages for observing sublethal effects. The detection of sublethal effects demonstrates the importance of testing new pesticides on wild pollinators before registration. PMID:18613579

  13. Cuticular lipids of female solitary bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

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    Buckner, James S; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Guédot, Christelle; Hagen, Marcia M; Fatland, Charlotte L; Kemp, William P

    2009-06-01

    The cuticular lipids of the cavity-nesting adult female solitary bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and combined GC-mass spectrometry. The cuticular lipids of these female bees are mainly consisted of hydrocarbons. For O. lignaria, nearly 64% of the cuticular lipids were C(25)-C(31) mono-alkenes. For M. rotundata, 48% of the cuticular lipids were C(23)-C(33) alkanes with nearly the same quantities of the same chain-length mono-alkenes (45%). For the mono-alkenes of O. lignaria, 14 mono-alkene constituents were identified, with two of these, 9-heptacosene and 7-nonacosene, comprising 67% of the total alkene distribution. For M. rotundata females, the mixtures of mono-alkenes were more complex with 26 constituents identified and quantified. For the M. rotundata mono-alkenes, 57% of the total composition consisted of the three alkenes, 7-pentacosene, 9-pentacosene and 7-heptacosene. For both bee species, small quantities of C(40)-C(48) wax esters were also characterized with the major components possessing a C(18) mono-unsaturated fatty acid (9-octadecenoate) moiety esterified to even-carbon number (C(22-30)) fatty alcohols. The possible role of these cuticular lipids as nest recognition chemicals is discussed in light of nesting behavior of managed crop pollinators. PMID:19298863

  14. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

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    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  15. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. II. Sawflies (Insecta: Hymenoptera: "Symphyta")

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    Smith, David R.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the second in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter. New information We provide collection records for 47 species of "Symphyta" (Insecta: Hymenoptera), 30 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Argidae) Sterictiphora serotina; (Cimbicidae) Abia americana; (Diprionidae) Monoctenus fulvus; (Orussidae) Orussus terminalis; (Pamphiliidae) Onycholyda luteicornis, Pamphilius ocreatus, P. persicum, P. rileyi; (Pergidae) Acordulecera dorsalis, A. mellina, A. pellucida; (Tenthredinidae) Caliroa quercuscoccineae, Empria coryli, Hoplocampa marlatti, Macrophya cassandra, Monophadnoides conspiculatus, Monophadnus bakeri, Nematus abbotii, Neopareophora litura, Pachynematus corniger, Paracharactus rudis, Periclista marginicollis, Pristiphora banski, P. chlorea, Strongylogaster impressata, S. remota, Taxonus epicera, Thrinax albidopictus, T. multicinctus, Zaschizonyx montana; (Xiphydriidae) Xiphydria tibialis. PMID:27222635

  16. Species recognition through wing interference patterns (WIPs in Achrysocharoides Girault (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae including two new species

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    Ekaterina Shevtsova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wing interference patterns (WIPs are shown to be an important tool for species recognition in the genus Achrysocharoides Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. This is demonstrated by combining information from two previously published papers, comprising two cases of cryptic species, and by new material including the description of two new species, A. maieri and A. serotinae from North America. The cryptic species were initially separated through their distinct male WIPs. Subsequent analyses of the external morphology uncovered additional morphological differences supporting the original findings through WIPs, and biological data further strengthened the identity of these species. The new species described here also differ in their WIPs but the WIPs are similar in both sexes. Thus they provide a strong link between male and female and demonstrate that WIPs can also be useful for species recognition when the sexes are otherwise difficult to associate. Both new species are from Connecticut, USA, and were reared from Phyllonorycter propinquinella (Braun (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae on black cherry (Prunus serotina; A. maieri has also been reared from Ph. nr crataegella on pin cherry (P. pensylvanica. To facilitate the identification of the new species they are included in a previously published key to North American species of Achrysocharoides. As a supplement to colourful WIPs we also demonstrate that grey scale images of uncoated wings from scanning electron microscopy can be used for visualization of the thickness distribution pattern in wing membranes.

  17. Evaluation of liquid baits against field populations of the longlegged ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

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    Chong, Kim-Fung; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2009-08-01

    An evaluation of several insecticides, namely, 0.01% fipronil, 0.05% indoxacarb, and 2% boric acid in liquid bait formulations were carried out against field populations of the longlegged ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The baits were formulated in brown cane sugar solution (50%, wt:wt) and placed in an experimental bait station. Each bait was evaluated against populations of A. gracilipes at four buildings. Fipronil, indoxacarb, and boric acid were effective against A. gracilipes, with > 90% reduction of workers within 3 d posttreatment. Total reduction (100%) was achieved within 7 d for fipronil, 14 d for indoxacarb, and 56 d for boric acid. The performance of fipronil and indoxacarb baits did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) in all postbaiting sampling intervals. Reduction of A. gracilipes resulted in an increase in other ant species [Monomorium pharaonis (L.), Monomorium floricola (Jerdon), Monomorium orientale Mayr, Monomorium destructor (Jerdon), Tapinoma indicum Forel, Pheidole sp., and Camponotus sp.] at the baited locations. PMID:19736772

  18. Evolution of the insect desaturase gene family with an emphasis on social Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmkampf, Martin; Cash, Elizabeth; Gadau, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    Desaturase genes are essential for biological processes, including lipid metabolism, cell signaling, and membrane fluidity regulation. Insect desaturases are particularly interesting for their role in chemical communication, and potential contribution to speciation, symbioses, and sociality. Here, we describe the acyl-CoA desaturase gene families of 15 insects, with a focus on social Hymenoptera. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that the insect desaturases represent an ancient gene family characterized by eight subfamilies that differ strongly in their degree of conservation and frequency of gene gain and loss. Analyses of genomic organization showed that five of these subfamilies are represented in a highly microsyntenic region conserved across holometabolous insect taxa, indicating an ancestral expansion during early insect evolution. In three subfamilies, ants exhibit particularly large expansions of genes. Despite these expansions, however, selection analyses showed that desaturase genes in all insect lineages are predominantly undergoing strong purifying selection. Finally, for three expanded subfamilies, we show that ants exhibit variation in gene expression between species, and more importantly, between sexes and castes within species. This suggests functional differentiation of these genes and a role in the regulation of reproductive division of labor in ants. The dynamic pattern of gene gain and loss of acyl-CoA desaturases in ants may reflect changes in response to ecological diversification and an increased demand for chemical signal variability. This may provide an example of how gene family expansions can contribute to lineage-specific adaptations through structural and regulatory changes acting in concert to produce new adaptive phenotypes. PMID:25425561

  19. Absence of complementary sex determination in the parasitoid wasp genus Asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae.

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    Wen-Juan Ma

    Full Text Available An attractive way to improve our understanding of sex determination evolution is to study the underlying mechanisms in closely related species and in a phylogenetic perspective. Hymenopterans are well suited owing to the diverse sex determination mechanisms, including different types of Complementary Sex Determination (CSD and maternal control sex determination. We investigated different types of CSD in four species within the braconid wasp genus Asobara that exhibit diverse life-history traits. Nine to thirteen generations of inbreeding were monitored for diploid male production, brood size, offspring sex ratio, and pupal mortality as indicators for CSD. In addition, simulation models were developed to compare these observations to predicted patterns for multilocus CSD with up to ten loci. The inbreeding regime did not result in diploid male production, decreased brood sizes, substantially increased offspring sex ratios nor in increased pupal mortality. The simulations further allowed us to reject CSD with up to ten loci, which is a strong refutation of the multilocus CSD model. We discuss how the absence of CSD can be reconciled with the variation in life-history traits among Asobara species, and the ramifications for the phylogenetic distribution of sex determination mechanisms in the Hymenoptera.

  20. O gênero Xylocopa Latreille no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae

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    Schlindwein Clemens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Xylocopa Latreille in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae. A survey of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 is given for Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost State of Brazil. Data are based on several studies on the bee fauna of southern Brazil and on unpublished observations. A key is provided to the species (males and females and information on distribution, nesting habits and relation to flowers. Rio Grande do Sul is strikingly rich in species of Xylocopa because of the diversity of habitats and its geographic position in the transition of tropical/subtropical to temperate climate. Nineteen species, classified into ten subgenera, have been recorded in Rio Grande do Sul. Here we maintain the subgenera Ioxylocopa, Megaxylocopa and Xylocospila, which were put into synonymy recently by Minckley (1998. The species are: Xylocopa (Dasyxylocopa bimaculata Friese, 1903; Xylocopa (Ioxylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, 1902; Xylocopa (Megaxylocopa frontalis (Olivier, 1789; Xylocopa (Nanoxylocopa ciliata Burmeister, 1876; Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa augusti Lepeletier, 1841; Xylocopa (N. brasilianorum (Linnaeus, 1767; Xylocopa (N. haematospila Moure, 1951; Xylocopa (N. hirsutissima Maidl, 1912; Xylocopa (N. nigrocincta Smith, 1854; Xylocopa (N. ordinaria Smith, 1874; Xylocopa (N. suspecta Moure & Camargo, 1988; Xylocopa (N. tacanensis Moure, 1949; Xylocopa (Schonnherria macrops Lepeletier, 1841; Xylocopa (S. simillima Smith, 1854; Xylocopa (S. splendidula Lepeletier, 1841; Xylocopa (S. varians Smith, 1874; Xylocopa (Stenoxylocopa artifex Smith, 1874; Xylocopa (Xylocopoda elegans Hurd & Moure, 1963; Xylocopa (Xylocopsis funesta Maidl, 1912; Xylocopa (Xylocospila bambusae Schrottky, 1902. Xylocopa tacanensis is for the first time recorded in Brasil.

  1. Cloning and expression profile of ionotropic receptors in the parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Ning; Peng, Yong; Lu, Zi-Yun; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Zheng, Yao; Shan, Shuang; Li, Rui-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Ionotropic receptors (IRs) mainly detect the acids and amines having great importance in many insect species, representing an ancient olfactory receptor family in insects. In the present work, we performed RNAseq of Microplitis mediator antennae and identified seventeen IRs. Full-length MmedIRs were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the Hymenoptera IRs revealed that ten MmedIR genes encoded "antennal IRs" and seven encoded "divergent IRs". Among the IR25a orthologous groups, two genes, MmedIR25a.1 and MmedIR25a.2, were found in M. mediator. Gene structure analysis of MmedIR25a revealed a tandem duplication of IR25a in M. mediator. The tissue distribution and development specific expression of the MmedIR genes suggested that these genes showed a broad expression profile. Quantitative gene expression analysis showed that most of the genes are highly enriched in adult antennae, indicating the candidate chemosensory function of this family in parasitic wasps. Using immunocytochemistry, we confirmed that one co-receptor, MmedIR8a, was expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons. Our data will supply fundamental information for functional analysis of the IRs in parasitoid wasp chemoreception. PMID:27208597

  2. Fortuitous establishment of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Jamaica on the citrus leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These data indicate that the population of A. citricola in Jamaica probably originated from the Australian (Thailand), rather than from the Taiwan, population. This is consistent with what is currently known about the origin of the established Ageniaspis population in Florida (Alvarez 2000). It is not known when, or how, A. citricola arrived in Jamaica, although the CLM was detected there in 1994. The fortuitous establishment of A. citricolaon the CLM in Jamaica is not the only such establishment of a natural enemy discovered during this 2004 survey of citrus. The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) was found attacking the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (Hoy et al., unpublished data), and the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia radiata Waterston was found attacking the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The fact that 3 natural enemies of 3 invasive citrus pests were found in Jamaica, none of which were purposefully imported and released, suggests that pest-infested citrus trees were imported into Jamaica without going through appropriate quarantine procedures. Because each pest arrived at different times, the parasitoids probably arrived at different times, as well. This indicates that an analysis is needed to identify the critical control points within those services in Jamaica that support border protection, and that procedures may require strengthening. (author)

  3. Diversity of Braconidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil

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    Sian de Souza Gadelha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Braconidae is a highly diversified family of Hymenoptera and usually known by their role in biological control both in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Despite of that, little is known about its diversity in the Amazon region. The present work inventoried the braconid fauna of an Open Ombrophylous Forest with Palm Trees of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, RO. Insects were collect from June/2008 to May/2009 using six Malaise traps in different parts of the reserve. A total of 377 wasps were captured, 17 subfamilies and 56 genera identified. Braconinae, Microgastrinae, Doryctinae and Rogadinae subfamilies were very abundant, and also the genera Aleiodes, Bracon, Capitonius, Compsobracon, Heterospilus, Hymenochaonia, Opius, Pedinotus, Rogas and Stantonia. The calculated Shannon diversity index was 2.15 and 3.3 for subfamily and genera, respectively, which were, generally, higher than the values found for other regions in Brazil. Generally, parasitoids were more abundant during the rainy season. The present work contributes with new genera records and faunistic data of Braconidae in Rondonia State, western Amazon.

  4. Anagrus turpanicus sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) from China, an egg parasitoid of Arboridia kakogowana (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2016-01-01

    A new Palaearctic species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), A. turpanicus Triapitsyn & Hu sp. n., is described and illustrated from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. It was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Arboridia kakogowana (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Fig. 10) on cultivated table grapes from Turpan, which had been previously misidentified there as Erythroneura apicalis (Nawa) (e.g., Wang et al. 2004, 2011; Luan et al. 2006). This leafhopper has been an important economic pest in Turpan area since 1998, causing serious damage to the cultivated grapevines (Wang et al. 2004; Luan et al. 2006). Wang et al. (2011) reported that the mite Leptus sp. (Erythraeidae) and several unidentified spider species were the main natural enemies of Erythroneura apicalis in and around Turpan. This is the first record of A. kakogowana from China; it was not included in the key to the Chinese species of the genus Arboridia Zachvatkin by Song & Li (2015). Arboridia kakogowana is native to the eastern Palaearctic region (Japan, Korea, and Far East of Russia), and has been recently recorded as an invasive pest of cultivated grapes in southern Russia (Gnezdilov et al. 2008). PMID:27615953

  5. Compatibility of endoparasitoid Hyposoter didymator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) protected stages with five selected insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, P; Morales, J J; Budia, F; Adan, A; Del Estal, P; Viñuela, E

    2007-12-01

    Hyposoter didymator (Thunberg) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid that emerges from the parasitization of economically important noctuid pests. H. didymator also is considered one of the most important native biocontrol agents of noctuids in Spain. Side effects of five insecticides with very different modes of action (fipronil, imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide, pymetrozine, and triflumuron) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain were evaluated on H. didymator parasitizing Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae and pupae of the endoparasitoid. Parasitized larvae were topically treated or ingested treated artificial diet. Parasitoid cocoons were topically treated. Host mortality when parasitized larvae were treated, as well as further development of the parasitoid surviving (e.g., percentage of cocoons spun, adult emergence, hosts attacked, and numbered progeny) were determined. Toxicity after treatment of parasitized larvae differed depending on the mode of exposure and insecticide. Fipronil was always highly toxic; imidacloprid killed all host insects by ingestion, but it was less toxic to both host and parasitoids, when administered topically; natural pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide and triflumuron showed differing degrees of toxicity, and pymetrozine was harmless. Parasitoid cocoons provided effective protection against all the insecticides, except fipronil. PMID:18232395

  6. Inter- and intraspecific aggression in the invasive longlegged ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kim-Fung; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2010-10-01

    The longlegged ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is a highly invasive species that can aggressively displace other ant species. We conducted laboratory assays to examine interspecies aggression of A. gracilipes versus 15 sympatric ant species found in the urban environment and disturbed habitat in Malaysia: Monomorium pharaonis (L.), Monomorium floricola (Jerdon), Monomorium orientale Mayr, Monomorium destructor (Jerdon), Pheidole parva Mayr, Crematogaster sp., Solenopsis geminata (F.), Tapinoma indicum (Forel), Tapinoma melanocephalum (F.), Technomyrmnex butteli Forel, Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith), Paratrechina longicornis (Latrielle), Oecophylla smaragdina (F), Camponotus sp., and Tetraponera rufonigra (Jerdon). A. gracilipes showed aggressive behavior toward all opponent species, except the smallest M. orientale. Opponent species size (body size, head width, and mandible width) was significantly correlated with A. gracilipes aggression level and mortality rate. We also found a significant positive relationship between A. gracilipes aggression level and the mortality of the opponent species. The results suggest that invasive populations of A. gracilipes would have the greatest impact on larger ant species. In addition, we examined the intraspecific aggression of A. gracilipes. We found that A. gracilipes from different localities in Malaysia showed intraspecific aggression toward one another. This finding differs from the results of studies conducted in Christmas Island earlier. Differences in the genetic variability among populations may explain these differing results. PMID:21061979

  7. Patterns of ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) richness and relative abundance along an aridity gradient in Western Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, A J; Lattke, J E; Viloria, A L

