WorldWideScience

Sample records for bacteroides infections

  1. Levofloxacin plus Metronidazole Administered Once Daily versus Moxifloxacin Monotherapy against a Mixed Infection of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hermsen, Elizabeth D.; Hovde, Laurie B.; Sprandel, Kelly A.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Rotschafer, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Moxifloxacin has been suggested as an option for monotherapy of intra-abdominal infections. Recent data support the use of a once-daily metronidazole regimen. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of levofloxacin (750 mg every 24 h [q24h]) plus metronidazole (1,500 mg q24h) compared with that of moxifloxacin (400 mg q24h) monotherapy in a mixed-infection model. By using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model in duplicate, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis were exposed t...

  2. Localizations of aluminum in soybean bacteroids and seeds.

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, L. E.; Dunlap, J R; Stacey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Aluminum, long known to be detrimental to soybean productivity, was localized in the polyphosphate granules (PPG) of bacteroids in root nodules of soybean plants. By using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, bacteroids in early infections were shown to have typical PPG constituents. However, in PPG in older infections and after the bacteroids were digested intracellularly, aluminum was also detected. These results indicate that aluminum accumulates in PPG after a period when organisms have been...

  3. Bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes after a cat bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2011-01-01

    Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite.......Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite....

  4. Efficient Electrotransformation of Bacteroides fragilis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ichimura, Minoru; Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Wakimoto, Shin; Morita, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Kuwahara, Tomomi

    2010-01-01

    This study describes refined electroporation parameters for efficient transformation of Bacteroides fragilis by plasmids prepared from laboratory strains of Escherichia coli. Development of the method used included determination of the optimal growth conditions for competent cell preparation, selectable antimicrobial resistance markers, electric field strength, and postpulse incubation time. Of the four E. coli-Bacteroides shuttle plasmids tested (pVAL-1, pVAL-2, pNLY1, and pLYL05), pLYL05 co...

  5. Bacteroides fragilis aortic arch pseudoaneurysm: case report with review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu-Jen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case of 58-year-old woman with underlying diabetes mellitus, hepatitis C virus-related liver cirrhosis, and total hysterectomy for uterine myoma 11 moths ago, who was diagnosed ruptured aortic arch mycotic pseudoaneurysm after a certain period of survey for her unknown fever cause. After emergent surgery with prosthetic graft interposition, all her blood cultures and tissue cultures revealed pathogen with Bacteroides fragilis. Although mycotic aneurysms have been well described in literatures, an aneurysm infected solely with Bacteroides fragilis is unusual, with only eight similar cases in the literature. Here we reported the only female case with her specific clinical and management course and summarized all reported cases of mycotic aneurysm caused by Bacteroides fragilis to clarify their conditions and treatments, alert the difficulty in diagnosis, and importance of highly suspicious.

  6. [The first metronidazole-resistant Bacteroides species isolated at Marmara University Hospital: Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak Ülger, Nurver; Sayın, Elvan; Soyad, Ad; Dane, Faysal; Söyletir, Güner

    2013-10-01

    Bacteroides species, the predominant constituents of the human intestinal microbiota can cause serious intraabdominal and postoperative wound infections and bacteremia. Moreover, these bacteria are more resistant to antimicrobial agents than the other anaerobes. The limited number of the antimicrobials, such as carbapenems, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors and nitroimidazoles are highly effective in eliminating Bacteroides. However, a few metronidazole-resistant isolates have been reported from several countries recently. The nim genes (nim A-G) are suggested to be responsible for the majority of the metronidazole resistance. Here, we describe a metronidazole-resistant Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron isolated from a blood culture. A gram-negative obligate anaerobic rod was isolated from the postoperative 5th day blood culture of a 62-year-old male patient with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas head. The strain was identified as B.thetaiotaomicron by using a combination of conventional tests and commercially available biochemical kits. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution method. The resistance genes were investigated by means of PCR using specific primer pairs for nim gene. The purified PCR product was sequenced and analyzed by comparison of the consensus sequences with GenBank sequences. The MIC for metronidazole was 16 mg/L. Although the strain was intermediate according the CLSI criteria, it was resistant (> 4 mg/L) according to EUCAST criteria. The isolate was nim gene positive, and nucleotide sequencing of the PCR product shared 100% similarity with nimE gene (emb |AM042593.1 |). On the other hand the isolate was susceptible to carbapenems and sulbactam-ampicillin. Following administration of ampicillin-sulbactam, the patient's fever disappeared after 24 hours. The clinical condition improved considerably and he was discharged at day 8. The patient was followed up at the medical oncology clinic; however he died due to disease

  7. Tetracycline transport in Bacteroides fragilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Fayolle, F; Privitera, G; Sebald, M

    1980-01-01

    In susceptible strain of Bacteroides fragilis, tetracycline uptake is biphasic. The initial phase is independent of adenosine 5'-triphosphate synthesis, which is coupled to fumarate reduction; this phase is not altered by expression of tetracycline resistance genes in a resistant strain. The second phase appears to occur by active transport, since it is largely reduced by rotenone, an inhibitor of electron transport to fumarate; moreover, this phase is under negative control of the tetracycli...

  8. The effect of environmental conditions on expression of Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron C10 protease genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Roibeard F

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are members of the normal human intestinal microbiota. However, both organisms are capable of causing opportunistic infections, during which the environmental conditions to which the bacteria are exposed change dramatically. To further explore their potential for contributing to infection, we have characterized the expression in B. thetaiotaomicron of four homologues of the gene encoding the C10 cysteine protease SpeB, a potent extracellular virulence factor produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. Results We identified a paralogous set of genes (btp genes in the B. thetaiotaomicron genome, that were related to C10 protease genes we recently identified in B. fragilis. Similar to C10 proteases found in B. fragilis, three of the B. thetaiotaomicron homologues were transcriptionally coupled to genes encoding small proteins that are similar in structural architecture to Staphostatins, protease inhibitors associated with Staphopains in Staphylococcus aureus. The expression of genes for these C10 proteases in both B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron was found to be regulated by environmental stimuli, in particular by exposure to oxygen, which may be important for their contribution to the development of opportunistic infections. Conclusions Genes encoding C10 proteases are increasingly identified in operons which also contain genes encoding proteins homologous to protease inhibitors. The Bacteroides C10 protease gene expression levels are responsive to different environmental stimuli suggesting they may have distinct roles in the bacterial-host interaction.

  9. Species differentiation of Bacteroides dorei from Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides ovatus from Bacteroides xylanisolvens - Back to basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha Pedersen, Rune; Marmolin, Ea Sofie; Justesen, Ulrik S

    2013-01-01

    We present the results from 16S sequencing and phenotypic tests for differentiation of Bacteroides dorei from Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides ovatus from Bacteroides xylanisolvens, which was not possible with MALDI-TOF MS. Testing with β-glucosidase could differentiate B. dorei from B. vulga....... vulgatus and a negative catalase reaction could identify B. xylanisolvens....

  10. Serum antibodies to oral Bacteroides asaccharolyticus (Bacteroides gingivalis): relationship to age and periondontal disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Mouton, C; Hammond, P G; Slots, J; Genco, R J

    1981-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay microplate method was used for measuring levels of antibody specific for the oral serotype of Bacteroides asaccharolyticus (Bacteroides gingivalis) in serum samples obtained from umbilical cords, infants, children, periodontally normal adults, and edentulous adults. Serum from patients with various periodontal diseases, including adult periodontitis, localized juvenile periodontitis, generalized juvenile periodontitis, post-localized juvenile periodontitis...

  11. Bacteroides species: maintenance of laboratory strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, W W; Tseng, M; Landay, M E

    1981-01-01

    A medium composed of blood agar base (40 g/liter), yeast extract (5 g/liter), and cysteine hydrochloride (0.05 g/liter), completely filling screw-cap tubes (13 by 100 mm), can keep Bacteroides species alive for at least 10 months without refrigeration.

  12. Lectinlike adhesins in the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogemond, V; Guinet, R M

    1986-01-01

    Lectinlike adhesins were identified in the Bacteroides fragilis group by using sugars immobilized on agarose beads either with whole bacteria by direct microscopic examination or with soluble extracts by immunoaffinoelectrophoresis. These two methods allowed the identification of two sugars reacting with whole bacteria and with the corresponding extracts: alpha-D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine. Among eight strains tested representing seven species, the two strains of B. fragilis were equally...

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to Bacteroides fragilis lipopolysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Linko-Kettunen, L; Arstila, P; Jalkanen, M; Jousimies-Somer, H; Lassila, O; Lehtonen, O P; Weintraub, A; Viljanen, M K

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Bacteroides fragilis were produced by immunizing mice before hybridization with bacterial outer membranes solubilized with Triton X-100. Nineteen stabile clones were established. They all produced antibodies that reacted more strongly with purified B. fragilis LPS than with crude sonicated antigen in an enzyme immunoassay. Four MoAbs were studied by immunoblotting and enzyme immunoassay inhibition. Immunoblotting confirmed that ...

  14. Immunochemical and Biological Characterization of Three Capsular Polysaccharides from a Single Bacteroides fragilis Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Wiltrud M Kalka-Moll; Wang, Ying(School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, PR China); Comstock, L. E.; Gonzalez, Sylvia E.; Tzianabos, Arthur O.; Dennis L Kasper

    2001-01-01

    Although Bacteroides fragilis accounts for only 0.5% of the normal human colonic flora, it is the anaerobic species most frequently isolated from intra-abdominal and other infections with an intestinal source. The capsular polysaccharides of B. fragilis are part of a complex of surface polysaccharides and are the organism's most important virulence factors in the formation of intra-abdominal abscesses. Two capsular polysaccharides from strain NCTC 9343, PS A1 and PS B1, have been characterize...

  15. Formation of Novel Polysaccharides by Bradyrhizobium japonicum Bacteroids in Soybean Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Streeter, John G.; Salminen, Seppo O.; Whitmoyer, Robert E.; Carlson, Russell W

    1992-01-01

    Certain strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum form a previously unknown polysaccharide in the root nodules of soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). The polysaccharide accumulates inside of the symbiosome membrane—the plant-derived membrane enclosing the bacteroids. In older nodules (60 days after planting), the polysaccharide occupies most of the symbiosome volume and symbiosomes become enlarged so that there is little host cytoplasm in infected cells. The two different groups of B. japonicu...

  16. Activities of Nigerian chewing stick extracts against Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides melaninogenicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rotimi, V. O.; Laughon, B E; Bartlett, J. G.; Mosadomi, H A

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro activities of extracts of Nigerian chewing sticks against Bacteroides gingivalis and B. melaninogenicus are presented. The greatest inhibitory action was produced by Serindeia werneckei, whereas Fagara zanthoxyloides produced no appreciable inhibitory effect. A generally good correlation was found between the killing curves and MICs. Only extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus showed acute toxicity in mice.

  17. Activities of Nigerian chewing stick extracts against Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides melaninogenicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotimi, V O; Laughon, B E; Bartlett, J G; Mosadomi, H A

    1988-04-01

    The in vitro activities of extracts of Nigerian chewing sticks against Bacteroides gingivalis and B. melaninogenicus are presented. The greatest inhibitory action was produced by Serindeia werneckei, whereas Fagara zanthoxyloides produced no appreciable inhibitory effect. A generally good correlation was found between the killing curves and MICs. Only extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus showed acute toxicity in mice. PMID:2897830

  18. Black-pigmented Bacteroides spp. in the human oral cavity.

    OpenAIRE

    Zambon, J J; Reynolds, H S; Slots, J

    1981-01-01

    Five healthy children under 6 years of age, five healthy adults, and 10 adult periodontitis patients were examined for the prevalence and distribution of black-pigmented Bacteroides in the oral cavity. A total of 13 samples was obtained from each individual, including four supragingival and four subgingival dental plaques, dental occlusal surface, buccal mucosa, dorsal tongue, tonsil, and whole saliva. Black-pigmented Bacteroides were recovered from nine adult periodontitis patients. Healthy ...

  19. Protein phosphorylation in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Karr, D B; Emerich, D W

    1989-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation was demonstrated in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids in vivo and in cultures in vivo and in vitro. Comparison of in vivo-labeled phosphoproteins of bacteroids and of cultured cells showed differences in both the pattern and intensity of labeling. In cultured cells, comparison of the labeling patterns and intensities of in vivo- and in vitro-labeled phosphoproteins showed a number of similarities; however, several phosphoproteins were found only after one of the two ...

  20. Pirin-like proteins are regulated by oxidative stress and iron in bacteroides fragilis and involved in the modulation of central energy metabolism and metronidazole susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteroides fragilis is the most frequent anaerobe isolated from human infections. Clinical isolates of B. fragilis are among the highest aerotolerant anaerobic bacteria. The oxidative stress response (OSR) in B. fragilis induces an array of genes enabling them to survive prolonged oxygen exposure i...

  1. Activation of Bacteroides fragilis toxin by a novel bacterial protease contributes to anaerobic sepsis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Vivian M; Herrou, Julien; Hecht, Aaron L; Teoh, Wei Ping; Turner, Jerrold R; Crosson, Sean; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane

    2016-05-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is the leading cause of anaerobic bacteremia and sepsis. Enterotoxigenic strains that produce B. fragilis toxin (BFT, fragilysin) contribute to colitis and intestinal malignancy, yet are also isolated in bloodstream infection. It is not known whether these strains harbor unique genetic determinants that confer virulence in extra-intestinal disease. We demonstrate that BFT contributes to sepsis in mice, and we identify a B. fragilis protease called fragipain (Fpn) that is required for the endogenous activation of BFT through the removal of its auto-inhibitory prodomain. Structural analysis of Fpn reveals a His-Cys catalytic dyad that is characteristic of C11-family cysteine proteases that are conserved in multiple pathogenic Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium spp. Fpn-deficient, enterotoxigenic B. fragilis has an attenuated ability to induce sepsis in mice; however, Fpn is dispensable in B. fragilis colitis, wherein host proteases mediate BFT activation. Our findings define a role for B. fragilis enterotoxin and its activating protease in the pathogenesis of bloodstream infection, which indicates a greater complexity of cellular targeting and activity of BFT than previously recognized. The expression of fpn by both toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains suggests that this protease may contribute to anaerobic sepsis in ways that extend beyond its role in toxin activation. It could thus potentially serve as a target for disease modification. PMID:27089515

  2. Carbon Metabolism Enzymes of Rhizobium tropici Cultures and Bacteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, V I; Hernández-Lucas, I; Martínez-Romero, E

    1994-07-01

    We determined the activities of selected enzymes involved in carbon metabolism in free-living cells of Rhizobium tropici CFN299 grown in minimal medium with different carbon sources and in bacteroids of the same strain. The set of enzymatic activities in sucrose-grown cells suggests that the pentose phosphate pathway, with the participation of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, is probably the primary route for sugar catabolism. In glutamate- and malate-grown cells, high activities of the gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose-6-phosphate aldolase, and fructose bisphosphatase) were detected. In bacteroids, isolated in Percoll gradients, the levels of activity for many of the enzymes measured were similar to those of malate-grown cells, except that higher activities of glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NAD-dependent phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were detected. Phosphoglucomutase and UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase showed high and constant levels under all growth conditions and in bacteroids. PMID:16349319

  3. Long-wave UV light fluorescence for identification of black-pigmented Bacteroides spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Slots, J; Reynolds, H S

    1982-01-01

    Black-pigmented Bacteroides strains were grown on blood agar, and the colonies were evaluated for fluorescence from long-wave UV light. Most test strains of Bacteroides melaninogenicus subsp. intermedius exhibited a brilliant red fluorescence. B. melaninogenicus subsp. melaninogenicus fluoresced mostly red-orange. Bacteroides asaccharolyticus showed a yellow or red fluorescence. The intensity of the Bacteroides fluorescence weakened when the black pigment of the colonies developed. In contras...

  4. Use of abundance ratios of somatic coliphages and bacteriophages of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron GA17 for microbial source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, Maite; Lucena, Francisco; Blanch, Anicet R; Payán, Andrey; Jofre, Juan

    2012-12-01

    Water contaminated with human faeces is a risk to human health and management of water bodies can be improved by determining the sources of faecal pollution. Field studies show that existing methods are insufficient and that different markers are required. This study proposes the combined use of two microbial indicators, the concentrations of which are presented as ratios. This provides a more reliable approach to identifying faecal sources as it avoids variation due to treatment or ageing of the contamination. Among other indicators, bacteriophages have been proposed as rapid and cheap indicators of faecal pollution. Samples analysed in this study were derived from wastewater treatment plants (raw sewage, secondary and tertiary effluents and raw sewage sludge) river water, seawater and animal related wastewater. The abundance ratios of faecal coliforms and Bacteroides phages, either strain RYC2056 (non-specific for faecal origin) or strain GA17 (specific for human pollution), and among somatic coliphages and phages infecting both Bacteroides strains, were evaluated. The results indicate that the ratio of somatic coliphages and phages infecting Bacteroides strain GA17, which is specific to human faecal sources, provides a robust method for discriminating samples, even those presenting different levels and ages of pollution, and allows samples polluted with human faeces to be distinguished from those containing animal faecal pollution. This method allows the generation of numerical data that can be further applied to numerical methods for faecal pollution discrimination. PMID:23039916

  5. Antigenic Studies of Oral and Nonoral Black-Pigmented Bacteroides Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Michael J; Slots, Jørgen; Mouton, Christian; Genco, Robert J.

    1980-01-01

    Antigens of several oral and nonoral strains of Bacteroides asaccharolyticus (proposed classification of oral B. asaccharolyticus, Bacteroides gingivalis), Bacteroides melaninogenicus subsp. intermedius, B. melaninogenicus subsp. melaninogenicus, and B. melaninogenicus subsp. levii were identified in soluble preparations obtained by sonication, autoclaving, and NaOH treatment of whole bacterial cells. The sonicate preparations contained the most complete representation of soluble antigens usi...

  6. Isolation and characterization of proteases from Bacteroides melaninogenicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, S.; Nakamura, T.(International Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)

    1981-01-01

    We isolated two types of intracellular proteases from a strain of Bacteroides melaninogenicus. These enzymes were extracted from cells by ultrasonic treatment and were partially purified. These two enzymes (proteases I and II) differed in molecular weight, heat stability, sensitivity to reducing agents, Km value, and optimum pH for activity.

  7. Bacteroides fragilis induce necrosis on mice peritoneal macrophages: In vitro and in vivo assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, J.M.B.D., E-mail: jmanya@terra.com.br [Laboratorio de Tecnologia em Cultura de Celulas, UEZO, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratorio de Biologia de Anaerobios, IMPPG, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Seabra, S.H. [Laboratorio de Tecnologia em Cultura de Celulas, UEZO, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vallim, D.C. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Americo, M.A.; Fracallanza, S.E.L. [Laboratorio de Bacteriologia Medica, IMPPG, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vommaro, R.C. [Laboratorio de Ultra-estrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, IBCCF, UFRJ (Brazil); Domingues, R.M.C.P. [Laboratorio de Biologia de Anaerobios, IMPPG, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-10-02

    Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic bacteria component of human intestinal microbiota and agent of infections. In the host B. fragilis interacts with macrophages, which produces toxic radicals like NO. The interaction of activated mice peritoneal macrophages with four strains of B. fragilis was evaluated on this study. Previously was shown that such strains could cause metabolic and morphologic alterations related to macrophage death. In this work propidium iodide staining showed the strains inducing macrophage necrosis in that the labeling was evident. Besides nitroblue tetrazolium test showed that B. fragilis stimulates macrophage to produce oxygen radicals. In vivo assays performed in BalbC mice have results similar to those for in vitro tests as well as scanning electron microscopy, which showed the same surface pore-like structures observed in vitro before. The results revealed that B. fragilis strains studied lead to macrophage death by a process similar to necrosis.

  8. Bacteroides fragilis induce necrosis on mice peritoneal macrophages: In vitro and in vivo assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic bacteria component of human intestinal microbiota and agent of infections. In the host B. fragilis interacts with macrophages, which produces toxic radicals like NO. The interaction of activated mice peritoneal macrophages with four strains of B. fragilis was evaluated on this study. Previously was shown that such strains could cause metabolic and morphologic alterations related to macrophage death. In this work propidium iodide staining showed the strains inducing macrophage necrosis in that the labeling was evident. Besides nitroblue tetrazolium test showed that B. fragilis stimulates macrophage to produce oxygen radicals. In vivo assays performed in BalbC mice have results similar to those for in vitro tests as well as scanning electron microscopy, which showed the same surface pore-like structures observed in vitro before. The results revealed that B. fragilis strains studied lead to macrophage death by a process similar to necrosis.

  9. Soluble aldehyde dehydrogenase and metabolism of aldehydes by soybean bacteroids.

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, J. B.; LaRue, T A

    1982-01-01

    A soluble aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) was partially purified from Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids and from free-living R. japonicum 61A76. The enzyme was activated by NAD+, NADH, and dithiothreitol, and it reduced NAD(P)+. Acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, benzaldehyde, and succinic semialdehyde were substrates. The Km for straight-chain aldehydes decreased with increasing carbon chain length. The aldehyde dehydrogenase was inhibited by 6-cyanopurine, but not by metronidazo...

  10. Bacteroides gingivalis vesicles bind to and aggregate Actinomyces viscosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen, R P; Grove, D A

    1989-01-01

    Isolated Bacteroides gingivalis 2561 vesicles aggregated suspensions of Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii of all taxonomy clusters. Vesicles bound near A. viscosus cell walls and among its surface fibrils. Tritiated vesicles bound slightly better to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (SHA) than to SHA coated with A. viscosus; saturation was approached at the concentrations that were tested. Pretreatment of A. viscosus-coated SHA with vesicles impaired the subsequent adherence of B. gi...

  11. Trans locus inhibitors limit concomitant polysaccharide synthesis in the human gut symbiont Bacteroides fragilis

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzidaki-Livanis, Maria; Weinacht, Katja G.; Comstock, Laurie E.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteroides is an abundant genus of bacteria of the human intestinal microbiota. Bacteroides species synthesize a large number of capsular polysaccharides (PS), a biological property not shared with closely related oral species, suggesting importance for intestinal survival. Bacteroides fragilis, for example, synthesizes eight capsular polysaccharides per strain, each of which phase varies via inversion of the promoters located upstream of seven of the eight polysaccharide biosynthesis operon...

  12. Plasmid-associated transfer of tetracycline resistance in Bacteroides ruminicola.

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, H J; Thomson, A. M.; Bisset, J

    1988-01-01

    Tetracycline resistance was transferred at frequencies between 10(-7) and 10(-6) per recipient cell in anaerobic matings between two strains of the strictly anaerobic rumen bacterium Bacteroides ruminicola. The donor strain, 223/M2/7, was a multiple-plasmid-bearing tetracycline-resistant strain from the ovine rumen, and the recipient, F101, was a rifampin-resistant mutant of B14, a bovine strain belonging to B. ruminicola subsp. brevis. Resistance transfer could occur in the presence of DNase...

  13. Protein phosphorylation in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein phosphorylation was demonstrated in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids in vivo and in cultures in vivo and in vitro. Comparison of in vivo-labeled phosphoproteins of bacteroids and of cultured cells showed differences in both the pattern and intensity of labeling. In cultured cells, comparison of the labeling patterns and intensities of in vivo- and in vitro-labeled phosphoproteins showed a number of similarities; however, several phosphoproteins were found only after one of the two labeling conditions. The labeling intensity was time dependent in both in vivo and in vitro assays and was dependent on the presence of magnesium in in vitro assays. Differences in the rates of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were noted for a number of proteins. The level of incorporation of 32P into protein was only 2% or less of the total phosphate accumulated during the in vivo labeling period. Several isolation and sample preparation procedures resulted in differences in labeling patterns. Phosphatase inhibitors and several potential metabolic effectors had negligible effects on the phosphorylation pattern. There were no significant changes in the phosphorylation patterns of cells cultured on mannitol, acetate, and succinate, although the intensity of the labeling did vary with the carbon source

  14. Persistence of Bacteroides ovatus under simulated sunlight irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Shengkun

    2014-07-04

    Background: Bacteroides ovatus, a member of the genus Bacteroides, is considered for use in molecular-based methods as a general fecal indicator. However, knowledge on its fate and persistence after a fecal contamination event remains limited. In this study, the persistence of B. ovatus was evaluated under simulated sunlight exposure and in conditions similar to freshwater and seawater. By combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection, the decay rates of B. ovatus were determined in the presence and absence of exogenous photosensitizers and in salinity up to 39.5 parts per thousand at 27°C. Results: UVB was found to be important for B. ovatus decay, averaging a 4 log10 of decay over 6 h of exposure without the presence of extracellular photosensitizers. The addition of NaNO2, an exogenous sensitizer producing hydroxyl radicals, did not significantly change the decay rate of B. ovatus in both low and high salinity water, while the exogenous sensitizer algae organic matter (AOM) slowed down the decay of B. ovatus in low salinity water. At seawater salinity, the decay rate of B. ovatus was slower than that in low salinity water, except when both NaNO2 and AOM were present. Conclusion: The results of laboratory experiments suggest that if B. ovatus is released into either freshwater or seawater environment in the evening, 50% of it may be intact by the next morning; if it is released at noon, only 50% may be intact after a mere 5 min of full spectrum irradiation on a clear day. This study provides a mechanistic understanding to some of the important environmental relevant factors that influenced the inactivation kinetics of B. ovatus in the presence of sunlight irradiation, and would facilitate the use of B. ovatus to indicate the occurrence of fecal contamination.

  15. Pyogenic arthritis of native joints due to Bacteroides fragilis: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla, Joan M; Murillo, Oscar; Narvaez, Javier; Vaquero, Carmen Gómez; Lora-Tamayo, Jaime; Pedrero, Salvador; Cabo, Javier; Ariza, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Pyogenic arthritis of native joints due to Bacteroides fragilis seems to be an infrequent disease. We analyzed the cases diagnosed in a tertiary hospital during a 22-year period and reviewed the literature to summarize the experience with this infectious entity.In our institution, of 308 patients with pyogenic arthritis of native joints, B fragilis was the causative organism in 2 (0.6%) cases. A MEDLINE search (1981-2015) identified 19 additional cases.Of the 21 patients available for review (13 men and 8 women, with a mean age, of 54.4 ± 17 years), 19 (90%) presented a systemic predisposing factor for infection; the most common associated illness was rheumatoid arthritis (8 patients). Bacteremia was documented in 65% (13/20) of cases. In 5 patients (24%), 1 or more concomitant infectious process was found. Metronidazole was the most frequently used antibiotic. Surgical drainage was performed in 11 cases (52%). The overall mortality rate was 5%.Pyogenic arthritis of native joints due to B fragilis is an infrequent disease that mainly affects elderly patients with underlying medical illnesses and in whom bacteremia and the presence of a concomitant infectious process are frequent conditions. PMID:27336895

  16. Mobile genetic elements in the genus Bacteroides, and their mechanism(s) of dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Mai; Vedantam, Gayatri

    2011-01-01

    Bacteroides spp organisms, the predominant commensal bacteria in the human gut have become increasingly resistant to many antibiotics. They are now also considered to be reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes due to their capacity to harbor and disseminate these genes via mobile transmissible elements that occur in bewildering variety. Gene dissemination occurs within and from Bacteroides spp primarily by conjugation, the molecular mechanisms of which are still poorly understood in the gen...

  17. Design and evaluation of Bacteroides DNA probes for the specific detection of human fecal pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreader, C A

    1995-01-01

    Because Bacteroides spp. are obligate anaerobes that dominate the human fecal flora, and because some species may live only in the human intestine, these bacteria might be useful to distinguish human from nonhuman sources of fecal pollution. To test this hypothesis, PCR primers specific for 16S rRNA gene sequences of Bacteroides distasonis, B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. vulgatus were designed. Hybridization with species-specific internal probes was used to detect the intended PCR products. Extr...

  18. A Peptidoglycan-Remodeling Enzyme Is Critical for Bacteroid Differentiation in Bradyrhizobium spp. During Legume Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gully, Djamel; Gargani, Daniel; Bonaldi, Katia; Grangeteau, Cédric; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Fardoux, Joël; Nguyen, Phuong; Marchetti, Roberta; Nouwen, Nico; Molinaro, Antonio; Mergaert, Peter; Giraud, Eric

    2016-06-01

    In response to the presence of compatible rhizobium bacteria, legumes form symbiotic organs called nodules on their roots. These nodules house nitrogen-fixing bacteroids that are a differentiated form of the rhizobium bacteria. In some legumes, the bacteroid differentiation comprises a dramatic cell enlargement, polyploidization, and other morphological changes. Here, we demonstrate that a peptidoglycan-modifying enzyme in Bradyrhizobium strains, a DD-carboxypeptidase that contains a peptidoglycan-binding SPOR domain, is essential for normal bacteroid differentiation in Aeschynomene species. The corresponding mutants formed bacteroids that are malformed and hypertrophied. However, in soybean, a plant that does not induce morphological differentiation of its symbiont, the mutation does not affect the bacteroids. Remarkably, the mutation also leads to necrosis in a large fraction of the Aeschynomene nodules, indicating that a normally formed peptidoglycan layer is essential for avoiding the induction of plant immune responses by the invading bacteria. In addition to exopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides, and lipopolysaccharides, whose role during symbiosis is well defined, our work demonstrates an essential role in symbiosis for yet another rhizobial envelope component, the peptidoglycan layer. PMID:26959836

  19. Relative adherence of Bacteroides species and strains to Actinomyces viscosus on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was designed to compare the adherence of several Bacteroides species to A. viscosus. Using 3H, we labeled 24 laboratory strains, including 13 Bacteroides species and 11 fresh clinical isolates of three Bacteroides species. Their adherence to A. viscosus bound to a saliva-coated mineral surface was quantified by liquid scintillation. Adherence relative to a standard strain, B. gingivalis 2561, was compared. Among the lab bacteroides, those of B. gingivalis (eight strains) were the greatest binders (mean, 80.5 ± 12.4%). Strains of other lab bacteroides bound less well (mean, 33.4 ± 6.3%). The difference in means was statistically significant (p less than 0.01). The mean for B. gingivalis strains was also significantly greater than that for strains of B. intermedius (51.7 ± 6.2%). Attachment of B. gingivalis was saturable in experiments in which either input concentration or time was the independent variable, indicating that B. gingivalis cells do not accumulate in this vitro simulation of plaque formation by binding to each other. Subculture did not seem to affect the degree of binding

  20. Disk diffusion susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, R; Bourgault, A M; Lamothe, F

    1987-10-01

    The susceptibilities of 225 isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group to six antibiotics were determined by a new disk diffusion test in Wilkins-Chalgren agar and by the standard agar dilution method. For disk diffusion, the bacteria were directly suspended in saline and immediately swabbed onto 15-cm agar plates. Disks of cefoxitin (30 micrograms), chloramphenicol (30 micrograms), clindamycin (2 micrograms), moxalactam (30 micrograms), imipenem (10 micrograms), and ticarcillin (75 micrograms) were applied, and the plates were incubated at 37 degrees C in an anaerobic atmosphere. Zone sizes were measured at 24 h. The results of disk diffusion and agar dilution were compared by regression analysis by the method of least squares and by the error rate-bounded method. Zones were easily measured for 216 strains (96%). The correlation between the MICs and diameters of inhibition for cefoxitin, clindamycin, moxalactam, and ticarcillin was generally good. A correlation could not be established for chloramphenicol and imipenem, as there were too few resistant strains. With the recommended resistance breakpoints, the following susceptible and resistant zone diameter breakpoints could be established: cefoxitin, less than or equal to 19 and greater than or equal to 21 mm; clindamycin, less than or equal to 14 and greater than or equal to 18 mm; moxalactam, less than or equal to 21 and greater than or equal to 25 mm; and ticarcillin, less than or equal to 15 and greater than or equal to 16 mm. By applying these zone criteria, the percentage of false-susceptible strains was less than 1% and of false-resistant strains was less than 4% for the drugs tested. PMID:3481247

  1. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious ...

  2. Transfer of clindamicyn resistance between Bacteroides fragilis group strains isolated from clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele B. Mano de Carvalho

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Clindamycin resistance was trasferred by a conjugation-like process from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron 52, a multiple antibiotic-resistant strain isolated from clinical specimens, to other Bacteroides species. A possible association between a plasmid detected in the donor strain and clindamycin resistance is discussed.Resistência à clindamicina foi transferida através de processo semelhante à conjugação, de uma cepa multirresistente e isolada de espécime clínico, B. thetaiotaomicron 52, para outra espécie de Bacteroides. Uma possível associação entre um plasmídio detectado na cepa doadora e a resistência à clindamicina é discutida.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Bacteroides salanitronis type strain (BL78T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Lapidus, Alla L. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Nolan, Matt [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Tice, Hope [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Deshpande, Shweta [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Cheng, Jan-Fang [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Pitluck, Sam [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Liolios, Konstantinos [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Pagani, Ioanna [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chen, Amy [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Palaniappan, Krishna [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Woyke, Tanja [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Bristow, James [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Markowitz, Victor [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Eisen, Jonathan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California

    2011-01-01

    Bacteroides salanitronis Lan et al. 2006 is a species of the genus Bacteroides, which belongs to the family Bacteroidaceae. The species is of interest because it was isolated from the gut of a chicken and the growing awareness that the anaerobic microflora of the cecum is of benefit for the host and may impact poultry farming. The 4,308,663 bp long genome consists of a 4.24 Mbp chromosome and three plasmids (6 kbp, 19 kbp, 40 kbp) containing 3,737 protein-coding and 101 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  4. Hematogenous Long Bone Osteomyelitis by Prevotella (Bacteroides) Melaninogenicus

    OpenAIRE

    Karabinas, Panagiotis K; Stergios, Evangelopoulos Dimitrios; Athanasopoulou, Marina G; Vlamis, John

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic infections are difficult to recognize and may lead to life threatening complications. We present the case of an acute Prevotella hematogenous infection of the humerus in a previously healthy adult patient, treated with a two-stage surgical treatment, emphasizing on the importance of the radical surgical debridement and the selection of the appropriate antimicrobial agents. To our knowledge, such an acute hematogenous infection has not been previously reported in the literature. Keyw...

  5. A proteomic approach towards understanding the cross talk between Bacteroides fragilis and Bifidobacterium longum in coculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Covián, David; Sánchez, Borja; Martínez, Noelia; Cuesta, Isabel; Hernández-Barranco, Ana M; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    A better understanding of the interactions among intestinal microbes is needed to decipher the complex cross talk that takes place within the human gut. Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium genera are among the most relevant intestinal bacteria, and it has been previously reported that coculturing of these 2 microorganisms affects their survival. Therefore, coculturing of Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bacteroides fragilis DSMZ2151 was performed with the aim of unravelling the mechanisms involved in their interaction. To this end, we applied proteomic (2D-DIGE) analyses, and by chromatographic techniques we quantified the bacterial metabolites produced during coincubation. Coculture stimulated the growth of B. longum, retarding that of B. fragilis, with concomitant changes in the production of some proteins and metabolites of both bacteria. The combined culture promoted upregulation of the bifidobacterial pyruvate kinase and downregulation of the Bacteroides phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase - 2 enzymes involved in the catabolism of carbohydrates. Moreover, B. fragilis FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, a protein with chaperone-like activity, was found to be overproduced in coculture, suggesting the induction of a stress response in this microorganism. This study provides mechanistic data to deepen our understanding of the interaction between Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium intestinal populations. PMID:27156738

  6. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis Bacteremia in a US Resident: An Emerging Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Sunita; Siegfried, Justin; Dubrovskaya, Yanina; Rahimian, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of Bacteroides fragilis bacteremia associated with paraspinal and psoas abscesses in the United States. Resistance to b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, and metronidazole was encountered despite having a recent travel history to India as the only possible risk factor for multidrug resistance. Microbiological cure was achieved with linezolid, moxifloxacin, and cefoxitin. PMID:27418986

  7. Prevalence of Fragilysin Gene in Bacteroides fragilis Isolates from Blood and Other Extraintestinal Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Foulon, Ina; Piérard, Denis; Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Soetens, Oriane; Rosseel, Paul; Lauwers, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    Of 166 Bacteroides fragilis isolates, 26.2% of 103 isolates from blood and 20.6% of 63 extraintestinal isolates harbored the fragilysin gene (difference not statistically significant). Clinical characteristics and evolution were comparable in patients with B. fragilis bacteremia with or without this enterotoxin. Fragilysin seems not to be an important virulence factor in B. fragilis disease.

