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Sample records for bactrae hymenoptera trichogrammatidae

  1. Biological studies on Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

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    Virgala, Maria B. Riquelme, E-mail: mbriquelme@cnia.inta.gov.a [Universidade Nacional de Lujan, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Zoologia Agricola; Botto, Eduardo N., E-mail: enbotto@cnia.inta.gov.a [Instituto de Microbiologia y Zoologia Agricola (IMYZA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, is one of the most important tomato pests in South America. In Argentina, management strategies include only chemical control. In this work, the parasitoid wasp Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja was evaluated as a potential natural enemy against this pest. Biological and population parameters were estimated by developing a life table under laboratory conditions at 25 {+-} 1 degree C, 14:10 photo period and 60 {+-} 10% RH. Three cohorts of 26-30 T. bactrae females each were placed with one of the three following treatments: 1 - Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) eggs on a piece of cardboard; 2 - S. cerealella eggs on a piece of tomato leaf, and 3- T. absoluta eggs on a piece on tomato leaf. The following parameters were estimated for each cohort: survival (egg to adult), longevity, fecundity and oviposition period of females, sex proportion of the F1, net rate of reproduction (Ro), mean generation time (T) and intrinsic rate of population increase (rm). Survival of the T. bactrae immature was higher than 90% on both, S. cerealella and T. absoluta eggs. The female survival curves corresponded to type III and showed no significant differences among treatments. The three cohorts did not show significant differences between sex ratio, female longevity, oviposition period, fecundity and the population parameters studied. These results indicate that T. bactrae would be a potential biological control agent of T. absoluta. (author)

  2. Evaluación de algunos insecticidas para el control de la «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae y su efecto residual sobre el parasitoide Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Efficacy of insecticides against the «tomato moth», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and their residual effects on the parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    María B. Riquelme Virgala

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, es una plaga clave de este cultivo en Argentina. Su manejo integrado debería incluir una selección de productos fitosanitarios que sean eficaces para su control y, al mismo tiempo, selectivos respecto de sus enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de control de los insecticidas triflumurón, clorfenapir, abamectin y una cepa experimental de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt sobre la plaga, y el poder residual de los mismos sobre Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja. Se registró la mortalidad de la polilla cada cuatro días, desde la aplicación hasta la emergencia de los adultos. El efecto sobre el parasitoide, se evaluó a través del número de huevos parasitados por hembra expuesta durante 48 horas a folíolos tratados, y su mortalidad luego de 1, 3, 7, 14 y 30 días de la pulverización. Todos los productos ocasionaron una mortalidad de T. absoluta mayor al 65% después de 12 días de aplicados. El Bt fue el único insecticida que no afectó la supervivencia y el parasitismo de T. bactrae . Estos resultados aportan información de interés para la selección de plaguicidas, a emplearse en programas de manejo integrado.The «tomato moth», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick is one of the key pests of tomato crops in Argentina. The compatible use of chemical and biological control is the main purpose of integrated pest management. Selective pesticides that can be successfully used to control pest without adverse side effects on natural enemies are highly required. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of control of T. absoluta and the residual effect on the oophagous parasitoid, Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja of the following insecticides: triflumuron, abamectin, chlorfenapyr, and an experimental strain of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. Mortality of T. absoluta was evaluated every 4 days from pesticide spraying until adult emergency. The effect of pesticides on

  3. Evaluación de algunos insecticidas para el control de la «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae y su efecto residual sobre el parasitoide Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    María B. RIQUELME VIRGALA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, es una plaga clave de este cultivo en Argentina. Su manejo integrado debería incluir una selección de productos fitosanitarios que sean eficaces para su control y, al mismo tiempo, selectivos respecto de sus enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de control de los insecticidas triflumurón, clorfenapir, abamectin y una cepa experimental de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt sobre la plaga, y el poder residual de los mismos sobre Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja. Se registró la mortalidad de la polilla cada cuatro días, desde la aplicación hasta la emergencia de los adultos. El efecto sobre el parasitoide, se evaluó a través del número de huevos parasitados por hembra expuesta durante 48 horas a folíolos tratados, y su mortalidad luego de 1, 3, 7, 14 y 30 días de la pulverización. Todos los productos ocasionaron una mortalidad de T. absoluta mayor al 65% después de 12 días de aplicados. El Bt fue el único insecticida que no afectó la supervivencia y el parasitismo de T. bactrae . Estos resultados aportan información de interés para la selección de plaguicidas, a emplearse en programas de manejo integrado.

  4. A revision of the Indian species of Oligosita Walker (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

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    Begum, Salma; Anis, Shoeba Binte; Khan, Mohd Talib

    2015-06-19

    The Indian species of the genus Oligosita Walker, 1851 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are revised. One new species, Oligosita aseta Begum & Anis, sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from Kerala, India. A key to the 16 Indian species of the genus is also given.

  5. Insecticide toxicity to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females and effect on descendant generation.

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    Vianna, Ulysses R; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Brunner, Jay; Pereira, Fabrício F; Serrão, José E

    2009-02-01

    The effect of nine insecticides used in tomato production was evaluated on adults of two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) populations from Rive and Afonso Cláudio, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experiment was developed in an acclimatized chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 14 h photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), previously immersed in insecticides solutions were offered to females of both T. pretiosum populations. Bacillus thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron had lowest negative effects on parasitism and viability of individuals of these populations; however, abamectin and pyrethroids (betacyflurin 50 and 125 g/l and esfenvalerate) insecticides reduced parasitism rates. T. pretiosum emerged from A. kuehniella eggs treated with esfenvalerate but were not able to parasitize non treated eggs of this host. B. thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron may be used in integrated pest management programs to control tomato pests, because they have moderated negative effect on parasitoid wasps.

  6. Acute toxicities and sublethal effects of some conventional insecticides on Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

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    Wang, De-Sen; He, Yu-Rong; Guo, Xiang-Ling; Luo, Yong-Li

    2012-08-01

    The acute toxicity of 10 conventional insecticides to adult of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was bioassayed by membrane method, and then their sublethal effects on the parasitoid were evaluated in the laboratory. Based on sublethal concentration (LC30) values at 8 h after treatment, we determined that adult T. chilonis were the most susceptible to chlorfenapyr, followed by fipronil, spinosad, avermectins, beta-cypermethrin, and cartap, with lethal concentration (LC)30 values of 0.3133, 0.3269, 1.5408, 3.2961, 6.1469, and 9.021 mg/liter, respectively. The field-recommended concentrations of chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, Bacillus thuringiensis, and tebufenozide caused Cartap and spinosad also reduced longevity (8 and 7.9 d) and fecundity (110.77 and 117.2) of treated adults, but cartap enhanced the female percentage of F1 offspring (61.6%), resulting a statistical higher R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. In contrast, chlorfluazuron and tebufenozide increased longevity (16.4 and 15.4 d) and fecundity (248 and 256.9) of treated adults but slightly decreased the female percentage of F1 offspring (31.4 and 38.1%). Although chlorfenapyr showed no adverse influence on longevity and fecundity, it remarkably reduced the female percentage of F1 offspring (13.5%), leading to a lower R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. Indoxacarb, B. thuringiensis, and beta-cypermethrin had no obvious sublethal effects on the longevity and fecundity of treated adults. Based on these results, we consider B. thuringienesis, chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, beta-cypermethrin, and tebufenozide safe to T. chilonis, suggesting that these insecticides are compatible with this parasitoid when being used in the field. However, fipronil, chlorfenapyr, spinosad, and avermectins were very harmful to T. chilonis. Timing of application of these insecticides was critical.

  7. Seletividade de herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho a adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of herbicides registered on corn to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    G.J. Stefanello Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de 24 herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho foi avaliada a Trichogramma pretiosum em condições de laboratório (temperatura de 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas e luminosidade de 500 lux. Adultos de T. pretiosum foram colocados em contato com uma película seca dos herbicidas pulverizados sobre placas de vidro e avaliou-se a capacidade de parasitismo das fêmeas. A redução na capacidade de parasitismo dos tratamentos foi comparada com a da testemunha (água destilada e utilizada para classificar os herbicidas em 1, inócuo (99%. Os herbicidas Callisto, Equip Plus, Extrazin SC, Primóleo, Provence 750 WG e Siptran 500 SC são inócuos (classe 1; Agrisato 480 SL, Gesaprim GrDA, Glifos, Glyphosate Nortox, Gliz 480 SL, Polaris, Primatop SC, Sanson 40 SC, Trop e Zapp Qi, levemente nocivos (classe 2; Finale, Herbadox, Poast, Roundup Original, Roundup Transorb e Roundup WG, moderadamente nocivos (classe 3; e Gramoxone 200 e Primestra Gold, nocivos (classe 4 aos adultos de T. pretiosum, nas dosagens utilizadas. Os herbicidas nocivos (classes 2, 3 e 4 deverão passar para as etapas seguintes, que envolverão testes sobre as fases imaturas do parasitóide em condições de laboratório e adultos a campo.The selectivity of 24 herbicides registered on corn to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was assessed under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 ºC temperature, 70 ± 10% relative humidity, 14 4 photophase and brightness 500 lux. The adult parasitoids were submitted to a dry film of the herbicides applied on glass plates and the parasitism capacity of the females was evaluated. Reduced parasitism capacity in the treatments was compared with the negative control (distilled water and used to classify the herbicides into four categories: 1, harmless ( 99%. The herbicides Callisto, Equip Plus, Extrazin SC, Primóleo, Provence 750 WG and Siptran 500 SC were found to be harmless (class 1

  8. Herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species parasitizing Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

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    Leite, Germano L D; de Paulo, Paula D; Zanuncio, José C; Tavares, Wagner De S; Alvarenga, Anarelly C; Dourado, Luan R; Bispo, Edilson P R; Soares, Marcus A

    2017-01-02

    Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. Parasitism by these natural enemies was allowed for 48 h and the cardboards were sprayed with the herbicide nicosulfuron at 1.50 L.ha -1 , along with the control (only distilled water). Nicosulfuron reduced the emergence rate of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 females, but increased that of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Smith, 1984 and T. annulata females. Conversely, this herbicide increased the emergence rate of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead, 1904, T. bruni, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 and Trichogramma soaresi Nagaraja, 1983 males and decreased those of T. acacioi, Trichogramma atopovilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum males. In addition, nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of T. galloi, Trichogramma bennetti Nagaraja and Nagarkatti, 1973 and T. pretiosum and increased that of T. acacioi, T. bruni, T. annulata, Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983, T. soaresi and T. brasiliensis. The herbicide nicosulfuron was "harmless" (class 1, <30% reduction) for females and the sex ratio of all Trichogrammatidae species based on the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) classification. The possible hormesis effect of nicosulfuron on Trichogrammatidae species and on the bacterium Wolbachia sp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) was also discussed.

  9. Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi, 2003 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em hospedeiros alternativos, sob diferentes temperaturas Fertility life table of Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi, 2003 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in alternative hosts, under different temperatures

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    Hugo Bolsoni Zago

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A espécie, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae foi recentemente coletada em plantios de abacate, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae, e pode representar uma alternativa no controle biológico de lepidópteros pragas dessa cultura. Assim, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o desempenho de T. pratissolii criado em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae,sob diferentes temperaturas utilizando tabelas de vida de fertilidade. A criação de A. kuehniella foi mantida com dieta à base de farinha de trigo integral, milho e levedura de cerveja, enquanto para C. cephalonica foi utilizada dieta à base de farelo de arroz, levedura de cerveja e açúcar. T. pratissolii foi criado nos hospedeiros, utilizando-se a técnica de colagem de ovos em cartolina azul. Foram determinadas a duração média da geração (T, taxa líquida de reprodução (Ro, razão infinitesimal de aumento (r m e razão infinita de aumento (λ para as temperaturas de 15; 21; 24; 27; 30 e 33 ±1ºC, com 70±10% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 14 horas. A melhor condição térmica para desenvolvimento de T. pratissolii em A. kuehniella e C. cephalonica foi a 27ºC, enquanto o melhor hospedeiro nessa temperatura é C. cephalonica.The specie, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was recently collected in avocado plantations, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae, and therefore might be an alternative biological control agent for lepidopteran pests in this crop. Thus, this work evaluated the performance of T. pratissolii parasitizing eggs of Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, under different temperature regimes through fertility life table method. The host A. kuehniella was reared using diet constituted of whole wheat meal, corn meal and yeast, while C. cephalonica was

  10. Seletividade de formulações de glyphosate a Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Side-effects of glyphosate formulations on Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    F.P. Giolo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade de oito formulações de glyphosate (Roundup®, Roundup® WG, Roundup® Transorb, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® e Zapp® Qi registradas no Brasil sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum (Hym., Trichogrammatidae. Os experimentos consistiram na exposição de adultos do parasitóide a resíduos secos das formulações pulverizadas sobre placas de vidro, na concentração de 14,4 mg L-1 de equivalente ácido de glyphosate. O tratamento controle recebeu água destilada. Ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Anagasta kuehniella (Lep., Pyralidae foram ofertados para parasitismo. A capacidade de parasitismo por fêmea de T. pretiosum e a redução na capacidade, comparada com o tratamento controle, foram utilizadas para estimar a toxicidade do produto. As formulações foram classificadas em quatro categorias, conforme a redução no parasitismo: inócuo (99%. Os produtos fitossanitários afetaram diferentemente a capacidade de parasitismo de T. pretiosum. A seletividade das formulações de glyphosate foi dependente do tipo de sal. Aquelas à base de sal potássico (Zapp® Qi e de sal de amônio (Roundup® WG foram levemente nocivas a adultos do parasitóide. As demais à base de sal isopropilamina (Roundup®, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® e Roundup® Transorb foram moderadamente nocivas a adultos de T. pretiosum.A study was carried out in the laboratory to investigate the side-effects reported in Brazil of eight glyphosate formulations (Roundup®, Roundup® WG, Roundup® Transorb, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® and Zapp® Qi on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hym., Trichogrammatidae. The experiments were carried out by exposing the adult parasitoids to fresh pesticide residues applied on glass plates at a concentration of 14.4 mg L-1 of acid equivalent of glyphosate

  11. Effect of ionizing (gamma and non-ionizing (UV radiation on the development of Trichogramma euproctidis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Tuncbilek Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using gamma and ultraviolet radiation as an alternative treatment to increase the efficiency of Trichogramma euproctidis (Girault 1911 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was investigated in the laboratory. The developmental and adult stages of T. euproctidis were exposed to gamma radiation of different doses (0-30 Gy and ultraviolet radiation of 254 nm wavelengths (UV-C for different durations (0-10 min to assess their effect on each of the instars and their potential in breaking the developmental cycle of the egg parasitoid. The LD50 values for eggs, prepupae, pupae and adults were 8.1, 10.0, 22.7 and 9.5 Gy for gamma radiation and 9.5, 0.12, 2.0 and 11.9 min for UV radiation, respectively. The pupa and adult stages were more radioresistant to both gamma and UV radiation. The most interesting and unexpected result obtained for the prepupal stage was that UV radiation has a greater effect on prepupal stages than gamma radiation.

  12. Sensory and immune genes identification and analysis in a widely used parasitoid wasp Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

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    Zhang, Su-Fang; Kong, Xiang-Bo; Wang, Hong-Bin; Zhou, Gang; Yu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is one of the preponderant egg parasitoids of Dendrolimus spp., which are important defoliators of coniferous forests. This parasitoid wasp has been widely released to control pine caterpillar and other lepidopteran pests, but its control efficiency needs to be improved. Sensory systems are crucial for T. dendrolimi to locate hosts, and immunity is probably involved after egg deposition in the host cavity; however, few reports have focused on the molecular mechanism of olfactory detection and survival of T. dendrolimi. It is necessary to identify these genes before further functional research is conducted. In this study, we assembled and analyzed the transcriptome of T. dendrolimi using next-generation sequencing technology. The sequencing and assembly resulted in 38 565 contigs with N50 of 3422 bp. Sequence comparison indicate that T. dendrolimi sequences are very similar to those of another parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis. Then the olfactory, vision, and immune-related gene families were identified, and phylogenetic analyses were performed with these genes from T. dendrolimi and other model insect species. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree with odorant binding proteins of T. dendrolimi and their host Dendrolimus was constructed to determine whether convergent evolution exists. These genes can be valid targets for further gene function research. The present study may help us to understand host location and survival mechanisms of T. dendrolimi and to use them more efficiently for pest control in the future. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae) of the gall-making leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Uzbekistan, with taxonomic notes on the Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea.

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    Rakitov, Roman; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the Aphelinoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), A. (Aphelinoidea) sariq Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n., is described from Uzbekistan. Both sexes were reared from eggs of the only known truly gall-making leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste), laid inside its galls on camelthorn, Alhagi maurorum Medikus; additional females were found dead inside the galls. Aphelinoidea sariq is the only known species of the nominate subgenus of Aphelinoidea whose body color is predominantly yellow. Taxonomic notes on other Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea are provided; A. scythica Fursov, syn. n. is synonymized underA. (Aphelinoidea) turanica S. Trjapitzin. Another trichogrammatid, Par-acentrobia (Paracentrobia) sp., was reared from eggs of S. viridis in much smaller numbers. Also described from the same locality and host is Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) mitjaevi Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).

  14. Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, 1978 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae criado em dois hospedeiros por diversas gerações Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, 1978 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae reared in two hosts for several generations

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    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O Trichogramma é um inimigo natural dos mais estudados e utilizados atualmente no mundo. A qualidade e o desempenho de Trichogramma podem ser influenciados por alguns fatores, tal como o hospedeiro alternativo utilizado na criação massal. Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi obter informações básicas sobre os aspectos biológicos de Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, criado nos hospedeiros alternativos Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv., 1819 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por 10, 20 e 30 gerações, e os possíveis efeitos nas características biológicas desse parasitóide. Em cada uma das gerações avaliadas, foram utilizadas 25 fêmeas de T. exiguum recém-emergidas de cada hospedeiro, as quais foram individualizadas em tubos de vidro que continham gotículas de mel de abelha. Cada fêmea recebeu uma cartela contendo 40 ovos do hospedeiro na qual estava sendo mantido. Foi permitido um parasitismo de 24 horas para essas cartelas, sendo as mesmas trocadas diariamente até a morte da fêmea.O número de ovos parasitados no primeiro dia, a capacidade de parasitismo e a longevidade de T. exiguum foi superior quando se utilizou ovos de A. kuehniella, ao longo das diferentes gerações, mostrando ser esse hospedeiro mais indicado para a criação massal de T. exiguum.Trichogramma is one the most studied and used natural enemies of insect pests in the world. The quality and the performance of Trichogramma can be influenced by some factors, like the kind of host used for its mass rearing. The objective of this research was to obtain some basic informations about the biological aspects of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, reared on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv., 1819 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for 10, 20 e 30 generations, and the effect of something on the

  15. Side-effects of glyphosate formulations on Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Giolo, F.P.; Grützmacher, A.D.; Procópio, S.O.; Manzoni, C.G.; Lima, C.A.B.; Nörnberg, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade de oito formulações de glyphosate (Roundup®, Roundup® WG, Roundup® Transorb, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® e Zapp® Qi) registradas no Brasil sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum (Hym., Trichogrammatidae). Os experimentos consistiram na exposição de adultos do parasitóide a resíduos secos das formulações pulverizadas sobre placas de vidro, na concentração de 14,4 mg L-1 de equivalente ácido de ...

  16. Biological parameters of trichogramma chilonis ishii (trichogrammatidae: hymenoptera) feeding on sitotroga cerealella eggs at three constant temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, R.; Khan, J.; Haq, E.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted on the biological parameters of trichogramma chilonis ishii (trichogrammatidae: hymenoptera) feeding on grain moth, sitotroga cereallela eggs at three constant temperatures and five different ages of host eggs at insect pest management programme, national agricultural research centre, (narc) islamabad. The results revealed that maximum rate of parasitism was 95.70 +- 1.94 at 28 +- 1 degree c while minimum was 61.30 +-1.70 at 32 +- 1 degree c. maximum adult emergence and female ratio from parasitized eggs were 96.30% with 59.2+- 5.83 female ratio at 28 +-1 degree c while minimum was 51.10% with female ratio of 58.1 at 32+-1 degree c. The maximum developmental duration (9.6 +- 0.32 days) and adult longevity (4.3 +- 0.38 days) was at 24 +-1 degree degree c while minimum was 7.4 +-0.36 and 2.0 +- 0.56 days at 32 +- 1 degree c. The results indicate that temperature has a significant effect on the biological parameters of trichogramma and with increasing temperature developmental duration decreased. Similarly effect of host eggs age indicates that maximum parasitism and adult emergence were 97.40 +- 0.84% and 98.20 +- 0.94% on 2h old eggs while minimum parasitism was 24.6 +- 4.92% and adult emergence was 21.5 +- 1.33% from 72h old eggs. Adult longevity and female ratio was not significantly different at different ages of host eggs. Thus out of three tested temperatures, 28 +-1 degree c was more suitable for mass rearing of tricho-gramma and feeding 2-12h old eggs for maximum parasitism and adult emergence from parasitized eggs under laboratory condition of 28 +-1 degree c. (author)

  17. Operational considerations for augmentation of Trichogramma exiguum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for suppression of Rhyacionia frustrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Pinus taeda plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Michael M; Orr, David B

    2008-04-01

    Studies were performed to assess the operational feasibility of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) augmentation for suppression of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in commercial loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., plantations. Single inundative releases containing two cohorts of encapsulated T. exiguum at a potential rate of 224,200 +/- 27,600 females per ha per cohort were made into two 4-ha plots during the second R. frustrana generation in 2000. Augmentation failed to increase parasitism rates above those occurring naturally; yet, 10% fewer shoots were attacked by R. frustrana, but not below acceptable levels. Quality control data suggest that low emergence levels and intense predation by ants upon developing T. exiguum lowered actual release rates to 13,000 +/- 900 females per ha per cohort. The effect of capsule distribution and microclimate on the discovery of capsules by predators (indicated by some E. kuehniella egg removal), parasitoid predation (percentage of eggs removed or destroyed), and subsequent parasitoid emergence was investigated. Uniformly distributed capsules experienced significantly higher predation levels than clustered capsules, and capsules exposed to field conditions for 5 d experienced higher predation than those exposed for 3 d, independently of distribution. Discovery of capsules by predators was unaffected by distribution or exposure period. Microhabitat significantly impacted average maximum daily temperature, the number of consecutive hours per day at or above 35 degrees C, and parasitoid emergence percentages. Parasitoid emergence declined significantly in response to increasing number of consecutive hours per day above 35 degrees C. Microclimate did not impact capsule discovery by predators or predation levels. Augmentation of T. exiguum for suppression of R. frustrana damage may not be practical within P. taeda plantations.

  18. Effect of host availability and egg load in Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and its consequences on progeny quality

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    Celso L. Hohmann

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to determine whether Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti manifested a somatic-gametic trade-off and whether it was affected by host availability and host size. Large wasps produced on Trichoplusia ni Hübner and limited to five or 15 T. ni eggs daily, produced a similar number of progeny as wasps offered hosts from emergence. Similar results were obtained when they were deprived of T. ni eggs for one, three, five, or ten days and then provided with unlimited hosts daily until death. In contrast, small wasps produced from Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier and deprived of T. ni eggs for one to three days suffered a significant reduction in progeny production. Regardless of size, the egg load of non-ovipositing wasps increased significantly with time and a positive relationship existed between the life span of a female and the length of time she was deprived of hosts.Experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar se fêmeas de Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae têm a habilidade de direcionar a alocação de recursos (reprodução/longevidade e se esse comportamento é afetado pela disponibilidade e pelo tamanho dos hospedeiros. Fêmeas de parasitóides grandes, oriundas de ovos de Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, expostas a cinco ou 15 ovos de T. ni, diariamente, produziram número similar de descendentes que aquelas fêmeas que tiveram acesso a número ilimitado de hospedeiros desde a emergência. Resultados similares foram obtidos quando elas foram mantidas temporariamente sem ovos de T. ni durante um, três, cinco ou dez dias, e então providas com um suplemento ilimitado de hospedeiros. Contrariamente, fêmeas pequenas, oriundas de ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, mantidas temporariamente sem ovos de T. ni durante um período de um a três dias, apresentaram uma redução significativa no número de descendentes produzidos. Independentemente do

  19. Persistência de agrotóxicos indicados na produção integrada de pêssego a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Persistence of pesticides used in integrated peach production on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A persistência (duração da atividade nociva de cinco agrotóxicos indicados na Produção Integrada de Pêssego (PIP foi avaliada, expondo-se adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae ao contato com resíduos de inseticidas, pulverizados sobre folhas, a diferentes intervalos de tempo, baseando-se na metodologia sugerida pela International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC. Os resultados obtidos em relação à persistência, permitiu classificar os agrotóxicos, produto comercial/ingrediente ativo (g ou mL de produto comercial 100L-1, Dipterex 500/triclorfom (300, Sumithion 500 CE/fenitrotiona (150 e Tiomet 400 CE/dimetoato (120 como levemente persistentes (5-15 dias; o inseticida Malathion 1000 CE/malationa (200 como moderadamente persistente (16-30 dias e o fungicida/acaricida Kumulus DF/enxofre (600 como persistente (> 31 dias a adultos de T. pretiosum.The persistence (duration of harmful activity of five insecticides indicated in the Integrated Peach Production (IPP was evaluated by adult exposure of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae to insecticide residues on plant leaves at different time intervals after treatment using the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC based on the suggested methodology.The results obtained in relation to the disease persistence will permit to classify the pesticides, commercial formulation/active ingredient (g or mL commercial formulation 100L-1, Dipterex 500/trichlorphon (300, Sumithion 500 CE/fenitrothion (150 and Tiomet 400 CE/dimethoate (120 as slightly persistent (5-15 days; the insecticide Malathion 1000 CE/malathion (200 as moderately persistent (16-30 days and the fungicide Kumulus DF/sulphur (600 as persistent (>31 days to T. pretiosum adults.

  20. Efeito da ausência de hospedeiro e de alimento sobre aspectos biológicos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1540 Effect of the absence of host and of food on biological aspects of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1540

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    Ulysses Rodrigues Vianna

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de uso de parasitóides do gênero Trichogramma é grande para vários insetos-praga de importância agrícola. No entanto, aspectos biológicos, como a capacidade de parasitismo, a viabilidade e a razão sexual, são dependentes da disponibilidade de hospedeiro e do suprimento alimentar. Por esta razão, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito da ausência de alimento e do hospedeiro alternativo Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, em diferentes intervalos de tempo, sobre aspectos biológicos de três linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. As linhagens alimentadas parasitaram até 96 horas, e quando não foram alimentadas as linhagens um, dois e três de T. pretiosum parasitaram até às 60, 84 e 72 horas, respectivamente. Esses resultados indicam que o estresse alimentar afeta a capacidade de parasitismo de T. pretiosum após um período de ausência do hospedeiroThe use potential of Trichogramma genus parasitoids is huge for several insect-pests of agricultural importance. However, some biological aspects, such as parasitism capacity, viability and sexual ratio are dependent of the host availability and of food supply. This work evaluated the effect of food absence and of alternative host Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, absence, in different time intervals, over biological aspects of three Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae strains. The fed strains sponged up to 96 hours, and when the strains were not fed one, two and three of T. pretiosum sponged for 60, 84 and 72 hours, respectively. The results indicate that alimentary stress affects the parasitism capacity of T. pretiosum, after a period of host absence

  1. Seletividade de inseticidas, recomendados para cucurbitáceas para Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em condições de laboratório

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As brocas-das-cucurbitáceas Diaphania spp. são as principais pragas das cucurbitáceas, podendo ocasionar perdas de até 100% na produção. A fim de reduzir o uso de inseticidas, o controle biológico, aplicado com parasitoides do gênero Trichogramma, tem-se destacado. Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade dos ingredientes ativos abamectina, tiacloprido e clorfenapir, para Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Para isso, 20 fêmeas recém-emergidas de T. atopovirilla foram individualizadas, em tubos de vidro (2,5 cm de diâmetro x 8,5 cm de comprimento, e oferecidas cartelas com 30 ovos de Diaphania hyalinata (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, previamente imersas por cinco segundos em calda química. Os ingredientes ativos abamectina, tiacloprido e clorfenapir não afetaram o parasitismo de T. atopovirilia. Clorfenapir reduziu a emergência. Abamectina e tiacloprido são os mais recomendados no manejo integrado de pragas, pois foram os que se mostraram mais seletivos a T. atopovirilia em ovos de D. hyalinata.

  2. Herbicidas e Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas Utilizados na Cana-de-Açúcar e sua Ação sobre Adultos de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Antigo

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides and Plant Growth Regulators Used in SUGARCANE and their Action on Adult Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Abstract. During crop sugarcane management, several used pesticides can affect the performance of parasitoids, natural enemies of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius and consequently the biological control ofit. Thus, the objective was to evaluate in laboratory the effect of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in the sugarcane crops on survival and parasitism in adults of the eggs parasitoids, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi. The products tested were the herbicides Clomazone and Diuron + Hexazinone, and the plant regulators Sulfometuron-methyl and Trinexapac-ethyl, all in the higher recommended dosages for sugarcane. The eggs of D. saccharalis were immersed during 5 seconds in chemical solutions and, after dry for 1 hour, offered to T. galloi females with 20 repetitions. We evaluated the mortality and number of eggs parasitized by the F0 generation of T. galloi, as well as the emergence of the F1. The products were classified by their toxicity, according to the percentage of reduction in the survival, parasitism and emergence of the parasitoid. In relation to the survival of adult T. galloi, the number of eggs parasitized by F0 as well as the percentage of F1 emergence, clomazone and trinexapac-ethyl were classified as slightly harmful. Diuron+hexazinone and sulfometuron-methyl were harmless in all parameters, except for parasitism, where diuron+hexazinone was classified as slightly harmful. We conclude that clomazone, diuron+hexazinone, trinexapac-ethyl and sulfometuron-methyl, are harmless or slightly harmful the survival and parasitism (F0 of T. galloi adults and emergence (F1 of this parasitoid in the laboratory.

  3. REGISTRO DE ESPÉCIES DE Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE EM OVOS DE Erinnyis ello LINNAEUS (LEPIDOPTERA: SPHINGIDAE, EM MATO GROSSO DO SUL RECORD OF Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE SPECIES ON Erinnyis ello LINNAEUS (LEPIDOPTERA: SPHINGIDAE EGGS IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Marcelino Duarte

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae é uma das principais pragas da cultura da mandioca e, dentre seus inimigos naturais, destaca-se o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Este trabalho registra a ocorrência de Trichogramma manicobai, Trichogramma marandobai e Trichogramma pretiosum em ovos de E. ello, encontrados em plantios de mandioca, no Mato Grosso do Sul.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Controle biológico; mandarová-da-mandioca; agricultura.

  4. Ação transovariana de lufenuron (50 g/l sobre adultos de Spodoptera Frugiperda (j. e. smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e seu efeito sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Transovarian action of lufenuron on adults of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and its effect on the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a ação transovariana do lufenuron em Spodoptera frugiperda e sua seletividade ao parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum. Casais da praga foram isolados em gaiolas de PVC e alimentados com solução de mel a 10% na testemunha, e nos outros tratamentos, foi adicionado à solução de mel o regulador de crescimento de insetos Match® CE nas proporções de 12,5; 15,0 e 17,5 g i.a/l. Para verificação da ação transovariana, diariamente foram coletadas as posturas, contado o número de ovos e, posteriormente, o número de larvas eclodidas. Quarenta ovos provenientes de cada tratamento foram colados em cartelas de papel (cartolina e expostos ao parasitismo, dentro de tubos de vidro de 1,0 x 3,5 cm, contendo uma fêmea de T. pretiosum no seu interior. Cartelas contendo 40 ovos de S. frugiperda foram imersas em soluções de lufenuron com a mesma concentração dos tratamentos anteriores e, posteriormente, expostas ao parasitismo por T. pretiosum. O lufenuron afetou consideravelmente a viabilidade dos ovos de S. frugiperda. Pelos resultados obtidos nos ensaios, relativos ao parasitóide, demonstram-se a seletividade do regulador de crescimento lufenuron e a possibilidade de sua utilização em programas de Manejo Integrado, juntamente com o parasitóide de ovos T. pretiosum.The transovarian action of insect growth regulator lufenuron in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and its effects on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, were evaluated. Pest couples were isolated in PVC's cages and provided with 10% honey solution as control. In the others treatments, the honey solution was mixed with the insect growth regulator Match® CE using the following concentrations of 12.5; 15.0 and 17.5 g i.a./l. For verification of the transovarian action, the eggs were collected daily, with the number of the hatched larvae being subsequently counted. Forty eggs from each treatment were fixed in

  5. Study of the biology of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Study of the biology of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in Mauritius. L Unmole*. Entomology Division. Agricultural Research and Extension. Unit, Reduit. Email: lataunmole@yahoo.com. Paper Accepted on 04 February 2010. ABSTRACT. Maruca vitrata F. is a serious pest of bean (Phaseolus ...

  6. Parasitism Capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum and Trichogramma acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Sitotroga cerealella (Lep.: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and T. acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in eggs of the alternative host Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae aiming to use both species in biological control programs of Nipteria panacea Tierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera: Geometridae. The parasitism rhythm and total parasitism of these parasitoid species were affected by the temperature with higher values during the first 24 h of their life. Parasitism period was longer for T. pretiosum and T. acacioi at the lowest temperature.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley e de Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, visando o uso desses inimigos naturais em programas de controle biológico da praga do abacateiro Nipteria panacea Tierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera: Geometridae. O ritmo de parasitismo de T. acacioi e T. pretiosum variou com a temperatura, sendo maior nas primeiras 24 horas de vida desses parasitóides. Além disso, o período de parasitismo foi maior para essas duas espécies de parasitóides na menor temperatura, enquanto o parasitismo total por fêmea variou com a temperatura.

  7. KAPASITAS REPRODUKSI PARASITOID TELUR Trichogrammatoidea nana Zehntner (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sujak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma nana is one species of egg parasitoids that are polifag. insect pests that attack crops such as soybean pod borer and rice. Research conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology Research Institute for Tobacco and Fiber Crops Malang in March until June 2009 that aims to determine the reproductive capacity of T. nana on eggs  C. cephalonica. Reproductive capacity of T. nana allegedly using the net reproductive rate (Ro, estimatedtime of one generation (T, the capacity of population growth (r, and the rate of parasitoids per day (λ. T. nana were tested  came from the rice stem borer  eggs collected from the land in the district of East Java Beji Pasuruan. Eggs C.cephalonica which is used as the host is the result of breeding in the laboratory of Entomology Research Institute for Tobacco and Fiber Crops. The results showed that T. nana has greatpotential  as  biological agents.  Most  female  progeny  produced by adult females aged 1-2 days . On the first day produced 12 and 8 tails on the second day or 40% and 27% of the total of 30 females produced by a female during life.  Reproductive capacity of  T. nana on eggs C. cephalonica the net reproductive rate  Ro = 44.7, Capacity of population growth (r = 1.78,  parasitoid growth rate per day (λ=5.9, and mean - mean length of generation (T = 10, 9 days.

  8. Thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea (Lep.: Geometridae, in eggs of two alternative hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, with eggs of the alternative hosts Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae aiming to use these natural enemies in biological control programs of this pest in avocado orchards. T. pretiosum needed 151.83 and 160.04 degree-days, above threshold of 10.70 and 10.75°C, while these values were 158.50 and 155.46 degree-days, above threshold of 10.67 and 10.46°C for T. acacioi when exposed to eggs of A. kuehniella and S. cerealella, respectively.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar as exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum e T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitóides de Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, em ovos dos hospedeiros alternativos Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae visando utilizar estes inimigos naturais em programas de controle biológico desta praga em pomares de abacate. T. pretiosum apresentou temperaturas base (Tb de 10.70 e 10.75°C e constantes térmicas (K de 151.83 e 160.04 graus-dia, sendo estes valores de 10.67 e 10.46°C e 158.50 e 155.46 graus-dia para T. acacioi em ovos de A. kuehniella e S. cerealella, respectivamente.

  9. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Seletividade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: profmichele@gmail.com, e-mail: evertonloz@gmail.com, e-mail: pedroneves@uel.br; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados], e-mail: lfaalves@unioeste.br; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: jubarth@gmail.com, e-mail: vandapietrowski@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10{sup 9} conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  10. Intraspecific variation in Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) associated with different hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querino, R B; Zucchi, R A

    2002-11-01

    Trichogramma bruni is an insufficiently studied South American species whose limits are still not well defined. Thus, the objective of the present study was to characterize T. bruni taxonomically and to determine the association between morphological variations as well as host and habitat, based on morphological and biological studies. Specimens from the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ) collection, and from the University of California Riverside (UCR) and specimens collected from the vegetation of forest parks with native areas planted with eucalyptus in Piracicaba and Itatinga, State of São Paulo, were also analyzed. The holotype deposited at Univeridade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) collection was also examined. The variability in the genital capsule of T. bruni observed both among individuals of the same progeny and among specimens from different hosts is remarkable and is mainly related to the dorsal lamina. Therefore, an association of diagnostic characters rather than the dorsal lamina alone should be used for the identification of T. bruni and intraspecific variations should be considered. The intraspecific variation observed for T. bruni is a factor that should be considered for its identification, since the influence of the environment (habitat + host) and the variation among individuals itself is responsible for the plasticity observed in the genital capsule. Heliconius erato phyllis, Hamadryas feronia, Erosina hyberniata and Mechanitis lysiminia are new hosts of T. bruni.

  11. Using Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for insect pest biological control in cotton crops: an Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichogramma Westwood egg parasitoids alone generally fail to suppress heliothine pests when released in established cotton growing regions. Factors hindering their success include indiscriminate use of detrimental insecticides, compensation for minimal pest larval hatch due to their activity via re...

  12. Lethal and behavioral effects of selected novel pesticides on adults of Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Hizbullah; Ruberson, John R

    2015-12-01

    Growing demand for reduced chemical inputs in agricultural systems requires more effective integration of biological control with pesticides. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important natural enemy of lepidopteran pests, used in biological control. In an investigation of the interaction of T. pretiosum and pesticides, we studied the acute toxicity of 19 pesticides (insecticides, miticides, fungicides and herbicides) to adult parasitoids and the behavioral effects of 11 pesticides on foraging parasitoid females, including host antennation, stinging and host feeding. At recommended field doses, fipronil, dinotefuran, spinetoram, tolfenpyrad and abamectin induced nearly 100% adult mortality within 24 h of exposure to treated cotton leaves by comparison with controls. Acetamiprid was also toxic, but significantly less so than the former materials. The other pesticides had no significant toxic effects. Only glufosinate ammonium exhibited increased toxicity among the non-toxic materials when increased two- or fourfold over recommended rates. The foraging behavior of parasitoids was affected only by tolfenpyrad among the materials tested. Most novel pesticides, except for several insecticides, exhibited little to no acute toxicity to the parasitoid. Parasitoid foraging behavior was only affected by tolfenpyrad, indicating that parasitoids could successfully forage on eggs treated with most pesticides evaluated. Therefore, many of these pesticides may have good compatibility with Trichogramma. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The effect of Wolbachia on diapause, fecundity, and clock gene expression in Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Kaldeh, Somayeh; Ashouri, Ahmad; Bandani, Alireza; Tomioka, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    The short day lengths of late summer in moderate regions are used to induce diapause in various insects. Many studies have shown the maternal effect of photoperiod on diapause induction of Trichogramma wasps, but there is no study to show the relationship between photoperiodic regimes and clock genes in these useful biological control agents. Here, we investigated the role of photoperiods on diapause, fecundity, and clock gene expression (clk, cyc, cry2, per, and timeout) in asexual and sexual Trichogramma brassicae as a model insect to find any differences between two strains. Asexual strain was infected by Wolbachia, an endosymbiont bacterium. The diapause percentage was significantly higher under short days (8 h in sexual and 12 h in the asexual T. brassicae), although the diapause percentage of the sexual strain was significantly higher than the asexual one in all the photoperiods. The ANOVA revealed no significant changes between different photoperiods in the clock gene expression in the sexual strain but significant photoperiodic changes in clk, cyc, and timeout in the asexual strain. Our results showed that the mRNA levels of clock genes of asexual T. brassicae were significantly lower than those of sexual strain. The fecundity was significantly higher in the asexual strain. These results suggest that Wolbachia infection makes disturbance on the clock gene expression which consequently reduces the percentage of diapause but increases the fecundity in asexual T. brassicae.

  14. Toxicity risk of insecticides to the insect egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Wu, Changxing; Cang, Tao; Yang, Lizhi; Yu, Weihua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2014-03-01

    Natural populations of Trichogramma evanescens contribute to the control of lepidopterous pests. The toxic effects of insecticides have been extensively reported on trichogrammatids, but are largely unknown on T. evanescens. In this study, the toxicities of seven classes of chemicals against the parasitoid were investigated. Among these classes, organophosphates and carbamates exhibited the highest levels of intrinsic toxicity, with LC50 values ranging from 0.025 (0.023-0.028) to 2.20 (1.71-3.09) and from 0.040 (0.032-0.053) to 1.84 (1.53-2.30) mg AI L(-1) respectively. Among the phenylpyrazoles, only ethiprole can be considered to be less toxic in the group. Avermectins, pyrethroids and neonicotinoids were less toxic, with LC50 values ranging from 1.29 to 2.57, from 2.26 to 14.03 and from 1.12 to 239.1 mg AI L(-1) respectively. In contrast, insect growth regulators (IGRs) showed the lowest toxicity to the parasitoid, with LC50 values ranging from 3383 (2406-5499) to 5650 (4228-8579) mg AI L(-1) . The results of risk quotient analysis indicated that neonicotinoids, avermectins, pyrethroids and IGRs were less hazardous, but phenylpyrazoles (except for ethiprole), organophosphates and carbamates were slightly to moderately or dangerously toxic to T. evanescens. The present results provide informative data for implementing biological and chemical control strategies in integrated pest management of lepidopterans. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as biological control agents in the Philippines: history and current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichogramma parasitoids have long been recognized as important and viable biological control agents against lepidopteran pests of rice, corn and sugarcane in the Philippines. We describe the history of research and use of Trichogramma spp. in the Philippines in three main areas: 1) field surveys – ...

  16. Effects of Insecticides on Oviposition and Host Discrimination Behavior in Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Desen; Lü, Lihua; He, Yurong; Shi, Qingxing; Wang, Guohong

    2016-12-01

    Trichogramma chilonis Ishii is an important natural enemy of many lepidopterous pests on various crops. Effects of two conventional insecticides on oviposition and host discrimination behavior in T. chilonis were evaluated in the laboratory through video tracking. During the oviposition period, when the number of host eggs was limited (only one host egg), females exposed to beta-cypermethrin LC 1 or LC 20 exhibited significantly higher feeding and re-drilling rate and significantly longer post-oviposition duration than control females. Spinosad LC 20 treatment not only decreased the wasp oviposition rate but also significantly extended the oviposition duration. When the number of host eggs was six, similarly, females exposed to spinosad LC 20 exhibited a significantly lower oviposition rate (79.2%) than control ones (100%). In the host discrimination experiment, females exposed to LC 20 of both tested insecticides (beta-cypermethrin and spinosad) spent significantly more time on the extra-patch area. The females that survived spinosad LC 20 could not discriminate between unparasitized and parasitized host eggs. Our study suggests that even the LC 1 and LC 20 of the tested insecticides had negative effects on the oviposition and host discrimination behavior of T. chilonis Thus, the use of these two insecticides should be carefully evaluated. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effects of various insecticides on the development of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Y; Kawamura, S; Tanaka, T

    2001-12-01

    The toxicity of six insecticides, acephate, methomyl, ethofenprox, cartap, chlorfluazuron, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was tested on different developmental stages of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma dendrolimi (Matsumura). Each of the insecticides tested showed different degrees of toxicity to the parasitoid, Ethofenprox showed the highest toxicity and cartap showed relatively higher toxicity compared with the other insecticides. The development of the parasitoids treated with these two insecticides was normal, similar to that of the control group. Only the emergence of adult wasps from host eggs was disturbed. Emergence of the host, Mamestra brassicae larva was reduced following treatment with ethofenprox, cartap and methomyl. However, adult female wasps, which emerged from host eggs treated with the insecticides had the ability to oviposit normally.

  18. Effect of pesticides on Colpoclypeus florus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Trichogramma platneri (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), parasitoids of leafrollers in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J F; Dunley, J E; Doerr, M D; Beers, E H

    2001-10-01

    Pesticides were evaluated for their effect on two parasitoid species, Colpoclypeus flouts and Trichogramma platneri, that are potential biological control agents of leafrollers in apple orchards. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were highly toxic to both parasitoids in topical applications, but foliar residues of some products were nontoxic after 7 d. At reduced rates, topically applied pyrethroids were low in toxicity to C. florus were highly toxic to T. platneri, and foliar residues were nontoxic after about 7 d. Imidacloprid and abamectin were highly toxic when applied topically to both parasitoids but were not toxic as 1-d-old residues. Insect growth regulators did not cause mortality either as topical applications or residues; however, diflubenzuron caused severe sublethal effects, completely blocking the production of C. florus offspring. Biorational pesticides, such as soap, oil, and B. thuringiensis products, caused no toxicity to C. florus but had a direct impact on T. platneri as topical applications through physical immobilization. The potential to integrate different pesticides with biological control of leafrollers and the need for a step-wise approach to evaluate the impact of pesticides against natural enemies is discussed.

  19. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of pesticides used in peach orchard to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de dez formulações comerciais de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro foi avaliada em laboratório (25±1 ºC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas, através da exposição de adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley a resíduos secos dos produtos pulverizados sobre placas de vidro. O número de ovos parasitados por fêmea, foi mensurado e a redução no parasitismo (RP, em relação à testemunha (água, foi utilizada para classificar os compostos em: inócuos (99% RP. Os produtos fitossanitários captana, ditianona, mancozebe, metoxifenozida e óxido cuproso foram inócuos; glifosato e óleo mineral foram levemente nocivos e abamectina, cianamida e etofenproxi foram nocivos a T. pretiosum.The selectivity of ten commercial pesticide formulations used in peach orchard was evaluated in laboratory tests (25±1 ºC, RH 70±10% and 14 hours photophase by exposing the adult of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley to fresh dry pesticide film applied on glass plates. The number of eggs parasitized per adult female and the reduction in parasitism (RP compared to control (treated with water were used to measure the effect of the chemical in harmless (99% RP. The pesticides captan, copper oxide, dithianon, mancozeb and methoxyfenozide were harmless; gliphosate and mineral oil was slightly harmful and abamectin, cyanamide and etofenprox were harmful to T. pretiosum.

  20. Parasitism and super parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs; Parasitismo e superparasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marciene D.; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Entomologia; Santos, Maria C.F. dos; Beserra, Eduardo B. [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Almeida, Raul P. de [EMBRAPA Algodao, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    The parasitoid Trichogramma has been used worldwide as biological control agent due to its wide geographic distribution, high specialization and efficacy against many lepidopteran pests. Biological and behavioral traits of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley parasitizing Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) eggs were studied aiming to a better understanding of the Results from parasitism and super parasitism. The variables investigated were: host acceptance and contact time by T. pretiosum on parasitized host, percentage of parasitoid emergence, number of deformed individuals produced, egg-adult period, sex ratio, offspring female body size and longevity, and number of S. cerealella eggs parasitized/female. Parasitism rejection was observed on parasitized host eggs after 24, 72 and 120h of parasitism. The rejection was higher for eggs parasitized after 72h and 120h of parasitism as compared to the eggs after 24h of parasitism. T. pretiosum contact time on eggs after 24h of parasitism was greater than on 72 and 120h. The offspring produced from hosts from which a single parasitoid emerged were larger, exhibited no deformities and greater capacity of parasitism, different from those produced from eggs where two parasitoids emerged. Offspring longevity, however, was similar for females emerged from hosts from which one or two adults emerged. In Conclusion, T. pretiosum was able to recognize previously parasitized eggs and the super parasitism reduced the parasitoid.reproductive success. (author)

  1. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs; Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastori, Patrik L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: plpastori@yahoo.com.br; Monteiro, Lino B. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Fitotecnia e Fitossanitarismo]. E-mail: lbmonteiro@terra.com.br; Botton, Marcos [EMBRAPA, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Uva e Vinho]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br; Pratissoli, Dirceu [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal). E-mail: pratissoli@cca.ufes.br

    2007-11-15

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  2. Acceptability and suitability of Tuta absoluta eggs from irradiated parents to parasitism by Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnotti, Cynthia L.; Hernández, Carmen M.; Andormo, Andrea V.; Viscarret, Mariana; Botto, Eduardo N.; López, Silvia N.; Riquelme, María

    2017-01-01

    1. Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most devastating pests of tomato crops. We studied the acceptability and suitability of eggs laid by irradiated T. absoluta pairs to parasitism by the parasitoids Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma pretiosum. 2. Trichogramma absoluta pupae were irradiated with Xradiation (20834 R) and the emerged adults were separated into couples according to the crosses: ♂U × ♀U, ♂I × ♀U, ♂U × ♀I (where ‘U’ is untreated and ‘I’ is irradiated). In a no-choice experiment, 40 eggs from each cross were exposed to a female parasitoid for 24 h. 3. All T. absoluta eggs were accepted for oviposition by T. nerudai and were suitable for its development. However, eggs from irradiated females were significantly less parasitized than those from untreated females. Trichogramma pretiosum showed low parasitism on eggs from all crosses. In a choice experiment, both T. nerudai and T. pretiosum showed no differences in the parasitism of eggs from irradiated (n=40) and non-irradiated female moths (n=40). 4. These results indicate that eggs laid by irradiated parents were acceptable for oviposition and suitable for the development of these parasitoids, and also support the idea that the inherited sterility technique could be used in an integrated approach with egg parasitoids to control T. absoluta. (author)

  3. First record of Megaphragma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae in Columbia, and third animal species known to have anucleate neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Polilov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Megaphragma is recorded for the first time in Columbia where it is represented by M. caribea that emerged from leaves of Terminalia catappa infested by the thrips (Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis and Selenothrips rubrocinctus. M. caribea has anucleate neurons, the third species of Megaphragma shown to have this feature.

  4. Anatomy of adult Megaphragma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, one of the smallest insects, and new insight into insect miniaturization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A Polilov

    Full Text Available The body size, especially in cases of extreme reduction, is an important characteristic that strongly determines the morphology, physiology, and biology of animals. Miniaturization is a widespread trend in animal evolution and one of the principal directions of evolution in insects. Miniaturization-related features of insect morphology have been subject to intensive studies during the last few years, but the structure of the smallest insects remains insufficiently known. It is especially important to study hymenopterans of the genus Megaphragma, which include the smallest flying insects and a species in which an almost anucleate nervous system was recently discovered. This article is the first detailed study of the external and internal morphology of adults of Megaphragma mymaripenne and M. amalphitanum using histological methods, 3D computer modeling and other techniques. It is shown that in spite of the extremely small size the organization of Megaphragma retains a considerkable level of structural complexity. On the other hand, miniaturization leads to re-organizations of several organ systems. Unique structural features related to miniaturization have been found in both species: lysis of cell bodies and nuclei of neurons at late stages of pupal development, absence of the heart, and considerable reductions in the set of muscles. Comparative analysis of structure in the smallest insects representing different taxa has revealed common features of the evolutionary process of miniaturization in insects.

  5. Persistência de herbicidas dessecantes aplicados em milho transgênico sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Rafael Antonio Pasini

    Full Text Available RESUMO O milho é um dos cereais mais cultivados no mundo e para a obtenção de altas produtividades é imprescindível o controle adequado das plantas daninhas. Contudo, a utilização de herbicidas pode comprometer os efeitos benéficos da ação dos inimigos naturais, entre eles o parasitoide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum. O objetivo deste trabalho, foi estimar a duração da atividade nociva de herbicidas dessecantes aplicados em milho transgênico ao parasitoide T. pretiosum através de testes de persistência. Foram realizados bioensaios em laboratório, expondo-se os adultos do parasitoide aos resíduos dos herbicidas, utilizando-se as metodologias propostas pela "International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants" (IOBC. Os herbicidas foram pulverizados sobre as folhas das plantas de milho transgênico, que foram levadas ao laboratório para a confecção de gaiolas de exposição, onde adultos de T. pretiosum foram expostos aos 3; 10; 17; 24 e 31 dias após esta aplicação. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. A redução do parasitismo em relação à testemunha foi utilizada para classificar os agrotóxicos quanto à seletividade e, posteriormente quanto à persistência. Os herbicidas dessecantes à base de sal de isopropilamina (Glifosato® Atanor 48, Gli-Up® 480 SL, Roundup® Original, Roundup® Transorb, Roundup® WG, Shadow® 480 SL, Stinger® e Trop®, sal de potássio (Zapp® Qi 620 e de sal de amônio (Finale® foram considerados de vida curta, tendo menos de cinco dias de atividade nociva sobre o parasitoide. Assim, liberações inundativas de T. pretiosum podem ser realizadas aos três dias após pulverização destes herbicidas dessecantes.

  6. Enkele bijzondere bijenwaarnemingen (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, I.P.

    2000-01-01

    Some interesting records on Dutch bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) The publication of the preliminary atlas of Dutch bees (Peeters et al. 1999) has stimulated many specialists in their mapping activity. The author reports several interesting new distribution records on ten bee-species in 1999. The Dutch

  7. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilo, BM; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude Elberink, JNG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula

  8. Sex determination in the Hymenoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimpel, George E.; de Boer, Jetske G.

    2008-01-01

    The dominant and ancestral mode of sex determination in the Hymenoptera is arrhenotokous parthenogenesis, in which diploid females develop from fertilized eggs and haploid males develop from unfertilized eggs. We discuss recent progress in the understanding of the genetic and cytoplasmic mechanisms

  9. The North American Trichogramma (Hymenoptera) : Trichogrammatidae parasitizing certain tortricidae (Lepidoptera) on apple and pear, with ITS2 DNA characterizations and description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, J.D.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Platner, G.R.; Stouthamer, R.