    2013-04-01

    In xeric ecosystems, ant diversity response to aridity varies with rainfall magnitude and gradient extension. At a local scale and with low precipitation regimes, increased aridity leads to a reduction of species richness and an increased relative abundance for some ant species. In order to test this pattern in tropical environments, ant richness and relative abundance variation were evaluated along 35 km of an aridity gradient in the Araya Peninsula, state of Sucre, Venezuela. Three sampling stations comprising five transects each were set up. Pitfall traps and direct collecting from vegetation were assessed per transect. Overall, 52 species, 23 genera, and 7 subfamilies of ants were recorded in the peninsula. The total number of species and genera recorded by both sampling stations and transects decreased linearly with increasing aridity. Total relative abundance was highest in the most arid portion of the peninsula, with Crematogaster rochai (Forel) and Camponotus conspicuus zonatus (Emery) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) being the numerically dominant species. Spatial and multivariate analyses revealed significant changes in ant composition every 11 km of distance, and showed a decrease of ant diversity with the increase of harsh conditions in the gradient. Here, we discuss how local geographic and topographic features of Araya originate the aridity gradient and so affect the microhabitat conditions for the ant fauna. PMID:23949745

  8. Comparative flight morphology in queens of invasive and native Patagonian bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Bombus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Carlo; Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis

    2015-02-01

    Since its introduction in Chile, the European Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) has progressively reduced the abundance of the native Patagonian bumblebee, Bombus dahlbomii Guérin. Because an important cause of successful invasion of a species may depend on a potentially advantageous phenotype, we studied morphologies related to flight performance (flight muscle ratio (FMR), wing loading (WL), excess power index (EPI, which integrates FMR and WL) and wing aspect ratio (AR)) in the queens of the two species. Previous empirical studies showed that greater FMR, AR and EPI, and lower WL increase flight performance. In the Patagonian Chilean fjord where the study was carried out, B. dahlbomii was 40% heavier than B. terrestris, a difference theoretically allowing the queens of the native species to take off with heavier loads, despite the fact that the two species have virtually identical FMRs. However, FMR negatively depended on body mass at the intra-specific level. The total wing area was 35% greater in B. dahlbomii, but the difference in forewing length was only of 16%. Once taken into account the effect of body size, WL, was significantly lower in B. terrestris. AR increased with body mass and did not differ between species. EPI was weakly but significantly higher in B. terrestris. Experiments formally linking such parameters with flight performance may help to explain the observed quick and wide spread of this alien species in Patagonia in the last few years. PMID:25499798

  9. A Landscape Analysis to Understand Orientation of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drones in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Cardona, A; Monmany, A C; Diaz, G; Giray, T

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees [Apis mellifera L. (Apidae, Hymenoptera)] show spatial learning behavior or orientation, in which animals make use of structured home ranges for their daily activities. Worker (female) orientation has been studied more extensively than drone (male) orientation. Given the extensive and large flight range of drones as part of their reproductive biology, the study of drone orientation may provide new insight on landscape features important for orientation. We report the return rate and orientation of drones released at three distances (1, 2, and 4 km) and at the four cardinal points from an apiary located in Gurabo, Puerto Rico. We used high-resolution aerial photographs to describe landscape characteristics at the releasing sites and at the apiary. Analyses of variance were used to test significance among returning times from different distances and directions. A principal components analysis was used to describe the landscape at the releasing sites and generalized linear models were used to identify landscape characteristics that influenced the returning times of drones. Our results showed for the first time that drones are able to return from as far as 4 km from the colony. Distance to drone congregation area, orientation, and tree lines were the most important landscape characteristics influencing drone return rate. We discuss the role of landscape in drone orientation. PMID:26314058

  10. The genus Macroteleia Westwood (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s. l., Scelioninae from China

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    Chen Huayan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Macroteleia Westwood (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s. l., Scelioninae from China is revised. Seventeen species are recognized based on 502 specimens, all of which are new records for China. Seven new species are described: M. carinigena sp. n. (China, M. flava sp. n. (China, M. gracilis sp. n. (China, M. salebrosa sp. n. (China, M. semicircula sp. n. (China, M. spinitibia sp. n. (China and M. striatipleuron sp. n. (China. Ten species are redescribed: M. boriviliensis Saraswat (China, India, Thailand, M. crawfordi Kiefer, stat. n. (China, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, M. dolichopa Sharma (China, India, Vietnam, M. emarginata Dodd (China, Malaysia, M. indica Saraswat & Sharma (China, India, Vietnam, M. lamba Saraswat & Sharma (China, India, Thailand, Vietnam, M. livingstoni Saraswat (China, India, M. peliades Kozlov & Lê (China, Vietnam, M. rufa Szelényi (China, Egypt, Georgia, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine and M. striativentris Crawford (China, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. The following five new synonyms are proposed: M. crates Kozlov & Lê syn. n. and M. demades Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. crawfordi Kieffer; M. cebes Kozlov & Lê syn. n. and M. dones Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. indica Saraswat & Sharma; M. dores Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. lamba Saraswat & Sharma. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is provided.

  11. Nepotism and brood reliability in the suppression of worker reproduction in the eusocial Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonacs, Peter

    2006-12-22

    In many eusocial Hymenoptera, workers prevent each other from producing male offspring by destroying worker-laid eggs. Kin selection theory predicts that such 'worker policing' behaviour can evolve by increasing the average relatedness between workers and their male brood. Alternatively, if worker-laid eggs are of low relative viability, their replacement would increase the developmental reliability of the brood. Less colony investment in terms of time and resources would be lost on poor males. This gain is independent of the relatedness of the males. Unfortunately, both nepotistic and group efficiency benefits can simultaneously accrue with the replacement of worker-laid eggs. Therefore, worker behaviour towards eggs cannot completely resolve whether both processes have been equally evolutionarily important. Adequate resolution requires the presentation of worker-produced brood of various ages. The stage at which brood are replaced can discriminate whether worker policing occurs owing to a preference for closer genetic kin, a preference for the more reliable brood or both. PMID:17148292

  12. Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae Emigração de uma colônia da formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Mariane Aparecida Nickele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Colony migration is a poorly studied phenomenon in leaf-cutting ants. Here we report on the emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant A. heyeri in Brazil. The colony emigrated to a new location 47.4 m away from the original nest site, possibly because it had undergone considerable stress due to competitive interactions with a colony of Acromyrmex crassispinus.Emigração de uma colônia da formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. A migração de colônias de formigas cortadeiras é um fenômeno pouco estudado. Nesse estudo, nós relatamos a emigração de uma colônia da formiga cortadeira A. heyeri no Brasil. A colônia emigrou 47,5 m de distância do seu ninho original para um novo local, provavelmente porque sofreu um estresse considerável devido à interações competitivas com uma colônia de Acromyrmex crassispinus.

  13. Per arborem ad astra: morphological adaptations to exploiting the woody habitat in the early evolution of Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelmsen, Lars; Turrisi, Giuseppe Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    We survey morphological features of larval and adult wasps that undergo their entire larval development inside wood and interpret them in view of the lifestyle. The evolution of some of the characters is explored by mapping them on a recently published phylogeny of Hymenoptera. Based on this phylogeny, it is reasonable to assume that wood-living wasps evolved from a xylophagous/mycetophagous stage as displayed by woodwasps to a carnivorous/parasitoid lifestyle, preying on woodboring insect larvae. The latter mode of life is probably ancestral to the Apocrita which comprise the majority of the order; they share this lifestyle with their sister group, the Orussidae. However, most apocritan wasps have radiated into other habitats, the Orussidae and Stephanidae apparently being the only taxa that have retained the ancestral lifestyle of carnivorous wasps. Other apocritan lineages associated with wood (e.g., Aulacidae, Megalyridae, basal Cynipoidea and some Ichneumonoidea and Chalcidoidea) possibly entered this habitat secondarily and independently acquired morphological traits associated with it. The woody habitat was occupied by Hymenoptera during a crucial stage in their evolution where the transition from the phytophagous to carnivorous lifestyle took place. The anatomy of both larva and adults was extensively transformed in the process. PMID:20951828

  14. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of the Invasive Ants in Hives of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, M R; Giannotti, E; Tofolo, V C; Pizano, M A; Firmino, E L B; Antonialli-Junior, W F; Andrade, L H C; Lima, S M

    2016-02-01

    Apiculture in Brazil is quite profitable and has great potential for expansion because of the favorable climate and abundancy of plant diversity. However, the occurrence of pests, diseases, and parasites hinders the growth and profitability of beekeeping. In the interior of the state of São Paulo, apiaries are attacked by ants, especially the species Camponotus atriceps (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which use the substances produced by Apis mellifera scutellata (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), like honey, wax, pollen, and offspring as a source of nourishment for the adult and immature ants, and kill or expel the adult bees during the invasion. This study aimed to understand the invasion of C. atriceps in hives of A. m. scutellata. The individuals were classified into castes and subcastes according to morphometric analyses, and their cuticular chemical compounds were identified using Photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). The morphometric analyses were able to classify the individuals into reproductive castes (queen and gynes), workers (minor and small ants), and the soldier subcaste (medium and major ants). Identification of cuticular hydrocarbons of these individuals revealed that the eight beehives were invaded by only three colonies of C. atriceps; one of the colonies invaded only one beehive, and the other two colonies underwent a process called sociotomy and were responsible for the invasion of the other seven beehives. The lack of preventive measures and the nocturnal behavior of the ants favored the invasion and attack on the bees. PMID:26563402

  15. First successful case of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer with venom immunotherapy for hymenoptera sting allergy

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    Tucker Michael J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe immune and endocrine responses in severe hymenoptera hypersensitivity requiring venom immunotherapy (VIT during in vitro fertilization (IVF. Case presentation A 39-year old patient was referred for history of multiple miscarriage and a history of insect sting allergy. Four years earlier, she began subcutaneous injection of 100 mcg mixed vespid hymenoptera venom/venom protein every 5–6 weeks. The patient had one livebirth and three first trimester miscarriages. Allergy treatment was maintained for all pregnancies ending in miscarriage, although allergy therapy was discontinued for the pregnancy that resulted in delivery. At our institution ovulation induction incorporated venom immunotherapy (VIT during IVF, with a reduced VIT dose when pregnancy was first identified. Serum IgE was monitored with estradiol during ovulation induction and early pregnancy. Response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation was favorable while VIT was continued, with retrieval of 12 oocytes. Serum RAST (yellow jacket IgE levels fluctuated in a nonlinear fashion (range 36–54% during gonadotropin therapy and declined after hCG administration. A healthy female infant was delivered at 35 weeks gestation. The patient experienced no untoward effects from any medications during therapy. Conclusion Our case confirms the safety of VIT in pregnancy, and demonstrates RAST IgE can remain

  16. The mitochondrial genome of Tenthredo tienmushana (Takeuchi) and a related phylogenetic analysis of the sawflies (Insecta: Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Ze-Hua; Li, Yue; Wei, Shu-Jun; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Tenthredo tienmushana (Takeuchi, 1940) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) (GenBank accession KR703581) was reported. The length of the sequenced region of this mitochondrial genome is 14,943 bp, with 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, 19 tRNA (the trnI, trnQ, and trnM were failed to sequence) genes and a partial A + T-rich region. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of the suborder "Symphyta", there is no gene rearrangement in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral gene arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Eleven, one, and one protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, TA, and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on all codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes supports the monophyly of Tenthredinoidea. Two families of the Tenthredinoidea, i.e. Tenthredinidae and Pergidae, form the basal lineage of the Hymenoptera. Within the Tenthredinidae, the subfamily Tenthrediniinae and Allantinae form a sister lineage and then sister to the Nematinae. The Orussidae was recovered to be a sister group to the Apocrita, which contains Ichneumonidae and Vespidae in our analysis. The Cephoidea is sister to the lineage of Orussoidea + Apocrita. PMID:26134345

  17. Famílias de Hymenoptera (Insecta como ferramenta avaliadora da conservação de restingas no extremo sul do Brasil

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    Cristina Maria Loyola Zardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar e comparar a diversidade e flutuação populacional das famílias de Hymenoptera em área de restinga foi realizado um levantamento faunístico em duas áreas de restinga com diferentes níveis de conservação. Foram coletados 5.518 himenópteros distribuídos em 30 famílias. Os picos populacionais na flutuação das famílias ocorreram no verão confirmando a alta correlação da temperatura com a distribuição das famílias. Constatou-se na restinga em sucessão maior riqueza, porém, com alta dominância, abrigando representantes dos três grupos ecológicos (antófilos, generalistas e parasitóides em alta abundância. A restinga preservada, com 17 famílias, verificou-se mais diversa e homogênea, onde verificou-se maior abundância dos parasitóides, devido à maior estabilidade do sistema. A riqueza de famílias de Hymenoptera em áreas de restinga pode ser utilizada como parâmetro indicativo de qualidade ambiental, para este tipo de bioma.Hymenoptera Families (Insecta as Evaluation Tool of the Conservation of Sandbanks in Southern BrazilAbstract. With aim to estimate and compare the diversity and population of the Hymenoptera families in a sandbank area was carried out a wildlife survey in two areas of sandbank with different levels of conservation. We collected 5 518 Hymenoptera distributed in 30 families. The peaks in the families fluctuation occurred in the summer confirmed the high correlation of temperature with the distribution of families. The sandbank in succession had the highest richness, however with high dominance, hosting representatives of the three ecological groups (anthophilous, generalists and parasitoids in high abundance. The sandbank preserved, with 17 families, was more diverse and homogeneous, where the parasitoids showed greater abundance due to greater system stability. The richness of Hymenoptera families in sandbanks can be used as a parameter indicative of environmental quality.

  18. Inbreeding and building up small populations of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Paulo Nogueira-Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the viability of small populations of Hymenoptera is a matter of importance to gain a better zoological, ethological, genetical and ecological knowledge of these insects, and for conservation purposes, mainly because of the consequences to the survival of colonies of many species of bees, wasps, and ants. Based on the Whiting (1943 principle, Kerr & Vencovski (1982 presented a hypothesis that states that viable populations of stingless bees (Meliponini should have at least 40 colonies to survive. This number was later extended to 44 colonies by Kerr (1985. This would be necessary to avoid any substantial amount of homozygosis in the pair of chromosomic sexual loci, by keeping at least six different sexual gene alleles in a reproductive population. In most cases this would prevent the production of useless diploid males. However, several facts weigh against considering this as a general rule. From 1990 to 2001, 287 colony divisions were made, starting with 28 foundation colonies, in the inbreeding and population experiments with the Meliponini reported here. These experiments constitute the most extensive and longest scientific research ever made with Meliponini bees. In ten different experiments presented here, seven species (one with two subspecies of Meliponini bees were inbred in five localities inside their wide-reaching native habitats, and in two localities far away from these habitats. This was done for several years. On the whole, the number of colonies increased and the loss of colonies over the years was small. In two of these experiments, although these populations were far (1,000 km and 1,200 km from their native habitat, their foundation colonies were multiplied successfuly. It was possible to build up seven strong and three expanding medium populations, starting with one, two, three or even five colonies. However, in six other cases examined here, the Whiting (1943 principle and the hypothesis of Kerr & Vencovski (1982

  19. Phenotypic Variation in Fitness Traits of a Managed Solitary Bee, Osmia ribifloris (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, B J; Rinehart, T A; Kirker, G T; Stringer, S J; Werle, C T

    2015-12-01

    We investigated fitness in natural populations of a managed solitary bee Osmia ribifloris Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from sites separated from 400 to 2,700 km. Parental wild bees originated in central Texas (TX), central-northern Utah (UT), and central California (CA). They were then intercrossed and raised inside a mesh enclosure in southern Mississippi (MS). Females from all possible mated pairs of O. ribifloris produced F1 broods with 30-40% female cocoons and outcrossed progeny were 30% heavier. Mitochondrial (COI) genomes of the four populations revealed three distinct clades, a TX-CA clade, a UT clade, and an MS clade, the latter (MS) representing captive progeny of CA and UT bees. Although classified as separate subspecies, TX and CA populations from 30° N to 38° N latitude shared 98% similarity in COI genomes and the greatest brood biomass per nest straw (600- to 700-mg brood). Thus, TX and CA bees show greater adaptation for southern U.S. sites. In contrast, UT-sourced bees were more distantly related to TX and CA bees and also produced ∼50% fewer brood. These results, taken together, confirm that adult O. ribifloris from all trap-nest sites are genetically compatible, but some phenotypic variation exists that could affect this species performance as a commercial blueberry pollinator. Males, their sperm, or perhaps a substance in their sperm helped stabilize our captive bee population by promoting legitimate nesting over nest usurpation. Otherwise, without insemination, 50% fewer females nested (they nested 14 d late) and 20% usurped nests, killing 33-67% of brood in affected nests. PMID:26470379

  20. Foraging and nesting behavior of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in the presence of fungicides: cage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladurner, E; Bosch, J; Kemp, W P; Maini, S