  8. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis Bacteremia in a US Resident: An Emerging Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Merchan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of Bacteroides fragilis bacteremia associated with paraspinal and psoas abscesses in the United States. Resistance to b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, and metronidazole was encountered despite having a recent travel history to India as the only possible risk factor for multidrug resistance. Microbiological cure was achieved with linezolid, moxifloxacin, and cefoxitin.

  9. Extensive Mobilome-Driven Genome Diversification in Mouse Gut-Associated Bacteroides vulgatus mpk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Anna; Beier, Sina; Steimle, Alex; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Huson, Daniel H.; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Like many other Bacteroides species, Bacteroides vulgatus strain mpk, a mouse fecal isolate which was shown to promote intestinal homeostasis, utilizes a variety of mobile elements for genome evolution. Based on sequences collected by Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing technology, we discuss the challenges of assembling and studying a bacterial genome of high plasticity. Additionally, we conducted comparative genomics comparing this commensal strain with the B. vulgatus type strain ATCC 8482 as well as multiple other Bacteroides and Parabacteroides strains to reveal the most important differences and identify the unique features of B. vulgatus mpk. The genome of B. vulgatus mpk harbors a large and diverse set of mobile element proteins compared with other sequenced Bacteroides strains. We found evidence of a number of different horizontal gene transfer events and a genome landscape that has been extensively altered by different mobilization events. A CRISPR/Cas system could be identified that provides a possible mechanism for preventing the integration of invading external DNA. We propose that the high genome plasticity and the introduced genome instabilities of B. vulgatus mpk arising from the various mobilization events might play an important role not only in its adaptation to the challenging intestinal environment in general, but also in its ability to interact with the gut microbiota. PMID:27071651

  10. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins Shawn A; Layton Alice C; Ripp Steven; Williams Dan; Sayler Gary S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.

  11. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Shawn A; Layton, Alice C.; Ripp, Steven; Williams, Dan; Sayler, Gary S.

    2008-01-01

    The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.

  12. Distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in infected animals and efficacy against experimental infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, R J; Beale, A S; Comber, K. R.; Pierce, C V; Sutherland, R.

    1982-01-01

    The therapeutic effects produced by formulations of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (BRL 25 000A and BRL 25 000G) were compared with those of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid separately against a variety of infections produced by amoxicillin-susceptible and beta-lactamase-producing (amoxicillin-resistant) bacteria. The infection models studied included intraperitoneal infections, a mouse pneumonia, experimental pyelonephritis, and local lesions caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Bacteroides ...

  13. Efficient and regioselective synthesis of globotriose by a novel α-galactosidase from Bacteroides fragilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Xu, Li; Gu, Guofeng; Lu, Lili; Xiao, Min

    2016-08-01

    Globotriose (Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc) is an important cell surface epitope that acts as the receptor for Shiga-like toxins, and it is also the core structure of Globo H and SSEA4 that are tumor-associated glycans. Hence, the enzymatic synthesis of globotriose would be necessary for the development of carbohydrate-based therapeutics for bacterial infections and cancers. Here, a novel GH27 α-galactosidase gene (agaBf3S), a 1521-bp DNA encoding 506 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 57.7 kDa, from Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343 was cloned and heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme AgaBf3S preferentially hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranoside (pNPαGal) in all tested nitrophenyl glycosides. It showed maximum activity at pH 4.5 and 40 °C, and it was stable at pH 4.0-11.0 below 40 °C and metal-independent. The K m and k cat values for pNPαGal, melibiose, and globotriose were 1.27 mM and 172.97 S(-1), 62.76 mM and 17.74 S(-1), and 4.62 mM and 388.45 S(-1), respectively. AgaBf3S could transfer galactosyl residue from pNPαGal to lactose (Galβ1-4Glc) with high efficiency and strict α1-4 regioselectivity. The effects of initial substrate concentration, pH, temperature, and reaction time on transglycosylation reaction catalyzed by AgaBf3S were studied in detail. AgaBf3S could synthesize globotriose as a single transglycosylation product with a maximum yield of 32.4 % from 20 mM pNPαGal and 500 mM lactose (pH 4.5) at 40 °C for 30 min. This new one-enzyme one-step synthetic reaction is simple, fast, and low cost, which provides a promising alternative to the current synthetic methods for access to pharmaceutically important Galα1-4-linked oligosaccharides. PMID:27020280

  14. Identification of Bacteroides forsythus in subgingival plaque from patients with advanced periodontitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gersdorf, H; Meissner, A.; Pelz, K; G. Krekeler; Göbel, U B

    1993-01-01

    Bacteroides forsythus has been associated with destructive adult periodontitis. Up to now, detailed analysis by classical means was hampered by the fastidious nature of the organism. There is hope that the application of molecular detection methods such as indirect immunofluorescence or in situ hybridization (ISH) will allow for more rapid and accurate identification. Here we describe a B. forsythus-specific probe (BFV530), complementary to 16S rRNA, which correctly identified all B. forsythu...

  15. The use of monoclonal antibodies to detect Bacteroides gingivalis in biological samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, P; Bochacki, V; Reynolds, H S; Beanan, J; Tatakis, D.N.; Zambon, J J; Genco, R J

    1986-01-01

    Hybridomas were established which produce monoclonal antibodies specific for Bacteroides gingivalis, a pathogen associated with human periodontal disease. Spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with formalinized B. gingivalis were fused with Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells. Of 1,050 wells with positive growth, 60 contained antibody reactive with the immunizing strain of B. gingivalis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expansion of these cultures and cloning by limited dilution resulted in 28 clo...

  16. Adhesion of Actinomyces viscosus to Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis-coated hexadecane droplets.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, M; Buivids, I A; Ellen, R P

    1991-01-01

    Interbacterial adhesion (coadhesion) is considered a major determinant of dental plaque ecology. In this report, we studied several aspects of the adhesion of Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis to hexadecane in order to use the liquid hydrocarbon as a convenient substratum for coadhesion assays. Washed suspensions of hydrophobic P. gingivalis 2561 cells were vortexed with hexadecane to yield highly stable cell-coated droplets. Kinetics of coadhesion between Actinomyces viscosus cells and ...

  17. A Novel Tightly Regulated Gene Expression System for the Human Intestinal Symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Nikki; Carvalho, Ana L.; Overweg, Karin; Wegmann, Udo; Carding, Simon R.; Stentz, Régis

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in studying the function of Bacteroides species resident in the human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract and the contribution they make to host health. Reverse genetics and protein expression techniques, such as those developed for well-characterized Escherichia coli cannot be applied to Bacteroides species as they and other members of the Bacteriodetes phylum have unique promoter structures. The availability of useful Bacteroides-specific genetic tools is therefore limited. Here we describe the development of an effective mannan-controlled gene expression system for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron containing the mannan-inducible promoter–region of an α-1,2-mannosidase gene (BT_3784), a ribosomal binding site designed to modulate expression, a multiple cloning site to facilitate the cloning of genes of interest, and a transcriptional terminator. Using the Lactobacillus pepI as a reporter gene, mannan induction resulted in an increase of reporter activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with a wide range of activity. The endogenous BtcepA cephalosporinase gene was used to demonstrate the suitability of this novel expression system, enabling the isolation of a His-tagged version of BtCepA. We have also shown with experiments performed in mice that the system can be induced in vivo in the presence of an exogenous source of mannan. By enabling the controlled expression of endogenous and exogenous genes in B. thetaiotaomicron this novel inducer-dependent expression system will aid in defining the physiological role of individual genes and the functional analyses of their products. PMID:27468280

  18. Stability in Escherichia coli of an antibiotic resistance plasmid from Bacteroides fragilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rashtchian, A; Booth, S J

    1981-01-01

    A Bacteroides fragilis strain resistant to penicillin G, tetracycline, and clindamycin was screened for the presence of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Agarose gel electrophoresis of ethanol-precipitated DNA from cleared lysates of this strain revealed two plasmid DNA bands. The molecular weights of the plasmids were estimated by their relative mobility in agarose gel and compared with standard plasmids with known molecular weights. The molecular weights were 3.40 +/- 0.20 x 10(6) and 1....

  19. Multidrug-resistant Bacteroides fragilis group on the rise in Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, G N; Sóki, J; Nagy, E;

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of multidrug-resistance (MDR) in a strain of Bacteroides fragilis from a blood culture and abdominal fluid in a Danish patient. The patient had not been travelling for several years and had not received antibiotics prior to the present case. We also summarize the cases that have...... been reported to date of MDR B. fragilis group in Europe. As far as we know, a case like this with MDR B. fragilis has not been described in Scandinavia before....

  20. Evidence for T Cell-dependent Immunity to Bacteroides fragilis in an Intraabdominal Abscess Model

    OpenAIRE

    Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Markham, Richard B.; Zaleznik, Dori F.; Cisneros, Ronald L.; Dennis L Kasper

    1982-01-01

    It has been shown that active immunization of rats with the capsular polysaccharide of Bacteroides fragilis protects these animals against abscess development following intraperitoneal challenge with this species. Passive transfer of hyperimmune globulin from immunized animals to nonimmune recipients provided protection against B. fragilis bacteremia in challenged animals, but did not confer protection against abscess development. On the other hand, adoptive transfer of spleen cells from immu...

  1. Genetic evidence that outer membrane binding of starch is required for starch utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, K.L.; Salyers, A A

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenesis of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron with the transposon Tn4351 produced five classes of mutants that were not able to grow on amylose or amylopectin. These classes of mutants differed in their ability to grow on maltoheptaose (G7) and in the level of starch-degrading enzymes produced when bacteria were grown on maltose. All of the mutants were deficient in starch binding. Since one class of mutants retained normal levels of starch-degrading enzymes, this indicates that binding of the ...

  2. Oral implantation of Bacteroides asaccharolyticus and Eikenella corrodens in conventional hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagahata, T; Kiyoshige, T; Tomono, S; Abe, R; Sasaki, S.; Takazoe, I

    1982-01-01

    Oral implantation of Bacteroides asaccharolyticus 381-R' and Eikenella corrodens 1073S-R, which are highly resistant to streptomycin, was examined in conventional hamsters. The hamsters' first molars were ligatured with cotton threads preimmersed in bacterial suspensions. Bacterial inoculation was performed daily for 1 week, followed by a single weekly inoculation for 7 more weeks. Hamsters were fed Keyes' diet no. 2000 or ordinary powdered diet. Bacterial recovery, gingival histological chan...

  3. Cephamycin inactivation due to enzymatic hydrolysis by beta-lactamase from Bacteroides fragilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Yotsuji, A; Minami, S; Kakizawa, H; Yasuda, T; Takai, A.; Saikawa, I; Inoue, M.; Mitsuhashi, S

    1985-01-01

    The susceptibility of 53 clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis to cephamycins was examined. Judging from the MICs for 50% of the strains tested, moxalactam was the most active, however, judging from the MICs for 90% of the strains tested, cefbuperazone was more effective than moxalactam. A correlation was observed between in vitro activity of benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine and beta-lactamase production. Inactivation due to enzymatic hydrolysis of cephamycins over a short time was not ...

  4. Purification and Comparison of the Periplasmic and Extracellular Forms of the Cellodextrinase from Bacteroides succinogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Li; Forsberg, Cecil W.

    1988-01-01

    Both the periplasmic and the extracellular cellodextrinases from Bacteroides succinogenes S85 grown on Avicel microcrystalline cellulose were purified to homogeneity by column chromatography and characterized. Over 70% of the total cellobiosidase activity displayed by cells was accounted for by these enzymes. The periplasmic and extracellular cellodextrinases had identical molecular weights (50,000), as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and identical iso...

  5. Purification and characterization of an immunoglobulin A1 protease from Bacteroides melaninogenicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, S B; Kilian, M

    1984-01-01

    Attention has recently been focused on bacterial proteases with the capacity to cleave immunoglobulin A (IgA proteases) as possible pathogenic factors in bacterial meningitis, gonorrhoea, and destructive periodontal disease. Here, we describe a method for the rapid purification of a specific IgA1 protease from Bacteroides melaninogenicus. The IgA1 protease was purified 6,172-fold with a yield of 9% by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-ion exchange chromatography, and separation on a prepar...

  6. Genome sequence of the Bacteroides fragilis phage ATCC 51477-B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkins Shawn A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified and genes were organized into functional clusters for host specificity, lysis, replication and regulation, and packaging and structural proteins.

  7. Development of new host-specific Bacteroides qPCRs for the identification of fecal contamination sources in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Doñate, Marta; Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Muniesa, Maite; Blanch, Anicet R

    2016-02-01

    Bacteroides spp. have been proposed as indicators of fecal contamination in microbial source tracking (MST) methodologies. The aim of this study was to develop new qPCR assays that target host-specific Bacteroidal 16S ribosomal RNA genes, to determine the source of fecal contamination in water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to select for host-specific bands of Bacteroides associated with a fecal pollution source and later to design four qPCR host-specific assays. A set of common primers for Bacteroides spp., four different Bacteroides spp. host-associated hydrolysis probes (human, cattle, pig, and poultry), and one hydrolysis probe for the Bacteroides genus were designed. This set of qPCR assays together with other previously developed Bacteroidetes MST targets were used to analyze water samples with fecal contamination from the four sources studied. The host-specific Bacteroides qPCRs designed for human (HMprobeBac), pig (PGprobeBac), and poultry (PLprobeBac) were highly specific for its sources (1.0, 0.97, and 1.0, respectively) although its sensitivity was lower (0.45, 0.50, and 0.73, respectively). The cattle-specific qPCR was totally unspecific and was discarded for future experiments. When compared to previously designed assays, the human and pig qPCRs showed better accuracies (0.86 and 0.84) than their counterparts HF183 and Pig-2-Bac (0.38 and 0.65). Thus, the newly designed human, pig, and poultry qPCR assays outperform other methods developed until date and may be useful for source tracking purposes. PMID:26763626

  8. Interactions between Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides species in cofermentations are affected by carbon sources, including exopolysaccharides produced by bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Covian, David; Arboleya, Silvia; Hernandez-Barranco, Ana M; Alvarez-Buylla, Jorge R; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel; de los Reyes-Gavilan, Clara G

    2013-12-01

    Cocultures of strains from two Bifidobacterium and two Bacteroides species were performed with exopolysaccharides (EPS) previously purified from bifidobacteria, with inulin, or with glucose as the carbon source. Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004 grew in glucose but showed poor or no growth in complex carbohydrates (inulin, EPS E44, and EPS R1), whereas Bacteroides grew well in the four carbon sources tested. In the presence of glucose, the growth of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron DSM-2079 was inhibited by B. breve, whereas it remained unaffected in the presence of B. longum. Ba. fragilis DSM-2151 contributed to a greater survival of B. longum, promoting changes in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and organic acids in coculture with respect to monocultures. In complex carbohydrates, cocultures of bifidobacterium strains with Ba. thetaiotaomicron did not modify the behavior of Bacteroides nor improve the poor growth of bifidobacteria. The metabolic activity of Ba. fragilis in coculture with bifidobacteria was not affected by EPS, but greater survival of bifidobacteria at late stages of incubation occurred in cocultures than in monocultures, leading to a higher production of acetic acid than in monocultures. Therefore, cocultures of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides can behave differently against fermentable carbohydrates as a function of the specific characteristics of the strains from each species. These results stress the importance of considering specific species and strain interactions and not simply higher taxonomic divisions in the relationship among intestinal microbial populations and their different responses to probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:24077708

  9. Purification and properties of Bacteroides heparinolyticus heparinase (heparin lyase, EC 4.2.2.7).

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, T.(International Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); Shibata, Y.; Fujimura, S.

    1988-01-01

    Heparinase (heparin lyase, EC 4.2.2.7) was isolated from the cell extract of an oral bacterium, Bacteroides heparinolyticus. It was a basic protein with an isoelectric point of 9.5. Its molecular weight was 63,000. The enzyme was the most active against heparin among the tested mucopolysaccharides. Catalytic properties may be similar to those of heparinase of Flavobacterium heparinum, since the enzymatic degradation products obtained by using the two enzymes were the same on the basis of pape...

  10. Intracellular glycosidases of human colon Bacteroides ovatus B4-11.

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, N R; Palmer, J K; Pierson, M. D.; Bothast, R J

    1984-01-01

    Activity of various glycosidases in the intracellular enzyme fraction of Bacteroides ovatus B4-11 was investigated. During 120 h of incubation at 37 degrees C, ca. 30% of the crude hemicellulose was hydrolyzed by an intracellular enzyme fraction of strain B4-11. Xylose was the major sugar released from crude hemicellulose. Glycosidases (alpha-1,6-glucosidase, alpha-1,4-glucosidase, beta-1,4-glucosidase, and beta-1,4-xylosidase) were induced in B. ovatus B4-11 by crude hemicellulose and hetero...

  11. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the fimbrial subunit protein of Bacteroides gingivalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, D P; Kubiniec, M A; Yoshimura, F; Genco, R J

    1988-01-01

    The gene encoding the fimbrial subunit protein of Bacteroides gingivalis 381, fimbrilin, has been cloned and sequenced. The gene was present as a single copy on the bacterial chromosome, and the codon usage in the gene conformed closely to that expected for an abundant protein. The predicted size of the mature protein was 35,924 daltons, and the secretory form may have had a 10-amino-acid, hydrophilic leader sequence similar to the leader sequences of the MePhe fimbriae family. The protein se...

  12. Fermentation of fenugreek fiber, psyllium husk, and wheat bran by Bacteroides ovatus V975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaldi, S F; Martin, S A; Prakash, L

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the human colonic bacterium Bacteroides ovatus V975 to ferment fenugreek fiber (Fenufibers), psyllium husk (Metamucil), and wheat bran (Wheat Chex). Strain V975 was incubated in basal medium that contained 0.1 g of each fiber source for 0, 24, or 48 h. Little digestion of either fiber source was detected over 48 h, and little acetate or succinate was produced. From the lack of significant fiber digestion and fermentation by B. ovatus, it seems that all three fiber sources could be used as dietary supplements to increase roughage in the human diet. PMID:10486060

  13. A Closer Look at Bacteroides: Phylogenetic Relationship and Genomic Implications of a Life in the Human Gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Fredrik H.; Ussery, David; Nielsen, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi genomes to elucidate their phylogenetic relationship and to gain insight into what is separating the gut living Bacteroides and Parabacteroides genera from other Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi species. A comprehensive analysis shows that Bacteroides species have a higher number of......The human gut is extremely densely inhabited by bacteria mainly from two phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and there is a great interest in analyzing whole-genome sequences for these species because of their relation to human health and disease. Here, we do whole-genome comparison of 105...... other Bacteroides species, based on analysis of 16S rRNA sequence, whole-genome protein families and functional content, 16S rRNA sequences of the two species suggest that they belong to the Firmicutes phylum. We have presented a more detailed and precise description of the phylogenetic relationships of...

  14. Heterogeneity in resistant fecal Bacteroides fragilis group collected from healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimani, T; Douraghi, M; Owlia, P; Rastegar, A; Esghaei, M; Nasr, B; Talebi, M

    2016-06-01

    Normal nonpathogenic flora would represent a constant lake of resistance genes potentially transferable to human pathogens. To assess the prevalence of resistance genes and genetic variability of Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) from normal flora, 177 Bacteroides isolates obtained from the fecal samples of healthy individuals. These isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The isolates were further tested for the presence of ermF, tetQ and bft genes by PCR. Our results indicated the presence of different clonal strains (1 common type and 57 single types) among the resistant isolates. The resistance rate for the six antibiotics in this study was between 1% and 95%. Most of the isolates (99%) were susceptible to metronidazole. ermF and tetQ were detected in all erythromycin and tetracycline resistant isolates. None of the isolates were carried bft gene. These data suggest dissemination of heterogenic clonal groups in healthy persons and resistance to 5 high commonly used antibiotics. PMID:26945562

  15. The methylome of the gut microbiome: disparate Dam methylation patterns in intestinal Bacteroides dorei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Leonard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large interest in the human microbiome in recent years, there are no reports of bacterial DNA methylation in the microbiome. Here metagenomic sequencing using the Pacific Biosciences platform allowed for rapid identification of bacterial GATC methylation status of a bacterial species in human stool samples. For this work, two stool samples were chosen that were dominated by a single species, Bacteroides dorei. Based on 16S rRNA analysis, this species represented over 45% of the bacteria present in these two samples. The B. dorei genome sequence from these samples was determined and the GATC methylation sites mapped. The Bacteroides dorei genome from one subject lacked any GATC methylation and lacked the DNA adenine methyltransferase genes. In contrast, B. dorei from another subject contained 20,551 methylated GATC sites. Of the 4,970 open reading frames identified in the GATC methylated B. dorei genome, 3,184 genes were methylated as well as 1,735 GATC methylations in intergenic regions. These results suggest that DNA methylation patterns are important to consider in multi-omic analyses of microbiome samples seeking to discover the diversity of bacterial functions and may differ between disease states.

  16. Identification and Phylogeny of the First T Cell Epitope Identified from a Human Gut Bacteroides Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Perez-Muñoz

    Full Text Available Host T cell reactivity toward gut bacterial epitopes has been recognized as part of disease pathogenesis. However, the specificity of T cells that recognize this vast number of epitopes has not yet been well described. After colonizing a C57BL/6J germ-free mouse with the human gut symbiotic bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, we isolated a T cell that recognized these bacteria in vitro. Using this T cell, we mapped the first known non-carbohydrate T cell epitope within the phylum Bacteroidetes. The T cell also reacted to two other additional Bacteroides species. We identified the peptide that stimulated the T cell by using a genetic approach. Genomic data from the epitope-positive and epitope-negative bacteria explain the cross-reactivity of the T cell to multiple species. This epitope degeneracy should shape our understanding of the T cell repertoire stimulated by the complex microbiome residing in the gastrointestinal tract in both healthy and disease states.

  17. Safety Assessment of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 Isolated from Stools of Healthy Breast-Fed Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Leonor Fernández-Murga

    Full Text Available Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 is a potential probiotic strain, originally isolated from the stools of healthy breast-feed infants. The strain showed pre-clinical efficacy in a mouse obesity model. The objective of this study was to evaluate its potential toxicity and translocation ability after acute oral administration to mice.A safety study was conducted in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed C57BL-6 mice. Both mouse groups (n = 10 per group were fed orally 2 x 10(9 colony forming units (cfu/day of B. uniformis CECT 7771 or placebo by gavage for 6 days. Throughout this time, feed and water intake and body weight were monitored. Afterwards, mice were sacrificed and biological samples were collected to analyze blood and urine biochemistry, inflammatory and immune markers; gut mucosal histology and bacterial translocation to peripheral tissues. The results demonstrated that acute ingestion of this Bacteroides strain had no adverse effects on the animals' general health status or food intake, nor did it affect biochemical indicators of liver, kidney and pancreatic function or gut mucosal histology. Findings also demonstrated that administration did not lead to bacterial translocation to blood, liver or mesenteric lymph nodes. B. uniformis CECT 7771 also downregulated gene and protein expression (iNOS and PPAR-γ and inflammatory cytokines induced by immunosuppression.The findings indicate that the acute oral consumption of B. uniformis CECT 7771 does not raise safety concerns in mice. Further studies in humans should be conducted.

  18. Comparison of Bacteroides-Prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers for fecal samples from different animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, L.R.; Voytek, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    To effectively manage surface and ground waters it is necessary to improve our ability to detect and identify sources of fecal contamination. We evaluated the use of the anaerobic bacterial group Bacteroides-Prevotella as a potential fecal indicator. Terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA genes from this group was used to determine differences in populations and to identify any unique populations in chickens, cows, deer, dogs, geese, horses, humans, pigs, and seagulls. The group appears to be a good potential fecal indicator in all groups tested except for avians. Cluster analysis of Bacteroides-Prevotella community T-RFLP profiles indicates that Bacteroides-Prevotella populations from samples of the same host species are much more similar to each other than to samples from different source species. We were unable to identify unique peaks that were exclusive to any source species; however, for most host species, at least one T-RFLP peak was identified to be more commonly found in that species, and a combination of peaks could be used to identify the source. T-RFLP profiles obtained from water spiked with known-source feces contained the expected diagnostic peaks from the source. These results indicate that the approach of identifying Bacteroides-Prevotella molecular markers associated with host species might be useful in identifying sources of fecal contamination in the environment.

  19. Fermentation of pectin and glucose, and activity of pectin-degrading enzymes in the rabbit caecal bacterium Bacteroides caccae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirotek, Kamil; Slováková, Lenka; Kopečný, Jan; Marounek, Milan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2004), s. 327-332. ISSN 0266-8254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/03/0358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : bacteroides caccae * caecum * metabolism Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2004

  20. Bacteroides fragilis interferes with iNOS activity and leads to pore formation in macrophage surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteroides fragilis is the anaerobe most commonly recoverable from clinical specimens. The wide genetic diversity of this bacterium related with virulence potential is still an open question. In this study, we analyzed the morphological aspects and microbicide action of MO during interactions with B. fragilis. A filamentous cytoplasm content release and a different actin organization colocalized with iNOS were detected. It was also possible to observe the reduction of NO production in the same conditions. The scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of pore-like structures in the surface of macrophages in the bacterial presence and by transmission electron microscopy we could observe the extrusion of cytoplasm contents as well as the condensation of chromatin in the nucleus periphery. These data suggest the existence of an inhibitory mechanism developed by B. fragilis strains for one of the macrophage microbicide actions

  1. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Bacteroides fragilis group isolated from stool samples in North Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Yehya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifty one strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group were isolated from 45 fecal samples. Classical phenotypic identification showed that 16 isolates were B. thetaiotaomicron, 12 B. uniformis, 9 B. eggerthii,7 B. vulgatus,3 B. caccae,2 Parabacteroides distasonis with 1 identified B. ovatus and 1 B. fragilis. The 51 strains were tested for susceptibility against 16 antimicrobial agents and the MICs for metronidazole were determined. The tests showed that imipenem, meropenem and chloram-phenicol were the most effective antibiotics (98%, 98% and 92.16% of susceptibility, respectively followed by ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, rifampin (88.24% susceptibility, moxifloxacin 86.27% and tigecycline 84.31%. Ofloxacin and cefotaxime were the least effective antibiotics with 27.45% and 0% of activity respectively. Only six of the 51 isolated strains were resistant to metronidazole with MICs = 64 mg/L (1 strain and > 256 mg/L (5 strains.

  2. Development of EUCAST disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa; Urbán, Edit

    2015-02-01

    With the emergence of antibiotic resistance among Bacteroides fragilis group isolates the need of susceptibility testing in routine laboratories is increasing. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing in case of different clinical isolates of Bacteroides spp by comparing zone diameter results with MICs obtained earlier during an Europe-wide antibiotic susceptibility surveillance, and to propose zone diameter breakpoints, which correlate for the EUCAST MIC breakpoints. We tested 381 clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline by agar dilution method previously. The inhibition zones of the same antibiotics including meropenem disc were determined by the disc diffusion on Brucella blood agar supplemented with haemin and vitamin K1. Plates were incubated at 37 °C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 24 h. The zone diameters were read at 100% inhibition. In case of discrepant results MICs were determined by gradient test and compared with the inhibition zones on the same plate. We found a good agreement between the inhibition zone diameters and the MICs for imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin and tigecyclin. The inhibition zone diameters of meropenem also separated clearly the isolates, which can be considered wild-type isolates. In case of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and piperacillin/tazobactam intermediate and susceptible isolates according to the MIC determination, overlap during the zone diameter determination. Isolates with an inhibition zone disk diffusion can be an option for susceptibility testing of B. fragilis group isolates for most relevant antibiotics in routine laboratories. PMID:25464140

  3. Bacteroides gingivalis-Actinomyces viscosus cohesive interactions as measured by a quantitative binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is limited evidence, mostly indirect, to suggest that the adherence of Bacteroides gingivalis to teeth may be enhanced by the presence of gram-positive dental plaque bacteria like Actinomyces viscosus. The purpose of this study was to carry out direct quantitative assessments of the cohesion of B gingivalis and A. viscosus by using an in vitro assay modeled on the natural sequence in which these two species colonize the teeth. The assay allowed comparisons to be made of the adherence of 3H-labeled B. gingivalis 2561 and 381 to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (S-HA) and A. viscosus WVU627- or T14V-coated S-HA (actinobeads) in equilibrium and kinetics binding studies. A series of preliminary binding studies with 3H-labeled A. viscosus and parallel studies by scanning electron microscopy with unlabeled A. viscosus were conducted to establish a protocol by which actinobeads suitable for subsequent Bacteroides adherence experiments could be prepared. By scanning electron microscopy, the actinobeads had only small gaps of exposed S-HA between essentially irreversibly bound A. viscosus cells. Furthermore, B. gingivalis cells appeared to bind preferentially to the Actinomyces cells instead of the exposed S-HA. B. gingivalis binding to both S-HA and actinobeads was saturable with at least 2 X 10(9) to 3 X 10(9) cells per ml, and equilibrium with saturating concentrations was reached within 10 to 20 min. B. gingivalis always bound in greater numbers to the actinobeads than to S-HA. These findings provide direct measurements supporting the concept that cohesion with dental plaque bacteria like A. viscosus may foster the establishment of B. gingivalis on teeth by enhancing its adherence

  4. Labeling of carbon pools in Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae bacteroids following incubation of intact nodules with 14CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work reported here was to ascertain that the patterns of labeling seen in isolated bacteroids also occurred in bacteroids in intact nodules and to observe early metabolic events following exposure of intact nodules to 14CO2. Intact nodules of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Ripley) inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 and pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Progress 9) inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum by viciae isolate 128C53 were detached and immediately fed 14CO2 for 1 to 6 min. Bacteroids were purified from these nodules in 5 to 7 min after the feeding period. In the cytosol from both soybean and pea nodules, malate had the highest radioactivity, followed by citrate and aspartate. In peas, asparagine labeling equaled that of aspartate. In B. japonicum bacteroids, malate was the most rapidly labeled compound, and the rate of glutamate labeling was 67% of the rate of malate labeling. Aspartate and alanine were the next most rapidly labeled compounds. R. leguminosarum bacteroids had very low amounts of 14C and, after a 1-min feeding, malate contained 90% of the radioactivity in the organic acid fraction. Only a trace of activity was found in aspartate, whereas the rate of glutamate and alanine labeling approached that of malate after 6 min of feeding. Under the conditions studied, malate was the major form of labeled carbon supplied to both types of bacteroids. These results with intact nodules confirm our earlier results with isolated bacteroids, which showed that a significant proportion of provided labeled substrate, such as malate, is diverted to glutamate. This supports the conclusion that microaerobic conditions in nodules influence carbon metabolism in bacteroids. (author)

  5. Cryptic tetracycline resistance determinant (class F) from Bacteroides fragilis mediates resistance in Escherichia coli by actively reducing tetracycline accumulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, B. H.; Hendricks, M; Malamy, M H; Tally, F P; Levy, S. B.

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli bearing a cryptic tetracycline resistance determinant from Bacteroides fragilis expressed low-level constitutive resistance to tetracycline under aerobic, but not anaerobic, growth conditions and accumulated less tetracycline aerobically than did isogenic susceptible cells. This decreased uptake was energy dependent and reversible by increased concentrations of tetracycline, suggesting a saturable carrier-mediated active efflux mechanism. Decreased uptake was not seen when th...

  6. Tetracycline-inducible transfer of tetracycline resistance in Bacteroides fragilis in the absence of detectable plasmid DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Rashtchian, A; Dubes, G R; Booth, S J

    1982-01-01

    Tetracycline resistance of three Bacteroides fragilis strains was shown to be inducible by subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline. Tetracycline resistance markers could be transferred to another B. fragilis strain by filter mating. The transferability was inducible by subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline and did not take place in the absence of tetracycline. The optimum concentration of tetracycline for induction of transfer was about 2 microgram/ml. The transfer was shown to be...

  7. Identification of antimicrobial resistance genes in multidrug-resistant clinical Bacteroides fragilis isolates by whole genome shotgun sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Sóki, József; Hasman, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis constitutes the most frequent anaerobic bacterium causing bacteremia in humans. The genetic background for antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis is diverse with some genes requiring insertion sequence (IS) elements inserted upstream for increased expression. To evaluate whole...... genome shotgun sequencing as a method for predicting antimicrobial resistance properties, one meropenem resistant and five multidrug-resistant blood culture isolates were sequenced and antimicrobial resistance genes and IS elements identified using ResFinder 2.1 (http...

  8. Thioredoxin Reductase Is Essential for Thiol/Disulfide Redox Control and Oxidative Stress Survival of the Anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Edson R.; Tzianabos, Arthur O; Smith, C. Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Results of this study showed that the anaerobic, opportunistic pathogen Bacteroides fragilis lacks the glutathione/glutaredoxin redox system and possesses an extensive number of putative thioredoxin (Trx) orthologs. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed six Trx orthologs and an absence of genes required for synthesis of glutathione and glutaredoxins. In addition, it was shown that the thioredoxin reductase (TrxB)/Trx system is the major or sole redox system for thiol/disulfide cellular hom...

  9. Characterization of Four Outer Membrane Proteins Involved in Binding Starch to the Cell Surface of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

    OpenAIRE

    Shipman, Joseph A.; Berleman, James E.; Salyers, Abigail A.

    2000-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a gram-negative obligate anaerobe, utilizes polysaccharides by binding them to its cell surface and allowing cell-associated enzymes to hydrolyze them into digestible fragments. We use the starch utilization system as a model to analyze the initial steps involved in polysaccharide binding and breakdown. In a recent paper, we reported that one of the outer membrane proteins involved, SusG, had starch-degrading activity but was not sufficient for growth on starch. ...

  10. Physiological Characterization of SusG, an Outer Membrane Protein Essential for Starch Utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

    OpenAIRE

    Shipman, Joseph A.; Cho, Kyu Hong; Siegel, Hilary A.; Salyers, Abigail A.

    1999-01-01

    Results from previous studies had suggested that Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron utilizes starch by binding the polysaccharide to the bacterial surface and subsequently degrading the polymer by using cell-associated enzymes. Most of the starch-degrading activity was localized to the periplasm, but a portion appeared to be membrane associated. This raised the possibility that some breakdown might occur in the outer membrane prior to exposure of the polysaccharide to the periplasmic polysaccharide...

  11. Therapeutic evaluation of difloxacin (A-56619) and A-56620 for experimentally induced Bacteroides fragilis-associated intra-abdominal abscess.

    OpenAIRE

    Thadepalli, H; Gollapudi, S V; Chuah, S K

    1986-01-01

    Difloxacin (A-56619) and A-56620, two novel fluoroquinolones, were tested in comparison with ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin, and combined clindamycin and gentamicin in the treatment of experimentally induced intraabdominal abscess associated with Bacteroides fragilis. Difloxacin was found to be as effective as clindamycin-gentamicin. A-56620, despite achieving subtherapeutic levels in serum, was found to be as effective as cefoxitin. Both difloxacin and A-56620 were effective in vivo against experi...