    2002-01-01

    Eleven species of Trichogramma are reported parasitizing tortricid eggs on apple and pear in North America. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), were the primary pest species encountered. Species of the Trichogramma minutum complex were the

  10. Influência do Fotoperíodo no Parasitismo de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em Ovos de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Santana

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Trichogramma species are an important group of parasitoids that attack especially lepidopteran eggs. The quality and performance of this natural enemy may be influenced by factors such as alternative host used in the massal rearing, and differences in the temperature and photoperiod. Based on this, this study aimed to evaluate the number of parasitized eggs, % of females that parasitized, % emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi per egg of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius in the presence and absence of light. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (light and dark and 60 replications, being each experimental unit composed by 40 eggs of D. saccharalis which were placed in a glass tube with one female of T. galloi with age of 24 hours, previously fed with honey. The experiment was carried out at 25 ± 2 °C and 70 ± 10% relative humidity. In each one of the treatments, the parasitoid was removed from the tube after 12 hours. The highest number of parasitized eggs (12.9 and % of females that parasitized (83.3% was observed during the period with light. For the emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals per egg, there was no statistical difference. The results showed that the presence of light is essential for this biological control agent.

  11. Trichogramma acacioi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae parasitism capacity at different temperatures and factitious hosts Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma acacioi em diferentes temperaturas e hospedeiros alternativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It was studied the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma acacioi on Anagasta kuehniella and Sitotroga cerealella eggs at different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ± 1°C. The parasitism of T. acacioi varied with temperature and host. The highest parasitism (³80% were observed during the first days after emergence in both hosts, at all tested temperatures. The accumulated parasitism varied with both host and temperature, being higher on A. kuehniella at 20°C, what shows good parasitoid species adaptation to this temperature. Thus, we conclude that the best host and best temperature to be used at mass-rearing of T. acacioi is A. kuehniella and 20ºC, respectively. Moreover, this Trichogramma species has great potential to be used in field releases at regions where average temperature is around 20ºC.Foi estudada a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma acacioi em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella e Sitotroga cerealella em diferentes temperaturas (15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 ± 1°C. O parasitismo de T. acacioi variou com a temperatura e hospedeiro. O maior parasitismo (³80% foi observado durante os primeiros dias após a emergência, em ambos hospedeiros e em todas as temperaturas estudadas. O parasitismo acumulado variou nas diferentes temperaturas e hospedeiros, sendo maior em A. kuehniella a 20ºC, o que mostra uma boa adaptação da espécie do parasitóide a essa temperatura. Assim, concluímos que o melhor hospedeiro alternativo e melhor temperatura para serem usadas em criações massais de T. acacioi é a A. kuehniella e 20ºC, respectivamente. Ainda, esta espécie de Trichogramma tem grande potencial para ser usada em liberações de campo em regiões onde a temperatura média está em torno de 20ºC.

  12. Side Effects of Fungicides Used in Cucurbitaceous Crop on Trichogrammaatopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae Efectos Secundarios sobre Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae de Fungicidas usados en Cucurbitáceas

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can control Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. On the other hand, pesticides may reduce the efficiency of natural enemies. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of fungicides used in the production of cucurbitaceous crops on Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner parasitizing D. hyalinata eggs. The fungicides used in bioassays were: azoxystrobin (0.08 g active ingredient [ai] L-1, chlorothalonil (2.00 g ai L-1, mancozeb (1.60 g ai L-1, tebuconazole (0.25 g ai L-1 and thiophanate-methyl (0.49 g ai L-1. Cardboards with 30 D. hyalinata eggs previously immersedin fungicide solutions and distilled water (control were offered separately to 20 newly emerged T. atopovirilia females in glass tubes. Parasitism, parasitism reduction, emergence, sex ratio, and number of individuals per egg were evaluated. The fungicides chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced parasitism of T. atopovirilia by 43.37, 27.64 and 18.51%, respectively. However, parasitism with azoxystrobin (79.21% was higher than the control (67.37% (P ≤ 0.05. Chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced emergence by 73.77, 75.62 and 79.35% (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Azoxystrobin and thiophanate-methyl reduced the sex ratio by 0.77 and 0.76 (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Fungicides did not reduce the number of individuals per egg. The fungicides azoxystrobin and mancozeb were selective for T. atopovirilia for most studied parameters suggesting that these products must have the priority in crop disease management to allow efficient biological control of T. atopovirilia against D. hyalinata.Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae pueden controlar Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Sin embargo, los plaguicidas pueden reducir la eficiencia de los enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia de los fungicidas utilizados en la

  13. Thelytokous parthenogenesis in eusocial Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeling, Christian; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2013-01-01

    Female parthenogenesis, or thelytoky, is particularly common in solitary Hymenoptera. Only more recently has it become clear that many eusocial species also regularly reproduce thelytokously, and here we provide a comprehensive overview. Especially in ants, thelytoky underlies a variety of idiosyncratic life histories with unique evolutionary and ecological consequences. In all eusocial species studied, thelytoky probably has a nuclear genetic basis and the underlying cytological mechanism retains high levels of heterozygosity. This is in striking contrast to many solitary wasps, in which thelytoky is often induced by cytoplasmic bacteria and results in an immediate loss of heterozygosity. These differences are likely related to differences in haplodiploid sex determination mechanisms, which in eusocial species usually require heterozygosity for female development. At the same time, haplodiploidy might account for important preadaptations that can help explain the apparent ease with which Hymenoptera transition between sexual and asexual reproduction.

  14. Records of the genus Coccygidium Saussure (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae), with description of a new species from Saudi Arabia. Hamed A. Ghramh. Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, King Khalid University, P. O. Box- 9004, ABHA- 61413, Kingdom of Saudi.

  15. Incidência natural e biologia de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Natural incidence and biology of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae in eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina L. Cañete

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner is an egg parasitoid of the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and has recently been collected from eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner on soybeans. In order to evaluate the suitability of A. gemmatalis eggs as hosts of T. atopovirilia, field surveys were conducted in 1999 and 2000 on corn and soybeans, and a colony of the parasitoid was established in laboratory. At 25 ºC, development from oviposition to emergence lasted nine days and a sex-ratio of 0.58 (females:males was obtained. Females lived significantly longer (11.4 days when kept in ovipositional activity, than in the absence of host eggs (6.6 days. Total fecundity averaged 104.5 parasitized eggs, resulting in the emergence of 138.3 descendents. Mean daily fecundity was highest (30 eggs/female on the first day. Oviposition continued until one day before the death of the females, however 70% of the eggs were laid during the first four days after emergence. A female-biased progeny was produced during the first three days of oviposition, whereas further ovipositions were male-biased. Females lived significantly longer when exposed to host eggs in comparison to females deprived of eggs. The results show that eggs of A. gemmatalis are suitable for the development of T. atopovirilia, and this parasitoid should be considered in future programs of biological control of the velvetbean caterpillar.

  16. Biologia e parasitismo de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner e Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Biology and parasitism of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

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    Eduardo B. Beserra

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a capacidade de paratisimo e o desenvolvimento de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner e T. pretiosum Riley visando à seleção da espécie mais adequada para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório à temperatura de 25±2ºC, U.R. de 70±0% e fotoperíodo de 14L:10E. Tanto T. atopovirilia como T. pretiosum desenvolveram-se bem e mostraram-se adaptados a ovos de S. frugiperda, mesmo após serem criados por várias gerações em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella Zeller. Entretanto, fêmeas de T. atopovirilia foram mais agressivas e de maior especificidade à praga, já que apresentaram maior capacidade de parasitismo em posturas com diferentes barreiras físicas e maior aceitação pelo hospedeiro natural, em relação à A. kuehniella. Por este maior parasitismo e especificidade de T. atopovirilia aos ovos da praga, deve-se dar preferência à utilização desta espécie para controle de S. frugiperda.The parasitism capacity and development of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley were studied in order to select the most suitable species to control Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith. The experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25±2ºC, 70±10% RH and 14L:10D photoperiod. Both T. atopovirilia and T. pretiosum showed good development and adaptation to S. frugiperda eggs even after being reared for several generations in eggs of Anagasta kuehniella Zeller. However, T. atopovirilia females were more aggressive and showed higher specificity to the pest, with a higher parasitism capacity in eggs laid with different physical barriers and were more accepted by the natural host in comparison with A. kuehniella. Because of the higher parasitism rate and specificity of T. atopovirilia to the pest's egg this species should be given preference to control S. frugiperda.

  17. Biologia e exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae sobre ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Biology and thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

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    Regina da Silva Borba

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia de Trichogramma em laboratório, visando a sua utilização em programas de manejo integrado para o controle de Bonagota cranaodes na cultura da macieira. A biologia de Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja e de duas linhagens (L3 e L4 de Trichogramma pretiosum foi realizada sobre ovos de B. cranaodes. Além disso, suas exigências térmicas e o número anual de gerações também foram determinados. A linhagem L3 apresentou maior parasitismo (52,3%, no entanto, a viabilidade foi semelhante entre as linhagens estudadas, com ciclo evolutivo de 8,7 dias, longevidade de fêmeas de 10,65 dias, temperatura base de 11,35°C e constante térmica de 128,70GD. O número de gerações anuais dessa linhagem em laboratório foi de 47,22 e de 13,59 gerações para as condições da região de Vacaria - RS. O baixo parasitismo de T. bruni e da linhagem L4 de T. pretiosum pode estar ligado à camada de secreção existente sobre as posturas da praga. Embora este parasitismo seja considerado baixo, a utilização destas linhagens não pode ser descartada dentro do sistema de Produção Integrada da Maçã, devendo novos estudos serem realizados em condições de campo.This work was aimed at studyng the biology of Trichogramma in laboratory, in search of its use in integrated management programs to control Bonagota cranaodes in culture of the apple. The biology of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja and of two lineages (L3 and L4 of Trichogramma pretiosum on eggs of B. cranaodes was done such their thermal demands and annual number of generations. The line L3 presented more parasitism (52.3%, however, the feseability was similar among the lineages studied; with biological cycle of 8.7 days; the longevity of females was 10.65 days; low threshold temperature of 11.35°C and thermal requirement of 128.70 GD, the number of annual generations this line in laboratory was 47.22 and 13.59 for Vacaria-RS climate conditions. The low parasitism of the T. bruni and of the lineage L4 of T. pretiosum can be related to the layer of secretion presented on the laying of the pest. Although this parasitism is considered low, the use of these lineages cannot be discarded the Integrated Apple Production, systens. New studies shal be accomplished in field conditions.

  18. Influence of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Efeitos de remanescentes de Mata Atlantica no controle biologico de Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) por Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele e Pointel) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murta, Aline F.; Ker, Fabricio T.O.; Costa, Dalbert B. [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UnilesteMG), Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Controle Biologico de Pragas; Espirito-Santo, Mario M.; Faria, Mauricio L. [Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Dept. de Biologia Geral

    2008-03-15

    This study evaluated the effects of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the natural biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) by the parasitoid Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) in Eucalyptus plantations. The number of E. apisaon eggs/leaf was higher in the center than in the edge of the plantations (23.5 {+-} 7.61 vs. 14.8 {+-} 3.14), but parasitism showed the reversed pattern (72.4% in the center and 80.5% in the edge). The results indicated that natural regulation exerted by T. maxacalii on populations of E. apisaon may be enhanced by the preservation of fragments of native vegetation surrounding Eucalyptus plantations. (author)

  19. Efeito de beauveria bassiana (bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (metsch. sorokin nos parâmetros biológicos de trichogramma atopovirilia oatman & platner, 1983 (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar o efeito de duas formulações comerciais à base de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch., Sorokin sobre os parâmetros biológicos de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. No primeiro experimento, cartelas com ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda, 1797 foram mergulhadas em suspensões preparadas com os produtos e, em seguida, colocadas à disposição dos parasitóides para oviposição, durante um período de 24 horas. No segundo, fêmeas do parasitóide foram alimentadas com uma solução mel e suspensão de conídios. Em ambos os experimentos as fêmeas mortas foram colocadas em uma câmara úmida para observar a esporulação dos fungos. Os tratamentos foram mantidos em câmara climatizada com temperatura de 25±1º C, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Avaliou-se a longevidade e mortalidade dos adultos, índice de parasitismo, emergência do parasitóide, número de indivíduos por ovo e razão sexual dos descendentes. As formulações não interferiram nos parâmetros avaliados e não foi observada a esporulação do fungo no cadáver do parasitóide adulto. É possível inferir que T. atopovirilia e os fungos entomopatogênicos B. bassiana e M. anisopliae são compatíveis e podem ser empregados simultaneamente em programas de manejo integrado de S. frugiperda.Two bioassays were performed to evaluate the effect of two biopesticides based on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. In the first one, displays with S. frugiperda, 1797 eggs were dropped into the biopesticide suspension and offered to the parasitoid females for 24 hours. In the second one, parasitoid females were fed with a suspension containing honey and biopesticide suspension. In both cases, after the parasitoid death they were mantained into a humid chamber to observe fungus sporulation. The experiments were maintained in a climatized chamber at 25±1º C, RH 70± 10%, and photophase of 14 hours. The longevity and adult mortality, total parasitism, progeny emergency, number of individuals per egg and sexual ratio were analyzed. The biopesticides did not affect the evaluated parameters and no fungus sporulation was observed in dead females. It is possible to assert that the entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana and M. anisopliae can be used with T. atopovirilia in IPM S. frugiperda systems.

  20. Seletividade de Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimm. Zare & W. Gams (classe-forma: Hyphomycetes ao parasitóide Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimm. Zare & W. Gams (class-form: Hyphomycetes to the parasitoid Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Leandro Pin Dalvi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se no presente trabalho, as características biológicas de Trichogramma atopovirilia em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda sob influência do fungo Lecanicillium lecanii, com o objetivo de verificar, em laboratório, se este entomopatógeno é seletivo ao parasitóide. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos no setor entomologia do Núcleo de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico em Manejo Fitossanitário "NUDEMAFI". Os indicativos de seletividade adotados foram: número de ovos parasitados, porcentagem de emergência (viabilidade, número de indivíduos por ovo, razão sexual e longevidade das fêmeas que parasitaram. Nenhum desses parâmetros foi afetado pelo fungo, levando à conclusão de que o mesmo é seletivo a T. atopovirilia, possibilitando ser conveniente a utilização simultânea de ambos os agentes de controle biológico no Manejo Integrado de Pragas.The present work studied the biological characteristics of Trichogramma atopovirilia in eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda under influence of the fungus Lecanicillium lecanii, with the aim of verifing in laboratory if this entomopathogenic fungus is selective to the parasitoid. The studies were carried out in the entomology sector of Nucleus of Scientific & Technological Development in Phytossanitary Management (NUDEMAFI. The indicatives of selectivity adapted used were: number of parasited eggs, emergency percentage (viability, number of individuals for egg, sex ratio and longevity of the females that parasited. None of these parameters were affected by the fungus, leading to the conclusion that the same is selective to T. atopovirilia, possibiliting the simultaneous utilization of both agents of biological control into the Integrated Management of Pests.

  1. Bioatividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae nas gerações F1 e F2 Bioactivity of pesticides used in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. crop to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in F1 and F2 generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A bioatividade de dezoito produtos químicos utilizados no controle de pragas e doenças do tomateiro, sobre duas linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (L9=Alegre, ES e L10= Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES, nas gerações F1 e F2, foi investigada em laboratório. Ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller contendo o parasitóide em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (ovo-larva, pré-pupa e pupa foram tratados por meio de imersão nas respectivas caldas químicas. Os inseticidas triflumuron, clorfluazuron, deltametrina, Bacillus thuringiensis, lambdacialotrina, teflubenzuron, acefato, pirimicarb e ciromazina, e os fungicidas benomil, iprodiona, clorotalonil e dimetomorf, independente da linhagem, não reduziram a longevidade das fêmeas de T. pretiosum da geração F1. Os inseticidas abamectin, cartap, metamidofós e lambdacialotrina afetaram a razão sexual de indivíduos da geração F1, e não reduziram a taxa de emergência de parasitóides da F2, independente do estágio de desenvolvimento e da origem da população de T. pretiosum. Parasitóides de Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES (L10 mostraram-se mais susceptíveis que os de Alegre, ES (L9 aos efeitos dos compostos avaliados. De modo geral, a fase de pupa de T. pretiosum, independente da população, apresentou maior tolerância aos produtos testados. Recomenda-se a realização de novos testes para outras populações desse parasitóide que serão utilizadas no controle de pragas, pois podem responder de forma diversa aos produtos fitossanitários avaliados.The bioactivity of eighteen pesticides commonly used to pests and diseases control on tomato, in two strains of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (L9=Alegre, ES and L10= Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES, Brazil in F1 and F2 generations, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The bioassays were conducted in a climatic chamber at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller containing the parasitoid in different phases of development (egg-larva, pre-pupa and pupa were treated by immersion in aqueous dilutions of the products. The insecticides triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, deltamethrin, Bacillus thuringiensis, lambdacyalothrin, abamectin, cartap and methamidophos, did not decrease the longevity of females T. pretiosum in F1 generation independently of the parasitoid strain. Abamectin, cartap, methamidophos and lambdacyalothrin affected the sexual ratio in F1, and did not decrease the emergence of parasitoids in F2 generation, independently of stage of development and origin. The L10 strain was more susceptible to all pesticides as compared to L9. The pupal stage of T. pretiosum was more tolerant to the products, independently of its origin. It is recommended new tests with other strains of this parasitoid which may respond differently to the products used, before field recomendations are made.

  2. Keanekaragaman Hymenoptera Parasitika Pada Tipe Ekosistem Berbeda Di Bangka Tengah, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Herry Marta; Maryana, Nina; Pudjianto

    2017-01-01

    Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in different ecosystem types in Central Bangka, Bangka-Belitung Islands.Hymenoptera richness is dominated by parasitic species. More than 80% of Hymenoptera play a role as parasitoid on arthropods that are mostly insects. Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera is widely studied in various types of terrestrial ecosystems including agro-ecosystem and non-agro-ecosystem. This study aimed to invent and compare the diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in three differen...

  3. Basophil-activation tests in hymenoptera allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Anthony E. J.; van der Heide, Sicco

    The measurement of basophil-activation markers may be useful in detecting IgIE-mediated sensitization but the relevance for application of the basophil-activation test in prediction of clinical reactivity in Hymenoptera allergy is very limited. For this reason, this test currently has no established

  4. Social organization of Platythyrea lamellosa (Roger) (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): I. Reproduction. M.H. Villet, A. Hart and A.M. Crewe. Department of Zoology, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Wits, 2050 Republic of South Africa. Received 15 May 1990; accepted 28 Allgust 1990. Colonies of Platythyrea lamellosa contained 18-276 workers, but no queens were found.

  5. Hymenoptera Stings and the Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashad Dongol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are a health concern. Apidae (bees, Vespidae (hornets, yellow jackets and wasps and Formicidae (ants are medically-important stinging insects under the order Hymenoptera. Clinical features from simple skin manifestations to severe and fatal organ injury are due to the hypersensitivity reactions and/ or the toxic effects of the venom inoculated. Here we discuss on Hymenoptera stings involving apids (honey bees and vespids (wasps, hornets and yellow jackets and their effect on renal function and associated morphological changes in the kidney. Despite the differences in venom composition and quantity released per sting in two insect groups, both lead to similar medical consequences, such as localised normal allergic reactions, mild to severe anaphylaxis and shock and multiple organ and tissue injury leading to multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI is one of the unusual complications of Hymenoptera stings and has the basis of both immune-mediated and toxic effects. Evidence has proven that supportive therapy along with the standard medication is very efficient in completely restoring the kidney function without any recurrence.

  6. Seasonal abundance of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and its natural enemies Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Tonghai Zhao; Ruitong Gao; Liwen Song; Qingshu Luan; Ruozhong Jin; Changqi Gao

    2007-01-01

    The seasonal abundance and population dynamics of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and its natural enemies Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were studied on ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  7. Component Resolved Diagnosis in Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsitz, D; Brockow, K

    2017-06-01

    Hymenoptera anaphylaxis is one of the leading causes of severe allergic reactions and can be fatal. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) can prevent a life-threatening reaction; however, confirmation of an allergy to a Hymenoptera venom is a prerequisite before starting such a treatment. Component resolved diagnostics (CRD) have helped to better identify the responsible allergen. Many new insect venom allergens have been identified within the last few years. Commercially available recombinant allergens offer new diagnostic tools for detecting sensitivity to insect venoms. Additional added sensitivity to nearly 95% was introduced by spiking yellow jacket venom (YJV) extract with Ves v 5. The further value of CRD for sensitivity in YJV and honey bee venom (HBV) allergy is more controversially discussed. Recombinant allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants often help to identify the culprit venom in patients with double sensitivity to YJV and HBV. CRD identified a group of patients with predominant Api m 10 sensitization, which may be less well protected by VIT, as some treatment extracts are lacking this allergen. The diagnostic gap of previously undetected Hymenoptera allergy has been decreased via production of recombinant allergens. Knowledge of analogies in interspecies proteins and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants is necessary to distinguish relevant from irrelevant sensitizations.

  8. Hymenoptera venom review focusing on Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. de Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera venoms are complex mixtures containing simple organic molecules, proteins, peptides, and other bioactive elements. Several of these components have been isolated and characterized, and their primary structures determined by biochemical techniques. These compounds are responsible for many toxic or allergic reactions in different organisms, such as local pain, inflammation, itching, irritation, and moderate or severe allergic reactions. The most extensively characterized Hymenoptera venoms are bee venoms, mainly from the Apis genus and also from social wasps and ant species. However, there is little information about other Hymenoptera groups. The Apis venom presents high molecular weight molecules - enzymes with a molecular weight higher than 10.0 kDa - and peptides. The best studied enzymes are phospholipase A2, responsible for cleaving the membrane phospholipids, hyaluronidase, which degrades the matrix component hyaluronic acid into non-viscous segments and acid phosphatase acting on organic phosphates. The main peptide compounds of bee venom are lytic peptide melittin, apamin (neurotoxic, and mastocyte degranulating peptide (MCD.

  9. Cytology of Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis in Leptopilina clavipes (Hymenoptera : Figitidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, BA; Pijnacker, LP; Zwaan, BJ; Beukeboom, LW; Zwaan, Bas J.; Traut, W.

    Parthenogenesis induced by cytoplasmatically inherited Wolbachia bacteria has been found in a number of arthropod species, mainly Hymenoptera. Previously, two different forms of diploidy restoration have been reported to underlie parthenogenesis induction in Hymenoptera by Wolbachia. Both are a form

  10. Tabela de vida de fertilidade de três espécies neotropicais de Trichogrammatidae em ovos de hospedeiros alternativos como critério de seleção hospedeira Fertility life table of three neotropical species of Trichogrammatidae on factitious hosts as a criterion for selection of hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia da Silva Dias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tabela de vida de fertilidade de três espécies neotropicais de Trichogrammatidae em ovos de hospedeiros alternativos como critério de seleção hospedeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar o hospedeiro alternativo que permita o melhor desenvolvimento das três espécies neotropicais de tricogramatídeos, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983; Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 e Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972, utilizando-se como parâmetro comparativo as tabelas de vida de fertilidade nos respectivos hospedeiros. Foram estimados a duração média de uma geração (T, taxa líquida de reprodução (Ro, razão infinitesimal (r m e a razão finita de aumento (λ. A tabela de vida de fertilidade pode ser utilizada para selecionar o hospedeiro alternativo mais adequado para as espécies de tricogramatídeos. Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae foi o hospedeiro alternativo mais adequado para criação de T. annulata e de T. bruni, enquanto que para T. atopovirilia, Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae e/ou C. cephalonica foram os hospedeiros mais adequados. Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae apresentou baixa capacidade de aumento populacional para as três espécies de parasitóides, sendo, portanto, uma espécie inadequada como hospedeiro alternativo para as mesmas.The objective of this work was to select the factitious host that permit the best development of three neotropical Trichogrammatidae species, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983; Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983, and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972, using the fertility life table on their respective hosts as a comparative parameter. Mean generation time (T, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and the finite rate of increase (λ were estimated. A fertility life table is useful to select the most adequate factitious hosts for the

  11. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geden, Christopher J; Moon, Roger D

    2009-06-01

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios, and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with five dipteran hosts: house fly (Musca domestica L.), stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.), horn fly (Hematobia irritans L.), black dump fly [Hydrotaea aenescens (Weidemann)] (Diptera: Muscidae), and a flesh fly (Sarcophaga bullata Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). M. raptorellus killed and successfully parasitized all five host species and produced an average 2.6 parasitoid progeny from each host. Host attack rates were highest on stable fly and lowest on horn fly; there were no differences among hosts in the total number of progeny produced. T. zealandicus killed larvae of all fly host species in similar numbers, but parasitism was most successful on H. aenescens and S. bullata and least successful on horn fly and house fly hosts. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (10.2 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 2.5 progeny were produced from parasitized horn fly hosts. Most of the killed puparia that produced neither adult flies nor parasitoids ("duds") contained dead parasitoids; in house fly, stable fly, and horn fly hosts, >30% of these dudded pupae contained adult wasps that failed to eclose. T. nigra successfully parasitized pupae of all host species except house fly and was most successful on stable fly. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (30.6 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 5.7 progeny were produced from horn fly hosts.

  12. Mieren in Veluwebermen: soortenrijkdom en aanbevelingen voor beheer (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Boer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Ants in roadside verges on the Veluwe: species richness and recommendations for management (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Highway verges in the Veluwe region contain some well developed nutrient poor plant communities, like grasslands, grey hair grass vegetation and heather vegetation. These places

  13. Genus Pygostolus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) new to Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hye-Rin Lee; Tae-Ho An; Bong-Kyu Byun; Deok-Seo Ku

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pygostolus Haliday of the subfamily Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with a newly recorded species, Pygostolus falcatus (Ness), is reported for the first time from Korea. Diagnosis and a photograph of the genus and species are provided.

  14. Natural occurence of Wolbachia-infected and uninfected Trichogramma species in tomato fields in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves, C.I.; Huigens, M.E.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Duarte, S.; Mexia, A.; Tavares, J.

    2006-01-01

    Minute egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatidae) are promising candidates for biological control of lepidopteran pests in tomato in Portugal. This certainly applies to native Trichogramma strains that have thelytokous reproduction, i.e., produce only daughters. In

  15. A comparative study on the functional response of Wolbachia-infected and uninfected forms of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farrokhi, S.; Ashouri, A.; Shirazi, J.; Allahyari, H.; Huigens, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are haplo-diploid egg parasitoids that are frequently used as biological control agents against lepidopteran pests. These wasps display two reproductive modes, including arrhenotoky (bisexuality) and thelytoky (unisexuality). Thelytokous forms

  16. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  17. Ovarian egg morphology in chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitizing gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vårdal, H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide morphological egg data of 26 species of 5 chalcidoid families associated with cynipid galls (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae from western Palaearctic, including the first egg data for the family Ormyridae. Adult chalcidoid species were reared from galls, and eggs obtained from dissected female ovaries were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The shape of the eggs varies from oval to elongate and tapered at both ends. Eggs of Eurytomidae as well as some Eulophidae, Eupelmidae and Pteromalidae are equipped with a peduncle at the anterior end. We found a positive correlation between long eggs and long ovipositors and confirmed the expectation that eggs of endoparasitoids are generally shorter and narrower than eggs of ectoparasitoids. We were able to locate the sperm entrance or micropyle at the anterior pole of eggs of several species. It is situated at the anterior end of the egg and at the end of the peduncle when present. In addition, the eggshells of the endoparasitoid Sycophila biguttata (Swederus, 1795 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae and the ectoparasitoid Cecidostiba fungosa (Geoffroy, 1785 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, are for the first time described.En el presente trabajo se aportan datos morfol.gicos del huevo de 26 especies del Paleártico occidental pertenecientes a 5 familias de Chalcidoidea asociadas con agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, incluyendo los primeros datos del huevo de especies de Ormyridae. Los ejemplares adultos de las especies estudiadas fueron obtenidos por emergencia de agallas en laboratorio, los ovarios de las hembras diseccionados para obtener los huevos, que fueron finalmente estudiados utilizando técnicas de microscopía electronica de barrido. La forma de los huevos estudiados varía de ovalada a alargada y ahusada en ambos extremos. Los huevos de Eurytomidae, así como algunos de Eulophidae, Eupelmidae y Pteromalidae están provistos de un pedúnculo en el extremo anterior. Se encontr

  18. Skeletomusculature of Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea): head and mesosoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miko, I.; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Johnson, N.F.

    2007-01-01

      The skeletomusculature of the head and mesosoma of the parasitoid wasp family Scelionidae is reviewed. Representatives of 27 scelionid genera are examined together with 13 non-scelionid taxa for comparison. Terms employed for other groups of Hymenoptera are reviewed, and a consensus terminology...... of the parasitoid wasp family Scelionidae is reviewed. Representatives of 27 scelionid genera are examined together with 13 non-scelionid taxa for comparison. Terms employed for other groups of Hymenoptera are reviewed, and a consensus terminology is proposed. External characters are redescribed and correlated...

  19. Precision Targeting: Reduced Pesticide Use Strategy for Pharaoh’s Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-19

    AND SUBTITLE Precision Targeting: Reduced Pesticide Use Strategy for Pharaoh’s Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae ) Control 6. AUTHOR(S) David F. Williams...TARGETING: REDUCED PESTICIDE USE STRATEGY FOR PHARAOH’S ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE ) CONTROL DAVID F. WILLIAMS, RICHARD J. BRENNER AND DAVID MILNE...space may benefit from this method of control. This Precision targeting - reduced pesticide use strategy for Pharaoh’s ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

  20. Provisional host catalogue of Fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In this catalogue — entitled "provisional" because our knowledge of the subject is still so evidently incomplete — all species of Ficus mentioned as hosts of fig wasps, are listed with the Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea reared from their receptacles. The names used for the Agaonidae are in

  1. Taxonomy of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomy of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected by pitfall traps from Sinai and the Delta region, Egypt. Salwa Mohamed, Samy Zalat, Hassan Fadl, Sohair Gadalla, Moustafa Sharaf. Abstract. Egyptian Journal of Natural History Vol.1 1999: 40-61. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Effects of Apis mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Apis mellifera adansonii, L. 1758 (Apidae: Hymenoptera) pollination on yields of Cucumeropsis mannii (Naudin) in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo. Boniface Posho Ndola, Yves Brostaux, Guillaume Le Goff, Marie-Lucie Susini, Eric Haubruge, Frederic Francis, Bach Kim Nguyen ...

  3. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary species checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of. Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya, is presented. The species list is based on specimens sampled from 1999 until 2009, which are deposited in the ant collection of the Zoological Research Museum Koenig, Bonn, Germany, and the Natural History ...

  4. In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueff, F.; Vos, B.; Przybilla, B.

    In-vitro diagnostics of Hymenoptera venom allergy Patients with a history of anaphylactic sting reactions require an allergological work-up (history, in-vitro tests, and skin tests) to clarify indications on venom immunotherapy and on the type of venom to be used. To demonstrate a venom

  5. Revision of the world species of Xeris Costa (Hymenoptera: Siricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri Goulet; Caroline Boudreault; Nathan M. Schiff

    2015-01-01

    Xeris is one of ten extant genera of Siricidae known as as woodwasps or horntails. They are important wood-boring Hymenoptera from the Northern Hemisphere. Adults and larvae of Xeris are often intercepted at ports and are consequently of concern as potential alien invasive species. The genus consists of 16 species with eight in...

  6. Michanthidium almeidai, a new species from northeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Megachilinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Danúncia; Parizotto, Daniele Regina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Michanthidium Urban (Hymenoptera, Megachilinae)is described and figured from Sergipe and Bahia States, northeastern Brazil. An identification key, illustrations, and a distribution map for the three species of the genus are presented. The male genitalia of Michanthidium almeidai sp. n. and Michanthidium albitarse are illustrated and compared for the first time. PMID:22140334

  7. Species of Pleistodontes from the Australian continent (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Review of the Australian species of Pleistodontes Saunders (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae: fig insects), with description of new species Pleistodontes cuneatus (from Ficus leucotricha Miq.) and P. proximus (from F. platypoda A. Cunn. ex Miq.), both collected in E. Kimberley, W. Australia, and

  8. In silico prediction of neuropeptides in Hymenoptera parasitoid wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Juhua; Zhao, Jianhua; Tian, Xiaoli

    2018-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the order Hymenoptera, the most diverse groups of animals, are important natural enemies of arthropod hosts in natural ecosystems and can be used in biological control. To date, only one neuropeptidome of a parasitoid wasp, Nasonia vitripennis, has been identified. This study aimed to identify more neuropeptides of parasitoid wasps, by using a well-established workflow that was previously adopted for predicting insect neuropeptide sequences. Based on publicly accessible databases, totally 517 neuropeptide precursors from 24 parasitoid wasp species were identified; these included five neuropeptides (CNMamide, FMRFamide-like, ITG-like, ion transport peptide-like and orcokinin B) that were identified for the first time in parasitoid wasps, to our knowledge. Next, these neuropeptides from parasitoid wasps were compared with those from other insect species. Phylogenetic analysis suggested the divergence of AST-CCC within Hymenoptera. Further, the encoding patterns of CAPA/PK family genes were found to be different between Hymenoptera species and other insect species. Some neuropeptides that were not found in some parasitoid superfamilies (e.g., sulfakinin), or considerably divergent between different parasitoid superfamilies (e.g., sNPF) might be related to distinct physiological processes in the parasitoid life. Information of neuropeptide sequences in parasitoid wasps can be useful for better understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Hymenoptera and further elucidating the physiological functions of neuropeptide signaling systems in parasitoid wasps.

  9. Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Konza Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of a survey of Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at Konza Prairie near Manhattan, Kansas are reported. Eleven sites representing prairie and woodland/wetland areas, including gallery forest, were sampled in 2001 and 2005 using Malaise traps and a canopy trap. Selec...

  10. Geographic spread of Strumigenys silvestrii (Hymenoptera: formicidae: dacetine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumigenys silvestrii is a tiny dacetine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dacetini), apparently from South America, that has spread to the southern US and the West Indies. Strumigenys silvestrii has recently been found for the first time in the Old World, from the island of Madeira, mainland Portugal,...

  11. De ruige gaststeekmier Myrmica hirsuta nieuw voor Nederland (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.; Noordijk, J.

    2004-01-01

    Myrmica hirsuta new for the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Myrmica hirsuta is recorded for the first time from the Netherlands. A dealate female was collected in a pitfall trap between 14.v and 16.x.2003 near Nunspeet (Veluwe) in the province of Gelderland. The pitfall was situated in a

  12. De kalme steekmier myrmica lobicornis nieuw voor Nederland (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.

    2003-01-01

    The ant Myrmica lobicornis new for the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) In 2002 seven workers of Myrmica lobicornis were collected in the Balloërveld (province of Drenthe). It is the first record of this species in the Netherlands. During the finishing of this paper a female of Myrmica

  13. Het inventariseren en monitoren van mieren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.

    2008-01-01

    The survey and monitoring of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) The goal of this paper is to encourage the use of ants in monitoring programs and biodiversity surveys. Monitoring is restricted to ground-dwelling ants, because the sexual forms are too erratic in occurrence. For monitoring of ant

  14. KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITIKA PADA TIPE EKOSISTEM BERBEDA DI BANGKA TENGAH, KEPULAUAN BANGKA BELITUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Marta Saputra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in different ecosystem types in Central Bangka, Bangka-Belitung Islands. Hymenoptera richness is dominated by parasitic species. More than 80% of Hymenoptera play a role as parasitoid on arthropods that are mostly insects. Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera is widely studied in various types of terrestrial ecosystems including agro-ecosystem and non-agro-ecosystem. This study aimed to invent and compare the diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in three different ecosystems, i.e., forest, oil palm plantation, and ex-tin mining. The location was located in Central Bangka Regency, Bangka Island. The study was conducted in Juli 2014 until October 2015. Parasitic Hymenoptera was collected with insect sweep net and yellow pan trap on one transect line with 1000 m length. Parasitic Hymenoptera were found on forest as much as 732 morphospecies, 326 morphospecies on oil palm plantations, and 293 morphospecies on ex-tin mining. Diversity and abundance of parasitic Hymenoptera on forest was higher than oil palm plantation and ex-tin mining area. Braconidae family was found dominant on forest, however on oil palm plantation and extin mining area the dominant family was Scelionidae.

  15. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  16. Allergen-specific immunotherapy of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiener, Maximilian; Graessel, Anke; Ollert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Stings of hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in venom-allergic patients, ranging from local up to severe systemic reactions and even fatal anaphylaxis. Allergic patients' quality of life can be mainly improved by altering their immune response to tolerate the venoms...... by injecting increasing venom doses over years. This venom-specific immunotherapy is highly effective and well tolerated. However, component-resolved information about the venoms has increased in the last years. This knowledge is not only able to improve diagnostics as basis for an accurate therapy......, but was additionally used to create tools which enable the analysis of therapeutic venom extracts on a molecular level. Therefore, during the last decade the detailed knowledge of the allergen composition of hymenoptera venoms has substantially improved diagnosis and therapy of venom allergy. This review focuses...

  17. Spermatogenesis in the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Lo Nostro, F.; Papeschi, A.; Cladera, J.; Bressa, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2017), s. 38-43 ISSN 0001-7272 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * modified meiosis * abortive division Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/azo.12148/pdf

  18. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera of leafminer flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Mazumdar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine hymenopteran parasitoids attacking leafminers (Agromyzidae: Diptera in Bangladesh.  Four parasitoid species, viz. Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood and Cirrospilus sp. belonging to family Eulophidae and Opius sp. under family Braconidae of the order Hymenoptera are reported as new to the fauna of Bangladesh.  All parasitoids were reared from three agromyzid flies namely Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, Melanagromyza obtusa Mallochand and Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon. 

  19. Parasitismo entre especies (Diptera, Hymenoptera en los nidos de Stictia signata (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Genaro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available S. signata es una de las avispas de la arena más frecuentemente observada en los cayos y las costas de Cuba. Las hembras construyen los nidos en la arena y los abastecen con moscas, para alimentar a la descendencia. Se describe la conducta de dos especies: Liohippelates n. sp. circa collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae y Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae para penetrar al interior de los nidos de S. signata. Las observaciones se efectuaron durante 1989 hasta 1991, en playa Caimito, sur de la provincia de La Habana, Cuba. Liohippelates cleptoparasitó el 100% de los nidos. Sus larvas necrófagas se alimentaron de los restos de las presas dejadas por la larva de S. signata, sin afectarla. Sólo en un caso la larva mostró signos de mortalidad, porque además del número alto de cleptoparásitos inmaduros, habían 53 moscas adultas alimentándose de los fluidos corporales de las presas. Hexacola sp. fue un parasitoide de las larvas de Liohippelates, en el interior de las celdillas. A pesar del elevado cleptoparasitismo, la población del esfécido se mantuvo elevada durante los años de observación.Stictia signata is one of the most frequently observed sand wasps in the Cuban keys and coasts. Females build their nests in the sand and supply them with flies to feed offspring. Here, I describe the behavior of two species, Liohippelates n. sp. near collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae and Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae, which enter the nests of S. signata. The observations were carried out from 1989 through 1991 in Caimito beach, Southern Havana province, Cuba. Liohippelates inhabited 100% of the nests. Its necrofagous larvae fed on the remnants of prey left by the larva of S. signata, without affecting the larva. Only in one case did the larva show signs of mortality because, apart from the high number of immature cleptoparasites, there were 53 adult flies feeding on prey body fluids. Hexacola sp. parasitized the larvae of Liohippelates within the

  20. Abridged life tables for Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) Parasitoids of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) reared on artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological aspects and demographic parameters of Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitoids of the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) were investigated usi...

  1. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  2. Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Guerrero, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Peristenus Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from the Canary Islands are described and illustrated: Peristenus angifemoralis spec. nov. from Tenerife, and P. gloriae spec. nov. from Gran Canaria and Tenerife.

  3. First occurrence of the goldspotted oak borer parasitoid, Calosota elongata (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel J. Haavik; Tom W. Coleman; Yigen Chen; Micheal I. Jones; Robert C. Venette; Mary L. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2012-01-01

    Calosota elongata Gibson (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is a gregarious, ectoparasitic larval parasitoid that was described recently (Gibson 2010) in association with the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse [now considered to be Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)] in its native...

  4. Trophobiosis in the arboricolous ant .i.Liometopum microcephalum./i. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaghamerský, J.; Kašpar, J.; Petráková, L.; Šustr, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2013), s. 231-239 ISSN 1210-5759 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * arboricolous * ants * trophobiosis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2013

  5. Fecundity and longevity of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens in response to irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products traded between countries. As little is known about irradiation effects on ants, radiotolerance of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae...

  6. The first known fossil Masoninae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Miocene Dominican amber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    The first fossil species of the genus Masona van Achterberg, 1995, of the subfamily Masoninae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is described and illustrated. It originates from approximately 15-20 millions years old (= Miocene) Dominican amber.

  7. Natural history of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J; Soriano, V; Mayorga, L; Mayor, M

    2005-02-01

    The natural history of stings, the clinical reaction of the patient and in vivo and in vitro tests are necessary parameters to assess before initiating Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy. In the decision to initiate immunotherapy with Hymenoptera venom, it is not usual to evaluate the natural history of the disease, which seems to be self-limiting and therefore of variable clinical significance. Our aim was to determine the natural history of Hymenoptera hypersensitivity over 4 consecutive years in a rural Mediterranean population. An epidemiological study of Hymenoptera sting reactions and possible sensitivity was carried out in 145 randomly selected subjects out of a rural Mediterranean population of 600. Seventy-two subjects, including those with a history of anaphylaxis, completed the 4-year study. The nature of their clinical reactions, age, sex, history of atopy, profession, family history of reactions to Hymenoptera insects, time elapsed since the last sting, number of stings and specific IgE and IgG were determined (the latter, to the three most important insects in the area: Apis mellifera, Polistes dominulus, and Vespula germanica). Of the 72 subjects, four subjects had systemic reactions (SR), 23 had large local reaction (LLR) and all the others (117) was minor local reactions. None who had experienced an SR had a repeat SR when re-stung over the 4-year study. Of those with LLR, 12 subjects had the same type of reaction and 11 experienced more mild local reactions when re-stung. In the SR and local reaction groups, IgE to honey bee (Hb) increased significantly during the study period, whereas in those with only LLR, specific IgE to wasp (Polistes) decreased. Specific IgG to Polistes and Vespula (wasps) decreased significantly, whereas there was no change in the specific IgG to Hb in any of the groups. The number of stings per year decreased at the end of the study in all groups, but positive-specific IgG was higher in subjects with the greatest number of

  8. Pengaruh Habitat Sekitar Lahan Persawahan dan Umur Tanaman Padi terhadap Keanekaragaman Hymenoptera Parasitika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Herlina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the largest group of biological control agents, Parasitic Hymenoptera play important role in controlling pest outbreak in agricultural habitat. Unfortunately, there is lack of information about how these parasitoids occur in agricultural habitat related to condition of surrounding habitat and phenology of crop plant. The objective of this research was to study the effect of rice field surrounding habitat and age of rice plant on the diversity of Parasitic Hymenoptera. Research area was located in Carang Pulang Village, Dramaga, Bogor. We selected four blocks which represented different of habitat condition and age of rice plant. Each block was set six yellow pan traps (with minimum distance 20 meter and one malaise trap. Sampling of insects were conducted weekly from 6 to 12 week after planting. From this research, we collected 1,833 individual of Hymenoptera (without ants belong to 9 superfamilies, 23 families, and 216 species. Parasitic Hymenoptera was more abundant (96% and species rich (84% than Aculeata. Rice field surrounding habitat (block and age of rice field significantly affect the diversity of Parasitic Hymenoptera. We found positively correlation between age of rice plant and species richness of Parasitic Hymenoptera.

  9. Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Landscape and Hymenoptera Biodiversity at Cianjur Watershed

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    YAHERWANDI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is one of the four largest insect order (the other three are Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera. There are curerently over 115 000 described Hymenoptera species. It is clear that Hymenoptera is one of the major components of insect biodiversity. However, Hymenoptera biodiversity is affected by ecology, environment, and ecosystem management. In an agricultural areas, the spatial structure, habitat diversity, and habitat composition may vary from cleared landscapes to structurally rich landscape. Thus, it is very likely that such large-scale spatial patterns (landscape effects may influence local biodiversity and ecological functions. Therefore, the objective of this research were to study diversity and configuration elements of agricultural landscapes at Cianjur Watershed with geographical information sytems (GIS and its influence on Hymenoptera biodiversity. The structural differences between agricultural landscapes of Nyalindung, Gasol, and Selajambe were characterized by patch analyst with ArcView 3.2 of digital land use data. Results indicated that class of land uses of Cianjur Watershed landscape were housing, mixed gardens, talun and rice, vegetable, and corn fields. Landscape structure influenced the biodiversity of Hymenoptera. Species richness and the species diversity were higher in Nyalindung landscape compare to Gasol and Selajambe landscape.

  10. Generic key and catalogue of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Larralde, Adriana J; Huber, John T; Martínez, Humberto Quiroz

    2017-04-12

    The Mexican genera of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are keyed in English and Spanish, and a catalogue of species occurring in Mexico is presented. Thirty-six genera, including 79 named species in 20 of the genera, are reported. These are mentioned in about 100 publications either as original species descriptions or as publications that specifically mention species and/or specimens from Mexico. In the catalogue, species distributions by state are given based on literature records, and collection data are compiled from about 3630 specimens examined in eight collections in Canada, Mexico and USA. Host are listed for specimens reared mainly in Mexico. A few extralimital host records are also given.

  11. Register of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Mariele P. Camargo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Register of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Here we provide a description of a gynandromorph of Euglossa pleosticta with partial bilateral phenotypic asymmetry. The specimen was collected by cineol baittrap at Parque Estadual São Camilo, a conservation unit in western Paraná. The bee has mostly a female phenotype, except by the right half of its head, including the presence of 11 flagellomeres, ivory markings on scape and parocular area, by the pilosity of the right galea, and by deformed male characteristics on mid and hind tibiae of right legs.

  12. Redescripción de Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoide introducido en la Argentina para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Redescription of Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoid introduced for the control of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in Argentina

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    Javier Torréns

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe el agente de biocontrol introducido en la Argentina, Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. y se aportan nuevos caracteres para su identificación.The bio-control agent introduced in Argentina Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae for the control of Cydia pomonella (L. is redescribed, providing new characters for the species.

  13. Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: a new parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: um novo parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae is recorded as parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae é registrado como parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  14. KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITOID PADA PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT PTPN VIII CINDALI, BOGOR

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    Ichsan Luqmana Indra Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of parasitic Hymenoptera in PTPN VIII oil palm plantation Cindali, Bogor. One group of important natural enemies in oil palm plantation is parasitic Hymenoptera. The purpose of this research is to know the diversity and fluctuation of parasitic Hymenoptera PTPN VIII Cindali oil palm plantation. This research was conducted in 6 blocks of oil palm in September 2014 – June 2015. There were 5 plots in every observation blocks 39.2 x 39.2 m in size, and used direct and indirect method. Direct method done by 5 plants in every plots was taken randomized to observed and taken the herbivore insects to reared until the parasitic Hymenoptera came out. Observation of cover crops conducted by 3 subplots determined diagonally in every plots 9.8 x 9.8 m in size and herbivore insects was observed and collected. Indirect methods used sweep net and yellow pan trap. The result of this research, 26 parasitic Hymenoptera families was found, with the Braconidae was the most morphospecies found and the most individual amount was Scelionidae. The abundance of parasitoid in every month fluctuated.

  15. Diploidy restoration in Wolbachia-infected Muscidifurax uniraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Yuval; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Werren, John H; Karr, Timothy L

    2002-11-01

    Thelytokous reproduction, where females produce diploid female offspring without fertilization, can be found in many insects. In some Hymenoptera species, thelytoky is induced by Wolbachia, a group of cytoplasmically inherited bacteria. We compare and contrast early embryonic development in the thelytokous parthenogenetic species Muscidifurax uniraptor with the development of unfertilized eggs of the closely related arrhenotokous species, Muscidifurax raptorellus. In the Wolbachia-infected parasitic wasp M. uniraptor, meiosis and the first mitotic division occur normally. Diploidy restoration is achieved following the completion of the first mitosis. This pattern differs in the timing of diploidy restoration from previously described cases of Wolbachia-associated thelytoky. Results presented here suggest that different cytogenetic mechanisms of diploidy restoration may occur in different species with Wolbachia-induced thelytoky.

  16. On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melipona marginata var. torrida Friese, 1916, described from three workers putatively collected in Costa Rica, never had its identity properly recognized. Since its original description, no additional specimens have ever been collected in Costa Rica. It is argued here that Melipona torrida was based on mislabeled specimens and corresponds to Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, a form known only from southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. A lectotype is designated for Melipona torrida and notes on the type material of Melipona marginata obscurior are provided. Other known examples of species described from mislabeled specimens in Friese's Zur Bienenfauna von Costa Rica are discussed. It is pointed out that additional names proposed in this work, based on material from Costa Rica, might turn out to correspond to South American taxa. Also, the date of publication of this Friese's paper is discussed.

  17. Técnicas de captura de Hymenoptera (Insecta

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    Frederico Machado Teixeira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma revisão de métodos de amostragem comumente usado para o censo Hymenoptera. Considerações sobre qual método é aplicável em determinadas situações são feitas. Indicação de análise e programas computacionais são sugeridos. Aborda o problema da dificuldade de identificação de espécies coletadas, e formas de reduzir essa dificuldade, como a utilização de sistemas computacionais on-line para a identificação das espécies tanto por meio de fotos de alta qualidade digital como por meio de análises moleculares com comparação de sequência genética em banco de dados de referência.

  18. Cytogenetic characterization of Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera, Apidae by fluorochromes

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    Jefferson de Brito Marthe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four colonies of the stingless bee Partamona cupira (Hymenoptera: Apidae were cytogenetically analyzed using conventional staining and the fluorochromes CMA3 e DAPI. The females have 2n = 34 chromosomes (2K=32+2. Some females, however, presented an additional large B acrocentric chromosome, to a total of 2n = 35. Chromosome B and the chromosomal pairs 2, 9 and 10 showed CMA3+ bands, indicating an excess of CG base-pairs. A clear association was verified between the P. helleri B chromosome SCAR marker and the presence of a B chromosome in P. cupira. The data obtained suggests that B chromosomes in P. helleri and P. cupira share a common origin.

  19. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezděčková, Klára; Bezděčka, Pavel; Machar, Ivo

    2015-09-21

    The article presents a comprehensive list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru. Distribution data for 592 valid names of species-group taxa in 76 genera and 12 subfamilies were collected through a bibliographical review. The most diverse subfamilies in terms of species richness are Myrmicinae (273 species/subspecies), Formicinae (86 species/subspecies) and Ponerinae (71 species/subspecies). The most diverse genera are Pheidole (86 species/subspecies), Camponotus (73 species/subspecies), and Pseudomyrmex (47 species/subspecies). With respect to geographic divisions, richness is highest in Madre de Dios (245 species/subspecies), followed by Huanuco (109 species/subspecies) and Cusco (104 species/subspecies). Regions in greatest need of additional survey work are Aycucho, Huancavelica, Moquegua and Tacna, from which virtually no information on the ant fauna is available.

  20. Egg parasitoids of proconiini (hemiptera: cicadellidae) in northwestern Mexico, with description of a new species of gonatocerus (hymenoptera: mymaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Bernal, Julio S

    2009-01-01

    Nine species of Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae parasitic on eggs of Proconiini sharpshooters (Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) were collected in northwestern Mexico in relation to neoclassical biological control efforts against glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), in California. Gonatocerus chula Triapitsyn and Bernal sp. n., which belongs to the ater species group of Gonatocerus Nees (Mymaridae), is described. Specimens of G. chula sp. n. were reared from eggs of the smoke-tree sharpshooter, Homalodisca liturata Ball, on jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C. K. Schneider] leaves collected in central Sonora state, Mexico. Also given are new data on other egg parasitoids of Homalodisca spp. and Oncometopia spp. in Sinaloa and Sonora states, Mexico, including Gonatocerus atriclavus Girault, G. morrilli (Howard), and G. novifasciatus Girault, and the Trichogrammatidae Burksiella sp(p)., Ittys sp., Pseudoligosita sp., Ufens ceratus Owen, and U. principalis Owen. For the first time, a species of Ittys is recorded from eggs of Proconiini, and U. principalis from Mexico. Colonies of G. atriclavus, G. novifasciatus and Pseudoligosita sp. were successfully established in a quarantine laboratory at University of California, Riverside, on eggs of the glassy-winged sharpshooter. These three parasitoid species had never been reared under laboratory conditions. In addition, seven species of Proconiini were collected in central and northwestern Mexico: Cyrtodisca major (Signoret), Homalodisca insolita (Walker), H. liturata Ball, Oncometopia sp. cf. clarior (Walker), O. sp. cf. trilobata Melichar, O. (Similitopia) sp., and Phera centrolineata (Signoret). Oncometopia sp. cf. clarior, O. sp. cf. trilobata, and O. (Similitopia) sp. appeared to be undescribed species.

  1. ABO blood groups, Rhesus factor, and anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałgan, Krzysztof; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Chrzaniecka, Elżbieta

    2017-09-21

    Numerous publications indicate that the prevalence of some infectious, neoplastic and immunological diseases are associated with ABO blood groups. The aim of this study was to verify whether ABO and Rh blood groups are associated with severe anaphylactic reactions after Hymenoptera stings. A study was undertaken of 71,441 Caucasian subjects living in the same geographic area. The study group included 353 patients with diagnosed systemic anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom. Control group included 71,088 healthy blood donors. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. No statistically significant interactions were observed between the ABO blood group and anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera.

  2. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control.

  3. A new scenario of bioprospecting of Hymenoptera venoms through proteomic approach

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    LD Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Venoms represent a huge and essentially unexplored reservoir of bioactive components that may cure diseases that do not respond to currently available therapies. This review select advances reported in the literature from 2000 to the present about the new scenario of Hymenoptera venom composition. On account of new technologies in the proteomic approach, which presents high resolution and sensitivity, the combination of developments in new instruments, fragmentation methods, strategic analysis, and mass spectrometry have become indispensable tools for interrogation of protein expression, molecule interaction, and post- translational modifications. Thus, the biochemical characterization of Hymenoptera venom has become a major subject of research in the area of allergy and immunology, in which proteomics has been an excellent alternative to assist the development of more specific extracts for diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitive patients to Hymenoptera venoms.