    2008-06-01

    During orchard pollination studies in California, we observed dramatic changes in nesting and foraging behavior of Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) after sprays with tank mixtures containing fungicides. A characteristic pattern of postspray events observed includes erratic behavior and interrupted foraging and nesting activity for several days. In an effort to determine whether fungicidal sprays were disruptive to bee foraging and thus to pollination, we exposed O. lignaria females nesting in field cages planted with lacy scorpionweed, Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth (Hydrophyllaceae), to selected spray mixtures normally encountered in California orchard production systems: iprodione (Rovral), propiconazole (Orbit), benomyl (Benlate), and captan (Captan 50 WP); the surfactant Dyne-Amic, alone and mixed with Rovral; and the tank mixture IDB (Rovral + Dyne-Amic + the foliar fertilizer Bayfolan Plus). An additional cage sprayed with an equal volume of water acted as control, and a cage sprayed with the insecticide dimethoate as a toxic standard. For each female O. lignaria, we recorded time spent inside the nest depositing pollen-nectar loads, foraging time, cell production rate, and survival. All females in the dimethoate treatment died postspray + 1 d. Before death, some of these females behaved similarly to our previous orchard observations. A high proportion of females in the IDB cage were inactive for a few hours before resuming normal foraging and nesting activity. No lethal or behavioral effects were found for any of the other compounds or mixtures tested. Our results indicate that the fungicide applications that we tested are compatible with the use of O. lignaria as an orchard pollinator. PMID:18613561

  1. Biology of Habrobracon gelechiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), as a parasitoid of the obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Kent M; Wang, Xingeng; Duerr, Sean S; Kuhn, Emily J; Son, Youngsoo; Yokota, Glenn Y

    2013-02-01

    Habrobracon gelechiae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was studied as a parasitoid of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in California pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) orchards. Ovipositional behavior, adult longevity and fecundity, and the effects of temperature on developmental time and survival were determined. Habrobracon gelechiae develops as a gregarious, ectoparasitic idiobiont on late-instar C. rosaceana larvae. At 25°C, adult female wasps survived longer when provided honey and water (35.4 ± 4.9 d) or honey, water, and host larvae (34.4 ± 2.4 d) than when provided water (8.9 ± 1.1 d) or no food (5.9 ± 0.8 d). Over the adult lifespan, females parasitized 20.6 ± 2.1 hosts and deposited 228.8 ± 24.6 eggs. The intrinsic rate of increase was 0.24, the mean generation time was 18.15 d, and the double time 2.88 d. At constant temperatures, H. gelechiae successfully developed (egg to adult) from 15 to 35 °C. The developmental rate was fit to a nonlinear model, providing estimates of the parasitoid's lower (10.5 °C), upper (36.0 °C), and optimal (33.3 °C) development temperatures. Based on a linear model, 155 degree days were estimated for egg to adult eclosion. Temperature-dependent nonlinear model of survival showed similar shape with the model of development rate. The wasp developed under two diurnal temperature regimes, with 31.0 ± 13.3% survival at low (4-15 °C) and 63.0 ± 11.4% survival at high (15-35 °C) temperature regimes. The results are discussed with respect to H. gelechiae potential as a parasitoid of C. rosaceana in California's San Joaquin Valley. PMID:23339791

  2. Speed of efficacy and delayed toxicity characteristics of fast-acting fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, David H; Oi, Faith M

    2006-10-01

    Efficacy and speed of action of fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) baits that claim fast control of colonies were compared with a standard bait. More than 85% of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, laboratory colonies provided bait containing the active ingredient indoxacarb died within 3 d, and all colonies were dead in 6 d. Standard bait containing hydramethylnon resulted in death of 60% of the colonies in 9 d. Bait containing spinosad did not cause colony death. Under field conditions, one-half of the areas treated with the indoxacarb bait did not have any active fire ant nests within 3 d, whereas 11 d was needed to reach the same level of control with the hydramethylnon bait. Spinosad had a maximum of 17% of the treated areas without nests after 3 d. The delay in death of S. invicta adults treated in the laboratory with the indoxacarb and spinosad baits was shorter than the standard hydramethylnon bait, which had mortality similar to the traditional delayed toxicity criterion of 89% mortality over the test period. Indoxacarb caused mortality of 57% at 24 h and 100% at 48 h; however, visual symptoms of toxicity were not readily observed for at least 8 h before the abrupt increase in death. Spinosad caused 96% mortality by 24 h, and initial mortality became apparent at 4 h. Time required for death of 15% of a treated population (LT15) of spinosad, indoxacarb, and hydramethylnon was 3, 9, and 16 h, respectively. Delayed toxicity characteristics of the fast-acting indoxacarb bait may be useful for the development of other fast-acting ant baits. PMID:17066807

  3. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits. PMID:21061977

  4. Effects of UV-blocking films on the dispersal behavior of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, Dimitrios; Payne, Christopher C

    2007-02-01

    The parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) has been used successfully for the control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). The development of UV-blocking plastic films has added a new component to future integrated pest management systems by disrupting insect pest infestation when UV light is excluded. Because both T. vaporariorum and E. formosa are reported to have similar spectral efficiency, there was a need to identify the impact of UV-blocking films on the dispersal behavior of both the pest and the natural enemy. In field studies, using choice-chamber experiments, E. formosa showed some preference to disperse into compartments where less UV light was blocked. However, further studies indicated that the effect was primarily attributable to the different light diffusion properties of the films tested. Thus, unlike its whitefly host, when the UV-absorbing properties of the films were similar, but the light diffusion properties differed, E. formosa adults preferred to disperse into compartments clad with films that had high light diffusion properties. When the plastic films differed most in their UV-absorbing capacity and had no light-diffusion capability, the initial dispersal of E. formosa between treatments was similar, although a small preference toward the environment with UV light was observed over time. When parasitoid dispersal was measured 3 h after release, more parasitoids were found on plants, suggesting that the parasitoids would search plants for whitefly hosts, even in a UV-blocked light environment. The potential for the integration of UV-blocking films with E. formosa in an advanced whitefly management system is discussed. PMID:17370817

  5. Phylogenetic systematics and a revised generic classification of anthidiine bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Jessica R; Griswold, Terry; Danforth, Bryan N

    2016-07-01

    The bee tribe Anthidiini (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a large, cosmopolitan group of solitary bees that exhibit intriguing nesting behavior. We present the first molecular-based phylogenetic analysis of relationships within Anthidiini using model-based methods and a large, multi-locus dataset (five nuclear genes, 5081 base pairs), as well as a combined analysis using our molecular dataset in conjunction with a previously published morphological matrix. We discuss the evolution of nesting behavior in Anthidiini and the relationship between nesting material and female mandibular morphology. Following an examination of the morphological characters historically used to recognize anthidiine genera, we recommend the use of a molecular-based phylogenetic backbone to define taxonomic groups prior to the assignment of diagnostic morphological characters for these groups. Finally, our results reveal the paraphyly of numerous genera and have significant consequences for anthidiine classification. In order to promote a classification system based on stable, monophyletic clades, we hereby make the following changes to Michener's (2007) classification: The subgenera Afranthidium (Zosteranthidium) Michener and Griswold, 1994, Afranthidium (Branthidium) Pasteels, 1969 and Afranthidium (Immanthidium) Pasteels, 1969 are moved into the genus Pseudoanthidium, thus forming the new combinations Pseudoanthidium (Zosteranthidium), Pseudoanthidium (Branthidium), and Pseudoanthidium (Immanthidium). The genus Neanthidium Pasteels, 1969 is also moved into the genus Pseudoanthidium, thus forming the new combination Pseudoanthidium (Neanthidium). Based on morphological characters shared with our new definition of the genus Pseudoanthidium, the subgenus Afranthidium (Mesanthidiellum) Pasteels, 1969 and the genus Gnathanthidium Pasteels, 1969 are also moved into the genus Pseudoanthidium, thus forming the new combinations Pseudoanthidium (Mesanthidiellum) and Pseudoanthidium (Gnathanthidium

  6. Thelytokous parthenogenesis in the fungus-gardening ant Mycocepurus smithii (Hymenoptera: Formicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rabeling

    Full Text Available The general prevalence of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction among organisms testifies to the evolutionary benefits of recombination, such as accelerated adaptation to changing environments and elimination of deleterious mutations. Documented instances of asexual reproduction in groups otherwise dominated by sexual reproduction challenge evolutionary biologists to understand the special circumstances that might confer an advantage to asexual reproductive strategies. Here we report one such instance of asexual reproduction in the ants. We present evidence for obligate thelytoky in the asexual fungus-gardening ant, Mycocepurus smithii, in which queens produce female offspring from unfertilized eggs, workers are sterile, and males appear to be completely absent. Obligate thelytoky is implicated by reproductive physiology of queens, lack of males, absence of mating behavior, and natural history observations. An obligate thelytoky hypothesis is further supported by the absence of evidence indicating sexual reproduction or genetic recombination across the species' extensive distribution range (Mexico-Argentina. Potential conflicting evidence for sexual reproduction in this species derives from three Mycocepurus males reported in the literature, previously regarded as possible males of M. smithii. However, we show here that these specimens represent males of the congeneric species M. obsoletus, and not males of M. smithii. Mycocepurus smithii is unique among ants and among eusocial Hymenoptera, in that males seem to be completely absent and only queens (and not workers produce diploid offspring via thelytoky. Because colonies consisting only of females can be propagated consecutively in the laboratory, M. smithii could be an adequate study organism a to test hypotheses of the population-genetic advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction in a social organism and b inform kin conflict theory.For a Portuguese translation of the

  7. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to caterpillar-induced volatiles from cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huilin; Zhang, Yongjun; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming; Gao, Xiwu; Guo, Yuyuan

    2010-04-01

    Microplitis mediator Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important larval endoparasitoid of various lepidopteran pests, including Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). In China, H. armigera is a key pest of cotton and is currently the focus of several biological control efforts that use M. mediator as principal natural enemy of this pest. To improve the success of biological control efforts, behavioral studies are needed that shed light on the interaction between M. mediator and H. armigera. In this study, we determined M. mediator response to volatile compounds from undamaged, mechanically injured, or H. armigera--damaged plants and identified attractive volatiles. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, we found that mechanically damaged plants and/or plants treated with H. armigera oral secretions did not attract wasps. However, volatiles from H. armigera-damaged plants elicited a strong attraction of both M. mediator sexes. Headspace extracts from H. armigera-damaged cotton were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), and a total of seven different compounds were found to elicit electroantennogram (EAG) responses, including an unknown compound. Six different EAD-active volatiles were identified from caterpillar-damaged cotton plants, of which 3, 7-dimethyl-1, 3, 6-octatriene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were the principal compounds. Olfactometer assays indicated that individual synthetic compounds of 3, 7-dimethyl-1, 3, 6-octatriene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and nonanal were attractive to M. mediator. Field cage studies showed that parasitism of H. armigera larvae by M. mediator was higher on cotton plants to which 3,7-dimethyl-1,3, 6-octatriene was applied. Our results show that the combination of terpenoids and green leaf volatiles may not only facilitate host, mate, or food location but may also increase H. armigera parasitism by M. mediator. PMID:20388293

  8. Lethal and Demographic Impact of Chlorpyrifos and Spinosad on the Ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, V; Saber, M; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, H; Kamita, S G

    2015-12-01

    The appropriate use of biological agents and chemical compounds is necessary to establish successful integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Thus, the off-target effects of pesticides on biological control agents are essential considerations of IPM. In this study, the effects of lethal and sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos and spinosad on the demographic parameters of Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were assessed. Bioassays were carried out on immature and adult stages by using dipping and contact exposure of dry pesticide residue on an inert material, respectively. The lethal concentration (LC)50 values of chlorpyrifos and spinosad were 3.69 and 151.37 ppm, respectively, on the larval stage and 1.75 and 117.37 ppm, respectively, on adults. Hazard quotient (HQ) values for chlorpyrifos and spinosad were 400 and 2.2, respectively, on the larval stage and 857.14 and 2.84, respectively, on adults. A low lethal concentration (LC30) was used to assess the sublethal effects of both pesticides on the surviving females. In each treatment, 25 survivors were randomly selected and transferred into 6-cm Petri dishes. Adults were provided daily with last instars of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) as a host until all of the females died. The number of eggs laid, percent of larvae hatched, longevity, and sex ratio were recorded. Stable population growth parameters were estimated by the Jackknife method. In control, chlorpyrifos, and spinosad treatments, the intrinsic rates of increase (r m) values were 0.23, 0.10, and 0.21, respectively. The results of this study suggest a relative compatibility between spinosad use and H. hebetor. Finally, further studies should be conducted under natural conditions to verify the compatibility of spinosad with H. hebetor in IPM programs. PMID:26280986

  9. Establishment of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in sugarcane fields of Ethiopia and origin of founding population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Y; Mitchell, A; Conlong, D E; Muirhead, K A

    2008-06-01

    Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is used as a classical biological control agent against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious exotic pest of cereal crops in eastern and southern Africa. This parasitoid has been introduced into several African countries for the control of C. partellus in maize, Zea mays L., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), but it has never been released in Ethiopia. It is hypothesized that it spread into Ethiopia from populations released in Kenya and Somalia to become the predominant parasitoid of C. partellus in maize and sorghum fields of the country. In recent surveys conducted in Ethiopia, C. flavipes was recovered from C. partellus in sugarcane, Saccharum L. spp. hybrids, at a site >2,000 km from the nearest known release sites in Kenya and Somalia. These findings question published hypotheses that estimate the dispersal rate of C. flavipes to be 60 km per year in Africa, and they suggest that since its release in Africa this parasitoid has developed strains adapted to searching particular host plants infested by particular stem borers. The anomalies between our results and previous reports evoked the hypothesis that C. flavipes in Ethiopian sugarcane might be a different strain. To test this hypothesis, we compared partial COI gene sequences of C. flavipes collected from sugarcane in Ethiopia and those of specimens from other African countries to determine the origin of the Ethiopian population. In addition, COI sequences were obtained for C. flavipes from other continents. The C. flavipes population established in Ethiopian sugarcane is most closely related to the populations released against C. partellus in maize in other parts of Africa, which were derived from the original population imported from Pakistan. The dispersal rate of the parasitoid was estimated to be >200 km per year. PMID:18613566

  10. Effect of temperature on development, survival, and fecundity of Microplitis manilae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bo; Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Luo, Shu-Ping; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2012-06-01

    Microplitis manilae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid, is a potential biological control agent of both Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Aspects of the climatic requirements for development, including survival, longevity, and fecundity of M. manilae were studied at six constant temperature regimes (17, 20, 23, 26, 29, and 32°C) in the laboratory. The results showed that developmental duration for egg, larva, pupa, and the entire immature stages shortened in response to temperature increasing from 17 to 32°C. Survival rates of different developmental stages were higher at 20-29°C than at other temperatures. Longevity of M. manilae adults shortened with increasing temperature. The maximum fecundity of M. manilae female equaled 261.0 eggs/female at 26°C. Minimum threshold temperature and effective accumulated temperature for completing a generation of M. manilae were 11.04°C and 205.98 degrees-days, respectively. Both intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) of M. manilae did not differ between 26 and 29°C, but those were significantly higher at 26 and 29°C than at any other temperatures. The highest net reproduction rate (r(0)) was observed at 26°C, with the value of 97.77, but the lowest was 11.79 at 32°C. These results suggest that the parasitoid is well adapted to temperate and subtropical climates, which implies a significant potential for using M. manilae to control S. exigua because most of areas occupied by these two pests belong to temperate and subtropical regions in southeastern Asia. PMID:22732624

  11. Thermal hygrometric requirements for the rearing and release of Tamarixia radiata (Waterston (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae

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    Mariuxi Lorena Gómez-Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal hygrometric requirements for the rearing and release of Tamarixia radiata (Waterston (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae. Tamarixia radiata is the main agent for the biological control of Diaphorina citri in Brazil with a parasitism rate ranging from 20 to 80%. This study investigated the influence of temperature on the development, fecundity and longevity of adults of T. radiata and the effect of relative humidity (RH on their parasitism capacity and survival rate in the pre-imaginal period. The effect of temperature was assessed in the range between 15 and 35 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 14-h photophase. The RH effect was evaluated in the range from 30 to 90 ± 10%, temperature at 25 ± 1ºC, and photophase of 14-h. At 25ºC, circa 166.7 nymphs were parasitized, the highest parasitism capacity observed compared to other treatments. The longest longevity of females was observed at 25ºC, although the rate did not differ in the 20-30ºC temperature range. The threshold temperature (TT was 7.2ºC, and 188.7 degrees-day were required for the development (egg-to-adult period. The parasitism rate and longevity were higher at 50 and 70% of RH. This shows that temperature and RH may affect the parasitism capacity of T. radiata on nymphs of D. citri, which can explain the great parasitism variation for D. citri observed in citrus groves in São Paulo State, Brazil.

  12. Characterization and generation of male courtship song in Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae.

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    Justin P Bredlau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male parasitic wasps attract females with a courtship song produced by rapid wing fanning. Songs have been described for several parasitic wasp species; however, beyond association with wing fanning, the mechanism of sound generation has not been examined. We characterized the male courtship song of Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and investigated the biomechanics of sound production. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Courtship songs were recorded using high-speed videography (2,000 fps and audio recordings. The song consists of a long duration amplitude-modulated "buzz" followed by a series of pulsatile higher amplitude "boings," each decaying into a terminal buzz followed by a short inter-boing pause while wings are stationary. Boings have higher amplitude and lower frequency than buzz components. The lower frequency of the boing sound is due to greater wing displacement. The power spectrum is a harmonic series dominated by wing repetition rate ∼220 Hz, but the sound waveform indicates a higher frequency resonance ∼5 kHz. Sound is not generated by the wings contacting each other, the substrate, or the abdomen. The abdomen is elevated during the first several wing cycles of the boing, but its position is unrelated to sound amplitude. Unlike most sounds generated by volume velocity, the boing is generated at the termination of the wing down stroke when displacement is maximal and wing velocity is zero. Calculation indicates a low Reynolds number of ∼1000. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Acoustic pressure is proportional to velocity for typical sound sources. Our finding that the boing sound was generated at maximal wing displacement coincident with cessation of wing motion indicates that it is caused by acceleration of the wing tips, consistent with a dipole source. The low Reynolds number requires a high wing flap rate for flight and predisposes wings of small insects for sound production.