  12. Mutation of the Zinc-Binding Metalloprotease Motif Affects Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Activity but Does Not Affect Propeptide Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Augusto A.; Buckwold, Simy L.; Shin, Jai W.; Ascon, Miguel; Sears, Cynthia L.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the zinc-binding metalloprotease in Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) processing and activity, the zinc-binding consensus sequences (H348, E349, H352, G355, H358, and M366) were mutated by site-directed-mutagenesis. Our results indicated that single point mutations in the zinc-binding metalloprotease motif do not affect BFT processing but do reduce or eliminate BFT biologic activity in vitro.

  13. Mutation of the Zinc-Binding Metalloprotease Motif Affects Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Activity but Does Not Affect Propeptide Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Augusto A.; Buckwold, Simy L.; Shin, Jai W.; Ascon, Miguel; Sears, Cynthia L.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the zinc-binding metalloprotease in Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) processing and activity, the zinc-binding consensus sequences (H348, E349, H352, G355, H358, and M366) were mutated by site-directed-mutagenesis. Our results indicated that single point mutations in the zinc-binding metalloprotease motif do not affect BFT processing but do reduce or eliminate BFT biologic activity in vitro. PMID:16041055

  14. Differential proteomic analysis of outer membrane enriched extracts of Bacteroides fragilis grown under bile salts stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boente, Renata F; Pauer, Heidi; Silva, Deborah N S; Filho, Joaquim Santos; Sandim, Vanessa; Antunes, Luis Caetano M; Ferreira, Rosana Barreto Rocha; Zingali, Russolina B; Domingues, Regina M C P; Lobo, Leandro A

    2016-06-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is the most commonly isolated anaerobic bacteria from infectious processes. Several virulence traits contribute to the pathogenic nature of this bacterium, including the ability to tolerate the high concentrations of bile found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The activity of bile salts is similar to detergents and may lead to membrane permeabilization and cell death. Modulation of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) is considered a crucial event to bile salts resistance. The primary objective of the current work was to identify B. fragilis proteins associated with the stress induced by high concentration of bile salts. The outer membrane of B. fragilis strain 638R was isolated after growth either in the presence of 2% conjugated bile salts or without bile salts. The membrane fractions were separated on SDS-PAGE and analyzed by ESI-Q/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 37 proteins were identified; among them nine were found to be expressed exclusively in the absence of bile salts whereas eight proteins were expressed only in the presence of bile salts. These proteins are related to cellular functions such as transport through membrane, nutrient uptake, and protein-protein interactions. This study demonstrates the alteration of OMPs composition in B. fragilis during bile salts stress resistance and adaptation to environmental changes. Proteomics of OMPs was also shown to be a useful approach in the identification of new targets for functional analyses. PMID:26948242

  15. Levan Enhances Associated Growth of Bacteroides, Escherichia, Streptococcus and Faecalibacterium in Fecal Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarel Adamberg

    Full Text Available The role of dietary fiber in supporting healthy gut microbiota and overall well-being of the host has been revealed in several studies. Here, we show the effect of a bacterial polyfructan levan on the growth dynamics and metabolism of fecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry. Eleven fecal samples from healthy donors were incubated in phosphate-buffered defined medium with or without levan supplementation and varying presence of amino acids. The generation of heat, changes in pH and microbiota composition, concentrations of produced and consumed metabolites during the growth were determined. The composition of fecal microbiota and profile of metabolites changed in response to substrate (levan and amino acids availability. The main products of levan metabolism were acetic, lactic, butyric, propionic and succinic acids and carbon dioxide. Associated growth of levan-degrading (e.g. Bacteroides and butyric acid-producing (e.g. Faecalibacterium taxa was observed in levan-supplemented media. The study shows that the capacity of levan and possibly also other dietary fibers/prebiotics to modulate the composition and function of colon microbiota can be predicted by using isothermal microcalorimetry of fecal samples linked to metabolite and consortia analyses.

  16. Levan Enhances Associated Growth of Bacteroides, Escherichia, Streptococcus and Faecalibacterium in Fecal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Tomson, Katrin; Talve, Tiina; Pudova, Ksenia; Puurand, Marju; Visnapuu, Triinu; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Signe

    2015-01-01

    The role of dietary fiber in supporting healthy gut microbiota and overall well-being of the host has been revealed in several studies. Here, we show the effect of a bacterial polyfructan levan on the growth dynamics and metabolism of fecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry. Eleven fecal samples from healthy donors were incubated in phosphate-buffered defined medium with or without levan supplementation and varying presence of amino acids. The generation of heat, changes in pH and microbiota composition, concentrations of produced and consumed metabolites during the growth were determined. The composition of fecal microbiota and profile of metabolites changed in response to substrate (levan and amino acids) availability. The main products of levan metabolism were acetic, lactic, butyric, propionic and succinic acids and carbon dioxide. Associated growth of levan-degrading (e.g. Bacteroides) and butyric acid-producing (e.g. Faecalibacterium) taxa was observed in levan-supplemented media. The study shows that the capacity of levan and possibly also other dietary fibers/prebiotics to modulate the composition and function of colon microbiota can be predicted by using isothermal microcalorimetry of fecal samples linked to metabolite and consortia analyses. PMID:26629816

  17. The dissemination of C10 cysteine protease genes in Bacteroides fragilis by mobile genetic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagawa Todd F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The C10 family of cysteine proteases includes enzymes that contribute to the virulence of bacterial pathogens, such as SpeB in Streptococcus pyogenes. The presence of homologues of cysteine protease genes in human commensal organisms has not been examined. Bacteroides fragilis is a member of the dominant Bacteroidetes phylum of the human intestinal microbiota, and is a significant opportunistic pathogen. Results Four homologues of the streptococcal virulence factor SpeB were identified in the B. fragilis genome. These four protease genes, two were directly contiguous to open reading frames predicted to encode staphostatin-like inhibitors, with which the protease genes were co-transcribed. Two of these protease genes are unique to B. fragilis 638R and are associated with two large genomic insertions. Gene annotation indicated that one of these insertions was a conjugative Tn-like element and the other was a prophage-like element, which was shown to be capable of excision. Homologues of the B. fragilis C10 protease genes were present in a panel of clinical isolates, and in DNA extracted from normal human faecal microbiota. Conclusions This study suggests a mechanism for the evolution and dissemination of an important class of protease in major members of the normal human microbiota.

  18. The dissemination of C10 cysteine protease genes in Bacteroides fragilis by mobile genetic elements

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thornton, Roibeard F

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background The C10 family of cysteine proteases includes enzymes that contribute to the virulence of bacterial pathogens, such as SpeB in Streptococcus pyogenes. The presence of homologues of cysteine protease genes in human commensal organisms has not been examined. Bacteroides fragilis is a member of the dominant Bacteroidetes phylum of the human intestinal microbiota, and is a significant opportunistic pathogen. Results Four homologues of the streptococcal virulence factor SpeB were identified in the B. fragilis genome. These four protease genes, two were directly contiguous to open reading frames predicted to encode staphostatin-like inhibitors, with which the protease genes were co-transcribed. Two of these protease genes are unique to B. fragilis 638R and are associated with two large genomic insertions. Gene annotation indicated that one of these insertions was a conjugative Tn-like element and the other was a prophage-like element, which was shown to be capable of excision. Homologues of the B. fragilis C10 protease genes were present in a panel of clinical isolates, and in DNA extracted from normal human faecal microbiota. Conclusions This study suggests a mechanism for the evolution and dissemination of an important class of protease in major members of the normal human microbiota.

  19. Isolation, Detection, and Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Payam; Wu, Shaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is an extensively studied anaerobic bacterium comprising the normal flora of the human gut. B. fragilis is known to be one of the most commonly isolated species from clinical samples and has been shown to cause a wide range of pathologies in humans [1, 2]. As an opportunistic pathogen B. fragilis can cause abscess formation and bacteremia [2]. Additionally in its enterotoxigenic form, B. fragilis is a known cause of diarrheal illness, is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, and has been recently characterized in patients with colon cancer [3 - 5]. As research in the field of the gut microbiome continues to expand at an ever increasing rate due to advances in the availability of next generation sequencing and analysis tools it is important to outline various molecular methods that can be employed in quickly detecting and isolating relevant strains of B. fragilis. This review outlines methods that are routinely employed in the isolation and detection of B. fragilis, with an emphasis on characterizing enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) strains.

  20. Enterotoxigenic and non-enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis from fecal microbiota of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF is an important part of the human and animal intestinal microbiota and is commonly associated with diarrhea. ETBF strains produce an enterotoxin encoded by the bft gene located in the B. fragilispathogenicity island (BfPAI. Non-enterotoxigenic B. fragilis(NTBF strains lack the BfPAI and usually show two different genetic patterns, II and III, based on the absence or presence of a BfPAI-flanking region, respectively. The incidence of ETBF and NTBF strains in fecal samples isolated from children without acute diarrhea or any other intestinal disorders was determined. All 84 fecal samples evaluated were B. fragilis-positive by PCR, four of them harbored the bft gene, 27 contained the NTBF pattern III DNA sequence, and 52 were considered to be NTBF pattern II samples. One sample was positive for both ETBF and NTBF pattern III DNA sequences. All 19 B. fragilis strains isolated by the culture method were bft-negative, 9 belonged to pattern III and 10 to pattern II. We present an updated overview of the ETBF and NTBF incidence in the fecal microbiota of children from Sao Paulo City, Brazil.

  1. Two New Xylanases with Different Substrate Specificities from the Human Gut Bacterium Bacteroides intestinalis DSM 17393

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2014-01-24

    Xylan is an abundant plant cell wall polysaccharide and is a dominant component of dietary fiber. Bacteria in the distal human gastrointestinal tract produce xylanase enzymes to initiate the degradation of this complex heteropolymer. These xylanases typically derive from glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 10 and 11; however, analysis of the genome sequence of the xylan-degrading human gut bacterium Bacteroides intestinalis DSM 17393 revealed the presence of two putative GH8 xylanases. In the current study, we demonstrate that the two genes encode enzymes that differ in activity. The xyn8A gene encodes an endoxylanase (Xyn8A), and rex8A encodes a reducing-end xylose-releasing exo-oligoxylanase (Rex8A). Xyn8A hydrolyzed both xylopentaose (X5) and xylohexaose (X6) to a mixture of xylobiose (X2) and xylotriose (X3), while Rex8A hydrolyzed X3 through X6 to a mixture of xylose (X1) and X2. Moreover, rex8A is located downstream of a GH3 gene (xyl3A) that was demonstrated to exhibit β-xylosidase activity and would be able to further hydrolyze X2 to X1. Mutational analyses of putative active site residues of both Xyn8A and Rex8A confirm their importance in catalysis by these enzymes. Recent genome sequences of gut bacteria reveal an increase in GH8 Rex enzymes, especially among the Bacteroidetes, indicating that these genes contribute to xylan utilization in the human gut.

  2. A novel strain of Bacteroides fragilis enhances phagocytosis and polarises M1 macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huimin; Li, Zhengchao; Tan, Yafang; Guo, Zhaobiao; Liu, Yangyang; Wang, Ye; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Ruifu; Bi, Yujing; Bai, Yang; Zhi, Fachao

    2016-01-01

    Commensal Bacteroides fragilis possesses immune-regulatory characteristics. Consequently, it has been proposed as a potential novel probiotic because of its therapeutic effects on immune imbalance, mental disorders and inflammatory diseases. Macrophages play a central role in the immune response, developing either a classical-M1 or an alternative-M2 phenotype after stimulation with various signals. The interactions between macrophages and B. fragilis, however, remain to be defined. Here, a new isolate of B. fragilis, ZY-312, was shown to possess admirable properties, including tolerance to simulated gastric fluid, intestinal fluid and ox bile, and good safety (MOI = 100, 200) and adherent ability (MOI = 100) to LoVo cells. Isolate ZY-312 cell lysate promoted phagocytosis of fluorescent microspheres and pathogenic bacteria in bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) cells. Gene expression of IL-12, iNOS and IL-1β in BMDM cells was increased after treatment with ZY-312, indicating the induction of M1 macrophages, consistent with enhanced secretion of NO. Cell surface expression of CD80 and CD86 was also increased. This study is the first to demonstrate that B. fragilis enhances the phagocytic functions of macrophages, polarising them to an M1 phenotype. Our findings provide insight into the close relationship between B. fragilis and the innate immune system. PMID:27381366

  3. Azide protection of bacteroides superoxide dismutases from inactivation by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anaerobes Bacteroides fragilis, B. distasonis and B. thetaiotaomicron produce an iron-containing superoxide dismutase (FeSOD). These FeSODs are reversibly inhibited by 1 mM azide (NaN3) and are irreversibly inactivated upon incubation with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 inactivation of the enzyme likely depends on a Fenton type reaction with the production of hydroxyl radical (OH). Addition of NaN3 to the enzyme solution decreased the rate of inactivation by H2O2. After 20 minutes incubation of purified B. distasonis FeSOD with 2.5 mM H2O2, 61% of the initial enzymatic activity remained when 1 mM NaN3 was also present compared with 29% activity without NaN3. Similar results were seen with FeSOD from B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron. Metal analyses of the native, peroxidized, and NaN3 protected samples are consistent with loss of Fe from the enzyme upon peroxidation, but retention of Fe and enzymatic activity in the NaN3 protected sample. Protection of FeSOD activity from H2O2 inactivation was dependent on NaN3 concentration. Anionic hydroxyl radical scavengers, such as urate and xanthine did not significantly protect the enzyme. The results are consistent with binding of azide to the active site either preventing entry of H2O2 or altering Fe redox potential, preventing OH production

  4. Bacteroides gingivalis antigens and bone resorbing activity in root surface fractions of periodontally involved teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patters, M.R.; Landsberg, R.L.; Johansson, L.A.; Trummel, C.L.; Robertson, P.R. (Department of Periodontology, University of Connecticut, School of Dental Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut, U.S.A.)

    1982-01-01

    Bone resorbing activity and the presence of antigens of Bacteroides gingivalis were assessed in plaque, calculus, cementum, and dentin obtained from roots of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis. Each fraction was obtained by scaling the root surface. The fraction were extracted by stirring and sonication, and the soluble centrifuged, sterilized, dialyzed, and adjusted to equivalent protein concentrations. Cementum and dentin extracts from impacted teeth were prepared similarly and served as controls. Stimulation of bone resorption by each extract was assessed in organ cultures of fetal rat bones by measurement of release of previously-incorporated /sup 45/Ca from the bone into the medium. In some groups of teeth, calculus and cementum were treated with acid prior to scaling. Citric acid washes were recovered and dialyzed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the extracts for the presence of antigens reactive with an antiserum to B. gingivalis. Significant stimulation of bone resorption was found in all calculus and periodontally-involved cementum preparations. ELISA showed significant levels of B.gingivalis antigens in plaque, calculus, and cementum of periodontally-involved teeth, but not in involved dentin nor in cementum or dentin of impact teeth. Treatment with citric acid removed essentially all B.gingivalis antigens from cementum but not calculus. The results suggest that substances which stimulate bone resorption and substances which react with B. gingivalis antiserum are present in surface plaque, calculus, and cementum or periodontally-involved teeth. These substances are not present in cementum and dentin of impacted teeth nor in dentin of periodontally-involved teeth. Treatment by both scaling and citric demineralization will remove most of these substances from cementum of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis.

  5. Bacteroides gingivalis antigens and bone resorbing activity in root surface fractions of periodontally involved teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone resorbing activity and the presence of antigens of Bacteroides gingivalis were assessed in plaque, calculus, cementum, and dentin obtained from roots of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis. Each fraction was obtained by scaling the root surface. The fraction were extracted by stirring and sonication, and the soluble centrifuged, sterilized, dialyzed, and adjusted to equivalent protein concentrations. Cementum and dentin extracts from impacted teeth were prepared similarly and served as controls. Stimulation of bone resorption by each extract was assessed in organ cultures of fetal rat bones by measurement of release of previously-incorporated 45Ca from the bone into the medium. In some groups of teeth, calculus and cementum were treated with acid prior to scaling. Citric acid washes were recovered and dialyzed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the extracts for the presence of antigens reactive with an antiserum to B. gingivalis. Significant stimulation of bone resorption was found in all calculus and periodontally-involved cementum preparations. ELISA showed significant levels of B.gingivalis antigens in plaque, calculus, and cementum of periodontally-involved teeth, but not in involved dentin nor in cementum or dentin of impact teeth. Treatment with citric acid removed essentially all B.gingivalis antigens from cementum but not calculus. The results suggest that substances which stimulate bone resorption and substances which react with B. gingivalis antiserum are present in surface plaque, calculus, and cementum or periodontally-involved teeth. These substances are not present in cementum and dentin of impacted teeth nor in dentin of periodontally-involved teeth. Treatment by both scaling and citric demineralization will remove most of these substances from cementum of teeth previously exposed to periodontitis. (author)

  6. Metabolism of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid in bacteroids of Rhizobium lupini in connection with nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The darkening of lupin plants grown in a sand culture on a nitrogen-free medium at a stage of initial flowering led to a sharply decreased nitrogen fixation intensity which eventually ceased. Decreased intensity of nitrogen fixation in bacteroids was accompanied by an accumulation of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB): in the course of 10-20 h (depending upon temperature) its content increased by 2.5-3.0 times. If, following darkening, the plants were once again exposed to light, an abrupt increase of nitrogen fixation intensity was observed and a simultaneous decrease of PHB content. It has been shown that lupin's exposure to light in 14CO2 atmosphere lasting 19 h resulted in the latter's incorporation into PHB, bacteroids and into the entire nodule; these processes developed almost in parallel. During the early period of vegetation growth prior to flowering, the PHB content of bacteroids decreased from 13 14 to 3.4% of dry weight, whereas the intensity of nitrogen fixation was raised. Concurrently increase of the activity of some enzymes connected with the PHB metabolism (aceto-acetyl-CoA-reductase, acetyl-CoA acetyl transferase PHB-depolymerase, (CoA-transferase, of 3-ketoacids) occured. The plants' subsequent ageing and reduction of nitrogen fixation intensity led to a noticeable increase of PHB content and a decrease of the above mentioned enzymes' activity. The specific activity of β-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase involved with PHB catabolism was high and was maintained at a constant level throughout the entire vegetative period. (orig.)

  7. Effect of extracellular pH on growth and proton motive force of Bacteroides succinogenes, a cellulolytic ruminal bacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J B

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of cellulose or cellobiose by Bacteroides succinogenes S85 was severely inhibited at pH values of less than 5.7. Since low pH inhibited the utilization of both cellobiose and cellulose, changes in cellulase activity could not explain the effect. At an extracellular pH of 6.9, the pH gradient (delta pH) across the cell membrane was only 0.07 U. As extracellular pH declined from 6.9 to 5.7, intracellular pH decreased to a smaller extent than extracellular pH and delta pH increas...

  8. Development of a Gene Inactivation System for Bacteroides forsythus: Construction and Characterization of a BspA Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Honma, Kiyonobu; Kuramitsu, Howard K.; Genco, Robert J.; Sharma, Ashu

    2001-01-01

    Bacteroides forsythus is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium associated with periodontitis. The bspA gene encoding a cell surface associated leucine-rich repeat protein (BspA) involved in adhesion to fibronectin and fibrinogen was recently cloned from this bacterium in our laboratory. We now describe the construction of a BspA-defective mutant of B. forsythus. This is the first report describing the generation of a specific gene knockout mutant of B. forsythus, and this procedure should be us...

  9. Development of a Gene Inactivation System for Bacteroides forsythus: Construction and Characterization of a BspA Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Kiyonobu; Kuramitsu, Howard K.; Genco, Robert J.; Sharma, Ashu

    2001-01-01

    Bacteroides forsythus is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium associated with periodontitis. The bspA gene encoding a cell surface associated leucine-rich repeat protein (BspA) involved in adhesion to fibronectin and fibrinogen was recently cloned from this bacterium in our laboratory. We now describe the construction of a BspA-defective mutant of B. forsythus. This is the first report describing the generation of a specific gene knockout mutant of B. forsythus, and this procedure should be useful in establishing the identity of virulence-associated factors in these organisms. PMID:11402017

  10. Helminth infection promotes colonization resistance via type 2 immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Deepshika; Bowcutt, Rowann; Lee, Soo Ching; Tang, Mei San; Kurtz, Zachary D; Ding, Yi; Honda, Kenya; Gause, William C; Blaser, Martin J; Bonneau, Richard A; Lim, Yvonne A L; Loke, P'ng; Cadwell, Ken

    2016-04-29

    Increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, in developed nations is associated with changes to the microbial environment, such as decreased prevalence of helminth colonization and alterations to the gut microbiota. We find that helminth infection protects mice deficient in the Crohn's disease susceptibility gene Nod2 from intestinal abnormalities by inhibiting colonization by an inflammatory Bacteroides species. Resistance to Bacteroides colonization was dependent on type 2 immunity, which promoted the establishment of a protective microbiota enriched in Clostridiales. Additionally, we show that individuals from helminth-endemic regions harbor a similar protective microbiota and that deworming treatment reduced levels of Clostridiales and increased Bacteroidales. These results support a model of the hygiene hypothesis in which certain individuals are genetically susceptible to the consequences of a changing microbial environment. PMID:27080105

  11. Comparison of the activity of imipenem and beta-lactams combined with sulbactam and clavulanic acid in beta-lactamase-producing strains of Bacteroides fragilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M A; Castillo, A M; Liébana, J; Marín, A; Alados, J C; Piédrola, G

    1991-01-01

    We compared the "in vitro" activity of imipenem with 14 beta-lactams, both alone and in combination with clavulanic acid, and sulbactam against 110 beta-lactamase-producing strains of Bacteroides fragilis. The following antibiotics were tested: amoxycillin, penicillin, mezlocillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, cephazolin, cefamandole, cefmetazole, cefonicid, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, and ceftriaxone. In all cases, except those of cefoxitin and cefmetazole, these combinations showed a statistically significant increase in beta-lactam activity, which was, however, never higher than that of imipenem, the antibiotic which performed best against Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:1940333

  12. NAD- and NADP-dependent 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases from bacteroides fragilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, I A; Williams, C N; Mahony, D E; Christie, W M

    1975-03-28

    Twenty strains of Bacteroides fragilis were screened for hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity in cell-free preparations. Eighteen strains were shown to contain NAD-dependent 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Sixteen of the strains containing the NAD-dependent enzyme also contained NADP-depedent 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, but invariably in lesser amounts. A strain particulary rich in both 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities was selected for further study. Measurement of activity as a function of pH revealed a fairly sharp optimal activity range of 9.5--10.0 for the NAD-dependent enzyme and a broad flat optimal range of 7.0--9.0 for the NADP-dependent enzyme. Michaelis constants for trihydroxy-bile acids for the NAD-dependent enzyme were in the range of 0.32--0.34 mM, whereas dihydroxy-bile acids gave a Km of 0.1 mM. Thin-layer chromatography studies on the oxidation product of 3alpha, 7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholanoic acid (chenodeoxycholic acid) by the dehydrogenase revealed a band corresponding to that of synthetic 3alpha-hydroxy, 7-keto-5beta-cholanoic acid. Similarly the oxidation product of chenodeoxycholic acid by both 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and commercially available 3alpha-hy-droxysteroid dehydrogenase revealed a band corresponding to that of synthetic 3,7-diketo-5beta-cholanoic acid. Neither of these two oxidation products could be distinguished from those by the Escherichia coli dehydrogenase oxidation previously reported. Disc-gel electrophoresis of a cell-free lyophilized preparation indicated one active band for NAD-dependent activity of mobility similar to that for the NADP-dependent E. coli enzyme. The NADP-dependent dehydrogenase was unstable and rapidly lost activity after polyacylamide disc-gel electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, freezing on refrigeration at 4 degrees C. No 3 alpha- or 12alpha-oriented oxidoreductase activity was demonstrated in any of the strains examined. PMID:236764

  13. Bacteroides forsythus: sensibilidade a antimicrobianos em amostras de pacientes portadores de periodontite Bacteroides forsythus: sensitivity to antimicrobial agents in samples from patients with periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fraga Moreira LOTUFO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores realizaram teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana in vitro (técnica de diluição em ágar para 105 cepas de B. forsythus obtidas de pacientes portadores de periodontite. De acordo com o teste realizado, o microrganismo demonstrou ser sensível ao metronidazol (100% das cepas testadas e à amoxicilina (94% das cepas testadas, enquanto 72% e 65% das cepas foram susceptíveis à tetraciclina e ciprofloxacina, respectivamente. O metronidazol e a amoxicilina parecem ser os antimicrobianos indicados para o tratamento de infecções periodontais nas quais B. forsythus seja o patógeno predominante.An in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity test (technique of agar dilution was carried out for 105 clinical isolates of B. forsythus from patients with periodontitis. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were the most efficient drugs and, thus, are indicated for the treatment of periodontal infections in which this microorganism is the most prevalent pathogen.

  14. Current Status of Marker Genes of Bacteroides and Related Taxa for Identifying Sewage Pollution in Environmental Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warish Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial source tracking (MST endeavors to determine sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters by capitalizing on the association of certain microorganisms with the gastrointestinal tract and feces of specific animal groups. Several decades of research have shown that bacteria belonging to the gut-associated order Bacteroidales, and particularly the genus Bacteroides, tend to co-evolve with the host, and are, therefore, particularly suitable candidates for MST applications. This review summarizes the current research on MST methods that employ genes belonging to Bacteroidales/Bacteroides as tracers or “markers” of sewage pollution, including known advantages and deficiencies of the many polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods that have been published since 2000. Host specificity is a paramount criterion for confidence that detection of a marker is a true indicator of the target host. Host sensitivity, or the prevalence of the marker in feces/waste from the target host, is necessary for confidence that absence of the marker is indicative of the absence of the pollution source. Each of these parameters can vary widely depending on the type of waste assessed and the geographic location. Differential decay characteristics of bacterial targets and their associated DNA contribute to challenges in interpreting MST results in the context of human health risks. The HF183 marker, derived from the 16S rRNA gene of Bacteroides dorei and closely related taxa, has been used for almost two decades in MST studies, and is well characterized regarding host sensitivity and specificity, and in prevalence and concentration in sewage in many countries. Other markers such as HumM2 and HumM3 show promise, but require further performance testing to demonstrate their widespread utility. An important limitation of the one-marker-one-assay approach commonly used for MST is that given the complexities of microbial persistence in environmental waters, and

  15. Infections in patients with aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Jessica M; Scheinberg, Phillip; Young, Neal S; Walsh, Thomas J

    2009-07-01

    Infection is a major cause of death in patients with aplastic anemia (AA). There are differences between the immunocompromised state of a patient with AA and the patient who is neutropenic due to chemotherapy and this leads to a difference in the infections that they incur. Prolonged neutropenia is one of the largest risk factors for the development of infections with the invasive mycoses and bacteria. Recovery from neutropenia is directly related to survival, and supportive care plays a large role in protection while the patient is in a neutropenic state. The most common invasive mycoses include the Aspergillus species, Zygomycetes, Candida spp., and Fusarium spp. Bacterial infections that are seen in patients with AA include gram-positive coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, Enterococcus, Staphylococus aureus, Clostridium spp., Micrococcus, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus. Gram-negative infections including gram-negative bacilli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Bacteroides fragilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aeromonas hydrophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio vulnificus. Viral infections are much less common but include those that belong to the Herpesviridae family, community-acquired respiratory viral infection, and the viral hepatitides A, B, and C. Evidence of the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis has also been documented. This review discusses the major invasive fungal infections, bacterial pathogens, parasites, and viral infections that are found in patients with AA who are treated with immunosuppressive therapy. The specific immune impairment and current treatment parameters for each of these classes of infection will also be discussed. PMID:19549579

  16. Development of EUCAST disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa;

    2015-01-01

    clearly separated the resistant and the susceptible population of B. fragilis group strains. In the case of cefoxitin only resistant population could be separated with an inhibition zone <17 mm, intermediate and susceptible isolates overlap. In conclusion, we suggest that disk diffusion can be an option...... of Bacteroides spp by comparing zone diameter results with MICs obtained earlier during an Europe-wide antibiotic susceptibility surveillance, and to propose zone diameter breakpoints, which correlate for the EUCAST MIC breakpoints. We tested 381 clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group to...... with haemin and vitamin K1. Plates were incubated at 37 °C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 24 hours. The zone diameters were read at 100% inhibition. In case of discrepant results MICs were determined by gradient test and compared with the inhibition zones on the same plate. We found a good agreement...

  17. The structure of BVU2987 from Bacteroides vulgatus reveals a superfamily of bacterial periplasmic proteins with possible inhibitory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of the BVU2987 gene product from B. vulgatus (UniProt A6L4L1) reveals that members of the new Pfam family PF11396 (domain of unknown function; DUF2874) are similar to β-lactamase inhibitor protein and YpmB. Proteins that contain the DUF2874 domain constitute a new Pfam family PF11396. Members of this family have predominantly been identified in microbes found in the human gut and oral cavity. The crystal structure of one member of this family, BVU2987 from Bacteroides vulgatus, has been determined, revealing a β-lactamase inhibitor protein-like structure with a tandem repeat of domains. Sequence analysis and structural comparisons reveal that BVU2987 and other DUF2874 proteins are related to β-lactamase inhibitor protein, PepSY and SmpA-OmlA proteins and hence are likely to function as inhibitory proteins

  18. Fluorescence studies with malate dehydrogenase from rhizobium japonicum 3I1B-143 bacteroids: a two-tryptophan containing protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiron, Camillo A.; Eftink, Maurice R.; Waters, James K.; Emerich, David W.

    1990-05-01

    A number of fluorescence studies, both of trp residues and bound NADH, have been reported for porcine MDH. The large number of trp residues (6) complicates the interpretation of some studies. To circumvent this we have performed studies with a two tryptophan (per subunit) MDH from Rhizobium japonicum 311B-143 bacteroids. We have performed phase/modulation fluorescence lifetime measurements, as a function of temperature and added quencher KI, in order to resolved the 1.3 ns (blue) and 6.6 ns (red) contributions from the two classes of trp residues. Anisotropy decay studies have also been performed. The binding of NADH dynamically quenches the fluorescence of both tip residues, but, unlike mammalian cytoplasmic and mitochondrial MDH, there is not a large enhancement in fluorescence of bound NADH upon forming a ternary complex with either tartronic acid or D-malonate.

  19. An overview of the metabolic differences between Bradyrhizobium japonicum 110 bacteria and differentiated bacteroids from soybean (Glycine max) root nodules: an in vitro 13C- and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that induce root nodules formation in legume soybean (Glycine max.). Using 13C- and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have analysed the metabolite profiles of cultivated B. japonicum cells and bacteroids isolated from soybean nodules. Our results revealed some quantitative and qualitative differences between the metabolite profiles of bacteroids and their vegetative state. This includes in bacteroids a huge accumulation of soluble carbohydrates such as trehalose, glutamate, myo-inositol and homo-spermidine as well as Pi, nucleotide pools and intermediates of the primary carbon metabolism. Using this novel approach, these data show that most of the compounds detected in bacteroids reflect the metabolic adaptation of rhizobia to the surrounding microenvironment with its host plant cells. (authors)

  20. Purification, crystallization and diffraction studies of the methyltransferases BT-2972 and BVU-3255 from antibiotic-resistant pathogens of the genus Bacteroides from the human intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of two methyltransferases BT-2972 and BVU-3255 from two Bacteroides species of antibiotic-resistant pathogens from the human intestine are reported. The methyltransferases BT-2972 and BVU-3255 from two different Bacteroides species that are antibiotic-resistant pathogens from the human intestine were cloned, overexpressed and purified, yielding approximately 120 mg of each protein from 1 l culture. Apo BT-2972 and BVU-3255 and their complexes with S-adenosylmethionine or S-adenosylhomocysteine were crystallized in four different crystal forms using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. These crystals diffracted to resolutions ranging from 2.8 to 2.2 Å. Sequence analysis suggested that the two proteins are homologous small-molecule methyltransferases

  1. Effect of pH on tritium exchange and hydrogen production and uptake in free-living cells and in bacteroids of Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soybean nodule bacteroids and Bradyrhizobium japonicum free-living cells induced for H2-uptake hydrogenase, actively catalyze the evolution of H2 in a reaction highly dependent on the pH. The optimal pHs for the evolution and uptake reactions were 4.0 and 7.5-8.0, respectively. No differences were found between free-living cells and bacteroids with respect to hydrogen acceptor specificity, although absolute rates of H2 uptake were higher for free-living cells. Both types of cells were able to evolve hydrogen from reduced methyl viologen at low pH. These intact cells also catalyzed the exchange reaction between tritium and water in the absence of oxygen. The pH profile of the exchange activity showed two peaks at values near the optimal pHs for the evolution and uptake reactions

  2. Activities of New Antimicrobial Agents (Trovafloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Sanfetrinem, and Quinupristin-Dalfopristin) against Bacteroides fragilis Group: Comparison with the Activities of 14 Other Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Betriu, Carmen; Gómez, María; Palau, M. Luisa; Sánchez, Ana; Picazo, Juan J.

    1999-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of trovafloxacin, moxifloxacin, sanfetrinem, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and 14 other antimicrobial agents against 218 Bacteroides fragilis group strains were determined. A group of 10 imipenem-resistant strains were also tested. Imipenem, meropenem, and sanfetrinem had the lowest MICs of all of the β-lactams. Quinupristin-dalfopristin inhibited all of the strains at 2 μg/ml. Overall, the MICs of trovafloxacin and moxifloxacin for 90% of the strains tested were 1 a...

  3. Antagonism exerted by an association of a Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strain and a Fusobacterium necrogenes strain against Clostridium perfringens in gnotobiotic mice and in fecal suspensions incubated in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdusev, N; Ladire, M; Ducluzeau, R.; Raibaud, P

    1989-01-01

    Antagonism between an association of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Fusobacterium necrogenes strains and two strains of Clostridium perfringens was evidenced both in vivo in gnotobiotic mice and ex vivo in fecal suspensions incubated for 22 h at 37 degrees C. Several features of this antagonism were similar in and ex vivo. (i) An obligate and continuous synergy between B. thetaiotaomicron and F. necrogenes was required; (ii) the two C. perfringens strains did not respond to the same extent ...

  4. Distribution, Detection of Enterotoxigenic Strains and Antimicrobial Drug Susceptibility Patterns of Bacteroides Fragilis Group in Diarrheic and Non-Diarrheic Feces from Brazilian Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Paula Ferreira; Vânia Lúcia Silva; Danielle Aparecida Guimarães; Cíntia Marques Coelho; Danielle Alves Gomes Zauli; Luiz de Macêdo Farias; Maria Auxiliadora Roque Carvalho; Claudio Galuppo Diniz

    2010-01-01

    Despite the importance of gastrointestinal diseases and their global distribution, affecting millions of individuals around the world, the role and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria such as those in the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) are still unclear in young children. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of species in the BFG and enterotoxigenic strains in the fecal microbiota of children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diarrhe...

  5. Comparison of the inoculum effect of cefoxitin and other cephalosporins and of beta-lactamase inhibitors and their penicillin-derived components on the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Cherubin, C E

    1991-01-01

    We compared the inoculum effects for 109 recent clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group of cefoxitin, cefotetan, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, and three beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam) and their penicillin-derived components. Bactericidal activity was assayed and morphologic changes were monitored for selected strains exhibiting a large inoculum effect. Ceftizoxime demonstrated the largest inoculum effect, followed by cefotetan and ceftriaxone. T...