  4. Examination of a Managed Pollinator Strategy for Almond Production Using Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Artz, Derek R; Peterson, Stephen S; Boyle, Natalie K; Wardell, Gordon I

    2018-02-17

    Pollination services provided by managed bees are essential for California almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.; Rosales: Rosaceae) production. Currently, pollination needs are met by rented or owned Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae; honey bee) colonies. Excessive demand on a challenged A. mellifera industry to provide strong colonies in early spring has caused sharp increases in rental prices over the past decade, inviting the consideration of alternative pollinators in addition to, or in place of, A. mellifera. Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae; the blue orchard bee) is an excellent pollinator of fruit and nut trees, but its pollination impacts when used in tandem with A. mellifera have yet to be evaluated in commercial almond orchards. A 2-yr study was conducted in California orchards to compare almond pollination and production using A. mellifera as sole pollinator to an alternative practice of adding O. lignaria as a co-pollinator with A. mellifera. Almond orchard managerial decisions, such as for pesticide use and irrigation intensity, vary between almond growing regions because of local climates. Therefore, both north-central and southern sites of California's San Joaquin Valley are represented. We compared bee visitation, nut set, and nut yield between orchards and between tree rows within orchards. Also, O. lignaria reproductive success was recorded to assure that these bees remained in the orchards as pollinators and to assess the ability to sustain these bees under regional orchard conditions. We demonstrated that augmenting large commercial almond orchards with O. lignaria can significantly increase nut set and sometimes nut yield in both regions evaluated.

  5. Serum tryptase concentrations in beekeepers with and without Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballada, F; Alonso, M; Vizcaino, L; Coutinho, V; Núñez, R; Vidal, C; Boquete, M; González-Quintela, A

    2013-01-01

    Increased tryptase concentrations are a risk marker for the severity of reactions to Hymenoptera stings or venom immunotherapy To investigate serum tryptase concentrations in beekeepers with and without Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA). Serum tryptase concentrations were measured in adult patients with HVA (n = 91, 37 of whom were beekeepers), beekeepers without HVA (n = 152), and control individuals from the general adult population (n = 246). Multivariate analyses revealed that serum tryptase levels were positively associated with beekeeping activities (P Beekeeping and HVA are independently associated with increased concentrations of serum tryptase.

  6. Primeiro relato do parasitóide Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitando pupas Sarcodexia lambens Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae no Brasil First report on Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing pupae of Sarcodexia lambens Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae in Brazil

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência de Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitando estágios imaturos de Sarcodexia lambens Walker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae em fezes humanas no Brasil. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 18,2%.This work reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing immature stages of Sarcodexia lambens Walker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae in human feces in Brazil. The parasitism prevalence was 18.2%.

  7. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  8. Phylogeography of two parthenogenetic sawfly species (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae): relationship of population genetic differentiation to host plant distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, C.; Barker, A.; Boevé, J.L.; Jong, de P.W.; Vos, de H.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the population genetic structure of two obligate parthenogenetic sawfly species, Aneugmenus padi (L.) Zhelochovtsev and Eurhadinoceraea ventralis (Panzer) Enslin (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Allozymes were used to detect genetic differences in larvae collected at different

  9. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessments by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard W. Mankin; Yigen Chen; Jian J. Duan; Therese M. Poland; Leah S. Bauer

    2011-01-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  10. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  11. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  12. Stiff upper lip: Labrum deformity and functionality in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In hyper-diverse groups such as Hymenoptera, a variety of structures with different, complementary functions are used for feeding. Although the function of the parts such as the mandibles is obvious, the use of others, like the labrum, is more difficult to discern. Here, we discuss the labrum’s func...

  13. Revision of charipine aphid hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea: Figitidae) from central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferrer-Suay, M.; Starý, Petr; Selfa, J.; Pujade-Villar, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2017), s. 113-147 ISSN 0785-8760 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * central Europe * aphid Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.300, year: 2016 http://www.entomologicafennica.org/Volume28/EF_28_3/1Ferrer-Suay.pdf

  14. Verdwenen en weer verschenen: de kleine bonte wespbij Nomada roberjeotiana (Hymenoptera: Apidae s.l.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Meer, van der F.

    2007-01-01

    Disappeared and reappeared: Nomada roberjeotiana (Hymenoptera: Apidae s.l.) In 2006 the waspbee Nomada roberjeotiana was found near Gees in the province of Drenthe. These were the first records since 1963. Possibly this species has really disappeared and recolonized the Netherlands. Its probable

  15. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community structure on two sagebrush steppe sites in southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Cook; Sara M. Birch; Frank W. Merickel; Carrie Caselton Lowe; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Although sagebrush, Artemisia spp., does not require an insect pollinator, there are several native species of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), that are present in sagebrush steppe ecosystems where they act as pollinators for various forbs and shrubs. These native pollinators contribute to plant productivity and reproduction. We captured 12 species of...

  16. De kortsnuitbloedbij Sphecodes majalis nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, I.

    2004-01-01

    Sphecodes majalis, a new bee species for the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Apidae) A population of Sphecodes majalis was found on a limestone grassland near Maastricht (Limburg). On several occasions more than 10 female and several male specimen were observed. Sphecodes majalis is a parasite of

  17. Nieuwe vondsten van de zuidelijke gouden groefbij Halictus leucaheneus in Nederland (Hymenoptera: Apidae s.l.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Pijfers, H.

    2006-01-01

    New records for Halictus leucaheneus in the Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Apidae s.l.) On August 27, 2005 two females of the rare bee Halictus leucaheneus arenosus were caught near Venlo (province of Limburg). At the beginning of the 20th century the species was widespread throughout the southeastern

  18. Description of four new genera and nine new species of Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from French Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Barbalho, S.M.; Achterberg, van C.

    2003-01-01

    From French Guyana four new genera of the subfamily Doryctinae Foerster, 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with six new species (Lamquetia gen. nov.; type species: L. rufa Braet & van Achterberg, spec. nov., L. marshi Braet & Barbalho, spec. nov.), Ondigus gen. nov. (type species: O. bicolor spec.

  19. New taxa of the subfamily Doryctinae Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from French Guiana and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Three genera of the subfamily Doryctinae Foerster, 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are treated and keyed: Ptesimogaster Marsh, 1965, Caingangia Marsh, 1993, and Leptodoryctes Barbalho & Penteado- Dias, 1999. The latter genus is characterised by the presence of an apical setal comb on the hind tibia.

  20. A new genus and subgenus of the subfamily Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belokobylskij, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Three new taxa belonging to the subfamily Euphorinae Foerster (Hymenoptera; Braconidae) are described and illustrated. Mama mariae gen. nov. & spec. nov. from southern Far East Russia and two species of the subgenus Chaetocentistes nov. of the genus Centistes Haliday. A key to species (i.e.

  1. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy in Mastocytosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedoszytko, Marek; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.; Golden, David B. K.

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a typical IgE-mediated reaction caused by sensitization to 1 or more allergens of the venom, and accounts for 1.5% to 34% of all cases of anaphylaxis. Patients suffering from mastocytosis are more susceptible to the anaphylactic reactions to an insect sting. This article

  2. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  3. Pauesia decurrens sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of a Cinara sp. (Homoptera: Aphididae) from California

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Petr; Zuparko, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 81, 3/4 (2005), s. 171-176 ISSN 0031-0603 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5007102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Insecta * Hymenoptera * Braconidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.308, year: 2005

  4. Biting the bullet: revisionary notes on the Oraseminae of the Old World (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eucharitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve genera of Oraseminae (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) are recognized in the Old World. The genus Orasema is now considered as found only in the New World, and the Old World species, previously treated as species groups, are now treated as distinct genera. Nine new genera are proposed: Australosema...

  5. Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Konza Prairie excluding species of Heterospilus Haliday

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of a survey of Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at Konza Prairie, excluding species of Heterospilus Haliday, are reported. Eleven sites representing prairie and woodland/wetland areas, including gallery forest, were sampled in 2001 and 2005 using Malaise and canopy traps. Topographic...

  6. The similarity and appropriate usage of three honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) datasets for longitudinal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have experienced profound fluctuations, especially declines, in the past few decades. Long-term datasets on honey bees are needed to identify the most important environmental and cultural factors associated with these changes. While a few suc...

  7. Dinoponera lucida Emery (Formicidae: Ponerinae): the highest number of chromosomes known in Hymenoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, C. S. F.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Ramos, L. S.; Lacau, S.; Pompolo, S. G.

    We report the remarkable karyotype of Dinoponera lucida, a Brazilian endemic ponerine ant. Its chromosome number is 2n=106, most of the chromosomes are acrocentric and of very small size, and the karyotype formula is 88A+18M. A chromosome pair of the AMt type is reported. This is the largest number of chromosomes reported for the Hymenoptera order until now.

  8. First record of the tramp ant Cardiocondyla obscurior (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiocondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is an old world genus of omnivorous ants native to Africa and Asia. The genus Cardiocondyla includes several common tramp species that have spread globally with human commerce. A single alate female C. obscurior Wheeler was collected by J. M. Stro...

  9. Increasing trophic complexity influences aphid attendance by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species that are involved in multitrophic interactions are affected by the trophic levels that are above and below them in both indirect and direct ways. In this experiment, interactions among ants (Formica montana Wheeler; Hymenoptera: Formicidae), aphids (Myzus persicae [Sulzer]; Hemiptera: Aphidi...

  10. Nesten van de reuzenmier Camponotus ligniperda in het noordwesten van haar verspreidingsgebied (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierbergen, G.; Loon, van A.J.; Versluys, G.; Willems, N.H.W.; Zijlstra, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Nests of the carpenter ant Camponotus ligniperda in the northwestern part of its range (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Camponotus ligniperda (Latreille, 1802) is a rare ant species restricted to the eastern part of the Netherlands. Most records relate to a low number of workers. In this paper the species

  11. The Hymenopterous Poison Apparatus. X. Morphological and Behavioral Changes in Atta texana (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry R. Hermann; John C. Moser; Allen N. Hunt

    1970-01-01

    Atta texana (Buckley) and other members of this genus no longer utilize the 8th and 9th gonapophyses as part of their defensive system. Although the sclerites that comprise the stinging apparatus in most aculeate Hymenoptera are present in the species, they seem to function only in the deposition of trail pheromones. A mechanical and chemical defense...

  12. Invasive ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): A rare quest or increasingly common indoor pest in Europe?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Petr; Okrouhlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 4 (2015), s. 705-712 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Formicidae * Tapinoma Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2014 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2015/04/16.pdf

  13. Ephuta icema Casal, 1969 and its host Auplopus subaurarius Dreisbach, 1963 (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae, Pompilidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, Roberto A; Buschini, Maria Luisa Tunes; Arias, Diomedes Quintero; Brozoski, Fanciele; Lustosa, Priscila Rudiak

    2017-05-29

    The male and female of Ephuta icema Casal, 1969 are reared from the host Auplopus subaurarius Dreisbach, 1963 (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) that allow to unit both sexes for this mutillid and describe hitherto unknown male. A review of all the previous host records for the genus Ephuta Say, 1836 is given.

  14. New species of Chelonus (Microchelonus) Szépligeti, 1908 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A R; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2011-05-01

    Chelonus (Microchelonus) murici sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae) is described in this work. It was reared from an unknown host in murici fruits, Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) Rich. ex A. L. Juss. (Malpighiaceae), a species from the Brazilian savannah whose fruits are widely consumed by the population in northern Brazil. The adult of this new species is illustrated.

  15. New species of Chelonus (Microchelonus Szépligeti, 1908 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Nascimento

    Full Text Available Chelonus (Microchelonus murici sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae is described in this work. It was reared from an unknown host in murici fruits, Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. Rich. ex A. L. Juss. (Malpighiaceae, a species from the Brazilian savannah whose fruits are widely consumed by the population in northern Brazil. The adult of this new species is illustrated.

  16. Trapping techniques for siricids and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: siricidae and ibaliidae) in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittany F. Barnes; James R. Meeker; Wood Johnson; Christopher Asaro; Dan Miller; Kamal J.K. Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    The recent introduction of Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) into North America has raised interest in native siricids and their parasitoids to better understand the potential impact of S. noctilio. In the southeastern United States, we assessed various techniques to capture native siricids and their parasitoids using...

  17. How to escape from haller's rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der Emma; Smid, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    While Haller's rule states that small animals have relatively larger brains, minute Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasps scale brain size linearly with body size. This linear brain scaling allows them to decrease brain size beyond the predictions of

  18. Population of Tuta absoluta and natural enemies after releasing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the population of tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and efficiency of natural enemies on tomato grown greenhouse in Mediterranean Region of Turkey during 2010 and 2011. Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) ...

  19. Dispersal behaviour of Trichogramma brassicae in maize fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suverkropp, B.P.; Bigler, F.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Glue-sprayed maize plants were used to study dispersal behaviour of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) in maize fields. To estimate the distance covered during an initial flight, T. brassicae were studied in a field cage with 73 glue-sprayed plants.

  20. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided.

  1. Sting microsculpture in the digger wasp Bembix rostrata (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matushkina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sting microsculpture of the digger wasp Bembix rostrata (Fabricius, 1781 (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae is studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM for the first time. As in many other hymenopterans, the second valvifer of B. rostrata possesses two fields of styloconic sensilla (hair plates of proprioceptive function. The presence of two paired fields of campaniform sensilla on the second valvula and second valvifer is first shown in an apoid wasp. The first and the second valvulae bear scattered sensilla-like structures on the external surface, more numerous apically. The first valvula has two subapical barbs externally and a pair of valvilli on its inner surface, whereas the outer surface of the second valvula is smooth. The third valvula is sclerotized externally, consisting of proximal and distal parts, and bearing four sensilla morphotypes of mechanoreceptive and probably chemoreceptive functions. The inner surface of the valvulae and the membranous cuticle that is touching the sting have microstructures of different shapes directed distally. Functional aspects of characters studied are discussed.

  2. Preservation of Domesticated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drone Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, M; Rousseau, A; Giovenazzo, P; Bailey, J L

    2017-08-01

    Preservation of honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) sperm, coupled with instrumental insemination, is an effective strategy to protect the species and their genetic diversity. Our overall objective is to develop a method of drone semen preservation; therefore, two experiments were conducted. Hypothesis 1 was that cryopreservation (-196 °C) of drone semen is more effective for long-term storage than at 16 °C. Our results show that after 1 yr of storage, frozen sperm viability was higher than at 16 °C, showing that cryopreservation is necessary to conserve semen. However, the cryoprotectant used for drone sperm freezing, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), can harm the queen and reduce fertility after instrumental insemination. Hypothesis 2 was that centrifugation of cryopreserved semen to reduce DMSO prior to insemination optimize sperm quality. Our results indicate that centrifuging cryopreserved sperm to remove cryoprotectant does not affect queen survival, spermathecal sperm count, or sperm viability. Although these data do not indicate that centrifugation of frozen-thawed sperm improves queen health and fertility after instrumental insemination, we demonstrate that cryopreservation is achievable, and it is better for long-term sperm storage than above-freezing temperatures for duration of close to a year. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan D. Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraging strategies of the ant Ectatomma vizottoi (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Foraging activity may be limited by temperature, humidity, radiation, wind, and other abiotic factors, all of which can affect energy costs during foraging. Ectatomma vizottoi's biology has only recently been studied, and no detailed information is available on its foraging patterns or diet in the field. For this reason, and because foraging activity is an important part of the ecological success of social insects, the present study aimed to investigate E. vizottoi's foraging strategies and dietary habits. First, we determined how abiotic factors constrained E. vizottoi's foraging patterns in the field by monitoring the foraging activity of 16 colonies on eight different days across two seasons. Second, we characterized E. vizottoi's diet by monitoring another set of 26 colonies during peak foraging activity. Our results show that E. vizottoi has foraging strategies that are similar to those of congeneric species. In spite of having a low efficiency index, colonies adopted strategies that allowed them to successfully obtain food resources while avoiding adverse conditions. These strategies included preying on other ant species, a foraging tactic that could arise if a wide variety of food items are not available in the environment or if E. vizottoi simply prefers, regardless of resource availability, to prey on other invertebrates and especially on other ant species.

  4. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology]. E-mails: cclaudia@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; john.sivinski@ars.usda.gov; Matthews, Robert W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: rmatthew@uga.edu; Gonzalez, Jorge M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: jmgonzalez@neo.tamu.edu; Aluja, Martin [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: martin.aluja@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  5. Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzek, Dietrich; Clarke, Jessica; Shoemaker, DeWayne

    2010-10-07

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level) evolutionary relationships. We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb), retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners) is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches.

  6. Selection of Trichogramma strains and determination of number of parasitoids to be released to control Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae); Selecao de linhagens de Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) e determinacao do numero de parasitoides a ser liberado para o controle de Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rosa Maria da Silva; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: rmsmolina@ig.com.br, e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br

    2006-12-15

    In order to select Trichogramma strains to control G. aurantianum, the biological characteristics of 13 Trichogramma species/strains were evaluated. After selection, the ideal number of T. pretiosum (G18 strain) to be released per G. aurantianum egg was determined in greenhouse tests. The selection test for species/strains was carried out in an incubator adjusted to 25 +- 1 deg C, RH 70 +- 10%, and a 14 h photo phase. The ideal number of parasitoids was estimated in cages covered with a piece of voile-type fabric. The cycle duration for the 13 Trichogramma species/strains varied from 10.2 to 11.9 days. The Atp strain (T. atopovirilia) showed greater parasitism capacity, with an average of 23.3 parasitized eggs and 77.5% parasitism in 24 hours. The G18 strain (T. pretiosum) came next, with an average of 16.8 parasitized eggs and 56.1% parasitism during the same time interval. The emergency, longevity of males, and sex ratio for the 13 species/strains were similar. The number of adults emerged per egg was 1.8 for strains G11 (T. pretiosum) and Br10 (T. bruni), which were different from the G3 strain (T. pretiosum) only, with 1.3 adults per egg. With regard to female longevity, distinct values were observed only between T. pretiosum strains Tp and L2, with 6.3 and 9.3 days, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions, the estimated ratio of 36 T. pretiosum parasitoids per G. aurantianum egg allowed the highest percentage of parasitism (89%). Therefore, Trichogramma spp. has a potential to control G. aurantianum, as long as a large number of parasitoids is released per unit area. (author)

  7. Epidemiological study of the prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera in a rural population in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J; Blanca, M; Soriano, V; Sanchez, J; Juarez, C

    1999-08-01

    Systemic allergic reactions to Hymenoptera venom occur in a percentage that varies from 0.4 to 3.3%. Epidemiological studies indicate that from 15 to 25% of the general population can be sensitized to different Hymenoptera venom as well as the fact that the degree of exposure may be related to the prevalence found in those studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of insect sting allergy and the venom sensitization in a rural population to three Hymenoptera previously found in the area: Polistes dominulus (Pd), Vespula germanica (Vg) and honey bee (Hb). A rural community located in the south-east of Spain, close to the Mediterranean Sea, was selected since the stinging Hymenoptera having been previously identified. A random sample of 310 subjects from the village census was studied. A questionnaire and a serum sample were obtained from every patient. The evaluation was conducted by a family doctor, who focused on the reactions to Hymenoptera sting, age, sex, occupation, atopia, previous Hymenoptera sting, stinging insect, interval to last sting and average stings per year. RAST to Hymenoptera venoms were also determined. The prevalence of systemic reactions was 2.3% (57.6% of them had a positive RAST). Large local reactions were found in 26.4% (only 28.5% of them had a positive RAST). Asymptomatic sensitization (positive RAST) was observed in 16.4% of subjects without reaction. Only a weak correlation between subjects with less than 3 years' interval to last sting exposure and positive RAST results was noted, whether they presented with a clinical reaction or not (P < 0.05). The prevalence of systemic sting reactions in our rural community is higher than other general populations in the same Mediterranean area, and similar to other rural populations studied. The degree of exposure influences not only the prevalence found but also the detection of specific serum IgE.

  8. Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nests of Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 were obtained from trap-nests in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest (Baixa Grande and caatinga (Ipirá, in the State of Bahia. Nesting occurred in bamboo canes and in tubes of black cardboard with 5.8 cm (= small tube and 10.5 cm (= large tube in length and 0.6 and 0.8 cm in diameter, respectively. In both areas C. tarsata nested during the wet season producing four generations in Baixa Grande and three generations in Ipirá. The immatures of one generation underwent diapause at both sites. The bees constructed their nests with a mixture of sand and oil. In general, the cells were elongated and arranged in linear series with its opening pointing towards the nest entrance. Completed nests had two to three cells in small tubes, one to seven cells in large tubes, and two to 13 cells in bamboo canes. The nest plug resembled an uncompleted cell and was externally covered with oil. The cells were provisioned with pollen, oil, and nectar. Nests were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and other not identify bee species.Ninhos de Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 foram obtidos através da utilização de ninhos-armadilha, em áreas de floresta estacional semi-decídua (Baixa Grande e de caatinga (Ipirá, no Estado da Bahia. A nidificação ocorreu em gomos de bambus e em tubos de cartolina preta, estes com comprimentos de 5,8 cm (= tubos pequenos e 10,5 cm (= tubos grandes, e diâmetro de 0,6 e 0,8 cm, respectivamente. Em ambas as áreas C. tarsata nidificou durante a estação úmida, produzindo quatro gerações anuais em Baixa Grande e três em Ipirá. Os imaturos de uma das gerações passaram por diapausa em ambos os locais. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de areia e óleo. Em geral, as células foram alongadas e arranjadas em série linear, com sua abertura dirigida para a entrada do ninho. Os ninhos completados tinham de duas a três células nos tubos pequenos

  9. Fertility signals in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramkova, A.; Schulz, C.; Twele, R.; Francke, W.; Ayasse, M.

    2008-06-01

    In eusocial Hymenoptera, queen control over workers is probably inseparable from the mechanism of queen recognition. In primitively eusocial bumblebees ( Bombus), worker reproduction is controlled not only by the presence or absence of a dominant queen but also by other dominant workers. Furthermore, it was shown that the queen dominance is maintained by pheromonal cues. We investigated whether there is a similar odor signal released by egg-laying queens and workers that may have a function as a fertility signal. We collected cuticular surface extracts from nest-searching and breeding Bombus terrestris queens and workers that were characterized by their ovarian stages. In chemical analyses, we identified 61 compounds consisting of aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, and fatty acid esters. Nest-searching queens and all groups of breeding females differed significantly in their odor bouquets. Furthermore, workers before the competition point (time point of colony development where workers start to develop ovaries and lay eggs) differed largely from queens and all other groups of workers. Breeding queens showed a unique bouquet of chemical compounds and certain queen-specific compounds, and the differences toward workers decrease with an increasing development of the workers’ ovaries, hinting the presence of a reliable fertility signal. Among the worker groups, the smallest differences were found after the competition point. Egg-laying females contained higher total amounts of chemical compounds and of relative proportions of wax-type esters and aldehydes than nest-searching queens and workers before the competition point. Therefore, these compounds may have a function as a fertility signal present in queens and workers.

  10. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P bee venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kU A /L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kU A /L) compared with adults (5.10 kU A /L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kU A /L) (P venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae

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    Vladimir Gokhman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896 is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862 and L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for L. boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979 (n = 9, whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the L. heterotoma clade. Like L. boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for G. xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insect communities.

  12. Los Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera asociados con agallas de Cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid

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    Gómez, J. F.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information about the chalcid wasp parasitoid community (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea associated with galls of Cynipidae in Madrid (Spain is compiled and updated. Studied material includes more than 1000 published and unpublished records from samplings in 80 sites in the Madrid region carried out over twenty three years by the research team. A check-list of 121 species, 19 of them provisionally identified, from 6 families of Chalcidoidea is provided as follows: 26 Eurytomidae, 27 Torymidae, 9 Ormyridae, 33 Pteromalidae, 9 Eupelmidae and 17 Eulophidae. Ormyrus rufimanus Mayr, 1904 and Idiomacromerus semiaeneus (Szelenyi, 1957 are recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. For each family and genus of Chalcidoidea data are given on biology, diversity and distribution in Comunidad de Madrid. The composition of the chalcid wasp parasitoid community associated with gall wasps in Comunidad de Madrid is discussed and compared to the same community data from the Iberian Peninsula and the Western Palaearctic. Species from the Iberian community of chalcid parasitoids that are missing from Madrid region, exclusive species and potentially present species are also commented upon. Finally two appendices are presented as follows: a list of the Chalcidoidea species reared from 73 different galls made by 71 cynipid species from Madrid with associated parasitoid records, and a final appendix with full record data of all studied material, including information on the sampling localities with X, Y georeferenced coordinates, host galls and host plants.

    Se compila y actualiza la información existente sobre la comunidad parasitoide de Chalcidoidea, asociada a agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae en la Comunidad de Madrid. Los datos corresponden a más de 1000 registros, tanto de datos publicados, como inéditos, correspondientes a colectas en 80 localidades de Madrid efectuadas por el equipo investigador a lo largo de 23 a

  13. Partial cytochrome b sequences for six Hymenoptera of the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A M; Gardner, L M

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have been commonly used to determine honeybee subspecies relationships. To see if these markers would also be useful for comparisons of other Hymenoptera, we collected workers of six local species: Vespa crabro, the European hornet; Bombus impatiens, a bumblebee; Vespula germanica, the German yellow jacket; Polistes fuscatus, a paper wasp; Halictus ligatus, an alkali bee; and an unspecified Megachile, a leafcutting bee. MtDNA was isolated and digested with six endonucleases (AvaI, BglII, EcoRI, HindIII, HinfI, XbaI). The digested DNA was electrophoresed and visualized on agarose gels with comparison to a standard fragment marker and similarly treated honeybee mtDNA. The fragments obtained were also purified and sequenced. Phylogenetic relationships between six wasp and bee species, Apis mellifera, and several other similar aculeate Hymenoptera were determined. Newly defined DNA sequences were posted to GenBank (AF281169-AF281174).

  14. The ovipositor apparatus of basal Hymenoptera (Insecta): phylogenetic implications and functional morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Lars

    2000-01-01

      The skeleto-musculature of the ovipositor apparatus and the external sculpture of the 1st and 2nd valvulae was studied in representatives from all ‘symphytan' families. Nineteen informative characters were coded and scored. The distribution of character states are discussed with reference...... to recent cladistic treatments of the Hymenoptera. Putative autapomorphies of the Hymenoptera are the presence of cordate apodemes on T9 and basal articulations and associated musculature between the 2nd valvifers and the 2nd valvulae. It is a ground plan feature of the order to have the gonocoxites...... synapomorphies for the tenthredinoid families except the Blasticotomidae are the presence of alternating strongly and weakly sclerotized zones on the first and/or second valvulae and the presence of serrulae on the sawteeth. The presence of transverse rows of large ctenidia on the 1st valvulae is an autapomorphy...

  15. Diagnosis and management of hymenoptera venom allergy: British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M T; Ewan, P W; Diwakar, L; Durham, S R; Frew, A J; Leech, S C; Nasser, S M

    2011-09-01

    This guidance for the management of patients with hymenoptera venom allergy has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI). The guideline is based on evidence as well as on expert opinion and is for use by both adult physicians and pediatricians practising allergy. During the development of these guidelines, all BSACI members were included in the consultation process using a web-based system. Their comments and suggestions were carefully considered by the SOCC. Where evidence was lacking, consensus was reached by the experts on the committee. Included in this guideline are epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic tests, natural history of hymenoptera venom allergy and guidance on undertaking venom immunotherapy (VIT). There are also separate sections on children, elevated baseline tryptase and mastocytosis and mechanisms underlying VIT. Finally, we have made recommendations for potential areas of future research. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Phylogeny and population genetic structure of ant genus Acropyga (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Milan; Matos Maravi, Pavel F.; Borovanská, Michaela; Zima, Jan; Youngerman, E.; Pierce, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2016), s. 28-40 ISSN 1445-5226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant - others:Marie Curie Fellowship(CZ) PIOFGA2009-25448; Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations(CZ) CZ.1.05/3.2.00/08.0144 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acropyga * Hymenoptera * Papua New Guinea Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.172, year: 2016

  17. Parasitoidism of Chalcidid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Philornis sp. (Diptera, Muscidae

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    M. S. Couri

    Full Text Available Philornis Meinert larvae are known as parasites of birds, with coprophagous, semi-hematophagous or hematophagous habits. Biological data of the larvae of the fifty described species are still scarcely known. Here we describe some aspects of the parasitism of a species of Philornis on Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin (Trochilidae and record two species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera parasitoids, Conura annulifera (Walker, 1864 and Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787, reared from Philornis puparia.

  18. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luciana Bueno dos Reis; Dias Filho, Manoel Martins; Fernandes, Marcelo Adorna; Penteado-Dias, Angelica Maria

    2010-01-01

    Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae). The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae) were obtained. Seven species of Ichneu...

  19. The microlepidopterous natural enemy Brachymeria subrugosa Blanchard, 1942 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae): identity, hosts and geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Daniel Alejandro; Tavares, Marcelo Texeira; Balducci, Ezequiel; Baca, Verónica; De Quinteros, Sara Quintana

    2015-09-08

    A lectotype is designated for Brachymeria subrugosa Blanchard 1942 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae). The species is diagnosed, redescribed, and compared to B. subconica Bouček, both of which are illustrated by macrophotography. Taxonomic notes, new parasitoid/host associations and new geographical records are also given for B. subrugosa. Brachymeria annulipes (Costa Lima 1919), a junior secondary homonymy of Chalcis annulipes Walker 1834, is proposed as a junior synonym of B. subrugosa syn. nov.

  20. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps.

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    Martin Kaltenpoth

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes. Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of

  1. Identification of microsatellite markers for a worldwide distibuted, highly invasive ant species Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidiae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zima, Jan; Lebrasseur, O.; Borovanská, Michaela; Janda, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, JUNE 03 (2016), s. 409-414 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant - others:Marie Curie Fellowship(CZ) PIOFGA2009-25448 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Formicidae * Tapinoma melanocephalum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2016/01/53.pdf

  2. Diversity and host associations of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in the farmlands of western Iran

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nazari, Y.; Zamani, A. A.; Masoumi, S. M.; Rakhshani, E.; Petrović-Obradović, O.; Tomanović, S.; Starý, Petr; Tomanović, Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2012), s. 559-584 ISSN 0374-1036 Grant - others:University of Zabol(IR) 89-9198; The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) III43001; The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) OI173006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Braconidae * Aphidiinae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2012

  3. Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Mariane Aparecida Nickele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex heyeri Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Colony migration is a poorly studied phenomenon in leaf-cutting ants. Here we report on the emigration of a colony of the leaf-cutting ant A. heyeri in Brazil. The colony emigrated to a new location 47.4 m away from the original nest site, possibly because it had undergone considerable stress due to competitive interactions with a colony of Acromyrmex crassispinus.

  4. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

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    Onice Teresinha Dall'Oglio

    Full Text Available The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order.

  5. Are the TTAGG and TTAGGG telomeric repeats phylogenetically conserved in aculeate Hymenoptera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Rodolpho S. T.; Bardella, Vanessa B.; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C.; Lucena, Daercio A. A.; Almeida, Eduardo A. B.

    2017-10-01

    Despite the (TTAGG)n telomeric repeat supposed being the ancestral DNA motif of telomeres in insects, it was repeatedly lost within some insect orders. Notably, parasitoid hymenopterans and the social wasp Metapolybia decorata (Gribodo) lack the (TTAGG)n sequence, but in other representatives of Hymenoptera, this motif was noticed, such as different ant species and the honeybee. These findings raise the question of whether the insect telomeric repeat is or not phylogenetically predominant in Hymenoptera. Thus, we evaluated the occurrence of both the (TTAGG)n sequence and the vertebrate telomere sequence (TTAGGG)n using dot-blotting hybridization in 25 aculeate species of Hymenoptera. Our results revealed the absence of (TTAGG)n sequence in all tested species, elevating the number of hymenopteran families lacking this telomeric sequence to 13 out of the 15 tested families so far. The (TTAGGG)n was not observed in any tested species. Based on our data and compiled information, we suggest that the (TTAGG)n sequence was putatively lost in the ancestor of Apocrita with at least two subsequent independent regains (in Formicidae and Apidae).

  6. Revision of the ant genus Melophorus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heterick, Brian E.; Castalanelli, Mark; Shattuck, Steve O.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The fauna of the purely Australian formicine ant genus Melophorus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is revised. This project involved integrated morphological and molecular taxonomy using one mitochondrial gene (COI) and four nuclear genes (AA, H3, LR and Wg). Seven major clades were identified and are here designated as the M. aeneovirens, M. anderseni, M. biroi, M. fulvihirtus, M. ludius, M. majeri and M. potteri species-groups. Within these clades, smaller complexes of similar species were also identified and designated species-complexes. The M. ludius species-group was identified purely on molecular grounds, as the morphology of its members is indistinguishable from typical members of the M. biroi species-complex within the M. biroi species-group. Most species-complexes sampled were also found to be monophyletic. Sequencing generally supported monophyly in taxa sampled but some species of the M. fieldi complex and M. biroi were not monophyletic and the implications arising from this are discussed in this monograph. Based on morphology, ninety-three species are recognized, 73 described as new. A further new species (here called 'Species K' [TERC Collection]) is noted in the taxonomic list, but is not described in this work. One species is removed from Melophorus: M. scipio Forel is here placed provisionally in Prolasius. Six species and five subspecies pass into synonymy. Of the full species, M. constans Santschi, M. iridescens (Emery) and M. insularis Wheeler are synonymized under M. aeneovirens (Lowne), M. pillipes Santschi is synonymized under M. turneri Forel, M. marius Forel is synonymized under M. biroi Forel, and M. omniparens Forel is synonymized under M. wheeleri Forel. Of the subspecies, M. iridescens fraudatrix and M. iridescens froggatti Forel are synonymized under M. aeneovirens (Lowne), M. turneri aesopus Forel and M. turneri candidus Santschi are synonymized under M. turneri Forel and M. fieldi propinqua Viehmeyer is synonymized under M. biroi

  7. Las hormigas Ecitoninae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae de Morelos, México

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    Luis N Quiroz-Robledo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario de las hormigas ecitoninas del estado de Morelos, ubicado en la región centro-sur de la república mexicana. Los muestreos fueron realizados por medio de colectas directas y del uso de trampas de intercepción; ocasionalmente se capturaron también machos atraidos a la luz. Se encontraron 15 especies de hormigas ecitoninas: Labidus coecus (Latreille, 1802; L. praedator s. str. (Fr. Smith, 1858; Neivamyrmex agilis Borgmeier, 1953; N. cornutus (Watkins, 1975; N. fallax Borgmeier, 1953; N. graciellae (Mann, 1926; N. impudens (Mann, 1922; N. macropterus Borgmeier, 1953; N. melanocephalus (Emery, 1985; N. nigrescens (Cresson, 1872; N. opacithorax (Emery, 1894; N. pauxilus (Wheeler, 1903; N. sumichrasti (Norton, 1868; N. swainsoni (Shuckard, 1840 y Nomamyrmex esenbecki mordax (Santschi, 1928. Doce de estos registros son nuevos para la entidad. Las especies más abundantes fueron L. coecus, N. melanocephalus, N. nigrescens y N. esenbecki. Se proporciona también alguna información sobre la distribución de estas especies en el estado y las fechas de vuelo de los machos que fueron recolectados. Por último, se anexa una clave para la identificación de obreras y machos en la cual se incluye una especie adicional (N. fuscipennis, que no fue recolectada por nosotros pero ha sido informada por otro autor para la entidad.The Ecitoninae ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae from Morelos, México. To produce an inventory of the Ecitoninae ants from Morelos State (south central Mexico, we used direct capture and pit-fall traps. Occasionally, males were also collected near artificial light sources. Fifteen species were found: Labidus coecus, L. praedator s. str., Neivamyrmex agilis, N. cornutus, N. fallax, N. graciellae, N. impudens, N. macropterus, N. melanocephalus, N. nigrescens, N. opacithorax, N. pauxilus, N. sumichrasti, N. swainsoni and Nomamyrmex esenbecki mordax. Twelve of these species are new records for the state. The most

  8. SAFETY OF VENOMENHAL® VENOM IN MAINTENANCE HYMENOPTERA VENOM IMMUNOTHERAPY

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    Mitja Košnik

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Venomenhal® (V is a new brand ofHymenoptera venom allergen for diagnosis and immunotherapyof venom allergy. We studied the safety of switching thepatients treated with other brands of venom to V. Methods. We performed duplicate skin prick tests with V andALK Reless® (R venom extract (100 μg/ml in 68 patients (50males, 42 ± 15 years on maintenance immunotherapy withhoney bee (26 or wasp (42 venom. On two consecutive maintenanceinjection days 53 patients received in random ordereither 100 μg of R or V venom. Results. Weal diameter in skin prick tests (mean ± st.dev. were3.9 ± 1.1 mm (V and 4.1 ± 1.0 mm (R for bee venom (NSand 3.4 ± 1.0 mm (V and 3.9 ± 1.2 mm (R for wasp venom (p< 0.01. Local reaction 30 minutes after maintenance injectionwere 6.1 ± 1.7 cm (V and 5.4 ± 2.5 cm (R for bee venom(NS and 5.1 ± 1.8 cm (V and 6.1 ± 1.8 cm (R for wasp venom(p < 0.05.Late local reactions (LLR and tiredness (T on the day of injectionand 24 hours after injection were equally distributedamong both groups and were mild (LLR on the day of injection:38% of patients [V] vs. 43% [R]. LLR after 24 hours: 28%[V] vs. 28% [R]. T on the day of injection: 21% [V] vs. 23% [R].T after 24 hours: 0% [V] vs. 6% [R]. Conclusions. V was at least as safe as A. There were no adversereactions due to switching from one brand to another. Slightlybut significantly smaller weal in skin prick tests and immediatelocal reactions might be due to lesser potency or betterpurification of V wasp extract.

  9. Molecular phylogenetics of ponerine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have revolutionized our understanding of how these ecologically dominant organisms diversified, but detailed phylogenies are lacking for most major ant subfamilies. I report the results of the first detailed phylogenetic study of the ant subfamily Ponerinae, a diverse cosmopolitan lineage whose properties make it an attractive model system for investigating social and ecological evolution in ants. Molecular sequence data were obtained from four nuclear genes (wingless, long-wavelength rhodopsin, rudimentary [CAD], 28S rDNA; total of ~3.3 kb) for 86 ponerine taxa, representing all three ponerine tribes, 22 of the 28 currently recognized genera, and 14 of the 18 informal subgenera of Pachycondyla, a heterogeneous grouping whose monophyly is doubtful on morphological grounds. Phylogenetic reconstructions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference support the monophyly of Ponerinae and tribe Platythyreini, but fail to support the monophyly of the large tribe Ponerini due to its inclusion of the unusual genus Thaumatomyrmex. Pachycondyla is inferred to be broadly non-monophyletic. Numerous novel generic and suprageneric relationships are inferred within Ponerini, which was found to consist of four major multi-generic clades (the Ponera, Pachycondyla, Plectroctena and Odontomachus genus groups) plus the single genera Hypoponera and Harpegnathos. Uncertainty remains in some regions of the phylogeny, including at the base of Ponerini, possibly reflecting rapid radiation. Divergence dating using a Bayesian relaxed clock method estimates an origin for stem Ponerinae in the upper Cretaceous, a major burst of diversification near the K/T boundary, and a rich and continual history of diversification during the Cenozoic. These results fail to support the predictions of the "dynastic-succession hypothesis" previously developed to explain the high species diversity of Ponerinae. Though model

  10. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-08-29

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.

  11. Diversidade de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apidae) ao longo de um gradiente latitudinal na Mata Atlântica

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Rodrigo Barbosa; Brandão,Carlos Roberto Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    A Mata Atlântica é um dos ambientes mais ricos e ameaçados do mundo, o que deveria ter estimulado em muito o estudo e a conservação do Bioma, mas a fauna de Hymenoptera permanece ainda relativamente pouco conhecida. Em especial, a fauna de abelhas da floresta ombrófila densa é pouco estudada em comparação à fauna das áreas abertas brasileiras. O projeto temático "Biodiversidade de Hymenoptera e Isoptera: riqueza e diversidade ao longo de um gradiente latitudinal na Mata Atlântica - a floresta...

  12. Novo hospedeiro e habitat para Neralsia splendens (Borgmeier, 1935 (Hymenoptera: Figitidade no Brasil New host and habitat for Neralsia splendens (Borgmeier, 1935 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Os Figitinae são parasitóides primários de larvas de dípteros. Na região Neotropical, poucos estudos têm sido realizados com esse grupo. Neste trabalho é relatado o novo hospedeiro e o habitat de Neralsia splendens (Borgmeier, 1935 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae coletadas em Oxysarcodexia thornax (Walker, 1849 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, utilizando armadilhas com iscas de fezes humanas na Fazenda do Curso de Agronomia, em Itumbiara, Goiás, Brasil, em fevereiro de 2005. Foram coletados 9 espécimens do parasitóide N. splendens que emergiram de 50 pupas de O. thornax. A taxa de parasitismo obtida foi de 18,0%.The Figitinae are the primary parasitoids of dipterous larvae. Few studies have been done on this group in Neotropical region. This paper reports a new host and habitat of Neralsia splendens (Borgmeier, 1935 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae. The parasitoid was collected from Oxysarcodexia thornax (Walker, 1849 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae on traps containing feces humans baits, in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil, at February 2005. A total of 9 specimens of the parasitoid N. splendens emerged from 50 pupae of O. thornax was collected. The parasitism rate was 18.0 %. This is a new record of the host (O. thornax and habitat (feces humans for N. splendens in Brazil.

  13. Encontro do parasita Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae em Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae no Brasil Finding of Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae parasite breeding in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Marchiori

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de Hemencyrtus herbertii parasitando pupas de Musca domestica em fezes humanas no Brasil.This is the first report of the occurrence of Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae parasitizing pupae of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in human feces in Brazil.

  14. The first record of the genus Tanaostigma (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmatidae) in the Old World, with the description of a new species from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Joshi, Sunil

    2016-11-15

    Tanaostigma Howard (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmatidae) is recorded for the first time in the fauna of the Old World, with T. indica Gupta sp. n.  described and illustrated from southern India, reared from Millettia (=Pongamia) pinnata (Fabaceae).

  15. Redescripción de Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoide introducido en la Argentina para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

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    Javier TORRÉNS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe el agente de biocontrol introducido en la Argentina, Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. y se aportan nuevos caracteres para su identificación.

  16. The catalogue of Ichneumon wasps of Slovakia (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Part I: A checklist of the subfamily Cryptinae with 32 new records

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rindoš, Michal; Lukáš, J.; Zeman, V.; Holecová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2017), s. 167-170 ISSN 1211-8516 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptinae * Hymenoptera * Ichneumonidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology https://acta.mendelu.cz/65/1/0167/

  17. Effects of feeding frequency and sugar concentration on behavior and longevity of the adult aphid parasitoid: Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzouz, H.; Giordanengo, P.; Wäckers, F.L.; Kaiser, L.

    2004-01-01

    Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary aphid endoparasitoid. Adults feed on honeydew and possibly on other sugar sources such as nectar. Sugar sources can vary qualitatively and quantitatively according to biotic factors and environmental conditions. Experiments were

  18. Powdered sugar shake to monitor and oxalic acid treatments to control varroa mites (Parasitiformes: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective monitoring and alternative strategies to control the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor Anderson and Truemann (Parasitiformes: Varroidae), (varroa) are crucial for determining when to apply effective treatments to honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies. Using simpl...

  19. Notes on Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera) Species Collected by Bait Traps in OrganicVineyard and Orchards of Kemalpaşa (İzmir), Western Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÜZÜM, Ahu; TANYERİ, Rukiye; GÜLPERÇİN, Nilay; TEZCAN, Serdar; YILDIRIM, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera species collected by bait traps during the months of June-October in organic vineyard and orchards in Kemalpaşa district, (İzmir) of Western Turkey were evaluated in this study. As a result, six species belonging 2007 to two families of Hymenoptera were determined. Those were Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793), Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758, Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1771, Polistes dominulus (Christ, 1791) and Polistes gallicus (Linnaeus, 1767). Amon...

  20. Improved sensitivity to venom specific-immunoglobulin E by spiking with the allergen component in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy

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    Naruo Yoshida

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The measurement of sIgE following spiking of rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 by conventional testing in Japanese subjects with sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom, respectively, improved the sensitivity for detecting Hymenoptera venom allergy. Improvement testing for measuring sIgE levels against hornet and paper wasp venom has potential for serologically elucidating Hymenoptera allergy in Japan.

  1. Two new species of Oobius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and their phylogenetic relationship with other congeners from northeastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Xia Yao; Jian J. Duan; Jason L. Mottern; Xiao-Yi Wang; Zhong-Qi Yang; Leah S. Bauer; Michael W. Gates

    2018-01-01

    Two new species of egg parasitoids, Oobius saimaensis Yao and Mottern new species and Oobius fleischeri Yao and Duan new species (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are described from eggs of Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger, 1925 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Agrilus fleischeri is a phloemfeeding woodborer of poplar (...

  2. A new species of the Camponotus aureopilus VIEHMEYER, 1914 species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shattuck, S.; Janda, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2009), s. 251-253 ISSN 1994-4136 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR KJB612230701 Grant - others:U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-02-11591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : taxonomic description * Hymenoptera * Formicidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  3. Record of the genus Arrhenophagoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae from India, description of a new species from the Andaman Islands

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    M. Hayat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arrhenophagoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is recorded for the first time from India and the Oriental region, and a new species, A. andamanica sp. Nov. is described from material collected in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. As the genus is newly recorded from the Oriental region, a brief diagnosis is also given.

  4. Ficobracon brusi gen. nov. & spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid reared from figs in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Weiblen, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    A new genus (Ficobracon gen. nov.; type species: Ficobracon brusi spec. nov.) of the subfamily Braconinae (Hymenoptera; Braconidae) is reported from figs (syconia) of Ficus wassa Roxb. in Papua New Guinea; the new genus is illustrated and described. It is the second genus belonging to the Braconidae

  5. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

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    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  6. Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina) presence in commercial Bombus impatiens Cresson and feral Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, eight commercial and three feral bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson and Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer respectively, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies were tested for the presence of Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina), a yeast known to attract small hive beetles (SHB) (Aethina ...

  7. The use of root plates for nesting sites by Anthophora abrupta (Hymenoptera: Apidae) may be common within forested habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua W. Campbell; Cynthia C. Viguiera; Patrick Viguiera; John E. Hartgerink; Cathryn H. Greenberg

    2017-01-01

    This is the first reported use of root plates by Anthophora abrupta Say (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Previous reported nesting sites were vertical riverbanks and several man-made clay structures. Root plates in forested habitats may be the preferred nesting site for A. abrupta.

  8. Review of the East Palaearctic and North Oriental Psyttalia Walker, with the description of three new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Q.; Achterberg, van C.; Tan, J.-L.; Chen, X.-X.

    2016-01-01

    The East Palaearctic and North Oriental species of the genus Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) are reviewed. Three new species are described and illustrated: P. latinervis Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. and P. majocellata Wu & van Achterberg, sp. n. from China, and P. spectabilis van

  9. A new species of genus Chorebus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Alysiinae parasitising Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae from NW China

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    Tao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.

  10. Establishing Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), the introduced egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer, in Michigan ash stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby Petrice; F. William Ravlin; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland

    2016-01-01

    The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is one of four parasitoid species from northeast Asia being released in regions of North America as part of a biological control program to manage the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (Bauer et al...

  11. Review of Stantonia Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae) from Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia, with descriptions of six new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Long, K.D.; Chen, X.-X.

    2017-01-01

    The genus Stantonia Ashmead, 1904 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae) is reviewed for Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia. Six new species of the genus Stantonia are described and illustrated: Stantonia brevicaudata van Achterberg, sp. n., S. dickyyui van Achterberg & Long, sp. n., S. granulata Long

  12. Solenopsis invicta virus (sinv-1) infection and insecticide interactions in the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling invasive species is a growing concern; however, pesticides can be detrimental for non-target organisms. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren; Hymenoptera: Formicidae) has aggressively invaded approximately 138 million ha in the USA and causes over $6 billion in damage and ...

  13. Antennal olfactory responsiveness of the Texas leaf cutting ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to trail pheromone and its two alarm substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.A. Andryszak; Thomas L. Payne; J.C. Dickens; John C. Moser; R.W. Fisher

    1990-01-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from major workers, queens, and males of the Texas leaf cutting, Atta texana (Buckley) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in response to serial dilutions of two alarm substances, 2-heptanone and 4-methyl-3-heptanone, and its trial phermone, 4-methylpyrrole-2-carbonxylate. The lower EAG threshold for major workers...

  14. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes USBombus, a large dataset that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the US was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affi...

  15. Effect of exposure time on mass-rearing production of the olive fruit fly parasitoid, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical biological control programs rely on mass-production of high quality beneficial insects for subsequent releases into the field. Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a koinobiont larval-pupal endoparasitoid of tephritid flies that is being reared to support a classic...

  16. Hymenoptera of Afghanistan and the central command area of operations: assessing the threat to deployed U.S. service members with insect venom hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbyville, Joseph C; Dunford, James C; Nelson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Insect venom hypersensitivity can pose a threat to personnel deployed to a combat zone but the exposure risk in Afghanistan is currently unknown. This study was designed to assess the threat of Hymenoptera stings and associated allergic reactions in Afghanistan. Hymenoptera species were collected during a deployment to southern Afghanistan from June 2010 through January 2011. The literature was also reviewed to determine species of medically important Hymenoptera recorded in the region. The U.S. Army theater electronic medical data system was mined for ICD-9 codes associated with insect stings to determine the number of theater medical clinic encounters addressing insect sting reactions. Three species of flying hymenoptera were commonly encountered during the study period: Vespa orientalis L., Polistes wattii Cameron, and Vespula germanica (F.). A literature review also confirms the presence of honeybees (Apidae), numerous velvet ant (Mutillidae) species, and various ant (Formicidae) species all capable of stinging. No evidence was identified to suggest that fire ants (Solenopsis ssp.) are a threat in the region. Based on electronic medical records from the U.S. Central Command area of operations over a 2-year period, roughly 1 in 500 clinic visits involved a patient with a diagnosis of insect bite or sting. Cross-reactive members of all five flying Hymenoptera species commonly assessed for in Hymenoptera allergy evaluations are present in Afghanistan. The review of in-theater medical records confirms that insect stings pose an environmental threat to deployed service members.

  17. Primer registro del género Mellinus (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández C. Fernando

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los taxones menos conocidos de Sphecidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea es Mellinus Fabricius, género que en el pasado llegó a tener categoría de subfamilia (Bohart & Menke 1976, pero que ahora comprende una tribu, Mellinini, dentro de la subfamilia Nyssoninae (Menke & Fernández 1996. Al parecer,  las hembras de este género capturan moscas del estiércol cerca a excrementos de mamíferos en el campo, y hacen sus nidos en el suelo (Evans 1989.

  18. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca.

  19. A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R. R. Faria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae from northeastern Brazil. Eufriesea pyrrhopyga sp. nov. a short-tongued Eufriesea is described as a new species. It can be easily recognized for its predominantly violet lower frons and thorax, violet tergum 1 contrasting with the strong reddish coloration on the lateral portions of terga 2 to 4 and on entire terga 5 and 6, and head pubescence with contrasting colors, white on the lower two-thirds of the face and black on upper frons and vertex. This new species, collected in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil, apparently is restricted to the Pernambuco endemic center, and seems to be highly endangered.

  20. Ciclo de desarrollo de Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula, Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera, Trigonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Giomar Nates Parra

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el ciclo de desarrollo de una abeja sin aguijón: Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula. Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera. Trigonini. Los resultados fueron los siguientes: El periodo comprendido entre la postura del huevo y la emergencia del imago, es, en las obreras, de 36.5 días en promedio. La duración del ciclo se hace mayor a medida que las celdas se alejan del centro del panal. Se determinaron 3 instares larvales y 5 fases pupales para obreras.

  1. Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúncia Urban

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melostelis gen. nov. é proposto para um novo Anthidiini cleptoparasita. São descritas e ilustradas duas espécies novas: Melostelis amazonensis sp. nov. de Manaus, Amazonas e Larocanthidium chacoense sp. nov. de Porto Murtinho, Mato Grosso do Sul. São dados a conhecer os machos de Epanthidium bolivianum Urban, 1995 e Epanthidium araranguense Urban, 2006 e, registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil, na sub-região do chaco, Ketianthidium zanolae Urban, 2000 e Epanthidium bolivianum.

  2. Ciclo vital de Pegoscapus aff. silvestrii (Hymenoptera:Agaonidae), polinizador de Ficus andicola (Moraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Jansen G.; Carlos E. Sarmiento M.

    2006-01-01

    La relación entre las plantas del género Ficus (Moraceae) y las avispas de la familia Agaonidae (Hymenoptera) ha cautivado a los científicos durante las últimas seis décadas, siendo los temas más comúnmente tratados aquellos que involucran co-evolución, mutualismo en la relación planta animal y el estudio de las proporciones de sexo en las poblaciones de avispas que emergen de los frutos de cada especie de Ficus. A pesar de esto, son pocos los estudios que tratan la biología básica d...

  3. Ciclo vital de Pegoscapus aff. silvestrii (Hymenoptera:Agaonidae), polinizador de Ficus andicola (Moraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiento M. Carlos E.; Jansen G. Sergio

    2006-01-01

    La relación entre las plantas del género Ficus (Moraceae) y las avispas de la familia Agaonidae (Hymenoptera) ha
    cautivado a los científicos durante las últimas seis décadas, siendo los temas más comúnmente tratados
    aquellos que involucran co-evolución, mutualismo en la relación planta animal y el estudio de las proporciones
    de sexo en las poblaciones de avispas que emergen de los frutos de cada especie de Ficus. A pesar de esto, son pocos los estudios que tra...