  13. Selectivity of organic compounds to the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Plastygastridae

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    Débora Mello da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity of insecticides, bio-protective mixtures, and biofertilizers used in organic soybean production was evaluated for adults and pupae of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae under laboratory conditions in accordance with protocols proposed by the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC. The products sprayed (dosage/180L of water were: 1 Baculovírus anticarsia 140x109 cpi; 2 Bacillus thuringiensis 16.8g; 3 Azadirachtin-A, azadirachtin-B, nimbina and salamina 9.6 ppm; 4 Rotenoids 4 liters; 5 Nitrogen 1.3%, phosphorus 3.0% and total organic carbon 8.0% 3 liters; 6 Sodium silicate 2% 4 liters; 7 Copper 7% + calcium 3.3% 1.8 liters; 8 Sulfur 20% + quicklime 10% 1.8 liters; 9 Chlorpyrifos 384g (positive control; 10 Distilled H2O (negative control. The results of experiments using pupae indicate that the organic compounds were classified as harmless (Class 1, except for the copper 7% + calcium 3.3% and sulfur 20% + quicklime 10%, which were classified as slightly harmful (Class 2. The contact bioassay with adults showed that all products were classified as harmless (Class 1. Only chlorpyrifos (384g was classified as harmful (Class 4 for both stages of the parasitoid. However, the use of this product (chlorpyrifos is not permitted in organic farming, and even in conventional farming is recommended, where feasible, replacement of the product with one compatible with the preservation of T. remus in nature. Thus, the products tested and used in organic soybean production were considered compatible with the parasitoid eggs of T. remus.

  14. Monitoring hymenoptera and diptera pollinators in a sub-tropical forest of southern punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bees (Hymenoptera) and flies (Diptera) play an essential role in natural and agricultural ecosystems as pollinators of flowering plants while pollinators are declining around the world. Colored pan traps and Malaise traps have widely been used for monitoring pollinators. However, their efficiencies may vary with landscapes and type of fauna in a particular habitat. A yearlong study was carried out during 2009 to investigate the relative efficacy of colored pan traps and Malaise traps towards sampling flies and bees for the first time in a sub-tropical wildlife sanctuary Pirowal of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Fifteen pan traps (5 each of 3 colors i.e. white, red and blue) were deployed against one Malaise trap for 7 hours (9:00-16:00 hrs) on fortnightly basis. For the comparison and confirmation of an insect as a floral visitor, collection with the hand net was also performed. It was concluded that hand net collection is essential to have a comprehensive list of floral visitors of an area as the maximum number (63) of species and their abundance (5428 individuals) were recorded with it. Malaise trap collected only 671 individuals of 48 species. Although blue, yellow and white pan traps caught 46, 51 and 35 species but the numbers of individuals (1383) were fairly higher than that of Malaise traps. Keeping in view the cost effectiveness and better performance of colored pan traps, we recommend species specific pan trap colors when targeting certain groups or species, nevertheless variety of pan colors should be used when sampling overall biodiversity. We generalize these findings for both bees and flies due to similar collection pattern i.e. the maximum abundance and diversity in hand net method followed by pan traps and Malaise traps. (author)

  15. Larval development of Physocephala (Diptera, Conopidae in the bumble bee Bombus morio (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Fábio C Abdalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval development of Physocephala (Diptera, Conopidae in the bumble bee Bombus morio (Hymenoptera, Apidae. In the summer of 2012, a high incidence of conopid larvae was observed in a sample of female B. morio collected in remaining fragments of semidecidual forest and Cerrado, in the municipality of Sorocaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The larval development of conopid flies was studied, beginning at the larval instars (LO to L3 and PUP, until the emergence of the imago under laboratory conditions and inside the host. At the first instar, or LO, the microtype larvae measured less than 1 mm in length. During the transition from L1 to L3, the larvae grew in length. At L3, the larvae doubled their length (4 mm and then started to develop both in length and width, reaching the PUP stage with 10 mm in length and 7 mm in width. The main characteristic that differentiates L3 from the early instars is the larger body size and the beginning of posterior spiracle development. The development from PUP to puparium took less than 24h. The bees died ten days after the fly oviposition, or just before full PUP development. The early development stages (egg-LO to L1 were critical for larva survival. The pupa was visible between the intersegmental sternites and, 32 days after pupation, a female imago of Physocephala sp. emerged from one bee. The puparium and the fly measured approximately 10 mm in length. In a single day of collection, up to 45% of the bumble bees collected were parasitized by conopid flies.

  16. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages. PMID:26842914

  17. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frake, Amanda M; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 +/- 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 +/- 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 +/- 1.35; Russian, 5.21 +/- 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (P = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock, the use of entrance reducers had a significant effect on the average number of small hive beetle (with reducer, 16 +/- 3; without reducer, 27 +/- 5 beetles). However, there was no effect on bee population (with reducer, 13.20 +/- 0.71; without reducer, 14.60 +/- 0.70 frames) or brood production (with reducer, 6.12 +/- 0.30; without reducer, 6.44 +/- 0.34 frames). Overall, Russian honey bees were more resistant to small hive beetle than Italian honey bees as indicated by fewer invading beetles, lower small hive beetle population through time, and lesser reproduction. PMID:19253612

  18. Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Herbert dos Santos Bastos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil. Leaf-litter may be an important factor in structuring ponerine ant communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in tropical rainforests. We specifically examined how leaf-litter affects the structure of a ponerine ant community in primary Amazonian rainforest sites at the Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, Pará, Brazil. A total of 53 species belonging to eight genera of three ponerine tribes were collected with mini-Winkler extractors. The amount of leaf-litter positively affected the abundance and richness of the ponerine ant community, and also influenced species composition. Nearby samples often had low species similarity, especially when adjacent samples differed in the amount of leaf-litter. Leaf-litter availability in Amazonian primary forests is a key factor for distribution of ground-dwelling ponerine species, even at small scales.

  19. Presencia de una nueva avispa social exótica, Polistes dominulus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae en la Patagonia argentina Presence of a new exotic social wasp in Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sackmann

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de la avispa social Polistes dominulus (Christ (Hymenoptera: Vespidae fue detectada en el jardkn de una vivienda de la localidad de El Bolsón (Rko Negro, siendo el primer registro para la Argentina. Esta especie de origen Paleirtico, se encuentra establecida en Chile desde hace 20 años.We report the presence of the social wasp Polistes dominulus (Christ (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in El Bolsón (Rko Negro. This is the first record of the species in Argentina. All specimens were found in a garden within an urban area. The species is of Paleartic origin, but has been established in Chile for at least 20 years.

  20. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein;

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a....... rapae as a biocontrol agent of Brevicoryne brassicae at different temperatures.......Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a...

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Indo-Pacific carpenter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Camponotus) reveals waves of dispersal and colonization from diverse source areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Clouse, R. M.; Janda, Milan; Blanchard, B.; Sharma, P.; Hoffmann, B. D.; Andersen, A. N.; Czekanski-Moir, J. E.; Krushelnycky, P.; Rabeling, C.; Wilson, E. O.; Economo, E. P.; Sarnat, E. M.; General, D. M.; Alpert, G. D.; Wheeler, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2015), s. 424-437. ISSN 0748-3007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant ostatní: Marie Curie Felloswhip(CZ) PIOFGA2009-25448 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Camponotus * molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.217, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cla.12099/epdf

  2. Pollination, seed set and fruit quality in apple: studies with Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Cory Silas Sheffield

    2014-01-01

    The orchard crop pollinator Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) was evaluated for apple pollination in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada during 2000-2001. Resulting pollination levels (measured as pollen grains on floral stigmas), percent fruit set, mature fruit weight and seed yield were evaluated against an attempted gradient of Osmia bee density. In addition, fruit quality was assessed using two symmetry indices, one based on fruit diameter, the second on fruit height. Polli...

  3. A key to the East Palaearctic and Oriental species of the genus Rhysipolis Foerster, and the first host records of Rhysipolis longicaudatus Belokobylskij (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rhysipolinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Xiong, Zi-Cheng; van Achterberg, Kees

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A key to the East Palaearctic and northern Oriental species of Rhysipolis Foerster, 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rhysipolinae) is presented. Rhysipolis longicaudatus Belokobylskij, 1994 (stat. nov.) is redescribed, the first host records are given and it is reported new for China. New information Rhysipolis longicaudatus was reared from Taleporia sp. (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and from Bazaria turensis Ragonot (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Qinghai Province. PMID:27226751

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of common European species Adialytus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) based on mtCOI barcoding gene and geometric morphometrics of the forewings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stanković, S. S.; Petrović, A.; Ilić Milošević, M.; Starý, Petr; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Žikić, V.; Tomanović, Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2015), s. 165-174. ISSN 1210-5759 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education , Science and Technology Development of the Republic of Serbia(RS) III43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Braconidae * Adialytus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2014 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2015/01/21.pdf

  5. Parasitoid species of the genera Ascogaster and Chelonus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae) from the Marmara, Western and Middle Black sea Regions of Turkey:

    OpenAIRE

    Aydogdu, M; BEYARSLAN, AHMET

    2007-01-01

    Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera larvae, which occur commonly in orchards, vegetable areas, crop fields and forests, are frequently accompanied by a considerable number of natural enemies. A great importance innature is attributed to the parasitoid insects belonging to the genera of Ascogaster and Chelonus. Even infrequent treatments of insecticides on plantations limit the population of parasitoids and reduce their species richness. Ascogaster and Chelonus species play the gr...

  6. Contributions to the study of the Holarctic fauna of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). I. Introduction and first results of transatlantic comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Fernandez-Triana; Mark Shaw; Sophie Cardinal; Peter Mason

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from both sides of the Holarctic region (Nearctic and Palaearctic) were sampled for DNA barcoding and examined morphologically. Two species are recorded for the first time for the Nearctic: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, and Microgaster raschkiellae Shaw. Another European species, Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday), previously introduced as a biological control agent, is confirmed to be present in North America. For another 13 species s...

  7. Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), a natural enemy of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Life table and intrinsic rate of population increase

    OpenAIRE

    Lins, J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Silva, D.B.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Life table data of natural enemies are often used to understand their population dynamics and estimate their potential role in the biological control of pests. Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important pest of several crops and its intrinsic rate of population increase (rm) is 0.282 at 22°C. The life table parameters (immature mortality, developmental time, sex ratio of emerging adults, fecundity and longevity) of Praon volucre (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: ...

  8. Uji Daya Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam.(Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Pada Larva Chilo sacchariphagus Boj. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) dan Chilo auricilius Dudg. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Budianto, Sisko

    2014-01-01

    Sisko Budianto, “The Ability of Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on larvae of Chilo aurilius Dudg. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Chilo sacchariphagus Boj. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Laboratory”, supervised by Prof. Dr. Dra. Maryani Cyccu Tobing, MS. and Dr. Ir. Hasanuddin, MS. The objectives of the research were to study the ability of parasitoid C. flavipes on larvae of C. sacchariphagus and C. auricilius. The research was held at Laboratory of Sug...

  9. US Bombus , a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees ( Hymenoptera , Apidae , Bombus ) distributed in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Jonathan B.; Lozier, Jeffrey; Strange, James P; Ikerd, Harold; Griswold, Terry; Cordes, Nils; Solter,Leellen; Stewart,Isaac; Cameron, Sydney A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Bumble bees ( Hymenoptera : Apidae , Bombus ) are pollinators of wild and economically important flowering plants. However, at least four bumble bee species have declined significantly in population abundance and geographic range relative to historic estimates, and one species is possibly extinct. While a wealth of historic data is now available for many of the North American species found to be in decline in online databases, systematic survey data of stable species is st...

  10. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Nugnes, Francesco; Gebiola, Marco; Monti, Maurilia Maria; Gualtieri, Liberata; Giorgini, Massimo; Wang, Jianguo; Bernardo,Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been foun...

  11. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Whitfield, James; Smith,M. Alex; Kula,Robert; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica) and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new species and five species of Microplitis previously described from Mesoamerica. In ACG, all Microplitis were reared exclusively from Sphingidae, while all Snellenius were reared from Noctuoidea (Noctuid...

  12. Additions to the checklist of Scoliidae, Sphecidae, Pompilidae and Vespidae of Peru, with notes on the endemic status of some species (Hymenoptera, Aculeata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Eduardo Fernando; Grandinete, Yuri Campanholo; Noll, Fernando Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The first checklist of the Peruvian Hymenoptera listed 1169 species and subspecies of aculeate wasps, including 173 species of Pompilidae, seven of Scoliidae, 39 of Sphecidae and 403 of Vespidae. Herein are reported 32 species as new for Peru based mainly on the collection of the Natural History Museum, London. The loss of the endemic status of two species is also reported: Entypus peruvianus (Rohwer) (Pompilidae: Pepsinae) and Omicron ruficolle schunkei Giordani Soika (Vespidae: Eumeninae). PMID:26448706

  13. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae ( Insecta , Hymenoptera ) deposited in the collection of Radoszkowski in the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Rosa; Bogdan Wiśniowski; Zai-fu Xu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of 183 types of Hymenoptera Chrysididae belonging to 124 taxa housed in the Radoszkowski collection is given. Radoszkowski type material from other institutes has also been checked. Six lectotypes are designated in Kraków (ISEA-PAN): Chrysis acceptabilis Radoszkowski, 1891; Chrysis persica Radoczkowsky, 1881; Chrysis daphnis Mocsáry, 1889; Chrysis lagodechii Radoszkowski, 1889; Chrysis remota Mocsáry, 1889 and Chrysis vagans Radoszkowski, 1877. The ...

  14. An Annotated Catalog of the Type Material of Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the Entomology Research Museum, University of California at Riverside

    OpenAIRE

    Triapitsyn, Serguei Vladimirovich; Kim, Jung-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The catalog provides information on the type material of 75 valid species of the genus Aphytis Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the collection of the Entomology Research Museum, University of California, Riverside. 7,390 specimens were remounted from Hoyer's medium into Canada balsam, including 309 primary types, 2,473 secondary types, and 4,608 non-type specimens. Lecotypes are designated for 11 species

  15. A catalogue of Cephalotini ant types (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Hymenoptera laboratory of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP) houses one of the most representative collections of Neotropical ants worldwide. This is due to the wide geographical distribution of its specimens, and also because of the comparatively large number of types and taxa represented. The catalogue, following the general recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, lists types of the tribe Cephalotini deposited in the collection of MZS...

  16. A new species and new records of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae of wood boring beetles from southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Sureshan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitising wood boring beetles, Cleonymus kamijoi, and two species of Pteromalidae, Trigonoderus pulcher Walker and male of Heydenia tuberculata Sureshan are reported for the first time from the southern Western Ghats, Kerala. The genus Trigonoderus Westwood is reported for the first time from India and the male of Heydenia tuberculata Sureshan is reported and described for the first time.