  6. A recent fixation of cfiA genes in a monophyletic cluster of Bacteroides fragilis is correlated with the presence of multiple insertion elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruimy, R; Podglajen, I.; Breuil, J; Christen, R; Collatz, E.

    1996-01-01

    Small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of 16 strains of Bacteroides fragilis were determined and compared with previously published sequences. Three phylogenetic methods (the neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, and maximum-parsimony methods) as well as a bootstrap analysis were used to assess the robustness of each topology. All phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the B. fragilis strains were clearly divided into two robust monophyletic units which corresponded to the cfiA-negative and c...

  7. Cloning, Expression, and Sequencing of a Cell Surface Antigen Containing a Leucine-Rich Repeat Motif from Bacteroides forsythus ATCC 43037

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ashu; Sojar, Hakimuddin T.; Glurich, Ingrid; Honma, Kiyonobu; Kuramitsu, Howard K.; Genco, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Bacteroides forsythus is a recently recognized human periodontopathogen associated with advanced, as well as recurrent, periodontitis. However, very little is known about the mechanism of pathogenesis of this organism. The present study was undertaken to identify the surface molecules of this bacterium that may play roles in its adherence to oral tissues or triggering of a host immune response(s). The gene (bspA) encoding a cell surface-associated protein of B. forsythus with an apparent mole...

  8. A PCR Assay To Discriminate Human and Ruminant Feces on the Basis of Host Differences in Bacteroides-Prevotella Genes Encoding 16S rRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard, Anne E.; Field, Katharine G.

    2000-01-01

    Our purpose was to develop a rapid, inexpensive method of diagnosing the source of fecal pollution in water. In previous research, we identified Bacteroides-Prevotella ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR markers based on analysis. These markers length heterogeneity PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism distinguish cow from human feces. Here, we recovered 16S rDNA clones from natural waters that were close phylogenetic relatives of the markers. From the sequence data, we designed spec...

  9. Biochemical evidence that starch breakdown by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron involves outer membrane starch-binding sites and periplasmic starch-degrading enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, K L; Salyers, A A

    1989-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron can utilize amylose, amylopectin, and pullulan as sole sources of carbon and energy. The enzymes that degrade these polysaccharides were found to be primarily cell associated rather than extracellular. Although some activity was detected in extracellular fluid, this appeared to be the result of cell lysis. The cell-associated amylase, amylopectinase, and pullulanase activities partitioned similarly to the periplasmic marker, acid phosphatase, when cells were expos...

  10. Expression of arsenic resistance genes in the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482, a gut microbiome bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaojiao; Mandal, Goutam; Rosen, Barry P

    2016-06-01

    The response of the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482, a common human gut microbiota, to arsenic was determined. B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 is highly resistant to pentavalent As(V) and methylarsenate (MAs(V)). It is somewhat more sensitive to trivalent inorganic As(III) but 100-fold more sensitive to methylarsenite (MAs(III)) than to As(III). B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 has eight continuous genes in its genome that we demonstrate form an arsenical-inducible transcriptional unit. The first gene of this ars operon, arsR, encodes a putative ArsR As(III)-responsive transcriptional repressor. The next three genes encode proteins of unknown function. The remaining genes, arsDABC, have well-characterized roles in detoxification of inorganic arsenic, but there are no known genes for MAs(III) resistance. Expression of each gene after exposure to trivalent and pentavalent inorganic and methylarsenicals was analyzed. MAs(III) was the most effective inducer. The arsD gene was the most highly expressed of the ars operon genes. These results demonstrate that this anaerobic microbiome bacterium has arsenic-responsive genes that confer resistance to inorganic arsenic and may be responsible for the organism's ability to maintain its prevalence in the gut following dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic. PMID:27040269

  11. Unraveling the substrate recognition mechanism and specificity of the unusual glycosyl hydrolase family 29 BT2192 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillotin, Laure; Lafite, Pierre; Daniellou, Richard

    2014-03-11

    Glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 29 (CAZy database) consists of retaining α-l-fucosidases. We have identified BT2192, a protein from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, as the first GH29 representative exhibiting both weak α-l-fucosidase and β-d-galactosidase activities. Determination and analysis of X-ray structures of BT2192 in complex with β-d-galactoside competitive inhibitors showed a new binding mode different from that of known GH29 enzymes. Three point mutations, specific to BT2192, prevent the canonical GH29 substrate α-l-fucose from binding efficiently to the fucosidase-like active site relative to other GH29 enzymes. β-d-Galactoside analogues bind and interact in a second pocket, which is not visible in other reported GH29 structures. Molecular simulations helped in the assessment of the flexibility of both substrates in their respective pocket. Hydrolysis of the fucosyl moiety from the putative natural substrates like 3-fucosyllactose or Lewis(X) antigen would be mainly due to the efficient interactions with the galactosyl moiety, in the second binding site, located more than 6-7 Å apart. PMID:24527659

  12. Structure of a membrane-attack complex/perforin (MACPF) family protein from the human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of a novel MACPF protein, which may play a role in the adaptation of commensal bacteria to host environments in the human gut, was determined and analyzed. Membrane-attack complex/perforin (MACPF) proteins are transmembrane pore-forming proteins that are important in both human immunity and the virulence of pathogens. Bacterial MACPFs are found in diverse bacterial species, including most human gut-associated Bacteroides species. The crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF-domain-containing protein BT-3439 (Bth-MACPF) from B. thetaiotaomicron, a predominant member of the mammalian intestinal microbiota, has been determined. Bth-MACPF contains a membrane-attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain and two novel C-terminal domains that resemble ribonuclease H and interleukin 8, respectively. The entire protein adopts a flat crescent shape, characteristic of other MACPF proteins, that may be important for oligomerization. This Bth-MACPF structure provides new features and insights not observed in two previous MACPF structures. Genomic context analysis infers that Bth-MACPF may be involved in a novel protein-transport or nutrient-uptake system, suggesting an important role for these MACPF proteins, which were likely to have been inherited from eukaryotes via horizontal gene transfer, in the adaptation of commensal bacteria to the host environment

  13. Efficacy of a twelve-hourly ceftriaxone regimen in the treatment of serious bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, M J; Levine, J F; Pollock, A A; Simberkoff, M S; Rahal, J J

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen patients with 21 serious infections were treated with ceftriaxone, 1 g intravenously every 12 h, for a mean duration of 8 days. Eighteen gram-negative and two gram-positive organisms were isolated. Sites of infection included blood (three patients), urinary tract (six patients), respiratory tract (seven patients), biliary tract (three patients), ascitic fluid (one patient), and skin (one patient). Serum, bile, and ascitic fluid concentrations of ceftriaxone were in excess of the minimal bactericidal concentration required for the infecting organism in all cases. A bacteriological response was demonstrated in 94% of the infections. A clinical response occurred in four infections from which no pathogens were recovered. In one patient, ceftriaxone failed to eradicate a peritoneal infection due to Bacteroides fragilis. In two patients, superinfection with enterococci developed both during and after therapy. Systemic tolerance to ceftriaxone was excellent. PMID:6289735

  14. Degradation of fructans and production of propionic acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are enhanced by shortage of amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe eAdamberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by the catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae, two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (DP > 3. Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h, followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of D-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will be studied in

  15. Determination of thermodynamic parameters of benzylpenicillin hydrolysis by metallo-β-lactamase CcrA from Bacteroides fragilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Le; Zhou, Li-Sheng; Liu, Cheng-Cheng; Shi, Ying; Zhou, Ya-Jun [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Yang, Ke-Wu, E-mail: kwyang@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2013-03-20

    Highlights: ► First report the thermokinetic parameters of benzylpenicillin hydrolysis with CcrA. ► The hydrolysis is a spontaneous and exothermic reaction with order of 1.4. ► Summarized that CcrA prefer to hydrolyze penicillins among β-lactam antibiotics. - Abstract: One of the most common way that bacteria become resistant to antibiotics is by the production of metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs) to hydrolyze the β-lactam-containing antibiotics. In this paper, the thermodynamic parameters of benzylpenicillin hydrolysis with B1 subclasses MβL CcrA (carbapenem and cephamycin resistance) from Bacteroides fragilis were determined by microcalorimetry. The activation free energy ΔG{sub ≠}{sup θ} is 87.90 ± 0.03, 88.99 ± 0.01, 89.93 ± 0.04 and 90.93 ± 0.05 kJ mol{sup −1} at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K, activation enthalpy ΔH{sub ≠}{sup θ} is 29.21 ± 0.03 kJ mol{sup −1}, activation entropy ΔS{sub ≠}{sup θ} is −200.34 ± 0.08 J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}, the reaction order is 1.4, and the apparent activation energy E is 31.71 kJ mol{sup −1}. The thermodynamic characterization indicated that CcrA prefer to hydrolyze penicillins among three kinds of β-lactam-containing antibiotics.

  16. Pglyrp-Regulated Gut Microflora Prevotella falsenii, Parabacteroides distasonis and Bacteroides eggerthii Enhance and Alistipes finegoldii Attenuates Colitis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Dziarski

    Full Text Available Dysbiosis is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, but it is unclear which specific intestinal bacteria predispose to and which protect from IBD and how they are regulated. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (Pglyrps are antibacterial, participate in maintaining intestinal microflora, and modulate inflammatory responses. Mice deficient in any one of the four Pglyrp genes are more sensitive to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis, and stools from Pglyrp-deficient mice transferred to wild type (WT germ-free mice predispose them to much more severe colitis than stools from WT mice. However, the identities of these Pglyrp-regulated bacteria that predispose Pglyrp-deficient mice to colitis or protect WT mice from colitis are not known. Here we identified significant changes in β-diversity of stool bacteria in Pglyrp-deficient mice compared with WT mice. The most consistent changes in microbiome in all Pglyrp-deficient mice were in Bacteroidales, from which we selected four species, two with increased abundance (Prevotella falsenii and Parabacteroides distasonis and two with decreased abundance (Bacteroides eggerthii and Alistipes finegoldii. We then gavaged WT mice with stock type strains of these species to test the hypothesis that they predispose to or protect from DSS-induced colitis. P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii all enhanced DSS-induced colitis in both WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora. By contrast, A. finegoldii (which is the most abundant species in WT mice attenuated DSS-induced colitis both in WT mice with otherwise undisturbed intestinal microflora and in WT mice with antibiotic-depleted intestinal microflora, similar to the colitis protective effect of the entire normal microflora. These results identify P. falsenii, P. distasonis, and B. eggerthii as colitis-promoting species and A. finegoldii as colitis-protective species.

  17. Fermentable non-starch polysaccharides increases the abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas in ileal microbial community of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, E; Roos, S; Liu, H Y; Lindberg, J E

    2014-11-01

    Most plant-origin fiber sources used in pig production contains a mixture of soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The knowledge about effects of these sources of NSP on the gut microbiota and its fermentation products is still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of feeding diets with native sources of NSP on the ileal and fecal microbial composition and the dietary impact on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid. The experiment comprised four diets and four periods in a change-over design with seven post valve t-cecum cannulated growing pigs. The four diets were balanced to be similar in NSP content and included one of four fiber sources, two diets were rich in pectins, through inclusion of chicory forage (CFO) and sugar beet pulp, and two were rich in arabinoxylan, through inclusion of wheat bran (WB) and grass meal. The gut microbial composition was assessed with terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism and the abundance of Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas and the β-xylosidase gene, xynB, were assessed with quantitative PCR. The gut microbiota did not cluster based on NSP structure (arabinoxylan or pectin) rather, the effect was to a high degree ingredient specific. In pigs fed diet CFO, three TRFs related to Prevotellaceae together consisted of more than 25% of the fecal microbiota, which is about 3 to 23 times higher (Pchicory pectin increased the acetic acid proportion in both ileal digesta and feces. PMID:25046106

  18. Structure of the GH76 α-mannanase homolog, BT2949, from the gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Andrew J. [University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Cuskin, Fiona [Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Spears, Richard J.; Dabin, Jerome; Turkenburg, Johan P. [University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Harry J., E-mail: harry.gilbert@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Davies, Gideon J., E-mail: harry.gilbert@newcastle.ac.uk [University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    A high-resolution structure of a noncanonical α-mannanase relevant to human health and nutrition has been solved via heavy-atom phasing of a selenomethionine derivative. The large bowel microbiota, a complex ecosystem resident within the gastrointestinal tract of all human beings and large mammals, functions as an essential, nonsomatic metabolic organ, hydrolysing complex dietary polysaccharides and modulating the host immune system to adequately tolerate ingested antigens. A significant member of this community, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, has evolved a complex system for sensing and processing a wide variety of natural glycoproducts in such a way as to provide maximum benefit to itself, the wider microbial community and the host. The immense ability of B. thetaiotaomicron as a ‘glycan specialist’ resides in its enormous array of carbohydrate-active enzymes, many of which are arranged into polysaccharide-utilization loci (PULs) that are able to degrade sugar polymers that are often inaccessible to other gut residents, notably α-mannan. The B. thetaiotaomicron genome encodes ten putative α-mannanases spread across various PULs; however, little is known about the activity of these enzymes or the wider implications of α-mannan metabolism for the health of both the microbiota and the host. In this study, SAD phasing of a selenomethionine derivative has been used to investigate the structure of one such B. thetaiotaomicron enzyme, BT2949, which belongs to the GH76 family of α-mannanases. BT2949 presents a classical (α/α){sub 6}-barrel structure comprising a large extended surface cleft common to other GH76 family members. Analysis of the structure in conjunction with sequence alignments reveals the likely location of the catalytic active site of this noncanonical GH76.

  19. Structure of the GH76 α-mannanase homolog, BT2949, from the gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-resolution structure of a noncanonical α-mannanase relevant to human health and nutrition has been solved via heavy-atom phasing of a selenomethionine derivative. The large bowel microbiota, a complex ecosystem resident within the gastrointestinal tract of all human beings and large mammals, functions as an essential, nonsomatic metabolic organ, hydrolysing complex dietary polysaccharides and modulating the host immune system to adequately tolerate ingested antigens. A significant member of this community, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, has evolved a complex system for sensing and processing a wide variety of natural glycoproducts in such a way as to provide maximum benefit to itself, the wider microbial community and the host. The immense ability of B. thetaiotaomicron as a ‘glycan specialist’ resides in its enormous array of carbohydrate-active enzymes, many of which are arranged into polysaccharide-utilization loci (PULs) that are able to degrade sugar polymers that are often inaccessible to other gut residents, notably α-mannan. The B. thetaiotaomicron genome encodes ten putative α-mannanases spread across various PULs; however, little is known about the activity of these enzymes or the wider implications of α-mannan metabolism for the health of both the microbiota and the host. In this study, SAD phasing of a selenomethionine derivative has been used to investigate the structure of one such B. thetaiotaomicron enzyme, BT2949, which belongs to the GH76 family of α-mannanases. BT2949 presents a classical (α/α)6-barrel structure comprising a large extended surface cleft common to other GH76 family members. Analysis of the structure in conjunction with sequence alignments reveals the likely location of the catalytic active site of this noncanonical GH76

  20. Degradation of Fructans and Production of Propionic Acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are Enhanced by the Shortage of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Signe; Tomson, Katrin; Vija, Heiki; Puurand, Marju; Kabanova, Natalja; Visnapuu, Triinu; Jõgi, Eerik; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory) and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae), two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization > 3). Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h), followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of d-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW) occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW) of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr, and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will

  1. The colitis-associated transcriptional profile of commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron enhances adaptive immune responses to a bacterial antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Hansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD may be caused in part by aberrant immune responses to commensal intestinal microbes including the well-characterized anaerobic gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. theta. Healthy, germ-free HLA-B27 transgenic (Tg rats develop chronic colitis when colonized with complex gut commensal bacteria whereas non-transgenic (nTg rats remain disease-free. However, the role of B. theta in causing disease in Tg rats is unknown nor is much known about how gut microbes respond to host inflammation. METHODS: Tg and nTg rats were monoassociated with a human isolate of B. theta. Colonic inflammation was assessed by histologic scoring and tissue pro-inflammatory cytokine measurement. Whole genome transcriptional profiling of B. theta recovered from ceca was performed using custom GeneChips and data analyzed using dChip, Significance Analysis of Microarrays, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA software. Western Blots were used to determine adaptive immune responses to a differentially expressed B. theta gene. RESULTS: B. theta monoassociated Tg rats, but not nTg or germ-free controls, developed chronic colitis. Transcriptional profiles of cecal B. theta were significantly different in Tg vs. nTg rats. GSEA revealed that genes in KEGG canonical pathways involved in bacterial growth and metabolism were downregulated in B. theta from Tg rats with colitis though luminal bacterial concentrations were unaffected. Bacterial genes in the Gene Ontology molecular function "receptor activity", most of which encode nutrient binding proteins, were significantly upregulated in B. theta from Tg rats and include a SusC homolog that induces adaptive immune responses in Tg rats. CONCLUSIONS: B. theta induces colitis in HLA-B27 Tg rats, which is associated with regulation of bacterial genes in metabolic and nutrient binding pathways that may affect host immune responses. These studies of the host-microbial dialogue may lead to

  2. Bacteroides fragilis type VI secretion systems use novel effector and immunity proteins to antagonize human gut Bacteroidales species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidaki-Livanis, Maria; Geva-Zatorsky, Naama; Comstock, Laurie E

    2016-03-29

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are multiprotein complexes best studied in Gram-negative pathogens where they have been shown to inhibit or kill prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells and are often important for virulence. We recently showed that T6SS loci are also widespread in symbiotic human gut bacteria of the order Bacteroidales, and that these T6SS loci segregate into three distinct genetic architectures (GA). GA1 and GA2 loci are present on conserved integrative conjugative elements (ICE) and are transferred and shared among diverse human gut Bacteroidales species. GA3 loci are not contained on conserved ICE and are confined toBacteroides fragilis Unlike GA1 and GA2 T6SS loci, most GA3 loci do not encode identifiable effector and immunity proteins. Here, we studied GA3 T6SSs and show that they antagonize most human gut Bacteroidales strains analyzed, except forB. fragilisstrains with the same T6SS locus. A combination of mutation analyses,trans-protection analyses, and in vitro competition assays, allowed us to identify novel effector and immunity proteins of GA3 loci. These proteins are not orthologous to known proteins, do not contain identified motifs, and most have numerous predicted transmembrane domains. Because the genes encoding effector and immunity proteins are contained in two variable regions of GA3 loci, GA3 T6SSs of the speciesB. fragilisare likely the source of numerous novel effector and immunity proteins. Importantly, we show that the GA3 T6SS of strain 638R is functional in the mammalian gut and provides a competitive advantage to this organism. PMID:26951680

  3. In Vitro Activities of Doripenem and Six Comparator Drugs against 423 Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacterial Isolates from Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds▿

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

    2007-01-01

    Against 182 anaerobe and 241 aerobe strains obtained from diabetic foot infections, doripenem was the most active carbapenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 2 μg/ml), more active than imipenem against Proteus mirabilis, and ertapenem was more active against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. The MIC50 and MIC90 values were ≤0.125 μg/ml for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and all streptococci and 0.25/1 for Bacteroides fragilis.

  4. Detection of non-enterotoxigenic and enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in stool samples from children in São Paulo, Brazil Detecção de Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxigênicos e não enterotoxigênicos de amostras fecais de crianças em São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Krzyzanowsky; Avila-Campos, Mario J.

    2003-01-01

    Non-enterotoxigenic bacteria of the Bacteroides fragilis group and enterotoxigenic B. fragilis were identified from children with and without aqueous acute diarrhea. In this study, 170 stool samples from 96 children with and 74 without diarrhea were analyzed. Enterotoxin production and the toxin gene detection were detected by cytotoxicity assay on HT-29/C1 cells and by PCR, respectively. B. fragilis species was prevalent in both groups and enterotoxigenic B. fragilis strains were isolated fr...

  5. Surgical infections: a microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Saini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical infections are mostly polymicrobial, involving both aerobes and anaerobes. One hundred seventeen cases comprised of abscesses (n=51, secondary peritonitis (n=25, necrotizing fascitis (n=22 and wounds with devitalized tissues (n=19 were studied. The number of microorganisms isolated per lesion was highest in secondary peritonitis (2.32. The aerobe/ anaerobe ratio was 0.81 in secondary peritonitis and 1.8 in necrotizing fascitis. Most secondary peritonitis (80%, necrotizing fascitis (75% and wounds with devitalized tissues (66.7% were polymicrobial. Common microorganisms isolated in our study were E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis and Peptostreptococcus spp. The most effective antibiotics for S. aureus were clindamycin (79.1% and cefuroxime (70.8%. For Gram-negatives (Klebsiella spp., E. coli and Proteus spp., the most effective antibiotics were cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was maximally sensitive to amikacin (35.2% and ciprofloxacin (35.2%. The greatest degree of multidrug resistance to all the drugs was found in P. aeruginosa (52.9%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (33.3%, Proteus spp. (33.3%, E. coli (22.2%, and S. aureus (12.5%. All the anaerobes that we isolated were 100% sensitive to metronidazole and chloramphenicol, followed by clindamycin (95% to 100%. Apart from antibiotic therapy, non-antimicrobial methods, such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy and debridement also play an important role in the treatment of surgical infections.

  6. Monocolonization with Bacteroides ovatus protects immunodeficient SCID mice from mortality in chronic intestinal inflammation caused by long-lasting dextran sodium sulfate treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudcovic, Tomáš; Kozáková, Hana; Kolínská, Jiřina; Štěpánková, Renata; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2009), s. 101-110. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/04/0849; GA ČR GA303/08/0367; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2249; GA ČR GA303/06/0974; GA MŠk 2B06053; GA MŠk 2B06155; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bacteroides ovatus * ulcerative colitis * dextran sulfate sodium colitis Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  7. Diversity of Bacteroides fragilis Strains in Their Capacity To Recover Phages from Human and Animal Wastes and from Fecally Polluted Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Puig, Anna; Queralt, Nuria; Jofre, Juan; Araujo, Rosa

    1999-01-01

    Great differences in capability to detect bacteriophages from urban sewage of the area of Barcelona existed among 115 strains of Bacteroides fragilis. The capability of six of the strains to detect phages in a variety of feces and wastewater was studied. Strains HSP40 and RYC4023 detected similar numbers of phages in urban sewage and did not detect phages in animal feces. The other four strains detected phages in the feces of different animal species and in wastewater of both human and animal...

  8. [Tracing the Fecal Contamination Sources Based on Bacteroides 16S rRNA PCR- DGGE in Karst Groundwater: Taking Laolongdong Underground River System, Nanshan, Chongqing as an Example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Yong-jun; Zhang, Yuan-zhu; Duan, Yi-fan; Lü, Xian-fu; He, Qiu-fang

    2016-05-15

    Microbial contamination in karst groundwater continually increases and tracing the source researches has become a hot topic for international researchers. In this study, Laolongdong underground river at Nanshan, Chongqing was chosen as an example to adopt filter membrane methods to monitor the fecal microbial contaminations including the total bacterial concentration (TB), the total E. coli concentration (TE), the total fecal coliform (FC) and the total fecal Streptocoocci (FS). Bacteriodes was used as an indicator and PCR-DGGE analysis was used to trace fecal contamination sources in karst groundwater. The results suggested that groundwater in this area was seriously polluted by microbes from feces. The concentrations of microbial parameters exceeded limited levels greatly and the total bacterial amounts ranged 10-2.9 x 10⁷ CFU · mL⁻¹, the concentrations of E. coli were between 4.3-4.0 x 10⁵ CFU · mL⁻¹, the max concentration of FC was 1.1 x 10⁶ CFU · (100 mL)⁻¹ and the max concentration of FS was 1.1 x 10⁵ CFU · (100 mL)⁻¹. The FC/FS ratios were mostly over 2 which suggested that the main fecal source in groundwater was human feces. In addition, PCR-DGGE contrastive analysis of Bacteroides communities showed that the similarities between groundwater samples and human feces were in range of 7. 1% -69. 1% , and the similarity of the groundwater sample from Laolongdong underground river outlet was 69.1% . Bacteroides community similarities between groundwater samples and swine feces were in range of 1.1%-53.4%, and the similarity of Laolongdong underground river outlet was merely 1.5%. The similarity data implied that groundwater contamination resulted mainly from human feces, swine feces contamination composed part of animals' fecal contamination, and other animals' feces participated too. Furthermore, sequencing results of PCR-DGGE products revealed that most Bacteroides in groundwater originated from human intestinal tract and human feces

  9. Tinea Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body they infect. Tinea corporis is a fungal infection of the skin on the body. ("Corporis" is ... Causes & Risk Factors How did I get a fungal infection? You can get a fungal infection by touching ...

  10. Frequent occurrence of the human-specific Bacteroides fecal marker at an open coast marine beach: relationship to waves, tides and traditional indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Alyson E; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2007-08-01

    Molecular genetic markers, such as those from fecal Bacteroides microorganisms, can link microbial pollution with its source, and have been used successfully in studies of sheltered aquatic environments. Their applicability to wave-driven, open coast environments has not been tested. We assessed the contribution of a tidal outlet to surf zone water quality in coastal Orange County, California, USA by measuring three traditional culture-based fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) as well as the human-specific Bacteroides molecular marker (HF marker) at four shoreline locations. We found that total and fecal coliform levels were higher during low tides than high tides at two of the four stations, and that this effect was strongest at the mouth of the tidal lagoon and decayed with distance from the outlet. The HF marker was detected in 23% and 47% of samples from the tidal outlet and 26% and 41% of samples from an adjacent recreational beach in 2005 and 2006 respectively. Surprisingly, the station farthest from the tidal outlet had the highest occurrence of the HF marker. We found no relationship between FIB abundance and occurrence of the HF marker for individual samples, but that when the data were considered together by year, higher FIB abundance was correlated with a higher incidence of the HF marker. DNA sequences of the HF marker recovered from this site were > 99% similar to those recovered from other states and countries, suggesting low global diversity of this marker. These data provide strong support for the idea that multiple time points and physical conditions should be considered when assessing coastal water quality. PMID:17635548

  11. Independent and Combined Effects of Lactitol, Polydextrose, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron on Postprandial Metabolism and Body Weight in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olli, Kaisa; Saarinen, Markku T.; Forssten, Sofia D.; Madetoja, Mari; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. Lactitol, a sweet-tasting sugar alcohol, is a common sugar-replacement in foods. Polydextrose (PDX), a highly branched glucose polymer, is known to reduce energy intake. Here, we test if the combined effects of lactitol or PDX in combination with Bacteroides species will have a beneficial metabolic response in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. A total of 175 male Wistar rats were fed either a LF or HF diet. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (1010 bacteria/animal/day) was orally administered with or without lactitol (1.6−2 g/animal/day) or PDX (2 g/animal/day) for 8 days. Postprandial blood samples, cecal digesta, and feces were collected on the last day. Measurements included: body weight, feed consumption, cecal short-chain fatty acids, fecal dry matter and heat value, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and satiety hormone concentrations. Lactitol and PDX decreased the mean body weight when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron or when lactitol was administered alone. Levels of postprandial plasma triglycerides declined with lactitol and PDX when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron. For intestinal hormone release, lactitol – alone or with B. thetaiotaomicron – increased the release of gastrointestinal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) as well as the area under the curve (AUC) measured for PYY (0–8 h). In addition, levels of insulin AUC (0–8 h) decreased in the lactitol and PDX-supplemented groups. Lactitol and PDX may both provide additional means to regulate postprandial metabolism and weight management, whereas the addition of B. thetaiotaomicron in the tested doses had only minor effects on the measured parameters.

  12. Monitoring Bacteroides spp. markers, nutrients, metals and Escherichia coli in soil and leachate after land application of three types of municipal biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Crystal A; Jordan, Katerina S; Habash, Marc B; Dunfield, Kari E

    2015-03-01

    A lysimeter-based field study was done to monitor the transfer of culturable Escherichia coli, general (ALLBAC), human (Hf183) and swine (PIG-BAC-1) specific 16S rRNA Bacteroides spp. markers, nutrients and metals through soils and leachate over time following land application of a CP1/Class A as well as two CP2/Class B municipal biosolids (MBs). Hf183 markers were detected up to six days following application in soils receiving dewatered and liquid MBs, but not in leachate, suggesting their use in source tracking is better suited for recent pollution events. The CP2/Class B biosolids and swine manure contributed the highest microbial load with E. coli loads (between 2.5 and 3.7 log CFU (100 mL)(-1)) being greater than North American concentration recommendations for safe recreational water. ALLBAC persisted in soils and leachate receiving all treatments and was detected prior to amendment application demonstrating its unsuitability for identifying the presence of fecal pollution. A significant increase in NO₃-N (for Lystek and dewatered MBs) and total-P (for dewatered and liquid MBs) in leachate was observed in plots receiving the CP1/Class A and CP2/Class B type MBs which exceeded North American guidelines, suggesting impact to surface water. Metal (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Se, Zn and Hg) transfer was negligible in soil and leachate samples receiving all treatments. This study is one of the first to examine the fate of E. coli and Bacteroides spp. markers in situ following the land application of MBs where surface runoff does not apply. PMID:25540839

  13. [Intra-abdominal infection and new quinolones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnocchi, C A

    1999-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infection is defined as the presence of an infectious process within the peritoneal cavity. It may be local or have a systemic consequence generating multiple organic disfunction. Most of the studies report a mortality of 30% in severe intra-abdominal infection. Secondary peritonitis is caused by the loss of integrity of the gastrointestinal apparatus, which contaminates with pathogens the peritoneal cavity. Invariably they are polymicrobial infections, mostly due to facultative anaerobic and anaerobic Gram negative bacilli. Prognosis of peritonitis depends on the struggle between two forces: local and systemic immunity of the host and the volume, nature and length of the contamination. Microorganisms and their products estimulate cellular defenses in the host and activate numerous inflammatory mediators responsible for sepsis. Antibiotic treatment of secondary peritonitis must act mainly against Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis. The adequate and early empirical administration of antibiotics against these bacteria is well established. It is necessary to consider if the infection is localized or generalized and if it is accompanied or not by organic disfunction. It also has to be taken into account if peritonitis is community or hospital-acquired when choosing the antibiotic scheme. In community-acquired peritonitis with low to moderate infections a combination of metronidazole-ceftriaxone, metronidazole-gentamycin or a monodrug like ampicillin-sulbactam may be used. In severe hospital-acquired peritonitis imipenem or the combination piperacillin-tazobactam are effective. New quinolones such as trovafloxacin or clinafloxacin, with excellent activity against aerobes and anaerobes producing intra-abdominal infections, may be effective. Future clinical trials are needed to determine their utility. Tertiary peritonitis represent a systemic inflammatory response with multiorganic failure due to the uncontrolled activation of the inflammatory

  14. Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease and Infection with Opisthorchis felineus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykova, Irina V.; Petrov, Vjacheslav A.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Ivanova, Polina G.; Merzlikin, Nikolay V.; Sazonov, Alexey E.; Ogorodova, Ludmila M.; Brindley, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in the microbiome of the hepatobiliary system. This study investigated the influence of infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus on the biliary microbiome of residents of the Tomsk region of western Siberia. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples of bile were provided by 56 study participants, half of who were infected with O. felineus, and all of who were diagnosed with gallstone disease. The microbiota of the bile was investigated using high throughput, Illumina-based sequencing targeting the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. About 2,797, discrete phylotypes of prokaryotes were detected. At the level of phylum, bile from participants with opisthorchiasis showed greater numbers of Synergistetes, Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, TM7 and Verrucomicrobia. Numbers of > 20 phylotypes differed in bile of the O. felineus-infected compared to non-infected participants, including presence of species of the genera Mycoplana, Cellulosimicrobium, Microlunatus and Phycicoccus, and the Archaeans genus, Halogeometricum, and increased numbers of Selenomonas, Bacteroides, Rothia, Leptotrichia, Lactobacillus, Treponema and Klebsiella. Conclusions/Significance Overall, infection with the liver fluke O. felineus modified the biliary microbiome, increasing abundance of bacterial and archaeal phylotypes. PMID:27447938

  15. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staph infections are caused by the species Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) . Which of these infections do you worry about most? S. aureus most commonly causes skin infections like folliculitis, boils, ...

  16. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... with any of the following roundworms: Necator americanus Ancylostoma ... Ancylostoma ceylanicum Ancylostoma braziliense The first 2 ...

  17. [Characteristics of war wound infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucisec-Tepes, Nastja; Bejuk, Danijela; Kosuta, Dragutin

    2006-09-01

    the human skin and mucosa; gram-negative facultative aerobic rods; members of the family Enterobacteriacea (Escherichia coil, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae), which predominate in the physiological flora of the intestines, transitory flora of the skin and environment; gram-negative bacteria, i. e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus - A. baumanii complex; environmental bacteria associated with humid environment and dust; anaerobic gram-positive sporogeneous rods Clostridium spp, gram-negative asporogeneous rods Bacteroides spp and gram-positive anaerobic cocci; Peptostreptococcus spp and Peptococcus spp. The latter usually colonize the intestine, primarily the colon, and the skin, while clostridium spores are also found in the environment. Early empirical antibiotic therapy is used instead of standard antibiotic prophylaxis. Empirical antimicrobial therapy is administered to prevent the development of systemic infection, gas gangrene, necrotizing infection of soft tissue, intoxication and death. The choice of antibiotics is determined by the presumed infective agents and localization of the wound. It is used in all types of war wounds over 5-7-10 days. The characteristics of antibiotics used in war wounds are the following: broad spectrum of activity, ability to penetrate deep into the tissue, low toxicity, long half-life, easy storage and application, and cost effectiveness. The use of antibiotics is not a substitution for surgical treatment. The expected incidence of infection, according to literature data, is 35%-40%. If the time elapsed until surgical debridement exceeds 12 hours, or the administration of antibiotics exceeds 6 hours of wound infliction, primary infection of the war wound occurs (early infection) in more than 50% of cases. The keys for the prevention of infection are prompt and thorough surgical exploration of the wound, administration of antibiotics and antitetanic prophylaxis

  18. Pneumococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococci are a type of streptococcus bacteria. The bacteria spread through contact with people who are ill or by healthy people who carry the bacteria in the back of their nose. Pneumococcal infections can be mild or severe. The most common types of infections are Ear infections Sinus infections ...