  4. PERBANDINGAN KEANEKARAGAMAN HYMENOPTERA PARASITOID PADA AGROEKOSISTEM KEDELAI DENGAN APLIKASI DAN TANPA APLIKASI INSEKTISIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrival Hendrival

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sistem pengelolaan tanaman kedelai dengan penggunaan insektisida sintetik yang intensif akan menurunkan keanekaragaman jenis Hymenoptera parasitoid. Penelitian bertujuan untuk memban-dingkan keanekaragaman Hymenoptera parasitoid pada agroekosistem kedelai dengan dan tanpa aplikasi insektisida sintetik. Pengumpulan data serangga menggunakan perangkap dari jaring serangga dan nampan kuning. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa indeks keanekaragaman jenis pada fase pertumbuhan vegetatif dan generatif kedelai dengan aplikasi insektisida lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan yang tanpa aplikasi insektisida, yang keduanya tergolong sedang. Indeks kemerataan jenis pada fase pertumbuhan vegetatif dan generatif dari kedua agroekosistem kedelai tergolong tinggi. Indeks kekayaan jenis pada fase vegetatif dari agroekosistem kedelai dengan aplikasi insektisida tergolong rendah (0<2,3955≤2,5, sedangkan pada fase generatif tergolong sedang (0<3,6118≤4. Indeks kekayaan jenis pada fase vegetatif (0<2,6229≤4 dan generatif (0<3,8287≤4 dari agroekosistem kedelai tanpa aplikasi insektisida tergolong sedang. Komunitas Hymenoptera parasitoid pada agroekosistem kedelai tanpa aplikasi insektisida memiliki kemiripan lebih rendah daripada yang dengan aplikasi insektisida. Aplikasi insektisida mempengaruhi indeks kekayaan jenis pada fase generatif dan kemiripan komunitasnya, yaitu nilainya lebih rendah daripada yang tanpa insektisida. Abstract The management system of soybean agroecosystem with an intensive use of synthetic insecticides will reduce the diversity of parasitoid Hymenoptera species. The study aimed to compare the diversity of the parasitoids in soybean agroecosystem with and without insecticide application. The collection of the parasitoid used insect net and yellow tray. The results showed that the diversity index of the parasitoids during vegetative and generative growth of the soybean with the insecticide application was lower than the one without

  5. A new species of Paraphaenodiscus Girault (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae from India parasitizing Coccus sp. (Hemiptera: Coccidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Paraphaenodiscus udayveeri Singh sp. nov., has been described and illustrated with automontaged photographs of both male and female. Species parasitized scale insects on the leaves of Pterygota alata which were weaved into nest of red weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Species is compared with P. chrysocomae Prinsloo and P. pedanus Prinsloo & Mynhardt. Key to world species of Paraphaenodiscus except European species is also given. Types are deposited with National Forest Insect Collection, Entomology Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, India (NFIC-FRI.

  6. Pollinator diversity (Hymenoptera and Diptera in semi-natural habitats in Serbia during summer

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    Mudri-Stojnić Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess species diversity and population abundance of the two main orders of pollinating insects, Hymenoptera and Diptera. The survey was conducted in 16 grassland fragments within agro-ecosystems in Vojvodina, as well as in surrounding fields with mass-flowering crops. Pollinators were identified and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used to measure their diversity. Five families, 7 subfamilies, 26 genera and 63 species of insects were recorded. All four big pollinator groups investigated were recorded; hoverflies were the most abundant with 32% of the total number of individuals, followed by wild bees - 29%, honeybees - 23% and bumblebees with 16%.

  7. Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovskii (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae, new to Korea and the first host record of Allobethylus Kieffer

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    Jongok Lim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovskii (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae is newly recognized from South Korea. The genus can be easily recognized from other genera in Scleroderminae by having the head wider than it is long, the antenna with 10 flagellomeres, the clypeus with short projected median lobe, and the metasomal tergite II longer than the combined length of remained tergites. Description and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics of Pararhabdepyris paradoxus Gorbatovskii are provided. In addition, the present paper provides the first host record of Allobethylus Kieffer of Scleroderminae from the world. A revised key to genera and species of South Korean Scleroderminae is also presented.

  8. Utility of laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachová, Martina; Panzner, Petr; Malkusová, Ivana; Hanzlíková, Jana; Vlas, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    A diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy is based on clinical history and the results of skin tests and/or laboratory methods. To analyze the utility of available laboratory tests in diagnosing Hymenoptera venom allergy. Ninety-five patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy with a history of bee (35) or wasp (60) anaphylactic sting reaction and positive skin test with bee or wasp venom were included in this analysis. Specific immunoglobulin E (to bee venom extract, wasp venom extract, available recombinant molecules, and a basophil activation test with venom extracts were assessed in all the patients. Test sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using standard threshold values; then, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compute optimal threshold values. Also, statistical analysis of the utility of different combinations of laboratory tests was performed. The optimal threshold values were revealed to be the following: 1.0 kIU/L for bee venom extract (sensitivity, 97.14%; specificity, 100%), 0.35 kIU/L for rApi m 1 (sensitivity, 68.57%; specificity, 100%), 1.22 kIU/L for wasp venom extract (sensitivity, 88.33%; specificity, 95.45%), 0.7 kIU/L for rVes v 5 (sensitivity, 86.67%; specificity, 95.45%), 1.0 kIU/L for rVes v 1 (sensitivity, 56.67%; specificity, 95.45%), 6.5% for basophil activation test with bee venom extract (sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 95.45%), and 4.5% for basophil activation test with wasp venom extract (sensitivity, 91.53%; specificity, 95.45%). The best test combinations were found to be the following: bee venom extract plus rApi m 1 (sensitivity, 97.14%; specificity, 95.45%) in bee and either wasp venom extract plus rVes v 5, or rVes v 5 plus rVes v 1 (both sensitivity, 98.33%; specificity, 95.45%) in patients with wasp venom allergy. Our analysis confirmed that currently used laboratory tests represent effective tools in diagnosing Hymenoptera venom allergy. Moreover, our probabilistic approach offered another

  9. Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as parasitoid of Diptera, in Brazil

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    Marchiori C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo determinou as espécies de hospedeiros do parasitóide Pachycrepoideusvindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em fezes humanas, rins e fígado de bovino, peixe e frutos. As pupas, obtidas pelo método de flutuação, foram colocadas individualmente em cápsulas de gelatina e mantidas até a emergência das moscas e/ou parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 15,7%. Este trabalho registra a primeira ocorrência de Pachycrepoideusvindemiae em pupas de Peckiachrysostoma.

  10. First occurrence of Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae in pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in Itumbiara, Goiás State, Brazil/ Primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae em pupas de Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae coletados em plantas de milho em Itumbiara, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Cleiber Rabelo Costa

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available First occurrence of Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitizing pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in Itumbiara, Goiás. This work reports, for the first time, Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitizing pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in a maize crops in Itumbiara, GO. The prevalence was of 33,3%.Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência, de Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitando pupas de Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae em cultura de milho em Itumbiara, GO. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 33,3%.

  11. The Survivorship and Water Loss of Liometopum luctuosum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Liometopum occidentale (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Exposed to Different Temperatures and Relative Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey-Chamberlain, Rochelle; Rust, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of velvety tree ants, Liometopum luctuosum Wheeler, and Liometopum occidentale Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are commonly found in the western Unites States from Washington to southern California. L. luctuosum is restricted to coniferous forests in the mountains in the southern range, whereas L. occidentale is found in the lowlands. The survivorship of workers of both species exposed to several temperatures and relative humidity (RH) was determined. As temperature increased, survival of both species decreased. As the RH increased, survival of both species increased. However, L. luctuosum had higher overall survival in all treatment groups. The cuticular permeability (CP) and the rates of body water loss for each species were determined. Both species had similar CPs. Increased physiological tolerances of L. luctuosum may be an explanation for its broader distribution. PMID:25525111

  12. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr; Bogusch, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015-2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  13. Description of the first Neotropical species of Bassettia Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini from Panama

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    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Bassettia Ashmead, 1887, Bassettia caulicola (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini, from Panama is described. The new species induces galls on the stems of Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae sect. Quercus. The diagnostic characteristics, distribution data, and biology of the new species are given. The new species is included in the existing key for the identification of the Nearctic species of Bassettia. The morphological diagnosis of Bassettia and the first record of this genus in the Neotropical region are noted.Se describe una nueva especie de Bassettia Ashmead, 1887, Bassettia caulicola (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini, de Panamá. La nueva especie induce agallas en los tallos de Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae secc. Quercus. Se aportan los caracteres diagnósticos de la nueva especie, su distribución y su biología. La nueva especie es incluida en la clave de identificación de la especies de Bassettia del Neártico. Se amplían los datos diagnósticos morfológicos del género Bassettia así como se comenta el primer registro de este género en la región neotropical.

  14. Genes underlying reproductive division of labor in termites, with comparisons to social Hymenoptera

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    Judith eKorb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available All social insects are characterized by a reproductive division of labor. Within a colony only a few individuals reproduce (queens and in termites, also a king while the large majority (workers and soldiers forgo reproduction, at least temporarily. The evolution of such reproductive altruism can ultimately be explained by inclusive fitness theory. Here, I will review the proximate genetic mechanisms underlying this altruism in termites. As social cockroaches they evolved eusociality independently from the social Hymenoptera, which makes them interesting test cases to look for common underlying mechanisms of eusociality and lineage specific idiosyncrasies. First, I will provide a summary of the genes and their function that have been identified to underlie reproductive division of labor - so called 'queen genes,' - in the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus, an emerging model to study termite social evolution. Second, I outline how widespread these queen genes are across the termite phylogeny, using also evidence from recent genome analyses. I will provide hypotheses about the evolutionary origin of these queen genes, aiming to link proximate mechanisms with ultimate functions. Finally, I will draw comparisons to social Hymenoptera to indicate potential common underpinnings that warrant further testing.

  15. A hymenopterists’ guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions

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    Katja Seltmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera exhibit an incredible diversity of phenotypes, the result of ~240 million years of evolution and the primary subject of more than 250 years of research. Here we describe the history, development, and utility of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO and its associated applications. These resources are designed to facilitate accessible and extensible research on hymenopteran phenotypes. Outreach with the hymenopterist community is of utmost importance to the HAO project, and this paper is a direct response to questions that arised from project workshops. In a concerted attempt to surmount barriers of understanding, especially regarding the format, utility, and development of the HAO, we discuss the roles of homology, “preferred terms”, and “structural equivalency”. We also outline the use of Universal Resource Identifiers (URIs and posit that they are a key element necessary for increasing the objectivity and repeatability of science that references hymenopteran anatomy. Pragmatically, we detail a mechanism (the “URI table” by which authors can use URIs to link their published text to the HAO, and we describe an associated tool (the “Analyzer” to derive these tables. These tools, and others, are available through the HAO Portal website (http://portal.hymao.org. We conclude by discussing the future of the HAO with respect to digital publication, cross-taxon ontology alignment, the advent of semantic phenotypes, and community-based curation.

  16. A new cytogenetic mechanism for bacterial endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in Hymenoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Hagimori, Tetsuya; Miura, Kazuki; Stouthamer, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Vertically transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria, such as Wolbachia, Cardinium and Rickettsia, modify host reproduction in several ways to facilitate their own spread. One such modification results in parthenogenesis induction, where males, which are unable to transmit the bacteria, are not produced. In Hymenoptera, the mechanism of diploidization due to Wolbachia infection, known as gamete duplication, is a post-meiotic modification. During gamete duplication, the meiotic mechanism is normal, but in the first mitosis the anaphase is aborted. The two haploid sets of chromosomes do not separate and thus result in a single nucleus containing two identical sets of haploid chromosomes. Here, we outline an alternative cytogenetic mechanism for bacterial endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in Hymenoptera. During female gamete formation in Rickettsia-infected Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) parasitoids, meiotic cells undergo only a single equational division followed by the expulsion of a single polar body. This absence of meiotic recombination and reduction corresponds well with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females. We conclude that diploidy in N. formosa is maintained through a functionally apomictic cloning mechanism that differs entirely from the mechanism induced by Wolbachia. PMID:18713719

  17. The rearranged mitochondrial genome of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae, a parasitoid wasp of Drosophila

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    Daniel S. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The partial mitochondrial genome sequence of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae was characterized. Illumina sequencing was used yielding 35,999,679 reads, from which 102,482 were utilized in the assembly. The length of the sequenced region of this partial mitochondrial genome is 15,417 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 21tRNA genes (the trnaM failed to be sequenced and a partial A+T-rich region. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Eleven protein-coding genes presented TAA stop codons, whereas ND6 and COII that presented TA, and T nucleotides, respectively. The gene pattern revealed extensive rearrangements compared to the typical pattern generally observed in insects. These rearrangements involve two protein-coding and two ribosomal genes, along with the 16 tRNA genes. This gene order is different from the pattern described for Ibalia leucospoides (Ibaliidae, Cynipoidea, suggesting that this particular gene order can be variable among Cynipoidea superfamily members. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the main groups of Apocrita was performed using amino acid sequence of 13 protein-coding genes, showing monophyly for the Cynipoidea superfamily within the Hymenoptera phylogeny.

  18. Hornets Have It: A Conserved Olfactory Subsystem for Social Recognition in Hymenoptera?

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    Antoine Couto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eusocial Hymenoptera colonies are characterized by the presence of altruistic individuals, which rear their siblings instead of their own offspring. In the course of evolution, such sterile castes are thought to have emerged through the process of kin selection, altruistic traits being transmitted to following generation if they benefit relatives. By allowing kinship recognition, the detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs might be instrumental for kin selection. In carpenter ants, a female-specific olfactory subsystem processes CHC information through antennal detection by basiconic sensilla. It is still unclear if other families of eusocial Hymenoptera use the same subsystem for sensing CHCs. Here, we examined the existence of such a subsystem in Vespidae (using the hornet Vespa velutina, a family in which eusociality emerged independently of ants. The antennae of both males and female hornets contain large basiconic sensilla. Sensory neurons from the large basiconic sensilla exclusively project to a conspicuous cluster of small glomeruli in the antennal lobe, with anatomical and immunoreactive features that are strikingly similar to those of the ant CHC-sensitive subsystem. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings further show that sensory neurons within hornet basiconic sensilla preferentially respond to CHCs. Although this subsystem is not female-specific in hornets, the observed similarities with the olfactory system of ants are striking. They suggest that the basiconic sensilla subsystem could be an ancestral trait, which may have played a key role in the advent of eusociality in these hymenopteran families by allowing kin recognition and the production of altruistic behaviors toward relatives.

  19. Três espécies novas do gênero Chorisoneura (Blattellidae, Chorisoneuriinae coletadas em ninhos de Sphecidae (Hymenoptera do Estado do Acre, Brasil Three new species of the genus Chorisoneura (Blattellidae, Chorisoneuriinae collected in Sphecidae nests (Hymenoptera from Acre State, Brazil

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    Sonia Maria Lopes

    Full Text Available Three new species of Chorisoneura Brunner, 1865 from Acre State, Brazil collected in nests of Podium Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae are described. Illustrations of genitalia are presented.

  20. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: fanniidae no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae is reported. Pupae of F. pusio were collected in traps using human feces to attract the adults. Ten pupae were obtained, of which two were parasitized by S. nigroaenea, thus demonstrating a parasitism rate of 20.0%.

  1. Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitóide de dípteros muscóides coletado em Itumbiara, Goiás Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitoid of muscoids dipterous collected in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

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    C.H. Marchiori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the occurrence of parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing pupae of flies (Diptera in different substrata in Itumbiara, Goiás. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. From May 1998 through April 2002, 737 parasitoids were collected in human feces, cattle liver, chicken, fish and cattle kidney. The prevalence of parasitism was 67.8%.

  2. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  3. The occurrence and evolution of nectar extraction apparatus among Hymenoptera ‘Symphyta'. Jervis, M. & Vilhelmsen, L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    functional types of elongated proboscis or ‘concealed-nectar extraction apparatus (CNEA)' have previously been recognized among Hymenoptera. We identify an additional type, which appears to be unique among Hymenoptera and has probably evolved directly from unspecialized mouthparts (labiomaxillary complex...... not mentioned in the literature. Within the ‘Symphyta', possession of Type 1 CNEA appears to be a ground plan feature of each of the following taxa: the pergid genus Eurys Newman, the megalodontesid genus Megalodontes Latreille (the only extant representative of the Megalodontesidae) and the tenthredinid genus...... Cuneala Zirngiebl, while possession of Type 8 appears to be a ground plan feature of the tenthredinid genus Nipponorhynchus Takeuchi. However, in general among ‘Symphyta', possession of CNEA is characteristic of only small and taxonomically subordinate groups, suggesting that CNEA has evolved...

  4. Higher-level bee classifications (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato Classificação dos grandes grupos de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A higher-level classification of bees, in which the entire group is treated as a single family - the Apidae - is advocated here. A total of seven subfamilies, 51 tribes and 27 subtribes are recognized. These subfamilies correspond to the families adopted in the traditional classification. Although the proposed changes do not involve any major rearrangement, basically only changing the rank given to the main groups, the new system makes the classification of bees more consistent with that adopted for other major groups of aculeate Hymenoptera. It also departs from the 19th century practice, perpetuated in the traditional classification, of giving family-status to the main groups of bees. A correspondence table associating the taxon names used in the current traditional classification with those of the revised classification is presented. Scrapterini new tribe (type-genus Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville is proposed to accommodate the southern African genus Scrapter.Apresenta-se uma classificação para as abelhas em que o todo o grupo é tratado como uma única família - Apidae. São reconhecidas sete subfamílias, 51 tribos e 27 subtribos. As subfamílias correspondem às famílias da classificação tradicional. Apesar das mudanças propostas afetarem apenas o status dos grupos, o novo sistema torna a classificação das abelhas mais consistente com aquela adotada para os grandes grupos de Hymenoptera aculeados. Além disso, distancia-se da tradição de dar status de família aos grupos principais de abelhas, uma prática do século 19 perpetuada na classificação tradicional. É apresentada uma tabela de correspondência associando os nomes dos táxons usados na classificação tradicional corrente com aquelas da classificação sendo proposta aqui. Scrapterini tribo nova (gênero-tipo Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville é proposta para acomodar Scrapter, um gênero restrito à porção sul do continente africano.

  5. Catalogue of Danish Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, with the description of two new species of Aspilota Foerster, 1863

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    Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a total of 153 species of Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from Denmark are catalogued. Two species are described as new for science: Aspilota leptoarticulata Munk & Peris-Felipo sp. nov. and A. grandis Munk & Peris-Felipo sp. nov. Additionally, 38 alysiine species are recorded for the first time for the Danish fauna. A faunistic list with distribution data and host records is provided.

  6. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of northeastern Iran: Aphidiine-aphid-plant associations, key and description of a new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakhshani, E.; Kazemzadeh, S.; Starý, Petr; Barahoei, H.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Ćetković, A.; Popović, A.; Bodlah, I.; Tomanović, Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, 9 DEC (2012), Article 143 ISSN 1536-2442 Grant - others:Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) III43001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Trioxys metacarpalis n.sp. * tritrophic associations * Hymenoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2012 http://www. insect science.org/12.143/i1536-2442-12-143.pdf

  7. First record of Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae as parasitoid of Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

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    Augusto Loni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world.

  8. A cuckoo in wolves' clothing? Chemical mimicry in a specialized cuckoo wasp of the European beewolf (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae and Crabronidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Strohm, E.; Kroiß, J.; Herzner, G.; Laurien-Kehnen, C.; Boland, W.; Schreier, P.; Schmitt, T.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Host-parasite interactions are among the most important biotic relationships. Host species should evolve mechanisms to detect their enemies and employ appropriate counterstrategies. Parasites, in turn, should evolve mechanisms to evade detection and thus maximize their success. Females of the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) hunt exclusively honeybee workers as food for their progeny. The brood cells containing the paralyzed bees are sever...

  9. Pollination Effectiveness of Apis Cerana Fabricus and Apis Mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Jatropha Curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    ATMOWIDI, TRI; RIYANTI, PUJI; SUTRISNA, ANDENG

    2008-01-01

    Pollinators are well known to provide key ecosystem. Animal pollinators are thought to contribute between 15 and 30% of global food production and bees are recognized to be the most important taxon. h e pollination eff ectiveness of two species of bees, Apis cerana and A. mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) was studied. h ree cages, made of insect screen were set up. Each cage contains three individual plants. One colony of A. mellifera and A. cerana...

  10. SELETIVIDADE DE FUNGICIDAS UTILIZADOS NA CULTURA DO TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicum esculentum, MILL.) A Trichogramma pretiosum

    OpenAIRE

    José Romário Carvalho; Dirceu Pratissoli; João Paulo Pereira Paes; Vitor Zuim; Priscila Stinguel; Kharen Priscilla de Oliveira Silva Salomão

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, RH 70 ± 10% and 14h photophase), the selectivity of 18 fungicides in tomato to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), which is one of the natural enemies more employees in biocontrol. Cards with Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were treated with fungicides (treatments) and submitted to parasitism by 24 hours. The parameters evaluated were: percentage of parasitism, percent emergence and s...

  11. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area-volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area-volume ratios.

  12. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca. PMID:25992582

  13. Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae wasp community in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru

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    Evelyn Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the species composition of the subfamily Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae along an altitudinal gradient in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru collected in 2009 and 2010. Eighteen species were recorded in three genera of Ophioninae: Alophophion, Enicospilus y Ophion. Five species are recorded for the first time in Peru: Ophion polyhymniae Gauld, 1988; Enicospilus cubensis (Norton, 1863; E. guatemalensis (Cameron, 1886; E. cressoni Hooker, 1912 y E. mexicanus (Cresson, 1874. Subfamily composition varies with the elevation. The highest species richness (S=11 was found at 2150 m and the lowest (S=3 at 3116 m. Enicospilus is more diverse from low to mid elevation, Ophion from mid to high elevation and Alophophion occurs predominantly at high elevation.

  14. Additions to the Knowledge of the Genus Phimenes (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Vietnam

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    Lien Thi Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solitary wasp genus Phimenes Giordani Soika, 1992 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae was reported to occur in Vietnam by van der Vecht (1959, represented by one taxon, Phimenes flavopictus continentalis (Zimmermann, which was synonymized under nominotypical Phimenes flavopictus (Blanchard, 1849 by Kumar (2013. A note on gender of this genus is made in the text. One more species, Phimenes indosinensis (van der Vecht, 1959 is recorded in this study from Dak Lak in the southern and Son La in the northwestern parts of Vietnam for the first time. Detailed descriptions of the female and male of the latter are provided with figures. A key to the two species from Vietnam is also provided.

  15. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  16. New records and three new species of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea from Iran

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    Franco Strumia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the distribution of 52 cuckoo wasp species (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae from Iran are given. One genus and 27 species (including 3 new species: 52% of the captured material are new records for the country. In addition, three new species, Chrysis gianassoi sp. nov., Chrysis majidi sp. nov. and Chrysis unirubra sp. nov. are described and illustrated, and diagnostic characters are provided to identify them. Chrysis turcica du Buyson, 1908 is removed from synonymy with Chrysis peninsularis du Buysson, 1887. Chrysis bilobata Balthasar, 1953 is confirmed as valid species and illustrated. The composition of the Iranian Chrysididae fauna is compared with that of South Palaearctic countries. The large proportion of new record and new species (≈52% indicates that the fauna of Iranian Chrysididae is rich and diverse but has not yet been thoroughly studied. The majority of new record were obtained from mountainous sites above 1000 m above sea level, indicating the rich biodiversity of this biotope.

  17. Nesting sites characteristics of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

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    Nelky Suriawanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae is eusocial insects that live together in a colony. This research was aimed to study the nesting site characteristics of stingless bees in the settlement areas at Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The nesting sites were observed by purposive sampling method from July 2015 to January 2016. Four species belong to genus Tetragonula were found, namely T. fuscobalteata, T. biroi, T. sapiens, and T. laeviceps. Two spesies, T. biroi and T. sapiens are the new record in Sulawesi island. The highest abundance of stingless bees colony was T. fuscobalteata (92.26%, followed by T. biroi (4.17%, T. sapiens (2.98%, and T. laeviceps (0.59%. Nesting sites of T. fuscobalteata were found in the stone, brick wall, wooden wall, bamboo, and iron cavities, T. biroi in the wooden wall, stone, and brick wall cavities, T. sapiens in stone cavities, while T. laeviceps in wooden walls.

  18. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

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    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  19. A contribution to the knowledge of Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, with six new records from Iran

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    S. Farahani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted for identification of Euphorinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae in the northern provinces of Iran. The specimens were collected using Malaise traps during 2010-2011. In all, 9 species in four genera consisting of Allurus Förster, Dinocampus Förster, Peristenus Nees and Perilitus Nees were collected and identified. The genus Allurus is recorded for the first time from Iran. Six species are newly recorded for the Iranian fauna including Allurus muricatus (Haliday, Peristenus pallipes Curtis, Peristenus relictus (Ruthe, Perilitus (Townesilitus bicolor (Wesmael, Perilitus foveolatus Reinhard and Perilitus rutilus (Nees. Morphological diagnostic characters and geographical distribution of the species are briefly discussed. A key is presented for identification of the genera and species in the studied area.

  20. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae from Thailand.

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    Sirikarn Sanpa

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae. Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca.

  1. Notes on the systematics of the orchid-bee genus Eulaema (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Notes on the systematics of the orchid-bee genus Eulaema (Hymenoptera, Apidae. The classification of the genus Eulaema is modified in order to make it congruent with recent phylogenetic hypotheses based on molecular data. The speciosa group, containing E. peruviana, E. speciosa and related species, is removed from E. (Eulaema and transferred to E. (Apeulaema. New morphological characters are presented to support the revised scope of the subgenera and their diagnostic features are revised. Six species groups are recognized herein: two in E. (Apeulaema and four in E. (Eulaema. A list of valid species in each species group and an identification key to males of each of the subgenera and species groups are provided. Finally, an older overlooked designation of a type species for Eulaema is presented in the Appendix.

  2. Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure 1892 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Angeline David; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure, 1829 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia was done using specimens deposited in Centre for Insects Systematics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (CIS, UKM). Type and non-type specimens were loaned from several repositories namely Zoological Museum of Amsterdam Netherlands (ZMAN), Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM), British Natural History Museum London (BMNH) and Department of Agricultural Malaysia (DOA) for identification and comparison. The specimens were identified to the species level which gives rise to five species namely Xanthopimpla conica Cushman, 1925, Xanthopimpla despinosa leipephelis Townes & Chiu, 1970, Xanthopimpla flavolineata Cameron, 1907, Xanthopimpla punctata (Fabricius, 1781) and Xanthopimpla tricapus impressa Townes & Chiu, 1970. A dichotomous key and descriptions for five Xanthopimpla spesies were provided. Photos and illustrations of carina on propodeum were also included in this paper.

  3. The HIT study: Hymenoptera Identification Test--how accurate are people at identifying stinging insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Troy W; Forester, Joseph P; Johnson, Monica L; Stolfi, Adrienne; Stahl, Mark C

    2014-09-01

    Stinging insects in the order Hymenoptera include bees, wasps, yellow jackets, hornets, and ants. Hymenoptera sting injuries range from localized swelling to rarely death. Insect identification is helpful in the management of sting injuries. To determine the accuracy of adults in identifying stinging insects and 2 insect nests. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study using a picture-based survey to evaluate an individual's success at identifying honeybees, wasps, bald-face hornets, and yellow jackets. Bald-face hornet and paper wasp nest identification also was assessed in this study. Six hundred forty participants completed the questionnaire. Overall, the mean number of correct responses was 3.2 (SD 1.3) of 6. Twenty participants (3.1%) correctly identified all 6 stinging insects and nests and only 10 (1.6%) were unable to identify any of the pictures correctly. The honeybee was the most accurately identified insect (91.3%) and the paper wasp was the least correctly identified insect (50.9%). For the 6 questions regarding whether the participant had been stung in the past by any of the insects (including an unidentified insect), 91% reported being stung by at least 1. Men were more successful at identify stinging insects correctly (P = .002), as were participants stung by at least 4 insects (P = .018). This study supports the general perception that adults are poor discriminators in distinguishing stinging insects and nests with the exception of the honeybee. Men and those participants who reported multiple stings to at least 4 insects were more accurate overall in insect identification. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Food load manipulation ability shapes flight morphology in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Carlo; Crottini, Angelica; Della Venezia, Lidia; Selfa, Jesús; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2013-06-28

    Ecological constraints related to foraging are expected to affect the evolution of morphological traits relevant to food capture, manipulation and transport. Females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera vary in their food load manipulation ability. Bees and social wasps modulate the amount of food taken per foraging trip (in terms of e.g. number of pollen grains or parts of prey), while solitary wasps carry exclusively entire prey items. We hypothesized that the foraging constraints acting on females of the latter species, imposed by the upper limit to the load size they are able to transport in flight, should promote the evolution of a greater load-lifting capacity and manoeuvrability, specifically in terms of greater flight muscle to body mass ratio and lower wing loading. Our comparative study of 28 species confirms that, accounting for shared ancestry, female flight muscle ratio was significantly higher and wing loading lower in species taking entire prey compared to those that are able to modulate load size. Body mass had no effect on flight muscle ratio, though it strongly and negatively co-varied with wing loading. Across species, flight muscle ratio and wing loading were negatively correlated, suggesting coevolution of these traits. Natural selection has led to the coevolution of resource load manipulation ability and morphological traits affecting flying ability with additional loads in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera. Release from load-carrying constraints related to foraging, which took place with the evolution of food load manipulation ability, has selected against the maintenance of a powerful flight apparatus. This could be the case since investment in flight muscles may have to be traded against other life-history traits, such as reproductive investment.

  5. Species of Lepidoptera defoliators of Eucalyptus as new host for the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

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    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll and Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were obtained from Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake plants, respectively. Specimens of a parasitoid emerged from T. arnobia pupae and also found parasitising T. leucoceraea pupae in the field were identified as Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. This is the first report on P. elaeisis parasitizing T. arnobia and T. leucoceraea pupae in natural conditions in Brazil. P. elaeisis also parasitized these hosts and Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae and Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in the laboratory. The production and release of P. elaeisis could be an efficient alternative for controlling Lepidoptera defoliators in eucalyptus plantations.Pupas de Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll e Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram coletadas em Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, respectivamente. Espécimes de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae emergiram de T. arnobia e foram encontrados sobre pupas de T. leucoceraea em plantas de eucalipto no campo. Esse é o primeiro relato de P. elaeisis parasitando pupas de T. arnobia e T. leucoceraea em condições naturais no Brasil. Além desses hospedeiros, P. elaeisis parasitou em laboratório Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae e Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. A produção de P. elaeisis e sua liberação em eucaliptais podem representar uma alternativa eficiente de controle de lagartas

  6. Epidemiology of allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings in Irish school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, Aisling

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this was to study generate the first epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy among school children in Ireland. Questionnaires, including six sting-specific questions (1), were distributed to the parents of primary school children aged 6-8 and 11-13, divided equally between rural and urban backgrounds. From 110 schools, 4112 questionnaires were returned. A total of 1544 (37.5%) children had been stung in their lifetime. Among the total, 5.8% of children stung experienced a large local reaction, 3.4% had a mild (cutaneous) systemic reaction (MSR) and 0.8% experienced a moderate\\/severe systemic reaction (SSR); these figures respectively represent 2.2%, 1.3% and 0.2% of the total study group. On logistic regression analysis, older children and rural children were at a higher risk of being stung (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-2.; OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8 respectively). Rural dwellers and asthma sufferers were more likely to experience an SSR (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.4-13.5 and OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.8-4.3, respectively). Hymenoptera stings are more common in rural than urban dwelling Irish children. Asthma imparted a greater risk of SSR in this study population. Severe reactions are unusual overall, occurring in <1% of those stung, a lower prevalence than in Israeli teenagers but in keeping with other European reports relating to young children.

  7. Added sensitivity of component-resolved diagnosis in hymenoptera venom-allergic patients with elevated serum tryptase and/or mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, J B; Brockow, K; Darsow, U

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis caused by hymenoptera venom allergy is associated with elevation of baseline serum tryptase (sBT) and/or mastocytosis in about 5% of patients. Up to now, no information has become available on single venom allergen sIgE reactivity and the usefulness of component......-resolved approaches to diagnose this high-risk patient group. To address the component-resolved sIgE sensitization pattern and diagnostic sensitivity in hymenoptera venom-allergic patients with elevated sBT levels and/or mastocytosis, a panel of yellow jacket and honeybee venom allergens was applied on a widely used...... IgE immunoassay platform. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with mastocytosis and/or elevated sBT tryptase level and systemic reactions to hymenoptera venoms were analyzed for their IgE reactivity to recombinant yellow jacket and honeybee venom allergens by Immulite3 g. RESULTS: sIgE reactivity to Ves v...

  8. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and markers for phylogenetic and population studies. Previous research has shown interesting features in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different hierarchical levels, i.e., Braconidae, Hymenoptera, and Holometabola. Results Seven mitochondrial genomes from seven subfamilies of Braconidae were sequenced. Three of the four sequenced A+T-rich regions are shown to be inverted. Furthermore, all species showed reversal of strand asymmetry, suggesting that inversion of the A+T-rich region might be a synapomorphy of the Braconidae. Gene rearrangement events occurred in all braconid species, but gene rearrangement rates were not taxonomically correlated. Most rearranged genes were tRNAs, except those of Cotesia vestalis, in which 13 protein-coding genes and 14 tRNA genes changed positions or/and directions through three kinds of gene rearrangement events. Remote inversion is posited to be the result of two independent recombination events. Evolutionary rates were lower in species of the cyclostome group than those of noncyclostomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and secondary structure of rrnS supported a sister-group relationship between Aphidiinae and cyclostomes. Many well accepted relationships within Hymenoptera, such as paraphyly of Symphyta and Evaniomorpha, a sister-group relationship between Orussoidea and Apocrita, and monophyly of Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata were robustly confirmed. New hypotheses, such as a sister-group relationship between Evanioidea and Aculeata, were generated. Among holometabolous insects, Hymenoptera was shown to be the sister to all other orders. Mecoptera was recovered as the

  9. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José C; Torres, Jorge B; Sediyama, Camilla A Z; Pereira, Fabricio F; Pastori, Patrik L; Wermelinger, Eduardo D; Ramalho, Francisco S

    2009-03-01

    Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) during egg stage (48.9%), a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae) during larval stages (10%) and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) during pupal stage (52.2%). The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%).

  10. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitoids of Lepidoptera caterpillars feeding on Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae

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    Luciana Bueno dos Reis Fernandes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae were obtained. Seven species of Ichneumonidae were reared from leaf rollers: Meniscomorpha sp. (Banchinae and Leurus caeruliventris (Cresson (Metopiinae from Dichomeris sp. (Gelechiidae; Mesochorus sp.1 (Mesochorinae [as a parasitoid of Hypomicrogaster sp. (Braconidae, Microgastrinae], Campoplex sp. (Campopleginae and Leurus sp. from Olethreutinae sp. (Tortricidae; Sphelodon annulicornis Morley (Banchinae and Eutanygaster brevipennis Cameron (Cremastinae were also reared from two unidentified species of Gelechiidae. The other eight species were reared from the larvae of exposed feeders: Diradops sp. (Banchinae from Miselia albipuncta Hampson (Noctuidae, Casinaria sp. (Campopleginae from Hymenomima conia Prout (Geometridae, Charops sp. (Campopleginae from Bagisara paulensis Schaus (Noctuidae and Oxydia vesulia (Cramer (Geometridae, two species of Hyposoter Förster (Campopleginae from Semaeopus sp. (Geometridae and H. conia, two species of Microcharops Roman (Campopleginae from B. paulensis and an unidentified species of Limacodidae and Mesochorus sp. 2 [reared from what was probably Aleiodes sp. (Braconidae, Rogadinae] from an unidentified species of Noctuidae.Parasitóides da família Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera foram obtidos durante um inventário de larvas de Lepidoptera sobre Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. As larvas de Lepidoptera foram coletadas sobre as plantas que ocorrem nas bordas de caminhos em três áreas preservadas de mata do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Quinze esp

  11. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Parasitoid and Host Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...

  12. Oogenesis pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

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    Gilberto S. Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on ovigeny in parasitoids is important for basic studies on physiology and applied biological control. The ovigeny pattern and type of ovariole of the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae were studied in newly-emerged females at seven, 14, 24 and 48 h intervals after their emergence from Tenebrio molitor L. pupae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Females of P. elaeisis presented ovaries composed by four ovarioles of the meroistic polytrophic type. The yolk accumulation and chorionogenesis in P. elaeisis were concluded 24 h after the female emergence. The 48 h-old females show a high quantity of egg ready for oviposition. These findings can help to improve the mass production of P. elaeisis and the augmentative biological control by using this natural enemy.O conhecimento da ovigenia em parasitóides é importante para estudos básicos em fisiologia e para o controle biológico aplicado. O padrão de ovigenia e OVIGENY OF Palmistichus elaeisis (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE o tipo de ovaríolo do parasitóide Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenopera: Eulophidae foram estudados em fêmeas recém-emergidas e em intervalos de sete, 14, 24 de 48 horas após a emergência em pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Fêmeas de P. elaesis apresentaram o ovário composto por quatro ovaríolos do tipo meroístico politrófico. A deposição de vitelo e corionogênese em P. elaeisis foram concluídas 24 horas após a emergência. Fêmeas com 48 horas de idade apresentam grande quantidade de ovos prontos para a oviposição. Esses resultados podem ajudar a melhoria da produção massal de P. elaeisis e o controle biológico aplicado com esse parasitóide.

  13. A new species of Pediobius (hymenoptera: eulophidae) parasitizing Chyliza apicalis (Diptera: Psilidae) in ash trees attacked by Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael W. Gates; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Michael E. Schauff

    2005-01-01

    Pediobius chylizae, spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is described as new and illustrated. This parasitoid has been reared from the puparia of Chyliza apicalis Loew (Diptera: Psilidae) collected from under the bark of ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus spp.) dying after attack by the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleptera: Buprestidae), an invasive...

  14. The genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with an emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (...

  15. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica) and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new spec...

  16. Description of the male Hymenoepimecis japi Sobczak et al. 2009 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae parasitoid of Leucauge roseosignata Mello-Leitão 1943 (Araneae: Tetragnathidae

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    JF. Sobczak

    Full Text Available The male of Hymenoepimecis japi (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae is described and illustrated. The specimen was collected in a modified web (cocoon web of Leucauge roseosignata (Araneae, Tetragnathidae made in a laboratory. Both, host and parasitoid were collected in Reserva Biológica Serra do Japi, located in Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil.

  17. Review of the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu lato in China, with the description of a new genus and four new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Achterberg, van C.; Chen, X.-x.

    2017-01-01

    A new genus is split off the genus Craspedolcus Enderlein, 1920 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae): Maculibracon gen. n. with type species Maculibracon abruptus sp. n. The genus Craspedolcus Enderlein sensu stricto is redefined, a key to both genera and to their species in China, Thailand and

  18. Honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of African origin exist in non-africanized areas of the southern United States: evidence from mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Pinto; W.S. Sheppard; J.S. Johnston; W.L. Rubink; R.N. Coulson; N.M. Schiff; I. Kandemir; J.C. Patton

    2007-01-01

    Descendents of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (the Africanized honey bee) arrived in the United States in 1990. Whether this was the first introduction is uncertain. A survey of feral honey bees from non-Africanized areas of the southern United States revealed three colonies (from Georgia, Texas, and New Mexico) with a...

  19. Additions to the fauna of Braconidae from Madeira and Selvagens Islands, with the description of five new species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae, Alysiinae, Opiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Aguiar, Franquinho A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one species of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera) are added to the checklist of Braconidae from Madeira, resulting in 113 species, of which 17 species are endemic to Madeira Islands and 4 species are only known from Madeira and Canary Islands. Five species are reported new for the Selvagens

  20. Test of nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone to protect trap trees for Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) from attacks by bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Dodds; Daniel Miller

    2010-01-01

    Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an invasive woodwasp, currently established in northeastern North America. In other regions of the world, stressed trap trees are used to monitor populations of S. noctilio and to provide inoculation points for the biological control nematode Deladenus siricidicola Bedding. However, the operational use of trap trees for S....

  1. Evidence for divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon sex pheromone between California and Mississippi (United States of America) populations of bark beetle parasitoid Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Sullivan; Nadir Erbilgin

    2014-01-01

    Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common Holarctic parasitoid of the larvae and pupae of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scotytinae). In no-choice laboratory bioassays, we found that male wasps derived either from northern California or southwestern Mississippi, United States of America more frequently displayed sexual...

  2. Development of methods for the field evaluation of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in North America, a newly introduced egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Michael D. Ulyshen; Juli R. Gould; Roy. Van Driesche

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted in forested plots near Lansing, Michigan in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the newly introduced egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for control of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). To measure parasitism by

  3. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited...

  4. Comparison of the olfactory preferences of four species of filth fly pupal parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for hosts in equine and bovine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) can be purchased for biological control of these flies. ...

  5. Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae) biological control agents of Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana: statewide distribution and Kneallhazia solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), have been released in the United States since 1996 as biological control agents for imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), management. A statewide survey was conducted in ...

  6. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  7. A total-evidence approach to dating with fossils, applied to the early radiation of the hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Schulmeister, Susanne; Murray, Debra L; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P

    2012-12-01

    Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically. Specifically, we compare node dating using nine calibration points derived from the fossil record with total-evidence dating based on 343 morphological characters scored for 45 fossil (4--20 complete) and 68 extant taxa. In both cases we use molecular data from seven markers (∼5 kb) for the extant taxa. Because it is difficult to model speciation, extinction, sampling, and fossil preservation realistically, we develop a simple uniform prior for clock trees with fossils, and we use relaxed clock models to accommodate rate variation across the tree. Despite considerable uncertainty in the placement of most fossils, we find that they contribute significantly to the estimation of divergence times in the total-evidence analysis. In particular, the posterior distributions on divergence times are less sensitive to prior assumptions and tend to be more precise than in node dating. The total-evidence analysis also shows that four of the seven Hymenoptera calibration points used in node dating are likely to be based on erroneous or doubtful assumptions about the fossil placement. With respect to the early radiation of Hymenoptera, our results suggest that the crown group dates back to the Carboniferous, ∼309 Ma (95% interval: 291--347 Ma), and diversified into major extant lineages much earlier than previously thought, well before the Triassic. [Bayesian inference; fossil dating; morphological evolution; relaxed clock; statistical phylogenetics.].

  8. A Total-Evidence Approach to Dating with Fossils, Applied to the Early Radiation of the Hymenoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Schulmeister, Susanne; Murray, Debra L.; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically. Specifically, we compare node dating using nine calibration points derived from the fossil record with total-evidence dating based on 343 morphological characters scored for 45 fossil (4--20 complete) and 68 extant taxa. In both cases we use molecular data from seven markers (∼5 kb) for the extant taxa. Because it is difficult to model speciation, extinction, sampling, and fossil preservation realistically, we develop a simple uniform prior for clock trees with fossils, and we use relaxed clock models to accommodate rate variation across the tree. Despite considerable uncertainty in the placement of most fossils, we find that they contribute significantly to the estimation of divergence times in the total-evidence analysis. In particular, the posterior distributions on divergence times are less sensitive to prior assumptions and tend to be more precise than in node dating. The total-evidence analysis also shows that four of the seven Hymenoptera calibration points used in node dating are likely to be based on erroneous or doubtful assumptions about the fossil placement. With respect to the early radiation of Hymenoptera, our results suggest that the crown group dates back to the Carboniferous, ∼309 Ma (95% interval: 291--347 Ma), and diversified into major extant lineages much earlier than previously thought, well before the Triassic. [Bayesian inference; fossil dating; morphological evolution; relaxed clock; statistical phylogenetics.] PMID:22723471

  9. Effects of venom immunotherapy on serum level of CCL5/RANTES in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Radoslaw; Glück, Joanna; Jawor, Barbara; Rogala, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Venom immunotherapy is a recommended treatment of insect allergy with still the mechanism not being completely understood. We decided to assess the serum CCL5/RANTES level in patients who experienced severe anaphylactic reaction to Hymenoptera venom and to find out changes in the course of immunotherapy. Twenty patients (9 men, 11 women, mean age: 31.91 ± 7.63 years) with history of anaphylactic reaction after insect sting were included into the study. Diagnosis was made according to sIgE and skin tests. All of them were enrolled into rush venom immunotherapy with bee or wasp venom extracts (Pharmalgen, ALK-Abello, Horsholm, Denmark). Serum levels of CCL5/RANTES were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). CCL5/RANTES serum concentration are higher in insect venom allergic patients than in healthy controls (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 387.27 ± 85.11 pg/ml). Serum concentration of CCL5/RANTES in insect venom allergic patient was significantly reduced in the course of allergen immunotherapy already after 6 days of vaccination (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 567.32 ± 92.16 pg/ml). CCL5/RANTES serum doesn't correlate with specific IgE. Chemokine CCL5/RANTES participates in allergic inflammation induced by Hymenoptera venom allergens. Specific immunotherapy reduces chemokine CCL5/RANTES serum level already after initial days of venom immunotherapy.

  10. On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel G. Hermes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On the nesting biology of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, with special reference to the use of vegetable matter. The use of vegetable matter in nest building is not widespread among the Eumeninae, and is reported for the first time for the two species of potter wasps Pirhosigma superficiale and P. limpidum. These wasps make mostly spherical mud nests over which they attach small pieces of unmasticated plant matter. Use of plant fragments in this group of wasps is interpreted as camouflage behavior.

  11. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  12. Fauna de Campopleginae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) em hortas orgânicas em Araraquara e São Carlos, SP, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandonato, Diogo Loibel; Onody, Helena Carolina; Penteado-Dias, Angélica Maria

    2010-01-01

    Fauna de Campopleginae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) em hortas orgânicas em Araraquara e São Carlos, SP, Brasil. De março de 2006 a fevereiro 2007 foram realizadas doze amostragens utilizando armadilhas Malaise em cada uma das três áreas de cultivos orgânicos estudadas. Um total de 1773 espécimes foram identificados em dez gêneros de Campopleginae: Campoctonus Viereck, 1912, Campoletis Föster, 1869, Casinaria Holmgren, 1859, Charops Holmgren, 1859, Cryptophion Viereck, 1913, Diadegma Föster, 1...

  13. Occurrence of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae parasitizing Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenção

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B nymphs on cotton plants was observed during a research on resistance of cotton genotypes to this whitefly. The experiment was set in a greenhouse at the Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples of the parasitized nymphs were collected and maintained in laboratory to monitor the parasitism and obtain the adult parasitoids. A total of 129 adult parasitoids were obtained, including one Encarsia inaron (Walker, 13 En. lutea (Masi, and 115 Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae. This is the first report of Er. mundus in Brazil.

  14. Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China, with the first record of whitefly host association (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are described from China, Baeoentedon balios Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Baeoentedon bouceki Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Baeoentedon virgatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Both female and male of Baeoentedon balios were reared from the whitefly Pealius spina (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the bodhi tree Ficus religiosa L. (Urticales: Moraceae). The male and the whitefly host association of Baeoentedon are recorded for the first time. A key is also provided to females of the world species of the genus.

  15. Type specimens of Hymenoptera deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (excluding Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena C. Onody

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper lists the type specimens of Hymenoptera, excluding Aculeata, deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. We record all labels contents and also additional information from MZSP registers, published material, and other available sources. High resolution photographs of holotypes, lectotypes and syntypes are available through links to Specimage - the image database of The Ohio State University, where they are archived. The collection comprises a total of 332 type-specimens (32 holotypes, 266 paratypes, 12 syntypes, 20 paralectotypes and two lectotypes of eight superfamilies, 18 families, 31 subfamilies, 43 genera and 83 species.

  16. Discovery of the genus Formosiepyris Terayama, (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) in Vietnam, with a description of a new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Kentaro; Mita, Toshiharu; Terayama, Mamoru; Pham, Hong Thai; Okajima, Shûji

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Formosiepyris vietnamensis sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is described based on material collected from Da Lat, southern Vietnam. This is the first record of Formosiepyris Terayama from Vietnam. The new species can be distinguished from other Formosiepyris species by a narrow and rounded clypeus; a mandible with three teeth; a second metasomal tergite having small, sparsely distributed punctures and smooth interspaces, except for anterior 2/5, which is microreticulate; and a head length : width aspect ratio of 10 : 11. A key to the Oriental species of Formosiepyris is provided. PMID:26155069

  17. Discovery of the genus Formosiepyris Terayama, (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae in Vietnam, with a description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Tsujii

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formosiepyris vietnamensis sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae is described based on material collected from Da Lat, southern Vietnam. This is the first record of Formosiepyris Terayama from Vietnam. The new species can be distinguished from other Formosiepyris species by a narrow and rounded clypeus; a mandible with three teeth; a second metasomal tergite having small, sparsely distributed punctures and smooth interspaces, except for anterior 2/5, which is microreticulate; and a head length : width aspect ratio of 10 : 11. A key to the Oriental species of Formosiepyris is provided.

  18. Gnathopleura quadridentata (Wharton (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae como inimigo natural de sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é relatar a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Gnathopleura quadridentata (Wharton (Hymenoptera: Braconidae como inimigo natural de Sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. Para coleta dos insetos foi utilizado como isca fezes humanas. Obtiveram-se 50 pupas de S. lambens, das quais 28 emergiram parasitóides pertencentes à espécie G. quadridentata. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 56,0%. Esta nota relata a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide G. quadridentata em pupas de S. lambens no Brasil.

  19. Investigation of Fecundity and Sex Ratio in the Parasitoid Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Relation to Parasitoid Age

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNDÜZ, Eylem AKMAN; GÜLEL, Adem

    2005-01-01

    The effect of parasitoid age on fecundity and sex ratio in Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was examined at 26 ± 2 ºC and 60 ± 5% relative humidity. Galleria mellonella (L.) and Ephestia kuehniella (Zell.) were used as host species. It was found that the fecundity of the female parasitoid did not change significantly during the first 5 days of the female's lifespan but afterwards it decreased significantly. Under laboratory conditions, the offspring sex ratio was male bia...

  20. Temporal Activity Patterns of the Spider Wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae in a Disturbed Lower Montane Rainforest (Manizales, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Restrepo-Giraldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the temporal activity pattern of the spider wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae in a disturbed lower montane rainforest, which is located in the city of Manizales, Colombia, at an altitude of 2,150 m. Females of this species are diurnal with two peaks of activity: one in the morning and the other in the afternoon. During the morning, nectar foraging occurred at Baccharis latifolia. During the afternoon, females hunted for tarantulas of the genus Pamphobeteus (Araneae: Theraphosidae, which were dragged backwards to the nest by the wasp. The nest was excavated before hunting. This is the first description of the behavior of Pepsis montezuma.

  1. A Landscape Analysis to Understand Orientation of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drones in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Cardona, A; Monmany, A C; Diaz, G; Giray, T

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees [Apis mellifera L. (Apidae, Hymenoptera)] show spatial learning behavior or orientation, in which animals make use of structured home ranges for their daily activities. Worker (female) orientation has been studied more extensively than drone (male) orientation. Given the extensive and large flight range of drones as part of their reproductive biology, the study of drone orientation may provide new insight on landscape features important for orientation. We report the return rate and orientation of drones released at three distances (1, 2, and 4 km) and at the four cardinal points from an apiary located in Gurabo, Puerto Rico. We used high-resolution aerial photographs to describe landscape characteristics at the releasing sites and at the apiary. Analyses of variance were used to test significance among returning times from different distances and directions. A principal components analysis was used to describe the landscape at the releasing sites and generalized linear models were used to identify landscape characteristics that influenced the returning times of drones. Our results showed for the first time that drones are able to return from as far as 4 km from the colony. Distance to drone congregation area, orientation, and tree lines were the most important landscape characteristics influencing drone return rate. We discuss the role of landscape in drone orientation. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Control of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Vineyards Using Toxic Baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondillo, Aline; Andzeiewski, Simone; Bello Fialho, Flávio; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a root scale that damages grapevines in southern Brazil. The effects of different formulations of toxic baits based on boric acid and hydramethylnon to control L. micans and E. brasiliensis were evaluated. Toxic baits with boric acid (1.0%) mixed in different concentrations of inverted sugar (20%, 30%, and 40%), and hydramethylnon, mixed with sardines (paste), cassava flour and peanut, brown sugar (sucrose), or sardine oil-based gel, were evaluated in a greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse experiment, the number of foraging ants was significantly reduced in the pots where the hydramethylnon in sardine paste (Solid S), sardine oil-brown sugar-based gel (GEL SAM), and peanut oil-brown-sugar gel (GEL AM) formulations were applied. The GEL SAM toxic bait effectively reduced the infestation of L. micans, and could be used for indirect control of E. brasiliensis on young grapevines. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The foraging behavior of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazerouni Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Host stage preference, functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae were investigated under defined laboratory conditions (20±1°C; 60±5% relative humidity; 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Nicholson’s model and linear regression were used to determine per capita search-efficiency and the interference coefficient, respectively. There was a significant difference between the rates of parasitism on different stages of D. noxia. The highest parasitism percentage was observed on the third instar nymphs of D. noxia in both choice and no-choice preference tests. Results of logistic regression revealed a type II functional response. The estimated values of search-efficiency (a and handling time (Th were 0.072 h-1 and 0.723 h, respectively. The maximum attack rate was calculated to be 33.22. The per capita search-efficiency decreased from 0.011 to 0.004 (h-1 as parasitoid densities increased from 1 to 8. Therefore, different host-parasitoid ratios can affect the efficacy of D. rapae.

  4. Side-effects of pesticides used in irrigated rice areas on Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazini, Juliano de Bastos; Pasini, Rafael Antonio; Seidel, Enio Júnior; Rakes, Matheus; Martins, José Francisco da Silva; Grützmacher, Anderson Dionei

    2017-08-01

    Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is an important agent for the biological control of stink bug eggs in irrigated rice areas and the best strategy for its preservation is the use of selective pesticides. The aim of this study was to know the side-effects of pesticides used in Brazilian irrigated rice areas on egg parasitoid T. podisi. We evaluated, under laboratory conditions, 13 insecticides, 11 fungicides, 11 herbicides, and a control (distilled water) in choice and no-choice tests. In the no-choice tests, the pesticides were sprayed at pre and post-parasitism stages (egg and larval stages of T. podisi). In the choice tests, sprays were conducted only at pre-parasitism stages. For all tests, we prepared cards with 25 eggs of the alternative host Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) non-parasitized (pre-parasitism) and parasitized (post-parasitism), which were subjected to pesticide sprays. The parasitism and emergence rates of T. podisi were determined classifying the pesticides in terms of the reduction of parasitism or emergence rates compared to the control. The neurotoxic insecticide cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, zeta-cypermethrin, etofenprox, thiamethoxam, thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin, acetamiprid + alpha-cypermethrin, and bifenthrin + alpha-cypermethrin + carbosulfan were more harmful to T. podisi and, therefore, are less suitable for the integrated management of insect pests in irrigated rice areas.

  5. Lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on Osmia lignaria and clothianidin on Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, V A; Nadeau, J L; Higo, H A; Winston, M L

    2008-06-01

    We examined lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on Osmia lignaria (Cresson) and clothianidin on Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). We also made progress toward developing reliable methodology for testing pesticides on wild bees for use in pesticide registration by using field and laboratory experiments. Bee larvae were exposed to control, low (3 or 6 ppb), intermediate (30 ppb), or high (300 ppb) doses of either imidacloprid or clothianidin in pollen. Field experiments on both bee species involved injecting the pollen provisions with the corresponding pesticide. Only O. lignaria was used for the laboratory experiments, which entailed both injecting the bee's own pollen provisions and replacing the pollen provision with a preblended pollen mixture containing imidacloprid. Larval development, emergence, weight, and mortality were monitored and analyzed. There were no lethal effects found for either imidacloprid or clothianidin on O. lignaria and M. rotundata. Minor sublethal effects were detected on larval development for O. lignaria, with greater developmental time at the intermediate (30 ppb) and high doses (300 ppb) of imidacloprid. No similar sublethal effects were found with clothianidin on M. rotundata. We were successful in creating methodology for pesticide testing on O. lignaria and M. rotundata; however, these methods can be improved upon to create a more robust test. We also identified several parameters and developmental stages for observing sublethal effects. The detection of sublethal effects demonstrates the importance of testing new pesticides on wild pollinators before registration.