  17. Parasitoids of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with description of a new species of Agiommatus Crawford, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) from India with notes on biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M

    2016-07-01

    In rearing of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from Karnataka and Goa, India, six species of parasitoids were observed. One new species of parasitic wasp is described and illustrated: Agiommatus thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a solitary parasitoid reared from the egg of G. thyrsis on the natural host plant Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.) Beentje & J. Dransf. Three additional species of parasitic wasps were also reared: Anastatus ramakrishnai (Mani, 1935) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), a solitary hyperparasitoid of A. thyrsisae n. sp.; Sympiesis thyrsisae Gupta, Gawas & Bhambure (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of G. thyrsis on the host plant Cocos nucifera L., and Brachymeria lasus (Walker) reared from pupa of G. thyrsis on the host plant D. lutescens. Additionally, two species of tachinid flies were also reared from the pupae of G. thyrsis: Exorista sorbillans (Wiedemann, 1830) and an innominate species close to Blepharella spp. Gangara thyrsis is a new host record for the genus Agiommatus and for A. ramakrishnai and B. lasus. The mean percent parasitism in G. thyrsis eggs was 26.58% with an incubation period of 6-7 days. Amongst the egg parasitoids, 57.14-73.08% were females and 23.08% were males. Hyperparasitism ranged from 3.85 to 42.86%. Dypsis lutescens, a member of Arecaceae, is a new host plant record for G. thyrsis. PMID:27307173

  18. Potential for classical biological control of the potato bug Closterotomus norwegicus (Hemiptera: Miridae): description, parasitism and host specificity of Peristenus closterotomae sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haye, T; van Achterberg, C; Goulet, H; Barratt, B I P; Kuhlmann, U

    2006-08-01

    The potato bug, Closterotomus norwegicus (Gmelin) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an introduced pest of lucerne, white clover and lotus seed crops in New Zealand and a key pest of pistachios in California, USA. Efforts were made to identify potential biological control agents of C. norwegicus in Europe. A total of eight parasitoids, including six primary parasitoids from the genus Peristenus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and two hyperparasitoids from the genus Mesochorus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), were reared from C. norwegicus nymphs collected in various habitats in northern Germany. With a proportion of more than 85% of all C. norwegicus parasitoids, Peristenus closterotomae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new species, was the most dominant parasitoid, whereas other parasitoid species only occurred sporadically. Peristenus closterotomae did not fit in the keys to any described species and is described as new to science. Parasitism caused by P. closterotomae was on average 24% (maximum 77%). To assess the host specificity of parasitoids associated with C. norwegicus, the parasitoid complexes of various Miridae occurring simultaneously with C. norwegicus were studied. Peristenus closterotomae was frequently reared from Calocoris affinis (Herrich-Schaeffer), and a few specimens were reared from Calocoris roseomaculatus (De Geer) and the meadow plant bug, Leptopterna dolobrata (Linnaeus) (all Hemiptera: Miridae). The remaining primary parasitoids associated with C. norwegicus were found to be dominant in hosts other than C. norwegicus. Whether nymphal parasitoids may potentially be used in a classical biological control initiative against the potato bug in countries where it is introduced and considered to be a pest is discussed. PMID:16923210

  19. Comparative cytogenetic study on two species of the genus Entedon Dalman, 1820 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae using DNA-binding fluorochromes and molecular and immunofluorescent markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Bolsheva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of Entedon cionobius Thomson, 1878 and E. cioni Thomson, 1878 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae were studied using DNA-binding ligands with different base specificity (propidium iodide, chromomycin A3, methyl green and DAPI; all these ligands, except for the last one, were used for the first time in parasitic wasps, C-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with a 45S rDNA probe and 5-methylcytosine immunodetection. Female karyotypes of both species contain five pairs of relatively large metacentric chromosomes and a pair of smaller acrocentric chromosomes (2n = 12. As in many other Hymenoptera, males of both Entedon Dalman, 1820 species have haploid chromosome sets (n = 6. Fluorochrome staining revealed chromosome-specific banding patterns that were similar between the different fluorochromes, except for the CMA3- and PI-positive and DAPI-negative band in the pericentromeric regions of the long arms of both acrocentric chromosomes. The obtained banding patterns were virtually identical in both species and allowed for the identification of each individual chromosome. C-banding revealed a pattern similar to DAPI staining, although centromeric and telomeric regions were stained more intensively using the former technique. FISH detected a single rDNA site in the same position on the acrocentric chromosomes as the bright CMA3-positive band. Immunodetection of 5-methylcytosine that was performed for the first time in the order Hymenoptera revealed 5-methylcytosine-rich sites in the telomeric, centromeric and certain interstitial regions of most of the chromosomes.

  20. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Zanuncio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae during egg stage (48.9%, a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae during larval stages (10% and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae during pupal stage (52.2%. The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%.Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae é uma espécie brasileira nativa, comumente encontrada em plantios de Eucalyptus. Um estudo da mortalidade por fatores bióticos desse desfolhador foi feito em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de identificar os inimigos naturais e seu impacto sobre esse lepidóptero. Euselasia eucerus possui fatores bióticos de mortalidade durante todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento. Os mais importantes foram Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé e Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae durante a fase de ovo (48,9%, um Diptera: Tachinidae durante a fase de larva (10% e Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae durante a fase pupal (52,2%. A taxa de parasitismo foi mais elevada na parte basal de plantas de eucalipto (37,8%.

  1. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Primeiro registro de parasitismo social facultativo interespecífico em vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.Primeiro registro de parasitismo social facultativo interespecífico em vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitismo de colônias da vespa social Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 por fêmeas de Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 foram registrados em uma área rural no município de Dourados estado de Mato Grosso do Sul no Brasil. Em todos os casos monitorados a invasão ocorreu na fase colonial de pré-emergência, e em geral foi executado por uma única fêmea de M. consimilis. O período de estabelecimento da fêmea estrangeira na colônia hospedeira foi marcado por comportamentos antagônicos entre as fêmeas interespecíficas. Em geral, a arquitetura do ninho parasitado foi modificada em relação à arquitetura típica do ninho da espécie hospedeira.

  2. Eficiência de produtos termonebulígenos no controle de Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em plantio de eucalipto Efficiency of products for thermonebulization on the control of Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in eucalypus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Zanetti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de produtos termonebulígenos, a base de clorpirifós ou de extratos vegetais, comparativamente ao uso de isca formicida, a base de sulfluramida, no controle de Atta laevigata (F. Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Foi avaliada a percentagem de paralisação das atividades de corte de folhas e de movimentação de formigas de A. laevigata aos três, 12, 36, 63 e 86 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Na última avaliação, os formigueiros foram abertos para a verificação da eficiência de controle. Todos os produtos testados apresentaram alta percentagem de paralisação das atividades de corte e de movimentação das formigas aos três e 12 dias após a aplicação, respectivamente. Os produtos a base de clorpirifós e um a base de extratos vegetais apresentaram alta eficiência no controle de A. laevigata, sendo mais efetivos que a isca formicida testada.The efficiency of products formulated with chlorpyrifos or plants extracts in thermonebuzation was evaluated and compared to the use of the granulated bait formulated with sulfluramid in the control of Atta laevigata (F. Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. The cutting activity and the movement of ants on the colonies were evaluated at three, 12, 36, 63 and 86 days after the application of the treatments. The colonies of these ants were excavated in the last evaluation to obtain the efficiency of each product. All products stopped the cutting activity and movements of the individuals of A. laevigata three and 12 days after their application, respectively. Products formulated with chlorpyrifos and one with plant extracts were more efficient than granulated bait.

  3. A cuckoo in wolves' clothing? Chemical mimicry in a specialized cuckoo wasp of the European beewolf (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae and Crabronidae

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    Herzner Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-parasite interactions are among the most important biotic relationships. Host species should evolve mechanisms to detect their enemies and employ appropriate counterstrategies. Parasites, in turn, should evolve mechanisms to evade detection and thus maximize their success. Females of the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae hunt exclusively honeybee workers as food for their progeny. The brood cells containing the paralyzed bees are severely threatened by a highly specialized cuckoo wasp (Hedychrum rutilans, Hymenoptera, Chrysididae. Female cuckoo wasps enter beewolf nests to oviposit on paralyzed bees that are temporarily couched in the nest burrow. The cuckoo wasp larva kills the beewolf larva and feeds on it and the bees. Here, we investigated whether H. rutilans evades detection by its host. Since chemical senses are most important in the dark nest, we hypothesized that the cuckoo wasp might employ chemical camouflage. Results Field observations suggest that cuckoo wasps are attacked by beewolves in front of their nest, most probably after being recognized visually. In contrast, beewolves seem not to detect signs of the presence of these parasitoids neither when these had visited the nest nor when directly encountered in the dark nest burrow. In a recognition bioassay in observation cages, beewolf females responded significantly less frequently to filter paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females, than to filter paper discs treated with an extract from another cuckoo wasp species (Chrysis viridula. The behavior to paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females did not differ significantly from the behavior towards filter paper discs treated with the solvent only. We hypothesized that cuckoo wasps either mimic the chemistry of their beewolf host or their host's prey. We tested this hypothesis using GC-MS analyses of the cuticles of male and

  4. First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile

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    Felipe Méndez-Abarca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile. Some aspects about the nesting biology of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 are reported for the first time. Observations were carried out at the Azapa valley, coastal desert of northern Chile. A total of sixty nests were collected and examined, each composed by 1-14 cells, most of them found attached to concrete lamp posts. The only preys recorded in the cells were Geometridae (Lepidoptera caterpillars and the presence of the parasitoid Anthrax sp. (Diptera, Bombyliidae was also recorded. A number of arthropods belonging to different groups, mainly spiders, were found occupying empty nests.

  5. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work. PMID:26871743

  6. Description of two techniques to increase efficiency in processing and curating minute arthropods, with special reference to parasitic Hymenoptera

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    Michael Gates

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe and illustrate two techniques for enhancing curatorial and processing efficiency as it pertains to parasitic Hymenoptera (Chalcidoidea, Cynipoidea. These techniques were developed in response not only to the massive number of parasitoids that have been acquired through various biodiversity studies, but also the difficulty in mobilizing the human resources to curate this material. The first technique uses small, crystal polystyrene boxes with tight-fitting lids to store dehydrated specimens prior to mounting. Locality information is affixed to the box and specimens are spread in a layer for ease of examination by researchers. Solutions for managing static electricity within the specimen boxes are discussed. The second involves a vacuum pump connected to a funnel with a filtration membrane and flask apparatus to rapidly dehydrate hard-bodied parasitoids (Figitidae that are not subject to collapse during air-drying.

  7. A new species of Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae from dry forest in Brazil and new occurrence records for other Heimbrinae

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    Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographic ranges of Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 and H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 are extended based on study of material deposited in the entomological collections of the Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brazil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae is described, illustrated and compared with S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986, the single species previously known for this genus. A key to the genera of Heimbrinae and to the species of Symbra is provided.

  8. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Evelyze Pinheiro dos Reis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM, respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens.

  9. Coccophagus scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae: A Highly Effective Biological Control Agent of Soft Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae in Egypt

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    Shaaban Abd-Rabou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About 953000 individuals of the cosmopolitan parasitoid, Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, were released and evaluated during 2009-2010 for the control of the following soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae infesting the following economic crops in Egypt: Ceroplastes rusci on citrus in Beni Seuf, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock on citrus in Gharbiya, Coccus hesperidum L. on guava in Giza, Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood on mango in Sharqiya, Pulvinaria psidii Maskell on mango in Ismailia, Saissetia coffeae (Walker on olive in Marsa Matruh, and Saissetia oleae (Oliver on olive in the Northern Coast. The population of C. scutellaris showed a significant correlation with the build up of the population of the soft scale insects population in all of the release sites studied. The maximum rate of parasitism of the other species of parasitoids associated with soft scale insects at the release sites decreased after the release of C. scutellaris.

  10. Meliponini neotropicais: o gênero Partamona Schwarz, 1939 (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Pedro Silvia R. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical Meliponini: the genus Partamona Schwarz, 1939 (Hymenoptera, Apidae. The systematics and biogeography of Partamona Schwarz, a Neotropical genus of stingless bees (Meliponini, Apinae, Apidae, are revised. Seventeen new species are described: P. epiphytophila sp. nov., P. subtilis sp. nov., P. nhambiquara sp. nov., P. batesi sp. nov., P. yungarum sp. nov., P. vitae sp. nov., P. ferreirai sp. nov., P. gregaria sp. nov., P. auripennis sp. nov., P. nigrilabris sp. nov., P. combinata sp. nov., P. chapadicola sp. nov., P. seridoensis sp. nov., P. littoralis sp. nov., P. criptica sp. nov., P. rustica sp. nov. and P. sooretamae sp. nov. Partamona pseudomusarum Camargo, 1980, is considered as junior synonym of P. vicina Camargo, 1980. Types of P. grandipennis (Schwarz, 1951, P. xanthogastra Pedro & Camargo, 1996-1997, P. pearsoni (Schwarz, 1938, P. ailyae Camargo, 1980, P. pseudomusarum, P. vicina, P. mulata Moure in Camargo, 1980, P. aequatoriana Camargo, 1980, P. mourei Camargo, 1980, P. peckolti, (Friese, 1901, P. testacea (Klug, 1807, P. helleri (Friese, 1900 and P. musarum (Cockerell, 1917 were examined. Lectotypes of P. orizabaensis (Strand, 1919, and P. cupira (Smith, 1863 are designated. An identification key for the species and drawings of morphological characters are presented. A phylogenetic hypothesis, based mainly on morphological characters is proposed. Four groups are defined, considering the shape of mandible of workers and sternum VII of males: bilineata / epiphytophila group (western Amazon to México, including P. bilineata (Say, P. grandipennis, P. xanthogastra P. orizabaensis P. peckolti P. epiphytophila sp. nov., P. subtilis sp. nov., P. nhambiquara sp. nov., P. batesi sp. nov., P. yungarum sp. nov. and P. vitae sp. nov.; musarum group (Central Brazil, north of South America to Central America, including P. musarum, P. aequatoriana, P. vicina, P. mourei, P. pearsoni, P. ferreirai sp. nov., P. gregaria sp. nov. and P

  11. Suitability of different lepidopteran host species for development of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

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    Ghimire, Mukti N; Phillips, Thomas W

    2010-04-01

    Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid of several species of Lepidoptera that are associated with stored products. The suitability of 12 potential lepidopteran host species representing four families was studied in this study for the development and reproduction of B. hebetor. The Lepidoptera species used were the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller), almond moth, E. cautella (Walker), rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Walker), navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Stainton), greater wax moth (laboratory reared and commercial), Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) (all Pyralidae); tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricus), corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (all Noctuidae); webbing clothes moth, Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Tineidae); and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Gelichiidae). Experiments were conducted using petri dishes (100 by 15 mm) as experimental arenas at 29 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L: D) h. B. hebetor females were introduced singly into arenas and given a full-grown host larva every day for 5 consecutive d. Paralysis of the host larvae and oviposition by B. hebetor females were significantly affected by host species. The cumulative fecundity in the 5-d period was highest on A. transitella (106.42 +/- 5.19) and lowest on T. bisselliella (9.64 +/- 1.28). The egg-to-adult survivorship and progeny sex ratio were also significantly affected by the host species. The highest percentage of parasitoid survival to the adult stage was on A. transitella (84.07 +/- 2.26) and zero on T. bisselliella. Egg to adult development time was shortest on E. cautella (9.75 +/- 0.25 d) and longest on G. mellonella (12.63 +/- 0.28 d). Results from these studies suggest that B. hebetor females can use a wide range of lepidopteran hosts for paralysis and

  12. Notas sobre o tipo de Trigona limao Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Lestrimelitta

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    Paola Marchi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O nome limao tem sido usado para espécies distintas do gênero Lestrimelitta. O material-tipo de Smith depositado no The Natural History Museum (Londres foi examinado. A operária de L. limao é descrita e o lectótipo para Trigona limao Smith, 1863 é designado. Esta espécie encontra-se restrita aos cerrados da porção central do Brasil, de São Paulo ao Maranhão. Distingue-se de outras espécies pelos seguintes caracteres diagnósticos: vértice com pouquíssimas cerdas eretas, muito finas e curtas, restritas à região interocelar; bordo anterior do mesoscuto com cerdas eretas castanhas nas laterais; laterais do mesepisterno com cerdas eretas esparsas e restritas à porção ventral e curvatura entre porções lateral e ventral, tornando-se mais longas próximo à base da coxa média; contorno da abertura do espiráculo propodeal, aproximadamente 2,5 x mais longo do que largo; flancos do propódeo coberto por pilosidade decumbente esbranquiçada, fina e ramificada; esporão mesotibial muito reduzido; tergo metassomal 1 com cerdas enegrecidas nas porções laterais.Notes on the type specimen of Trigona limao Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Lestrimelitta. The name limao has been loosely associated with a variety of forms within the bee genus Lestrimelitta. The identity of the type species was checked through comparisons of Smith's type material with the morphospecies recognized in an ongoing revision of the Brazilian species. Lestrimelitta limao is a species restricted to the cerrados of central Brazil, distributed from São Paulo to Maranhão. It can be distinguished from other species by the following features: vertex almost lacking erect setae; erect setae on anterior margin of mesoscutum restricted to its lateral portions and almost lacking from the middle; lateral portion of mesepisternum with only short, decumbent microsetae; opening of propodeal spiracle with an oval contour, about 2.5x longer than wide; lateral portion of propodeum

  13. Phylogeny and DNA barcoding of inquiline oak gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) of the Western Palaearctic.