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the tetracycline-degrading monooxygenase TetX2 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the tetracycline-degrading monooxygenase TetX2 from B. thetaiotaomicron are reported. The flavin-dependent monooxygenase TetX2 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron confers resistance against tetracyclines in aerobically grown Escherichia coli. TetX2 modifies several tetracycline antibiotics by regioselective hydroxylation of the substrates to 11a-hydroxy-tetracyclines. X-ray diffraction data were collected from a native TetX2 crystal and a TetX2 crystal with incorporated selenomethionine to resolutions of 2.5 and 3.0 Å, respectively. The native crystal belonged to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.55, b = 80.88, c = 87.53 Å, α = 111.09, β = 98.98, γ = 93.38°, whereas the selenomethionine-labelled TetX2 crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 87.34, b = 68.66, c = 152.48 Å, β = 101.08°

  20. Acylhomoserine lactone production and degradation by the fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum, a member of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Manuel; Avendaño-Herrera, Rubén; Magariños, Beatriz; Cámara, Miguel; Otero, Ana

    2010-03-01

    Tenacibaculum maritimum (formerly Flexibacter maritimus) is a filamentous, biofilm-forming member of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group (or Bacteroidetes), which causes the widely distributed marine fish disease tenacibaculosis. A search for N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) quorum-sensing (QS) signals in the culture media of nine representative strains of this species using different biosensor strains revealed the presence of short-type AHL activity in all of them. N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) was identified in T. maritimum NCIMB2154(T) by LC-MS. A degradation activity for long-acyl AHLs (C10-HSL) was subsequently demonstrated in T. maritimum NCIMB2154(T). The acidification of the culture medium after degradation did not allow the recovery of C10-HSL, which indicates a possible acylase-type degradation activity. Even though the physiological processes under the control of AHL-mediated QS in T. maritimum need to be further characterized, this discovery extends the paradigm of AHL-mediated QS signalling beyond the Proteobacteria and reinforces its ecological significance. PMID:20377642

  1. Reduced Carbon Availability to Bacteroids and Elevated Ureides in Nodules, But Not in Shoots, Are Involved in the Nitrogen Fixation Response to Early Drought in Soybean1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladrera, Rubén; Marino, Daniel; Larrainzar, Estíbaliz; González, Esther M.; Arrese-Igor, Cesar

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation (NF) in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is highly sensitive to soil drying. This sensitivity has been related to an accumulation of nitrogen compounds, either in shoots or in nodules, and a nodular carbon flux shortage under drought. To assess the relative importance of carbon and nitrogen status on NF regulation, the responses to the early stages of drought were monitored with two soybean cultivars with known contrasting tolerance to drought. In the sensitive cultivar (‘Biloxi’), NF inhibition occurred earlier and was more dramatic than in the tolerant cultivar (‘Jackson’). The carbon flux to bacteroids was also more affected in ‘Biloxi’ than in ‘Jackson’, due to an earlier inhibition of sucrose synthase activity and a larger decrease of malate concentration in the former. Drought provoked ureide accumulation in nodules of both cultivars, but this accumulation was higher and occurred earlier in ‘Biloxi’. However, at this early stage of drought, there was no accumulation of ureides in the leaves of either cultivar. These results indicate that a combination of both reduced carbon flux and nitrogen accumulation in nodules, but not in shoots, is involved in the inhibition of NF in soybean under early drought. PMID:17720761

  2. Distribution, detection of enterotoxigenic strains and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns of Bacteroides fragilis group in diarrheic and non-diarrheic feces from Brazilian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Paula Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of gastrointestinal diseases and their global distribution, affecting millions of individuals around the world, the role and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria such as those in the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG are still unclear in young children. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of species in the BFG and enterotoxigenic strains in the fecal microbiota of children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diarrheic (n=110 and non-diarrheic (n=65 fecal samples from children aged 0-5 years old were evaluated. BFG strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. Alternatively, bacteria and enterotoxigenic strains were detected directly from feces by molecular biology. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the agar dilution method according to the guidelines for isolated bacteria. BFG was detected in 64.3% of the fecal samples (55% diarrheic and 80.4% non-diarrheic, and 4.6% were enterotoxigenic. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. The data show that these bacteria are prevalent in fecal microbiota at higher levels in healthy children. The molecular methodology was more effective in identifying the B. fragilis group when compared to the biochemical and physiological techniques. The observation of high resistance levels stimulates thoughts about the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs in early infancy. Further quantitative studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the role of these bacteria in acute diarrhea in children.

  3. Distribution, detection of enterotoxigenic strains and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns of bacteroides fragilis group in diarrheic and non-diarrheic feces from brazilian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Débora Paula; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Guimarães, Danielle Aparecida; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Farias, Luiz Macêdo; Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Diniz, Claudio Galuppo

    2010-07-01

    Despite the importance of gastrointestinal diseases and their global distribution, affecting millions of individuals around the world, the role and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria such as those in the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) are still unclear in young children. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of species in the BFG and enterotoxigenic strains in the fecal microbiota of children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diarrheic (n=110) and non-diarrheic (n=65) fecal samples from children aged 0-5 years old were evaluated. BFG strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. Alternatively, bacteria and enterotoxigenic strains were detected directly from feces by molecular biology. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the agar dilution method according to the guidelines for isolated bacteria. BFG was detected in 64.3% of the fecal samples (55% diarrheic and 80.4% non-diarrheic), and 4.6% were enterotoxigenic. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. The data show that these bacteria are prevalent in fecal microbiota at higher levels in healthy children. The molecular methodology was more effective in identifying the B. fragilis group when compared to the biochemical and physiological techniques. The observation of high resistance levels stimulates thoughts about the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs in early infancy. Further quantitative studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the role of these bacteria in acute diarrhea in children. PMID:24031535

  4. Use of antibiotics in the management of postirradiation wound infection and sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing gamma irradiation depresses the host defenses and enhances the susceptibility of the immunocompromised host to local and systemic infection due to endogenous or exogenous microorganisms. Trauma and wounding act synergistically and decrease the survival after exposure to irradiation. The current antimicrobial agents suitable for controlling serious infections and their use in post irradiation local and systemic infection with and without trauma are discussed. The experience gained in managing immunocompromised patients following chemotherapy is reviewed. Empiric single agent or combination agent therapy should be directed at the eradication of potential gram-negative as well as gram-positive pathogens. The most important organisms known to cause these infections are Pseudomonas sp. and Enterobacteriaceae. Management of intra-abdominal infections following trauma should include early surgical correlation and antimicrobials directed against the Bacteroides fragilis group and Enterobacteriaceae. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes cause most skin and soft tissue infections following trauma. Chemoprophylaxis of enteric sources of systemic infection can be achieved by antimicrobials that selectively inhibit the Enterobacteriaceae sp. and preserve the anaerobic flora. The management of infection in the injured and irradiated host includes supportive and restorative therapy. Supportive therapy includes debridement and cleansing of wounds, fluids, immunoglobulin, and antimicrobials. Restorative therapy includes definite surgery repair and replenishment of the immune system by use of immunomodulators, growth factors, and bone marrow transplantation. Further studies are needed to examine the usefulness of presently available drugs and experimental agents in the irradiated and traumatized host. 111 references

  5. Fecal bacterial microbiome diversity in chronic HIV-infected patients in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Ma, Yingfei; Lin, Ping; Tang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Liying; Shen, Yinzhong; Zhang, Renfan; Liu, Li; Cheng, Jun; Shao, Jiashen; Qi, Tangkai; Tang, Yan; Cai, Rentian; Guan, Liqian; Luo, Bin; Sun, Meiyan; Li, Ben; Pei, Zhiheng; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify fecal bacterial microbiome changes in patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in China. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced (454 pyrosequencing), and clustered into operational taxonomic units using the QIIME software. Relative abundance at the phylum and genus levels were calculated. Alpha diversity was determined by Chao 1 and observed-species indices, and beta diversity was determined by double principal component analysis using the estimated phylogeny-based unweighted Unifrac distance matrices. Fecal samples of the patients with chronic HIV-infection tended to be enriched with bacteria of the phyla Firmicutes (47.20%±0.43 relative abundance) and Proteobacteria (37.21%±0.36) compared with those of the non-HIV infected controls (17.95%±0.06 and 3.81%±0.02, respectively). Members of the genus Bilophila were exclusively detected in samples of the non-HIV infected controls. Bacteroides and arabacteroides were more abundant in the chronic HIV-infected patients. Our study indicated that chronic HIV-infected patients in China have a fecal bacterial microbiome composition that is largely different from that found in non-HIV infected controls, and further study is needed to evaluate whether microbiome changes play a role in disease complications in the distal gut, including opportunistic infections. PMID:27048741

  6. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  7. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You ... whether you need to take antibiotics. To prevent campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  8. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genital tract. They can cause infections in various parts of the body in children and adults of all ages. The most common are dental infections, inflammation of the abdominal lining (peritonitis), and ...

  9. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staph food poisoning, and these infections: Folliculitis and Boils Folliculitis is an infection of hair follicles, tiny ... But sometimes it goes on to become a boil (also called a furuncle). With a boil, the ...

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety of ?heat-treated milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964? as a novel food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA NDA Panel was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘pasteurised milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964’ as a novel food (NF in the context of Regulation (EC No 258/97. Pasteurised or ultra-high-temperature-treated milk is used for the fermentation process with B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964. After fermentation the product is heat treated for one hour at 75 °C to ensure the absence of viable B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964. The Panel considers the information provided on the identity and characterisation of B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964 to be sufficient. The production process encompasses standard techniques used by the dairy industry, is sufficiently described by the applicant and does not give rise to safety concerns. The Panel considers that the information provided on the production process and on the content of vitamins B2 and B12 and furosine in heat-treated fermented milk products does not give rise to concerns regarding disadvantageous nutritional effects. The Panel considers that the microbiological data provided do not give rise to safety concerns. The Panel also notes that a pilot study and a RCT over six weeks with 140 volunteers receiving daily doses of a spray-dried heat-treated fermented milk product containing intakes of up to 1 ´ 1012 inactivated bacterial cells of B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964 were provided. No clinical effects related to the treatment were observed in the two studies. Although no information has been provided to conclude on the risk of allergic reactions caused by the NF, the Panel considers that it is unlikely that its allergenic potential is dissimilar to that of other fermented dairy products. The Panel concludes that the NF ‘heat-treated milk products fermented with B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964’ is safe for the proposed uses and at the proposed use levels.

  11. Effects of Diet on Resource Utilization by a Model Human Gut Microbiota Containing Bacteroides cellulosilyticus WH2, a Symbiont with an Extensive Glycobiome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNulty, Nathan [Washington University, St. Louis; Wu, Meng [Washington University, St. Louis; Erickson, Alison L [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Erickson, Brian K [ORNL; Martens, Eric C [University of Michigan; Pudlo, Nicholas A [University of Michigan; Muegge, Brian [Washington University, St. Louis; Henrissat, Bernard [Universite d' Aix-Marseille I & II; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Gordon, Jeffrey [Washington University, St. Louis

    2013-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is an important metabolic organ, yet little is known about how its individual species interact, establish dominant positions, and respond to changes in environmental factors such as diet. In this study, gnotobiotic mice were colonized with an artificial microbiota comprising 12 sequenced human gut bacterial species and fed oscillating diets of disparate composition. Rapid, reproducible, and reversible changes in the structure of this assemblage were observed. Time-series microbial RNA-Seq analyses revealed staggered functional responses to diet shifts throughout the assemblage that were heavily focused on carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. High-resolution shotgun metaproteomics confirmed many of these responses at a protein level. One member, Bacteroides cellulosilyticus WH2, proved exceptionally fit regardless of diet. Its genome encoded more carbohydrate active enzymes than any previously sequenced member of the Bacteroidetes. Transcriptional profiling indicated that B. cellulosilyticus WH2 is an adaptive forager that tailors its versatile carbohydrate utilization strategy to available dietary polysaccharides, with a strong emphasis on plant-derived xylans abundant in dietary staples like cereal grains. Two highly expressed, diet-specific polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) in B. cellulosilyticus WH2 were identified, one with characteristics of xylan utilization systems. Introduction of a B. cellulosilyticus WH2 library comprising .90,000 isogenic transposon mutants into gnotobiotic mice, along with the other artificial community members, confirmed that these loci represent critical diet-specific fitness determinants. Carbohydrates that trigger dramatic increases in expression of these two loci and many of the organism s 111 other predicted PULs were identified by RNA-Seq during in vitro growth on 31 distinct carbohydrate substrates, allowing us to better interpret in vivo RNA-Seq and proteomics data. These results offer insight

  12. Structures of complexes of a metal-independent glycosyltransferase GT6 from Bacteroides ovatus with UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) and its hydrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tram T K; Stinson, Brittany; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Brew, Keith; Acharya, K Ravi

    2014-03-21

    Mammalian members of glycosyltransferase family 6 (GT6) of the CAZy database have a GT-A fold containing a conserved Asp-X-Asp (DXD) sequence that binds an essential metal cofactor. Bacteroides ovatus GT6a represents a GT6 clade found in more than 30 Gram-negative bacteria that is similar in sequence to the catalytic domains of mammalian GT6, but has an Asn(95)-Ala-Asn(97) (NXN) sequence substituted for the DXD motif and metal-independent catalytic activity. Co-crystals of a low activity mutant of BoGT6a (E192Q) with UDP-GalNAc contained protein complexes with intact UDP-GalNAc and two forms with hydrolysis products (UDP plus GalNAc) representing an initial closed complex and later open form primed for product release. Two cationic residues near the C terminus of BoGT6a, Lys(231) and Arg(243), interact with the diphosphate moiety of UDP-GalNAc, but only Lys(231) interacts with the UDP product and may function in leaving group stabilization. The amide group of Asn(95), the first Asn of the NXN motif, interacts with the ribose moiety of the substrate. This metal-independent GT6 resembles its metal-dependent homologs in undergoing conformational changes on binding UDP-GalNAc that arise from structuring the C terminus to cover this substrate. It appears that in the GT6 family, the metal cofactor functions specifically in binding the UDP moiety in the donor substrate and transition state, actions that can be efficiently performed by components of the polypeptide chain. PMID:24459149

  13. Cloning, Expression, and Sequencing of a Cell Surface Antigen Containing a Leucine-Rich Repeat Motif from Bacteroides forsythus ATCC 43037

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashu; Sojar, Hakimuddin T.; Glurich, Ingrid; Honma, Kiyonobu; Kuramitsu, Howard K.; Genco, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Bacteroides forsythus is a recently recognized human periodontopathogen associated with advanced, as well as recurrent, periodontitis. However, very little is known about the mechanism of pathogenesis of this organism. The present study was undertaken to identify the surface molecules of this bacterium that may play roles in its adherence to oral tissues or triggering of a host immune response(s). The gene (bspA) encoding a cell surface-associated protein of B. forsythus with an apparent molecular mass of 98 kDa was isolated by immunoscreening of a B. forsythus gene library constructed in a lambda ZAP II vector. The encoded 98-kDa protein (BspA) contains 14 complete repeats of 23 amino acid residues that show partial homology to leucine-rich repeat motifs. A recombinant protein containing the repeat region was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and utilized for antibody production, as well as in vitro binding studies. The purified recombinant protein bound strongly to fibronectin and fibrinogen in a dose-dependent manner and further inhibited the binding of B. forsythus cells to these extracellular matrix (ECM) components. In addition, adult patients with B. forsythus-associated periodontitis expressed specific antibodies against the BspA protein. We report here the cloning and expression of an immunogenic cell surface-associated protein (BspA) of B. forsythus and speculate that it mediates the binding of bacteria to ECM components and clotting factors (fibronectin and fibrinogen, respectively), which may be important in the colonization of the oral cavity by this bacterium and is also a target for the host immune response. PMID:9826345

  14. Improved Multiplex PCR Using Conserved and Species-Specific 16S rRNA Gene Primers for Simultaneous Detection of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Simon Dangtuan; Rudney, Joel D.

    1999-01-01

    Among putative periodontal pathogens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis are most convincingly implicated as etiological agents in periodontitis. Therefore, techniques for detection of those three species would be of value. We previously published a description of a multiplex PCR that detects A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. The present paper presents an improvement on that technique, which now allows more sensitive detection of all three periodontal pathogens. Sensitivity was determined by testing serial dilutions of A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, and P. gingivalis cells. Primer specificity was tested against (i) all gene sequences from the GenBank-EMBL database, (ii) six A. actinomycetemcomitans, one B. forsythus, and four P. gingivalis strains, (iii) eight different species of oral bacteria, and (iv) supra- and subgingival plaque samples from 20 healthy subjects and subgingival plaque samples from 10 patients with periodontitis. The multiplex PCR had a detection limit of 10 A. actinomycetemcomitans, 10 P. gingivalis, and 100 B. forsythus cells. Specificity was confirmed by the fact that (i) none of our forward primers were homologous to the 16S rRNA genes of other oral species, (ii) amplicons of predicted size were detected for all A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, and P. gingivalis strains tested, and (iii) no amplicons were detected for the eight other bacterial species. A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, and P. gingivalis were detected in 6 of 20, 1 of 20, and 11 of 20 of supragingival plaque samples, respectively, and 4 of 20, 7 of 20, and 13 of 20 of subgingival plaque samples, respectively, from periodontally healthy subjects. Among patients with periodontitis, the organisms were detected in 7 of 10, 10 of 10, and 7 of 10 samples, respectively. The simultaneous detection of three periodontal pathogens is an advantage of this technique over conventional PCR assays. PMID

  15. Predictive factors for lower extremity amputations in diabetic foot infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zameer Aziz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of diabetic foot infections (DFIs and its predictive factors for lower extremity amputations. A prospective study of 100 patients with DFIs treated at the National University Hospital of Singapore were recruited in the study during the period of January 2005–June 2005. A protocol was designed to document patient's demographics, type of DFI, presence of neuropathy and/or vasculopathy and its final outcome. Predictive factors for limb loss were determined using univariate and stepwise logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the study population was 59.8 years with a male to female ratio of about 1:1 and with a mean follow-up duration of about 24 months. All patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Common DFIs included abscess (32%, wet gangrene (29%, infected ulcers (19%, osteomyelitis (13%, necrotizing fasciitis (4% and cellulitis (3%. Thirteen patients were treated conservatively, while surgical debridement or distal amputation was performed in 59 patients. Twenty-eight patients had major amputations (below or above knee performed. Forty-eight percent had monomicrobial infections compared with 52% with polymicrobial infections. The most common pathogens found in all infections (both monomicrobial and polymicrobial were Staphylococcus aureus (39.7%, Bacteroides fragilis (30.3%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.0% and Streptococcus agalactiae (21.0%. Significant univariate predictive factors for limb loss included age above 60 years, gangrene, ankle-brachial index (ABI <0.8, monomicrobial infections, white blood cell (WBC count ≥ 15.0×109/L, erythrocyte sedimentation rate ≥100 mm/hr, C-reactive protein ≥15.0 mg/dL, hemoglobin (Hb ≤10.0g/dL and creatinine ≥150 µmol/L. Upon stepwise logistic regression, only gangrene, ABI <0.8, WBC ≥ 15.0×109/L and Hb ≤10.0g/dL were significant.

  16. Hymenobacter roseosalivarius gen. nov., sp. nov. from continental Antartica soils and sandstone: bacteria of the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium/Bacteroides line of phylogenetic descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, P; Ludwig, W; Hethke, C; Sittig, M; Hoffmann, B; Gallikowski, C A

    1998-08-01

    Aseptically collected sandstone and soil samples from the antarctic Dry Valleys were inoculated into oligotrophic media and incubated under low light intensities. A total of 41 Gram-negative isolates were obtained with reddish colonies spreading on agar. A sandstone isolate and four soil strains were characterized further. They were nearly identical in morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties. They produced large amounts of extracellular polymer and utilized for growth: glucose, saccharose, mannitol, sorbitol, L-aspartate, malate and acetate, but not D-ribose, adonitol, DL-alanine, glutamate, glycolate, lactate or succinate. All strains hydrolyzed gelatin, starch, casein, xylan, Tweens 80 or 60 and dead or living yeast cells, but not cellulose or pectin. Nitrate was not reduced, ethanol was not oxidized and acid was not produced from maltose, mannitol or dulcitol. Ammonia was not produced from peptone. They were strictly aerobic. Major fatty acids were n 16:1 d 9, n 16:1 d 11, n 17:1 d 11, and i 15:0. The strains contained the quinone MK-7 and phosphatidylethanolamine as the main phospholipid. The base ratio ranged from 55 to 61 mol% G+C. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis of strains AA-688 and AA-718 showed these to be identical and to represent a special phylogenetic group within the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium/Bacteroides major line of descent. Three soil strains labeled "Taxeobacter" Txc1, Txg1, and Txo1 (Reichenbach, 1992) belonged to the same group but had lower sequence similarities (<95%). Some of their characteristics were different from those of the antarctic strains: the utilization of C-compounds, hydrolysis of polymers, temperature tolerances, major fatty acids and base ratios. Txc1 and Txg1 may later have to be considered as members of this group, possibly on the species level, while Txo1 could represent a different related genus. It is concluded that the five antarctic strains represent a new genus and species for which the name

  17. Infective endocarditis in bicuspid aortic valve: atrioventricular block as sign of perivalvular abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchion, Francesco; Cukon, Sonja; Rizzoli, Giulio; Gerosa, Gino; Daliento, Luciano; Thiene, Gaetano; Basso, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    A 46-year-old man presenting with fever, peripheral edema, and chest pain was admitted to the emergency department. Electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia and first-degree atrioventricular block. Transesophageal echocardiogram showed infective endocarditis in bicuspid aortic valve, complicated with severe aortic regurgitation, ring abscess, and sinus-of-Valsalva aneurysm extending to mitroaortic fibrous continuity. The patient, who was unaware of his bicuspid aortic valve condition, reported having undergone an orthodontic procedure complicated with dental abscess 1 month prior, which was treated with combined clavulanate-amoxicillin antibiotic therapy. Blood cultures were positive for Bacteroides fragilis resistant to metronidazole. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was undertaken, with rapid resolution of fever. He eventually underwent successful aortic homograft implantation and mitral valve repair with residual first-degree atrioventricular block. PMID:17637435

  18. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated From Surgical Site Infection of Hospitalized Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghotaslou, Reza; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Asghari, Babak; Alizadeh, Naser; Toloue Ostadgavahi, Ali; Sorayaei Somesaraei, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are infections of incision or deep tissue at operation sites. These infections prolong hospitalization, delay wound healing, and increase the overall cost and morbidity. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate anaerobic and aerobic bacteria prevalence in surgical site infections and determinate antibiotic susceptibility pattern in these isolates. Materials and Methods: One hundred SSIs specimens were obtained by needle aspiration from purulent material in depth of infected site. These specimens were cultured and incubated in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. For detection of antibiotic susceptibility pattern in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, we used disk diffusion, agar dilution, and E-test methods. Results: A total of 194 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 samples of surgical sites. Predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from these specimens were the members of Enterobacteriaceae family (66, 34.03%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26, 13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (24, 12.37%), Acinetobacter spp. (18, 9.28%), Enterococcus spp. (16, 8.24%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (14, 7.22%) and nonhemolytic streptococci (2, 1.03%). Bacteroides fragilis (26, 13.4%), and Clostridium perfringens (2, 1.03%) were isolated as anaerobic bacteria. The most resistant bacteria among anaerobic isolates were B. fragilis. All Gram-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid while most of Enterobacteriaceae showed sensitivity to imipenem. Conclusions: Most SSIs specimens were polymicrobial and predominant anaerobic isolate was B. fragilis. Isolated aerobic and anaerobic strains showed high level of resistance to antibiotics. PMID:26421133

  19. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized as...... being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections such as...... diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well as...

  20. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst; Høiby, Niels

    being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections such as......A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized as...... diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well as...

  1. Anthrax Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Daniel A.; Caitlin W. Hicks; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described ...

  2. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is an ear infection? ... their hearing. How can I tell if my child has an ear infection? Most ear infections happen ...

  3. An altered intestinal mucosal microbiome in HIV-1 infection is associated with mucosal and systemic immune activation and endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, S M; Lee, E J; Kotter, C V; Austin, G L; Dong, Z; Hecht, D K; Gianella, S; Siewe, B; Smith, D M; Landay, A L; Robertson, C E; Frank, D N; Wilson, C C

    2014-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection disrupts the intestinal immune system, leading to microbial translocation and systemic immune activation. We investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the intestinal microbiome and its association with mucosal T-cell and dendritic cell (DC) frequency and activation, as well as with levels of systemic T-cell activation, inflammation, and microbial translocation. Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing was performed on colon biopsies and fecal samples from subjects with chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection and uninfected control subjects. Colon biopsies of HIV-1-infected subjects had increased abundances of Proteobacteria and decreased abundances of Firmicutes compared with uninfected donors. Furthermore at the genus level, a significant increase in Prevotella and decrease in Bacteroides was observed in HIV-1-infected subjects, indicating a disruption in the Bacteroidetes bacterial community structure. This HIV-1-associated increase in Prevotella abundance was associated with increased numbers of activated colonic T cells and myeloid DCs. Principal coordinates analysis demonstrated an HIV-1-related change in the microbiome that was associated with increased mucosal cellular immune activation, microbial translocation, and blood T-cell activation. These observations suggest that an important relationship exists between altered mucosal bacterial communities and intestinal inflammation during chronic HIV-1 infection. PMID:24399150

  4. Spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: turguttali@gazi.edu.tr

    2004-05-01

    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.

  5. Lung infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009188 Multi-slice spiral CT appearances of pulmonary infections after liver transplantation.XIE Lixuan(谢丽璇),et al.Dept Imaging,Changzheng Hosp,2nd Milit Med Univ,Shanghai 200003.Chin J Radiol,2009;43(1):8-11.

  6. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... days. Impetigo is a common and contagious skin infection in young children, developing most often during hot, humid summers and usually appearing on the face around the nose, mouth, and ears. It can be caused by staphylococcal or streptococcal bacteria. (More often, it is caused by a ...

  7. Baylisascaris Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  8. Vaginal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ll know that you’re drinking enough if your urine (pee) is light yellow or almost clear. Avoid scented hygiene products like bubble bath, sprays, scented pads, and scented tampons. They can be irritating. Having sex may increase your odds of some infections even if they’re ...

  9. Fungal nail infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... the hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  10. Anthrax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Daniel A; Hicks, Caitlin W; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q

    2011-12-15

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described with cutaneous anthrax, it appears much more common with gastrointestinal, inhalational (5 of 11 patients in the 2001 outbreak in the United States), and injectional anthrax. Based in part on case series, the estimated mortalities of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational, and injectional anthrax are 1%, 25 to 60%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. Nonspecific early symptomatology makes initial identification of anthrax cases difficult. Clues to anthrax infection include history of exposure to herbivore animal products, heroin use, or clustering of patients with similar respiratory symptoms concerning for a bioterrorist event. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with Gram stain and culture from blood or surgical specimens followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR or immunohistochemistry). Although antibiotic therapy (largely quinolone-based) is the mainstay of anthrax treatment, the use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists is a consideration. PMID:21852539

  11. Infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated. PMID:24365290

  12. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  13. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  14. Toxoplasmosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Clara Delgado Varela

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most widespread zoonosis worldwide. Its prevalence can double in rural populations in relation to urban populations, and it is different in persons of different races within the same community. Objective: To determine the characteristics of toxoplasmosis infection in Charavalle community, Bermúdez municipality, Sucre State, Venezuelan Republic. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was developed between April and September 2006. Through observation and interview the primary data on the 343 patients selected through simple sampling was obtained. The studied population was classified according to socio-demographic variables, the serum presence of IgG antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii was determine through indirect hemagglutination and the main risk factors l inked to toxoplasmosis infection were identified. Results: There was a prevalence of the age group between 16 and 30 years, mainly females in the Stratum III of socioeconomic level. Serological prevalence rate of antibodies IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii was 63, 56/100 inhabitants and the most significant risk factors were: cohabitation with dogs and cats, raw vegetables and fruit intake, and no drinkable water intake. Conclusions: Results largely agree with other researches on the same subject.

  15. Lung infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930120 A clinical study of 50 cases of legion-naires disease.WANG Baofa(王保法),et al.Dept Intern Med,2nd Affili Hosp,Hehei MedColl,Shijiazhuang,050000.Chin J Tuberc &Respir Dis 1992;15(5):266-268.The clinical features and X-ray manifesta-tions of 50 cases of legionnaires disease wereanalysed.8 cases might be due to nosocomial in-fection through breathing in flying particles ofthe saliva or phlegm.According to the mainclinical features,this disease could be dividedinto common pneumonia type,acute gastroen-teritis type,encephalopathy type,shock type,and acute renal insufficiency type.The differen-

  16. Shigella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, P

    1996-04-01

    Shigella dysentery is a major public-health problem in many tropical areas. Despite improvements in water supplies and sanitation, it continues to be a disease of poor rural and urban communities and in populations affected by migration and crowding following disasters. Pathogenesis is due to colonic invasion, endotoxin, and, in Shigella dysenteriae 1, shiga toxin. As well as the local manifestations of dysentery, systemic complications include convulsions, haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, hyponatraemia and hypoglycaemia. The spread of shigella infection is most commonly person-person, although water and food-borne outbreaks have been reported. Since 1970, multiple antimicrobial resistance, particularly in Sh. dysenteriae 1, has complicated strategies for management. Multiply resistant strains have occurred in Latin America, Central Africa and southern and south-eastern Asia. No vaccines are currently available, and prevention and control will depend on public-health improvements and improved case management. PMID:8762400

  17. Structure of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BT2081 at 2.05 Å resolution: the first structural representative of a new protein family that may play a role in carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of BT2081 from B. thetaiotaomicron reveals a two-domain protein with a putative carbohydrate-binding site in the C-terminal domain. BT2081 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (GenBank accession code NP-810994.1) is a member of a novel protein family consisting of over 160 members, most of which are found in the different classes of Bacteroidetes. Genome-context analysis lends support to the involvement of this family in carbohydrate metabolism, which plays a key role in B. thetaiotaomicron as a predominant bacterial symbiont in the human distal gut microbiome. The crystal structure of BT2081 at 2.05 Å resolution represents the first structure from this new protein family. BT2081 consists of an N-terminal domain, which adopts a β-sandwich immunoglobulin-like fold, and a larger C-terminal domain with a β-sandwich jelly-roll fold. Structural analyses reveal that both domains are similar to those found in various carbohydrate-active enzymes. The C-terminal β-jelly-roll domain contains a potential carbohydrate-binding site that is highly conserved among BT2081 homologs and is situated in the same location as the carbohydrate-binding sites that are found in structurally similar glycoside hydrolases (GHs). However, in BT2081 this site is partially occluded by surrounding loops, which results in a deep solvent-accessible pocket rather than a shallower solvent-exposed cleft

  18. Prevalence of the genital tract bacterial infections after vaginal reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Reza; Danesh, Azar; Kabiri, Najmeh; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Doudi, Monir

    2014-09-01

    Due to frequent childbirth, heavy lifting and the structure of the lives of rural women in Shahrekord region, Iran, cystocele and rectocele are of the main medical problems of the women in this area and for its correction, vaginal reconstructive surgery is needed which causes infection. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacteria causing infection after vaginal reconstructive surgery and performing antibiogram to help these patients for faster recovery. Patients enrolled this study were 92 who had undergone previous vaginal reconstructive surgery and now had infection. After examination, the group of patients taking antibiotics (n = 26) were excluded and the remaining 66 completed the study questionnaire. A gynecologist performed sampling; related tests (aerobic and anaerobic culture using an anaerobic culture gas pack jar and type A which provides absolute anaerobic conditions) were performed; antimicrobial susceptibility testing using Disk Diffusion Method was carried out; and the results were recorded. All the positive samples were polymicrobial. Gardnerella vaginalis in 20 cases (31%), peptostreptococci and anaerobic cocci in 9 cases (13.6%), staphylococcus aureus in 8 cases (9.1%), bacteroides and fusobacterium in 7 cases (10.6%), streptococcus group B in 4 cases (6%), yeast cells in 11 cases (16.6%) and Trichomonas vaginalis in wet mount of 4 (6%) existed. Anaerobic bacteria showed 85% sensitivity to clindamycin, 82% to chloramphenicol, 85% sensitivity to ceftizoxime and 45% to penicillin. Facultative anaerobic bacteria showed a sensitivity rate of 90% to ceftizoxime, chloramphenicol and cephalothin. According to our findings, the rate of vaginal bacterial infection in women with vaginal reconstructive surgery has increased; from which, infections with anaerobic bacteria origins have increased dramatically. We recommend antibiotic prophylaxis prior to genital reconstructive surgeries. PMID:26031026

  19. Staph infections - hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or skin cysts. Anyone can get a staph infection. Hospital patients can get staph infections of the skin: ... for and promptly reporting any sign of wound infections Many hospitals encourage patients to ask their providers if they ...

  20. Psychosis in mycoplasma infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Moor, S.; Skrine, H.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes a patient with psychosis due to a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Although he received specific treatment for this infection, the diagnosis was only confirmed after clinical recovery. The neuropsychiatric complications of mycoplasma infection are discussed.

  1. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary tract. The infection can occur at different points in ... al. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated ... in adults: 2009 International Clinical Practice Guidelines from ...

  2. Bacterial Nail Infection (Paronychia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of nail infection is often caused by a bacterial infection but may also be caused by herpes, a ... to a type of yeast called Candida , or bacterial infection, and this may lead to abnormal nail growth. ...

  3. Comparative in vitro activity of ceftaroline, ceftaroline-avibactam, and other antimicrobial agents against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultured from infected diabetic foot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

    2013-07-01

    Foot infections are the most common infectious complication of diabetes. Moderate to severe diabetic foot infections (DFI) are typically polymicrobial with both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. The role of MRSA in these wounds has become an increasing concern. To determine if the addition of avibactam, a novel non-beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor, to ceftaroline would be more active than ceftaroline alone, we tested 316 aerobic pathogens and 154 anaerobic recovered from patients with moderate to severe DFI, and compared ceftaroline with and without avibactam to other agents. Testing on aerobes was done by broth microdilution and by agar dilution for anaerobes, according to CLSI M11-A8, and M7-A8 standards. Ceftaroline-avibactam MIC90 for all Staphylococcus spp. including MRSA was 0.5 μg/mL, and for enterococci was 1 μg/mL. The MIC90s for enteric Gram-negative rods was 0.125 μg/mL. The addition of avibactam to ceftaroline reduced the ceftaroline MICs for 2 strains of resistant Enterobacter spp. and for 1 strain of Morganella. Against anaerobic Gram-positive cocci ceftaroline-avibactam had an MIC90 0.125 μg/mL and for clostridia 1 μg/mL. Avibactam improved ceftaroline's MIC90s for Bacteroides fragilis from >32 to 2 μg/mL and for Prevotella spp. from >32 to 1 μg/mL. Ceftaroline alone demonstrates excellent in vitro activity against most of the aerobes found in moderate to severe DFI. The addition of avibactam provides an increased spectrum of activity including the beta-lactamase producing Prevotella, Bacteroides fragilis and ceftaroline resistant gram-negative enteric organisms. PMID:23623385

  4. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of perianal infections in adult patients with acute leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perianal infection is a common problem for patients with acute leukemia. However, neutropenia and bleeding tendency are relatively contraindicated to surgical intervention. The epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations and outcomes of perianal infection in leukemic patients are also rarely discussed. METHOD: The medical records of 1102 adult patients with acute leukemia at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan between 2001 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. RESULT: The prevalence of perianal infection was 6.7% (74 of 1102 in adult patients with acute leukemia. Twenty-three (31% of the 74 patients had recurrent episodes of perianal infections. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia had higher recurrent rates than acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients (p = 0.028. More than half (n = 61, 53% of the perianal infections were caused by gram-negative bacilli, followed by gram-positive cocci (n = 36, 31%, anaerobes (n = 18, 15% and Candida (n = 1, 1% from pus culture. Eighteen patients experienced bacteremia (n = 24 or candidemia (n = 1. Overall 41 (68% of 60 patients had polymicrobial infection. Escherichia coli (25% was the most common micro-organism isolated, followed by Enterococcus species (22%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (13%, and Bacteroides species (11%. Twenty-five (34% of 74 patients received surgical intervention. Acute leukemia patients with surgically managed anal fistulas tended to have fewer recurrences (p = 0.067. Four (5% patients died within 30 days after diagnosis of perianal infection. Univariate analysis of 30-day survival revealed the elderly (≧ 65 years (p = 0.015 and patients with shock (p<0.001 had worse outcome. Multivariate analysis showed septic shock to be the independent predictive factor of 30-day crude mortality of perianal infections (p = 0.016. CONCLUSION: Perianal infections were common and had high recurrence rate in adult patients with acute

  5. Real-time analysis of gut flora in Entamoeba histolytica infected patients of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Anil Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amebic dysentery is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica and the ingestion of quadrinucleate cyst of E. histolytica from fecally contaminated food or water initiates infection. Excystation occurs in the lumen of small intestine, where motile and potentially invasive trophozoites germinate from cysts. The ability of trophozoites to interact and digest gut bacteria is apparently important for multiplication of the parasite and its pathogenicity; however the contribution of resident bacterial flora is not well understood. We quantified the population of Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Clostridium coccoides subgroup, Eubacterium, Campylobacter, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Sulphur reducing bacteria using genus specific primers in healthy (N = 22 vs amebic patients (E. histolytica positive, N = 17 stool samples by Real-time PCR. Results Absolute quantification of Bacteroides (p = .001, Closrtridium coccoides subgroup (p = 0.002, Clostridium leptum subgroup (p = 0.0001, Lactobacillus (p = 0.037, Campylobacter (p = 0.0014 and Eubacterium (p = 0.038 show significant drop in their population however, significant increase in Bifdobacterium (p = 0.009 was observed where as the population of Ruminococcus (p = 0.33 remained unaltered in healthy vs amebic patients (E. histolytica positive. We also report high prevalence of nimE gene in stool samples of both healthy volunteers and amebic patients. No significant decrease in nimE gene copy number was observed before and after the treatment with antiamebic drug. Conclusions Our results show significant alteration in predominant gut bacteria in E. histolytica infected individuals. The frequent episodes of intestinal amoebic dysentery thus result in depletion of few predominant genera in gut that may lead to poor digestion and absorption of food in intestine. It further disturbs

  6. A clinicomicrobial study of diabetic foot ulcer infections in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjini Chittur Yerat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 85% of all diabetes-related lower-extremity amputations are preceded by foot ulcers. Diabetic foot ulcers are at high risk of infection secondary to high glucose levels and poor tissue perfusion. Aims of the Study: To identify the microbial pathogens and the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of the bacterial isolates involved in the different grades of diabetic foot ulcers. Materials and Methods: Pus samples from 104 diabetic foot ulcers were processed for aerobic, anaerobic, and fungal culture. Antimicrobial sensitivity was performed as per clinical and laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Aerobic (81.66%, anaerobic (14.79%, and fungal (3.55% isolates were obtained on culture with Gram-negative bacilli (78.98% being isolated more than the Gram-positive cocci (21.01%. Proteus mirabilis was the most common isolate (26.08% while Bacteroides fragilis and Peptococcus sp. were the common anaerobes obtained. 56.73% of patients had polymicrobial infection, and 23.08% of staphylococci were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In hospitalized patients and amputees, infections were often polymicrobial (74.32% involving anaerobic and fungal pathogens. Multi-drug resistance was seen in 28.26% of isolates. Conclusion: Our study showed polymicrobial diabetic foot infections. The isolation pattern varied according to the grade of ulcer with S. aureus being predominant in Wagner I diabetic foot and Gram-negative organisms and anaerobes being isolated as the foot grade advanced to gangrene. Management of early stages includes treatment with oral quinolones/cloxacillin/cephalosporins. Imipenem monotherapy or third-generation cephalosporins with beta lactamase inhibitors plus an anti-anaerobe drug are regimens that can be used for the advanced stage of the disease.