  6. Traumatic ventriculitis following consumption of introduced insect prey (Hymenoptera) in nestling hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Rosemary J; Alley, Maurice R; Castro, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Nestling mortality in the endangered and endemic Hihi, also called Stitchbird (Notiomystis cincta), was studied over the 2008-09 breeding season at Zealandia-Karori Sanctuary, Wellington, New Zealand. Histopathology showed traumatic ventriculitis in seven of 25 (28%) dead nestlings. Single or multiple granulomas centered on chitinous insect remnants were found lodged within the gizzard mucosa, muscle layers, and ventricular or intestinal serosa. The insect remnants were confirmed as bee or wasp stings (Hymenoptera) using light and electron microscopy. Bacteria or yeasts were also found in some granulomas, and death was due to bacterial septicemia in four cases. Endemic New Zealand birds are likely to lack evolutionary adaptations required to safely consume introduced honey bees (Apis mellifera) and vespulid wasps (Vespula germanica [German wasp], and Vespula vulgaris [common wasp]). However, these insects are attracted to feeding stations used to support translocated Hihi populations. As contact between bees, wasps, and the endemic fauna of New Zealand seems inevitable, it may be necessary to minimize the numbers of these introduced insects in areas set aside for ecologic restoration.

  7. Preference by Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) for processed meats: implications for toxic baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, G M; Hopkins, D C; Schellhorn, N A

    2006-04-01

    The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), was introduced into Australia in 1959 and has established throughout southern Australia. In urban environments, V. germanica is frequently a nuisance pest at public gatherings and to homeowners. In native environments, it has the potential to pose a threat to native invertebrates. The current practice for controlling the wasps is nest destruction with pesticide. However, locating the nest(s) is not always practical or possible. Meat baits impregnated with an insecticide that foraging wasps cut and carry back to the nest offer a means of suppressing wasps where the nest sites are unknown. The success of meat baits depends on the attractiveness and acceptance of the meat to the wasp and the mode of action of the insecticide. Our objective was to determine wasp preference and acceptance of five processed meats: canned chicken or fish and freeze-dried chicken, fish, or kangaroo. We found that more wasps visited and took freeze-dried kangaroo and canned chicken than the other baits. Canned and freeze-dried fish were similarly preferred, and freeze-dried chicken was the least attractive and accepted by foraging wasps. Our findings demonstrate that wasps prefer some processed meats and hence take more loads back to the nest. By combining a suitable insecticide with a meat bait preferred by wasps, the likelihood of effective suppression of nuisance wasp populations should be increased.

  8. Sublethal Effects of the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Thiamethoxam on the Transcriptome of the Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

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    Shi, Teng-Fei; Wang, Yu-Fei; Liu, Fang; Qi, Lei; Yu, Lin-Sheng

    2017-12-05

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are now the most widely used insecticides in the world. Previous studies have indicated that sublethal doses of neonicotinoids impair learning, memory capacity, foraging, and immunocompetence in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Despite these, few studies have been carried out on the molecular effects of neonicotinoids. In this study, we focus on the second-generation neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, which is currently widely used in agriculture to protect crops. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq, we investigated the transcriptome profile of honey bees after subchronic exposure to 10 ppb thiamethoxam over 10 d. In total, 609 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 225 were upregulated and 384 were downregulated. Several genes, including vitellogenin, CSP3, defensin-1, Mrjp1, and Cyp6as5 were selected and further validated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. The functions of some DEGs were identified, and Gene Ontology-enrichment analysis showed that the enriched DEGs were mainly linked to metabolism, biosynthesis, and translation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that thiamethoxam affected biological processes including ribosomes, the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, tyrosine metabolism pathway, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, and drug metabolism. Overall, our results provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the complex interactions between neonicotinoid insecticides and honey bees. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The evolutionary dynamics of major regulators for sexual development among Hymenoptera species

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    Biewer, Matthias; Schlesinger, Francisca; Hasselmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    All hymenopteran species, such as bees, wasps and ants, are characterized by the common principle of haplodiploid sex determination in which haploid males arise from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. The underlying molecular mechanism has been studied in detail in the western honey bee Apis mellifera, in which the gene complementary sex determiner (csd) acts as primary signal of the sex determining pathway, initiating female development by csd-heterozygotes. Csd arose from gene duplication of the feminizer (fem) gene, a transformer (tra) ortholog, and mediates in conjunction with transformer2 (tra2) sex-specific splicing of fem. Comparative molecular analyses identified fem/tra and its downstream target doublesex (dsx) as conserved unit within the sex determining pathway of holometabolous insects. In this study, we aim to examine evolutionary differences among these key regulators. Our main hypothesis is that sex determining key regulators in Hymenoptera species show signs of coevolution within single phylogenetic lineages. We take advantage of several newly sequenced genomes of bee species to test this hypothesis using bioinformatic approaches. We found evidences that duplications of fem are restricted to certain bee lineages and notable amino acid differences of tra2 between Apis and non-Apis species propose structural changes in Tra2 protein affecting co-regulatory function on target genes. These findings may help to gain deeper insights into the ancestral mode of hymenopteran sex determination and support the common view of the remarkable evolutionary flexibility in this regulatory pathway. PMID:25914717

  10. Evaluation of apicultural characteristics of first-year colonies initiated from packaged honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, James P; Calderone, Nicholas W

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of six named types of package honey bees, Apis mellifera L (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from four commercial producers. We examined the effects of levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, the endoparasitic mite Acarapis woodi (Rennie), the gut parasite Nosema (species not determined) in samples from bees in 48 packages, and levels of adult drones in the same packages on corresponding levels of those same traits in the fall in colonies that developed from those 48 packages. After package installation, we measured the rate of queen failure, the removal of freeze-killed brood (an assay to assess hygienic behavior), varroa-sensitive hygiene, and short-term weight gain in all colonies. We examined the correlations among these traits and the effect of initial package conditions and package-type on the expression of these traits. In general, differences among sources were not significant, except that we did observe significant differences in the proportion of mite infected worker brood in the fall. There was no significant difference in weight gain in colonies established from nosema-infected packages versus those established from noninfected packages. Freeze-killed hygienic behavior and varroa-sensitive hygienic behavior were positively correlated, suggesting that both traits could be selected simultaneously. Neither trait was correlated with colony weight gain, suggesting that both traits could be selected without compromising honey production.

  11. Tipos polínicos coletados por Nannotrigona testaceicornis e Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Carvalho Carlos Alfredo Lopes de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os tipos polínicos coletados no mesmo pasto apícola por Nannotrigona testaceicornis e Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae foram estudados e comparados durante dois meses em Piracicaba-SP, (22o43'S; 47o25'W; altitude: 580m. As massas de pólen foram obtidas através da captura de operárias que retornavam à colônia das 5:00 às 19:00 horas nos meses de outubro e novembro de 1996. Trinta e um tipos polínicos pertencentes a 22 famílias foram identificados, dos quais 22,58% foram coletados exclusivamente por N. testaceicornis, 35,48% por T. angustula e 41,94%, por ambas as espécies. As famílias Fabaceae, Liliaceae, Mimosaceae e Myrtaceae e as espécies Bulbine frutescens, Eucalyptus spp., Leucaena leucocephala e Tipuana tipu foram as mais freqüentes e constantes durante os trabalhos. O índice de similaridade entre as fontes de pólen explorada pelas abelhas foi igual a 0,78.

  12. Diurnal flight behavior of Ichneumonoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera) related to environmental factors in a tropical dry forest.

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    González-Moreno, A; Bordera, S; Leirana-Alcocer, J; Delfín-González, H

    2012-06-01

    The biology and behavior of insects are strongly influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation. Because some of these factors present a within day variation, they may be causing variations on insect diurnal flight activity, but scant information exists on the issue. The aim of this work was to describe the patterns on diurnal variation of the abundance of Ichneumonoidea and their relation with relative humidity, temperature, light intensity, and wind speed. The study site was a tropical dry forest at Ría Lagartos Biosphere Reserve, Mexico; where correlations between environmental factors (relative humidity, temperature, light, and wind speed) and abundance of Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) were estimated. The best regression model for explaining abundance variation was selected using the second order Akaike Information Criterion. The optimum values of temperature, humidity, and light for flight activity of both families were also estimated. Ichneumonid and braconid abundances were significantly correlated to relative humidity, temperature, and light intensity; ichneumonid also showed significant correlations to wind speed. The second order Akaike Information Criterion suggests that in tropical dry conditions, relative humidity is more important that temperature for Ichneumonoidea diurnal activity. Ichneumonid wasps selected toward intermediate values of relative humidity, temperature and the lowest wind speeds; while Braconidae selected for low values of relative humidity. For light intensity, braconids presented a positive selection for moderately high values.

  13. Diversity of Braconidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil

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    Sian de Souza Gadelha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Braconidae is a highly diversified family of Hymenoptera and usually known by their role in biological control both in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Despite of that, little is known about its diversity in the Amazon region. The present work inventoried the braconid fauna of an Open Ombrophylous Forest with Palm Trees of the Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, RO. Insects were collect from June/2008 to May/2009 using six Malaise traps in different parts of the reserve. A total of 377 wasps were captured, 17 subfamilies and 56 genera identified. Braconinae, Microgastrinae, Doryctinae and Rogadinae subfamilies were very abundant, and also the genera Aleiodes, Bracon, Capitonius, Compsobracon, Heterospilus, Hymenochaonia, Opius, Pedinotus, Rogas and Stantonia. The calculated Shannon diversity index was 2.15 and 3.3 for subfamily and genera, respectively, which were, generally, higher than the values found for other regions in Brazil. Generally, parasitoids were more abundant during the rainy season. The present work contributes with new genera records and faunistic data of Braconidae in Rondonia State, western Amazon.

  14. Diapause and Cold Hardiness of the Almond Wasp, Eurytoma amygdali (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Two Independent Phenomena.

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    Khanmohamadi, Fatemeh; Khajehali, Jahangir; Izadi, Hamzeh

    2016-08-01

    The almond wasp, Eurytoma amygdali Enderlein (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a key pest of almond, is a univoltine pest diapausing as last instar larvae inside the damaged fruits for almost nine months in a year. In this study, changes in the amount of total simple sugars, lipid, protein, glycogen, trehalose, glucose, supercooling points (SCPs), and cold hardiness of the diapausing larvae were measured from October to March for first year diapause-destined and in August and September for second year diapause-destined larvae. Changes in glycogen content were reversely proportional to changes in total simple sugars and low molecular weight carbohydrates. These changes reflect the interconversion of glycogen to sugar alcohol in order to increase the insect cold tolerance. We found that cold hardiness and diapause of the last instar larvae of the almond wasp have evolved separately. Cold hardiness was highly associated with physiological changes (accumulation of cryoprotectants), but no physiological changes occurred in early diapause of first year diapause-destined and second year diapause-destined larvae. The almond wasp larvae were found to be a freeze-avoidant insect, as no larva survived after SCP determination and crystallization of its body fluids. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Survival of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) spermatozoa incubated at room temperature from drones exposed to miticides.

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    Burley, Lisa M; Fell, Richard D; Saacke, Richard G

    2008-08-01

    We conducted research to examine the potential impacts ofcoumaphos, fluvalinate, and Apilife VAR (Thymol) on drone honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), sperm viability over time. Drones were reared in colonies that had been treated with each miticide by using the dose recommended on the label. Drones from each miticide treatment were collected, and semen samples were pooled. The pooled samples from each treatment were subdivided and analyzed for periods of up to 6 wk. Random samples were taken from each treatment (n = 6 pools) over the 6-wk period. Sperm viability was measured using dual-fluorescent staining techniques. The exposure of drones to coumaphos during development and sexual maturation significantly reduced sperm viability for all 6 wk. Sperm viability significantly decreased from the initial sample to week 1 in control colonies, and a significant decrease in sperm viability was observed from week 5 to week 6 in all treatments and control. The potential impacts of these results on queen performance and failure are discussed.

  16. PREFERENSI DAN TANGGAP FUNGSIONAL PARASITOID HEMIPTARSENUS VARICORNIS (GIRAULT (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE PADA LARVA LALAT PENGOROK DAUN KENTANG

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    Hidrayani, Aunu Rauf, Soemartono Sosromarsono, dan Utomo Kartosuwondo.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The preference and functional response of Parasitoid Hemiptarsenus varicornis (Girault (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae on host larvae of potato leafminers. The preference of Hemiptarsenus varicornis (Girault on host larvae of potato leafminers (Liriomyza huidobrensis and their  functional response on host abundance were studied in laboratory. The preference test was conducted by releasing a female parasitoid in a cage containing two redbean leaves, one with 2nd instar and another one with 3rd instar.  The functional response test was conducted by providing 3rd instar  with density 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 13  larvae  per leaf. The result showed that  H. varicornis had the preference on 3rd instar  larvae compared to 2nd instar, either for parasitisation or paralysis. Based on logistic regression analysis it was found that the parasitoid showed type II functional response on the increase of host abundance. The searching rate (a and handling time (Th for paralysis were 0.038 and 1.473 based on disk equation model, and 0.076 and 2.060 on ramdom equation model.  For parasitisation activity, the value of  a and Th were  0.012 and 4.649 based on disk equation model, and 0.014 and 5.075 on random equation model.

  17. The type specimens of sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeger, Andreas; París, Mercedes; Nieves-Aldrey, Jose Luis

    2014-04-16

    The type specimens of sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) housed in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, were examined. Lectotypes are designated and illustrated for the following 32 nominal taxa (preserved in the MNCN collection if not stated otherwise): Tenthredo acutiscutis Konow, 1908; Tenthredo aericeps Konow, 1907; Allantus albipectus Konow, 1907; Athalia bolivari Dusmet, 1896; Tristactus punctatus var. candidatus Konow, 1899; Tenthredo capistrata Konow, 1907; Megalodontes capitalatus Konow 1904 (coll. SDEI); Tenthredo casta Konow, 1908; Clydostomus cestatus Konow, 1908; Miocephala chalybea Konow, 1907 (coll. SDEI); Peus cupreiceps Konow, 1907; Metallopeus cupreolus Malaise, 1945 (coll. NHRS); Allantus dusmeti Konow, 1894 (coll. SDEI); Megalodontes dusmeti Enslin, 1914 (coll. ZSM); Megalodontes escalerai Konow, 1899; Tenthredo flavitarsis Konow, 1908; Sciopteryx galerita Konow, 1907; Tenthredo habenata Konow, 1907; Allantus inguinalis Konow, 1908; Clydostomus merceti Konow, 1908; Megalodontes merceti Konow 1904 (coll. SDEI); Tenthredo mordax Konow, 1908; Megalodontes mundus Konow, 1904; Tenthredo nimbata Konow, 1906; Tenthredo oculissima Konow, 1907; Peus pannulosus Konow, 1907; Tenthredo podagrica Konow, 1907; Arge segmentaria var. rufiventris Konow, 1899; Tenthredo rugiceps Konow, 1908; Tenthredo segrega Konow, 1908; Peus splendidus Konow 1907; Tenthredo suta Konow, 1906. Peus cupreiceps Konow, 1907, is considered to be a valid species. New synonymy is proposed for Tenthredo (Metallopeus) cupreiceps (Konow, 1907), comb. nov., spec. rev. (=Metallopeus cupreolus Malaise, 1945, syn. nov.; =Metallopeus inermis Malaise, 1945, syn. nov.). 

  18. Diversity of the euglossine bee community (Hymenoptera, Apidae of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil

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    Guilherme do Carmo Silveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of the euglossine bee community (Hymenoptera, Apidae of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil. Euglossine bees, attracted to scent baits of cineole, eugenol and vanillin, were collected with entomological nets, from December 1998 to November 1999. Samplings were carried out once a month simultaneously by two collectors positioned in two different sites in an Atlantic Forest remnant in northeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 859 male euglossine bees, belonging to 13 species and four Euglossini genera were collected. Of the total sample, 506 (12 species males were captured at site A and 353 (10 species were collected at site B.In both sites, Euglossa pleosticta Dressler, 1982 was the most abundant species (45.79%, followed by Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 (20.79%. The results of this study supply new information about the diversity of orchid bee fauna in Atlantic Forest remnants as well as show that more than one site is needed to sample these bees in a fragmented landascape.

  19. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  20. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

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    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.

  1. Canopy Vegetation Influences Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Communities in Headwater Stream Riparian Zones of Central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jonathan T.; Adkins, Joshua K.; Rieske, Lynne K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the eastern United States, eastern hemlock Tusga canadensis (L.) Carriere forests are threatened by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, a pest that is causing widespread hemlock mortality. Eastern hemlock is an essential component of forested communities. Adelgid-induced hemlock mortality is causing a shift in forest composition and structure, altering ecosystem function and thereby influencing the arthropod community. Using pitfall traps at three sites, we monitored ground-dwelling arthropods at 30-d intervals in hemlock-dominated and deciduous-dominated forests in central Appalachia over 2 yr. Here, we focus on the ant community (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected in the summer months. Ants form a ubiquitous and integral component of the invertebrate community, functioning at various trophic levels as predators, herbivores, and omnivores, and fulfilling important roles in forest ecosystems. We found no difference in overall ant abundance between hemlock-dominated and deciduous-dominated forests but did detect significant differences in the genera Prenolepis between forest types ( P < 0.01) and Aphaenogaster across study locations ( P  = 0.02). Three genera were unique to deciduous forests; one was unique to hemlock forests. Not surprisingly, total formicids and several genera demonstrated temporal differences in abundance, with greater numbers captured in July than in August. As hemlock woolly adelgid-induced mortality of eastern hemlock becomes more pervasive, changes in forest composition and structure are imminent, accompanied by shifts in hemlock associates. PMID:25528753

  2. Activity of bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam against Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

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    Wiltz, B A; Suiter, D R; Gardner, W A

    2009-12-01

    Bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and thiamethoxam were evaluated for activity against the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mobility impairment and lethal times were determined after topical treatments. Ants were immobilized most quickly by bifenthrin, followed by chlorfenapyr and thiamethoxam. After 2 h, the number of fipronil-treated ants unable to walk out of test arenas did not differ from control ants. Median lethal time (LT50) after topical treatment was lowest in the bifenthrin treatment, followed by thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and then fipronil. Mortality due to horizontal exposure was evaluated at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C, with topically treated ant corpses serving as donors. There was low to moderate horizontal activity in bifenthrin and chlorfenapyr treatments, with no temperature effect in bifenthrin treatments and a positive temperature effect in chlorfenapyr treatments. Mortality in the fipronil treatments was highest and was positively correlated with temperature. Thiamethoxam treatments did not differ from controls at 10 degrees C, but mortality increased with temperature. To evaluate contact activity, either all of 20% of the ants in a cohort were exposed to insecticide-treated pine needles. In both tests, mortality was highest in fipronil and bifenthrin treatments, followed by thiamethoxam, with lowest mortality in chlorfenapyr treatments. Effectiveness as a barrier was evaluated by providing a choice between bridges treated with insecticide or water. Although bifenthrin did not provide an impenetrable barrier, it was the only treatment having fewer ants than its paired control. Mortality data suggest that lack of recruitment rather than repellency account for this result.

  3. Microbial composition of spiny ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Polyrhachis) across their geographic range.

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    Ramalho, Manuela Oliveira; Bueno, Odair Correa; Moreau, Corrie Saux

    2017-04-05

    Symbiotic relationships between insects and bacteria are found across almost all insect orders, including Hymenoptera. However there are still many remaining questions about these associations including what factors drive host-associated bacterial composition. To better understand the evolutionary significance of this association in nature, further studies addressing a diversity of hosts across locations and evolutionary history are necessary. Ants of the genus Polyrhachis (spiny ants) are distributed across the Old World and exhibit generalist diets and habits. Using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics tools, this study explores the microbial community of >80 species of Polyrhachis distributed across the Old World and compares the microbiota of samples and related hosts across different biogeographic locations and in the context of their phylogenetic history. The predominant bacteria across samples were Enterobacteriaceae (Blochmannia - with likely many new strains), followed by Wolbachia (with multiple strains), Lactobacillus, Thiotrichaceae, Acinetobacter, Nocardia, Sodalis, and others. We recovered some exclusive strains of Enterobacteriaceae as specific to some subgenera of Polyrhachis, corroborating the idea of coevolution between host and bacteria for this bacterial group. Our correlation results (partial mantel and mantel tests) found that host phylogeny can influence the overall bacterial community, but that geographic location had no effect. Our work is revealing important aspects of the biology of hosts in structuring the diversity and abundance of these host-associated bacterial communities including the role of host phylogeny and shared evolutionary history.

  4. Suitability of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pupae for Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

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    Tang, Liang-De; Lu, Yong-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Yan

    2015-06-01

    Spalangia endius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is found to be one of the most important natural enemies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae in China. In this study, the influence of host pupal age on the preference for and suitability of the host by the parasitoid S. endius was determined using choice and nonchoice tests. S. endius females accepted the 1-7 d-old B. dorsalis pupae for oviposition, and their offspring developed successfully. However, the S. endius preferentially parasitized the 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old host pupae. The emergence rate of the adult progeny was not affected by the host pupal age, nor was the male body weight, male longevity, and sex ratio of the parasitoid offspring. However, the shortest development time of both male and female progeny and the greatest size and adult longevity of female progeny were observed in hosts that were ≤4 d old. Females emerged later and lived longer than males, and they weighed more than the males. Host mortality decreased as the age of the host increased for 1-7-d-old hosts. Our findings suggest that 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old B. dorsalis pupae would be the best host ages at which to rear S. endius for effective control in field releases. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae as an indicator of toxicity of herbicides registered for corn in Brazil

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    Claubert W.G de Menezes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plants in agricultural systems benefits natural enemies. Herbicides are used in weed management in corn (Zea mays L. to reduce competition and productivity losses, but they can impact natural enemies and contaminate the environment. The objective was to evaluate toxicity of herbicides on pupae parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. The treatments were represented by the host pupae Tenebrio molitor L., 1785 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and herbicides atrazine, nicosulfuron, paraquat, and tembotrione in commercial doses compared to a control treatment with water. Pupae of T. molitor were immersed in the solution of herbicides and exposed to parasitism by six females of P. elaeisis each. The herbicides atrazine and paraquat were highly toxic and, therefore, not selective to P. elaeisis. Nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of P. elaeisis (0.20 ± 0.03, which may affect subsequent generations. Moreover, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis, showing results comparable to the control. Floristic diversity of weeds can increase food source, habitat, shelter, breeding places and microclimates for insect parasitoids but herbicides formulations can be toxic and these products can affect P. elaeisis or its hosts by direct or indirect contact, showing the importance of selectivity studies for this natural enemy. However, the herbicide tembotrione was selective to P. elaeisis and it can be recommended for programs of sustainable management of weeds in corn crop with this parasitoid.

  6. Prey preference of Myopopone castanea (hymenoptera: formicidae) toward larvae Oryctes rhinoceros Linn (coleoptera: scarabidae)

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    Widihastuty; Tobing, M. C.; Marheni; Kuswardani, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    Myopoponecastanea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ant is a predator for larvae Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabidae) which is a pest on oil palm. These ants are able to prey on all stadia of O. rhinoceros larvae. This study was conducted to determine prey preference of M. castaneatoward its prey O. rhinoceros larvae.. The study was conducted using a Factorial Complete Random Design with two factors (using log and no log) and five replications. Preferences test was done by choice test and no choice test. The results of no choice preference test on the log treatment, M. castaneaprefer preyed on firstinstar larvae of O. rhinoceros (\\bar{X}=2.6 individual) with a preference index was 0.194 and on no log treatment, M. castanea prefer for both first instar larvae and second instarlarvae (\\bar{X}=4.6 individual) with a preference index 0.197. The results of the choice preference test using logs, showed that M. castanea prefer the firstinstar larvae of O. rhinoceros (\\bar{X}=2.6 individual), with a preference index (0.35), and on no log treatment, M. castaneaprefer the second instar larvae(\\bar{X}=1.4 individual) with a preference index 0.189. Both first and secondinstarlarvaeof O. rhinoceros were preferred by predator M. castanea

  7. Function of the Dufour’s gland in solitary and social Hymenoptera

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    Aniruddha Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The poison gland and Dufour’s gland are the two glands associated with the sting apparatus in female Apocrita (Hymenoptera. While the poison gland usually functions as an integral part of the venom delivery system, the Dufour’s gland has been found to differ in its function in various hymenopteran groups. Like all exocrine glands, the function of the Dufour’s gland is to secrete chemicals, but the nature and function of the secretions varies in different taxa. Functions of the Dufour’s gland secretions range from serving as a component of material used in nest building, larval food, and pheromones involved in communicative functions that are important for both solitary and social species. This review summarizes the different functions reported for the Dufour’s gland in hymenopterans, illustrating how the Dufour’s gland secretions can be adapted to give rise to various functions in response to different challenges posed by the ways of life followed by different taxa. Aspects of development, structure, chemistry and the evolution of different functions are also touched upon briefly.

  8. The genus Macroteleia Westwood (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s. l., Scelioninae from China

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    Chen Huayan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Macroteleia Westwood (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s. l., Scelioninae from China is revised. Seventeen species are recognized based on 502 specimens, all of which are new records for China. Seven new species are described: M. carinigena sp. n. (China, M. flava sp. n. (China, M. gracilis sp. n. (China, M. salebrosa sp. n. (China, M. semicircula sp. n. (China, M. spinitibia sp. n. (China and M. striatipleuron sp. n. (China. Ten species are redescribed: M. boriviliensis Saraswat (China, India, Thailand, M. crawfordi Kiefer, stat. n. (China, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, M. dolichopa Sharma (China, India, Vietnam, M. emarginata Dodd (China, Malaysia, M. indica Saraswat & Sharma (China, India, Vietnam, M. lamba Saraswat & Sharma (China, India, Thailand, Vietnam, M. livingstoni Saraswat (China, India, M. peliades Kozlov & Lê (China, Vietnam, M. rufa Szelényi (China, Egypt, Georgia, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine and M. striativentris Crawford (China, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. The following five new synonyms are proposed: M. crates Kozlov & Lê syn. n. and M. demades Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. crawfordi Kieffer; M. cebes Kozlov & Lê syn. n. and M. dones Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. indica Saraswat & Sharma; M. dores Kozlov & Lê syn. n. of M. lamba Saraswat & Sharma. A key to the Chinese species of the genus is provided.

  9. Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Bionomics aspects of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos bionômicos da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758. Vinte e seis colônias foram acompanhadas entre abril de 2004 e julho de 2006, no município de Mundo Novo, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Os resultados encontrados nesse estudo sugerem que o padrão fenológico de Polistes canadensis canadensis é assincrônico nessa região, com fundações e abandonos podendo ocorrer o ano todo. A duração média dos estágios imaturos foi diferente entre as estações climáticas fria-seca e úmida-quente. Diferentes substratos foram escolhidos para nidificação, contudo em ambientes que forneceram condições físicas mais homogêneas durante o dia foram encontradas as maiores freqüências de sucesso. Colônias nessa espécie são fundadas por haplometrose ou pleometrose, no entanto, o sucesso tem sido maior para colônias pleometróticas.Certain aspects of the bionomics of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied. Twenty-six colonies were observed from April 2004 through July 2006, in the municipal district of Mundo Novo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central-Brazil. The results suggest that the colony phenological pattern of this species is asynchronous, and colonies may be founded or abandoned at any time of the year. The mean duration of the immature stages differed between the cold-dry and warm-rainy seasons. Colonies were founded on several different kinds of substrates, but were more successful in environments that provided more-homogeneous physical conditions during the day. Colonies in this species are founded by haplometrosis or pleometrosis, and pleometrotic colonies were more successful.

  10. Comparative Study of the Morphology of the Ovipositor of Platygaster diplosisae (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae and Aprostocetus procerae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae Two Parasitoids Associated with the African Rice Gall Midge, Orseolia oryzivora (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

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    Souleymane Nacro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the morphology of the ovipositor of Platygaster diplosisae (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae and Aprostocetus procerae (= Tetrastichus pachydiplosisae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, two parasitoids associated with the African rice gall midge (AFRGM, and Orseolia oryzivora (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae. Scanning electron microscope techniques were used for this study. The ovipositor of P. diplosisae was short (40 μm, and most of the sensillae found on it were mechanoreceptors and located on the distal portion of the 3rd valvulae. These sensillae may be involved in selection of an egg or larval host. The shortness of this ovipositor may be an adaptation to a host whose egg envelope thickness is not more than 0.7 μm. The ovipositor of A. procerae was 30 times (1.2 mm the length of the P. diplosisae ovipositor. It was not only well equipped with mechanoreceptive sensillae, but these sensillae were very diverse and distributed along the length of the valvulae. The 10 denticulations of the lancet of this ovipositor allow this parasitoid to exploit hosts that are not otherwise readily accesible. These two parasitoids share the same resource by infesting different life stages of the host. The ovipositor of each species of parasitoid enhanced resource sharing, due to its length and its sensillae type and distribution.

  11. A rare but successful reproductive tactic in a social wasp (Hymenoptera:Vespidae: Use of heterospecific nests Una táctica reproductiva rara pero exitosa en una avispa social (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Uso de nidos de otras especies

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    ANDRÉ R. DE SOUZA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful heterospecific use of abandoned nests has been reported in birds. Although the same behavior has been observed in wasps, the success of such tactic has not been demonstrated. We described two cases in which the social wasp Polistes versicolor successfully reared its brood in empty nests of the social wasps Mischocyttarus drewseni and Mischocyttarus cassununga (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. We showed that this is a rare but a viable reproductive tactic for both solitary and associative foundress. Unlike birds, which use heterspecific nests very similar to their own, wasps are able to use heterspecific nests that do differ from their own.El uso adecuado de los nidos abandonados ha sido reportado en aves. Aunque el mismo comportamiento se ha observado en avispas, pero el éxito de tal táctica no ha sido demostrada. Se describen dos casos en los que la avispa social Polistes versicolor utiliza con éxito los nidos vacíos de la avispa social Mischocyttarus drewseni y Mischocyttarus cassununga (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Hemos demostrado que esta es una rara, pero una viable táctica reproductiva. A diferencia de las aves, que utilizan nidos muy similares a las suyas, las avispas son capaces de utilizar los nidos que difieran de los suyos.

  12. The wasp larva's last supper: 100 million years of evolutionary stasis in the larval development of rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae

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    V. Lohrmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhopalosomatidae are an unusual family of wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata comprising less than 100 species found in the tropics and subtropics of all continents except Europe and Antarctica. Whereas some species resemble nocturnal Ichneumonidae, others might be mistaken for spider wasps or different groups of brachypterous Hymenoptera. Despite their varied morphology, all members of the family supposedly develop as larval ectoparasitoids of crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea. Here, we report on the first record of a fossil rhopalosomatid larva which was discovered in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (Burma. The larva is attached to the lateral side of a cricket between the metafemur and the abdomen, impacting the natural position of the hind leg, exactly as documented for modern species. Additionally, the larval gestalt is strikingly similar to those of extant forms. These observations imply that this behavioral specialization, e.g., host association and positioning on host, likely evolved in the stem of the family at least 100 million years ago.

  13. The genus Odontocynips Kieffer, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini in Panama, with redescription of Cynips championi Cameron, 1883

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    Pujade-Villar, J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Odontocynips Kieffer, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini is recorded for the first time in Panama, including two species, O. championi (Cameron and O. hansoni Pujade-Villar, that induce galls on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. and Q. lancifolia Schledl & Cham. (Fagaceae, sect. Quercus, White Oaks, respectively. Odontocynips championi (Cameron, 1833, originally described as Cynips championi Cameron based solely on galls, is redescribed including the first description of the adults, a neotype is designated and a new combination is established. The known distribution and host range of O. hansoni, recorded earlier from Costa Rica, are also expanded upon.Se cita por primera vez para Panamá el género Odontocynips Kieffer, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini, incluyendo dos especies: Odontocynips championi (Cameron y O. hansoni Pujade-Villar, que inducen agallas en Quercus bumelioides Liebm. y Q. lancifolia Schledl & Cham. (Fagaceae, sect. Quercus, robles blancos, respectivamente. Se redescribe Odontocynips championi (Cameron, 1833, descrita solo a partir de sus agallas como Cynips championi Cameron, se describen por primera vez los adultos, se designa un neotipo y se establece una nueva combinación taxonómica al transferirla al género Odontocynips. Por otra parte, se amplía la distribución geográfica y rango de hospedador de O. hansoni, previamente citada sólo de Costa Rica.

  14. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of the Invasive Ants in Hives of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

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    Simoes, M R; Giannotti, E; Tofolo, V C; Pizano, M A; Firmino, E L B; Antonialli-Junior, W F; Andrade, L H C; Lima, S M

    2016-02-01

    Apiculture in Brazil is quite profitable and has great potential for expansion because of the favorable climate and abundancy of plant diversity. However, the occurrence of pests, diseases, and parasites hinders the growth and profitability of beekeeping. In the interior of the state of São Paulo, apiaries are attacked by ants, especially the species Camponotus atriceps (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which use the substances produced by Apis mellifera scutellata (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), like honey, wax, pollen, and offspring as a source of nourishment for the adult and immature ants, and kill or expel the adult bees during the invasion. This study aimed to understand the invasion of C. atriceps in hives of A. m. scutellata. The individuals were classified into castes and subcastes according to morphometric analyses, and their cuticular chemical compounds were identified using Photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). The morphometric analyses were able to classify the individuals into reproductive castes (queen and gynes), workers (minor and small ants), and the soldier subcaste (medium and major ants). Identification of cuticular hydrocarbons of these individuals revealed that the eight beehives were invaded by only three colonies of C. atriceps; one of the colonies invaded only one beehive, and the other two colonies underwent a process called sociotomy and were responsible for the invasion of the other seven beehives. The lack of preventive measures and the nocturnal behavior of the ants favored the invasion and attack on the bees.

  15. Progeny Density and Nest Availability Affect Parasitism Risk and Reproduction in a Solitary Bee (Osmia lignaria) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

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    Farzan, Shahla

    2018-02-08

    Gregarious nesting behavior occurs in a broad diversity of solitary bees and wasps. Despite the prevalence of aggregative nesting, the underlying drivers and fitness consequences of this behavior remain unclear. I investigated the effect of two key characteristics of nesting aggregations (cavity availability and progeny density) on reproduction and brood parasitism rates in the blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria Say) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary species that nests gregariously and appears to be attracted to nesting conspecifics. To do so, I experimentally manipulated nest cavity availability in a region of northern Utah with naturally occurring populations of O. lignaria. Nest cavity availability had a negative effect on cuckoo bee (Stelis montana Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) parasitism rates, with lower parasitism rates occurring in nest blocks with more available cavities. For both S. montana and the cleptoparasitic blister beetle Tricrania stansburyi Haldeman (Coleoptera: Meloidae), brood parasitism rate was negatively correlated with log-transformed O. lignaria progeny density. Finally, cavity availability had a positive effect on male O. lignaria body weight, with the heaviest male progeny produced in nest blocks with the most cavities. These results suggest that cavity availability and progeny density can have substantial effects on brood parasitism risk and reproduction in this solitary bee species. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. DNA barcoding reveals diversity of Hymenoptera and the dominance of parasitoids in a sub-arctic environment

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    Stahlhut Julie K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect diversity typically declines with increasing latitude, but previous studies have shown conflicting latitude-richness gradients for some hymenopteran parasitoids. However, historical estimates of insect diversity and species richness can be difficult to confirm or compare, because they may be based upon dissimilar methods. As a proxy for species identification, we used DNA barcoding to identify molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs for 7870 Hymenoptera specimens collected near Churchill, Manitoba, from 2004 through 2010. Results We resolved 1630 MOTUs for this collection, of which 75% (1228 were ichneumonoids (Ichneumonidae + Braconidae and 91% (1484 were parasitoids. We estimate the total number of Hymenoptera MOTUs in this region at 2624-2840. Conclusions The diversity of parasitoids in this sub-Arctic environment implies a high diversity of potential host species throughout the same range. We discuss these results in the contexts of resolving interspecific interactions that may include cryptic species, and developing reproducible methods to estimate and compare species richness across sites and between surveys, especially when morphological specialists are not available to identify every specimen.

  17. First successful case of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer with venom immunotherapy for hymenoptera sting allergy

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    Tucker Michael J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe immune and endocrine responses in severe hymenoptera hypersensitivity requiring venom immunotherapy (VIT during in vitro fertilization (IVF. Case presentation A 39-year old patient was referred for history of multiple miscarriage and a history of insect sting allergy. Four years earlier, she began subcutaneous injection of 100 mcg mixed vespid hymenoptera venom/venom protein every 5–6 weeks. The patient had one livebirth and three first trimester miscarriages. Allergy treatment was maintained for all pregnancies ending in miscarriage, although allergy therapy was discontinued for the pregnancy that resulted in delivery. At our institution ovulation induction incorporated venom immunotherapy (VIT during IVF, with a reduced VIT dose when pregnancy was first identified. Serum IgE was monitored with estradiol during ovulation induction and early pregnancy. Response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation was favorable while VIT was continued, with retrieval of 12 oocytes. Serum RAST (yellow jacket IgE levels fluctuated in a nonlinear fashion (range 36–54% during gonadotropin therapy and declined after hCG administration. A healthy female infant was delivered at 35 weeks gestation. The patient experienced no untoward effects from any medications during therapy. Conclusion Our case confirms the safety of VIT in pregnancy, and demonstrates RAST IgE can remain

  18. Selectivity of plant extracts for Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae).

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    Rampelotti-Ferreira, Fátima Terezinha; Coelho, Aloisio; Parra, José Roberto Postali; Vendramim, José Djair

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the selectivity of three plant extracts with potential insecticidal effects for the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, which is commonly used in biological pest control. The plant extracts assayed were an acetone extract of Toona ciliata M. Roem., commercial neem oil, and a nanoencapsulated formulation of neem oil (NC40). The toxicity of the plant extracts to T. pretiosum was evaluated according to the recommendations of the International Organization for Biological Control- IOBC Working Group. We assessed the susceptibility of adults of the maternal and F1 generations and immature stages of T. pretiosum to the extracts. Females exposed to egg cards treated with commercial neem oil parasitized almost 70% fewer eggs than control eggs treated with water; and this extract was therefore classified as slightly harmful. When the eggs were offered to females 24h after treatment with neem oil and aqueous NC40, the parasitism rate also decreased, and the two extracts were classified as slightly harmful. Adult emergence was lower for parasitoids that fed on host eggs offered 24h after the treatment with the T. ciliata extract, which was considered slightly harmful. The emergence of T. pretiosum from eggs, larvae and pupae treated with the different plant extracts, did not decrease compared to development stages treated with the water control. The use of T. pretiosum, combined with the application of an ethanol extract of T. ciliata and a nanoencapsulated formulation of neem, appears to be feasible in view of these low toxicity indices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nota sobre o comportamento de agregação dos machos de Oxaea austera Gerstaecker (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Oxaeinae na caatinga do Estado da Bahia, Brasil Notes on a male sleeping aggregation behavior of Oxaea austera Gerstaecker (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Oxaeinae in the caatinga of Bahia State, Brazil

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    Favízia Freitas de Oliveira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This note reports for the first time a "male sleeping aggregation" of the solitary bee Oxaea austera Gerstaecker, 1867 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Oxaeinae found near the town of Iaçú, Bahia, in Northeastern Brazil. This is also the first record of a species of Oxaea for the caatinga ecosystem.

  20. Famílias de Hymenoptera (Insecta como ferramenta avaliadora da conservação de restingas no extremo sul do Brasil

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    Cristina Maria Loyola Zardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar e comparar a diversidade e flutuação populacional das famílias de Hymenoptera em área de restinga foi realizado um levantamento faunístico em duas áreas de restinga com diferentes níveis de conservação. Foram coletados 5.518 himenópteros distribuídos em 30 famílias. Os picos populacionais na flutuação das famílias ocorreram no verão confirmando a alta correlação da temperatura com a distribuição das famílias. Constatou-se na restinga em sucessão maior riqueza, porém, com alta dominância, abrigando representantes dos três grupos ecológicos (antófilos, generalistas e parasitóides em alta abundância. A restinga preservada, com 17 famílias, verificou-se mais diversa e homogênea, onde verificou-se maior abundância dos parasitóides, devido à maior estabilidade do sistema. A riqueza de famílias de Hymenoptera em áreas de restinga pode ser utilizada como parâmetro indicativo de qualidade ambiental, para este tipo de bioma.Hymenoptera Families (Insecta as Evaluation Tool of the Conservation of Sandbanks in Southern BrazilAbstract. With aim to estimate and compare the diversity and population of the Hymenoptera families in a sandbank area was carried out a wildlife survey in two areas of sandbank with different levels of conservation. We collected 5 518 Hymenoptera distributed in 30 families. The peaks in the families fluctuation occurred in the summer confirmed the high correlation of temperature with the distribution of families. The sandbank in succession had the highest richness, however with high dominance, hosting representatives of the three ecological groups (anthophilous, generalists and parasitoids in high abundance. The sandbank preserved, with 17 families, was more diverse and homogeneous, where the parasitoids showed greater abundance due to greater system stability. The richness of Hymenoptera families in sandbanks can be used as a parameter indicative of environmental quality.

  1. Optimizing Drone Fertility With Spring Nutritional Supplements to Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

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    Rousseau, Andrée; Giovenazzo, Pierre

    2016-03-27

    Supplemental feeding of honey bee (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in spring is essential for colony buildup in northern apicultural regions. The impact of pollen and syrup feeding on drone production and sperm quality is not well-documented, but may improve fecundation of early-bred queens. We measured the impact of feeding sucrose syrup, and protein supplements to colonies in early spring in eastern Canada. Drones were reared under different nutritional regimes, and mature individuals were then assessed in regard to size, weight, and semen quality (semen volume, sperm count, and viability). Results showed significant increases in drone weight and abdomen size when colonies were fed sucrose and a protein supplement. Colonies receiving no additional nourishment had significantly less semen volume per drone and lower sperm viability. Our study demonstrates that feeding honey bee colonies in spring with sucrose syrup and a protein supplement is important to enhance drone reproductive quality. RÉSUMÉ: L'administration de suppléments alimentaires aux colonies de l'abeille domestique (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) au printemps est essentielle pour le bon développement des colonies dans les régions apicoles nordiques. L'impact de la supplémentation des colonies en pollen et en sirop sur la production des faux-bourdons et la qualité du sperme demeure peu documenté mais pourrait résulter en une meilleure fécondation des reines produites tôt en saison. Nous avons mesuré l'impact de la supplémentation en sirop et/ou en supplément de pollen sur les colonies d'abeilles tôt au printemps dans l'est du Canada. Les faux-bourdons ont été élevé sous différents régimes alimentaires et les individus matures ont ensuite été évalués pour leur taille, leur poids ainsi que la qualité de leur sperme (volume de sperme, nombre et viabilité des spermatozoïdes. Les résultats montrent une augmentation significative du poids et de la taille

  2. Inbreeding and building up small populations of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Paulo Nogueira-Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the viability of small populations of Hymenoptera is a matter of importance to gain a better zoological, ethological, genetical and ecological knowledge of these insects, and for conservation purposes, mainly because of the consequences to the survival of colonies of many species of bees, wasps, and ants. Based on the Whiting (1943 principle, Kerr & Vencovski (1982 presented a hypothesis that states that viable populations of stingless bees (Meliponini should have at least 40 colonies to survive. This number was later extended to 44 colonies by Kerr (1985. This would be necessary to avoid any substantial amount of homozygosis in the pair of chromosomic sexual loci, by keeping at least six different sexual gene alleles in a reproductive population. In most cases this would prevent the production of useless diploid males. However, several facts weigh against considering this as a general rule. From 1990 to 2001, 287 colony divisions were made, starting with 28 foundation colonies, in the inbreeding and population experiments with the Meliponini reported here. These experiments constitute the most extensive and longest scientific research ever made with Meliponini bees. In ten different experiments presented here, seven species (one with two subspecies of Meliponini bees were inbred in five localities inside their wide-reaching native habitats, and in two localities far away from these habitats. This was done for several years. On the whole, the number of colonies increased and the loss of colonies over the years was small. In two of these experiments, although these populations were far (1,000 km and 1,200 km from their native habitat, their foundation colonies were multiplied successfuly. It was possible to build up seven strong and three expanding medium populations, starting with one, two, three or even five colonies. However, in six other cases examined here, the Whiting (1943 principle and the hypothesis of Kerr & Vencovski (1982

  3. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    José C. Zanuncio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae during egg stage (48.9%, a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae during larval stages (10% and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae during pupal stage (52.2%. The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%.Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae é uma espécie brasileira nativa, comumente encontrada em plantios de Eucalyptus. Um estudo da mortalidade por fatores bióticos desse desfolhador foi feito em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de identificar os inimigos naturais e seu impacto sobre esse lepidóptero. Euselasia eucerus possui fatores bióticos de mortalidade durante todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento. Os mais importantes foram Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé e Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae durante a fase de ovo (48,9%, um Diptera: Tachinidae durante a fase de larva (10% e Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae durante a fase pupal (52,2%. A taxa de parasitismo foi mais elevada na parte basal de plantas de eucalipto (37,8%.

  4. Characterization and generation of male courtship song in Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae.

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    Justin P Bredlau

    Full Text Available Male parasitic wasps attract females with a courtship song produced by rapid wing fanning. Songs have been described for several parasitic wasp species; however, beyond association with wing fanning, the mechanism of sound generation has not been examined. We characterized the male courtship song of Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and investigated the biomechanics of sound production.Courtship songs were recorded using high-speed videography (2,000 fps and audio recordings. The song consists of a long duration amplitude-modulated "buzz" followed by a series of pulsatile higher amplitude "boings," each decaying into a terminal buzz followed by a short inter-boing pause while wings are stationary. Boings have higher amplitude and lower frequency than buzz components. The lower frequency of the boing sound is due to greater wing displacement. The power spectrum is a harmonic series dominated by wing repetition rate ∼220 Hz, but the sound waveform indicates a higher frequency resonance ∼5 kHz. Sound is not generated by the wings contacting each other, the substrate, or the abdomen. The abdomen is elevated during the first several wing cycles of the boing, but its position is unrelated to sound amplitude. Unlike most sounds generated by volume velocity, the boing is generated at the termination of the wing down stroke when displacement is maximal and wing velocity is zero. Calculation indicates a low Reynolds number of ∼1000.Acoustic pressure is proportional to velocity for typical sound sources. Our finding that the boing sound was generated at maximal wing displacement coincident with cessation of wing motion indicates that it is caused by acceleration of the wing tips, consistent with a dipole source. The low Reynolds number requires a high wing flap rate for flight and predisposes wings of small insects for sound production.

  5. Phylogeography of the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae: Implications for Pest Management.

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    Vincent Lesieur

    Full Text Available The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae, is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C. cinctus using two mitochondrial regions (COI and 16S. Subsequently, we characterized the structure of genetic diversity in the main wheat producing areas in North America using a combination of mtDNA marker and microsatellites in samples collected both in wheat fields and in grasses in wildlands. The strong genetic divergence observed between North American samples and Asian congeners, in particular the synonimized C. hyalinatus, did not support the hypothesis of a recent American colonization by C. cinctus. Furthermore, the relatively high genetic diversity both with mtDNA and microsatellite markers offered additional evidence in favor of the native American origin of this pest. The genetic diversity of North American populations is structured into three genetic clusters and these are highly correlated with geography. Regarding the recent southern outbreaks in North America, the results tend to exclude the hypothesis of recent movement of damaging wheat stem sawfly populations from the northern area. The shift in host plant use by local populations appears to be the most likely scenario. Finally, the significance of these findings is discussed in the context of pest management.

  6. An evaluation of phylogenetic informativeness profiles and the molecular phylogeny of diplazontinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).

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    Klopfstein, Seraina; Kropf, Christian; Quicke, Donald L J

    2010-03-01

    How to quantify the phylogenetic information content of a data set is a longstanding question in phylogenetics, influencing both the assessment of data quality in completed studies and the planning of future phylogenetic projects. Recently, a method has been developed that profiles the phylogenetic informativeness (PI) of a data set through time by linking its site-specific rates of change to its power to resolve relationships at different timescales. Here, we evaluate the performance of this method in the case of 2 standard genetic markers for phylogenetic reconstruction, 28S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) mitochondrial DNA, with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of relationships within a group of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Diplazontinae). Retrieving PI profiles of the 2 genes from our own and from 3 additional data sets, we find that the method repeatedly overestimates the performance of the more quickly evolving CO1 compared with 28S. We explore possible reasons for this bias, including phylogenetic uncertainty, violation of the molecular clock assumption, model misspecification, and nonstationary nucleotide composition. As none of these provides a sufficient explanation of the observed discrepancy, we use simulated data sets, based on an idealized setting, to show that the optimum evolutionary rate decreases with increasing number of taxa. We suggest that this relationship could explain why the formula derived from the 4-taxon case overrates the performance of higher versus lower rates of evolution in our case and that caution should be taken when the method is applied to data sets including more than 4 taxa.

  7. Catalog of Hymenoptera described by Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) (Insecta).

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    Penati, Fabio; Mariotti, Alberto

    2015-03-10

    Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) was an Italian civil engineer who described 377 new taxa of Hymenoptera, 199 of which are still valid and in use today, and proposed 6 replacement names. The present catalog provides a brief biography of Gribodo, a bibliography of his 42 publications and a complete list of the taxa proposed by Gribodo. The catalog lists, for all published names, details on the type series, type locality and collector, present status based on literature, all data labels, relevant references and remarks. A gazetteer of type-localities, a systematical list of Genus- and Species-group names, a chronological list of new names proposed by Giovanni Gribodo, with name-bearing types, and a list of Algerian species and varieties are also given. Furthermore, an unpublished manuscript by Gribodo on hymenopterological fauna of Tunisia, still kept at the Civic Museum of Natural History "Giacomo Doria" (Genoa, Italy), is described, and data on the 57 "new" taxa therein listed are reported, discussing their relevance in order to ascertain the original type series of 27 taxa validly published later. Finally, the problem posed by the enigmatic "disappearance" of a large number of Algerian types, already faced by several entomologists in the past, is analyzed, in order to prevent future mistaken designations of lectotypes and neotypes. The following six nomenclatural acts are proposed here by R. Wahis: Hemipepsis sycophanta Gribodo, 1884 = Hemipepsis bellicosa (Smith, 1873) new synonym; Anospilus sulcithorax (Gribodo, 1924) new combination; Auplopus validus (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Dichragenia quartinae (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Diplonyx caesar (Gribobo, 1894) new combination; Paracyphononyx melanicrus Gribodo, 1884 status revalidated (resurrected from synonymy with Pompilus ruficrus Klug, 1834). The following four nomenclatural acts are proposed by F. Penati: Parachrysis Gribodo, 1879 [subgenus of Chrysis Linnaeus] = Chrysis Linnaeus, 1760 new synonym

  8. Expression of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) in commercial VSH honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

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    Danka, Robert G; Harris, Jeffrey W; Villa, José D

    2011-06-01

    We tested six commercial sources of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), whose breeding incorporated the trait of Varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH). VSH confers resistance to the parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman by enhancing the ability of the bees to hygienically remove mite-infested brood. VSH production queens (i.e., queens commercially available for use in beekeepers' production colonies) from the six sources were established in colonies which later were measured for VSH. Their responses were compared with those of colonies with three other types of queens, as follows: VSH queens from the selected closed population maintained by USDA-ARS for research and as a source of breeding germplasm, queens from the cooperating commercial distributor of this germplasm, and queens of a commercial, mite-susceptible source. The reduction of mite infestation in brood combs exposed to test colonies for 1 wk differed significantly between groups. On average, colonies with VSH production queens reduced infestation by 44%. This group average was intermediate between the greater removal by pure ARS VSH (76%) and the cooperators' breeding colonies (64%), and the lesser removal by susceptible colonies (7%). VSH production colonies from the different sources had variable expression of hygiene against mites, with average reduced infestations ranging from 22 to 74%. In addition, infertility was high among mites that remained in infested cells in VSH breeder colonies from ARS and the commercial distributor but was lower and more variable in VSH production colonies and susceptible colonies. Commercial VSH production colonies supply mite resistance that generally seems to be useful for beekeeping. Resistance probably could be improved if more VSH drones sources were supplied when VSH production queens are being mated.

  9. Pheomelanin in the secondary sexual characters of male parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

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    Jorge García, Alberto; Polidori, Carlo; Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence and distribution of eumelanin and pheomelanin, the most prevalent biological pigments, has been rarely investigated in insects. Particularly yellowish to brownish body parts, which in many vertebrates are associated with pheomelanin, are visible in many insects but their chemical nature was rarely examined to a similar detail. Here, by using Dispersive Raman spectroscopy analysis, we found both eumelanin and pheomelanin in different body parts of male parasitoid wasps of three species of the genus Mesopolobus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), which are known to have species-specific spots and coloured stripes on the legs and/or antennae which are displayed to females during courtship. We found a strong eumelanin signal in the antennal clava of all studied Mesopolobus species and in the circular black spot or callosity and the triangular black projection on the outer apical angle of the typically expanded middle tibia of Mesopolobus tibialis and Mesopolobus xanthocerus. Eumelanin was also the predominant pigment in the black thorax of Mesopolobus and other members of the family. Pheomelanin, on the other hand, was detected as predominant only in certain body parts of M. tibialis and M. xanthocerus, precisely in a very narrow, longitudinal brownish stripe on the middle femur and, only in M. tibialis, in a brownish oval-longitudinal stripe on the middle tibia. The two melanin types co-occurred in most pigmented areas, but more often one is clearly predominant relative to the other, according to the variation of Raman signal intensity of their signature peaks. A further tibial yellowish-orange stripe present in both these species did not include melanins of any type. Pheomelanin, could be more widespread than previously known in insects. A convergent evolution of melanin-based male sexual ornaments between vertebrates (e.g. bird feathers) and wasps can be suggested, opening to a new line of comparative evolutionary studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. The mitochondrial genome of the German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793) (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Vespidae).