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    Acs, Zoltán; Challis, Richard J; Bihari, Péter; Blaxter, Mark; Hayward, Alexander; Melika, George; Csóka, György; Pénzes, Zsolt; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Nieves-Aldrey, José-Luis; Schönrogge, Karsten; Stone, Graham N

    2010-04-01

    We examine phylogenetic relationships within the Synergus complex of herbivorous inquiline gallwasps (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae; Synergini) associated with cynipid host galls on oak, a biologically diverse group whose genus-level morphological taxonomy has long been considered stable but whose species level taxonomy is problematic. We incorporate data for over 70% of recognised Western Palaearctic species in five morphology-based genera (Ceroptres, Saphonecrus, Synergus, Synophrus, Ufo), comprising sequence for two mitochondrial loci (coxI, cytb) and one nuclear locus (28S D2). In particular, we assess the evidence for monophyly of two long-established, morphology-defined sections within the genus Synergus that differ in a range of biological traits. To aid analyses of ecological interactions within oak cynipid communities, we also consider the utility of cytochrome oxidase I (coxI) DNA barcodes in the oak inquilines. In this assessment, we do not assume that species are delineated at a single threshold value of sequence divergence for a single gene, but examine concordance in the composition of molecular operational Taxonomic units (MOTUs) across a range of sequence divergences in each gene and across genes. We also assess the impact of sampling effort on MOTU stability. Phylogenetic reconstructions for all three loci support monophyly for Synergus and Synophrus, but reject monophyly for Saphonecrus and for the two sections within Synergus. The suites of traits associated with the two sections of the genus Synergus are thus homoplasious. All three loci also reject monophyly for three Synergus species (S. hayneanus, S. pallipes, S. umbraculus). Sequences for each locus identify robust MOTUs that are largely concordant across loci for a range of cut-off values. Though many MOTU's correspond to recognised Linnean species, there is significant, multigene disagreement between groupings supported by morphology and sequence data, with both allocation of different

  14. Compatibility of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae with Commercial Products Under Laboratory Conditions

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    Jennifer Barrera Mojica

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse white fly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum one of the major pests of tomatoes under greenhouse conditions, but, Its mainly controlled with chemical insecticides. However, there are alternative control strategies as entomopathogens fungi and parasitoids (Encarsia formosa. In this study we evaluated the compatibility of commercial product with adults and pupae of E. formosa under laboratory conditions. Eight treatments were evaluated for adults and pupae of the parasitoid, including two concentrations of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (5 x 107 and 5 x 109 conidia/ml, commercial doses of four chemical products commonly used to control pests on tomato crops and two controls. These treatments were applied directly on parasitoids, and their mortality rate on adults and pupae were recorded daily. There was no difference in E. formosa pupae among relative with the Bacillus thuringiensis products (p > 0.05, indicating that its compatible with the parasitoid pupae under laboratory conditions. Finally, it was found that products with active ingredients of Tiocyclam hidrogenoxalato and B. thuringiensis are incompatibles with E. formosa adults under laboratory conditions.COMPATIBILIDAD DE Encarsia formosa (HYMENOPTERA: APHELINIDAE CON PRODUCTOS COMERCIALES EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, es una de las principales plagas de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero y es controlada principalmente con insecticidas químicos. Sin embargo, existen estrategias alternativas de control como hongos entomopatógenos (Beauveria bassiana y enemigos naturales como parasitoides (Encarsia formosa. En el presente estudio se evaluó la compatibilidad de productos comerciales con adultos y pupas de E. formosa bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Se evaluaron ocho tratamientos para pupas y adultos del parasitoide, incluyendo dos concentraciones del hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria

  15. First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) in the Azapa valley, northern Chile Primeiras observações sobre a biologia da nidificação de Hypodynerus andeus (Packard) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) no vale de Azapa, norte do Chile

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    Felipe Méndez-Abarca; Enrique A. Mundaca; Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-01-01

    First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) in the Azapa valley, northern Chile. Some aspects about the nesting biology of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869) are reported for the first time. Observations were carried out at the Azapa valley, coastal desert of northern Chile. A total of sixty nests were collected and examined, each composed by 1-14 cells, most of them found attached to concrete lamp posts. The only pre...

  16. Occurrence and biology of Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae) parasitising different species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in Neotropical region Ocorrência e biologia de Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae) parasitando diferentes espécies de Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) na região Neotropical

    OpenAIRE

    RB Silva; I Cruz; MLC Figueiredo; AG Pereira; AM Penteado-Dias

    2012-01-01

    Surveys on Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in Sete Lagoas city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, indicated the parasitism of adults of the species Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, 1775, Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824) and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866), by Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae). Since then, the parasitoid have been maintained in its original hosts at the Insect Rearing Laboratory - LACRI of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Institution - Embrapa Milh...

  17. Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae present in the flowers of the balsa wood Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788 = Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apidae associadas às flores do pau-de-balsa Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788

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    Carla Regina Guimarães Brighenti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The flower of balsa wood holds about 10 to 15 mL of nectar, which helps attracting pollinating agents, since the genus Ochroma is incapable of self-fertilization. However, a high mortality of bees is observed in these flowers. The present study investigated the frequency and constancy of mortality of the individuals of the familyApidae that fed on nectar from the balsa wood. Data was gathered from June to August 2008, in Lavras – Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In addition, the survival of the Africanized bees that fed on the nectar of this flower was compared to those that fed on 50% aqueous solution of honey. Forty flowers were analyzed, and 949 individuals of the orders Hymenoptera (98.1%, Hemiptera (0.95%, Coleoptera (0.74% and Diptera (0.21% were collected. Most Hymenoptera individuals were bees of the genera Partamona and Trigona (677 individuals, which were considered of constant occurrence. Flowers producing up to 16.7 nectar mL were found. The nectar diet contained 16.44% of total sugar, and resulted in low survival of the bees in laboratory (31.32 . 2.37 hours, compared to a diet of 50% aqueous solution of honey (112.32 .2.03 hours.A flor do pau-de-balsa produz cerca de 10 a 15 mL de néctar, útil na atração de polinizadores, uma vez que o gênero Ochroma é incapaz de fazer autofecundação. É observada intensa mortalidade de abelhas em suas flores. Objetivou-se realizar o levantamento da frequência e constância de mortalidade de indivíduos da família Apidae, sendo os dados levantados no período de junho a agosto de 2008 em Lavras, MinasGerais, Brasil. Além disso, avaliou-se a sobrevivência de abelhas africanizadas alimentadas com o néctar desta flor quando comparados com aquelas alimentadas com solução aquosa de mel a 50%. Foram analisadas 40 flores e coletados 949 indivíduos das Ordens: Hymenoptera (98,1%, Hemiptera (0,95%, Coleoptera (0,74% e Diptera (0,21%. Dentre os himenópteros os mais frequentes foram dos g

  18. Eficiência de isca formicida aplicada sobre o monte de terra solta de ninhos de Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae Efficiency of a granulated bait applied over the nests of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Ronald Zanetti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de uma isca granulada à base de sulfluramida (0,3% aplicada em olheiros situados sobre o monte de terra solta, em comparação com o sistema convencional de aplicação nos olheiros fora desses montes, no combate a Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação de uma isca granulada à base de sulfluramida (0,3%, a 8 g/m² do formigueiro aparente, em olheiros situados sobre ou fora do monte de terra solta. Foram utilizados 192 formigueiros de A. sexdens rubropilosa, distribuídos nesses dois tratamentos. Foram avaliadas a porcentagem de carregamento e de devolução dessa isca, aos dois dias após sua aplicação, e a eficiência do combate, aos 150 dias após, por sondagem (uma a cada metro quadrado de fomigueiro. A porcentagem de carregamento da isca granulada foi maior quando aplicada fora do monte de terra solta (100,00% do que sobre ele (89,58%, porém a eficiência de controle foi semelhante, com 89,58% para o primeiro e 90,27% para o segundo tratamento, respectivamente. Por isto, em razão do menor custo e facilidade, recomenda-se aplicar esta isca sobre os montes de terra solta de formigueiros de A. sexdens rubropilosa.The efficiency of a granulated bait formulated with sulfluramid (0.3% for the control of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae was evaluated. Treatments consisted of applying this bait at a dose of 8g/m² from the ant nest. This bait was applied near entrances over ant nests (treatment T1 or near those outside these nests (treatment T2. A total of 192 ant nests of A. sexdens rubropilosa were used in the two treatments. Percentage of transport and devolution of the bait by A. sexdens rubropilosa was evaluated two days after its application and control efficiency, 150 days after application. Percentage of bait transport was higher when applied outside the ant nest (100.00% than over it (89.5%. However, control

  19. Dinâmica populacional do parasitoide de ovos erythmelus tingitiphagus (hymenoptera: mymaridae em clone de seringueira, em Itiquira, MT Population dynamic of egg parasitoid erythmelus tingitiphagus (hymenoptera: mymaridae in rubber tree clone in Itiquira, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Souza Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo-de-renda Leptopharsa heveae Drake & Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae é uma das mais importantes pragas da heveicultura no Brasil, principalmente nas regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste. Devido ao seu hábito sugador, na face abaxial das folhas, esta praga leva à senescência precoce das mesmas e a reduções na produção de látex em até 30%. Dentre os inimigos naturais de L. heveae está o parasitoide de ovos Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, regulando suas populações em condições naturais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a dinâmica populacional deste parasitoide, bem como correlacioná-la com os fatores meteorológicos temperatura e pluviosidade, em plantio comercial de seringueira do clone PB 217, em Itiquira, MT. Semanalmente foram coletadas quatro folhas maduras por árvore, no terço inferior da copa de 40 árvores, totalizando 160 folhas por amostragem, no período de agosto de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. Houve correlação positiva entre a dinâmica populacional e os fatores meteorológicos, sendo o pico populacional do parasitoide observado no mês de novembro e declinando até janeiro na área estudada.The lace bug Leptopharsa heveae Drake & Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae is one of the most import heveiculture pests in Brazil, mainly in the southeast and central-west regions. Due to its sucking habit on the abaxial surface, this pest causes precocious senescence in leaves, and leads to the reduction in latex production in up to 30% of them. Among the natural enemies of L. heveae is the egg parasitoid Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, regulating populations of L. heveae in natural conditions. The objective of this work was to verify the population dynamics of this parasitoid, as well as to correlate it with meteorological factors such as temperature and rainfall, in a commercial plantation of rubber trees of the PB 217 clone, in Itiquira, in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Four

  20. Meliponini neotropicais: o gênero Ptilotrigona Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae

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    João M. F. Camargo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero neotropical de abelhas sem ferrão, Ptilotrigona Moure, 1951, é revisado. Três espécies são reconhecidas: Ptilotrigona occidentalis (Schulz, 1904, endêmica do NW da América do Sul - do NW do Equador até o sul de Darién -, e com uma população isolada na Península de Osa - Costa Rica; P. pereneae (Schwarz, 1943, endêmica do oeste da Amazônia, e P. lurida (Smith, 1854, amplamente distribuída na Amazônia. Ptilotrigona lurida e P. pereneae são as únicas abelhas sem ferrão que estocam pólen em associação com leveduras (Candida sp. e produzem pouco ou nenhum mel. Ninhos são descritos e ilustrados. Holótipos de Trigona suffragata Cockerell, 1922 (sin. de P. occidentalis e Trigona manni Cockerell, 1912, e exemplares de Trigona heideri Friese, 1900 (sins. de P. lurida, identificados por Friese, e um parátipo de Trigona (Tetragona heideri pereneae Schwarz, 1943, são estudados. Novo sinônimo: Ptilotrigona lurida (Smith, 1854 = Trigona mocsaryi lutea Friese, 1903 syn. nov. Na análise cladística, espécies de Camargoia Moure, 1989, e Tetragona Lepeletier & Serville, 1828, foram incluídas como grupos externos; a hipótese apresentada é a seguinte: ((((Ptilotrigona lurida, P. pereneae P. occidentalis((Camargoia nordestina, C. pilicornis C. camargoi Tetragona goettei. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies e outros aspectos bionômicos também são apresentados.Neotropical Meliponini: the genus Ptilotrigona Moure, (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae. The Neotropical stingless bees genus Ptilotrigona Moure, 1951 is revised. Three species are recognized: Ptilotrigona occidentalis (Schulz, 1904, endemic to NW South America - from NW Ecuador to southern Darién -, and with one isolated population in Osa Peninsula - Costa Rica; P. pereneae (Schwarz, 1943, endemic to the western Amazon; and P. lurida (Smith, 1854, largely distributed in the Amazon region. Ptilotrigona lurida and P. pereneae are the only known stingless bees

  1. Preferência Floral de Vespas (Hymenoptera, Vespidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As vespas integram a comunidade de visitantes florais e podem constituir uma parcela representativa dos polinizadores. Por este motivo, objetivou-se conhecer e analisar a preferência floral das espécies de Vespidae, bem como investigar o uso de recursos florais por estas vespas. Foram realizadas coletas entre o período de 2001 a 2008 em diferentes localidades do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu, entre 08:00 a 17:00 horas, utilizando redes entomológicas para a captura dos vespídeos visitando flores. Os espécimes coletados foram depositados na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (CESC. Coletou-se 1.483 indivíduos alocados em 73 espécies de vespas, sendo que 78,9% são Polistinae (30 espécies e 21,1% Eumeninae (43 espécies, visitando as flores de 33 espécies de plantas classificadas em 16 famílias botânicas; as famílias com maior número de espécies vegetais foram Asteraceae (12, Fabaceae (4 e Apiaceae (3. A planta com o maior número de vespídeos coletados foi Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (616, seguida por Eryngium pandanifolium L. (137 e Eryngium horridum Spreng (122. A análise da sobreposição de nicho trófico de 26 espécies que visitaram quatro ou mais floração, mostrou que a sobreposição foi igual ou maior que 50% em apenas seis casos.Floral Preferences of Wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae in the Rio Grande do Sul State, BrazilAbstract Wasps integrate the floral visitors’ community and they can constitute a representative portion of the pollinators. For this reason, it was aimed to know and to analyze the floral preference of the Vespidae species and to investigate the use of floral resources for these wasps. The collects were performed between 2001 and 2008 in different localities of Rio Grande do Sul state (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu between 08:00 at 17:00 hours, utilizing entomological nets to catch the

  2. Notes on three braconid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Doryctinae) parasitizing oak long-horned beetle, Massicus raddei (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a severe pest of Quercus spp. in China, together with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangming; Yang, Zhongqi; Tang, Yanlong; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitize larvae of oak longhorn beetle Massicus raddei Blessig (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a serious wood borer pest in North China. Rhoptrocentrus quercusi sp. nov., is described as a new species and Doryctes petiolatus Shestakov, as well as Zombrus bicolor (Enderlein). The three species are idiobiont ectoparasitoids, and may have potential for biological control of oak longhorn beetle. PMID:26624143

  3. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  4. ¿MULTIPLICAR Tetrastichus howardi (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE EN LA ORUGA DE LA SEDA AFECTA SU BIOLOGÍA?

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    Nahara Gabriela Piñeyro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa multiplicación sucesiva de parasitoides en hospederos alternativos, puede afectar las características biológicas y comprometer los sistemas de cría masiva de estos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la multiplicación de Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff, 1893 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en pupas del hospedero alternativo Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, durante tres generaciones. Y si eso afecta su desempeño reproductivo, cuando se cría, posteriormente, en pupas del hospedero natural Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae. Las informaciones obtenidas en este estudio pueden mejorar y facilitar el control biológico de plagas, principalmente, con la utilización de parasitoides, debido a que T. howardi parasita y se desarrolla en pupas de B. mori. De forma general, la multiplicación de T. howardi durante tres generaciones en pupas del hospedero alternativo B. mori no compromete las características biológicas de este parasitoide cuando se multiplica en su hospedero natural D. saccharalis a los efectos de su utilización en programas de control biológico.ABSTRACTThe successive multiplication of parasitoids in alternative hosts can affect the biological characteristics and compromise the systems for massive rearing. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the multiplication of Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff, 1893 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in pupae of the alternative host Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae for three generations, affects its reproductive performance, when are reared, then in pupae of the natural host Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae. The information obtained in this study can improve and facilitate the biological control of pests, mainly with the use of parasitoids, due to the fact that T. howardi parasite and develops into pupae of B. mori. In general, the multiplication of T. howardi for three generations in the alternative

  5. The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

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    Marcel G. Hermes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The structure of flower-visiting social wasps' assemblages in the CPCN Pró-Mata of São Francisco de Paula and in the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, are characterized. A total of 879 polistine wasps were collected, of which 475 (11 spp. in the CPCN and 404 (21 spp. in the Green Belt, from September 1997 to April 2001 and from September 2001 to April 2004, respectively. Foraging social wasps were observed on flowers of 36 species of angiosperms (20 families in the Green Belt, and on flowers of 54 species of angiosperms (21 families in the CPCN. Asteraceae was the most visited plant family on both studied localities. A list of pant species visited by the polistines is provided.Vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae visitantes de flores em duas áreas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A estrutura da assembléia de vespas sociais que visitam flores no CPCN Pró-Mata de São Francisco de Paula e no Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, são caracterizadas. Do total de 879 polistíneos, 475 (11 spp. foram coletados no CPCN, e 404 (21 spp. no Cinturão Verde entre Setembro de 1997 a Abril de 2000 e Setembro de 2001 a Abril de 2004, respectivamente. Vespas sociais foram observadas em flores de 36 espécies de angiospermas (20 famílias no Cinturão Verde, e em flores de 54 espécies de angiospermas (21 famílias no CPCN. Asteraceae foi a família de planta que mais recebeu visitas por parte das vespas nas duas localidades estudadas. Uma lista com as espécies de plantas visitadas pelos polistíneos é apresentada.