  7. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  8. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...

  9. Middle ear infection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  10. C. difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include fever and abdominal distension and/or tenderness. Screening/Diagnosis C. difficile infection requires documenting the presence ... First, it would be ideal to stop the antibiotic that led to the infection in the first ...

  11. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  12. Upper respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grief, Samuel N

    2013-09-01

    Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are infections of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx (voice box), and trachea (windpipe). This article outlines the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of URIs, including nasopharyngitis (common cold), sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and laryngotracheitis. PMID:23958368

  13. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  14. Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A This is a candida (yeast) infection of the skin folds of the abdomen. Overview ...

  15. Vaginal yeast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  16. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection spreads to your kidneys, symptoms may include: Chills and shaking or night sweats Fatigue and a ... kidney infection, such as: Back or side pain Chills Fever Vomiting Also call if UTI symptoms come ...

  17. Middle Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Middle Ear Infections Page Content Article Body What are ... serious illness. What if a child with a middle ear infection is in great pain and discomfort? ...

  18. Gut microbiota composition and Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized elderly individuals: a metagenomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Christian; Ticinesi, Andrea; Gerritsen, Jacoline; Nouvenne, Antonio; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Turroni, Francesca; Duranti, Sabrina; Mangifesta, Marta; Viappiani, Alice; Ferrario, Chiara; Maggio, Marcello; Lauretani, Fulvio; De Vos, Willem; van Sinderen, Douwe; Meschi, Tiziana; Ventura, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota composition of elderly hospitalized patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) exposed to previous antibiotic treatment is still poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the microbiota composition by means of 16S rRNA microbial profiling among three groups of hospitalized elderly patients (age ≥ 65) under standard diet including 25 CDI-positive (CDI group), 29 CDI-negative exposed to antibiotic treatment (AB+ group) and 30 CDI-negative subjects not on antibiotic treatment (AB− group). The functional properties of the gut microbiomes of CDI-positive vs CDI-negative subjects were also assessed by shotgun metagenomics. A significantly lower microbial diversity was detected in CDI samples, whose microbiomes clustered separately from CDI-negative specimens. CDI was associated with a significant under-representation of gut commensals with putative protective functionalities, including Bacteroides, Alistipes, Lachnospira and Barnesiella, and over-representation of opportunistic pathogens. These findings were confirmed by functional shotgun metagenomics analyses, including an in-depth profiling of the Peptostreptococcaceae family. In CDI-negative patients, antibiotic treatment was associated with significant depletion of few commensals like Alistipes, but not with a reduction in species richness. A better understanding of the correlations between CDI and the microbiota in high-risk elderly subjects may contribute to identify therapeutic targets for CDI. PMID:27166072

  19. Gut microbiota composition and Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized elderly individuals: a metagenomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Christian; Ticinesi, Andrea; Gerritsen, Jacoline; Nouvenne, Antonio; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Turroni, Francesca; Duranti, Sabrina; Mangifesta, Marta; Viappiani, Alice; Ferrario, Chiara; Maggio, Marcello; Lauretani, Fulvio; De Vos, Willem; van Sinderen, Douwe; Meschi, Tiziana; Ventura, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota composition of elderly hospitalized patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) exposed to previous antibiotic treatment is still poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the microbiota composition by means of 16S rRNA microbial profiling among three groups of hospitalized elderly patients (age ≥ 65) under standard diet including 25 CDI-positive (CDI group), 29 CDI-negative exposed to antibiotic treatment (AB+ group) and 30 CDI-negative subjects not on antibiotic treatment (AB- group). The functional properties of the gut microbiomes of CDI-positive vs CDI-negative subjects were also assessed by shotgun metagenomics. A significantly lower microbial diversity was detected in CDI samples, whose microbiomes clustered separately from CDI-negative specimens. CDI was associated with a significant under-representation of gut commensals with putative protective functionalities, including Bacteroides, Alistipes, Lachnospira and Barnesiella, and over-representation of opportunistic pathogens. These findings were confirmed by functional shotgun metagenomics analyses, including an in-depth profiling of the Peptostreptococcaceae family. In CDI-negative patients, antibiotic treatment was associated with significant depletion of few commensals like Alistipes, but not with a reduction in species richness. A better understanding of the correlations between CDI and the microbiota in high-risk elderly subjects may contribute to identify therapeutic targets for CDI. PMID:27166072

  20. HPV Infection in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Palefsky, Joel M.

    2007-01-01

    While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the ge...

  1. Infections in spinal instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Gerometta, Antoine; Olaverri, Juan Carlos Rodriguez; Bitan, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Surgical-site infection (SSI ) in the spine is a serious postoperative complication. Factors such as posterior surgical approach, arthrodesis, use of spinal instrumentation, age, obesity, diabetes, tobacco use, operating-room environment and estimated blood loss are well established in the literature to affect the risk of infection. Infection after spine surgery with instrumentation is becoming a common pathology. The reported infection rates range from 0.7% to 11.9%, depending on the diagnos...

  2. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...... ceftriaxone. E. faecalis infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious disease with considerable percentages of high-level gentamicin resistant strains and in-hospital mortality around 20%. Strategies to prevent E. faecalis IE, improve diagnostics, optimize treatment and reduce morbidity will be...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...

  4. Primary disseminated fusarial infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavan, M.; Ratnakar, C.; Veliath, A. J.; Kanungo, R.; Smile, S. R.; Bhat, S

    1992-01-01

    Among the fungal pathogens the species Fusariam solani causing systemic infection is very rare and generally causes systemic infection only in an immuno-compromised host. We report a systemic infection caused by F. solani in a non-immunocompromised adult male, to our knowledge the first such case report.

  5. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning;

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with...... Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  6. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove; Gahrn-Hansen, B; Siboni, K

    1995-01-01

    central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than...

  7. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  8. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  9. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections ... eventually leading to an ear infection. continue About Middle Ear Infections Inflammation in the middle ear area ...

  10. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove; Gahrn-Hansen, B; Siboni, K

    1995-01-01

    central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than......Seventy-eight patients with culture-positive epidural catheters, were studied. Fifty-nine had symptoms of exit site infection and 11 patients had clinical meningitis, two of whom also had an epidural abscess. This corresponds to a local infection incidence of at least 4.3% and an incidence of...... patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more...

  11. Periprosthetic Joint Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia L. Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases.

  12. Helicobacter pylori induced gastric immunopathology is associated with distinct microbiota changes in the large intestines of long-term infected Mongolian gerbils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M Heimesaat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI inflammation in mice and men are frequently accompanied by distinct changes of the GI microbiota composition at sites of inflammation. Helicobacter (H. pylori infection results in gastric immunopathology accompanied by colonization of stomachs with bacterial species, which are usually restricted to the lower intestine. Potential microbiota shifts distal to the inflammatory process following long-term H. pylori infection, however, have not been studied so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For the first time, we investigated microbiota changes along the entire GI tract of Mongolian gerbils after 14 months of infection with H. pylori B8 wildtype (WT or its isogenic ΔcagY mutant (MUT strain which is defective in the type IV secretion system and thus unable to modulate specific host pathways. Comprehensive cultural analyses revealed that severe gastric diseases such as atrophic pangastritis and precancerous transformations were accompanied by elevated luminal loads of E. coli and enterococci in the caecum and together with Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. in the colon of H. pylori WT, but not MUT infected gerbils as compared to naïve animals. Strikingly, molecular analyses revealed that Akkermansia, an uncultivable species involved in mucus degradation, was exclusively abundant in large intestines of H. pylori WT, but not MUT infected nor naïve gerbils. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, long-term infection of Mongolian gerbils with a H. pylori WT strain displaying an intact type IV secretion system leads to distinct shifts of the microbiota composition in the distal uninflamed, but not proximal inflamed GI tract. Hence, H. pylori induced immunopathogenesis of the stomach, including hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia, might trigger large intestinal microbiota changes whereas the exact underlying mechanisms need to be further unraveled.

  13. [Deep neck infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold

    2006-01-01

    Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible. PMID:17152800

  14. Imaging of hepatic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, D J; Hanbidge, A E; O'Malley, M E

    2006-09-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented. PMID:16905380

  15. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  16. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  17. Microbiome in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, January T; Chang, Theresa L

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammatio...

  18. Influenza infection and COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Mallia, Patrick; Johnston, Sebastian L.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza is a disease with global impact that causes enormous morbidity and mortality on an annual basis. It primarily infects the respiratory tract and causes a broad range of illness ranging from symptomless infection to fulminant primary viral and secondary bacterial pneumonia. The severity of infection depends on both the virus strain and a number of host factors, primarily age and the presence of comorbid conditions such as cardiopulmonary disease. The mortality and utilization of healt...

  19. Parvoviral Infections in Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Došen Radoslav; Gagrčin Mladen; Prodanov Jasna; Orlić Dušan B.

    2002-01-01

    Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV) are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge o...

  20. Imaging of Periprosthetic Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carty, Fiona

    2013-05-22

    Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.

  1. Microcomputer Infection Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, William S.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a set of microcomputer programs designed to streamline and assist with infection control monitoring. The system is designed to capture patient demographic and culture data as well as the infection control practitioner's (ICP) evaluation of whether the infection is hospital (nosocomial) or community acquired. Once the data are acquired, they can be sorted and printed in a multitude of ways to generate various detailed line reports and tables. Organism sensitivity profiles...

  2. Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a significant and increasing medical problem, surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-onset or facility-associated infection, and a key element in the challenging battle against hospital-acquired infections. This Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming colonizes the intestinal tract after antibiotics have altered the normal intestinal flora.

  3. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection. PMID:27509655

  4. Approach to urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C. L.; Banday, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomati...

  5. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N C; Yamamoto, J K; Ishida, T; Hansen, H

    1989-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (formerly feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus or FTLV) was first isolated from a group of cats in Petaluma, California in 1986. The virus is a typical lentivirus in gross and structural morphology. It replicates preferentially but not exclusively in feline T-lymphoblastoid cells, where it causes a characteristic cytopathic effect. The major structural proteins are 10, 17 (small gag), 28 (major core), 31 (endonuclease?), 41 (transmembrane?), 52 (core precursor polyprotein), 54/62 (reverse transcriptase?), and 110/130 (major envelope) kilodaltons in size. The various proteins are antigenically distinguishable from those of other lentiviruses, although serum from EIAV-infected horses will cross-react with some FIV antigens. Kittens experimentally infected with FIV manifest a transient (several days to 2 weeks) fever and neutropenia beginning 4 to 8 weeks after inoculation. This is associated with a generalized lymphadenopathy that persists for up to 9 months. Most cats recover from this initial phase of the disease and become lifelong carriers of the virus. Complete recovery does not occur to any extent in nature or in the laboratory setting. One experimentally infected cat died from a myeloproliferative disorder several months after infection. The terminal AIDS-like phase of the illness has been seen mainly in naturally infected cats. It appears a year or more following the initial infection in an unknown proportion of infected animals. FIV has been identified in cats from all parts of the world. It is most prevalent in high density populations of free roaming cats (feral and pet), and is very uncommon in closed purebred catteries. Male cats are twice as likely to become infected as females. Older male cats adopted as feral or stray animals are at the highest risk of infection, therefore. The infection rate among freely roaming cats rises throughout life, and reaches levels ranging from less than 1% to 12% or more depending on the

  6. Congenital CMV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infect the baby. This can happen when a pregnant woman experiences a first-time infection, a reinfection with a different CMV strain (variety), ... passed their newborn hearing test. Diagnosis Congenital CMV ... newborn baby’s saliva, urine, or blood. Such specimens must be collected for ...

  7. Severe Strep Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... studies on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Group A Streptococcal Infections National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ​​ Javascript Error Your ... the greatest risk of getting a severe strep infection are Children with chickenpox People with suppressed immune systems Burn ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... get up into the bladder more easily and cause an infection there. Some of the bacteria that cause UTIs normally live in your intestines. Each time ... bladder. If the bacteria go there, they can cause a bladder infection, which is a type of ...

  9. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S;

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  10. Diagnosing BVDV infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are widespread among the U.S. cattle population and it is generally accepted that these infections result in substantial economic loss for producers. There is a push in the U.S. to design BVDV control programs that will curb these losses. While ...

  11. Preventing Giardia Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, W. Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…

  12. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infecti

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... a Booger? Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > For Kids > Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A ...

  14. [Diabetic foot infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryšková, Lenka

    2015-06-01

    Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are serious problems in persons with diabetes, about 10 to 25 % of patients with dia-betes develop a foot ulcer and 60 % of them are infected. DFIs cause morbidity, limit mobility, worsen patients quality of life. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most DFIs are polymicrobial, with Gram-positive cocci (especially staphylococci), Gram-negative bacilli and obligate anaerobes. Successful therapy of DFI requires proper topical care and often includes surgical interventions but appropriate antibiotic treatment plays a key role. Initial antimicrobial therapy of these infections is usually empirical, the antibiotic regimen should be based on the severity of the infection. Definitive therapy should then be tailored according to the results of culture and susceptibility tests from a reliably obtained specimen. PMID:26258977

  15. Polaribacter gen. nov., with three new species, P. irgensii sp. nov., P. franzmannii sp. nov. and P. filamentus sp. nov., gas vacuolate polar marine bacteria of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group and reclassification of 'Flectobacillus glomeratus' as Polaribacter glomeratus comb. nov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosink, J. J.; Woese, C. R.; Staley, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    Several psychrophilic, gas vacuolate strains of the Cytophage-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) phylogenetic group were isolated from sea ice and water from the Arctic and the Antarctic. The closest taxonomically defined species by 16S rRNA sequence analysis is 'Flectobacillus glomeratus'. However, 'Flc. glomeratus' is phylogenetically distant from the Flectobacillus type species, Flc. major. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and 16S rRNA sequence analyses we propose a new genus, Polaribacter, with three new species, Polaribacter irgensii strain 23-P (ATCC 700398), Polaribacter franzmannii strain 301 (ATCC 700399) and Polaribacter filamentus strain 215 (ATCC 700397). P. filamentus is the type species of the genus. None of these species exhibits a cosmopolitan or bipolar distribution. This is the first taxonomic description of gas vacuolate bacteria in the CFB group. Additionally, we propose that 'Flc. glomeratus' be reclassified to the genus Polaribacter as P. glomeratus, comb. nov.

  16. Bacterial profile and patterns of antimicrobial drug resistance in intra-abdominal infections: Current experience in a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Shree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bacterial isolates from intra-abdominal infections, in particular, peritonitis and their unpredictable antimicrobial resistance patterns, continue to be a matter of concern not only globally but regionally too. Aim: An attempt in the present study was made to study the patterns of drug resistance in bacterial isolates, especially gram negative bacilli in intra-abdominal infections (IAI in our hospital. Materials and Methods: From 100 cases of peritonitis, identification of isolates was done as per recommended methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL testing were performed following the CLSI guidelines. Results: A total of 133 clinical isolates were obtained, of which 108 were aerobes and 22 anaerobes. Fungal isolates were recovered in only three cases. Escherichia coli (47/108 emerged as the most predominant pathogen followed by Klebsiella spp. (27/108, while Bacteroides fragilis emerged as the predominant anaerobe (12/22. Among coliforms, 61.7% E. coli and 74.1% Klebsiella spp. were ESBL positive. A high level of resistance was observed for beta lactams, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and ertapenem. Ertapenem resistance (30-41% seen in coliforms, appears as an important issue. Imipenem, tigecycline, and colistin were the most consistently active agents tested against ESBL producers. Conclusion: Drug resistance continues to be a major concern in isolates from intra-abdominal infections. Treatment with appropriate antibiotics preceded by antimicrobial resistance testing aided by early diagnosis, adequate surgical management, and knowledge of antibiotic - resistant organisms appears effective in reducing morbidity and mortality in IAI cases.

  17. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Urinary Tract Infections in Children Page Content On this page: What ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)? A UTI is an infection in the ...

  18. Antibacterial activity of (--cubebin isolated from Piper cubeba and its semisynthetic derivatives against microorganisms that cause endodontic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C.S. Rezende

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent publications have highlighted the numerous biological activities attributed to the lignan (--cubebin (1, Piper cubeba L. f., Piperaceae, and ongoing studies have focused on its structural optimization, in order to obtain derivatives with greater pharmacological potential. The aim of this study was the obtainment of (1, its semisynthetic derivatives and evaluation of antibacterial activity. The extract of the seeds of P. cubeba was chromatographed, subjected to recrystallization and was analyzed by HPLC and spectrometric techniques. It was used for the synthesis of: (--O-methylcubebin (2, (--O-benzylcubebin (3, (--O-acetylcubebin (4, (--O-(N, N-dimethylamino-ethyl-cubebin (5, (--hinokinin (6 and (--6.6'-dinitrohinokinin (7. The evaluation of the antibacterial activity has been done by broth microdilution technique for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Actinomyces naeslundii, Bacteroides fragilis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. It was possible to make an analysis regarding the relationship between structure and antimicrobial activity of derivatives against microorganisms that cause endodontic infections. The most promising were minimum inhibitory concentration =50 µg/ml against P. gingivalis by (2 and (3, and minimum inhibitory concentration =100 µg/ml against B. fragilis by (6. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that (1 and its derivatives do not display toxicity.

  19. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  20. Antimicrobials in urogenital infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Wullt, Björn; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and male genital infections are amongst the most prevalent infections. A prudent antibiotic policy therefore has a large impact on society. The clinical classification in uncomplicated cystitis, uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated UTI and genital infections is useful, also for the right choice of antibiotic treatment. In this regard pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects have to be considered. Nowadays in uncomplicated cystitis antibiotics exclusively reserved for this indication are preferred, such as fosfomycin trometamol, nitrofurantoin and pivmecillinam, in order to reduce antibiotic pressure in this extremely frequent entity. In complicated UTI a broad bacterial spectrum has to be considered. Different antibiotic substances should be used for treatment, such as penicillins, with β-lactamase inhibitors, cephalosporins or carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides or cotrimoxazole, if tested susceptible. For genital infections the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibiotics should especially be considered, such as in prostatitis, where mainly fluoroquinolones and macrolides show sufficient pharmacokinetic parameters for treatment of bacterial infections. Furthermore in genital infections fastidious organisms, such as Chlamydia or Mycoplasma spp. have to be considered with respect to their antimicrobial susceptibility. PMID:22019184

  1. Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Wiep Klaas; Lyras, Dena; Lacy, D Borden; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J

    2016-01-01

    Infection of the colon with the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium difficile is potentially life threatening, especially in elderly people and in patients who have dysbiosis of the gut microbiota following antimicrobial drug exposure. C. difficile is the leading cause of health-care-associated infective diarrhoea. The life cycle of C. difficile is influenced by antimicrobial agents, the host immune system, and the host microbiota and its associated metabolites. The primary mediators of inflammation in C. difficile infection (CDI) are large clostridial toxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), and, in some bacterial strains, the binary toxin CDT. The toxins trigger a complex cascade of host cellular responses to cause diarrhoea, inflammation and tissue necrosis - the major symptoms of CDI. The factors responsible for the epidemic of some C. difficile strains are poorly understood. Recurrent infections are common and can be debilitating. Toxin detection for diagnosis is important for accurate epidemiological study, and for optimal management and prevention strategies. Infections are commonly treated with specific antimicrobial agents, but faecal microbiota transplants have shown promise for recurrent infections. Future biotherapies for C. difficile infections are likely to involve defined combinations of key gut microbiota. PMID:27158839

  2. Polymicrobial nature of chronic diabetic foot ulcer biofilm infections determined using bacterial tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot E Dowd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic extremity ulcers are associated with chronic infections. Such ulcer infections are too often followed by amputation because there is little or no understanding of the ecology of such infections or how to control or eliminate this type of chronic infection. A primary impediment to the healing of chronic wounds is biofilm phenotype infections. Diabetic foot ulcers are the most common, disabling, and costly complications of diabetes. Here we seek to derive a better understanding of the polymicrobial nature of chronic diabetic extremity ulcer infections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a new bacterial tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP approach we have evaluated the bacterial diversity of 40 chronic diabetic foot ulcers from different patients. The most prevalent bacterial genus associated with diabetic chronic wounds was Corynebacterium spp. Findings also show that obligate anaerobes including Bacteroides, Peptoniphilus, Fingoldia, Anaerococcus, and Peptostreptococcus spp. are ubiquitous in diabetic ulcers, comprising a significant portion of the wound biofilm communities. Other major components of the bacterial communities included commonly cultured genera such as Streptococcus, Serratia, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. CONCLUSIONS: In this article, we highlight the patterns of population diversity observed in the samples and introduce preliminary evidence to support the concept of functional equivalent pathogroups (FEP. Here we introduce FEP as consortia of genotypically distinct bacteria that symbiotically produce a pathogenic community. According to this hypothesis, individual members of these communities when they occur alone may not cause disease but when they coaggregate or consort together into a FEP the synergistic effect provides the functional equivalence of well-known pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, giving the biofilm community the factors necessary to maintain chronic biofilm infections

  3. Parvoviral Infections in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došen Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge on epizootiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and prophylaxis of this diseases.

  4. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors′ personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.

  5. Imaging infection and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. The use of nuclear medicine techniques to image infection has been with us for over 20 years, indeed this year sees the 20th anniversary of the publication of Matthew Thakur's paper of the use of In-111 oxime labelled leukocytes in imaging infection. Without doubt this technique has stood the test of time and has been used to save many lives in infected patients worldwide. As we approach the 21st century we are faced with new problems which will need new solutions. Infections themselves have changed their very nature, HIV a benign virus which only infected monkeys in central Africa in 1977 has now spread throughout the globe and unfortunately few societies have remained free of its ravages. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. The use of immuno suppressive therapy in many patients with transplants or cancer has lead to new infections in a wider group of patients. The wide spread use of antibiotics has lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. The old approach of widespread antibiotic treatment in patients with suspected infection is not acceptable. If possible organisms must be isolated. Normally imaging is required to localize infection and it is important to realize that a combination or anatomical imaging with CT, ultrasound or MRI and nuclear medicine is often the only way to determine the site of infection. Allied to this a new educated public has demanded that diagnostic tests be accurate and non-invasive, particularly in non-fatal inflammatory disease. All these challenges has lead us to a new frontier in nuclear medicine. In some ways we have had to rediscover the old. For example the use of Ga-67 citrate in imaging tuberculosis or infection in patients with Aids. The use of Tc-99 m HMPAO labelled leukocytes in

  6. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...

  7. Update on infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Infection control is a dynamic and ever-changing subject and all dental staff should be kept aware of the most up-to-date procedures required to prevent the transmission of infection and should understand why these procedures are necessary. Regular monitoring and updating of all procedures in the light of new scientific evidence is necessary and all new staff must be trained in infection control procedures prior to working in the surgery. A practitioner who is routinely following an appropriate infection control policy, including the use of techniques and products of proven efficacy (perhaps through accreditation), is better placed to refute allegations arising in the course of civil litigation, health and safety at work prosecution, complaints and disciplinary procedures, or investigations by the GDC. PMID:16892574

  8. Urticaria and infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedi Bettina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Urticaria is a group of diseases that share a distinct skin reaction pattern. Triggering of urticaria by infections has been discussed for many years but the exact role and pathogenesis of mast cell activation by infectious processes is unclear. In spontaneous acute urticaria there is no doubt for a causal relationship to infections and all chronic urticaria must have started as acute. Whereas in physical or distinct urticaria subtypes the evidence for infections is sparse, remission of annoying spontaneous chronic urticaria has been reported after successful treatment of persistent infections. Current summarizing available studies that evaluated the course of the chronic urticaria after proven Helicobacter eradication demonstrate a statistically significant benefit compared to untreated patients or Helicobacter-negative controls without urticaria (p

  9. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections. PMID:27168147

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will the Doctor Do? ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...

  12. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  13. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  14. Chikungunya Infection in Travelers

    OpenAIRE

    Hochedez, Patrick; Jaureguiberry, Stephane; Debruyne, Monique; Bossi, Philippe; Hausfater, Pierre; Brucker, Gilles; Bricaire, Francois; Caumes, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The largest described outbreak of chikungunya virus has been occurring on the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean since March 2005. We describe the manifestations of chikungunya virus infection in travelers returning from these islands, with focus on skin manifestations.

  15. Neuroinvasive flavivirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, Gregorius J.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2012-01-01

    Flaviviruses, including Dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Tick-borne encephalitis virus, are major emerging human pathogens, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Many clinically important flaviviruses elicit CNS diseases in infected hosts, including traditional "hemorrhagic" viru

  16. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection ... tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: yur - ...

  19. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Infections Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of ... Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Vitiligo is a loss of melanocytes (cells that produce ...

  20. Skin infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllegger, Robert R; Häring, Nina S; Glatz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of infectious diseases can occur in pregnancy. Their acquisition, clinical presentation, and course during gestation may be altered due to an impairment of the maternal cellular immunity. Some infectious diseases can lead to serious consequences for the mother or the offspring, including congenital malformations. This review describes in detail the clinical presentation, course, management, and associated maternal and fetal risks of selected viral (varicella-zoster virus infections, condylomata acuminata), fungal (candida vulvovaginitis), bacterial (Lyme borreliosis), and parasitic (scabies) infections. The treatment options are critically reviewed. First-line therapies include acyclovir and varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin for varicella-zoster virus infections, surgical modalities for genital warts, topical clotrimazole and oral fluconazole for Candida vulvovaginitis, amoxicillin and cefuroxime for Lyme borreliosis, and permethrin for scabies. A synopsis of maternal and fetal risks of other important infections is also included. PMID:27265075

  1. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body Some lung ... walking pneumonia), are caused by an organism called Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is spread from person to person ...

  2. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...

  4. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment On ... Healthy people (nonpregnant) Most healthy people recover from toxoplasmosis without treatment. Persons who are ill can be ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... matter how busy you are. Water and cranberry juice are two good choices. Those trips to the ... wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice may actually help prevent another infection. If you' ...

  6. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  7. Bacterial Nasal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Nose Sinusitis Bacteria may cause pimples and boils (furuncles) to form just inside the opening of ... weeks. Nasal furuncles More serious infections result in boils (furuncles) in the nasal vestibule. Boils may develop ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... frye -tus), or a kidney infection, and it's serious because it can damage the kidneys and make ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  9. Necrotizing soft tissue infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holtom, P D

    1999-01-01

    Necrotizing soft tissue infections are a group of highly lethal infections that typically occur after trauma or surgery. Many individual infectious entities have been described, but they all have similar pathophysiologies, clinical features, and treatment approaches. The essentials of successful treatment include early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement, antibiotics, and supportive intensive treatment unit care. The two commonest pitfalls in management are failure of early diagnosis a...

  10. [The infected diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voide, C; Trampuz, A; Orasch, C

    2012-10-31

    Disorders of local immunity associated with diabetes, neuropathy, vascular disease and pressure lesions all contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot infections are frequently encountered, comprising multifactorial pathology and high morbidity and mortality rates. Microbiological sampling is indicated only when infection is suspected clinically, that is, when a lesion presents a minimum of two of the following six signs: erythema, heat, pain, tumefaction, induration or purulent discharge. PMID:23117963

  11. Clostridium difficile infection

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet provides healthcare patients, their families and carers with comprehensive information on Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection. It provides some background on the infection�and highlights a range of key factors, including the symptoms to look out for, common causes of contamination, the appropriate course of action should you become infected, and possible treatment options. It also offers advice to visitors and carers on precautions and rules they should follow when in the p...

  12. Clostridium difficile infection

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet provides healthcare patients, their families and carers with comprehensive information on Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection. It provides some background on the infectionand highlights a range of key factors, including the symptoms to look out for, common causes of contamination, the appropriate course of action should you become infected, and possible treatment options. It also offers advice to visitors and carers on precautions and rules they should follow when in the pr...

  13. Clostridium difficile Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Stephen A.; Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in Europe and North America and is a serious re-emerging pathogen. Recent outbreaks have led to increasing morbidity and mortality and have been associated with a new strain (BI/NAP1/027) of C. difficile that produces more toxin than historical strains. With the increasing incidence of C. difficile infection, clinicians have also seen a change in the epidemiology with increased infections in previously low-risk populatio...

  14. Circoviral infections in swine

    OpenAIRE

    Ivetić Vojin; Savić Božidar; Valter Dragoš; Milošević Bratislav

    2002-01-01

    Circoviral infections in swine have appeared only recently and they today attract the attention of large numbers of researchers all over the world. They represent a great mystery, an unknown in veterinary medicine, both in our country and in the world. The causes of these infections are circoviruses, called after the DNA which is shaped like a circle. A large number of authors today believe the PCV-2 causes two pathological entities in weaned piglets which are known as porcine multisystemic w...

  15. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The ...

  16. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Agnese Latino; Daniela De Maria; Andrea Caneparo; Claudia Rosso; Gianfranco De Intinis; Anna Maria Calì; Pierangelo Clerici; Marco Cusini; Ivano Dal Conte; Tiziano Maggino; Enrico Magliano; Alfonso Panuccio; Roberto Pozzoli; Mario Rassu; Barbara Suligoi

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more c...

  17. Biophysics of Biofilm Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofi...

  18. Occupational Infection in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Yun Kyung; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and m...

  19. Detection and Characterization of Infections and Infection Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC),; Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)

  20. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Med 1998;24:206-16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics ... 25:201-25. Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Fungal infections in the ICU. Infect Dis ... D. Nosocomial aspergillosis and building construction. Med Mycol 2009;47 ...

  1. Epidemiology of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, V; Baldovin, T; Trivello, R; Floreani, A

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 130-170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to data from WHO community and blood donor surveys, the African and Eastern Mediterranean countries report the highest prevalence rates (>10%). The rates of infection in the general population and the incidence of newly-acquired cases indicate an appreciable change in the epidemiology of the infection in recent years. Prior to the widespread screening of blood donations, infected blood and blood products represented a common source of infection. On the other hand, the high peak in HCV antibodies among the elderly in Italian epidemiological studies on the population at large reflects a cohort effect due to an epidemic of HCV infection occurring after the Second World War. According to data reported by the CDC Surveillance System, the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined since the late 1980s. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of such cases in North America and Northern Europe occurred among young adults and injected drug use was the most common risk factor. Other, less commonly reported modes of HCV acquisition are occupational exposure to blood, high-risk sexual activity, tattooing, body piercing and other forms of skin penetration. Finally, the overall rate of mother-to-child transmission from HCV-infected, HIV-negative mothers has been estimated at around 5% (coinfection with HIV raises this figure to 19.4%). HCV prevention relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk of contracting hepatitis C. PMID:18673187

  2. Worm Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  3. Allergic diseases and helminth infections

    OpenAIRE

    Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases wi...

  4. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  5. Immunotherapy of Cryptococcus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antachopoulos, C; Walsh, T J

    2012-02-01

    Despite appropriate antifungal treatment, the management of cryptococcal disease remains challenging, especially in immunocompromised patients, such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals and solid organ transplant recipients. During the past two decades, our knowledge of host immune responses against Cryptococcus spp. has been greatly advanced, and the role of immunomodulation in augmenting the response to infection has been investigated. In particular, the role of 'protective' Th1 (tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-18) and Th17 (IL-23 and IL-17) and 'non-protective' Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) cytokines has been extensively studied in vitro and in animal models of cryptococcal infection. Immunomodulation with monoclonal antibodies against the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan, glucosylceramides, melanin and β-glucan and, lately, with radioimmunotherapy has also yielded promising results in animal models. As a balance between sufficiently protective Th1 responses and excessive inflammation is important for optimal outcome, the effect of immunotherapy may range from beneficial to deleterious, depending on factors related to the host, the infecting organism, and the immunomodulatory regimen. Clinical evidence supporting immunomodulation in patients with cryptococcal infection remains too limited to allow firm recommendations. Limited human data suggest a role for IFN-γ. Identification of surrogate markers characterizing patients' immunological status could possibly suggest candidate patients for immunotherapy and the type of immunomodulation to be administered. PMID:22264261

  6. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Agnese Latino

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t. infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more common among young women <25 years old, with multiple sexual partners within six months and non protected intercourses. Because re-infection rates are high, complications may be reduced if partners are treated and women re-tested. This paper emphasizes the importance of counselling and prevention programs and underlines that selective screening of high-risk population remains an essential component of C.t. control. In the last years, the detection of C.t. infection has been improved in sensitivity and specificity.We describe the main diagnostic techniques, from culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA, direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA to the new DNA-based test systems. Actually, NAATs (nucleic acid amplification tests are regarded as the gold standard diagnostic techniques for chlamydial infections.