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    Zhou, Yuan; Hu, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zai-Fu; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) (GenBank accession no. KR703583) was sequenced in the study. It represents the first mitochondrial genome from the genus Vespula. There are totally 163 42 bp in the currently sequenced portion of the genome, containing 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 18 tRNA genes and a partial A + T-rich region. Four tRNA genes of trnI, trnQ, trnM and trnY located at the downstream of the A + T-rich region were failed to sequence. At least two rearrangement events occurred in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects, corresponding to the translocation or remote inversion of tnnY from trnW-trnC-trnY cluster to the region of trnI-trnQ-trnM cluster and translocation of trnL1 from the downstream to the upstream of nad1 gene. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Twelve and one protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on all codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes supports the monophyly of Vespidae and Formicidae. Within the Formicidae, the Myrmicinae and Formicinae form a sister group and then sister to the Dolichoderinae, while within the Vespidae, the Eumeninae sister to the lineage of Vespinae + Polistinae.

  11. Selectivity of organic compounds to the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Plastygastridae

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    Débora Mello da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity of insecticides, bio-protective mixtures, and biofertilizers used in organic soybean production was evaluated for adults and pupae of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae under laboratory conditions in accordance with protocols proposed by the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC. The products sprayed (dosage/180L of water were: 1 Baculovírus anticarsia 140x109 cpi; 2 Bacillus thuringiensis 16.8g; 3 Azadirachtin-A, azadirachtin-B, nimbina and salamina 9.6 ppm; 4 Rotenoids 4 liters; 5 Nitrogen 1.3%, phosphorus 3.0% and total organic carbon 8.0% 3 liters; 6 Sodium silicate 2% 4 liters; 7 Copper 7% + calcium 3.3% 1.8 liters; 8 Sulfur 20% + quicklime 10% 1.8 liters; 9 Chlorpyrifos 384g (positive control; 10 Distilled H2O (negative control. The results of experiments using pupae indicate that the organic compounds were classified as harmless (Class 1, except for the copper 7% + calcium 3.3% and sulfur 20% + quicklime 10%, which were classified as slightly harmful (Class 2. The contact bioassay with adults showed that all products were classified as harmless (Class 1. Only chlorpyrifos (384g was classified as harmful (Class 4 for both stages of the parasitoid. However, the use of this product (chlorpyrifos is not permitted in organic farming, and even in conventional farming is recommended, where feasible, replacement of the product with one compatible with the preservation of T. remus in nature. Thus, the products tested and used in organic soybean production were considered compatible with the parasitoid eggs of T. remus.

  12. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to caterpillar-induced volatiles from cotton.

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    Yu, Huilin; Zhang, Yongjun; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming; Gao, Xiwu; Guo, Yuyuan

    2010-04-01

    Microplitis mediator Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important larval endoparasitoid of various lepidopteran pests, including Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). In China, H. armigera is a key pest of cotton and is currently the focus of several biological control efforts that use M. mediator as principal natural enemy of this pest. To improve the success of biological control efforts, behavioral studies are needed that shed light on the interaction between M. mediator and H. armigera. In this study, we determined M. mediator response to volatile compounds from undamaged, mechanically injured, or H. armigera--damaged plants and identified attractive volatiles. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, we found that mechanically damaged plants and/or plants treated with H. armigera oral secretions did not attract wasps. However, volatiles from H. armigera-damaged plants elicited a strong attraction of both M. mediator sexes. Headspace extracts from H. armigera-damaged cotton were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), and a total of seven different compounds were found to elicit electroantennogram (EAG) responses, including an unknown compound. Six different EAD-active volatiles were identified from caterpillar-damaged cotton plants, of which 3, 7-dimethyl-1, 3, 6-octatriene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were the principal compounds. Olfactometer assays indicated that individual synthetic compounds of 3, 7-dimethyl-1, 3, 6-octatriene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and nonanal were attractive to M. mediator. Field cage studies showed that parasitism of H. armigera larvae by M. mediator was higher on cotton plants to which 3,7-dimethyl-1,3, 6-octatriene was applied. Our results show that the combination of terpenoids and green leaf volatiles may not only facilitate host, mate, or food location but may also increase H. armigera parasitism by M. mediator.

  13. Thelytokous parthenogenesis in the fungus-gardening ant Mycocepurus smithii (Hymenoptera: Formicidae.

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    Christian Rabeling

    Full Text Available The general prevalence of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction among organisms testifies to the evolutionary benefits of recombination, such as accelerated adaptation to changing environments and elimination of deleterious mutations. Documented instances of asexual reproduction in groups otherwise dominated by sexual reproduction challenge evolutionary biologists to understand the special circumstances that might confer an advantage to asexual reproductive strategies. Here we report one such instance of asexual reproduction in the ants. We present evidence for obligate thelytoky in the asexual fungus-gardening ant, Mycocepurus smithii, in which queens produce female offspring from unfertilized eggs, workers are sterile, and males appear to be completely absent. Obligate thelytoky is implicated by reproductive physiology of queens, lack of males, absence of mating behavior, and natural history observations. An obligate thelytoky hypothesis is further supported by the absence of evidence indicating sexual reproduction or genetic recombination across the species' extensive distribution range (Mexico-Argentina. Potential conflicting evidence for sexual reproduction in this species derives from three Mycocepurus males reported in the literature, previously regarded as possible males of M. smithii. However, we show here that these specimens represent males of the congeneric species M. obsoletus, and not males of M. smithii. Mycocepurus smithii is unique among ants and among eusocial Hymenoptera, in that males seem to be completely absent and only queens (and not workers produce diploid offspring via thelytoky. Because colonies consisting only of females can be propagated consecutively in the laboratory, M. smithii could be an adequate study organism a to test hypotheses of the population-genetic advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction in a social organism and b inform kin conflict theory.For a Portuguese translation of the

  14. Larval development of Physocephala (Diptera, Conopidae in the bumble bee Bombus morio (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Fábio C Abdalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval development of Physocephala (Diptera, Conopidae in the bumble bee Bombus morio (Hymenoptera, Apidae. In the summer of 2012, a high incidence of conopid larvae was observed in a sample of female B. morio collected in remaining fragments of semidecidual forest and Cerrado, in the municipality of Sorocaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The larval development of conopid flies was studied, beginning at the larval instars (LO to L3 and PUP, until the emergence of the imago under laboratory conditions and inside the host. At the first instar, or LO, the microtype larvae measured less than 1 mm in length. During the transition from L1 to L3, the larvae grew in length. At L3, the larvae doubled their length (4 mm and then started to develop both in length and width, reaching the PUP stage with 10 mm in length and 7 mm in width. The main characteristic that differentiates L3 from the early instars is the larger body size and the beginning of posterior spiracle development. The development from PUP to puparium took less than 24h. The bees died ten days after the fly oviposition, or just before full PUP development. The early development stages (egg-LO to L1 were critical for larva survival. The pupa was visible between the intersegmental sternites and, 32 days after pupation, a female imago of Physocephala sp. emerged from one bee. The puparium and the fly measured approximately 10 mm in length. In a single day of collection, up to 45% of the bumble bees collected were parasitized by conopid flies.

  15. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

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    Frake, Amanda M; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 +/- 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 +/- 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 +/- 1.35; Russian, 5.21 +/- 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (P = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock, the use of entrance reducers had a significant effect on the average number of small hive beetle (with reducer, 16 +/- 3; without reducer, 27 +/- 5 beetles). However, there was no effect on bee population (with reducer, 13.20 +/- 0.71; without reducer, 14.60 +/- 0.70 frames) or brood production (with reducer, 6.12 +/- 0.30; without reducer, 6.44 +/- 0.34 frames). Overall, Russian honey bees were more resistant to small hive beetle than Italian honey bees as indicated by fewer invading beetles, lower small hive beetle population through time, and lesser reproduction.

  16. Biology of Blepyrus clavicornis (Compere (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, a parasitoid of Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

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    Vitor Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Encyrtids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae are the most important and diverse group of natural enemies of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Blepyrus clavicornis (Compere is the most common parasitoid associated with Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret in the Serra Gaúcha region, Brazil. We conducted laboratory studies to assess the development time, sex ratio, adult longevity, host stage selection for parasitism, and effect of food on the longevity of adult females of B. clavicornis. The experiments were conducted in a climate chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 12:12 L:D photoperiod. The solitary parasitoid B. clavicornis parasitized third-instar and adult female stages of P. viburni. The development time was more than 30 days (31.75 ± 0.38 for females and 30.02 ± 0.34 for males when B. clavicornis laid eggs in adult mealybug females, and 35 days (36.50 ± 0.50 for females and 34.24 ± 0.43 for males on third-instar mealybug nymphs. The wasps did not survive longer than four days when they were fed only water, while females survived for about 30 days when fed with honey. The lifespan of females is about 20 days longer than the lifespan of males. Although B. clavicornis can provide significant natural control, reducing the number of individuals in the next generation by parasitizing advanced mealybug instars, we consider it unpromising for use in applied biological-control programs. Furthermore, the predominance of males in the progeny observed here suggests that P. viburni may not be the most suitable or preferred host for B. clavicornis.

  17. Poles Apart: Comparing Trends of Alien Hymenoptera in New Zealand with Europe (DAISIE.

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    Darren Ward

    Full Text Available Developing generalisations of invasive species is an important part of invasion biology. However, trends and generalisations from one part of the world may not necessarily hold elsewhere. We present the first inventory and analysis of all Hymenoptera alien to New Zealand, and compare patterns from New Zealand with those previously published from Europe (DAISIE. Between the two regions there was broad correlation between families with the highest number of alien species (Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae, Aphelinidae. However, major differences also existed. The number of species alien to New Zealand is higher than for Europe (334 vs 286, and major differences include: i the much lower proportion of intentionally released species in New Zealand (21% vs 63% in Europe; and ii the greater proportion of unintentionally introduced parasitoids in New Zealand (71.2% vs 22.6%. The disharmonic 'island' nature of New Zealand is shown, as a high proportion of families (36% have no native representatives, and alien species also represent >10% of the native fauna for many other families. A much larger proportion of alien species are found in urban areas in New Zealand (60% compared to Europe (~30%, and higher numbers of alien species were present earlier in New Zealand (especially <1950. Differences in the origins of alien species were also apparent. Unlike Europe, the New Zealand data reveals a change in the origins of alien species over time, with an increasing dominance of alien species from Australasia (a regional neighbour during the past 25 years. We recommend that further effort be made towards the formation, and analysis, of regional inventories of alien species. This will allow a wider range of taxa and regions to be examined for generalisations, and help assess and prioritise the risk posed by certain taxa towards the economy or environment.

  18. Thermal resilience may shape population abundance of two sympatric congeneric Cotesia species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae.

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    Reyard Mutamiswa

    Full Text Available Basal and plasticity of thermal tolerance determine abundance, biogeographical patterns and activity of insects over spatial and temporal scales. For coexisting stemborer parasitoids, offering synergistic impact for biological control, mismatches in thermal tolerance may influence their ultimate impact in biocontrol programs under climate variability. Using laboratory-reared congeneric parasitoid species Cotesia sesamiae Cameron and Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, we examined basal thermal tolerance to understand potential impact of climate variability on their survival and limits to activity. We measured upper- and lower -lethal temperatures (ULTs and LLTs, critical thermal limits [CTLs] (CTmin and CTmax, supercooling points (SCPs, chill-coma recovery time (CCRT and heat knock-down time (HKDT of adults. Results showed LLTs ranging -5 to 5°C and -15 to -1°C whilst ULTs ranged 35 to 42°C and 37 to 44°C for C. sesamiae and C. flavipes respectively. Cotesia flavipes had significantly higher heat tolerance (measured as CTmax, as well as cold tolerance (measured as CTmin relative to C. sesamiae (P0.05, C. flavipes recovered significantly faster following chill-coma and had higher HKDT compared to C. sesamiae. The results suggest marked differential basal thermal tolerance responses between the two congeners, with C. flavipes having an advantage at both temperature extremes. Thus, under predicted climate change, the two species may differ in phenologies and biogeography with consequences on their efficacy as biological control agents. These results may assist in predicting spatio-temporal activity patterns which can be used in integrated pest management programs under climate variability.

  19. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

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    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages.

  20. Thermal hygrometric requirements for the rearing and release of Tamarixia radiata (Waterston (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae

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    Mariuxi Lorena Gómez-Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal hygrometric requirements for the rearing and release of Tamarixia radiata (Waterston (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae. Tamarixia radiata is the main agent for the biological control of Diaphorina citri in Brazil with a parasitism rate ranging from 20 to 80%. This study investigated the influence of temperature on the development, fecundity and longevity of adults of T. radiata and the effect of relative humidity (RH on their parasitism capacity and survival rate in the pre-imaginal period. The effect of temperature was assessed in the range between 15 and 35 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 14-h photophase. The RH effect was evaluated in the range from 30 to 90 ± 10%, temperature at 25 ± 1ºC, and photophase of 14-h. At 25ºC, circa 166.7 nymphs were parasitized, the highest parasitism capacity observed compared to other treatments. The longest longevity of females was observed at 25ºC, although the rate did not differ in the 20-30ºC temperature range. The threshold temperature (TT was 7.2ºC, and 188.7 degrees-day were required for the development (egg-to-adult period. The parasitism rate and longevity were higher at 50 and 70% of RH. This shows that temperature and RH may affect the parasitism capacity of T. radiata on nymphs of D. citri, which can explain the great parasitism variation for D. citri observed in citrus groves in São Paulo State, Brazil.

  1. Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil

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    Alexandro Herbert dos Santos Bastos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil. Leaf-litter may be an important factor in structuring ponerine ant communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in tropical rainforests. We specifically examined how leaf-litter affects the structure of a ponerine ant community in primary Amazonian rainforest sites at the Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, Pará, Brazil. A total of 53 species belonging to eight genera of three ponerine tribes were collected with mini-Winkler extractors. The amount of leaf-litter positively affected the abundance and richness of the ponerine ant community, and also influenced species composition. Nearby samples often had low species similarity, especially when adjacent samples differed in the amount of leaf-litter. Leaf-litter availability in Amazonian primary forests is a key factor for distribution of ground-dwelling ponerine species, even at small scales.

  2. A new genus and species of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae parasitoid of Euxesta eluta Loew (Diptera, Otitidae attacked Bt sweet corn in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana E. Gallardo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Euxestophaga Gallardo, a new genus of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae and Euxestophaga argentinensis Gallardo, sp. n. from Argentina, are described and illustrated. This new genus belongs to the Ganaspini and morphologically resembles Epicoela Borgmeier and Striatovertex Schick, Forshage and Nordlander. A key to differentiate these genera is given. Specimens were reared from pupae of Euxesta eluta Loew (Diptera: Otitidae, attacked Bt sweet corn in Santa Fe province and other in Tucumán province (Argentina.

  3. First record of Poemeniinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Peru, with description of a new species and a key to the world species of Ganodes Townes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carol; Díaz, Francisco A; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2014-05-12

    The subfamily Poemeniinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) is reported for the first time from Peru. We describe and illustrate a new species, Ganodes atayupanquii sp. n. Castillo & Sääksjärvi, which was collected from the Peruvian Andes at 1500 m. A key to the species of Ganodes Townes and new distribution records of G. wahli Díaz and G. matai Gauld are provided.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Indo-Pacific carpenter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Camponotus) reveals waves of dispersal and colonization from diverse source areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Clouse, R. M.; Janda, Milan; Blanchard, B.; Sharma, P.; Hoffmann, B. D.; Andersen, A. N.; Czekanski-Moir, J. E.; Krushelnycky, P.; Rabeling, C.; Wilson, E. O.; Economo, E. P.; Sarnat, E. M.; General, D. M.; Alpert, G. D.; Wheeler, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2015), s. 424-437 ISSN 0748-3007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant - others:Marie Curie Felloswhip(CZ) PIOFGA2009-25448 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Camponotus * molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.952, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cla.12099/epdf

  5. Three cryptic species in Asecodes (Förster) (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) parasitizing larvae of Galerucella spp. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), including a new species

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson,Christer; Hambäck,Peter

    2013-01-01

    Three morphologically very similar species of Asecodes Förster (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are reviewed. Asecodes parviclava (Thomson) is removed from synonymy under A. lucens stat. rev., and differentiated from A. lucens (Nees) and A. lineophagum sp. n. All three species develop as gregarious endoparasitoids in larvae of Galerucella spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), but each species has its own unique host range. Asecodes lineophagum attacks only Galerucella lineola (Fabr.) and A. lucens ...

  6. Revisión taxonómica del subgénero Micrandrena (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae: Andrena) de la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Dardón Peralta, María José

    2011-01-01

    [ES]Las abejas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) han sido clasificadas por diferentes autores siguiendo distintos criterios, aunque actualmente se emplea la propuesta de Michener (2007), quien establece siete familias: Andrenidae, Colletidae, Halictidae, Melittidae, Stenotritidae, Megachilidae y Apidae. La familia Andrenidae se divide en cuatro subfamilias: Oxaeinae, Andreninae, Alocandreninae y Panurginae. La subfamilia Andreninae está conformada por los géneros Ancyladrena Cockerell, 1930, Andrena...

  7. Performance of the Species-Typical Alarm Response in Young Workers of the Ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Is Induced by Interactions with Mature Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire

    2014-01-01

    Young workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Meinert 1861 perceived nestmate alarm pheromone but did not display normal alarm behavior (orientation toward the source of emission, increased running speed). They changed their initial behavior when in the presence of older nestmates exhibiting normal alarm behavior. Four days later, the young ants exhibited an imperfect version of normal alarm behavior. This change of behavior did not occur in young ants, which were not ex...

  8. Updated list of ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) recorded in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, with a discussion of research advances and priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Ulysséa,Mônica A.; Cereto,Carlos E.; Rosumek,Félix B.; Silva,Rogério R.; Lopes,Benedito C.

    2011-01-01

    Updated list of ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) recorded in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, with a discussion of research advances and priorities. A first working list of ant species registered in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil was published recently. Since then, many studies with ants have been conducted in the state. With data compiled from published studies and collections in various regions of the state, we present here an updated list of 366 species (and 17 subspecies...

  9. Morphological and molecular characterization of common European species Adialytus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) based on mtCOI barcoding gene and geometric morphometrics of the forewings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stanković, S. S.; Petrović, A.; Milošević, M.I.; Starý, Petr; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Žikić, V.; Tomanović, Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2015), s. 165-174 ISSN 1210-5759 Grant - others:Ministry of Education , Science and Technology Development of the Republic of Serbia(RS) III43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenoptera * Braconidae * Adialytus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2014 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2015/01/21.pdf

  10. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Primeiro registro de parasitismo social facultativo interespecífico em vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.Primeiro registro de parasitismo social facultativo interespecífico em vespas do gênero Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitismo de colônias da vespa social Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 por fêmeas de Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 foram registrados em uma área rural no município de Dourados estado de Mato Grosso do Sul no Brasil. Em todos os casos monitorados a invasão ocorreu na fase colonial de pré-emergência, e em geral foi executado por uma única fêmea de M. consimilis. O período de estabelecimento da fêmea estrangeira na colônia hospedeira foi marcado por comportamentos antagônicos entre as fêmeas interespecíficas. Em geral, a arquitetura do ninho parasitado foi modificada em relação à arquitetura típica do ninho da espécie hospedeira.

  11. A cuckoo in wolves' clothing? Chemical mimicry in a specialized cuckoo wasp of the European beewolf (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae and Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzner Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-parasite interactions are among the most important biotic relationships. Host species should evolve mechanisms to detect their enemies and employ appropriate counterstrategies. Parasites, in turn, should evolve mechanisms to evade detection and thus maximize their success. Females of the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae hunt exclusively honeybee workers as food for their progeny. The brood cells containing the paralyzed bees are severely threatened by a highly specialized cuckoo wasp (Hedychrum rutilans, Hymenoptera, Chrysididae. Female cuckoo wasps enter beewolf nests to oviposit on paralyzed bees that are temporarily couched in the nest burrow. The cuckoo wasp larva kills the beewolf larva and feeds on it and the bees. Here, we investigated whether H. rutilans evades detection by its host. Since chemical senses are most important in the dark nest, we hypothesized that the cuckoo wasp might employ chemical camouflage. Results Field observations suggest that cuckoo wasps are attacked by beewolves in front of their nest, most probably after being recognized visually. In contrast, beewolves seem not to detect signs of the presence of these parasitoids neither when these had visited the nest nor when directly encountered in the dark nest burrow. In a recognition bioassay in observation cages, beewolf females responded significantly less frequently to filter paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females, than to filter paper discs treated with an extract from another cuckoo wasp species (Chrysis viridula. The behavior to paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females did not differ significantly from the behavior towards filter paper discs treated with the solvent only. We hypothesized that cuckoo wasps either mimic the chemistry of their beewolf host or their host's prey. We tested this hypothesis using GC-MS analyses of the cuticles of male and

  12. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

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    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  13. A new species of Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae from dry forest in Brazil and new occurrence records for other Heimbrinae

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    Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographic ranges of Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 and H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 are extended based on study of material deposited in the entomological collections of the Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brazil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae is described, illustrated and compared with S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986, the single species previously known for this genus. A key to the genera of Heimbrinae and to the species of Symbra is provided.

  14. Check-list of Anteoninae R. Perkins, 1912 (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae) of South Korea, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Jun; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2014-05-26

    The subfamily Anteoninae (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae) was represented in South Korea by fifteen species belonging to the genus Anteon Jurine, 1807. In this paper, further eighteen species belonging to two genera are recognized for the first time from South Korea: Anteon worakense Kim & Lee, sp. nov., A. albonigrum Olmi, 1995; A. autumnale Olmi, 1991; A. devriesi Olmi, 1998; A. exiguum (Haupt, 1941); A. gaullei Kieffer, 1905; A. hikense Olmi, 1995; A. ingenuum Olmi, 1984; A. japonicum Olmi, 1984; A. metuendum Olmi, 1987; A. nanlingense Xu, Olmi & He, 2011; A. peterseni Olmi, 1984; A. songyangense Xu, He & Olmi, 1998; A. sulawesianum Olmi, 1991; A. wushense Olmi, 1991; A. yuani Xu, He & Olmi, 1998; Lonchodryinus infuscatus Xu, Olmi & He, 2009; L. ruficornis (Dalman, 1818). A. exiguum (Haupt, 1941) is also recorded from Russian Far East (new record). A check-list and a key to South Korean species of Anteoninae are presented.

  15. Review ofStantoniaAshmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae) from Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia, with descriptions of six new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Long, Khuat Dang; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2017-01-01

    The genus Stantonia Ashmead, 1904 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae) is reviewed for Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia. Six new species of the genus Stantonia are described and illustrated: Stantonia brevicaudata van Achterberg, sp. n. , S. dickyyui van Achterberg & Long, sp. n. , S. granulata Long & van Achterberg, sp. n. , S. robustifemur van Achterberg & Long, sp. n. , S. stilpnosoma Long & van Achterberg, sp. n. , and S. vietnamica van Achterberg, sp. n. A new subgenus ( Planitonia subg. n. : type species Stantonia robustifemur van Achterberg & Long, sp. n. ) is proposed for the species with a flat clypeus and face, and reduced vein r-m of the fore wing. Three species are newly recorded from Vietnam: Stantonia gracilis van Achterberg, 1987, S. sumatrana Enderlein, 1908, and S. tianmushana Chen, He & Ma, 2004. A key to species of Stantonia from Vietnam, China, Russia, and Japan is provided.

  16. Review of Stantonia Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae from Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia, with descriptions of six new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis van Achterberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Stantonia Ashmead, 1904 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Orgilinae is reviewed for Vietnam, China, Japan, and Russia. Six new species of the genus Stantonia are described and illustrated: Stantonia brevicaudata van Achterberg, sp. n., S. dickyyui van Achterberg & Long, sp. n., S. granulata Long & van Achterberg, sp. n., S. robustifemur van Achterberg & Long, sp. n., S. stilpnosoma Long & van Achterberg, sp. n., and S. vietnamica van Achterberg, sp. n. A new subgenus (Planitonia subg. n.: type species Stantonia robustifemur van Achterberg & Long, sp. n. is proposed for the species with a flat clypeus and face, and reduced vein r-m of the fore wing. Three species are newly recorded from Vietnam: Stantonia gracilis van Achterberg, 1987, S. sumatrana Enderlein, 1908, and S. tianmushana Chen, He & Ma, 2004. A key to species of Stantonia from Vietnam, China, Russia, and Japan is provided.

  17. A cuckoo in wolves' clothing? Chemical mimicry in a specialized cuckoo wasp of the European beewolf (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae and Crabronidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Erhard; Kroiss, Johannes; Herzner, Gudrun; Laurien-Kehnen, Claudia; Boland, Wilhelm; Schreier, Peter; Schmitt, Thomas

    2008-01-11

    Host-parasite interactions are among the most important biotic relationships. Host species should evolve mechanisms to detect their enemies and employ appropriate counterstrategies. Parasites, in turn, should evolve mechanisms to evade detection and thus maximize their success. Females of the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) hunt exclusively honeybee workers as food for their progeny. The brood cells containing the paralyzed bees are severely threatened by a highly specialized cuckoo wasp (Hedychrum rutilans, Hymenoptera, Chrysididae). Female cuckoo wasps enter beewolf nests to oviposit on paralyzed bees that are temporarily couched in the nest burrow. The cuckoo wasp larva kills the beewolf larva and feeds on it and the bees. Here, we investigated whether H. rutilans evades detection by its host. Since chemical senses are most important in the dark nest, we hypothesized that the cuckoo wasp might employ chemical camouflage. Field observations suggest that cuckoo wasps are attacked by beewolves in front of their nest, most probably after being recognized visually. In contrast, beewolves seem not to detect signs of the presence of these parasitoids neither when these had visited the nest nor when directly encountered in the dark nest burrow.In a recognition bioassay in observation cages, beewolf females responded significantly less frequently to filter paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females, than to filter paper discs treated with an extract from another cuckoo wasp species (Chrysis viridula). The behavior to paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females did not differ significantly from the behavior towards filter paper discs treated with the solvent only.We hypothesized that cuckoo wasps either mimic the chemistry of their beewolf host or their host's prey. We tested this hypothesis using GC-MS analyses of the cuticles of male and female beewolves, cuckoo wasps, and honeybee

  18. The eggshell of the almond wasp Eurytoma amygdali (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae) - 1. Morphogenesis and fine structure of the eggshell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzaki, D G; Margaritis, L H

    1994-08-01

    The almond wasp Eurytoma amvgdali (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) feeds and oviposits exclusively in almonds and therefore is characterized as an insect of economic importance. Its meroistic polytrophic ovaries include follicles with a tri-partite configuration. The mature follicles exhibit two filaments occupying the two poles of the egg. One is the micropylar filament while the other might serve for respiration since it is likely that its flattened end layers remain outside the almond fruit. The eggshell is formed by aposition and the follicle cells, which surround the follicle until the end of oogenesis, may be responsible for protein synthesis and secretion which finally lead to the assembly of the eggshell. The eggshell comprises the thin vitelline membrane, possibly a 'wax' layer of waterproofing function, a transluscent layer which appears amorphous even at the end of choriogenesis, a granular layer, including large and small electron-dense granules, and finally a columnar layer very similar to layers found in other insect species of the same or different orders. Peroxidase is histochemicalLY found for the first time in an eggshell of the Hymenoptera order: the tranluscent layer in particular is positively stained (electron-dense). Two possible roles of this peroxidatic activity are discussed, first, in comparison to other fruit-infesting insects, we assume that elastic chorion is produced through the function of peroxidase induced bonds (resilin-type bonds), very important for avoiding premature breaking, while being oviposited through a narrow ovipositor. Second, referring to other studies, this layer can play a bactericidal role for additional embryonic protection.

  19. Morphological, chemical and developmental aspects of the Dufour gland in some eusocial bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camargo Abdalla

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, chemical and developmental aspects of the Dufour gland in some eusocial bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a review. The present revision focused on the more recent data about the Dufour gland in some eusocial bees, taking in account general aspects of its morphology, secretion chemical nature, bio-synthetic pathway and development. Many functions have been attributed to this gland in eusocial bees, but none are convincing. With the new data about this gland, not only the secretion chemical pathway of the Dufour gland may be reasonable understood, as its function in some eusocial bees, especially Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, which has been extensively studied in the last years.Aspectos morfológicos, químicos e do desenvolvimento da glândula de Dufour em algumas abelhas eussociais (Hymenoptera, Apidae: revisão. Esta revisão aborda os mais recentes dados sobre a glândula de Dufour em algumas abelhas eussociais, considerando aspectos gerais da sua morfologia, do seu desenvolvimento, da natureza química da sua secreção, assim como sua via bio-sintética. Muitas funções têm-se atribuído à glândula de Dufour nas abelhas eussociais, mas nenhuma suficientemente convincente. Os novos dados a respeito dessa glândula permitem não só conhecer razoavelmente bem a via bio-sintética como a função da secreção da glândula de Dufour em algumas abelhas eussociais, especialmente em Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, a qual tem sido extensivamente estudada nos últimos anos.

  20. Revision of the European species of Omphale Haliday (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae

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    Christer Hansson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European species of Omphale Haliday (Eulophidae: Entedoninae are revised. The revision includes 37 species, of which eleven are newly described and the remaining 26 species are redescribed. The species are classified into six species groups, with six unplaced species. All species are fully diagnosed and thoroughly illustrated. Identification keys are provided for females and males. Two new morphological features to aid classification and identification are introduced: male genitalia and wing interference patterns (WIPs. The former has been used successfully in the classification of New World Omphale and the latter is used for the first time in a taxonomic revision. Male genitalia in Omphale have considerable interspecific variation, an unusual trait among chalcidoid Hymenoptera, and are demonstrated to be useful for classification of species and species-groups, and they also possess the only autapomorphy for Omphale. WIPs are useful to help separate some species, but cannot be used to define either the genus or species groups. Distributional data are compiled for each species and suggest a pan-european distribution for most species. Gall-midges are the known hosts for 14 species, and the absence of host overlap between species suggests that host specialization is a driving force for speciation. Several Omphale species are known only from females, or have a strong female biased sex ratio, suggesting thelytokous development. Apart from the 37 species included in this revision, the status for nine additional species (names in species group aetius remain unsolved. For nomenclatorial stability, a neotype is designated for Eulophus lugens Nees (= Omphale lugens (Nees. Elachestus obscurus Förster and Derostenus sulciscuta Thomson are transferred from Holcopelte to Omphale comb.n. Derostenus radialis Thomson and Achrysocharella americana Girault are synonymized with Omphale theana (Walker, and O. teresis Askew is synonymized with O. phruron (Walker

  1. Revision of the European species of Omphale Haliday (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Christer; Shevtsova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    The European species of Omphale Haliday (Eulophidae: Entedoninae) are revised. The revision includes 37 species, of which eleven are newly described and the remaining 26 species are redescribed. The species are classified into six species groups, with six unplaced species. All species are fully diagnosed and thoroughly illustrated. Identification keys are provided for females and males. Two new morphological features to aid classification and identification are introduced: male genitalia and wing interference patterns (WIPs). The former has been used successfully in the classification of New World Omphale and the latter is used for the first time in a taxonomic revision. Male genitalia in Omphale have considerable interspecific variation, an unusual trait among chalcidoid Hymenoptera, and are demonstrated to be useful for classification of species and species-groups, and they also possess the only autapomorphy for Omphale. WIPs are useful to help separate some species, but cannot be used to define either the genus or species groups. Distributional data are compiled for each species and suggest a pan-european distribution for most species. Gall-midges are the known hosts for 14 species, and the absence of host overlap between species suggests that host specialization is a driving force for speciation. Several Omphale species are known only from females, or have a strong female biased sex ratio, suggesting thelytokous development. Apart from the 37 species included in this revision, the status for nine additional species (names) in species group aetius remain unsolved. For nomenclatorial stability, a neotype is designated for Eulophus lugens Nees (= Omphale lugens (Nees)). Elachestus obscurus Förster and Derostenus sulciscuta Thomson are transferred from Holcopelte to Omphalecomb. n.Derostenus radialis Thomson and Achrysocharella americana Girault are synonymized with Omphale theana (Walker), and Omphale teresis Askew is synonymized with Omphale phruron (Walker

  2. Effects of synergists on toxicity of six insecticides in parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Jiang, Shuren; Miyata, Tadashi

    2004-12-01

    The resistance to and the effects of synergists on the toxicity of six insecticides in Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), a parasitoid of vegetable aphid collected in Jianxin at Fuzhou-City, Fujian, China, were studied. In comparison with susceptible F21 progeny, the resistance ratios in resistant F0 parents were 27.6 for methamidophos, 20.8 for fipronil, 47.5 for avermectin, 3.3 for fenvalerate, 4.5 for cypermethrin, and 74.7 for imidacloprid. Piperonyl butoxide (PB), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and diethyl maleate (DEM) were chosen to be applied in susceptible F21 progeny, as well as in resistant F11 progeny and F0 parents. Significant synergistic effects on the toxicity of the six insecticides were found by using PB, TPP, and DEM in F0 parents; on methamidophos, avermectin, and imidacloprid by PB, TPP, and DEM in F11 progeny; on fipronil by PB and DEM in F11 progeny; and on fenvalerate and cypermethrin by PB in F11 progeny. PB also showed significant synergism on the six insecticides in susceptible F21 progeny, although the synergism was far less in F21 progeny than those in resistant F0 parents. TPP and DEM showed little or no synergistic effects on the toxicity of the six insecticides in F21 progeny. Compared with TPP and DEM, the highest synergistic ratios of PB for methamidophos, fipronil, avermectin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, and imidacloprid were observed in F0 parents, and F11 and F21 progeny. The resistance levels to methamidophos, fipronil, avermectin, fenvalerate, and cypermethrin could be inhibited strongly by applying PB in F0 parents. From the results, oxidative degradation is believed to play a critical role in resistance to methamidophos, fipronil, avermectin, fenvalerate, and cypermethrin in D. rapae. To a lesser extent, hydrolytic reactions also were partially involved in the resistance to these five insecticides by using the synergists PB, TPP, and DEM. However, although high synergism of PB, TPP, and DEM on imidacloprid

  3. Hymenoptera parasitoides associados às larvas de Lepidoptera em reflorestamento e sistemas agroflorestais da fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste), São Carlos, São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Garcia Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Estudos da flora e fauna silvestres são importantes por contribuirem para a compreensão dos processos ecológicos que ocorrem em resposta às estratégias de manejo utilizadas. Os Hymenoptera são um grupo-chave para o estabelecimento de prioridades em conservação do ambiente, pois representam alta proporção da diversidade de insetos, sendo facilmente amostrados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a fauna de Hymenoptera parasitoides associada às larvas de Lepidoptera em área de refloresta...

  4. Primeiro registro de ocorrência do parasitóide Brasema sp. (hymenoptera: eupelmidae em ovos de Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, 1852 (hemiptera: coreidae no Brasil First record of occurrence of the parasitoid Brasema sp. (hymenoptera: eupelmidae in eggs of Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, 1852 (hemiptera: coreidae in Brazil

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    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho registra a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Brasema sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae parasitando ovos de Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae em cultivar de milho em Itumbiara, GO. A porcentagem de parasitismo foi de 4,8%. Brasema sp. constitue-se em ectoparasitóide de larvas de coleópteros e de outros hospedeiros no interior de tecidos de plantas.This work reports, for the first time, of parasitoid Brasema sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae parasitizinf eggs of Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae in maize cultivate in Itumbiara, GO, Brazil. The percentage of parasitizing was 4,8%. Brasema sp. constitutes ectoparasitoid of beetle larvae and other hosts concealed in plant tissue.

  5. Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae present in the flowers of the balsa wood Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788 = Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apidae associadas às flores do pau-de-balsa Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788

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    Carla Regina Guimarães Brighenti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The flower of balsa wood holds about 10 to 15 mL of nectar, which helps attracting pollinating agents, since the genus Ochroma is incapable of self-fertilization. However, a high mortality of bees is observed in these flowers. The present study investigated the frequency and constancy of mortality of the individuals of the familyApidae that fed on nectar from the balsa wood. Data was gathered from June to August 2008, in Lavras – Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In addition, the survival of the Africanized bees that fed on the nectar of this flower was compared to those that fed on 50% aqueous solution of honey. Forty flowers were analyzed, and 949 individuals of the orders Hymenoptera (98.1%, Hemiptera (0.95%, Coleoptera (0.74% and Diptera (0.21% were collected. Most Hymenoptera individuals were bees of the genera Partamona and Trigona (677 individuals, which were considered of constant occurrence. Flowers producing up to 16.7 nectar mL were found. The nectar diet contained 16.44% of total sugar, and resulted in low survival of the bees in laboratory (31.32 . 2.37 hours, compared to a diet of 50% aqueous solution of honey (112.32 .2.03 hours.A flor do pau-de-balsa produz cerca de 10 a 15 mL de néctar, útil na atração de polinizadores, uma vez que o gênero Ochroma é incapaz de fazer autofecundação. É observada intensa mortalidade de abelhas em suas flores. Objetivou-se realizar o levantamento da frequência e constância de mortalidade de indivíduos da família Apidae, sendo os dados levantados no período de junho a agosto de 2008 em Lavras, MinasGerais, Brasil. Além disso, avaliou-se a sobrevivência de abelhas africanizadas alimentadas com o néctar desta flor quando comparados com aquelas alimentadas com solução aquosa de mel a 50%. Foram analisadas 40 flores e coletados 949 indivíduos das Ordens: Hymenoptera (98,1%, Hemiptera (0,95%, Coleoptera (0,74% e Diptera (0,21%. Dentre os himenópteros os mais frequentes foram dos g

  6. Preferência Floral de Vespas (Hymenoptera, Vespidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As vespas integram a comunidade de visitantes florais e podem constituir uma parcela representativa dos polinizadores. Por este motivo, objetivou-se conhecer e analisar a preferência floral das espécies de Vespidae, bem como investigar o uso de recursos florais por estas vespas. Foram realizadas coletas entre o período de 2001 a 2008 em diferentes localidades do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu, entre 08:00 a 17:00 horas, utilizando redes entomológicas para a captura dos vespídeos visitando flores. Os espécimes coletados foram depositados na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (CESC. Coletou-se 1.483 indivíduos alocados em 73 espécies de vespas, sendo que 78,9% são Polistinae (30 espécies e 21,1% Eumeninae (43 espécies, visitando as flores de 33 espécies de plantas classificadas em 16 famílias botânicas; as famílias com maior número de espécies vegetais foram Asteraceae (12, Fabaceae (4 e Apiaceae (3. A planta com o maior número de vespídeos coletados foi Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (616, seguida por Eryngium pandanifolium L. (137 e Eryngium horridum Spreng (122. A análise da sobreposição de nicho trófico de 26 espécies que visitaram quatro ou mais floração, mostrou que a sobreposição foi igual ou maior que 50% em apenas seis casos.Floral Preferences of Wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae in the Rio Grande do Sul State, BrazilAbstract Wasps integrate the floral visitors’ community and they can constitute a representative portion of the pollinators. For this reason, it was aimed to know and to analyze the floral preference of the Vespidae species and to investigate the use of floral resources for these wasps. The collects were performed between 2001 and 2008 in different localities of Rio Grande do Sul state (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu between 08:00 at 17:00 hours, utilizing entomological nets to catch the

  7. Comportamento de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae inquilinas de cupins (Isoptera: Termitidae em pastagem

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    Carla Cristina Dutra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o tipo de interação entre formigas e os cupins os quais habitam o mesmo ninho. Os experimentos foram de duas maneiras: A- para testar a relação de predação, os tratamentos usados foram: três formigas e um cupim, três formigas e três cupins, e três formigas e doze cupins; B- para testar a relação de proteção os tratamentos foram: três formigas e três cupins de um mesmo ninho e três formigas de um ninho diferente. Para verificar predação foram testadas diferentes origens de formigas e cupins. Os testes foram em arenas e placas de Petri. Os comportamentos observados foram: não responde; contato e abandono; agarra o cupim e luta. As espécies estudadas foram Camponotus sp. e Cornitermes silvestrii Emerson. No experimento A, nas arenas foi observado o comportamento de contato e abandono das formigas sobre um cupim significativamente diferente para formigas que não co-habitava com o cupim, já para um grupo de cupins o comportamento foi não responde. Na placa de Petri as formigas responderam ao contato com os cupins com comportamento de contato e abandono, morder e luta com o cupim, mas não houve diferença estatística entre os comportamentos. No experimento B observou-se luta entre as formigas de ninhos diferentes. Os experimentos mostraram que as formigas que co-habitam cupinzeiros não tiveram nenhuma resposta agressiva ou de predação com relação aos cupins dos quais co-habitam, mas também não tiveram comportamento de proteção com os mesmos, sugerindo que esta interação entre formigas e cupins é de inquilinismo.Behavior of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae Co-inhabit of Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae in grassland.Abstract. The aim of this study was to verify the kind of interactions between ants and termites that habit the same nest. Two kinds of experiments were done: A- to test the relation of predation, we used three ants and one termite, three ants and three termites and

  8. Dinâmica populacional do parasitoide de ovos erythmelus tingitiphagus (hymenoptera: mymaridae em clone de seringueira, em Itiquira, MT Population dynamic of egg parasitoid erythmelus tingitiphagus (hymenoptera: mymaridae in rubber tree clone in Itiquira, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Souza Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo-de-renda Leptopharsa heveae Drake & Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae é uma das mais importantes pragas da heveicultura no Brasil, principalmente nas regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste. Devido ao seu hábito sugador, na face abaxial das folhas, esta praga leva à senescência precoce das mesmas e a reduções na produção de látex em até 30%. Dentre os inimigos naturais de L. heveae está o parasitoide de ovos Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, regulando suas populações em condições naturais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a dinâmica populacional deste parasitoide, bem como correlacioná-la com os fatores meteorológicos temperatura e pluviosidade, em plantio comercial de seringueira do clone PB 217, em Itiquira, MT. Semanalmente foram coletadas quatro folhas maduras por árvore, no terço inferior da copa de 40 árvores, totalizando 160 folhas por amostragem, no período de agosto de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. Houve correlação positiva entre a dinâmica populacional e os fatores meteorológicos, sendo o pico populacional do parasitoide observado no mês de novembro e declinando até janeiro na área estudada.The lace bug Leptopharsa heveae Drake & Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae is one of the most import heveiculture pests in Brazil, mainly in the southeast and central-west regions. Due to its sucking habit on the abaxial surface, this pest causes precocious senescence in leaves, and leads to the reduction in latex production in up to 30% of them. Among the natural enemies of L. heveae is the egg parasitoid Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, regulating populations of L. heveae in natural conditions. The objective of this work was to verify the population dynamics of this parasitoid, as well as to correlate it with meteorological factors such as temperature and rainfall, in a commercial plantation of rubber trees of the PB 217 clone, in Itiquira, in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Four

  9. The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

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    Marcel G. Hermes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The structure of flower-visiting social wasps' assemblages in the CPCN Pró-Mata of São Francisco de Paula and in the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, are characterized. A total of 879 polistine wasps were collected, of which 475 (11 spp. in the CPCN and 404 (21 spp. in the Green Belt, from September 1997 to April 2001 and from September 2001 to April 2004, respectively. Foraging social wasps were observed on flowers of 36 species of angiosperms (20 families in the Green Belt, and on flowers of 54 species of angiosperms (21 families in the CPCN. Asteraceae was the most visited plant family on both studied localities. A list of pant species visited by the polistines is provided.Vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae visitantes de flores em duas áreas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A estrutura da assembléia de vespas sociais que visitam flores no CPCN Pró-Mata de São Francisco de Paula e no Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, são caracterizadas. Do total de 879 polistíneos, 475 (11 spp. foram coletados no CPCN, e 404 (21 spp. no Cinturão Verde entre Setembro de 1997 a Abril de 2000 e Setembro de 2001 a Abril de 2004, respectivamente. Vespas sociais foram observadas em flores de 36 espécies de angiospermas (20 famílias no Cinturão Verde, e em flores de 54 espécies de angiospermas (21 famílias no CPCN. Asteraceae foi a família de planta que mais recebeu visitas por parte das vespas nas duas localidades estudadas. Uma lista com as espécies de plantas visitadas pelos polistíneos é apresentada.

  10. HUBUNGAN KUTU DOMPOLAN DYSMICOCCUS BREVIPES (CKLL. (HOMOPTERA : PSEUDOCOCCIDAE DAN SEMUT API SOLENOPSIS SP. (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE PADA DUA CARA BERTANAM NENAS

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    Rosma Hasibuan .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Association of mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll. (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae and fire ant, Solenopsis sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on two pineapple–planting patterns.  A pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus  brevipes (Ckll.  (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae is an important insect pest in major pineapple growing areas.  Its feeding activity causes damage on the pineapple plants and it can also transmit pineapple wilt virus.  The mealybugs are often found in association with fire ants, Solenopsis sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae that provide protection in exchange for the sweet honeydew liquid. The field study was conducted to determine the close association between  mealybugs and fire ants on  two plant row spacing (single and double row spacing four different plant stages (3, 7, 11, and 17 months after planting. The  results indicated  that there was a significant correlation between the mealybugs and the fire ant on two pineapple-planting patterns, particularly on late growth periods (11, and 17 months after planting. In this field study, population of mealybugs on double row spacing were more abundant  (ranging from 0 to 25.67 bugs/plant compared with that on single row spacing which ranged 0 to 3.67 bugs/plant. Moreover, general mean of population density of mealybugs (14.53 bugs/plant on double row was significantly higher  than that on single row spacing (1.83 bugs/plant. In  line with this mealybug-population development, mean numbers of fire ants caught on baited-sticky traps were ranged from 0 to 8.53 ants/trap on single row versus 0 to 23.57 ants/trap on double row spacing pattern. The general mean number of captured ants (12.73 ants/trap on double row was significantly higher compared with that on single row spacing (5.55 ants/trap. It appears that the patterns of population densities of mealybugs are closely related to that of fire ants that act as attendant species on two pineapple row spacing.

  11. Insectos asociados con flores de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, con énfasis en Hymenoptera

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    José L. Fernández T.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los insectos visitantes en flores de nueve especies de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, Cuba Oriental, durante 1993 (marzo a junio, en primavera y 1994 (enero a marzo, final del invierno y comienzo de la primavera. Se contabilizaron unas 50 horas de recolecta en tres horarios diferentes (0900-0930 hr en 1993; 0900-0930 hr, 1200-1230 hr y 1500-1530 hr en 1994. Se identificaron más de 140 especies y por lo menos 37 familias; Hymenoptera fue el orden mejor representado (con más de la mitad de los individuos rerecolectados, seguido de Diptera, Coleoptera y Lepidoptera. Dentro de Hymenoptera las abejas (Apoidea fueron mayoritarias, especialmente Apis mellifera L.; seguidas de avispas (Vespidae, Pompilidae, Sphecidae e icneumónidos (Ichneumonidae; los microhimenópteros no se recolectaron. Se comparó la himenopterofauna en cuanto a diversidad, similitud, especies dominantes y subdominantes, preferencia de horarios, eficiencia de los muestreos, etc. Cada especie de planta sustentó una fauna característica. Casi un tercio de los himenópteros visitantes fueron controles biológicos de plagas agrícolas, y la mayoría pueden considerarse polinizadores. Especies afines filogenéticamente presentaron patrones de actividad diaria semejante. El horario 0900 -0930 hr fue el de mayor biodiversidad en cuanto a número de especies visitantes. Al analizar el número de especies con relación al número de especímenes rerecolectados, así como el total de especies y número de muestreos realizados, las funciones de mejor ajuste fueron polinomiales de segundo grado (r² = 0.9734 y r² = 0.9573 respectivamente, p The insect visitors of flowers in nine weeds species were studied in the Botanical Garden of Santiago de Cuba, Eastern Cuba, during 1993 (March - June, spring season and 1994 (January - March, end of winter and beginning of spring season. About 50 hours of collecting efforts were made at three times (0900-0930 hr in

  12. Re-description and first host and biology records of Entedon magnificus (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a natural enemy of Gonipterus weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), a pest of Eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumovsky, Alex; De Little, Dave; Rothmann, Sergio; Jaques, Lorena; Mayorga, Sandra Elizabeth Ide

    2015-05-19

    Entedon magnificus (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Entedoninae) is recorded as a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of Gonipterus weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), significant pests of Eucalyptus trees. Entedon magnificus is re-described and illustrated based on females and males from Australia and Tasmania.

  13. Differences in the reproductive biology and diapause of two congeneric species of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae) from northeast Asia: implications for biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) constitute a cryptic species complex of egg parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleotpera: Buprestidae) in their native range of northeast Asia. While O. primorskyensis is c...

  14. Long-term monitoring of the introduced emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) egg parasitoid, oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyridae), in Michigan, USA and evaluation of a newly developed monitoring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was introduced as a biological control agent of this pest in Michiga...

  15. An improved method for monitoring parasitism and establishment of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid introduced for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Jason A. Hansen; Kristopher J. Abell; Roy. Van Driesche

    2012-01-01

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a solitary egg parasitoid that has been released in the United States since 2007 for biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Field and laboratory trials with ash logs infested with EAB eggs were conducted...

  16. Long-term monitoring of the introduced emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) egg parasitoid, Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Michigan, USA and evaluation of a newly developed monitoring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristopher J. Abell; Leah S. Bauer; Jian J. Duan; Roy. Van Driesche

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America from China. The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was introduced from China as a biological control agent for this pest in...

  17. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  18. Evolución de la sociabilidad en Hymenoptera: Rasgos conductuales vinculados a niveles sociales y precursores de sociabilidad en especies solitarias Evolution of sociality in Hymenoptera: Behavioural traits linked to social levels and precursors of sociality in solitary species

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    LUIS FLORES-PRADO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En Hymenoptera, los niveles de sociabilidad han sido asociados a rasgos conductuales, tales como los comportamientos de nidificación y agonísticos, y la capacidad de reconocimiento entre conespecíficos. El reconocimiento de compañeros de nido es un fenómeno de amplia difusión entre especies eusociales, y puede ser inferido por el resultado de las interacciones agonísticas entre hembras; estas son más tolerantes hacia compañeras de nido que hacia no compañeras de nido. Contrariamente, en la mayor parte de las especies solitarias las hembras son agresivas hacia otras hembras conespecíficas. En especies eusociales, la descendencia inmadura es alimentada directamente por la madre, o por obreras; así, el contacto frecuente entre progenie y hembras adultas puede contribuir a entender el reconocimiento social. En el extremo opuesto, las especies solitarias construyen nidos que no permiten interacciones entre adultos e inmaduros. A pesar de esto, estudios recientes sugieren que el aprendizaje del fenotipo propio podría explicar la capacidad de reconocimiento y, tal vez, corresponde al punto de partida en el desarrollo y evolución de la sociabilidad. La subfamilia Xylocopinae (Apidae ha emergido como un valioso modelo para estudiar la evolución de la sociabilidad pues contiene especies que presentan un amplio rango de sociabilidad. En particular, la tribu Manueliini representa un taxón interesante desde el punto de vista de la evolución de la sociabilidad en Xylocopinae pues ha sido propuesto como el grupo hermano de todos los demás Xylocopinae, es un taxón relicto que retiene rasgos morfológicos ancestrales, contiene solo especies fundamentalmente solitarias (aunque en una de estas se ha demostrado recientemente reconocimiento de compañeras de nido y de parientes y algunas especies exhiben rasgos conductuales precursores de vida social. En este trabajo se revisa en Hymenoptera los grados de sociabilidad asociados con rasgos

  19. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  20. Seletividade de inseticidas recomendados para a cultura do algodão ao parasitóide de pupas Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Wagner Faria

    2010-01-01

    Insetos pragas podem reduzir a produção do algodoeiro e o controle biológico pode reduzir o uso excessivo de inseticidas nessa cultura. O endoparasitóide gregário de pupas de lepidópteros e coleópteros Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), por ter hábito generalista e facilidade de criação em hospedeiro alternativo, pode ser utilizado no controle biológico de pragas do algodoeiro. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi estudar o impacto dos inseticidas acefato, cartape, cl...

  1. Densidades y frecuencias de liberación de Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) sobre Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) en tomate

    OpenAIRE

    Tello Paola; Cantor Fernando; Rodríguez Daniel; Cure José Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) es una de las plagas más importantes de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá. Para su control tradicionalmente se acude a la aplicación de insecticidas. Sin embargo, también son contempladas liberaciones del parasitoide Encarsia formosa (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Para estandarizar el proceso de cría mas...

  2. Contributions to the study of the Holarctic fauna of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae. I. Introduction and first results of transatlantic comparisons

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    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from both sides of the Holarctic region (Nearctic and Palaearctic were sampled for DNA barcoding and examined morphologically. Two species are recorded for the first time for the Nearctic: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, and Microgaster raschkiellae Shaw. Another European species, Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday, previously introduced as a biological control agent, is confirmed to be present in North America. For another 13 species significant range extension is documented, including new records for France, Canada, United States, and Sweden. New host data are also provided for several species. The species name Apanteles masmithi Fernández-Triana is considered a syn. n. of Dolichogenidea britannica (Wilkinson.

  3. The Bee Sting That Was Not: An Unusual Case of Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis Averted in a Patient Treated with Omalizumab for Asthma

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    Evelyn M. Slaughter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case of hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis averted by omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody to IgE antibody. This case suggests a novel and unintentional effect of this therapy. Currently omalizumab is only FDA approved for the treatment of moderate-persistent allergic asthma. However case reports, such as ours have illustrated omalizumab’s efficacy in the treatment of a myriad immunologic and allergic diseases. These outcomes have broadened the understanding of omalizumab’s complex mechanism of action.

  4. Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae as a parasitoid of Palaeosepsis spp. (Diptera: Sepsidae in buffalo dung at Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio M. Silva Filho

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae as a parasitoid of Palaeosepsis spp. (Diptera: Sepsidae found in buffalo dung at Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Feces samples were collected in the field at two-week intervals and later were taken to the laboratory to extract pupae by the water flotation method. Each pupa was placed in a capsule of colorless gelatin until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. The parasitism prevalence was 1.2%.

  5. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. ANDORNO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.