  6. Ultrastructural Characterization of Olfactory Sensilla and Immunolocalization of Odorant Binding and Chemosensory Proteins from an Ectoparasitoid Scleroderma guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae

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    Xiangrui Li, Daguang Lu, Xiaoxia Liu, Qingwen Zhang, Xuguo Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional structures of two odorant binding proteins (OBPs and one chemosensory protein (CSP from a polyphagous ectoparasitoid Scleroderma guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae were resolved bioinformatically. The results show that both SguaOBP1 and OBP2 are classic OBPs, whereas SguaCSP1 belongs to non-classic CSPs which are considered as the “Plus-C” CSP in this report. The structural differences between the two OBPs and between OBP and CSP are thoroughly described, and the structural and functional significance of the divergent C-terminal regions (e.g., the prolonged C-terminal region in SguaOBP2 and the additional pair of cysteines in SguaCSP1 are discussed. The immunoblot analyses with antisera raised against recombinant SguaOBP1, OBP2, and CSP1, respectively, indicate that two SguaOBPs are specific to antennae, whereas SguaCSP1, which are more abundant than OBPs and detected in both male and female wasps, expresses ubiquitously across different tissues.We also describe the ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla types in S. guani and compare them to 19 species of parasitic Hymenoptera. There are 11 types of sensilla in the flagellum and pedicel segments of antennae in both male and female wasps. Seven of them, including sensilla placodea (SP, long sensilla basiconica (LSB, sensilla coeloconica (SC, two types of double-walled wall pore sensilla (DWPS-I and DWPS-II, and two types of sensilla trichodea (ST-I and ST-II, are multiporous chemosensilla. The ultralsturctures of these sensilla are morphologically characterized. In comparison to monophagous specialists, the highly polyphagous generalist ectoparasitoids such as S. guani possess more diverse sensilla types which are likely related to their broad host ranges and complex life styles. Our immunocytochemistry study demonstrated that each of the seven sensilla immunoreacts with at least one antiserum against SguaOBP1, OBP2, and CSP1, respectively. Anti-OBP2 is specifically labeled

  7. Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae as a parasitoid of Palaeosepsis spp. (Diptera: Sepsidae in buffalo dung at Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil

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    Otacílio M. Silva Filho

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae as a parasitoid of Palaeosepsis spp. (Diptera: Sepsidae found in buffalo dung at Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Feces samples were collected in the field at two-week intervals and later were taken to the laboratory to extract pupae by the water flotation method. Each pupa was placed in a capsule of colorless gelatin until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. The parasitism prevalence was 1.2%.

  8. Evaluación de modernos plaguicidas en el complejo Ceratis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) y Psyttalia concolor Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

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    Ould-Abdallahi, Elhadj Abdalldhi

    2004-01-01

    Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Mosca mediterránea de la Fruta) es una de las principales plagas de los cultivos frutales. Está presente en la mayor parte de las regiones subtropicales del mundo. Su rango de huéspedes abarca a más de 250 especies. Los daños son producidos en primer lugar por la oviposición de la hembra en los frutos, y posteriormente, por el desarrollo larvario en su interior. Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) es un endoparasitoide de moscas de ...

  9. Contributions to the study of the Holarctic fauna of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae. I. Introduction and first results of transatlantic comparisons

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    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from both sides of the Holarctic region (Nearctic and Palaearctic were sampled for DNA barcoding and examined morphologically. Two species are recorded for the first time for the Nearctic: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, and Microgaster raschkiellae Shaw. Another European species, Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday, previously introduced as a biological control agent, is confirmed to be present in North America. For another 13 species significant range extension is documented, including new records for France, Canada, United States, and Sweden. New host data are also provided for several species. The species name Apanteles masmithi Fernández-Triana is considered a syn. n. of Dolichogenidea britannica (Wilkinson.

  10. Host Suitability of House Fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), Pupae Killed by High or Low Temperature Treatment for a Parastoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Ogawa; Katsura Ito; Tatsuya Fukuda; Shin-ichi Tebayashi; Ryo Arakawa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a high quality progeny production system for the house fly parasitoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), by stockpiling hosts. We performed two host killing methods before host storage: (i) heat-killed by 30 min exposure to 50°C or (ii) freeze-killed by 10 min exposure to −80°C. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from nonstored house fly pupae after heat- or freeze-killing was not significantly different from live pupae. Whe...

  11. Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

  12. Nutritive value and apparent digestibility of bee-collected and bee-stored pollen in the stingless bee, Scaptotrigona postica Latr. (hymenoptera, apidae, meliponini)

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    Pedro Guilherme Fernandes-Da-Silva,; Serrão, José

    2000-01-01

    Valeur nutritive et digestibilité apparente du pollen récolté et du pollen stocké par l'abeille sans aiguillon Scaptotrigona postica Latr. (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini). Chez les Meliponini, le pollen est stocké dans des pots à l'intérieur de la ruche. Plusieurs auteurs [7, 11, 16, 20, 25, 28] ont suggéré que le stockage du pollen augmentait sa digestibilité, facilitant ainsi l'absorption des nutriments par les abeilles. Pourtant, une seule étude [12] a comparé la valeur nutritive du poll...

  13. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  14. Evolución de la sociabilidad en Hymenoptera: Rasgos conductuales vinculados a niveles sociales y precursores de sociabilidad en especies solitarias Evolution of sociality in Hymenoptera: Behavioural traits linked to social levels and precursors of sociality in solitary species

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    LUIS FLORES-PRADO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En Hymenoptera, los niveles de sociabilidad han sido asociados a rasgos conductuales, tales como los comportamientos de nidificación y agonísticos, y la capacidad de reconocimiento entre conespecíficos. El reconocimiento de compañeros de nido es un fenómeno de amplia difusión entre especies eusociales, y puede ser inferido por el resultado de las interacciones agonísticas entre hembras; estas son más tolerantes hacia compañeras de nido que hacia no compañeras de nido. Contrariamente, en la mayor parte de las especies solitarias las hembras son agresivas hacia otras hembras conespecíficas. En especies eusociales, la descendencia inmadura es alimentada directamente por la madre, o por obreras; así, el contacto frecuente entre progenie y hembras adultas puede contribuir a entender el reconocimiento social. En el extremo opuesto, las especies solitarias construyen nidos que no permiten interacciones entre adultos e inmaduros. A pesar de esto, estudios recientes sugieren que el aprendizaje del fenotipo propio podría explicar la capacidad de reconocimiento y, tal vez, corresponde al punto de partida en el desarrollo y evolución de la sociabilidad. La subfamilia Xylocopinae (Apidae ha emergido como un valioso modelo para estudiar la evolución de la sociabilidad pues contiene especies que presentan un amplio rango de sociabilidad. En particular, la tribu Manueliini representa un taxón interesante desde el punto de vista de la evolución de la sociabilidad en Xylocopinae pues ha sido propuesto como el grupo hermano de todos los demás Xylocopinae, es un taxón relicto que retiene rasgos morfológicos ancestrales, contiene solo especies fundamentalmente solitarias (aunque en una de estas se ha demostrado recientemente reconocimiento de compañeras de nido y de parientes y algunas especies exhiben rasgos conductuales precursores de vida social. En este trabajo se revisa en Hymenoptera los grados de sociabilidad asociados con rasgos

  15. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  16. Toxicity and Residual Activity of Insecticides Against Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Parasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Cruz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Ortega-Arenas, Laura D; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor; Pineda, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is one of the most economically important pests of potato, tomato, and peppers in Central America, Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. Its control is based on the use of insecticides; however, recently, the potential of the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for population regulation has been studied. Because T. triozae is likely to be exposed to insecticides on crops, the objective of this study was to explore the compatibility of eight insecticides with this parasitoid. The toxicity and residual activity (persistence) of spirotetramat, spiromesifen, beta-cyfluthrin, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, abamectin, and spinosad against T. triozae adults were assessed using a method based on the residual contact activity of each insecticide on tomato leaf discs collected from treated plants growing under greenhouse conditions. All eight insecticides were toxic to T. triozae. Following the classification of the International Organization of Biological Control, the most toxic were abamectin and spinosad, which could be placed in toxicity categories 3 and 4, respectively. The least toxic were azadirachtin, pymetrozine, spirotetramat, spiromesifen, imidacloprid, and beta-cyfluthrin, which could be placed in toxicity category 2. In terms of persistence, by day 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 24, and 41 after application, spirotetramat, azadirachtin, spiromesifen, pymetrozine, imidacloprid, beta-cyfluthrin, abamectin, and spinosad could be considered harmless, that is, placed in toxicity category 1 (pest management programs that include T. triozae. PMID:26453717

  17. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC50), mean lethal time (LT50), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 107 conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT50 of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  18. Indigenous Knowledge of the Edible Weaver Ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Van Itterbeeck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-cultivating and farming edible insects. Such developments can draw on both western science and indigenous knowledge. Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae, of which particularly the queen brood is commonly consumed in Thailand and the Lao PDR, is believed to have the potential to act as flagship/umbrella species in forest conservation and management, to be incorporated simultaneously as biological control agent and direct source of human food in agroforestry practices, and to be (semi-cultivated. We provide a detailed account of indigenous knowledge of O. smaragdina and ant brood collection practices from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR, through focus group discussions and participant observations, and then reflect on sustainability and conservation issues, and on semi-cultivating constraints and possibilities embedded in indigenous knowledge and ant brood collection practices. 

  19. Interference of field evidence, morphology, and DNA analyses of three related Lysiphlebus aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starý, Petr; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Petrović, Andjeljko; Žikić, Vladimir; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Tomanović, Snežana; Tomanović, Željko; Havelka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study provides evidence on integrating the morphological, field, and laboratory data, and application of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding gene to the three asexual or sexual Lysiphlebus spp., i.e., Lysiphlebus cardui (Marshall), Lysiphlebus confusus Tremblay and Eady and Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae). New aphid- invasive plant association, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemipreta: Aphididae) on Impatiens glandulifera Royle, has been used in the same model area in the Czech Republic under the same sampling and rearing method for several consecutive years and throughout the season. For molecular identification of these three species, we used DNA sequences of the barcoding region of the mitochondrial COI gene. Although our results confirmed ecological and morphological differences among L. cardui, L. confusus, and L. fabarum, genetic analysis on the basis of COI mitochondrial barcoding gene does not support species status of the mentioned Lysiphlebus taxa. The level of morphological differentiation in these Lysiphlebus Förster species is in accordance with the usual species variability within subfamily Aphidiinae. However, it should be examined how appearance of asexual lineages affects the morphological or genetical variability. PMID:25399432

  20. Long-term field trial to control the invasive Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with synthetic trail pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishisue, K; Sunamura, E; Tanaka, Y; Sakamoto, H; Suzuki, S; Fukumoto, T; Terayama, M; Tatsuki, S

    2010-10-01

    Previous short-term experiments showed that trail following behavior of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), can be disrupted by a high concentration of synthetic trail pheromone component (Z)-9-hexadecenal. In this study, a long-term field trial was conducted in 100-m2 plots of house gardens in an urban area of Japan to see whether the control effect on Argentine ants can be obtained by permeating synthetic trail pheromone from dispensers. The dispensers were placed in the experimental plots during the ant's active season (April-November) for 2 yr with monthly renewal. To estimate Argentine ant population density, foraging activity of Argentine ants in the study plots was monitored by monthly bait surveys. Throughout the study period, Argentine ant foraging activity was suppressed in the presence of the dispensers, presumably via trail forming inhibition. In contrast, the level of foraging activity was not different between treatment and no-treatment plots when the dispensers were temporarily removed, suggesting that treatment with pheromone dispensers did not suppress Argentine ant density in the treatment plots. Population decline may be expected with larger-scale treatment that covers a significant portion of the ant colony or with improvement in the potency of the disruptant. PMID:21061980

  1. Influence of toxic bait type and starvation on worker and queen mortality in laboratory colonies of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Melissa; Toft, Richard; Lester, Philip J

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of toxic baits should be judged by their ability to kill entire ant colonies, including the colony queen or queens. We studied the efficacy of four toxic baits to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). These baits were Xstinguish that has the toxicant fipronil, Exterm-an-Ant that contains both boric acid and sodium borate, and Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena that both have indoxacarb. Experimental nests contained 300 workers and 10 queen ants that were starved for either 24 or 48 h before toxic bait exposure. The efficacy of the toxic baits was strongly influenced by starvation. In no treatment with 24-h starvation did we observe 100% worker death. After 24-h starvation three of the baits did not result in any queen deaths, with only Exterm-an-Ant producing an average of 25% mortality. In contrast, 100% queen and worker mortality was observed in colonies starved for 48 h and given Xstinguish or Exterm-an-Ant. The baits Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena were not effective against Argentine ants in these trials, resulting in bait uptake, control efficacy may be maximized by applying bait when ants are likely to be starved. Our results suggest queen mortality must be assessed in tests for toxic bait efficacy. Our data indicate that of these four baits, Xstinguish and Exterm-an-Ant are the best options for control of Argentine ants in New Zealand. PMID:22928290

  2. Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. A taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of Rhinocorynura are provided. Six species are recognized: R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with R. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, R. brunnea sp. nov. and R. viridis sp. nov. Lectotypes for Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 and Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. Another available name included in Rhinocorynura, Corynuropsis ashmeadi Schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in Augochlorini. Rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (R. crotonis (R. briseis ((R. brunnea sp. nov. + R. viridis sp. nov. (R. inflaticeps + R. vernoniae. Biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. Females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. Identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.

  3. Virus-like particles in the ovaries of Microctonus aethiopoides Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): comparison of biotypes from Morocco and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, B I P; Murney, R; Easingwood, R; Ward, V K

    2006-01-01

    Virus-like particles (MaVLP) have been discovered in the ovarial epithelial cells of the solitary, koinobiont, endoparasitoid, Microctonus aethiopoides Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) introduced to New Zealand originally from Morocco to control the lucerne pest Sitona discoideus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). MaVLP have been found in all females examined. It has been suggested, although not demonstrated, that like many other such VLP found in parasitoids, MaVLP might play a role in host immunosuppression. Since another biotype of M. aethiopoides from Ireland has been proposed for introduction to control the white clover pest, Sitona lepidus Gyllenhal, in New Zealand, it was considered that females from this biotype warranted transmission electron microscope examination for VLP. No VLP were observed in ovarian tissues of specimens collected from three different locations in Ireland. Similarly, none were found in M. aethiopoides sourced from France, Wales, and Norway. These observations are discussed in relation to quarantine host specificity tests with the Irish biotype, which found that the host range of the Irish biotype is likely to be less extensive than that of the Moroccan biotype already in New Zealand. PMID:16375917

  4. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests. PMID:26466718

  5. Spatial patterns of parasitism of the solitary parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Norma E; Pereyra, Patricia C; Luna, María G

    2009-04-01

    We examined the interaction between the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a key pest of tomato crops in South America, and its main solitary larval parasitoid, Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The pattern of parasitism of T. absoluta by the parasitoid was studied at three scales on tomato crops: plant, leaf, and leaflet. Host density, spatial distributions of both host and parasitoid, percentages of parasitism, variation in the probability and risk of parasitism in relation to host density, and the spatial density dependence were assessed in a horticultural region in Argentina. The spatial distribution of T. absoluta was clumped at all sites and scales, whereas that of P. dignus was much more variable, fitting to negative, positive binomial distributions and to Poisson series. Percentages of parasitism were as follows: site 1, 17.06%; site 2, 27.53%; site 3, 26.47%; site 4, 45.95%. Parasitoid aggregation in relation to host density was found at leaf and leaflet scales. However, the proportion of parasitized hosts was independent of host density. The variability of parasitism rates exhibited at the three spatial scales seems to result in partial refuges for the host, which might contribute to the persistence of the interaction between host and parasitoid. We discuss our field observations in relation to ecological theory and its potential application to the biological control of T. absoluta on tomato. PMID:19389284

  6. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J; Tallamy, Douglas W; Hough-Goldstein, Judith

    2015-06-01

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a newly described ectoparasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is currently being evaluated for environmental introduction in the United States to provide biological control of this invasive pest. To improve mass-rearing outcomes for S. galinae, we investigated the effects of parasitoid: host ratio and parasitoid and host group size (density) on parasitoid fitness. Our results showed that when 1 emerald ash borer larva was exposed to 1, 2, 4, or 8 female parasitoids, parasitism rate was positively associated with increasing parasitoid: host ratio, while brood size, sex ratio, and fitness estimates of progeny were not affected. When a constant 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio was used, but group size varied from 1 female parasitoid and 1 host, 5 parasitoids and 5 hosts, 10 of each, and 20 of each in same size rearing cages, parasitism rates were highest when at least 5 females were exposed to 5 host larvae. Moreover, the number of progeny produced per female parasitoid was greatest when group size was 10 parasitoids and 10 hosts. These findings demonstrate that S. galinae may be reared most efficiently in moderately high-density groups (10 parasitoids and hosts) and with a 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio. PMID:26470215

  7. Occurrence and biology of Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae) parasitising different species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R B; Cruz, I; Figueiredo, M L C; Pereira, A G; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2012-02-01

    Surveys on Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in Sete Lagoas city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, indicated the parasitism of adults of the species Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, 1775, Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824) and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866), by Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae). Since then, the parasitoid have been maintained in its original hosts at the Insect Rearing Laboratory - LACRI of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Institution - Embrapa Milho e Sorgo. Besides the citation of occurrence in Brazil, this work also indicates the parasitoid preference for C. maculata (70% of parasitism), followed by O. v-nigrum (43.3% of parasitism) and E. connexa (36.7% of parasitism). Total life cycle of D. coccinellae was longer on C. maculata (32.4 ± 0.48 days), compared to O. v-nigrum (29.5 ± 0.49 days) and E. connexa (27.8 ± 0.4 days). Due to the relatively high percentage of field parasitism, D. coccinellae can reduce the efficiency of biological pest control by Coccinellidae predators especially in the case of C. maculata. PMID:22437405

  8. Interspecific interaction between Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus and Microplitis bicoloratus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrina) in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Fan, Jing; Sun, Shifeng; Wang, Fanghai; Yang, Kai; Li, Guanghong; Pang, Yi

    2012-10-01

    Baculoviruses and parasitoids are important biological control factors of insects in integrated pest management. Microplitis bicoloratus Chen (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrina) is a solitary endoparasitoid of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. M. bicoloratus parasitized first to third instars of S. exigua and most effectively parasitized second instars. The survival rate of parasitoids emerging from S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV)-infected hosts decreased with increasing SeMNPV doses at second to fourth instars. In addition, the mortality rate of the host was > 80% when coinfected with SeMNPV and M. bicoloratus, regardless of virus doses or the timing of virus treatment. Occlusion body production was significantly reduced in parasitized hosts. A comparison of host weights showed that hosts coinfected with SeMNPV and M bicoloratus were significantly lighter than those infected with SeMNPV alone, suggesting that the decrease in virus yield resulted from a reduction in larval growth. The viral genome copy number in parasitized host was significantly lower than that in nonparasitized host at 48 and 72 h postinfection. These results suggest that SeMNPV and M. bicoloratus are compatible as S. exigua control agents. PMID:23156143

  9. [Susceptibility of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gómez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco; Vega, Fernando E

    2009-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endoparasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC50), mean lethal time (LT50), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10(7) conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT50 of 29.4h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. PMID:19943017

  10. Biological characteristics of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae on refrigerated pupae of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass rearing of parasitoids is a fundamental step for biological control programs. The biological characteristics of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae were evaluated in pupae of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae stored at low temperatures. Twenty four hours-old pupae of A. gemmatalis were stored at 12 °C for 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 d and then exposed to parasitism by P. elaeisis females. The life span of P. elaeisis was affected and ranged from 19 to 24 d on the pupae of the host. Parasitism reached 100% of the host pupae after storage in all periods at 12 °C, and adults emerged from 20.00 to 54.54% of them. The progeny of P. elaeisis ranged from 71 to 198 and had an inverse relationship with the increase in the storage period. Pupae of A. gemmatalis may be stored for up to 6 d at 12 °C and subsequently used in rearing of P. elaeisis.