  7. Pediatric spinal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The infections of the spinal axis in children are rare when compared with adults. They encompass a large spectrum of diseases ranging from relatively benign diskitis to spinal osteomyleitis and to the rapidly progressive, rare, and potentially devastating spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary spinal cord infections. We present a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to these uncommon entities, in light of our experience from northern India. The most prevalent pediatric spinal infection in Indian scenario is tuberculosis, where an extradural involvement is more common than intradural. The craniovertebral junction is not an uncommon site of involvement in children of our milieu. The majority of pyogenic infections of pediatric spine are associated with congenital neuro-ectodermal defects such as congenital dermal sinus. The clinico-radiological findings of various spinal infections commonly overlap. Hence the endemicity of certain pathogens should be given due consideration, while considering the differential diagnosis. However, early suspicion, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment are the key factors in avoiding neurological morbidity and deformity in a growing child.

  8. Pituitary aspergillus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lauren A; Erstine, Emily M; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    Fungal infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary or sellar mass, albeit fungal infections involving the pituitary gland and sella are a rare occurrence. We report a case of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary gland and sellar region discovered in a 74-year-old man. The patient had a history of hypertension, chronic renal disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and presented with right eye pain, headaches and worsening hemiparesis. Imaging studies revealed a right internal carotid artery occlusion and an acute right pontine stroke along with smaller infarcts in the right middle cerebral artery distribution. Clinically, the patient was thought to have vasculitis. An infectious etiology was not identified. He developed respiratory distress and died. At autopsy, necrotizing meningitis was discovered. A predominantly chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of benign-appearing lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages was accompanied by acute angle branching, angioinvasive hyphae which were highlighted on Gomori methenamine silver staining and were morphologically consistent with Aspergillus species. In previously reported cases of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary or sella, most presented with headaches or impaired vision and were not immunocompromised. A transsphenoidal surgical approach is recommended in suspected cases in order to minimize the risk of dissemination of the infection. Some patients have responded well to antifungal medications once diagnosed. PMID:26896907

  9. HPV Infections in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.

  10. Dengue viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  11. [Urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended. PMID:21850538

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display a...... remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because the...... use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  13. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout A. Bem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.

  14. Zika virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laval, F; Leparc-Goffart, I; Meynard, J-B; Daubigny, H; Simon, F; Briolant, S

    2016-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remained in the shadows emerging in 2007 in Micronesia, where hundreds of dengue-like syndromes were reported. Then, in 2013-2014, it was rife in French Polynesia, where the first neurological effects were observed. More recently, its arrival in Brazil was accompanied by an unusually high number of children with microcephaly born to mothers infected with ZIKV during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be a public health emergency and now talks about a ZIKV pandemic. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about ZIKV infection, successively addressing its transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention before discussing some perspectives. PMID:27412976

  15. Nosocomial Pneumocystis jirovecii infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevez G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne transmission of Pneumocystis sp. from host to host has been demonstrated in rodent models and several observations suggest that interindividual transmission occurs in humans. Moreover, it is accepted that the Pneumocystis organisms infecting each mammalian species are host specific and that the hypothesis of an animal reservoir for Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii, the human-specific Pneumocystis species, can be excluded. An exosaprophytic form of the fungus cannot be strictly ruled out. However, these data point toward the potential for the specific host to serve as its own reservoir and for Pneumocystis infection in humans as an anthroponosis with humans as a reservoir for P. jirovecii. This review highlights the main data on host-to-host transmission of Pneumocystis in rodent models and in humans by the airborne route and provides a rationale for considering the occurrence of nosocomial infections and measures for their prevention

  16. Infections and the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinov Jovan S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology Aging is a natural process and a part of our lives, but nowadays there is an increase in the number of persons aged 65 and over. Today infectious diseases are still responsible for one-third of all deaths in the world. The elderly population is most vulnerable to serious infections and at greatest risk for death and complications. Among geriatric population pneumonia and influenza are the fourth most common cause of death Vaccination One of the goals of preventive medicine is to reduce the rate of complications and mortality from infectious diseases by increasing immunization rates. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are indicated for persons aged 65 and over. Despite well-recognized benefit of such vaccination, less than 50% of eligible patients receive the vaccine each year. Infections Older persons generally have increased susceptibility to infections because of multiple risk factors and they are the most vulnerable population to nosocomial and health-care associated infections. Older persons may manifest infectious diseases atypically, with acute confusion or delirium which can lead into delay in diagnosis and therapy. It is important to know that the older present with delayed or poor response to antimicrobial therapy and high rates of adverse reactions to drugs, including antibiotics Conclusion As elderly population is rapidly growing, majority of patients with serious or life-threatening infections are old. Geriatric issues have not typically been a focus of training in infectious diseases, but we must become aware of and knowledgeable about special and unique aspects of infections in this population.

  17. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  18. Cytomegalovirus Infection in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Jaythoon; O’Neill, Derek; Honari, Bahman; De Gascun, Cillian; Connell, Jeff; Keogan, Mary; Hickey, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections occur worldwide and primary infection usually occurs in early childhood and is often asymptomatic whereas primary infection in adults may result in symptomatic illness. CMV establishes a chronic latent infection with intermittent periods of reactivation. Primary infection or reactivation associate with increased mortality and morbidity in those who are immunocompromised. Transplacental transmission may result in significant birth defects or long-term sensorineural hearing loss. We performed a study to determine the CMV seroprevalence and the association between HLA Class I alleles and frequency of CMV infection in Ireland. The presence of CMV IgG, a marker of previous CMV infection, was determined for a cohort of 1849 HLA typed solid organ transplant donors between 1990 and 2013. The presence of CMV IgG was correlated with HLA type. The CMV seroprevalence in solid organ transplant donors was 33.4% (range 22–48% per annum) over the time period 1990 to 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that both age and HLA alleles were associated with CMV seropositivity. A significant and positive relationship between age and CMV seropositivity was observed (OR = 1.013, P HLA-A1, HLA-A2, and HLA-A3 in our cohort were 40.8%, 48.8%, and 25.9%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of HLA-A1 but not HLA-A2 or HLA-A3 was independently associated with CMV seronegativity (P HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 alleles were significantly more likely to be CMV seropositive (P HLA-B5, HLA-B7, and HLA-B8 in our cohort were 6.1%, 31.2%, and 30.8%, respectively. The presence of the most common inherited haplotype in the Irish population, HLA-A1, B8 was significantly associated with CMV seronegativity (OR = 1.278, P HLA-A1 in the Irish population may, in part, have a role in the reduced susceptibility to CMV infection. PMID:26871815

  19. Herpes zoster infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster (HZ or ′shingles′ results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV. Developmental anomalies, osteonecrosis of jaw bones, and facial scarring are the other complications associated with it. Primary VZV infections in sero-negative individuals are known as varicella or chicken pox. Secondary or reactivated disease is known as shingles or herpes zoster. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the disease in the prodromal phase by the use of antiviral agents should be the mainstay of its management. This paper presents a case report of such an infection and its management.

  20. Lymphangiosarcoma after filarial infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordillo, E.M.; Sordillo, P.P.; Hajdu, S.I.; Good, R.A.

    1981-03-01

    A case of lymphangiosarcoma of a lower extremity is described in a patient with chronic lymphedema of that leg from a filarial infection in childhood. Histologically, the neoplasm resembled lymphangiosarcomas that arise in arms that become lymphedematous after mastectomies, but was different in that it also contained areas of calcification consistent with prior filarial infection. Calcifications were also present in muscle uninvolved by the lymphangiosarcoma of this case. The prolonged survival of this patient is unlike that of most patients with lymphangiosarcoma, which is generally shorter. Although lymphedema after filariasis is common, this is the first case of a lymphangiosarcoma arising in chronic lymphedema of filarial origin.

  1. Imaging spinal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral column, as well as the imaging findings of bacterial, tuberculous, and fungal spondylitis/spondylodiskitis. We review the imaging findings utilizing plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as a discussion regarding advanced imaging techniques.

  2. Re: Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated?

    OpenAIRE

    Dries David J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A response to Struck MF. Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated? Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2009 Oct 9;17(1):51. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 19818134.

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... might have the feeling that you need to go to the bathroom all the time. And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  4. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  5. Cancer treatment: preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are safe. DO NOT eat fish, eggs, or meat that is raw or undercooked. And DO NOT ... During or right after cancer treatment, call your health care provider right away if you have any of the signs of infection mentioned above. Getting ...

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  7. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Skip left navigation ePublications Our ePublications For health professionals Federal ... a UTI treated? Will a UTI hurt my kidneys? How can I keep from getting ... infection Nancy's story It was a normal day at work, but I was tired and ...

  8. Parainfluenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branche, Angela R; Falsey, Ann R

    2016-08-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses of the Paramyoviridaie family. There are four serotypes which cause respiratory illnesses in children and adults. HPIVs bind and replicate in the ciliated epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the extent of the infection correlates with the location involved. Seasonal HPIV epidemics result in a significant burden of disease in children and account for 40% of pediatric hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) and 75% of croup cases. Parainfluenza viruses are associated with a wide spectrum of illnesses which include otitis media, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, croup, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia. Uncommon respiratory manifestations include apnea, bradycardia, parotitis, and respiratory distress syndrome and rarely disseminated infection. Immunity resulting from disease in childhood is incomplete and reinfection with HPIV accounts for 15% of respiratory illnesses in adults. Severe disease and fatal pneumonia may occur in elderly and immunocompromised adults. HPIV pneumonia in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is associated with 50% acute mortality and 75% mortality at 6 months. Though sensitive molecular diagnostics are available to rapidly diagnose HPIV infection, effective antiviral therapies are not available. Currently, treatment for HPIV infection is supportive with the exception of croup where the use of corticosteroids has been found to be beneficial. Several novel drugs including DAS181 appear promising in efforts to treat severe disease in immunocompromised patients, and vaccines to decrease the burden of disease in young children are in development. PMID:27486735

  9. Imaging of Orbital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only because of the threatened vision loss associated with orbital cellulitis but also because of the potential for central nervous system complications including cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, and death. "nOrbital imaging should be obtained in all patients suspected of having orbital cellulitis. CT is preferred to MR imaging, as the orbital tissues have high con-trast and the bone can be well visualized. Orbital CT scanning allows localization of the disease process to the preseptal area, the extraconal or intraconal fat, or the subperiosteal space. Axial CT views allow evaluation of the medial orbit and ethmoid sinuses, whereas coronal scans image the orbital roof and floor and the frontal and maxillary sinuses. If direct coronal imaging is not possible, reconstruction of thin axial cuts may help the assessment of the orbital roof and floor. Potential sources of orbital cellulitis such as sinusitis, dental infection, and facial cellulitis are often detectable on CT imaging. "nIn this presentation, the imaging considerations of the orbital infections; including imaging differentiation criteria of all types of orbital infections are reviewed.

  10. Group B Strep Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Group B Strep Infection Overview What is group B strep? Group B streptococcus, or group B strep for short, is a certain kind ... in the intestine, rectum, and vagina (in women). Group B strep doesn’t usually cause problems in ...

  11. Biophysics of biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Philip S

    2014-04-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could (1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, (2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, (3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and (4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. PMID:24376149

  12. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  13. Vector-borne Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Ronald; Ben Beard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans.

  14. Investigating Shigella sonnei Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your lower belly? Is there blood in your pee? Is your pee cloudy? Does it smell bad when you pee? ... your body. If the doctor finds germs in your pee, it's a sign of infection and he or ...

  16. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oral and vaginal mucosa in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women . Mycopathologia; 176(3–4): 175–81. Return to top This fact sheet was reviewed by: Michail S. Lionakis, M.D., Sc.D., Clinical Investigator, Chief, Fungal Pathogenesis Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute ...

  17. Salmonella Infections in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula-Rudas, Fernando J; Rathore, Mobeen H; Maraqa, Nizar F

    2015-08-01

    Salmonella are gram-negative bacilli within the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animals (pets) are an important reservoir for nontyphoidal Salmonella, whereas humans are the only natural host and reservoir for Salmonella Typhi. Salmonella infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They account for an estimated 2.8 billion cases of diarrheal disease each year. The transmission of Salmonella is frequently associated with the consumption of contaminated water and food of animal origin, and it is facilitated by conditions of poor hygiene. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections have a worldwide distribution, whereas most typhoidal Salmonella infections in the United States are acquired abroad. In the United States, Salmonella is a common agent for food-borne–associated infections. Several outbreaks have been identified and are most commonly associated with agricultural products. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is usually characterized by a self-limited gastroenteritis in immunocompetent hosts in industrialized countries, but it may also cause invasive disease in vulnerable individuals (eg, children less than 1 year of age, immunocompromised). Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for treatment of mild to moderate gastroenteritis by nontyphoidal Salmonella in immunocompetent adults or children more than 1 year of age. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in infants less than 3 months of age, because they are at higher risk for bacteremia and extraintestinal complications. Typhoid (enteric) fever and its potential complications have a significant impact on children, especially those who live in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of typhoid fever has become challenging because of the emergence of Salmonella Typhi strains that are resistant to classically used first-line agents: ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. The

  18. [Immunodepression and pulmonary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, N A; Ngoran, N; de Jaureguiberry, J P; Bérard, H; Jaubert, D

    2002-11-01

    The acquired immunosuppressed states are increasingly numerous. Pneumopathies are a frequent, serious complication and etiologic diagnosis is often difficult. The nature of the micro-organism in question is a function of the immunizing type of deficiency. In neutropenias, the infections are primarily bacterial, their potential gravity being correlated with the depth of the deficiency into polynuclear, or fungic, especially in prolonged neutropenias. The aspleened states are responsible for a deficit of the macrophage system and contribute to the infections with encapsulated germs (pneumococci, klebsiellas...). The organic grafts imply an attack of cell-mediated immunity, in the particular case of the auxiliary T lymphocytes (CD4)), with a special predisposition for viral and fungic infections. During VIH infection, the immunizing deficit of CD4 lymphocytes worsens with time. At the early stage, the infections are especially bacterial. At the more advanced stages, the pulmonary pneumocystosis and tuberculosis dominate. At the late stage, finally, deep immunosuppression allows emerging of the atypical mycobacteries. In the deficiencies of humoral immunity (congenital hypogammaglobulinemias, lymphoid hemopathies B), the germs to be mentioned are the pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, the salmonellas and the legionellas. Immunosuppressed pneumopathies are characterized by radio-clinical pictures of very variable gravity, ranging from focused acute pneumopathy to bilateral diffuse pneumopathy with acute respiratory distress syndrome, with phases of atypical tables with respiratory symptomatology larval or absent. The highlighting of the micro-organisms in question requires urgent complementary investigations: hemocultures, bronchiolo-alveolar washing. In certain cases, it will be possible to resort to the transtracheal puncture or transthoracic puncture guided by tomodensitometry, and if necessary to pulmonary biopsy under videothoracoscopy. Emergency of the anti

  19. Mycobacterium avium infection improved by microbial substitution of fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    We reported a case of Mycobacterium avium infection in which disease activity appeared to have been suppressed after fungal infection. After the increase in β-D-glucan, her symptoms of fever and chest pain disappeared. We think this phenomenon may be microbial substitution and mild fungal infection may improve the activity due to M avium.

  20. Herpesvirus infection of eye and brain in HIV infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R.; Howard, M; Frith, P.; Perrons, C.; Pecorella, I.; Lucas, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To compare histological with genome detection methods for diagnosis of herpesvirus infection in eye and brain of HIV infected patients undergoing necropsy and to correlate these findings with both antemortem clinical findings and postmortem evidence of extraocular herpesvirus infection, especially in the CNS.

  1. Preventing Infections in the Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share | With attention increasing on the incidence of infection in hospitals, patients everywhere need sensible principles to manage their ... will reduce the chance of developing a lung infection while in the hospital and may also improve your healing abilities following ...

  2. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet Updated March 2016 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species ...

  3. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is ... thrush, frequently occurs in infants and toddlers. If Candida infections become chronic or occur in the mouth of ...

  4. Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection caused by a type of fungus called candida albicans . Yeast infections usually happen in warm, moist parts of the ... fungus can grow. Doctors call this candida overgrowth candidiasis (pronounced: can-dih-DYE-uh-sis) Candida can ...

  5. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features ... of the warm, moist conditions inside the diaper. Candida infection is particularly common in people with diabetes and ...

  6. Infective endocarditis, 1984 through 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Hagelskjaer, L H; Tvede, M

    1997-01-01

    To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population.......To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population....

  7. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2016-01-01

    A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  8. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J;

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis that...... the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  9. Rheumatoid arthritis and bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    N L Prokopjeva; N N Vesikova; I M Marusenko; V A Ryabkov

    2008-01-01

    To study features of bacterial infections course in pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and changes of laboratory measures after focus of infection sanation. Material and methods. 46 pts with definite rheumatoid arthritis were examined at the time of comorbid infection (Cl) detection and after infection focus sanation. Bacteriological test with evaluation of flora sensitivity to antibiotics by disco-diffusion method was performed at baseline and after the course of antibacterial therapy to ass...

  10. Managing infection: a holistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, Khaled Abdullah

    2015-05-01

    All wound infection presents risks for the patient, but the risks are multiplied in the presence of a comorbidity such as diabetes, when they can potentially be fatal. Where diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) infection is concerned, early recognition is crucial. Prompt treatment, comprising wound cleansing, debridement of devitalised tissue and use of antimicrobial dressings, can stop locally infected ulcers from deteriorating further. PMID:26079164

  11. Herpesvirus infections in childhood: 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathwani, D; Wood, M J

    Infections due to herpesviruses have received increasing attention over the past decade, culminating in the isolation in 1986 of human herpesvirus-6. This is the second of two articles in which we examine the clinical spectrum of acquired herpesvirus infections in children and review developments in our understanding of the molecular biology, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of these infections. PMID:8242213

  12. Varicella infection modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.

  13. Preventing HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, T J; Collins, C

    1998-07-01

    The primary way of preventing HIV infections is to change behaviors that enable transmission of the virus, specifically those behaviors relating to sex and drug injection. Realistic public health workers have focused on encouraging adoption of safer sexual practices, primarily condom use. The fundamental way to persuade people to engage in preventive practices is through targeted education aimed at particularly at-risk communities. Other effective behavioral interventions against HIV infections are: testing and follow-up counseling; comprehensive sex education; peer influence and community action; advertising and marketing; easing access to condoms; physician-patient dialogue; drug treatment; access to clean needles; and direct outreach. On the contrary, interventions that do not work are the following: one-time exposure to information; delivering a single message; abstinence-only programs; and coercive measures to identify people with HIV or their sexual partners. PMID:9648304

  14. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  15. Infection Prophylaxis Update

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Patrick; Bullocks, Jamal; Matthews, Martha

    2006-01-01

    The use of prophylactic antibiotics in surgery has been debated for numerous years. Although their indications have been elucidated in the general surgery literature, their role in plastic surgery has yet to be clearly defined. Although the incidence of surgical site infections in clean, elective plastic surgery procedures has been reported to be as low as 1.1%, the use of antibiotics has surged over the past 20 years. Much of the increased use has been attributed to common surgical practice ...

  16. Herpes zoster infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohit Bansal; Sunint Singh; Saryu Arora; Sanjeev Laller; Manpeet Walia

    2012-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) or ′shingles′ results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Developmental anomalies, osteonecrosis of jaw bones, and facial scarring are the other complications associated with it. Primary VZV infections in sero-negative individuals are known as varicella or chicken pox. Secondary or reactivated disease is known as shingles or herpes zoster. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the disease in the prodromal phase by the use of antiviral agents should be t...

  17. Nosocomial Pneumocystis jirovecii infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nevez G.; Chabé M.; Rabodonirina M.; Virmaux M.; Dei-Cas E.; Hauser P.M.; Totet A.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne transmission of Pneumocystis sp. from host to host has been demonstrated in rodent models and several observations suggest that interindividual transmission occurs in humans. Moreover, it is accepted that the Pneumocystis organisms infecting each mammalian species are host specific and that the hypothesis of an animal reservoir for Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii), the human-specific Pneumocystis species, can be excluded. An exosaprophytic form of the fungus cannot be strictly r...

  18. Stop C. difficile Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  19. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  20. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  1. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection. PMID:27096872

  2. Hyperbilirubinemia and Neonatal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholmali Maamouri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperbilirubinemia is a relatively common disorder among infants in Iran. Bacterial infection and jaundice may be associated with higher morbidity. Previous studies have reported that jaundice may be one of the signs of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate, presentation time, severity of jaundice, signs and complications of infection within neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.   Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted between 2003 and 2011, at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad- Iran. We prospectively evaluated 1763 jaundiced newborns. We Finally found 434 neonates who were categorized into two groups.131 neonates as case group (Blood or/and Urine culture positive or sign of pneumonia and 303 neonates with idiopathic jaundice as control group. Demographic data including prenatal, intrapartum, postnatal events and risk factors were collected by questionnaire. Biochemical markers including bilirubin level, urine and blood cultures were determined at the request of the clinicians.   Results: Jaundice presentation time, age on admission, serum bilirubin value and hospitalization period were reported significantly higher among case group in comparison with control group (p

  3. Achromobacter respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Colin E; Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2015-02-01

    Achromobacteria are ubiquitous environmental organisms that may also become opportunistic pathogens in certain conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, hematologic and solid organ malignancies, renal failure, and certain immune deficiencies. Some members of this genus, such as xylosoxidans, cause primarily nosocomially acquired infections affecting multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and, less commonly, the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Despite an increasing number of published case reports and literature reviews suggesting a global increase in achromobacterial disease, most clinicians remain uncertain of the organism's significance when clinically isolated. Moreover, effective treatment can be challenging due to the organism's inherent and acquired multidrug resistance patterns. We reviewed all published cases to date of non-cystic fibrosis achromobacterial lung infections to better understand the organism's pathogenic potential and drug susceptibilities. We found that the majority of these cases were community acquired, typically presenting as pneumonias (88%), and were most frequent in individuals with hematologic and solid organ malignancies. Our findings also suggest that achromobacterial lung infections are difficult to treat, but respond well to extended-spectrum penicillins and cephalosporins, such as ticarcillin, piperacillin, and cefoperazone. PMID:25706494

  4. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim N. Mak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs. IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection.

  5. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As an ... fungal infections. What you need to know about fungal infections Fungal infections can range from mild to life- ...

  6. Pyogenic infection and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, I. F.; Deans, A. C.; Keat, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    Ten episodes of severe pyogenic infection occurring in nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis are reported. There was a wide range of presenting features including pyoarthrosis in 7 episodes. Three cases presented with meningitis, bacterial endocarditis and probable multiple abscesses respectively. Infection was caused by Staphylococcus aureus in 7 episodes and by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus in each of one episode. Three infective episodes were fatal. Pyogenic, especially staphylococcal, infection should be considered in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with unexplained illness with or without sudden deterioration in joint symptoms. It is important to recognize and treat infection rapidly. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3671222

  7. Interaction of obesity and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Bailey, D; Thomas, D

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that certain infections may induce obesity. Obese persons may also have more severe infections and have compromised response to therapies. The objective of this study is to review the available literature identifying infections that potentially contribute to greater body mass index (BMI) and differential responses of overweight and obese persons to infections. A systematic literature review of human studies examining associations between infections and weight gain, differential susceptibility, severity, and response to prevention and treatment of infection according to BMI status (January 1980-July 2014) was conducted. Three hundred and forty-three studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that viral infection by human adenovirus Ad36 and antibiotic eradication of Helicobacter pylori were followed by weight gain. People who were overweight or obese had higher susceptibility to developing post-surgical infections, H1N1 influenza and periodontal disease. More severe infections tended to be present in people with a larger BMI. People with a higher BMI had a reduced response to vaccinations and antimicrobial drugs. Higher doses of antibiotics were more effective in obese patients. Infections may influence BMI, and BMI status may influence response to certain infections, as well as to preventive and treatment measures. These observations have potential clinical implications. PMID:26354800

  8. [Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Masumi; Fukuda, Yoshihiro

    2009-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is mainly acquired in the first 2 or 3 years and the risk of infection declines rapidly after 5 years of age. In developing countries, acquisition age of the infection is probably lower than in developed countries. In Japan, main transmission route is intrafamilial and mother to children infection is most important. But in developing countries, some reports suggest that extrafamilial infection is more important. The famous paper revealed that H. pylori can be cultivated from vomitus, saliva and cathartic stools and the possibility of source of H. pylori infection. Bed sharing, large number of family members, delayed weaning from a feeding bottle, regurgitated gastric juice in the mother's mouth are reported as risk factors of the infection. PMID:19999106

  9. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  10. SPHINGOMONAS PAUCIMOBILIS INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN: NOSOCOMIAL VERSUS COMMUNITY ACQUIRED INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Bayram

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a causative agent of infection in immunocompromised patients, and healthcare-associated infections. Although the infections associated with S.paucimobilis occurs rarely, it has been encountered with increasing frequency in clinical settings. In the current study we noted the risk factors and clinical features of the children with S.paucimobilis infections, and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolated strains among the patients. This study was conducted in Dr. Behçet Uz Children’s Hospital, Turkey, during the period of January 2005 and December 2012. The medical records of pediatric patients with positive cultures for S.paucimobilis were reviewed. Sphingomonas paucimobilis isolates were recovered from 24 pediatric patients. The median age was 4 years (ranging from 3 days infant to 15 years and 58,3% were male. Eight (33,3% of the patients were under 1 months of age. Among the patients; 13 (54,2% infections were community related however 11(45.8% infections were nosocomial infection. The median duration of hospital stay was 7 days (ranging from 4 to 22 days. The most effective antibiotics were fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This is the first largest study in children to evaluate the clinical features of S. paucimobilis infections. Sphingomonas paucimobilis may cause infections in both previously healthy and immunocompromised children. Although variable antimicrobial regimens were achieved to the patients, there was no attributable fatality due to S.paucimobilis infections due to the low virulence of the bacteria.

  11. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper F W; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  12. Haemolymph Components of Infected & None Infected Lymnaea Snails with Xiphidiocercariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Saboor Yaraghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study the haemolymph components of infected and none infected Lymnaea gedrosiana with xiphidiocercaria larvae was compared.Methods: Five hundred Fifty Lymnaea snails were collected from Ilam and Mazandaran prov­inces, Iran, during 2008-2009. The snails were transported to the lab at Tehran University of Medi­cal Sciences and their cercarial sheddings were studied. Haemolmyphs of snails were ex­tracted and cells were counted using haemocytometer and cell-surface carbohydrate were recog­nized by conjugated lectin (Lentil. Haemolymph protein concentrations were measured by Brad­ford protein assay method and soluble protein compositions were determined on sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Result: From the 550 examined Lymnaea snails for cercariae, 27 snails were infected with xiphidiocer­cariae. Mean of haemolymph cells (haemocyte number were obtained 93480±2.43 (cells/ml for none infected snails (25 snail and 124560±2800 (cells/ml for infected snails (25 snail. Mannose carbohydrate was recognized on haemocyte of none infected and infected snails. Mean of protein concentration of haemolymph plasma was obtained as 1354 ± 160 μg/ml (1.4 mg/ml for none infected snails (25 snails and 1802±138 μg/ml (1.8 mg/ml for infected snail (25 snails. Comparing to none infected snails, the SDS-PAGE results of haemolymph plasma of infected snails, showed an extra protein band (70 kDa. The results showed a significant differ­ence between the amounts and the kinds of proteins in haemolymph of infected and none infected snails.Conclusion: This information might be useful to understand of parasite detection, adhesion, engulf­ment and antigen agglutination by snail.

  13. Spargana infection of frogs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastura, A B; Ambu, S; Hasnah, O; Rosli, R

    1996-03-01

    Frogs caught from two States (Selangor and Langkawi) in Malaysia were examined for spargana of Spirometra sp. Infected frogs usually show no marks of infection but some had swelling and bleeding at the infection site. The size and weight of the infected frogs did not correlate with the infection status. The infection status in relation to human health is discussed. PMID:9031400

  14. Retinitis due to opportunistic infections in Iranian HIV infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We tried to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of Iranian HIV infected patients with retinitis due to opportunistic infections. In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 106 HIV infected patients via indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp examination by 90 lens to find retinitis cases. General information and results of ophthalmologic examination were analyzed. Prevalence of retinitis due to opportunistic infections was 6.6%: cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis 1.88%, toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis 1.88% and tuberculosis chorioretinitis 2.83%. CD4 count was higher than 50 cell/µlit in both cases with CMV retinitis. Along with increasing survival in the HIV infected patients, the prevalence of complications such as ocular manifestation due to opportunistic infections are increasing and must be more considered.

  15. Characterizing Internet Worm Infection Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Internet worm infection continues to be one of top security threats. Moreover, worm infection has been widely used by botnets to recruit new bots and construct P2P-based botnets. In this work, we attempt to characterize the network structure of Internet worm infection and shed light on the micro-level information of "who infects whom." Our work quantifies the infection ability of individual hosts and reveals the key characteristics of the underlying topologies formed by worm infection, i.e., the number of children and the generation of the Internet worm infection family tree. Specifically, we first analyze the infection tree of a wide class of worms, for which a new victim is compromised by each existing infected host with equal probability. We find that the number of children has asymptotically a geometric distribution with parameter 0.5. We also discover that the generation follows closely a Poisson distribution and the average path length of the worm infection family tree increases approximately logarithmi...

  16. Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Soo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.

  17. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...

  18. Paediatric respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Everard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide and are responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. During the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, some of the main findings from peer-reviewed articles addressing this topic that were published in the preceding 12 months were reviewed in a Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session. The following article highlights some of the insights provided by these articles into the complex interactions of the human host with the extensive and dynamic populations of microorganisms that call an individual “home”.

  19. Circoviral infections in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivetić Vojin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Circoviral infections in swine have appeared only recently and they today attract the attention of large numbers of researchers all over the world. They represent a great mystery, an unknown in veterinary medicine, both in our country and in the world. The causes of these infections are circoviruses, called after the DNA which is shaped like a circle. A large number of authors today believe the PCV-2 causes two pathological entities in weaned piglets which are known as porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS and porcine dermatitis nephropathy syndrome (PDNS. Current investigations indicate that there is a causal connection between these two syndromes. These two new diseases, which have recently spread all over the world, cause serious losses, great concern and confusion, especially when they occur simultaneously or in a sequence in the same herd, or in parallel with other pathogenes, primarily with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and the porcine parvovirus (PPV. PMWS was first described in Canada in 1991. It most often affect pigs aged 5-12 weeks. The main clinical expression, depending on the stage of progression is diarrhea, delayed development or depressed growth, stuntedness, dyspnea ictherus, eyelid swelling, and lymphadenopathy. More rarely, there are neurological symptoms. Prominent suppression of the immune system is the main characteristic of PMWS, and a wave of secondary bacterial infection is also observed. PDNS is a new disease of economic importance, which mostly affects older swine, from 5 weeks to 5 months of age. The most prominent clinical symptoms in seriously ill piglets is extensive dermatitis, mostly on the chest, abdomen, haunches and forelegs, with the appearance of purple-red swellings of different shape and size. The swine are depressive febrile, anorectic, all of which leads to stunted growth. They are inactive. Mortality is often about 15%. PDNS is a differentially diagnostically

  20. Tropheryma whipplei infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Whipple's disease was initially described in 1907. Over the next century, the clinical and pathological features of this disorder have been better appreciated. Most often, weight loss, diarrhea, abdominal and joint pain occur. Occasionally, other sites of involvement have been documented, including isolated neurological disease, changes in the eyes and culture-negative endocarditis. In the past decade, the responsible organism Tropheryma whipplei has been cultivated, its genome sequenced and its antibiotic susceptibility defined. Although rare, it is a systemic infection that may mimic a wide spectrum of clinical disorders and may have a fatal outcome. If recognized, prolonged antibiotic therapy may be a very successful form of treatment.

  1. Opportunistic Infections in Patients with HTLV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an acquired immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is primarily responsible for opportunistic infections in infected patients. However, opportunistic infections also occur in individuals with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infection. Here, we report opportunistic infections in two Japanese HTLV-1-seropositive patients. The first patient was a 67-year-old male, who had cytomegalovirus infection associated with esophagogastritis and terminal ileitis. The patient was HTLV-1-positive and was diagnosed with smoldering adult T cell leukemia (ATL. High levels of serum soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R; 4,304 U/mL and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (75.5% in peripheral blood were also detected. The second patient was a 78-year-old female, a known asymptomatic HTLV-1 carrier, who presented with persistent herpes zoster, followed by Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Disease progression of smoldering ATL along opportunistic infections was observed with very high levels of serum sIL-2R (14,058 U/mL and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (87.2% in peripheral blood. In patients with suspected opportunistic infections, both HTLV-1 and HIV should be considered. In HTLV-1-positive patients, an increase in the CD4+CD25+ T cell subset may have its value as a prognostic marker.

  2. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F

    2003-01-01

    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms). PMID:12861708

  3. "RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF PARAINFLUENZA INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Rahbarimanesh

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available According to statistical data from WHO, respiratory tract infections are among the most important health problems all over the world. Differentiating viral from other causes of respiratory infections is difficult, but a good knowledge of viral etiologic factors can guide the physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. We carried out this descriptive, case-series study to evaluate the relative frequency of parainfluenza virus (PIV infections in upper and lower respiratory tract infections. A total of 263 three children with respiratory infection were studied from autumn 1998 to autumn 2000. We prepared samples from their nasopharynx with sterile swabs for viral culture and study of cytopathic effects of PIV. Thirty six cases had positive culture for PIV (14%. There was a significant statistical correlation between the prevalence of PIV infection and age of patients. The highest prevalence was in the of 1-5 years old age group. There was also a correlation with season, and majority of cases were seen in autumn and spring (P< 0.0001. There was no significant correlation between PIV infection and sex. PIV infection had significant correlation with croup and bronchiolitis (P<0.0001. PIV plays an important role in causing lower respiratory tract infections.

  4. Cross-species infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R A

    2003-01-01

    Animals have always been a major source of human infectious disease. Some infections like rabies are recognized as primary zoonoses caused in each case by direct animal-to-human transmission, whereas others like measles become independently sustained within the human population so that the causative virus has diverged from its morbillivirus progenitor in ruminants. Recent examples of direct zoonoses are variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease arising from bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and the H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Hong Kong. Recent epidemic diseases of animal origin are the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic, and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome pandemic caused by human immunodeficiency virus. Some retroviruses move into and out of the chromosomal DNA of the host germline, so that they may oscillate between being an avirulent inherited Mendelian trait in one species and an infectious pathogen in another. Cross-species viral and other infections are reviewed historically with respect to the evolution of virulence and the concern about iatrogenic enhancement of cross-species transfer by medical procedures akin to xenotransplantation. PMID:12934941

  5. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarguna P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS shunt infection is a cause of significant morbidity, causing shunt malfunction and chronic ill health. This study was carried out to evaluate the infection rate associated with CNS shunts, assess the frequency of the pathogens as well as their antibiotic sensitivity pattern aiming at suitable prophylaxis. A retrospective analysis of 226 CSF cerebrospinal fluid (CSF shunt procedures sent for bacteriological work up over a period of one year and six months was undertaken. Laboratory diagnosis was established by subjecting the CSF to cell count, biochemical tests, bacteriological culture and antibiotic susceptibility test. Nine out of 226(3.98% of the CSF samples were culture positive. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus was the most common isolate accounting for 36.36%. Majority of the isolates were sensitive to the thirdgeneration cephalosporins and quinolones. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern suggests cephalosporins and quinolones to be a better choice of antibiotics either prophylactically or therapeutically, which may result in effective and rapid sterilisation of the CSF.