  6. Improved sensitivity to venom specific-immunoglobulin E by spiking with the allergen component in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naruo; Hirata, Hirokuni; Watanabe, Mineaki; Sugiyama, Kumiya; Arima, Masafumi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Ishii, Yoshiki

    2015-07-01

    Ves v 5 and Pol d 5, which constitute antigen 5, are recognized as the major, most potent allergens of family Vespidae. Several studies have reported the diagnostic sensitivity of the novel recombinant (r)Ves v 5 and rPol d 5 allergens in routine clinical laboratory settings by analyzing a group of Vespula and Polistes venom-allergic patients. In this study, we analyzed the sensitivity to venom specific (s)IgE by spiking with rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy. Subjects were 41 patients who had experienced systemic reactions to hornet and/or paper wasp stings. Levels of serum sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom by spiking with rVes v 5 and rPold d 5, respectively, as improvement testing, compared with hornet and paper wasp venom, as conventional testing, were measured by ImmunoCAP. Of the 41 patients, 33 (80.5%) were positive (≥0.35 UA/ml) for hornet and/or paper wasp venom in conventional sIgE testing. sIgE levels correlated significantly (P venom (R = 0.78) in improvement testing and conventional testing. To determine specificity, 20 volunteers who had never experienced a Hymenoptera sting were all negative for sIgE against these venoms in both improvement and conventional testing. Improved sensitivity was seen in 8 patients negative for sIgE against both venoms in conventional testing, while improvement testing revealed sIgE against hornet or paper wasp venom in 5 (total 38 (92.7%)) patients. The measurement of sIgE following spiking of rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 by conventional testing in Japanese subjects with sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom, respectively, improved the sensitivity for detecting Hymenoptera venom allergy. Improvement testing for measuring sIgE levels against hornet and paper wasp venom has potential for serologically elucidating Hymenoptera allergy in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Paraganspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae as potential agent in the biocontrol of muscoid dipterous collected in several substracts in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

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    Marchiori C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo determinou as espécies de hospedeiros do parasitóide Paraganspis egeria (Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh, 1996 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae em esterco bovino, fezes humanas, rins de bovino, galinha e carcaça de suíno. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação. Elas foram colocadas individualmente em cápsulas de gelatina e mantidas até a emergência das moscas e/ou parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 3,4%.

  8. Diversidade dos Belytinae (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea: Diapriidae) ao longo de um gradiente latitudinal de Mata Atlântica Ombrófila Densa

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Leite Quadros

    2015-01-01

    Os principais objetivos deste trabalho foram conhecer a distribuição da riqueza dos Hymenoptera parasitoides Diapriidae Belytinae ao longo de um gradiente latitudinal da Mata Atlântica e explicar as causas do padrão de riqueza encontrado por comparação com os padrões descritos para outros grupos. Os Belytinae exercem papel chave na regulação natural de populações de muitas espécies de Mycetophilidae e Sciaridae (Diptera) e o conhecimento sobre a diversidade desta subfamília no bioma Mata Atlâ...

  9. A survey for potential biological control agents of Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae) in Brazil reveals two new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikart, Tiago G; Costa, Valmir A; Hansson, Christer; Cristo, Sandra C DE; Vitorino, Marcelo D

    2017-05-30

    This paper deals with the description of two new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Brazil, parasitoids of larvae of Adetus analis (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Both species are similar to Horismenus steirastomae (Girault), a species that also parasitizes cerambycids. Adetus analis is a pest of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae), a minor crop in Brazil, Argentina and U.S.A., but also feeds in stems of Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae), an ornamental plant that has become a problematic weed species in Africa, where it was introduced. The two new Horismenus species are described, diagnosed, and compared to H. steirastomae.

  10. Notes on spider (Theridiidae, Salticidae) predation of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex salinus Olsen (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), and a possible parasitoid fly (Chloropidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.H. (Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell (United States) Univ. of Idaho, Moscow (United States)); Blom, P.E. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Spiders are known predators of ants. Pressure exerted by consistent spider predation can alter the behavior of ant colonies (MacKay 1982) and may be a selective pressure contributing to the seed-harvesting behavior of Pogonomyrmex (MacKay and MacKay 1984). The authors observed the spider Euryopis formosa Banks (Araneae: Theridiidae) capture and transport workers of the harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex salinus Olsen [Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Myrmicinae]) in southeastern Idaho. Additional observations revealed a crab spider of the genus Xysticus preying on P. salinus and the presence of a chloropid fly (Incertella) that may have been parasitizing the moribund prey subdued by the spider.

  11. SELETIVIDADE DE FUNGICIDAS UTILIZADOS NA CULTURA DO TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicum esculentum, MILL.) A Trichogramma pretiosum

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, José Romário; Universidade Federal Espírito Santo; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo; Paes, João Paulo Pereira; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo; Zuim, Vitor; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo; Stinguel, Priscila; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo; Salomão, Kharen Priscilla de Oliveira Silva; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo; de Minas, Ramon Santos; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo

    2012-01-01

    Este estudo avaliou, em condições laboratoriais (25±1oC, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 14), a seletividade de 18 fungicidas utilizados na cultura do tomateiro a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), que é um dos inimigos natural mais empregado no controle biológico. Cartelas com ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), foram tratados com os fungicidas (tratamentos) e submetidos ao parasitismo por 24 horas. Como tratamento testemunha foi utilizado ág...

  12. Influence of the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Thiamethoxam on miRNA Expression in the Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Teng-Fei; Wang, Yu-Fei; Liu, Fang; Qi, Lei; Yu, Lin-Sheng

    2017-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous noncoding single-stranded RNAs regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. They play important roles in regulating caste differentiation, behavior development, and immune defences in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In this study, we explored the effect of the neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, on miRNA expression in this species using deep small RNA sequencing. The results showed that seven miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (q-value 1) upon exposure to 10 ppb thiamethoxam over 10 d. Some candidate target genes were related to behavior, immunity, and neural function. Several miRNAs, including ame-miR-124, ame-miR-981, ame-miR-3791, and ame-miR-6038, were selected and further validated using real-time quantitative PCR analysis. The findings expand our understanding of the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on honey bees at the molecular level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  13. Occurrence and biology of Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802 (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae parasitising different species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera in Neotropical region

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    RB Silva

    Full Text Available Surveys on Coccinellidae (Coleoptera in Sete Lagoas city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, indicated the parasitism of adults of the species Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, 1775, Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824 and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866, by Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802 (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae. Since then, the parasitoid have been maintained in its original hosts at the Insect Rearing Laboratory - LACRI of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Institution - Embrapa Milho e Sorgo. Besides the citation of occurrence in Brazil, this work also indicates the parasitoid preference for C. maculata (70% of parasitism, followed by O. v-nigrum (43.3% of parasitism and E. connexa (36.7% of parasitism. Total life cycle of D. coccinellae was longer on C. maculata (32.4 ± 0.48 days, compared to O. v-nigrum (29.5 ± 0.49 days and E. connexa (27.8 ± 0.4 days. Due to the relatively high percentage of field parasitism, D. coccinellae can reduce the efficiency of biological pest control by Coccinellidae predators especially in the case of C. maculata.

  14. Occurrence and biology of Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae) parasitising different species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R B; Cruz, I; Figueiredo, M L C; Pereira, A G; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2012-02-01

    Surveys on Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in Sete Lagoas city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, indicated the parasitism of adults of the species Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, 1775, Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824) and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866), by Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae). Since then, the parasitoid have been maintained in its original hosts at the Insect Rearing Laboratory - LACRI of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Institution - Embrapa Milho e Sorgo. Besides the citation of occurrence in Brazil, this work also indicates the parasitoid preference for C. maculata (70% of parasitism), followed by O. v-nigrum (43.3% of parasitism) and E. connexa (36.7% of parasitism). Total life cycle of D. coccinellae was longer on C. maculata (32.4 ± 0.48 days), compared to O. v-nigrum (29.5 ± 0.49 days) and E. connexa (27.8 ± 0.4 days). Due to the relatively high percentage of field parasitism, D. coccinellae can reduce the efficiency of biological pest control by Coccinellidae predators especially in the case of C. maculata.

  15. Comparative performance of two mite-resistant stocks of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Alabama beekeeping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth; Danka, Robert; Ward, Rufina

    2008-06-01

    The utility of USDA-developed Russian and varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was compared with that of locally produced, commercial Italian bees during 2004-2006 in beekeeping operations in Alabama, USA. Infestations of varroa mites, Varroa destructor Anderson & Truman (Acari: Varroidae), were measured twice each year, and colonies that reached established economic treatment thresholds (one mite per 100 adult bees in late winter; 5-10 mites per 100 adult bees in late summer) were treated with acaricides. Infestations of tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Rennie) (Acari: Tarsonemidae), were measured autumn and compared with a treatment threshold of 20% mite prevalence. Honey production was measured in 2005 and 2006 for colonies that retained original test queens. Throughout the three seasons of measurement, resistant stocks required less treatment against parasitic mites than the Italian stock. The total percentages of colonies needing treatment against varroa mites were 12% of VSH, 24% of Russian, and 40% of Italian. The total percentages requiring treatment against tracheal mites were 1% of Russian, 8% of VSH and 12% of Italian. The average honey yield of Russian and VSH colonies was comparable with that of Italian colonies each year. Beekeepers did not report any significant behavioral problems with the resistant stocks. These stocks thus have good potential for use in nonmigratory beekeeping operations in the southeastern United States.

  16. The effect of Rickia wasmannii (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales on the aggression and boldness of Myrmica scabrinodis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

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    Ferenc Báthori

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of ectosymbiotic Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota fungi and their hosts are rather understudied. Rickia wasmannii Cavara is a common ant-associated Laboulbeniales species that has been reported in 17 countries of Europe, and frequently infects Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, a common ant species host, in high density. These make M. scabrinodis and R. wasmannii appropriate model organisms for studies on fungal host-ectosymbiont interactions. Aggressiveness and boldness of infected and uninfected M. scabrinodis workers from northern and eastern Hungary were studied in two laboratory-established behavioural experiments. Infected workers were significantly less aggressive and less bold (i.e. less likely to leave nest shelters than the uninfected ones. These results suggest that R. wasmannii has considerable effects on the behaviour of M. scabrinodis. Our study brings an evidence that infection of ants with Laboulbeniales might negatively affect the workers’ behaviour. In special, the competitive abilities might be affected most by these fungi, since remaining inside and behaving submissively is not effective behaviour in the case of significant competition for resources among colonies.

  17. Indigenous Knowledge of the Edible Weaver Ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

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    Joost Van Itterbeeck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-cultivating and farming edible insects. Such developments can draw on both western science and indigenous knowledge. Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae, of which particularly the queen brood is commonly consumed in Thailand and the Lao PDR, is believed to have the potential to act as flagship/umbrella species in forest conservation and management, to be incorporated simultaneously as biological control agent and direct source of human food in agroforestry practices, and to be (semi-cultivated. We provide a detailed account of indigenous knowledge of O. smaragdina and ant brood collection practices from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR, through focus group discussions and participant observations, and then reflect on sustainability and conservation issues, and on semi-cultivating constraints and possibilities embedded in indigenous knowledge and ant brood collection practices. 

  18. Influence of toxic bait type and starvation on worker and queen mortality in laboratory colonies of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Melissa; Toft, Richard; Lester, Philip J

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of toxic baits should be judged by their ability to kill entire ant colonies, including the colony queen or queens. We studied the efficacy of four toxic baits to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). These baits were Xstinguish that has the toxicant fipronil, Exterm-an-Ant that contains both boric acid and sodium borate, and Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena that both have indoxacarb. Experimental nests contained 300 workers and 10 queen ants that were starved for either 24 or 48 h before toxic bait exposure. The efficacy of the toxic baits was strongly influenced by starvation. In no treatment with 24-h starvation did we observe 100% worker death. After 24-h starvation three of the baits did not result in any queen deaths, with only Exterm-an-Ant producing an average of 25% mortality. In contrast, 100% queen and worker mortality was observed in colonies starved for 48 h and given Xstinguish or Exterm-an-Ant. The baits Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena were not effective against Argentine ants in these trials, resulting in ants are likely to be starved. Our results suggest queen mortality must be assessed in tests for toxic bait efficacy. Our data indicate that of these four baits, Xstinguish and Exterm-an-Ant are the best options for control of Argentine ants in New Zealand.

  19. Brewer’s Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enhances Attraction of Two Invasive Yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to Dried Fruit and Fruit Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Regine; Borden, John; Palmero, Luis; Mattiacci, Analía; Masciocchi, Maité; Corley, Juan; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica F., and common yellowjacket, Vespula vulgaris L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), are pests of significant economic, environmental, and medical importance in many countries. There is a need for the development and improvement of attractive baits that can be deployed in traps to capture and kill these wasps in areas where they are a problem. Yellowjackets are known to feed on fermenting fruit, but this resource is seldom considered as a bait due to its ephemeral nature and its potential attractiveness to nontarget species. We analyzed the headspace volatiles of dried fruit and fruit powder baits with and without Brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and we field tested these baits for their attractiveness to yellowjackets in Argentina. The addition of yeast to dried fruit and fruit powder changed the volatile compositions, increasing the number of alcohols and acids and decreasing the number of aldehydes. Dried fruit and fruit powder baits on their own were hardly attractive to yellowjackets, but the addition of yeast improved their attractiveness by 9- to 50-fold and surpassed the attractiveness of a commercial heptyl butyrate-based wasp lure. We suggest that further research be done to test additional varieties and species of yeasts. A dried fruit or fruit powder bait in combination with yeast could become a useful tool in the management of yellowjackets. PMID:28922898

  20. Brewer's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enhances Attraction of Two Invasive Yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to Dried Fruit and Fruit Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Borden, John; Palmero, Luis; Mattiacci, Analía; Masciocchi, Maité; Corley, Juan; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-09-01

    The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica F., and common yellowjacket, Vespula vulgaris L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), are pests of significant economic, environmental, and medical importance in many countries. There is a need for the development and improvement of attractive baits that can be deployed in traps to capture and kill these wasps in areas where they are a problem. Yellowjackets are known to feed on fermenting fruit, but this resource is seldom considered as a bait due to its ephemeral nature and its potential attractiveness to nontarget species. We analyzed the headspace volatiles of dried fruit and fruit powder baits with and without Brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and we field tested these baits for their attractiveness to yellowjackets in Argentina. The addition of yeast to dried fruit and fruit powder changed the volatile compositions, increasing the number of alcohols and acids and decreasing the number of aldehydes. Dried fruit and fruit powder baits on their own were hardly attractive to yellowjackets, but the addition of yeast improved their attractiveness by 9- to 50-fold and surpassed the attractiveness of a commercial heptyl butyrate-based wasp lure. We suggest that further research be done to test additional varieties and species of yeasts. A dried fruit or fruit powder bait in combination with yeast could become a useful tool in the management of yellowjackets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  1. Antennal sensilla of female Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a nymphal parasitoid of the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Wei-Jian; Niu, Li-Ming; Fu, Yue-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a minute, obligate endoparasitoid against the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus nymph. The external morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla of female E. guadeloupae were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Antennae of female E. guadeloupae were geniculate in shape, which consist of scape with a radicula, pedicel, and flagellum. Eight morphological sensilla types were recorded in the females: nonporous sensilla chaetica (CH-NP) and nonporous sensilla trichodea (ST-NP); uniporous sensilla chaetica (CH-UP) and uniporous sensilla trichodea (ST-UP) with a tip pore, basiconic capitate peg sensilla with numerous pores open at the bottom of the grooves; multiporous sensilla placoid (MSP) with the multiporous cuticular structure; uniporous rod-like sensilla (RO-UP) with robust grooved surfaces and the tremendous apical hole; nonporous finger-like sensilla (FI-NP) with abundant pimples at the bulgy, mortar-shaped short stalk. In order to further explore the host location mechanisms and courtship behavior of E. guadeloupae, the possible roles of the antennal sensilla of this species were discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ¿Multiplicar Tetrastichus howardi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en la oruga de la seda afecta su biología?

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    Nahara Gabriela Piñeyro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La multiplicación sucesiva de parasitoides en hospederos alternativos, puede afectar las características biológicas y comprometer los sistemas de cría masiva de estos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la multiplicación de Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff, 1893 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en pupas del hospedero alternativo Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, durante tres generaciones. Y si eso afecta su desempeño reproductivo, cuando se cría, posteriormente, en pupas del hospedero natural Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae. Las informaciones obtenidas en este estudio pueden mejorar y facilitar el control biológico de plagas, principalmente, con la utilización de parasitoides, debido a que T. howardi parasita y se desarrolla en pupas de B. mori. De forma general, la multiplicación de T. howardi durante tres generaciones en pupas del hospedero alternativo B. mori no compromete las características biológicas de este parasitoide cuando se multiplica en su hospedero natural D. saccharalis a los efectos de su utilización en programas de control biológico.

  3. Molecular approaches identify known species, reveal cryptic species and verify host specificity of Chinese Philotrypesis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei-Jiao; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Li, Yan-Wei; Niu, Li-Ming; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Shan; Murphy, Robert W; Huang, Da-Wei

    2012-07-01

    Philotrypesis, a major component of the fig wasp community (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), is a model taxon for studying male fighting and mating behaviour. Its extreme sexual dimorphism and male polymorphism render species identification uncertain and in-depth research on its ecology, behaviour and other evolutionary topics challenging. The fig wasps' enclosed habitat within the syconia makes their mating behaviour inaccessible, to the extent of matching conspecific females and males. In this study, we combine morphological and molecular analyses to identify species of Philotrypesis sampled from south China and to associate their extraordinarily dimorphic genders and labile male morphologies. Morphological evaluations of females identify 22 species and 28 male morphs. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 data detect 21 species using females, and 15 species among the males. Most of the males match the species as delimited by females. Both markers reveal cryptic species in P. quadrisetosa on Ficus vasculosa. Most species of wasps live on one species of fig but three species co-occur in two hosts (F. microcarpa and F. benjamina), which indicates host switching. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Linear Dispersal of the Filth Fly Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Parasitism of Hosts at Increasing Distances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika T Machtinger

    Full Text Available Release of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as biological control agents for house flies and stable flies in livestock confinements has had variable success. In part, this may reflect a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal distance to be used between parasitoid release stations. In the current study, we assessed the effect of linear distance on host parasitism by the wasp Spalangia cameroni Perkins. In open fields at distances ranging from 1 m to 60 m from a central point, house fly puparia were placed in a mixture of pine shavings soiled with equine manure, urine, and alfalfa hay. Releases of S. cameroni then were made using a 5:1 host: parasitoid ratio. Host pupae were parasitized at all distances, with the highest rate of total parasitism (68.9% recorded ≤ 5 m from the release site. Analyses of results using non-linear and linear models suggest that S. cameroni should be released in close proximity to host development areas. Additionally, releases may not be suitable in pasture situations where long-distance flight is required for control. However, further testing is needed to examine the effect of density-dependent dispersal and diffusion of S. cameroni.

  5. Integration of molecular, ecological, morphological and endosymbiont data for species delimitation within the Pnigalio soemius complex (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebiola, M; Gómez-Zurita, J; Monti, M M; Navone, P; Bernardo, U

    2012-03-01

    Integrative taxonomy is a recently developed approach that uses multiple lines of evidence such as molecular, morphological, ecological and geographical data to test species limits, and it stands as one of the most promising approaches to species delimitation in taxonomically difficult groups. The Pnigalio soemius complex (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) represents an interesting taxonomical and ecological study case, as it is characterized by a lack of informative morphological characters, deep mitochondrial divergence, and is susceptible to infection by parthenogenesis-inducing Rickettsia. We tested the effectiveness of an integrative taxonomy approach in delimiting species within the P. soemius complex. We analysed two molecular markers (COI and ITS2) using different methods, performed multivariate analysis on morphometric data and exploited ecological data such as host-plant system associations, geographical separation, and the prevalence, type and effects of endosymbiont infection. The challenge of resolving different levels of resolution in the data was met by setting up a formal procedure of data integration within and between conflicting independent lines of evidence. An iterative corroboration process of multiple sources of data eventually indicated the existence of several cryptic species that can be treated as stable taxonomic hypotheses. Furthermore, the integrative approach confirmed a trend towards host specificity within the presumed polyphagous P. soemius and suggested that Rickettsia could have played a major role in the reproductive isolation and genetic diversification of at least two species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. A taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of Rhinocorynura are provided. Six species are recognized: R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with R. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, R. brunnea sp. nov. and R. viridis sp. nov. Lectotypes for Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 and Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. Another available name included in Rhinocorynura, Corynuropsis ashmeadi Schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in Augochlorini. Rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (R. crotonis (R. briseis ((R. brunnea sp. nov. + R. viridis sp. nov. (R. inflaticeps + R. vernoniae. Biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. Females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. Identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.

  7. Evaluation of the shaking technique for the economic management of American foulbrood disease of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, Stephen F; Albright, Robert L; Melathopoulos, Andony P

    2008-08-01

    Shaking is a nonantibiotic management technique for the bacterial disease American foulbrood (AFB) (Paenibacillus larvae sensu Genersch et al.), in which infected nesting comb is destroyed and the adult honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), are transferred onto uncontaminated nesting material. We hypothesized that colonies shaken onto frames of uninfected drawn comb would have similar reductions in AFB symptoms and bacterial spore loads than those shaken onto frames of foundation, but they would attain higher levels of production. We observed that colonies shaken onto drawn comb, or a combination of foundation and drawn comb, exhibited light transitory AFB infections, whereas colonies shaken onto frames containing only foundation failed to exhibit clinical symptoms. Furthermore, concentrations of P. larvae spores in honey and adult worker bees sampled from colonies shaken onto all comb and foundation treatments declined over time and were undetectable in adult bee samples 3 mo after shaking. In contrast, colonies that were reestablished on the original infected comb remained heavily infected resulting in consistently high levels of spores, and eventually, their death. In a subsequent experiment, production of colonies shaken onto foundation was compared with that of colonies established from package (bulk) bees or that of overwintered colonies. Economic analysis proved shaking to be 24% more profitable than using package bees. These results suggest that shaking bees onto frames of foundation in the spring is a feasible option for managing AFB in commercial beekeeping operations where antibiotic use is undesirable or prohibited.

  8. Community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, E P; Morgado, L N; Souza, B; Carvalho, C F; Nemésio, A

    2013-08-01

    The community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina) was studied at an area in the transition between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Barroso region, state of Minas Gerais, eastern Brazil. Orchid-bee males were collected with bait traps containing three different scents (cineole, eugenol and vanillin) and with entomological nets for collecting bees on flowers. A total of 614 orchid-bee males were collected using aromatic traps, belonging to four genera and 15 species. Twenty-five female specimens belonging to two genera and at least three species were collected on flowers. Eulaema (Apeulaema) nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 was the most abundant species (50% of collected specimens), followed by Euglossa (Euglossa) truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1996 (28%). Cineole was the most attractive compound (66.5% of males and 13 species), followed by eugenol (16% and 9 species) and vanillin (13.5% and 4 species). Eulaema (Apeulaema) marcii Nemésio, 2009 and Eufriesea auriceps (Friese, 1899) were attracted to all scents, whereas Euglossa species were collected only in cineole and eugenol.

  9. Flight activity of USDA-ARS Russian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) during pollination of lowbush blueberries in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danka, Robert G; Beaman, Lorraine D

    2007-04-01

    Flight activity was compared in colonies of Russian honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and Italian bees during commercial pollination of lowbush blueberries (principally Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) in Washington Co., ME, in late May and early June in 2003 and 2004. Colonies of the two stocks were managed equally in Louisiana during autumn through early spring preceding observations in late spring each year. Resulting average populations of adult bees and of brood were similar in colonies of the two bee stocks during pollination. Flight during pollination was monitored hourly on 6 d each year by counting bees exiting each colony per minute; counts were made manually with flight cones on 17 colonies per stock in 2003 and electronically with ApiSCAN-Plus counters on 20 colonies per stock in 2004. Analysis of variance showed that temperature, colony size (population of adult bees or brood), and the interaction of these effects were the strongest regulators of flight activity in both years. Russian and Italian bees had similar flight activity at any given colony size, temperature, or time of day. Flight increased linearly with rising temperatures and larger colony sizes. Larger colonies, however, were more responsive than smaller colonies across the range of temperatures measured. In 2003, flight responses to varying temperatures were less in the afternoon and evening (1500-1959 hours) than they were earlier in the day. Russian colonies had flight activity that was suitable for late spring pollination of lowbush blueberries.

  10. Thermal requirements and estimate number of generations of Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in different Eucalyptus plantations regions

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    FF Pereira

    Full Text Available To use Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in a biological control programme of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, it is necessary to study thermal requirements, because temperature can affect the metabolism and bioecological aspects. The objective was to determine the thermal requirements and estimate the number of generations of P. elaeisis in different Eucalyptus plantations regions. After 24 hours in contact with the parasitoid, the pupae was placed in 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C, 70 ± 10% of relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was reduced with the increase in the temperature. At 31 °C the parasitoid could not finish the cycle in T. arnobia pupae. The emergence of P. elaeisis was not affected by the temperature, except at 31 °C. The number of individuals was between six and 1238 per pupae, being higher at 16 °C. The thermal threshold of development (Tb and the thermal constant (K of this parasitoid were 3.92 °C and 478.85 degree-days (GD, respectively, allowing for the completion of 14.98 generations per year in Linhares, Espírito Santo State, 13.87 in Pompéu and 11.75 in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State and 14.10 in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State.

  11. Taxonomic revision of Bracalba Dodd (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l., a parasitoid wasp genus endemic to Australia

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    Roger Burks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Australian parasitic wasp genus Bracalba (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae is revised. Sixteen species are recognized: B. cuneata Dodd, B. laminata Dodd and B. nigrescens (Dodd are redescribed and thirteen new species are recognized; B. clavata Burks, sp. n., B. globosa Burks, sp. n., B. hesperia Burks, sp. n., B. intermedia Burks, sp. n., B. magnirubra Burks, sp. n., B. parvirubra Burks, sp. n., B. pinnula Burks, sp. n., B. plana Burks, sp. n., B. propodealis Burks, sp. n., B. sculptifrons Burks, sp. n., B. sparsa Burks, sp. n., B. tricorata Burks, sp. n., and B. tridentata Burks, sp. n. The genus is found continent-wide but mostly south of the Tropic of Capricorn, and with the highest species diversity occurring in the Pilbara and south-western regions of Western Australia. The hosts of Bracalba are unknown but specimens reared from eggs confirm that the genus is associated with orthopteran hosts. A preliminary phylogeny of species did not indicate that species groups were monophyletic, but they are retained despite paraphyly because they are convenient for specimen identification.

  12. Comunidade de Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae das dunas litorâneas do Abaeté, Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

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    Blandina Felipe Viana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Community of Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae from the coastal sand dunes of Abaeté, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The Euglossini community structure was analyzed by attracting males with the scents eucalyptol, eugenol, vanillin, benzyl benzoate and methyl salicylate, and by netting bees on flowers. The samplings took place three times a month along one year from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. The scent baits attracted 670 individuals belonging to seven species of three genus. The predominant species were Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758 (76.6% and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 (21.8%. Euglossini males visited the scents along the whole year, being more abundant in May and in August. The most efficient fragrance was eucalyptol, attracting 624 individuals of five species. The males abundance fluctuated along the day, being the highest frequency observed between 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. Forty eigth Euglossini females of four species were netted visiting flowers of 14 plant species belonging to 13 families. Solanaceae and Caesalpiniaceae were the most visited. The species catched on flowers were Euglossa cordata, Eulaema nigrita, Euplusia mussitans (Fabricius, 1787 and Eulaema meriana flavescens Friese 1899. Euglossa cordata was the predominant species on flowers (64.6%, being collected during almost the whole year. Euplusia mussitans was the only species netted on flowers which males were not sampled on the scents.

  13. Laju enkapsulasi parasitoid Anagyrus lopezi (De Santis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae oleh kutu putih singkong Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

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    Evie Adriani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoid Anagyrus lopezi (De Santis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae was introduced into Indonesia in early 2014 to control the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. The objective of study was to determine encapsulation rate of parasitoid A. lopezi by various host instars of P. manihoti. Observation of encapsulation rate was made  by exposing a single mated female of parasitoid on mealybug nymph-1, -2, -3, and adult in a plastic cage for 24 h. Mealybugs then were dissected and number of parasitoid eggs laid and those encapsulated were counted. Study revealed that rate of aggregate encapsulation was highest (8.4% by adults, followed by nymph-3 (5.8%, nymph-2 (3.1%, and nymph-1 (1.1%. Rate of effective encapsulation by adults was 2.0%, whereas by nymphs about  1.0%. The low rate of encapsulation is believed not to reduce the effectiveness of parasitoid A. lopezi in the biological control of cassava mealybug P. manihoti in Indonesia.

  14. Developmental and reproductive responses of the spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) parasitoid Tranosema rostrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehausen, M Lukas; Régnière, Jacques; Martel, Véronique; Smith, Sandy M

    2017-04-01

    The temperature-dependent development and survival of immatures, as well as adult longevity and potential fecundity of the endoparasitoid Tranosema rostrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitizing spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions at several constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 30°C. Maximum likelihood modeling approaches were used to estimate thermal responses in development, survival, and longevity. A model describing the effect of temperature on potential fecundity of the parasitoid was also developed taking oogenesis and oosorption into account. In-host and pupal development rates of the parasitoid increased with temperature up to 25°C, and decreased thereafter. Immature survival was highest below 20°C, and rapidly decreased at higher temperatures. Adult longevity decreased exponentially with increasing temperature for both males and females. Highest potential fecundity was reached at 10°C. Considering survival and potential fecundity, the parasitoid seems best adapted to cool temperatures below 20°C. Simulations of the life-history traits under variable temperature regimes indicate that temperature fluctuations decrease survival and increase realised fecundity compared to constant temperatures. The temperature-dependent fecundity model developed can be applied to other non-host-feeding synovigenic parasitoids. The equations and parameter estimates provided in this paper can be used to build comprehensive models predicting the seasonal phenology of this parasitoid and spruce budworm parasitism under changing climatic conditions. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperature- and age-dependent survival, development, and oviposition rates of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgard, Henrik; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had...... a pronounced effect on survival and development of the immature stages. Survival was highest at 25°C, where 88.5% of the parasitized host pupae resulted in adult parasitoids, and lowest at 35°C when only 3.78% emerged. Females constituted between 50% (at 20°C) and 100% (at 35°C) of the surviving immatures....... Males developed faster than females, with the shortest developmental times at 30°C (18.18 d for males and 19.41 d for females). Longevity of adult females decreased with temperature from 80 d at 15°C to 18 d at 35°C. Total attack rate of female parasitoids was highest at 20°C (106 hosts per female...

  16. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco; Vega, Fernando E.

    2009-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC 50 ), mean lethal time (LT 50 ), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC 50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10 7 conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT 50 of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  17. Long-term seasonal dominance of the wasp Trihapsis polita Townes (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Alexandre P; Tedesco, Anazélia M; Fontenelle, Julio C R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The temporal dynamics of insect populations in tropical environments is highly complex and poorly known. Long-term seasonality studies are scarce, and particularly so for ichneumonid wasps (Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae). This study represents an effort to elucidate aspects of seasonality and forest succession in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. New information We report on the seasonal and successional dominance of the ichneumonid wasp Trihapsis polita (Cryptinae). A long-term survey of Cryptinae was carried out in a protected area of Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in primary, tall secondary and low secondary forest areas. Specimens were collected during rainy season (RS) and dry season (DS) between 2000 and 2008, with total sampling effort of 4,095 trap-days. A total of 8,385 specimens of Cryptinae were collected, of which 6,655 (79.4%) belonged to T. polita. The occurrence of T. polita species was heavily concentrated in the RS, with abundance 148× higher than during the DS. Seasonal fluctuation was also detected for Cryptinae as a whole, but was two orders of magnitude lower. Sampling efficiency also varied widely among areas, with the peak of abundance at the tall secondary forest. The dominance of T. polita in secondary vegetation might be of general interest, as this type of forest is currently on the rise, due to unprecedented levels of human pressure. PMID:28325982

  18. Community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

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    EP. Pires

    Full Text Available The community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina was studied at an area in the transition between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Barroso region, state of Minas Gerais, eastern Brazil. Orchid-bee males were collected with bait traps containing three different scents (cineole, eugenol and vanillin and with entomological nets for collecting bees on flowers. A total of 614 orchid-bee males were collected using aromatic traps, belonging to four genera and 15 species. Twenty-five female specimens belonging to two genera and at least three species were collected on flowers. Eulaema (Apeulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 was the most abundant species (50% of collected specimens, followed by Euglossa (Euglossa truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1996 (28%. Cineole was the most attractive compound (66.5% of males and 13 species, followed by eugenol (16% and 9 species and vanillin (13.5% and 4 species. Eulaema (Apeulaema marcii Nemésio, 2009 and Eufriesea auriceps (Friese, 1899 were attracted to all scents, whereas Euglossa species were collected only in cineole and eugenol.

  19. Natural enemies of Atta vollenweideri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) leaf-cutter ants negatively affected by synthetic pesticides, chlorpyrifos and fipronil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillade, Andrea C; Folgarait, Patricia J

    2014-02-01

    In southern South America, Ada vollenweideri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a significant pest of several crops and forestry, also considered to reduce the carrying capacity of pastures. The most usual control method used in Latin America is the application of synthetic pesticides, mainly chlorpyrifos and fipronil. However, no studies have assessed the effects of these agrochemicals on natural enemies of ants. We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of these pesticides on leaf-cutter ants' control and to test their effect on phorid fly parasitoids. Chlorpyrifos failed to exert complete control over ant colonies in the field and was gravely detrimental to specific parasitoids, reducing their percentage of parasitism, pupal survivorship, and adult longevity. Fipronil, however, exerted complete control over the treated colonies. Laboratory tests using both pesticides, either on ants from foraging trails or on pupariae, showed that chlorpyrifos and fipronil decreased larval and pupal survivorship, as well as adult longevity of parasitoids, in comparison to controls. In conclusion, these pesticides will likely affect parasitoids with regard to their reproductive capacity, leading to the decreased levels of natural parasitism observed in the field after treatments. We discuss why neither pesticide should be taken into account for integrated pest management programs.

  20. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards that are infested or uninfested with Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhae, Catarina De Bortoli; Morini, Maria Santina De Castro; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2014-10-15

    The association between ants and mealybugs can result in damage to agriculture, including vineyards. In southern Brazil, the ant Linepithema micans F. contributes to the dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (ground pearl), a root mealybug that can lead to economic losses. In this study, the ant communities in vineyards that were infested or uninfested with ground pearls were evaluated in the primary municipalities that produce the Niágara Rosada variety of grapes in southeastern Brazil. The hypothesis of this study was that the composition of the ant community differs between vineyards with and without E. brasiliensis. The ants were collected using subterranean traps in 10 vineyards infested with this mealybug and 10 uninfested vineyards. There was no significant association between ground pearls and the composition or richness of the ant species. Solenopsis invicta (Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was the most frequently observed, and Pheidole aberrans (Mayr), Pheidole subarmata (Mayr), and Brachymyrmex incisus F. were common, especially in the rainy season when ground-pearl nymphs were prevalent in the state of São Paulo. Species from preserved or specialized environments were recorded in the vineyards, even with the use of conventional management techniques. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Incomplete homogenization of chemical recognition labels between Formica sanguinea and Formica rufa ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) living in a mixed colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Tomasz; Szczepaniak, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Formica sanguinea Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a slave-making species, i.e., it raids colonies of host species and pillages pupae, which are taken to develop into adult workers in a parasite colony. However, it has been unclear if the coexistence of F. sanguinea with slave workers requires uniformity of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), among which those other than n-alkanes are believed to be the principal nestmate recognition cues utilized by ants. In this study, a mixed colony (MC) of F. sanguinea and Formica rufa L. as a slave species was used to test the hypothesis that CHCs are exchanged between the species. Chemical analysis of hexane extracts from ants' body surfaces provided evidence for interspecific exchange of alkenes and methyl-branched alkanes. This result was confirmed by behavioral tests during which ants exhibited hostility toward conspecific individuals from the MC but not toward ones from homospecific colonies of their own species. However, it seems that species-specific differences in chemical recognition labels were not eliminated completely because ants from the MC were treated differently depending on whether they were con- or allospecific to the individuals whose behavioral reactions were tested. These findings are discussed in the context of mechanisms of colony's odor formation and effective integration of slaves into parasite colony. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  3. Nearly complete mitogenome of hairy sawfly, Corynis lateralis (Brullé, 1832) (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae): rearrangements in the IQM and ARNS1EF gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Özgül; Korkmaz, E Mahir

    2017-10-01

    The Cimbicidae is a small family of the primitive and relatively less diverse suborder Symphyta (Hymenoptera). Here, nearly complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of hairy sawfly, Corynis lateralis (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) was sequenced using next generation sequencing and comparatively analysed with the mitogenome of Trichiosoma anthracinum. The sequenced length of C. lateralis mitogenome was 14,899 bp with an A+T content of 80.60%. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons and all are terminated with TAR or T- stop codon. All tRNA genes preferred usual anticodons. Compared with the inferred insect ancestral mitogenome, two tRNA rearrangements were observed in the IQM and ARNS1EF gene clusters, representing a new event not previously reported in Symphyta. An illicit priming of replication and/or intra/inter-mitochondrial recombination and TDRL seem to be responsible mechanisms for the rearrangement events in these gene clusters. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the position of Corynis within Cimbicidae and recovered a relationship of Tenthredinoidea + (Cephoidea + Orussoidea) in Symphyta.

  4. Impact of the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae), on the Chestnut Component of Honey in the Southern Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Eric; Kast, Christina; Kilchenmann, Verena; Bieri, Katharina; Gehrig, Regula; Pezzatti, Gianni B; Conedera, Marco

    2018-02-09

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW; Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) is considered as one of the most dangerous pests of the genus Castanea. In southern Switzerland, repeated heavy ACGW attacks prevented chestnut trees from vegetating normally for years before the arrival and spread of the biological control agent Torymus sinensis (Kamijo, Hymenoptera, Torymidae). This resulted in a greatly reduced green biomass and flower production. In this paper, we analyze the impact of such an ecosystem alteration of the environment on the composition of produced honey. Six beekeepers were chosen from sites with different densities of chestnut trees, each of which providing series of honey samples from 2010 to 2016. We determined the chestnut component in the honeys via a combined chemical and sensory approach, and correlated the obtained results with the degree of yearly ACGW-induced crown damage and weather conditions during the period in question in the surrounding chestnut stands. The chestnut component in the analyzed honey sample series showed a strong correlation with the degree of ACGW-induced crown damage, whereas meteorological conditions of the corresponding year had a very marginal effect. Decreases in the chestnut component of the honey were statistically significant starting from a ACGW infestation level of 30%. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Controle de Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae com a isca Landrin-F, em área anteriormente coberta com Eucalyptus Control of Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, with Landrin-F bait, in areas previously covered with Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora muitos produtos tenham sido testados como princípio ativo de iscas formicidas, o mercado predominantemente utilizava produtos à base de dodecacloro. Com a proibição deste último composto, surgiram as iscas à base de sulfluramida ou de clorpirifós, constituindo, atualmente, dois dos princípios ativos de iscas formicidas, disponíveis no mercado. Este trabalho objetivou testar a isca Landrin-F (clorpirifós 0,45% no controle da formiga cortadeira Atta laevigata (F. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, comparado à isca Mirex-S (sulfluramida 0,3%. Foram utilizados tratamentos com a aplicação de 30 a 120 gramas da isca Landrin-F por olheiro; aplicação de 8g/m² de formigueiro da isca Landrin-F; aplicação de 8 g/m² de formigueiro da isca Mirex-S e; testemunha, sem aplicação de isca formicida. Após 24 e 48 horas, avaliaram-se o transporte e/ou devolução das iscas, e aos 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 e 210 dias, a atividade dos formigueiros, os quais foram sondados e escavados, aos 180 dias, e feita a avaliação final de atividade aos 210 dias. A utilização da metodologia de aplicação da isca Landrin-F por olheiro ativo aumentou consideravelmente a quantidade de isca aplicada, em relação à metodologia de aplicação por metro quadrado de formigueiro. Como a isca Landrin-F mostrou eficiência semelhante nas duas metodologias de aplicação, recomenda-se que a mesma seja aplicada na dosagem de 8g/m² de formigueiro para o controle de A. laevigata.Although many insecticides have been tested as baits against leaf cutting ants, the market was dominated by those with dodecachlor. This compound was banned and the new baits for these pests have either sulfluramid or chlorpirifos. The objective of this work was to test the Landrin-F (chlorpirifos 0.45% bait against the leaf cutting ant Atta laevigata (F. Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae compared to Mirex-S (sulfluramid 0.3% bait. Treatments used were: application of 30 to

  6. Composição e riqueza de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em savana e ambientes associados de Roraima. = Composition and richness of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in savanna and associated environments of Roraima State (Northern of Brazil.

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    Tatiana Soares Peixoto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição, riqueza e abundância de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidaeem ambientes de savana e sistemas associados aproveitando os gradientes de uso (natural; antrópico e estrutura da vegetação (florestal; não-florestal. Os ecossistemas avaliados foram (i mosaico de savana parque-campo sujo (natural; não-florestal, (ii mata galeria em ambiente de savana (natural; florestal, (iii capoeira derivada de contato floresta-savana (antropizado; florestal e (iv silvicultura de Acacia mangium Willd. derivada de savana parque (antropizado; florestal. Foram utilizados dois métodos de coleta, isca de sardinha e armadilhas de queda (pitfall traps. Cada ecossistema foi amostrado de duas a quatro vezes entre os meses de setembro e dezembro de 2007. Cada rodada de coleta consistiu de 25 unidades amostrais de cada método distribuídas em cinco transectos de 100 m, distanciados 40 m entre si abrangendo uma área de 100 m2. Somados osdois métodos de coleta, foram identificadas 77 espécies ou morfo-espécies de formigas pertencentes a sete subfamílias (25.408indivíduos. A monocultura de A. mangium apresentou 49 espécies, mata galeria 46, capoeira 44 e savana 25. Os dois gêneros de maior ocorrência foram Crematogaster (60,4% dos indivíduos e Pheidole (24,8%. Não foi encontrado nenhum padrão de composição das espécies evidente pela análise de MDS (Escalonamento Multidimensional Não-métrico. Existe uma fraca tendência de agrupamento das amostras da mata galeria, porém as amostras coletadas na savana, normalmente consideradas áreas mais homogêneas, apresentaram a maior diferença de composição. = The objective of this study was to evaluate the composition, richness and abundance of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in savanna habitats and associated environments, observing their use gradients (natural, anthropogenic and vegetation structure (forest, non-forest. The ecosystems evaluated were (i savanna

  7. Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State; Ninhos de Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) em fragmentos de Mata Atlantica secundaria, Salvador, BA

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    Drummmont, Patricia; Viana, Blandina F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Biologia e Ecologia de Abelhas (LABEA); Silva, Fabiana O. da [Faculdade Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Faculdades Jorge Amado, Savador, BA (Brazil)

    2008-05-15

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 deg 01' W and 38 deg 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased ({chi}{sup 2} = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cell's partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants. (author)

  8. Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism

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    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. A taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of Rhinocorynura are provided. Six species are recognized: R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with R. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, R. brunnea sp. nov. and R. viridis sp. nov. Lectotypes for Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 and Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. Another available name included in Rhinocorynura, Corynuropsis ashmeadi Schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in Augochlorini. Rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (R. crotonis (R. briseis ((R. brunnea sp. nov. + R. viridis sp. nov. (R. inflaticeps + R. vernoniae. Biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. Females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. Identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.Filogenia e revisão taxonômica das abelhas do gênero Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, com comentários sobre o poliformismo cefálico das fêmeas. São apresentadas uma revisão taxonômica e filogenia para as espécies de Rhinocorynura. Seis espécies são reconhecidas, duas descritas como novas, R. brunnea sp. nov. e R. viridis sp. nov., e quatro com nomes disponíveis, R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps e R. vernoniae stat. nov., esta última removida da sinonímia com R. inflaticeps. Designam-se aqui lectótipos para Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 e Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906. Outro nome disponível incluído em

  9. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jonathan B; Lozier, Jeffrey; Strange, James P; Ikerd, Harold; Griswold, Terry; Cordes, Nils; Solter, Leellen; Stewart, Isaac; Cameron, Sydney A

    2015-01-01

    Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus) are pollinators of wild and economically important flowering plants. However, at least four bumble bee species have declined significantly in population abundance and geographic range relative to historic estimates, and one species is possibly extinct. While a wealth of historic data is now available for many of the North American species found to be in decline in online databases, systematic survey data of stable species is still not publically available. The availability of contemporary survey data is critically important for the future monitoring of wild bumble bee populations. Without such data, the ability to ascertain the conservation status of bumble bees in the United States will remain challenging. This paper describes USBombus, a large database that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bumble bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the United States was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affinis, B. occidentalis, B. pensylvanicus, and B. terricola. Prior to our national survey of bumble bees in the United States from 2007 to 2010, there have only been regional accounts of bumble bee abundance and richness. In addition to surveying declining bumble bees, we also collected and documented a diversity of co-occuring bumble bees. However we have not yet completely reported their distribution and diversity onto a public online platform. Now, for the first time, we report the geographic distribution of bumble bees reported to be in decline (Cameron et al. 2011), as well as bumble bees that appeared to be stable on a large geographic scale in the United States (not in decline). In this database we report a total of 17,930 adult occurrence records across 397 locations and 39 species of Bombus detected in our national survey. We summarize their abundance and distribution across the United States and

  10. Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania.

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    István Mikó

    Full Text Available We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea. It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

  11. Photosynthesis and yield reductions from wheat stem sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae): interactions with wheat solidness, water stress, and phosphorus deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Kevin J; Weaver, David K; Peterson, Robert K D

    2010-04-01

    The impact of herbivory on plants is variable and influenced by several factors. The current study examined causes of variation in the impact of larval stem mining by the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), on spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. We performed greenhouse experiments over 2 yr to (1) study whether biotic (hollow versus solid stemmed host wheat) and abiotic (water, phosphorus stress) factors interact with C. cinctus stem mining to influence degree of mined stem physiological (photosynthesis) and yield (grain weight) reductions; and (2) determine whether whole plant yield compensatory responses occur to offset stem-mining reductions. Flag leaf photosynthetic reduction was not detected 16-20 d after infestation, but were detected at 40-42 d and doubled from water or phosphorus stresses. Main stem grain weight decreased from 10 to 25% from stem mining, largely due to reductions in grain size, with greater reductions under low phosphorus and/or water levels. Phosphorus-deficient plants without water stress were most susceptible to C. cinctus, more than doubling the grain weight reduction due to larval feeding relative to other water and phosphorus treatments. Two solid stemmed varieties with stem mining had less grain weight loss than a hollow stemmed variety, so greater internal mechanical resistance may reduce larval stem mining and plant yield reductions. Our results emphasize the importance of sufficient water and macronutrients for plants grown in regions impacted by C. cinctus. Also, solid stemmed varieties not only reduce wheat lodging from C. cinctus, they may reduce harvested grain losses from infested stems.

  12. Field suppression of the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a tropical fruit orchard in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Evann; Follett, Peter A; Price, Don K; Stacy, Elizabeth A

    2008-08-01

    The little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is an invasive ant that forms supercolonies when it successfully invades new areas. W. auropunctata was first reported in Hawaii in 1999, and it has since invaded a variety of agricultural sites, including nurseries, orchards, and pastures. Amdro (hydramethylnon; in bait stations), Esteem (pyriproxyfen; broadcast bait), and Conserve (spinosad; ground spray) were tested for their efficacy against W. auropunctata in a rambutan, Nephelium lappaceum L. and mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., orchard by making treatments every 2 wk for 16 wk. Relative estimates of ant numbers in plots was determined by transect sampling using peanut butter-baited sticks. Significant treatment effects were observed on weeks 13-17, with reductions in ant counts occurring in the Amdro and Esteem treatments. During this period, the reduction in ant numbers from pretreatment counts averaged 47.1 and 92.5% in the Amdro and Esteem plots, respectively, whereas ant numbers in the untreated control plots increased by 185.9% compared with pretreatment counts. Conserve did not cause a reduction in ant counts as applied in our experiment. No plots for any of the treatments achieved 100% reduction. Pseudococcidae were counted on branch terminals at 4-wk intervals. The two predominant species, Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell) and Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) were significantly lower in the Amdro and Esteem treatments on week 16 compared with controls. Many W. auropunctata were found nesting in protected sites in the orchard trees, which may have compromised the ground-based control methods. Absolute density estimates from shallow core samples taken from the orchard floor indicated the W. auropunctata supercolony exceeded 244 million ants and 22.7 kg wet weight per ha.

  13. Functionality of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when used in migratory beekeeping for crop pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danka, Robert G; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Sylvester, H Allen; Wagener, Christine M; Bourgeois, A Lelania; Harris, Jeffrey W; Villa, José D

    2012-04-01

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman were evaluated for performance when used in migratory crop pollination. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed bees with Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) were managed without miticide treatments and compared with colonies of Italian honey bees that served as controls. Control colonies were managed as groups which either were treated twice each year against V. destructor (CT) or kept untreated (CU). Totals of 240 and 247 colonies were established initially for trials in 2008 and 2009, respectively. RHB and VSH colonies generally had adult and brood populations similar to those of the standard CT group regarding pollination requirements. For pollination of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb] in February, percentages of colonies meeting the required six or more frames of adult bees were 57% (VSH), 56% (CT), 39% (RHB), and 34% (CU). RHB are known to have small colonies in early spring, but this can be overcome with appropriate feeding. For later pollination requirements in May to July, 94-100% of colonies in the four groups met pollination size requirements for apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton), and lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). Infestations with V. destructor usually were lowest in CT colonies and tended to be lower in VSH colonies than in RHB and CU colonies. This study demonstrates that bees with the VSH trait and pure RHB offer alternatives for beekeepers to use for commercial crop pollination while reducing reliance on miticides. The high frequency of queen loss (only approximately one fourth of original queens survived each year) suggests that frequent requeening is necessary to maintain desired genetics.

  14. Identifying Shifts in Leaf-Litter Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across Ecosystem Boundaries Using Multiple Sampling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiezik, Michal; Svitok, Marek; Wieziková, Adela; Dovčiak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Global or regional environmental changes in climate or land use have been increasingly implied in shifts in boundaries (ecotones) between adjacent ecosystems such as beech or oak-dominated forests and forest-steppe ecotones that frequently co-occur near the southern range limits of deciduous forest biome in Europe. Yet, our ability to detect changes in biological communities across these ecosystems, or to understand their environmental drivers, can be hampered when different sampling methods are required to characterize biological communities of the adjacent but ecologically different ecosystems. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have been shown to be particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and vegetation and they require different sampling methods in closed vs. open habitats. We compared ant assemblages of closed-forests (beech- or oak-dominated) and open forest-steppe habitats in southwestern Carpathians using methods for closed-forest (litter sifting) and open habitats (pitfall trapping), and developed an integrated sampling approach to characterize changes in ant assemblages across these adjacent ecosystems. Using both methods, we collected 5,328 individual ant workers from 28 species. Neither method represented ant communities completely, but pitfall trapping accounted for more species (24) than litter sifting (16). Although pitfall trapping characterized differences in species richness and composition among the ecosystems better, with beech forest being most species poor and ecotone most species rich, litter sifting was more successful in identifying characteristic litter-dwelling species in oak-dominated forest. The integrated sampling approach using both methods yielded more accurate characterization of species richness and composition, and particularly so in species-rich forest-steppe habitat where the combined sample identified significantly higher number of species compared to either of the two methods on their own. Thus, an integrated sampling

  15. MODIS imagery improves pest risk assessment: A case study of wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestina, Jordan; Cook, Maxwell; Kumar, Sunil; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Ode, Paul J.; Peirs, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) has long been a significant insect pest of spring, and more recently, winter wheat in the northern Great Plains. Wheat stem sawfly was first observed infesting winter wheat in Colorado in 2010 and, subsequently, has spread rapidly throughout wheat production regions of the state. Here, we used maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) to generate habitat suitability maps in order to predict the risk of crop damage as this species spreads throughout the winter wheat-growing regions of Colorado. We identified environmental variables that influence the current distribution of wheat stem sawfly in the state and evaluated whether remotely sensed variables improved model performance. We used presence localities of C. cinctus and climatic, topographic, soils, and normalized difference vegetation index and enhanced vegetation index data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery as environmental variables. All models had high performance in that they were successful in predicting suitable habitat for C. cinctus in its current distribution in eastern Colorado. The enhanced vegetation index for the month of April improved model performance and was identified as a top contributor to MaxEnt model. Soil clay percent at 0–5 cm, temperature seasonality, and precipitation seasonality were also associated with C. cinctus distribution in Colorado. The improved model performance resulting from integrating vegetation indices in our study demonstrates the ability of remote sensing technologies to enhance species distribution modeling. These risk maps generated can assist managers in planning control measures for current infestations and assess the future risk of C. cinctus establishment in currently uninfested regions.

  16. Influence of the vegetation management of the leeves in irrigated rice organic in diversity of Hymenoptera parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Pires, P R; Jahnke, S M; Redaelli, L R

    2016-04-19

    Among the natural enemies of insect pests in rice fields, parasitoids are especially notable. To better understand the space-time dynamics of these insects, the objectives of this study were to describe and compare groups of parasitoids in organic irrigated rice fields using two management approaches for levee vegetation, and to relate them to the phenological stages of rice cultivation (the seedling, vegetative, and reproductive stages). The samples were taken in a plantation located in Viamão, RS, Brazil. The total area of 18 ha was divided into two parts: a no-cut (NC) subarea in which the wild vegetation of the levees was maintained, and a cut (C) subarea in which the levee vegetation was cut monthly. In each subarea, four Malaise traps considered as pseudo-replicas were installed and remained in the field for 24 hours at each sampling location. Collections occurred twice a month from the beginning of cultivation (October 2012) until harvest (March 2013). A total of 3,184 Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected: 2,038 individuals in the NC subarea and 1,146 in the C subarea. We identified 458 morphospecies distributed in 24 families. Mymaridae was the most abundant and Eulophidae was the richest in both subareas. A total of 198 morphospecies was shared between the subareas, including Platygastridae, Eulophidae, and Mymaridae, which were the families with the highest number of shared species. The richness and abundance of parasitoids varied according to their phenological developmental stages, with peak abundance registering during the vegetative period. The Morisita index identified three groupings, indicating a similarity that was related to the three phases of rice growth and development: seedling, vegetative and post-harvest.