  11. Eochrysis, a new replacement name for the fossil Protochrysis Bischoff, 1916 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) nec Pascher, 1911 (Protista: Cryptomonada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2015-01-01

    The genus Protochrysis (type species P. succinalis Bischoff, 1916, by monotypy) was established by Bischoff (1916: 139) for distinctive fossil insect remains of Eocene (Lutetian) age from the former Königsberg outskirts of East Prussia (now Kalinigrad, Russian Federation), referred at present to the Chrysididae (Hymenoptera) (Brues 1933; Carpenter 1985, 1992). However, an identical generic name Protochrysis had previously been proposed by Pascher (1911: 191) for a living protist (Cryptomonada). Bischoff's (1916) name is therefore an invalid junior homonym. Carpenter (1985: 577) proposed a new replacement name for the fossil genus, but overlooked the fact that his newly proposed generic name Protochrysidis was also preoccupied, again by the name of another protist genus, Protochrysidis [Protista: Chrysomonada] described by Skvortzov (1969: 346) from Harbin (China). In fact, the protistan genus Protochrysidis had initially been published as chrysophyte algae following the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (McNeill et al. 2012) by Skvortzov (1961: 4) who had failed to designate holotype of the species, but later fulfilled all conditions for valid publication in 1969 by providing necessary typification and reference to formerly published description and illustrations. At present chrysophyte algae are still maintained as Chrysomonada in protozoology due to a continued somewhat archaic tradition (Preisig & Anderson 2002). Protochrysidis Skvortzov, 1969 remained little studied since the time of its first description and is currently treated as an incertae sedis protistan taxon. PMID:26701548

  12. Effects of female diet and age on offspring sex ratio of the solitary parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Yuan Hu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of female diet and age on offspring sex ratio of the solitary parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae. Theories predict that females of parasitoid wasps would adjust the offspring sex ratio to environmental conditions in the oviposition patch, but the diet and age of females would also affect the sex ratio adjustment. Our focus was to test the effects of female diet and age on offspring sex ratio of the solitary parasitoid wasp, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875. Our results showed that females fed with honey had significantly less female biased offspring sex ratio than those fed only with water. Offspring sex ratio (male percentage decreased with female age or female longevity at the beginning of oviposition but increased at the end. There should be a sperm limitation in P. vindemmiae females at the end of oviposition, and a higher frequency of unfertilized eggs were laid then. Females also laid more unfertilized eggs at the beginning of oviposition, which would be necessary to insure the mating among offspring. Male offspring developed faster and emerged earlier, which would also reduce the risk of virginity in offspring with female-biased sex ratio.

  13. Expression profile of a Laccase2 encoding gene during the metamorphic molt in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera,Apidae

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    Moysés Elias-Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Expression profile of a Laccase2 encoding gene during the metamorphic molt in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Metamorphosis in holometabolous insects occurs through two subsequent molting cycles: pupation (metamorphic molt and adult differentiation (imaginal molt. The imaginal molt in Apis mellifera L. was recently investigated in both histological and physiological-molecular approaches. Although the metamorphic molt in this model bee is extremely important to development, it is not well-known yet. In the current study we used this stage as an ontogenetic scenario to investigate the transcriptional profile of the gene Amlac2, which encodes a laccase with an essential role in cuticle differentiation. Amlac2 expression in epidermis was contrasted with the hemolymph titer of ecdysteroid hormones and with the most evident morphological events occurring during cuticle renewal. RT-PCR semiquantitative analyses using integument samples revealed increased levels of Amlac2 transcripts right after apolysis and during the subsequent pharate period, and declining levels near pupal ecdysis. Compared with the expression of a cuticle protein gene, AmelCPR14, these results highlighted the importance of the ecdysteroid-induced apolysis as an ontogenetic marker of gene reactivation in epidermis for cuticle renewal. The obtained results strengthen the comprehension of metamorphosis in Apis mellifera. In addition, we reviewed the literature about the development of A. mellifera, and emphasize the importance of revising the terminology used to describe honey bee molting cycles.

  14. Side effects of some pesticides on the silverleaf whitefly’s parasitoid, Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae under laboratory conditions

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    Mustafa PORTAKALDALI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is one of major pests in greenhouses vegetable cultivation. Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae has an important role among effective parasitoids used in biological control of the silverleaf whitefly. Nondestructive or less destructive pesticides against this parasitoid should be preferred in the scope of biological control. For this goal, side effects of 8 plant protection products, including spinosad, pyriproxyfen, abamectin, emamectin benzoate, copper oxychloride, kresoxim-methyl+boscalid, dimethoate and propineb+cymoxanil on pupae and adults of E. mundus were tested in this laboratory study conducted according to IOBC standards. As a result, pesticides containing spinosad, abamectin and dimethoate were determined as highly destructive to pupae and adults of E. mundus, and pesticide containing emamectin benzoate was found as moderately harmful. As for propineb+cymoxanil, pyriproxyfen, kresoxim-methyl+boscalid and copper oxychloride, they were determined as ineffective on the parasitoid under laboratory conditions. These results obtained from experiments that were conducted under laboratory conditions also have to be supported by field or semi-field experiment’s results.

  15. LEAF-CUTTING ANTS Acromyrmex niger SMITH, 1858 (HYMENOPTERA; FORMICIDAE USED AS BIOINDICATORS OF AGROTOXICS RESIDUES

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    Liriana Belizário Cantagalli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Despite the condition of leaf-cutting ant pests in agroecosystems, it is undeniable the benefits they can bring in certain situations or environments. The leaf-cutting ants of the genus Acromyrmex attack mainly leaves of vegetables and fruit trees exposing not only to the agrochemicals used for their control as well as to those used for the control of other pests. Due to the bioindicator potential of environmental quality of the ants and their frequent exposure to agrochemicals such as organophosphates, neonicotinoids and growth regulators insecticide used for pest control, it is necessary to study the sublethal effects that these pesticides may cause. The electrophoresis technique was used to study the activity of esterase isozymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics of A. niger, combined with changes in the expression of isozymes after contamination by pesticides. A. niger  showed eight regions of esterase activity, which were called EST-1, EST-2, EST-3, EST-4, EST-5, EST-6, EST-7 and EST-8 according to the electrophoretic mobility. As the specificity to α  and β -naphthyl acetate substrates, the Est-7 and Est-8 may be classified as α -esterase and the others as αβ  esterases. EST-5 is considered an enzyme of the type cholinesterase II and the others are of the type carboxilesterase. The electrophoretic analysis showed partial inhibition to all esterases subjected to the contact with Malathion organophosforate at the concentrations 1 x10-3  % and 5 x 10-3  %, which may be considered as a biomarker for the presence of residues of this insecticide in the environment. The regression analysis for sublethal effects of the tested pesticides demonstrated correlation between dose and mortality only for Thiametoxam neonicotinoid pesticide. Utilización de hormigas cortadoras Acromyrmex niger Smith,1858 (Hymenoptera; Formicidae como bioindicadoresde residuos

  16. Agreement of skin test with IL-4 production and CD40L expression by T cells upon immunotherapy of subjects with systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urra, José M; Cabrera, Carmen M; Alfaya, Teresa; Feo-Brito, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Venom immunotherapy is the only curative intervention for subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy who suffering systemic reactions upon bee or wasp stings. Venom immunotherapy can restore normal immunity against venom allergens, as well as providing to allergic subjects a lifetime tolerance against venoms. Nevertheless, it is necessary using safety assays to monitoring the development of tolerance in the VIT protocols to avoid fatal anaphylactic reactions. The purpose of this study was to assess the modifications in several markers of tolerance induction in subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy undergoing immunotherapy. The studies were performed at baseline time and after six month of VIT. Intradermal skin tests, basophil activation tests, specific IgE levels; and the T-cell markers (IL-4 and IFN-γ producing cells; and expression of the surface activation markers CD40L and CTLA-4) were assayed. At six month of immunotherapy all parameters studied had significant alterations. All decreased, except the IFN-γ producing cells. In addition, modifications in intradermal skin test showed a significant correlation with both, CD40L expression on CD4 T lymphocytes (p=0.043) and IL-4 producing T lymphocytes (p=0.012). Neither basophil activation test nor serum levels of sIgE demonstrated any correlation with the immunological parameters studied nor among them. These results suggest that both IL-4 production and CD40L expression could be two good indicators of the beneficial effects of venom immunotherapy which translate into skin tests. PMID:26774053

  17. The SNMP/CD36 gene family in Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera: Drosophila melanogaster, D. pseudoobscura, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, Apis mellifera, and Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Zachary; Vogt, Richard G

    2008-04-01

    Sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) are membrane bound proteins initially identified in olfactory receptor neurons of Lepidoptera and are thought to play a role in odor detection; SNMPs belong to a larger gene family characterized by the human protein CD36. We have identified 12-14 candidate SNMP/CD36 homologs from each of the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, D. pseudoobscura, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti (Diptera), eight candidate homologs from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), and 15 from Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera). Analysis (sequence similarity and intron locations) suggests that the insect SNMP/CD36 genes fall into three major groups. Group 1 includes the previously characterized D. melanogaster emp (epithelial membrane protein). Group 2 includes the previously characterized D. melanogaster croquemort, ninaD, santa maria, and peste. Group 3 genes include the SNMPs, which fall into two subgroups referred to as SNMP1 and SNMP2. D. melanogaster SNMP1 (CG7000) shares both significant sequence similarity and five of its six intron insertion sites with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori SNMP1. The topological conservation of this gene family within the three major holometabolous lineages indicates that it predates the coleopteran and hymenoptera/dipera/lepidoptera split 300+ million years ago. The current state of knowledge of the characterized insect members of this gene family is discussed. PMID:18342246

  18. Primeiro relato de Trichogramma rojasi parasitando ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda First report of Trichogramma rojasi parasitizing eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Camera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A larva de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, conhecida como lagarta-do-cartucho, é um dos principais insetos-praga da cultura do milho e seu controle é realizado com produtos químicos. Uma alternativa é o controle biológico, em especial, com parasitoides de ovos do gênero Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Para a efetiva aplicação do controle biológico, é necessário avaliar o complexo de espécies/linhagens que ocorrem em ovos de S. frugiperda. Com esse objetivo, foram realizadas coletas de posturas de S. frugiperda na cultura do milho, no 10o Distrito de Arroio Grande, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, onde foi verificada a primeira ocorrência de Trichogramma rojasi Nagaraja & Nagarkatti, 1973 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitando ovos de S. frugiperda. A ocorrência de T. rojasi em ovos de S. frugiperda abre perspectivas para que esse parasitoide seja estudado a fim de integrar programas de controle biológico em milho, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.The larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, known as fall armyworm, is the main insect pest of corn crop and its control is done with chemicals. An alternative is biological control, in particular, the egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. For the effective application of biological control, it is necessary to evaluate the complex of species/strains occurring in eggs of S. frugiperda. With this objective, samples of egg masses of S. frugiperda were taken in the corn crop in the 10th Distrito de Arroio Grande, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, where it was observed the first occurrence of Trichogramma rojasi Nagaraja & Nagarkatti, 1973 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae parasitizing eggs of S. frugiperda.. The occurrence of T. rojasi in eggs of S. frugiperda opens perspective so that this parasitoid can be studied in order to

  19. Composição e riqueza de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em savana e ambientes associados de Roraima. = Composition and richness of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in savanna and associated environments of Roraima State (Northern of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Soares Peixoto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição, riqueza e abundância de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidaeem ambientes de savana e sistemas associados aproveitando os gradientes de uso (natural; antrópico e estrutura da vegetação (florestal; não-florestal. Os ecossistemas avaliados foram (i mosaico de savana parque-campo sujo (natural; não-florestal, (ii mata galeria em ambiente de savana (natural; florestal, (iii capoeira derivada de contato floresta-savana (antropizado; florestal e (iv silvicultura de Acacia mangium Willd. derivada de savana parque (antropizado; florestal. Foram utilizados dois métodos de coleta, isca de sardinha e armadilhas de queda (pitfall traps. Cada ecossistema foi amostrado de duas a quatro vezes entre os meses de setembro e dezembro de 2007. Cada rodada de coleta consistiu de 25 unidades amostrais de cada método distribuídas em cinco transectos de 100 m, distanciados 40 m entre si abrangendo uma área de 100 m2. Somados osdois métodos de coleta, foram identificadas 77 espécies ou morfo-espécies de formigas pertencentes a sete subfamílias (25.408indivíduos. A monocultura de A. mangium apresentou 49 espécies, mata galeria 46, capoeira 44 e savana 25. Os dois gêneros de maior ocorrência foram Crematogaster (60,4% dos indivíduos e Pheidole (24,8%. Não foi encontrado nenhum padrão de composição das espécies evidente pela análise de MDS (Escalonamento Multidimensional Não-métrico. Existe uma fraca tendência de agrupamento das amostras da mata galeria, porém as amostras coletadas na savana, normalmente consideradas áreas mais homogêneas, apresentaram a maior diferença de composição. = The objective of this study was to evaluate the composition, richness and abundance of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in savanna habitats and associated environments, observing their use gradients (natural, anthropogenic and vegetation structure (forest, non-forest. The ecosystems evaluated were (i savanna

  20. Controle de Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae com a isca Landrin-F, em área anteriormente coberta com Eucalyptus Control of Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, with Landrin-F bait, in areas previously covered with Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora muitos produtos tenham sido testados como princípio ativo de iscas formicidas, o mercado predominantemente utilizava produtos à base de dodecacloro. Com a proibição deste último composto, surgiram as iscas à base de sulfluramida ou de clorpirifós, constituindo, atualmente, dois dos princípios ativos de iscas formicidas, disponíveis no mercado. Este trabalho objetivou testar a isca Landrin-F (clorpirifós 0,45% no controle da formiga cortadeira Atta laevigata (F. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, comparado à isca Mirex-S (sulfluramida 0,3%. Foram utilizados tratamentos com a aplicação de 30 a 120 gramas da isca Landrin-F por olheiro; aplicação de 8g/m² de formigueiro da isca Landrin-F; aplicação de 8 g/m² de formigueiro da isca Mirex-S e; testemunha, sem aplicação de isca formicida. Após 24 e 48 horas, avaliaram-se o transporte e/ou devolução das iscas, e aos 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 e 210 dias, a atividade dos formigueiros, os quais foram sondados e escavados, aos 180 dias, e feita a avaliação final de atividade aos 210 dias. A utilização da metodologia de aplicação da isca Landrin-F por olheiro ativo aumentou consideravelmente a quantidade de isca aplicada, em relação à metodologia de aplicação por metro quadrado de formigueiro. Como a isca Landrin-F mostrou eficiência semelhante nas duas metodologias de aplicação, recomenda-se que a mesma seja aplicada na dosagem de 8g/m² de formigueiro para o controle de A. laevigata.Although many insecticides have been tested as baits against leaf cutting ants, the market was dominated by those with dodecachlor. This compound was banned and the new baits for these pests have either sulfluramid or chlorpirifos. The objective of this work was to test the Landrin-F (chlorpirifos 0.45% bait against the leaf cutting ant Atta laevigata (F. Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae compared to Mirex-S (sulfluramid 0.3% bait. Treatments used were: application of 30 to