  17. Transgenic Cotton-Fed Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Affects the Parasitoid Encarsia desantisi Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, R; Rossi, G D; Busoli, A C

    2016-02-01

    Cotton cultivars expressing Cry proteins are widely used to control lepidopteran pests. The effects of transgenic plants containing insecticidal Cry proteins on non-target species must be comprehended for a better and rational use of this technology for pest management. We investigated the influence of the Bt cotton cultivars NuOPAL and FM 975 on biological parameters of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a non-target pest of Bt cotton cultivars and on its parasitoid Encarsia desantisi Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). The experiments were conducted in a climatized room, and the non-transgenic near isolines were used for rearing whiteflies as control hosts. The effects of the Bt cotton cultivars on the period of embryonic and larval development and the percentage of adult emergence of B. tabaci were assessed. The period required for embryonic, larval, and pupal development and the percentage of emergence and longevity of E. desantisi females were determined using Bt cotton-fed and non-Bt cotton-fed B. tabaci as hosts. Both Bt cotton cultivars resulted in a decrease of approximately 20% of adult emergence of B. tabaci. Differently, an increase of approximately 10% of adult emergence of E. desantisi was observed for parasitoids that used hosts fed with both Bt cotton cultivars. However, female parasitoid longevity decreased when their hosts were fed on Bt cotton cultivars. Our data suggest that the use of Bt cotton cultivars in association with the biological control agent E. desantisi could be functional for the management of B. tabaci in Bt cotton crops.

  18. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  19. Identifying Shifts in Leaf-Litter Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae across Ecosystem Boundaries Using Multiple Sampling Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Wiezik

    Full Text Available Global or regional environmental changes in climate or land use have been increasingly implied in shifts in boundaries (ecotones between adjacent ecosystems such as beech or oak-dominated forests and forest-steppe ecotones that frequently co-occur near the southern range limits of deciduous forest biome in Europe. Yet, our ability to detect changes in biological communities across these ecosystems, or to understand their environmental drivers, can be hampered when different sampling methods are required to characterize biological communities of the adjacent but ecologically different ecosystems. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae have been shown to be particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and vegetation and they require different sampling methods in closed vs. open habitats. We compared ant assemblages of closed-forests (beech- or oak-dominated and open forest-steppe habitats in southwestern Carpathians using methods for closed-forest (litter sifting and open habitats (pitfall trapping, and developed an integrated sampling approach to characterize changes in ant assemblages across these adjacent ecosystems. Using both methods, we collected 5,328 individual ant workers from 28 species. Neither method represented ant communities completely, but pitfall trapping accounted for more species (24 than litter sifting (16. Although pitfall trapping characterized differences in species richness and composition among the ecosystems better, with beech forest being most species poor and ecotone most species rich, litter sifting was more successful in identifying characteristic litter-dwelling species in oak-dominated forest. The integrated sampling approach using both methods yielded more accurate characterization of species richness and composition, and particularly so in species-rich forest-steppe habitat where the combined sample identified significantly higher number of species compared to either of the two methods on their own. Thus, an integrated

  20. Abundance and Diversity of Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Found in Lowbush Blueberry Growing Regions of Downeast Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushmann, Sara L; Drummond, Francis A

    2015-08-01

    Insect-mediated pollination is critical for lowbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) fruit development. Past research shows a persistent presence of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) providing pollination services even when commercial pollinators are present. We undertook the study to 1) provide a description of bee communities found in lowbush blueberry-growing regions, 2) identify field characteristics or farm management practices that influence those communities, 3) identify key wild bee pollinators that provide pollination services for the blueberry crop, and 4) identify non-crop plants found within the cropping system that provide forage for wild bees. During a 4-year period, we collected solitary and eusocial bees in over 40 fields during and after blueberry bloom, determining a management description for each field. We collected 4,474 solitary bees representing 124 species and 1,315 summer bumble bees representing nine species. No bumble bee species were previously unknown in Maine, yet we document seven solitary bee species new for the state. These include species of the genera Nomada, Lasioglossum, Calliopsis, and Augochloropsis. No field characteristic or farm management practice related to bee community structure, except bumble bee species richness was higher in certified organic fields. Pollen analysis determined scopal loads of 67-99% ericaceous pollen carried by five species of Andrena. Our data suggest two native ericaceous plants, Kalmia angustifolia L. and Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenheim), provide important alternative floral resources. We conclude that Maine blueberry croplands are populated with a species-rich bee community that fluctuates in time and space. We suggest growers develop and maintain wild bee forage and nest sites. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effect of two agroecological management strategies on ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) diversity on coffee plantations in southwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Escobar, M X; Armbrecht, I

    2013-04-01

    Simplification of agroecosystems because of industrialization of agriculture may cause the loss of associated animal biodiversity of both vertebrates and invertebrates. To measure how the agricultural intensification on coffee plantations affects ant biodiversity, we intensively sampled ants in Caldono (Cauca, Colombia). We surveyed 15 sites classified into three management types: sun coffee plantations, shaded coffee plantations, and forest patches. Fifteen 50-m linear transects, each one consisting of 5 pitfall traps and 5 tuna baits, were set at each sampling location between December of 2009 and February of 2010. We collected 18,186 ants that represent 82 ant species, 34 genera, and 9 subfamilies of Formicidae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The management intensification index showed an increasing intensification gradient along the 15 sampling locations from forest patches to shaded coffee to sun coffee plantations. Shaded coffee plantations harbored the highest number of species (60), followed by forest (56) and sun coffee (33). Ant species composition and plant structure on shaded coffee plantations resembled the forest patches more than the sun coffee plantations. Forest and shaded coffee plantations had a more equitable distribution of ant species, whereas in sun coffee plantations, Linepithema neotropicum (Emery) and Ectatomma ruidum (Roger) typically outnumbered all other ant species. Evidence from functional groups indicated that specific habitat and feeding requirements exist among the species that are found together. Our results confirmed that intensification of agriculture negatively affects ant diversity, despite the fact that farms were located in a heterogeneous landscape, suggesting that agroecological management is a strong determinant in the conservation of wild fauna.

  2. Influence of host preference, mating, and release density on the parasitism of Telenomus remus (Nixon (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae

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    Ana Paula de Queiroz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We evaluated the influence of host preference, mating, and release density on Telenomus remus (Nixon, 1937 (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae parasitizing eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. First, we tested host preference of T. remus (free choice test offered a choice between eggs of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and S. frugiperda. Parasitism capacity and host preference (S. frugiperda of T. remus reared on either of the two hosts did not differ. Secondly, we evaluated the influence of mating behavior of T. remus females on its parasitism. Only the offspring sex ratio differed between treatments, indicating that the species reproduces by parthenogenesis of the arrhenotoky type. Finally, we evaluated the influence of release density on T. remus parasitism. This was tested by releasing different numbers of the parasitoid per S. frugiperda egg using T. remus reared for different numbers of generations on C. cephalonica eggs. The regression analysis between percentage of parasitism and density of released T. remus females showed a quadratic effect for all tested parasitoid generations (F35, F40, and F45 with maximum parasitism from 65.07% to 71.69%. Our results allow the conclusion that (a T. remus prefers S. frugiperda eggs, regardless of the host on which this parasitoid was reared, showing no preimaginal conditioning; (b Mating does not affect the number of eggs parasitized by T. remus or the development of its offspring; and (c The optimal T. remus release density when reared on C. cephalonica is between 0.133 and 0.150 females/S. frugiperda.

  3. Detection of Wolbachia in the Tick Ixodes ricinus is Due to the Presence of the Hymenoptera Endoparasitoid Ixodiphagus hookeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantard, Olivier; Bouju-Albert, Agnès; Malard, Marie-Astrid; Hermouet, Axelle; Capron, Gilles; Verheyden, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The identification of micro-organisms carried by ticks is an important issue for human and animal health. In addition to their role as pathogen vectors, ticks are also the hosts for symbiotic bacteria whose impact on tick biology is poorly known. Among these, the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis has already been reported associated with Ixodes ricinus and other tick species. However, the origins of Wolbachia in ticks and their consequences on tick biology (known to be very diverse in invertebrates, ranging from nutritional symbionts in nematodes to reproductive manipulators in insects) are unknown. Here we report that the endoparasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae) – strictly associated with ticks for their development - is infested at almost 100% prevalence by a W. pipientis strain belonging to a Wolbachia supergroup that has already been reported as associated with other hymenopteran parasitoids. In a natural population of I. ricinus that suffers high parasitism rates due to I. hookeri, we used specific PCR primers for both hymenopteran and W. pipientis gene fragments to show that all unfed tick nymphs parasitized by I. hookeri also harbored Wolbachia, while unparasitized ticks were Wolbachia-free. We demonstrated experimentally that unfed nymphs obtained from larvae exposed to I. hookeri while gorging on their vertebrate host also harbor Wolbachia. We hypothesize that previous studies that have reported W. pipientis in ticks are due to the cryptic presence of the endoparasitoid wasp I. hookeri. This association has remained hidden until now because parasitoids within ticks cannot be detected until engorgement of the nymphs brings the wasp eggs out of diapause. Finally, we discuss the consequences of this finding for our understanding of the tick microbiome, and their possible role in horizontal gene transfer among pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria. PMID:22292021

  4. Dissecting cross-reactivity in hymenoptera venom allergy by circumvention of alpha-1,3-core fucosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seismann, Henning; Blank, Simon; Braren, Ingke; Greunke, Kerstin; Cifuentes, Liliana; Grunwald, Thomas; Bredehorst, Reinhard; Ollert, Markus; Spillner, Edzard

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is known to cause life-threatening and sometimes fatal IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. About 30-50% of patients with insect venom allergy have IgE antibodies that react with both honeybee and yellow jacket venom. Apart from true double sensitisation, IgE against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) are the most frequent cause of multiple reactivities severely hampering the diagnosis and design of therapeutic strategies by clinically irrelevant test results. In this study we addressed allergenic cross-reactivity using a recombinant approach by employing cell lines with variant capacities of alpha-1,3-core fucosylation. The venom hyaluronidases, supposed major allergens implicated in cross-reactivity phenomena, from honeybee (Api m 2) and yellow jacket (Ves v 2a and its putative isoform Ves v 2b) as well as the human alpha-2HS-glycoprotein as control, were produced in different insect cell lines. In stark contrast to production in Trichoplusia ni (HighFive) cells, alpha-1,3-core fucosylation was absent or immunologically negligible after production in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. Consistently, co-expression of honeybee alpha-1,3-fucosyltransferase in Sf9 cells resulted in the reconstitution of CCD reactivity. Re-evaluation of differentially fucosylated hyaluronidases by screening of individual venom-sensitised sera emphasised the allergenic relevance of Api m 2 beyond its carbohydrate epitopes. In contrast, the vespid hyaluronidases, for which a predominance of Ves v 2b could be shown, exhibited pronounced and primary carbohydrate reactivity rendering their relevance in the context of allergy questionable. These findings show that the use of recombinant molecules devoid of CCDs represents a novel strategy with major implications for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying Shifts in Leaf-Litter Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across Ecosystem Boundaries Using Multiple Sampling Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiezik, Michal; Svitok, Marek; Wieziková, Adela; Dovčiak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Global or regional environmental changes in climate or land use have been increasingly implied in shifts in boundaries (ecotones) between adjacent ecosystems such as beech or oak-dominated forests and forest-steppe ecotones that frequently co-occur near the southern range limits of deciduous forest biome in Europe. Yet, our ability to detect changes in biological communities across these ecosystems, or to understand their environmental drivers, can be hampered when different sampling methods are required to characterize biological communities of the adjacent but ecologically different ecosystems. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have been shown to be particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and vegetation and they require different sampling methods in closed vs. open habitats. We compared ant assemblages of closed-forests (beech- or oak-dominated) and open forest-steppe habitats in southwestern Carpathians using methods for closed-forest (litter sifting) and open habitats (pitfall trapping), and developed an integrated sampling approach to characterize changes in ant assemblages across these adjacent ecosystems. Using both methods, we collected 5,328 individual ant workers from 28 species. Neither method represented ant communities completely, but pitfall trapping accounted for more species (24) than litter sifting (16). Although pitfall trapping characterized differences in species richness and composition among the ecosystems better, with beech forest being most species poor and ecotone most species rich, litter sifting was more successful in identifying characteristic litter-dwelling species in oak-dominated forest. The integrated sampling approach using both methods yielded more accurate characterization of species richness and composition, and particularly so in species-rich forest-steppe habitat where the combined sample identified significantly higher number of species compared to either of the two methods on their own. Thus, an integrated sampling

  6. Insecticide Susceptibility in Asian Honey Bees (Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) and Implications for Wild Honey Bees in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Mika; Sakamoto, Yoshiko; Goka, Koichi; Nagamitsu, Teruyoshi; Taki, Hisatomo

    2017-04-01

    To conserve local biodiversity and ensure the provision of pollination services, it is essential to understand the impact of pesticides on wild honey bees. Most studies that have investigated the effects of pesticides on honey bees have focused on the European honey bee (Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)), which is commonly domesticated worldwide. However, the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) is widely distributed throughout Asia, and toxicity data are lacking for this species. This study aimed to fill this important knowledge gap. In this study, we determined the acute contact toxicity in A. cerana to various pesticides, including neonicotinoids, fipronil, organophosphorus, synthetic pyrethroids, carbamate, and anthranilic diamide. Based on the test duration of 48 h of contact LD50 tests, A. cerana was most sensitive to dinotefuran (0.0014 μg/bee), followed by thiamethoxam (0.0024 μg/bee) and fipronil (0.0025 μg/bee). Dinotefuran is used extensively in Asia, thereby potentially creating a substantial hazard. More generally, A. cerana was approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than was A. mellifera to most of the pesticides evaluated. The results of our study suggest that neonicotinoid pesticides should not be considered as a single group that acts uniformly on all honey bees, and that more careful management strategies are required to conserve A. cerana populations than A. mellifera. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important.

  8. Diverse Filters to Sense: Great Variability of Antennal Morphology and Sensillar Equipment in Gall-Wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Carlo; Nieves-Aldrey, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies on antennal sensillar equipment in insects are largely lacking, despite their potential to provide insights into both ecological and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present the first comparative study on antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in female Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera), a large and diverse group of wasps, with special reference to the so-called gall-wasps (Cynipidae). A SEM analysis was conducted on 51 species from all extant cynipoid families and all cynipid tribes, and spanning all known life-histories in the superfamily (gall-inducers, gall-inquilines, and non-gall associated parasitoids). The generally filiform, rarely clavate, antennal flagellum of Cynipoidea harbours overall 12 types of sensilla: s. placoidea (SP), two types of s. coeloconica (SCo-A, SCo-B), s. campaniformia (SCa), s. basiconica (SB), five types of s. trichoidea (ST-A, B, C, D, E), large disc sensilla (LDS) and large volcano sensilla (LVS). We found a great variability in sensillar equipment both among and within lineages. However, few traits seem to be unique to specific cynipid tribes. Paraulacini are, for example, distinctive in having apical LVS; Pediaspidini are unique in having ≥3 rows of SP, each including 6–8 sensilla per flagellomere, and up to 7 SCo-A in a single flagellomere; Eschatocerini have by far the largest SCo-A. Overall, our data preliminarily suggest a tendency to decreased numbers of SP rows per flagellomere and increased relative size of SCo-A during cynipoid evolution. Furthermore, SCo-A size seems to be higher in species inducing galls in trees than in those inducing galls in herbs. On the other hand, ST seem to be more abundant on the antennae of herb-gallers than wood-gallers. The antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea are the complex results of different interacting pressures that need further investigations to be clarified. PMID:25003514

  9. Phospholipase A1-based cross-reactivity among venoms of clinically relevant Hymenoptera from Neotropical and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Fernandes, Luís Gustavo Romani; Musacchio Lasa, Alexis; Dos Santos-Pinto, José Roberto Aparecido; Moitinho Abram, Débora; Izuka Moraes, Gabriel Hideki; Jabs, Frederic; Miehe, Michaela; Seismman, Henning; Palma, Mario Sergio; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo; Spillner, Edzard; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2018-01-01

    Molecular cross-reactivity caused by allergen homology or cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) is a major challenge for diagnosis and immunotherapy of insect venom allergy. Venom phospholipases A1 (PLA1s) are classical, mostly non-glycosylated wasp and ant allergens that provide diagnostic benefit for differentiation of genuine sensitizations from cross-reactivity. As CCD-free molecules, venom PLA1s are not causative for CCD-based cross-reactivity. Little is known however about the protein-based cross-reactivity of PLA1 within vespid species. Here, we address PLA1-based cross-reactivity among ten clinically relevant Hymenoptera venoms from Neotropical and temperate regions including Polybia paulista (paulistinha) venom and Vespula vulgaris (yellow jacket) venom. In order to evaluate cross-reactivity, sera of mice sensitized with recombinant PLA1 (rPoly p 1) from P. paulista wasp venom were used. Pronounced IgE and IgG based cross-reactivity was detected for wasp venoms regardless the geographical region of origin. The cross-reactivity correlated well with the identity of the primary sequence and 3-D models of PLA1 proteins. In contrast, these mice sera showed no reaction with honeybee (HBV) and fire ant venom. Furthermore, sera from patients monosensitized to HBV and fire ants did not recognize the rPoly p 1 in immunoblotting. Our findings reveal the presence of conserved epitopes in the PLA1s from several clinically relevant wasps as major cause of PLA1-based in vitro cross-reactivity. These findings emphasize the limitations but also the potential of PLA1-based HVA diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil-applied imidacloprid is translocated to nectar and kills nectar-feeding Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischik, Vera A; Landmark, Alyson L; Heimpel, George E

    2007-10-01

    Behavior was altered and survivorship was reduced when parasitoids, Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), were fed flowers from buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum L. (Polygonaceae), treated with soil applications of imidacloprid (Marathon 1% G). Parasitoids at 1 d had significantly reduced survivorship of 38 +/- 6.7% on label rate and 17 +/- 4.2% on twice label rate compared with 98 +/- 1.2% on untreated flowers. Parasitoids trembled 88% on label rate and 94% on twice label rate compared with 0% on untreated flowers. Residue analysis on a composite sample of 425 flowers showed that imidacloprid concentration was 6.6 +/- 1.0 ppm (16 ppb/flower) in label rate, 12.3 +/- 2.7 ppm (29 ppb/flower) in twice label rate, and 0 ppb in untreated flowers. The hydroxy metabolite concentration was 1.1 ppm (2.4 ppb/flower) in label rate, 1.9 ppm (4.4 ppb/flower) in twice label rate, and 0 ppm in untreated flowers. The olefin metabolite concentration was 0.2 ppm (0.5 ppb/flower) in label rate, 0.5 ppm (1.1 ppb/flower) in twice label rate, and 0 ppm in untreated flowers. Soil-applied imidacloprid used at flowering may be translocated to nectar in higher concentration compared with the imidacloprid seed treatment Gaucho. Considerable research has studied effects of Gaucho-treated canola, sunflower, and maize on behavior and mortality of Apis mellifera L. In our laboratory, we showed that translocation of imidacloprid to flowers reduced survivorship and altered behavior of pink lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer (Smith and Krischik 1999) and green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Rogers et al. 2007).

  11. Diverse filters to sense: great variability of antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in gall-wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Polidori

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on antennal sensillar equipment in insects are largely lacking, despite their potential to provide insights into both ecological and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present the first comparative study on antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in female Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera, a large and diverse group of wasps, with special reference to the so-called gall-wasps (Cynipidae. A SEM analysis was conducted on 51 species from all extant cynipoid families and all cynipid tribes, and spanning all known life-histories in the superfamily (gall-inducers, gall-inquilines, and non-gall associated parasitoids. The generally filiform, rarely clavate, antennal flagellum of Cynipoidea harbours overall 12 types of sensilla: s. placoidea (SP, two types of s. coeloconica (SCo-A, SCo-B, s. campaniformia (SCa, s. basiconica (SB, five types of s. trichoidea (ST-A, B, C, D, E, large disc sensilla (LDS and large volcano sensilla (LVS. We found a great variability in sensillar equipment both among and within lineages. However, few traits seem to be unique to specific cynipid tribes. Paraulacini are, for example, distinctive in having apical LVS; Pediaspidini are unique in having ≥3 rows of SP, each including 6-8 sensilla per flagellomere, and up to 7 SCo-A in a single flagellomere; Eschatocerini have by far the largest SCo-A. Overall, our data preliminarily suggest a tendency to decreased numbers of SP rows per flagellomere and increased relative size of SCo-A during cynipoid evolution. Furthermore, SCo-A size seems to be higher in species inducing galls in trees than in those inducing galls in herbs. On the other hand, ST seem to be more abundant on the antennae of herb-gallers than wood-gallers. The antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea are the complex results of different interacting pressures that need further investigations to be clarified.

  12. Spatial Distribution of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) Adults, Eggs and Parasitism by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ian A; Roberts, Phillip M; Gardner, Wayne A; Oliver, Kerry M; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Reisig, Dominic D; Toews, Michael D

    2017-12-08

    Since 2014, populations of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), have declined in the southeastern United States and seldom require treatment. This decline follows the discovery of Paratelenomus saccharalis (Dodd; Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), a non-native egg parasitoid. The objective of this project was to observe the temporal and spatial dynamics of P. saccharalis parasitism of kudzu bug egg masses in commercial soybean fields. Four fields were sampled weekly for kudzu bugs and egg masses at a density of one sample per 0.6 ha. Sampling commenced when soybean reached the R2 maturity stage and continued until no more egg masses were present. Responses including kudzu bugs, egg masses, and parasitism rates were analyzed using ANOVA, Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices (SADIE), and SaTScan spatial analysis software. Egg masses were collected from the field, held in the lab and monitored for emergence of kudzu bug nymphs or P. saccharalis. Kudzu bug populations were generally lower than previously reported in the literature and spatial aggregation was not consistently observed. Egg parasitism was first detected in early July and increased to nearly 40% in mid-August. Significant spatial patterns in parasitism were observed with spatio-temporal clusters being loosely associated with clusters of egg masses. There were no significant differences in parasitism rates between field margins and interiors, suggesting that P. saccharalis is an effective parasitoid of kudzu bug egg masses on a whole-field scale. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Encapsulation and Self-Superparasitism of Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, María G; Desneux, Nicolas; Schneider, Marcela I

    2016-01-01

    Endoparasitoids can be killed by host encapsulation, a cellular-mediated host immunological response against parasitism that involves hemocytes aggregation. As a counteracting strategy, many parasitoids can evade this host response through self-superparasitism. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) early immature stages (egg and larva) encapsulation by the host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and 2) to determine the occurrence of self-superparasitism and the rate of escaping to encapsulation of this parasitoid. Knowledge of host-parasitoid immunological interaction is crucial when evaluating the potential of an endoparasitoid as a biological control candidate. Parasitoid-exposed T. absoluta larvae were dissected in vivo under light stereoscope microscope at 24-h intervals, for five days after exposition to detect encapsulation. The preimaginal stages of P. dignus and numbers of healthy and encapsulated immature parasitoids per host were recorded. Samples of parasitoid eggs and larvae were processed for SEM visualization of encapsulation. Necropsies evidenced that only the early first larval instar of P. dignus (up to 96 h-old) was partially or completely encapsulated. A non-melanized capsule, formed by layers of granulocyte-type hemocytes enveloping around the parasitoid body, was recorded. Approximately 50% of the parasitized T. absoluta larvae had significantly only one P. dignus egg, meanwhile supernumerary parasitization yielded up to seven immature parasitoids per host. The proportion of single-early first larval instar of P. dignus reached ≈ 0.5 and decreased significantly as the number of parasitoid individuals per host increased. P. dignus encapsulation and its ability to overcome with the host immune defense through self-superparasitism indicate that T. absoluta is a semi-permissive host for this parasitoid.

  14. Modeling Environmental Influences in the Psyllaephagus bliteus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)-Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) Parasitoid-Host System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta, M; Bella, S; Buffa, F; Caleca, V; Floris, I; Giorno, V; Lo Verde, G; Rapisarda, C; Sasso, R; Suma, P; Tortorici, F; Laudonia, S

    2017-04-01

    Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) is an invasive psyllid introduced into the Mediterranean area, where it affects several species of Eucalyptus. Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a specialized parasitoid of this psyllid that was accidentally introduced into Italy in 2011. We developed a model of this host-parasitoid system that accounts for the influence of environmental conditions on the G. brimblecombei population dynamics and P. bliteus parasitism rates in the natural ecosystem. The Lotka-Volterra-based model predicts non-constant host growth and parasitoid mortality rates in association with variation in environmental conditions. The model was tested by analyzing sampling data collected in Naples in 2011 (before the parasitoid was present) and defining several environmental patterns, termed Temperature-Rain or T-R patterns, which correspond to the host growth rate. A mean value of the host growth rate was assigned to each T-R pattern, as well as a variation of the parasitoid mortality rate based on temperature thresholds. The proposed model was applied in simulation tests related to T-R patterns carried out with a data series sampled between June 2014 and July 2015 in five Italian sites located in Campania, Lazio, Sicily, and Sardinia regions. The simulation results showed that the proposed model provides an accurate approximation of population trends, although oscillation details may not be apparent. Results predict a 64% reduction in G. brimblecombei population density owing to P. bliteus parasitoid activity. Our results are discussed with respect to features of the host-parasitoid interaction that could be exploited in future biological control programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Oppel, Craig

    2012-06-01

    In laboratory assays, we evaluated the potential impact of host plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group sizes (densities), and parasitoid-to-host ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), newly introduced for biological control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in the United States. Results from our study showed that offspring production and critical fitness parameters (body size and sex ratio) of T. planipennisi from parasitized emerald ash borer larvae are significantly influenced by host plant substrate type, host-parasitoid group size, parasitoid-to-host ratio, or a combination in the primary exposure assay. The number of both female and male T. planipennisi progeny was significantly greater when emerald ash borer larvae were inserted into tropical ash [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh.] logs rather than green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica Marshall). When maintained at a constant 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio, assays with larger host-parasitoid group sizes (3:3-12:12) produced significantly greater numbers of both male and female offspring per parental wasp compared with those with the single host-parasitoid (1:1) group treatment. As the parasitoid-to-host ratio increased from 1:1 to 8:1 in the assay, the average brood size (number of offspring per parasitized emerald ash borer larva) increased significantly, whereas the average brood sex ratio (female to male) changed from being female-biased (6:1) to male-biased (1:2); body size of female offspring as measured by the length of ovipositor and left hind tibia also was reduced significantly. Based on these findings, we suggest that the current method of rearing T. planipennisi with artificially infested-emerald ash borer larvae use the tropical ash logs for emerald ash borer insertion, a larger (> or = 3:3) host-parasitoid group size and 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio in the primary

  16. Cockroach Oothecal Parasitoid, Evania appendigaster (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) Exhibits Oviposition Preference Towards Oothecal Age Most Vulnerable to Host Cannibalism.

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    Tee, Hui-Siang; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2017-12-05

    Many female parasitoid wasps optimize host selection to balance the benefits of high-quality hosts and the costs of predator- or hyperparasitoid-induced mortality risks to maximize their fitness. Cannibalism exists in many insect species and affects survival of parasitoid larvae developing in or on parasitized hosts. However, little is known about how parasitoid wasps resolve the fitness consequence of host cannibalism-induced mortality risk during host selection. We examined the effect of oothecal age on cannibalism in the American cockroach Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) and its effect on host age selection and fitness of its oothecal parasitoid Evania appendigaster (L.) (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae). P. americana differentially cannibalized 1-d-old (30‒60%) versus 10- to 40-d-old oothecae (parasitoid females did not avoid but still preferred to parasitize 1-d-old (45%) over 10- to 40-d-old oothecae (1.6‒20%). The parasitism rate was greater and the handling time was shorter on 1-d-old compared to older oothecae. For parasitoid progeny emerging from different-aged oothecae, regression analysis showed that development time increased and body size (measured as hind tibia length) and longevity decreased with oothecal age. These results demonstrate that reduced parasitoid progeny survival due to host cannibalism did not change the parasitoid's oviposition preference for newly laid oothecae, and that E. appendigaster females traded progeny survival for fitness gains for themselves and their progeny. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J; Tallamy, Douglas W; Hough-Goldstein, Judith

    2015-06-01

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a newly described ectoparasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is currently being evaluated for environmental introduction in the United States to provide biological control of this invasive pest. To improve mass-rearing outcomes for S. galinae, we investigated the effects of parasitoid: host ratio and parasitoid and host group size (density) on parasitoid fitness. Our results showed that when 1 emerald ash borer larva was exposed to 1, 2, 4, or 8 female parasitoids, parasitism rate was positively associated with increasing parasitoid: host ratio, while brood size, sex ratio, and fitness estimates of progeny were not affected. When a constant 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio was used, but group size varied from 1 female parasitoid and 1 host, 5 parasitoids and 5 hosts, 10 of each, and 20 of each in same size rearing cages, parasitism rates were highest when at least 5 females were exposed to 5 host larvae. Moreover, the number of progeny produced per female parasitoid was greatest when group size was 10 parasitoids and 10 hosts. These findings demonstrate that S. galinae may be reared most efficiently in moderately high-density groups (10 parasitoids and hosts) and with a 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Reciprocal crosses between two populations of Trissolcus vassilievi (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) reveal maternal effects on thermal phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranipour, S; BenaMolaei, P; Asgari, S; Michaud, J P

    2015-06-01

    The egg parasitoid Trissolcus vassilievi (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) is a significant natural enemy of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), the most important pest of wheat in Iran. This study examined the developmental time and egg-to-adult survival of two geographically separate populations of T. vassilievi on two corresponding host populations at five constant temperatures ranging from 15.0 to 35.0 ± 1°C. No wasps of either population emerged at 15.0°C and the temperature threshold for development was similar between populations, ranging from 13.1 ± 0.3 to 13.8 ± 0.4°C for males and 12.2 ± 0.1 to 12.6 ± 0.1°C for females, but the thermal constant varied with gender and parasitoid population. Development of wasps from the colder Tabriz location was slower, with thermal constants for males and females of 172.6 ± 3.1 and 204.1 ± 1.2 degree-days, respectively, compared to Varamin wasps with 164.7 ± 3.0 and 195.6 ± 1.3 degree-days, respectively. Based on genetic inheritance patterns, reciprocal crosses between the two populations were expected to result in females with thermal phenotypes intermediate to their parental populations, and males that resembled their mothers. However, female progeny of crosses more closely resembled their maternal population, indicating a maternal effect on thermal phenotype. Furthermore, the magnitude of the maternal effect on the thermal constant was asymmetric and was more strongly expressed by Varmin than Tabriz females. These results suggest the possibility of using selective crosses between wasp populations, in combination with artificial selection in the laboratory, to tune the thermal phenotype of parasitoids to specific regions prior to augmentative releases.

  19. Foraging pattern and harvesting of resources of subterranean stingless bee Geotrigona subterranea (Friese, 1901 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini

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    Fernando Mendes Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Flight activity of bees is influenced both by environmental factors and by internal condition of the colonies. Information about external activity of bees is very important, because it provides data of the species biology, supplying subsidies for the use of these insects in the pollination of crops. The present work aim to evaluate the flight activity of Geotrigona subterranea (Friese, 1901 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in natural environment. This study was performed on the Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas Gerais, in the municipality Januária, Minas Gerais State. Two natural nests were observed. The activities of bees of the colonies were recorded three days each month, during the period of December 2011 to November 2012, totaling 924 observations. It was recorded the number of bees leaving and entering the nest, and the type of material transported by them for ten minutes each hour from 5 a.m. to 7 p.m. The bees entered the colony carrying pollen, resin, detritus and also without apparent material. The bees began external activities by 6 a.m. at 20°C and finished at 6 p.m. at 28.8°C. The peak of activity of G. subterranea occurs on schedule from 1 to 2 p.m. Even though G. subterranea makes their nests in underground, their foraging activities are very similar to others stingless bee species that usually nest on tree cavities or aerial places. This indicate that despite their particular nesting way the external factors as climatic ones will significantly modulate their foraging pattern in a daily and seasonal way.

  20. Parasitism, emergence, and development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of different ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host-parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3-5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6-7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2-5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6-7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Toxicity and Residual Activity of Insecticides Against Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Parasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

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    Luna-Cruz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Ortega-Arenas, Laura D; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor; Pineda, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is one of the most economically important pests of potato, tomato, and peppers in Central America, Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. Its control is based on the use of insecticides; however, recently, the potential of the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for population regulation has been studied. Because T. triozae is likely to be exposed to insecticides on crops, the objective of this study was to explore the compatibility of eight insecticides with this parasitoid. The toxicity and residual activity (persistence) of spirotetramat, spiromesifen, beta-cyfluthrin, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, abamectin, and spinosad against T. triozae adults were assessed using a method based on the residual contact activity of each insecticide on tomato leaf discs collected from treated plants growing under greenhouse conditions. All eight insecticides were toxic to T. triozae. Following the classification of the International Organization of Biological Control, the most toxic were abamectin and spinosad, which could be placed in toxicity categories 3 and 4, respectively. The least toxic were azadirachtin, pymetrozine, spirotetramat, spiromesifen, imidacloprid, and beta-cyfluthrin, which could be placed in toxicity category 2. In terms of persistence, by day 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 24, and 41 after application, spirotetramat, azadirachtin, spiromesifen, pymetrozine, imidacloprid, beta-cyfluthrin, abamectin, and spinosad could be considered harmless, that is, placed in toxicity category 1 (insecticides allow them to be considered within integrated pest management programs that include T. triozae. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The geological record and phylogeny of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae): A revision of fossil species and their phylogenetic placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juanita; Waichert, Cecilia; von Dohlen, Carol D; Pitts, James P

    2017-01-01

    Accurate fossil identification has become increasingly relevant with the widespread use of phylogenetic divergence time estimation methods, which rely on fossil data to determine clade hard-minimum ages. Here we revise, diagnose and illustrate known spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) fossil species and place them within the latest Pompilidae phylogenetic hypothesis. Ceropalites infelix Cockerell, from the Florissant Fossil Beds (Priabonian), is no longer recognized as Pompilidae, but as Aulacidae. Agenioideus saxigenus (Cockerell) comb. nov., Deuteragenia wettweri (Statz) comb. nov., Caputelus scudderi (Cockerell, 1906) comb. nov., Pepsinites avitula (Cockerell, 1941) comb. nov., Pepsinites contentus (Theobald, 1937) comb. nov., Pepsinites florissantensis (Cockerell, 1906) comb. nov., Pepsinites laminarum (Rohwer, 1909) comb. nov., Pepsinites scelerosus (Meunier, 1919) comb. nov., Pepsinites cockerellae (Rohwer, 1909) comb. nov., Pompilinites coquandi (Theobald, 1937) comb. nov., Pompilinites depressus (Statz, 1936) comb. nov., Pompilites incertus (Theobald, 1937) comb. nov., Pompilites induratus (Heer, 1849) comb. nov., Pompilites fasciatus (Theobald, 1937) comb. nov., and Pompilites senex comb. nov. are new combinations. Twenty-three fossil species of spider wasps are now recognized in 13 genera. Four new genera are proposed: Caputelus Waichert & Pitts gen. nov., Pompilites Rodriguez gen. nov., Pompilinites Rodriguez & Waichert gen. nov., and Pepsinites Rodriguez & Waichert gen. nov., of which the three latter are collective-group names for fossils with taxonomic uncertainty. One species of fossil spider wasp is described: Deuteragenia catalunyia Rodriguez, Waichert & Pitts sp. nov., from the Bellver deposits in Catalonia, Spain. Five of the 23 known species can be used to determine hard-minimum age for calibrations of genera stem-groups (Agenioideus, Anoplius, Cryptocheilus, Deuteragenia, Priocnemis). The fossil belonging to the stem-group of the tribe

  3. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780-1857), Turin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2015-01-01

    A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera), belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysisbicolor Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysiscomparata Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysisdives Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysispumila Klug, 1845; Chrysissuccincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrumbidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysisaequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisanalis Spinola, 1808; Chrysisassimilis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisbihamata Spinola, 1838; Chrysischilensis Spinola, 1851; Chrysisdichroa Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisdistinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisepiscopalis Spinola, 1838; Chrysisgrohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisincrassata Spinola, 1838; Chrysispallidicornis Spinola, 1838; Chrysispulchella Spinola, 1808; Chrysisramburi Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisrefulgens Spinola, 1806; Chrysissplendens Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysissuccinctula Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisversicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampusgayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrumcaerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; Hedychrumchloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; Hedychrumdifficile Spinola, 1851; Hedychrumvirens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopygajanthina Dahlbom, 1854; Holopygaluzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysisbicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984); Chrysiscalimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965); Chrysiselegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991)); Hedychrumchloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986); Hedychrumrutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984). Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrumintermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopygafervida (Fabricius, 1781); Chrysissicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysiselegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysissuccinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysisgermari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysisdistinguenda Spinola, 1838, and Chrysiscoronata Spinola

  4. Inorganic elements in the fat bodies of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, D O; Zucchi, T D; Zucchi, O L A D; Nascimento Filho, V F; Almeida, E; Cônsoli, F L

    2010-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoids use several strategies to regulate the host's physiological processes during parasitism. Although many aspects of host-parasitoid interactions have been explored, studies that attempted to assess the effects of parasitism on the availability of inorganic elements in the host are virtually nonexistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of parasitism on the concentrations of inorganic elements in the fat bodies of larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) during the development of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). TXRF analysis allowed comparisons of the changes in the availability of the elements P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the fat body tissues of D. saccharalis larvae parasitized by C. flavipes. Overall, the concentration of inorganic elements was higher early in parasitoid development (1 and 3days after parasitism) compared to non-parasitized larvae, but much lower towards the end of parasitoid development (7 and 9days after parasitism). Ca, K, and S were reduced after the fifth day of parasitism, which affected the total abundance of inorganic elements observed in the fat bodies of the parasitized hosts. The regulatory mechanisms or pathological effects related to the observed variation of the host inorganic elements induced by the parasitoid remain unknown, but there might be a strategy to make these elements available to the parasitoid larvae at the end of their development, when higher metabolic activity of the host fat body is required to sustain parasitoid growth. The observed variation of the host's inorganic elements could also be related to the known effects of parasitism on the host's immune response. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain size and visual environment predict species differences in paper wasp sensory processing brain regions (hymenoptera: vespidae, polistinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sean; Clifford, Marie R; DeLeon, Sara; Papa, Christopher; Zahedi, Nazaneen; Bulova, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    The mosaic brain evolution hypothesis predicts that the relative volumes of functionally distinct brain regions will vary independently and correlate with species' ecology. Paper wasp species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) differ in light exposure: they construct open versus enclosed nests and one genus (Apoica) is nocturnal. We asked whether light environments were related to species differences in the size of antennal and optic processing brain tissues. Paper wasp brains have anatomically distinct peripheral and central regions that process antennal and optic sensory inputs. We measured the volumes of 4 sensory processing brain regions in paper wasp species from 13 Neotropical genera including open and enclosed nesters, and diurnal and nocturnal species. Species differed in sensory region volumes, but there was no evidence for trade-offs among sensory modalities. All sensory region volumes correlated with brain size. However, peripheral optic processing investment increased with brain size at a higher rate than peripheral antennal processing investment. Our data suggest that mosaic and concerted (size-constrained) brain evolution are not exclusive alternatives. When brain regions increase with brain size at different rates, these distinct allometries can allow for differential investment among sensory modalities. As predicted by mosaic evolution, species ecology was associated with some aspects of brain region investment. Nest architecture variation was not associated with brain investment differences, but the nocturnal genus Apoica had the largest antennal:optic volume ratio in its peripheral sensory lobes. Investment in central processing tissues was not related to nocturnality, a pattern also noted in mammals. The plasticity of neural connections in central regions may accommodate evolutionary shifts in input from the periphery with relatively minor changes in volume. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Occurrence of Hymenoptera on Sus scrofa carcasses during summer and winter seasons in southeastern Brazil Ocorrência de Hymenoptera em carcaças de Sus scrofa durante as estações de inverno e verão do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable importance has been given to nest construction and larval food transport to the nest as a precondition for the eusociality of insects. Most adult hymenopterans feed on liquids, although bees and a few wasps may also feed on pollen. Carrion represents an additional source of protein for some species and they will scavenge for dead animals in the wild. This paper aims at analyzing Hymenoptera visitors on a pig carcass during the process of decomposition, in the summer of 2005 and the winter of 2006 in Brazil, and comparing the results with other studies in the Neotropical region. To our knowledge, this is the first study which described the occurence of Agelaia pallipes, Polybia paulista and Scaptotrigona depilis on decomposing carcasses in southeastern Brazil. It also raises the hypothesis of possible applications of Hymenoptera to achieve more precise PMI estimations, apart from other insects already known as having great importance in such estimates.Considerável importância tem sido dada às construções de ninhos e transporte de alimento larval para o ninho como uma pré-condição para a eusociabilidade dos insetos. Muitos adultos de himenópteros alimentam-se em líquidos, embora as abelhas e poucas vespas podem também se alimentarem de pólen. Carcaças representam uma fonte adicional de proteína para algumas espécies e elas foram uma vez observadas se alimentando de animais mortos na natureza. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar Hymenoptera visitantes em carcaças de porcos durante o verão de 2005 e inverno de 2006 no Brasil, ao longo dos estágios de decomposição, comparando com resultados de outros estudos na região Neotropical. Pelo nosso conhecimento, esse é o primeiro estudo que descreveu a ocorrência de Agelaia pallipes, Polybia paulista e Scaptotrigona depilis em carcaças em decomposição no sudeste do Brasil. Isso também aumenta a hipótese na possibilidade de aplicação de Hymenoptera em auxiliar a

  7. Nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini em ninhos-armadilha no Nordeste do Maranhão, Brasil Nidification of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini in trap nests in Northeast Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda N. Mendes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo obter dados sobre a ecologia da nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith em três ecossistemas: mata ciliar (MC, mata mesofítica (MM e eucaliptal (EC, utilizandose ninhos-armadilha confeccionados em gomos de bambu, distribuídos em diferentes alturas: 1,5 m e 5-12 m do solo. Foram obtidos 41 ninhos: 31 no EC e 10 na MM, a maioria no estrato superior e com maior freqüência de nidificações ocorrendo no período de estiagem. A razão sexual foi de 1,9:1 (fêmeas/ machos no EC e de 1,08:1 na MM. Cerca de 22% dos ninhos do EC e 40% da MM foram parasitados por Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera, Apidae e Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae. A análise polínica revelou predominância de grãos de pólen de Banisteriopsis sp. (Malpighiaceae e Cassia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae no EC e de espécies de Caesalpiniaceae Kunth. e Banisteriopsis Robinson na MM.This work had as objective to obtain ecological data of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith's nidification in three ecosystems: riparian forest (MC, mesophitic forest (MM and eucalyptal (EC, using trap nests made by bamboo canes, distributed in differentiated heights: 1,5 m and 5-12 m high. A total of 41 nests were collected: 31 in EC and 10 in MM, the majority in the upper strata and with the largest frequency of nesting occurring in the dry season. The sex ratio was of 1.9:1 (females/ males in EC and of 1.08:1 in MM. About 22% of nests of the EC and 40% of MM were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius 1804 (Hymenoptera, Apidae and Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae. The pollinic analyses showed a higher quantity of pollen grains of Banisteriopsis sp. (Malpighiaceae and Cassia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae in EC area and a species of Caesalpiniaceae Kunth. and Banisteriopsis Robinson in MM area.

  8. Mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica, 1985-2006 Mortalidad por picaduras de himenópteros en Costa Rica, 1985-2006

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    Mónica Prado

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica during 1985-2006. METHODS: Records of deaths due to Hymenoptera stings in 1985-2006 were retrieved from Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (National Statistics and Census Institute. Mortality rates were calculated on the basis of national population reports, as of 1 July of each year. Information for each case included age, gender, and the province in which the death occurred. In addition, reports of Hymenoptera sting accidents received by the Centro Nacional de Intoxicaciones (National Poison Center, CNI in 1995-2006 were obtained to assess exposure to these insects. RESULTS: Over the 22-year period analyzed, 52 fatalities due to Hymenoptera stings were recorded. Annual mortality rates varied from 0-1.73 per 1 million inhabitants, with a mean of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.93. The majority of deaths occurred in males (88.5%, representing a male to female ratio of 7.7:1. A predominance of fatalities was observed in the elderly (50 years of age and older, as well as in children less than 10 years of age. The province with the highest mortality rate was Guanacaste. The CNI documented 1 591 reports of Hymenoptera stings (mostly by bees in 1995-2006, resulting in an annual average of 133 cases, with only a slight predominance of males over females (1.4:1. CONCLUSIONS: Stings by Hymenoptera, mostly by bees, constitute a frequent occurrence in Costa Rica that can be life-threatening in a small proportion of cases, most often in males and the elderly. The annual number of fatalities fluctuated from 0-6, averaging 2.4 deaths per year. Awareness should be raised not only among the general population, but also among health care personnel that should consider this risk in the clinical management of patients stung by Hymenoptera.OBJETIVO: Analizar la mortalidad por picaduras de himenópteros en Costa Rica en el período de 1985 a 2006. MÉTODOS: Se obtuvieron los

  9. Study on the Hymenoptera parasitoid associated with Lepidoptera larvae in reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste) São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A G; Silva, R B; Dias, M M; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the local fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with Lepidoptera larvae in areas of reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, São Carlos, SP, Brazil). Lepidoptera larvae collected with entomological umbrella were kept in the laboratory until emergence of adults or their parasitoids. From those collected in the agrosilvopastoral system, emerged 267 specimens of hymenopteran parasitoids belonging to 16 genera: Braconidae, Agathidinae (Alabagrus), Braconinae (Bracon), Microgastrinae (Cotesia, Diolcogaster, Glyptapanteles, Pholetesor and Protapanteles), Orgilinae (Orgilus); Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae (Casinaria, Charops and Microcharops); Chalcididae, Chalcidinae (Brachymeria and Conura); Eulophidae, Entedoninae (Horismenus), Eulophinae (Elachertus and Euplectrus). From the Lepidoptera larvae collected in the reforestation, emerged 68 specimens of hymenopteran parasitoids, belonging to 8 genera: Chalcididae, Chalcidinae (Conura); Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae (Neotheronia), Campopleginae (Charops and Microcharops) and Braconidae, Microgastrinae (Apanteles, Diolcogaster, Distatrix, Glyptapanteles and Protapanteles). The results of this study suggest the occurrence of a wide variety of Hymenoptera parasitoids in the studied environments.

  10. Influence de Boscia senegalensis (Pers Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae sur les capacités de dispersion de Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera- Pteromalidae dans les systèmes de stockage traditionnels de niébé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doumma, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Boscia senegalensis (Pers Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae on the Dispersion Capacities of Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera- Pteromalidae in Traditional Storage System. In this study, the impact of Boscia senegalensis (Pers Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae on dispersion capacities of Dinarmus basalis Rond (Hymenoptera-Pteromalidae, a solitary ectoparasitoïd of the development stages of bruchid pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, within a traditional storage system is analysed. The results point out that, whatever the position of the treated patch, females of D. basalis are able to move between seeds of cowpea and some of them are able to localize and parasitize their hosts. In a non choice situation, the rates of parasitism observed were less important than the ones obtained when the patchs were not treated with B. senegalensis. Nevertheless in situation of choice, females seem to avoid the patch treated with the insecticidal plant B. senegalensis.

  11. Study on the Hymenoptera parasitoid associated with Lepidoptera larvae in reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste) São Carlos, SP, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,A. G.; Silva,R. B.; Dias,M. M.; Penteado-Dias,A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize the local fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with Lepidoptera larvae in areas of reforestation and agrosilvopastoral systems at Fazenda Canchim (Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, São Carlos, SP, Brazil). Lepidoptera larvae collected with entomological umbrella were kept in the laboratory until emergence of adults or their parasitoids. From those collected in the agrosilvopastoral system, emerged 267 specimens of hymenopteran parasitoids belo...

  12. Resposta de fêmeas de Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae aos odores do hospedeiro e da planta-hospedeira em olfatômetro de quatro vias Response of female Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae to host and plant-host odors

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    Kátia Maria Medeiros de Siqueira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A crescente importância da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci raça B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae como praga agrícola tem incentivado a busca de inimigos naturais que possam ser utilizados em programas de controle biológico. Estudou-se a atração de fêmeas de Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae aos odores emanados pelo seu hospedeiro - a mosca-branca B. tabaci raça B - em plantas de tomate, em olfatômetro de quatro vias. O parasitóide não apresentou atração aos odores da planta de tomate nem ao complexo planta de tomate-ninfas de B. tabaci.The increasing importance of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci race B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae as one of the major agricultural pest of this century, has resulted in a search for natural enemies that can be used in biological control programs. The response of naive females of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidaeto volatiles from its hostspecies: insect (B. tabacci race B and plant (Lycopersicom esculentum Mill. were tested using 4-nose olfactometre. Parasitoid was not attracted by neither or insect hostspecies volatile.

  13. A new species of Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae from dry forest in Brazil and new occurrence records for other Heimbrinae Uma nova espécie de Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae de uma área de Caatinga e novos registros de ocorrência de outros Heimbrinae

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    Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographic ranges of Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 and H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 are extended based on study of material deposited in the entomological collections of the Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brazil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae is described, illustrated and compared with S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986, the single species previously known for this genus. A key to the genera of Heimbrinae and to the species of Symbra is provided.Os limites geográficos de Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 e H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 são estendidos com base no material examinado das coleções entomológicas do Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brasil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae é descrita, ilustrada e comparada com a única espécie conhecida desse gênero, S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986. Uma chave para os gêneros de Heimbrinae e para as espécies de Symbra é fornecida.

  14. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina Aphid-parasitoid associations (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops in Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. Andorno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.Ten aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae were found parasitized by seven aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops. Myzus persicae (Sulzer was the most frequent aphid found on a wide variety of crops, with the largest parasitoid diversity associated. Aphidius colemani Viereck was the most frequent aphidiine attacking several species of aphids. Eight tritrophic associations involving Aphidius matricariae Haliday are reported for the first time for Argentina.

  15. CATALOGUE OF THE DOLICHODERINAE, FORMICINAE AND MARTIALINAE (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE TYPES DEPOSITED AT THE MUSEU DE ZOOLOGIA DA UNIVERSIDADE DE SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

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    MÔNICA ANTUNES ULYSSÉA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This catalogue lists types of three ant subfamilies (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae and Martialinae housed in the Formicidae Collection of the Hymenoptera Laboratory, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP, Brazil. It provides label information, morphological condition of specimens, nomenclatural changes, and type status, following recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN. Here we present information on types of 101 nominal species, of which 96 are still valid. Eight species are only represented by holotypes, 27 species only by paratypes, seven by holotypes and paratypes, 56 species by syntypes, two species by paralectotypes and one species by a lectotype and paralectotypes. With this issue we complete the publication of information regarding all MZSP ant types, summing 4,741 specimens of 892 nomenclaturally valid species.

  16. First record of the genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) in Mesoamerica, with the description of two new species from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Triana, Jose L; Whitfield, James B; Smith, M Alex; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    The New World genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is a small group of parasitoid wasps that includes two Nearctic and seven Neotropical species. Here two additional species, authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described from Costa Rica: V.johnnyrosalesi sp. n. from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) and V.randallgarciai sp. n. from Area de Conservación Cordillera Volcanica Central. They represent the first record of the genus for Mesoamerica. A previous key to all known Venanus (Whitfield et al. 2011) is modified to include the new species. The Costa Rican species were collected at altitudes of 1,400-1,460 m, but nothing is known of their biology. DNA barcodes were obtained for both species and are included as part of the description along with extensive photos. This paper is part of a series inventorying the diversity of Microgastrinae in ACG.

  17. First record of the genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae in Mesoamerica, with the description of two new species from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The New World genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae is a small group of parasitoid wasps that includes two Nearctic and seven Neotropical species. Here two additional species, authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described from Costa Rica: V. johnnyrosalesi sp. n. from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG and V. randallgarciai sp. n. from Area de Conservación Cordillera Volcanica Central. They represent the first record of the genus for Mesoamerica. A previous key to all known Venanus (Whitfield et al. 2011 is modified to include the new species. The Costa Rican species were collected at altitudes of 1,400–1,460 m, but nothing is known of their biology. DNA barcodes were obtained for both species and are included as part of the description along with extensive photos. This paper is part of a series inventorying the diversity of Microgastrinae in ACG.

  18. Study of the flight range and ideal density of the africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) labelled with 32 P on an apple orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranhoa, B.A.J.

    1990-06-01

    The ideal density, the flight range, the choice for any flight direction, the influence of temperature and relative humidity of air about the honeybee's activity, Apis mellifera L.. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were studied in an apple orchard, utilizing nuclear techniques. Five hives, with 35,000 bees each, were labelled with syrup (50%) content (2,5 μCi 32 P/ml) and taken one by one, every two days to the blossomed orchard. A circumference area of 100 m diameter (0,8 ha) W staked each 10 m from the center to the limit (50 m), making a cross, pointing out to North, South, East and West. The honeybees were collected on apple flowers, during 5 minutes in each stake, at 10:00 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. (author)

  19. Rediscovery and redescription of Centrodora damoni (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Australia, an egg parasitoid of Gonipterus spp (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), after nearly a century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samantha E; Valente, Carlos; Gonçalves, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Centrodora is a relatively common and widespread genus of morphologically diverse species, and is the most polyphagous genus known within the Aphelinidae, attacking eggs of insects in addition to pupae of Diptera and Hymenoptera, and nymphs of Hemiptera (Polaszek 1991). There are currently about 60 valid species in the genus, but given its morphological and biological diversity, some elevation of species-groups and subgenera to genus-level might be useful in future. Centrodora is represented in Australia by twelve species (Noyes 2015). New information Centrodora damoni (Girault) is redescribed and diagnosed from recently collected specimens reared from the eucalyptus weevil Gonipterus sp. near scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Tasmania, Australia. A lectotype is designated from a syntype specimen. PMID:27226747

  20. Predation on pupa of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by parasitoid, Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Ophyra spinigera larva (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Heo Chong; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Lim, Lee Han; Jeffery, John; Omar, Baharudin; Dhang, Chen Chee; Weng, Lau Koon; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2009-12-01

    A forensic entomological study was conducted using monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) that were placed in either an outdoor or indoor environment at a coastal area in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia during May until August 2008. We collected pupae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) from the carcasses and kept them individually. The emergence of 13 parasitic microhymenopteran, from one of the pupae occurring within a week were identified as Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Another observation was made whereby a pupa of C. rufifacies was predated by a muscid larva, Ophyra spinigera (Stein). The larva squeezed into the pupa and consumed the contents. This paper report C. rufifacies as a new host record for E. philippinensis in Malaysia and highlighted the predatory behavior of O. spinigera larva in natural environment.