  6. Enterovirus D68 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Esposito

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available First described in 1962 in children hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis, the Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68 is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its discovery, during the long period of surveillance up to 2005, EV-D68 was reported only as a cause of sporadic outbreaks. In recent years, many reports from different countries have described an increasing number of patients with respiratory diseases due to EV-D68 associated with relevant clinical severity. In particular, an unexpectedly high number of children have been hospitalized for severe respiratory disease due to EV-D68, requiring intensive care such as intubation and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, EV-D68 has been associated with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction in children, which has caused concerns in the community. As no specific antiviral therapy is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Moreover, because no vaccines are available, conventional infection control measures (i.e., standard, for contacts and droplets in both community and healthcare settings are recommended. However, further studies are required to fully understand the real importance of this virus. Prompt diagnosis and continued surveillance of EV-D68 infections are essential to managing and preventing new outbreaks. Moreover, if the association between EV-D68 and severe diseases will be confirmed, the development of adequate preventive and therapeutic approaches are a priority.

  7. Prevention of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Urogenital chlamydia infection, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in Sweden. In 2008 it was estimated by WHO that there were 105.7 million new cases of CT worldwide, an increase by 4.2 million cases (4.1%) compared to 2005. If untreated, CT infections can progress to serious reproductive health problems, especially in women. These complications include subfertility/infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pain. Th...

  8. CNS infections in immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CNS infections caused by infective agents are rare in immunocompetent hosts, but more frequent in immunocompromised patients. In addition, the spectrum of causative agents is completely different. There are no pathognomonic alterations in radiologic imaging, even in clinically severely ill patients imaging is often non-specific or inconspicious. This article gives a review of the most frequent infective agents and image alterations. Modern radiology is not yet able to replace the gold standard of pathogen detection. (orig.)

  9. Photochemotherapeutic Strategy against Acanthamoeba Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Aqeel, Yousuf; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Anwar, Ayaz; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Khoja, Shahrukh; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a protist pathogen that can cause serious human infections, including blinding keratitis and a granulomatous amoebic encephalitis that almost always results in death. The current treatment for these infections includes a mixture of drugs, and even then, a recurrence can occur. Photochemotherapy has shown promise in the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections; however, the selective targeting of pathogenic Acanthamoeba has remained a major concern. The mannose-binding protein is a...

  10. Fungal infection of the colon

    OpenAIRE

    Praneenararat S

    2014-01-01

    Surat PraneenararatDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandAbstract: Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its con...

  11. SECONDARY INFECTIONS IN SWINE FLU

    OpenAIRE

    Duthade Mangala; Damle Ajit; Bhakare Jayshree; Bajaj.Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Swine influenza is respiratory disease of pigs ca used by type A influenza virus that causes regular outbr eak in pigs. Human to human transmission occurs. Some people develop severe respiratory symptoms and need ventilator. Patients can get secondary bacterial infections in the form of pneumonia if vi ral infections persist. Death of swine flu occurs d ue to secondary bacterial infections leading to bacter ial pneumonia...

  12. Immunological aspects of Giardia infections

    OpenAIRE

    Heyworth Martin F.

    2014-01-01

    Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-spe...

  13. Pyogenic infection and rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, I F; Deans, A. C.; Keat, A C

    1987-01-01

    Ten episodes of severe pyogenic infection occurring in nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis are reported. There was a wide range of presenting features including pyoarthrosis in 7 episodes. Three cases presented with meningitis, bacterial endocarditis and probable multiple abscesses respectively. Infection was caused by Staphylococcus aureus in 7 episodes and by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus in each of one episode. Three infective ep...

  14. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    OpenAIRE

    Smeekens, S P; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B J; Netea, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the...

  15. Ocular manifestations of HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Jabs, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of ocular complications and the clinical outcomes of these complications in patients with various stages of HIV infection. METHODS: Retrospective review of all HIV-infected patients seen in an AIDS ophthalmology clinic from November 1983 through December 31, 1992. RESULTS: Eleven-hundred sixty-three patients were seen for ophthalmologic evaluation. Of these, 781 had the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 226 had symptomatic HIV infection (AIDs-rel...

  16. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment. PMID:24761733

  17. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... or through the anus. Adults and children with pork tapeworm can infect themselves if they have poor ...

  18. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. PMID:27079865

  19. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The main infection routes are ingestion of cysts from raw or badly-cooked meat, ingestion of oocysts from substrates contaminated with the feces of infected felines and congenital transmission by tachyzoites. The congenital form results in a severe systemic disease, because if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, she can present a temporary parasitemia that will infect the fetus. Many of the clinical symptoms are seen in congenitally-infected children, from a mild disease to serious signs, such as mental retardation. Early diagnosis during the pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection, through treatment of pregnant women, reducing the probability of fetal infection and consequent substantial damage to the fetus. Conventional tests for establishment of a fetal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include options from serology to PCR. Prevention of human toxoplasmosis is based on care to avoid infection, understanding the disease and serological exams during gestation. Pregnant women should be tested serologically from three months gestation, until one month after childbirth. Inclusion of serology for congenital toxoplasmosis along with the basic Guthrie test for PKU is of fundamental importance for early diagnosis of infection and so that treatment is initiated, in order to avoid possible sequels in the infant.

  1. Rhinovirus Infection Induces Degradation of Antimicrobial Peptides and Secondary Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Mallia; Joseph Footitt; Rosa Sotero; Annette Jepson; Marco Contoli; Maria-Belen Trujillo-Torralbo; Tatiana Kebadze; Julia Aniscenko; Gregory Oleszkiewicz; Katrina Gray; Message, Simon D.; Kazuhiro Ito; Barnes, Peter J; Adcock, Ian M.; Alberto Papi

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections.

  2. Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated?

    OpenAIRE

    Struck Manuel F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract With great interest, I read the paper of David J. Dries about recent developments, infection control and outcomes research in the management of burn injuries 1. I have some comments about an important, however missing, topic in the paragraphs concerning infection control.

  3. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    -vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial......Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...

  4. Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D. de Vries

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field.

  5. The Eosinophil in Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, Karen A; Loy, Michael

    2016-04-01

    First described by Paul Ehrlich in 1879, who noted its characteristic staining by acidophilic dyes, for many years, the eosinophil was considered to be an end-effector cell associated with helminth infections and a cause of tissue damage. Over the past 30 years, research has helped to elucidate the complexity of the eosinophil's function and establish its role in host defense and immunity. Eosinophils express an array of ligand receptors which play a role in cell growth, adhesion, chemotaxis, degranulation, and cell-to-cell interactions. They play a role in activation of complement via both classical and alternative pathways. Eosinophils synthesize, store and secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They can process antigen, stimulate T cells, and promote humoral responses by interacting with B cells. Eosinophils can function as antigen presenting cells and can regulate processes associated with both T1 and T2 immunity. Although long known to play a role in defense against helminth organisms, the interactions of eosinophils with these parasites are now recognized to be much more complex. In addition, their interaction with other pathogens continues to be investigated. In this paper, we review the eosinophil's unique biology and structure, including its characteristic granules and the effects of its proteins, our developing understanding of its role in innate and adaptive immunity and importance in immunomodulation, and the part it plays in defense against parasitic, viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Rather than our worst enemy, the eosinophil may, in fact, be one of the most essential components in host defense and immunity. PMID:26690368

  6. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  7. Urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970374 The relationship between chronic pyelitis andcytomegalovirus infection: a primary study. LI Na(李娜), et al. 81021st Milit Hosp, Changchun,130021. Chin J Med Lab Sci 1997; 20(1): 26-27. Objective: To research the relationship betweenchronic pyelitis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection.

  8. Ear Infections and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  9. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  10. SIV Infection of Lung Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    Full Text Available HIV-1 depletes CD4+ T cells in the blood, lymphatic tissues, gut and lungs. Here we investigated the relationship between depletion and infection of CD4+ T cells in the lung parenchyma. The lungs of 38 Indian rhesus macaques in early to later stages of SIVmac251 infection were examined, and the numbers of CD4+ T cells and macrophages plus the frequency of SIV RNA+ cells were quantified. We showed that SIV infected macrophages in the lung parenchyma, but only in small numbers except in the setting of interstitial inflammation where large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages were detected. However, even in this setting, the number of macrophages was not decreased. By contrast, there were few infected CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma, but CD4+ T cells were nonetheless depleted by unknown mechanisms. The CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma were depleted even though they were not productively infected, whereas SIV can infect large numbers of macrophages in the setting of interstitial inflammation without depleting them. These observations point to the need for future investigations into mechanisms of CD4+ T cell depletion at this mucosal site, and into mechanisms by which macrophage populations are maintained despite high levels of infection. The large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages in lungs in the setting of interstitial inflammation indicates that lung macrophages can be an important source for SIV persistent infection.

  11. Trichinella infection and clinical disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M R; Meyer, C N; Krantz, T;

    1996-01-01

    Trichinellosis is caused by ingestion of insufficiently cooked meat contaminated with infective larvae of Trichinella species. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from no apparent infection to severe and even fatal disease. We report two illustrative cases of trichinellosis. Returning...

  12. Serious complications after infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes.......The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes....

  13. Infections associated with body modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samson Sai-Yin; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-12-01

    Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus), and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures. PMID:23265745

  14. Raccoon Roundworm Infection PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This 60 second PSA describes the signs and symptoms of and ways to prevent Baylisascaris infection, a parasitic roundworm infection that is spread through raccoon feces.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  15. Petriellidium boydii infection of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of Petriellidium boydii (synonym: Allescheria boydii) infection of the knee joint is described. It followed a penetrating soft tissue injury with a pitchfork. Such infections are rare in this country and bone involvement has not been recorded previously except in maduramycosis contracted in tropical areas. (orig.)

  16. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.P.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility

  17. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. PMID:27004142

  18. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Top of page What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that involves ... page What is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)? A catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurs when germs (usually bacteria) ...

  19. Approach to urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C L; Banday, K A

    2009-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in certain age groups and has different connotations. It needs to be treated and completely cured in pregnant women and preschool children. Reflux nephropathy in children could result in chronic kidney disease; otherwise, urinary tract infections do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease. Symptomatic urinary tract infections occur most commonly in women of child-bearing age. Cystitis predominates, but needs to be distinguished from acute urethral syndrome that affects both sexes and has a different management plan than UTIs. The prostatitis symptoms are much more common than bacterial prostatic infections. The treatment needs to be prolonged in bacterial prostatitis and as cure rates are not very high and relapses are common, the classification of prostatitis needs to be understood. The consensus conference convened by National Institute of Health added two more groups of patients, namely, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in addition to acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Although white blood cells in urine signify inflammation, they do not always signify UTI. Quantitative cultures of urine provide definitive evidence of UTI. Imaging studies should be done 3-6 weeks after cure of acute infection to identify abnormalities predisposing to infection or renal damage or which may affect management. Treatment of cystitis in women should be a three-day course and if

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    . Also noninvasive tests have been studied in children, including serology, 13C-urea breath test and stool antigen test, showing good results in the different age groups as compared to the gold standard. However, the infection often remains asymptomatic in children and the role of this bacterium in...... gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take......A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...

  1. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy. A diagnosis of infection is thus an important part of a treatment strategy of many gastrointestinal tract diseases. Many diagnostic tests are available but all have some limitations in different clinical situations and laboratory settings. A single gold standard cannot available, but be used for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in daily clinical practice in all areas, so several techniques have been developed to give reliable results, especially focusing on real time endoscopic features. The narrow band imaging system (NBI) and high resolution endoscopy are imaging techniques for enhanced visualization of infected mucosa and premalignant gastric lesions. The aim of this article is to review the current diagnostic options and possible future developments detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. PMID:27221831

  2. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanne P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-06-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series. PMID:23629947

  3. Concurrent infection of Japanese encephalitis and mixed plasmodium infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Chandra Bhatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE and malaria would coexist in the areas where both illnesses are endemic with overlapping clinical pictures, especially in a case of febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. However, there are no published data till date showing concurrent infection of these two agents despite both diseases being coendemic in many areas. We report a case of concurrent infection of JE and mixed plasmodium infection, where the case, initially diagnosed as cerebral malaria did not improve on antimalarials and alternative diagnosis of JEV encephalitis was thought which was confirmed by a serological test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of concurrent Japanese encephalitis with mixed plasmodium infection. We report a case of 3-year-old male child, who presented with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. Based on a rapid diagnostic test and peripheral smear examination, a diagnosis of mixed P.Vivax and P.falciparum infection was made and the patient was treated with quinine and doxycycline. However, besides giving antimalarials the patient did not improve and an alternative diagnosis of JE was considered as the patient was from the endemic zone of Japanese encephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of the patient was sent for a virological study which came out to be positive for JE IgM in CSF, which is confirmatory of JE infection. In a patient with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly especially in areas coendemic for JE and malaria, the possibility of mixed infection should be kept in mind.

  4. Dengue Virus Infection Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Infected Mosquito Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Rushika M.; Riley, Catherine; Isaac, Georgis; Hopf- Jannasch, Amber; Moore, Ronald J.; Weitz, Karl K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Adamec, Jiri; Kuhn, Richard J.

    2012-03-22

    Dengue virus causes {approx}50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  5. Infections and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    The high percentage of disease-discordant pairs of monozygotic twins demonstrates the central role of environmental factors in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Efforts were first focussed on the search for triggering factors. The study of animal models has clearly shown that infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, as in the case of Coxsackie B4 virus in type I diabetes and the encephalomyocarditis virus in autoimmune myositis, two models in which viruses are thought to act by increasing immunogenicity of autoantigens secondary to local inflammation. The induction of a Guillain-Barré syndrome in rabbits after immunization with a peptide derived from Campylobacter jejuni is explained by mimicry between C. jejuni antigens and peripheral nerve axonal antigens. Other models involve chemical modification of autoantigens, as in the case of iodine-induced autoimmune thyroiditis. These mechanisms have so far only limited clinical counterparts (rheumatic fever, Guillain-Barré syndrome and drug-induced lupus or myasthenia gravis) but one may assume that unknown viruses may be at the origin of a number of chronic autoimmune diseases, such as type I diabetes and multiple sclerosis) as illustrated by the convergent data incriminating IFN-alpha in the pathophysiology of type I diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus. Perhaps the difficulties met in identifying the etiologic viruses are due to the long lag time between the initial causal infection and onset of clinical disease. More surprisingly, infections may also protect from autoimmune diseases. Western countries are being confronted with a disturbing increase in the incidence of most immune disorders, including autoimmune and allergic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, and some lymphocyte malignancies. Converging epidemiological evidence indicates that this increase is linked to improvement of the socio-economic level of these countries, posing the question of the causal relationship and more precisely the

  6. Sternal wound infection revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternal wound infections (SWIs) can be subdivided into two types, superficial or deep, that require different treatments. The clinical diagnosis of superficial SWI is normally easy to perform, whereas the involvement of deep tissues is frequently difficult to detect. Therefore, there is a need for an imaging study that permits the assessment of SWIs and is able to distinguish between superficial and deep SWI. The present work was a prospective study aiming to evaluate the role of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labelled leucocyte scan in SWI management. Twenty-eight patients with suspected SWIs were included in the study. On the basis of clinical examination they were subdivided into three groups: patients with signs of superficial SWI (group 1), patients with signs of superficial SWI and suspected deep infection (group 2) and patients with suspected deep SWI without superficial involvement (group 3). Ten patients previously submitted to median sternotomy, but without suspected SWI, were also included in the study as a control group (group 4). All patients with suspected SWI had bacteriological examinations of wound secretion, if present. In addition 99mTc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scan was performed in all patients. The patients of groups 1, 2 and 3 were treated on the basis of the clinical signs and microbiological findings, independently of the scintigraphic results. The patients of group 4 did not receive treatment. The final assessment of infection was based on histological and microbiological findings or on long-term clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive and negative predictive values for scintigraphic and non-scintigraphic results were calculated. In the diagnosis of superficial and deep SWI, clinical and microbiological examination (combined) yielded, respectively, a sensitivity of 68.7% and 100%, a specificity of 77.3% and 80.8%, an accuracy of 73.7% and 86.8%, a positive predictive value of 68

  7. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Lolekha, Rangsima; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Wiratchai, Amornpan; Kaoiean, Surasak; Suksripanich, Orapin; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan; Ausavapipit, Jaruensook; Srifeungfung, Somporn; Pattanasin, Sarika; Katz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC ...

  8. Brucella canis causing infection in an HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nidia E; Maldonado, Patricia I; Kaufman, Sara; Escobar, Gabriela I; Boeri, Eduardo; Jacob, Néstor R

    2010-06-01

    From the blood culture of an HIV-positive patient with a febrile syndrome (CD4 count 385 cells/microL and viral load nondetectable), Brucella canis was isolated. The patient was presumptively infected from his dogs, which tested positive, and showed good outcome after the therapy with doxycycline-ciprofloxacin, and the HIV infection would seem not to have been influenced by brucellosis. To our knowledge, no other case of B. canis in the setting of HIV infection has been reported in the literature, and the emerging zoonotic potential of the disease in urban areas should be considered. PMID:19725766

  9. Group B Strep Infection in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms. Bacteremia and sepsis (blood infections) symptoms include: Fever Chills Low alertness Pneumonia (lung infection) symptoms include: Fever ... in the infected area and might also include: Fever Chills Swilling Stiffness or inability to use affected limb ...

  10. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida Infection of the Bloodstream– Candidemia Fungal Disease Series #4 Candida is the single most important cause of ... Where in my body can I get a Candida infection? Candida infection can happen in almost any part ...

  11. Streptococcal Infections: Not A or B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Print Share Streptococcal Infections: Not A or B Page Content Article Body While many streptococcal infections can be categorized as Group A or B, other streptococcal infections do not fall into either ...

  12. Rare Infections: Yersinia Enterocolitica and Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Issues Listen Text Size Email Print Share Rare Infections: Yersinia Enterocolitica and Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis Page Content ... infected animal, drinking contaminated well water, or on rare occasions, from contaminated transfusions. The infections are increasing ...

  13. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation and/or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs ... or viral infection of the fluid of the middle ear, which causes production of fluid or pus. ...

  14. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26372825

  15. Pulmonary fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeannina A; Kauffman, Carol A

    2012-08-01

    This review details some of the advances that have been made in the recent decade in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of pulmonary fungal infections. These advances have occurred because of increasing knowledge regarding the fungal genome, better understanding of the structures of the fungal cell wall and cell membrane and the use of molecular epidemiological techniques. The clinical implications of these advances are more rapid diagnosis and more effective and less toxic antifungal agents. For example, the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, as well as histoplasmosis and blastomycosis, has improved with the use of easily performed antigen detection systems in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment of angioinvasive moulds has improved with the introduction of the new azoles, voriconazole and posaconazole that have broad antifungal activity. Amphotericin B is less frequently used, and when used is often given as lipid formulation to decrease toxicity. The newest agents, the echinocandins, are especially safe as they interfere with the metabolism of the fungal cell wall, a structure not shared with humans cells. Epidemiological advances include the description of the emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in North America and the increase in pulmonary mucormycosis and pneumonia due to Fusarium and Scedosporium species in transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. The emergence of azole resistance among Aspergillus species is especially worrisome and is likely related to increased azole use for treatment of patients, but also to agricultural use of azoles as fungicides in certain countries. PMID:22335254

  16. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

  17. Infective Endocarditis during Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Infective Endocarditis (IE) during pregnancy is a rare but grave condition. The diagnosis and management can be challenging, especially when the pregnant patient warrants a cardiac operation under cardiopulmonary bypass. The present article describes IE during pregnancy based on a series of published case reports in the literature. IE during pregnancy often causes embolic events and mycotic aneurysms. Two-thirds of IE in the pregnant patients requires timely or urgent cardiac surgery to alleviate patients deterioration. At least a 3-week antibiotic therapy is mandatory before cardiac surgery aiming at improving the patients. Conditions. During cardiac surgery, fetal heart rates may temporarily be slowed down but may gradually recover to normal after the operation. The fetal and maternal mortalities were 16.7% and 3.3%, respectively. The fetal deaths were apparently associated with a cardiac surgery during early pregnancy. Cardiopulmonary bypass, hypothermia and rewarming can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus by triggering placental deficits, fetal hypoxia and uterine contraction. Avoidance of cardiac operations before 24th gestation week and preferably deferred until after 28th gestation week have been a plausible argument as per the possible fetal deaths related to immaturity. (author)

  18. Autophagy in infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deretic, Vojo

    2010-04-01

    Autophagy is a ubiquitous eukaryotic cytoplasmic quality and quantity control pathway. The role of autophagy in cytoplasmic homeostasis seamlessly extends to cell-autonomous defense against intracellular microbes. Recent studies also point to fully integrated, multitiered regulatory and effector connections between autophagy and nearly all facets of innate and adaptive immunity. Autophagy in the immune system as a whole confers measured immune responses; on the flip side, suppression of autophagy can lead to inflammation and tissue damage, as evidenced by Crohn's disease predisposition polymorphisms in autophagy basal apparatus (Atg16L) and regulatory (IRGM) genes. Polymorphisms in the IRGM gene in human populations have also been linked to predisposition to tuberculosis. There are several areas of most recent growth: first, links between autophagy regulators and infectious disease predisposition in human populations; second, demonstration of a role for autophagy in infection control in vivo in animal models; third, the definition of specific antiautophagic defenses in highly evolved pathogens; and fourth, recognition of connections between the ubiquitin system and autophagy of bacteria (and interestingly mitochondria, which are incidentally organelles of bacterial evolutionary origin) via a growing list of modifier and adapter proteins including p62/SQSTM1, NDP52, Atg32, Parkin, and Nix/BNIP3L. PMID:20116986

  19. Imaging of diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Robert; Bar-David, Tzvi; Kamen, Stewart; Staron, Ronald B; Leung, David K; Rasiej, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Complications from diabetic foot infections are a leading cause of nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations. Nearly 85% of these amputations result from an infected foot ulcer. Osteomyelitis is present in approximately 20% of diabetic foot infections. It is imperative that clinicians make quick and successful diagnoses of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) because a delay in treatment may lead to worsening outcomes. Imaging studies, such as plain films, bone scans, musculoskeletal ultrasound, computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography scans, aid in the diagnosis. However, there are several mimickers of DFO, which present problems to making a correct diagnosis. PMID:24296017

  20. Hepatitis B Infection and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güçlü E et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection varies geographically, from high (>8%, intermediate (2-7% to low (<2% prevalence. The predominant routes of transmission vary according to the endemicity of the HBV infection. In areas with high HBV endemicity, perinatal transmission is the main route of transmission, whereas in areas with low HBV endemicity, sexual contact amongst high-risk adults and using shared needles amongst injection drug users are the predominant route. Three main strategies have been approved to be effective in preventing HBV infection. They are behavior modification, passive immunoprophylaxis, and active immunization.

  1. Pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: The lung is one of the most commonly affected organs in immunocompromised patients. Primary complication is pulmonary infection which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although radiography and CT, as main diagnostic tools are reliable and credible methods, often there is difficulty with the correct diagnose. The reasons for this are that immunocompromised patients are potentially susceptible to infection by various microorganisms and that the radiographic findings are rarely specific for detecting a particular pathogen. What you will learn : Our objective is to present general nosological classification of pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients, and to evaluate and analyze new imaging methods and discuss their correlation with the clinical setting, which aims to facilitate the diagnosis and to take a decision for the treatment. The experience indicates that a clinical environment conducive the immunocompromised patients to infection with certain pathogens, thereby changing the frequency of their occurrence. The most commonly cited fungal infections, cytomegalovirus infections, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) of which convincing is the Imaging diagnosis primarily in fungal infections, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and less accurate - in bacterial and viral infections. Discussion: The term 'immunocompromised' describes a subject with an increased risk for life-threatening infection as a result of congenital or acquired abnormalities of the immune system. Over the past few decades, the number of immunocompromised patients has grown considerably, reflecting the increased use of immunosuppressive drugs, and the syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency. Given the high incidence of pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients (lung is one of the most commonly affected organs, such as lung infection is about 75% of pulmonary complications), rapid and accurate diagnosis is important

  2. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  3. Catheter-related bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Matthew R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-04-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) are a common, frequently preventable complication of central venous catheterization. CR-BSIs can be prevented by strict attention to insertion and maintenance of central venous catheters and removing unneeded catheters as soon as possible. Antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated catheters are also an effective tool to prevent infections. The diagnosis of CR-BSI is made largely based on culture results. CR-BSIs should always be treated with antibiotics, and except in rare circumstances the infected catheter needs to be removed. PMID:19281894

  4. Prediction of eyespot infection risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Váòová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to design a prediction model for eyespot (Tapesia yallundae infection based on climatic factors (temperature, precipitation, air humidity. Data from experiment years 1994-2002 were used to study correlations between the eyespot infection index and individual weather characteristics. The model of prediction was constructed using multiple regression when a separate parameter is assigned to each factor, i.e. the frequency of days with optimum temperatures, humidity, and precipitation. The correlation between relative air humidity and precipitation and the infection index is significant.

  5. Chronic infections in hip arthroplasties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Jeppe; Troelsen, Anders; Thomsen, Reimar W; Søballe, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Two-stage revision is regarded by many as the best treatment of chronic infection in hip arthroplasties. Some international reports, however, have advocated one-stage revision. No systematic review or meta-analysis has ever compared the risk of reinfection following one-stage and two-stage revisi......Two-stage revision is regarded by many as the best treatment of chronic infection in hip arthroplasties. Some international reports, however, have advocated one-stage revision. No systematic review or meta-analysis has ever compared the risk of reinfection following one-stage and two......-stage revisions for chronic infection in hip arthroplasties....

  6. Intraabdominal Infections in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ana; Johanning, Jason Michael

    2016-08-01

    Intraabdominal infections represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the elderly population. Atypical presentations, diagnostic delays, additional comorbidities, and decreased physiologic reserve contribute to high morbidity and mortality, particularly among frail patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. While many infections are the result of age-related inflammatory, mechanical, or obstructive processes, infectious complications of feeding tubes are also common. The pillars of treatment are source control of the infection and judicious use of antibiotics. A patient-centered approach considering the invasiveness, risk, and efficacy of a procedure for achieving the desired outcomes is recommended. Structured communication and time-limited trials help ensure goal-concordant treatment. PMID:27394019

  7. Congenital Blindness and Visual Impairment Cause Infection or Non Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana A. Janicijevic-Petrovic; Tatjana S. Sarenac-Vulovic; Katarina M. Janicijevic; Dragan I. Vujic; Dejan D. Vulovic

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction Authors are from reference documentation to archive at Organization of Federation of blind and visually impaired in central Serbia (Kragujevac), by retrograde analysis, of 2007-2012, comprehend two groups by etiology–clinical characteristics of congenital blindness and visually impaired, caused infection or non infection example. Aim to analyze relationship between infectious and non infectious of congenital blindness and visually impaired in ...

  8. Neuroretinitis with dual infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiu KH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kwong-Han Kiu,1,2 Hashim Hanizasurana,1 Embong Zunaina21Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Selayang, Selayang, Selangor, 2Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, MalaysiaAbstract: A 22-year-old Malay female presented with left eye floaters for 2 weeks, associated with temporal visual field defect and metamorphopsia for 3 days. She has a guinea pig and a hedgehog at home, but denied being bitten or scratched by them. Her visual acuity at presentation was 6/12 on the left eye and 6/6 on the right eye. Her left eye relative afferent pupillary defect was barely positive with mild anterior chamber reaction. Fundus examination of the left eye showed mild vitritis, swollen optic disc with macular star, crops of active choroidal lesions at superonasal retina with a linear arrangement in the form of migratory track nasally. However, there were no nematodes seen on fundus examination. Investigations showed normal full blood count with no eosinophilia and positive serology test for Bartonella henselae. She was diagnosed to have dual infection – diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN, based on the presence of crops of choroidal lesions with migratory track, and cat scratch disease (CSD based on a positive serological test. She was treated with oral albendazole 400 mg 12 hourly for 6 weeks for DUSN and oral doxycycline 100 mg 12 hourly for 4 weeks for CSD. Focal laser had been applied to the area of migratory track in the left eye. Her left eye vision improved to 6/6 at 1 month after treatment, with resolution of neuroretinitis.Keywords: neuroretinitis, diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, bartonellosis, cat scratch disease

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... matter how busy you are. Water and cranberry juice are two good choices. Those trips to the ... wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice may actually help prevent another infection. If you' ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stick into your cup of urine. The stick has specially treated paper on it and if it ... making you even more uncomfortable. A kid who has a kidney infection — with chills and a high ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  12. What Is an Ear Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Is an Ear Infection? KidsHealth > For Kids > What ...

  13. Treatment of Infected Facial Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Kriti; Cox, Joshua A; Dickey, Ryan M; Gravina, Paula; Echo, Anthony; Izaddoost, Shayan A; Nguyen, Anh H

    2016-05-01

    Alloplastic facial implants have a wide range of uses to achieve the appropriate facial contour. A variety of materials such as metals, polymers, ceramics and synthetic injectable fillers are available to the reconstructive and aesthetic surgeon. Besides choosing the right surgical technique and the adequate material, the surgeon must be prepared to treat complications. Infection is an uncommon but serious complication that can cause displeasing consequences for the patient. There are few references in literature regarding treatment and management of facial implant-related infections. This study aims to discuss the role of biofilm in predisposing alloplastic materials to infection, to provide a review of literature, to describe our own institutional experience, and to define a patient care pathway for facial implant-associated infection. PMID:27152100

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...

  15. Obesity and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. METHODS: We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on...... health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional...... prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes...

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...... gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take...... place only after susceptibility testing. The association of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics for 1 or 2 weeks gives the best eradication rates. The crucial question to elucidate is whether asymptomatic children should be treated to prevent cancer in the future....

  17. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site. Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in cancer patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are a natural part of the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  18. Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection Questions & Answers Language: English Españ ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will the Doctor Do? ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  20. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Disease Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease On ... stillborn child a child born with signs of toxoplasmosis (e.g., abnormal enlargement or smallness of the ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  2. Joint Infection (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for some deep joints (eg, hip, shoulder), surgical placement of a drainage tube. ARTIFICIAL JOINT INFECTION — People ... medications, the user is advised to check the product information sheet accompanying each drug to verify conditions ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these questions and share your answers with your mom or dad: Does it hurt or sting when ... bladder infection, so based on your answers, your mom or dad may decide to call your doctor ...

  4. Pyelonephritis (Kidney Infection) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Urinary Tract Infections in Adults Vesicoureteral Reflux Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800- ... or both kidneys. This problem, which is called vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), happens when the valve mechanism that normally ...

  5. [INFECTIONS IN THE TRANSPLANT PATIENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pourcher, Valérie

    2015-10-01

    Infections in the transplant patient are common. There are infections related to the host (recipient), those related to the graft and the related donor. Infectious risk factors depend on the history of the underlying disease of the transplanted organ, the donor, the immunosuppressive treatment. All pathogens, bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are possible but their frequency varies according to the transplanted organ, the selected immunosuppressive therapy and prophylaxis. Indeed, it is important to detect and treat latent infections in pro-transplant and prevent post-transplant infections by lifestyle and dietary measures, vaccinations, intraoperative antibiotic, antiviral, antifugal, antiparasitic treatments according graft and a variable length depending on the immunosuppression and donor-recipient status. PMID:26749711

  6. Cytomegalovirus infection in transplant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo*, Luiz Sergio; Pierrotti, Lígia Camera; Abdala, Edson; Costa, Silvia Figueiredo; Strabelli, Tânia Mara Varejão; Campos, Silvia Vidal; Ramos, Jéssica Fernandes; Latif, Acram Zahredine Abdul; Litvinov, Nadia; Maluf, Natalya Zaidan; Filho, Helio Hehl Caiaffa; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; dos Santos, Vera Aparecida; da Cruz Gouveia Linardi, Camila; Yasuda, Maria Aparecida Shikanai; de Sousa Marques, Heloisa Helena

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus infection is a frequent complication after transplantation. This infection occurs due to transmission from the transplanted organ, due to reactivation of latent infection, or after a primary infection in seronegative patients and can be defined as follows: latent infection, active infection, viral syndrome or invasive disease. This condition occurs mainly between 30 and 90 days after transplantation. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in particular, infection usually occurs within the first 30 days after transplantation and in the presence of graft-versus-host disease. The major risk factors are when the recipient is cytomegalovirus seronegative and the donor is seropositive as well as when lymphocyte-depleting antibodies are used. There are two methods for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection: the pp65 antigenemia assay and polymerase chain reaction. Serology has no value for the diagnosis of active disease, whereas histology of the affected tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis are useful in the diagnosis of invasive disease. Cytomegalovirus disease can be prevented by prophylaxis (the administration of antiviral drugs to all or to a subgroup of patients who are at higher risk of viral replication) or by preemptive therapy (the early diagnosis of viral replication before development of the disease and prescription of antiviral treatment to prevent the appearance of clinical disease). The drug used is intravenous or oral ganciclovir; oral valganciclovir; or, less frequently, valacyclovir. Prophylaxis should continue for 90 to 180 days. Treatment is always indicated in cytomegalovirus disease, and the gold-standard drug is intravenous ganciclovir. Treatment should be given for 2 to 3 weeks and should be continued for an additional 7 days after the first negative result for viremia. PMID:26222822

  7. Cytomegalovirus infection in transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sergio Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus infection is a frequent complication after transplantation. This infection occurs due to transmission from the transplanted organ, due to reactivation of latent infection, or after a primary infection in seronegative patients and can be defined as follows: latent infection, active infection, viral syndrome or invasive disease. This condition occurs mainly between 30 and 90 days after transplantation. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in particular, infection usually occurs within the first 30 days after transplantation and in the presence of graft-versus-host disease. The major risk factors are when the recipient is cytomegalovirus seronegative and the donor is seropositive as well as when lymphocyte-depleting antibodies are used. There are two methods for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection: the pp65 antigenemia assay and polymerase chain reaction. Serology has no value for the diagnosis of active disease, whereas histology of the affected tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis are useful in the diagnosis of invasive disease. Cytomegalovirus disease can be prevented by prophylaxis (the administration of antiviral drugs to all or to a subgroup of patients who are at higher risk of viral replication or by preemptive therapy (the early diagnosis of viral replication before development of the disease and prescription of antiviral treatment to prevent the appearance of clinical disease. The drug used is intravenous or oral ganciclovir; oral valganciclovir; or, less frequently, valacyclovir. Prophylaxis should continue for 90 to 180 days. Treatment is always indicated in cytomegalovirus disease, and the gold-standard drug is intravenous ganciclovir. Treatment should be given for 2 to 3 weeks and should be continued for an additional 7 days after the first negative result for viremia.

  8. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile Infection

    OpenAIRE

    DePestel, Daryl D.; David M. Aronoff

    2013-01-01

    There has been dramatic change in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) since the turn of the 21st Century noted by a marked increase in incidence and severity, occurring at a disproportionately higher frequency in older patients. Historically considered a nosocomial infection associated with antibiotic exposure, CDI has now also emerged in the community in populations previously considered low risk. Emerging risk factors and disease recurrence represent continued challeng...

  9. Viral infection, inflammation and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kneeland, Rachel E.; Fatemi, S. Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental etiologies. Prenatal viral/bacterial infections and inflammation play major roles in the genesis of schizophrenia. In this review, we describe a viral model of schizophrenia tested in mice whereby the offspring of mice prenatally infected with influenza at E7, E9, E16, and E18 show significant gene, protein, and brain structural abnormalities postnatally. Similarly, we describe data on rodents exposed to bact...

  10. Prevention of Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Ledger

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We believe the prevention of infection-related adverse pregnancy outcome is the most important focus for obstetricians today. An emphasis upon immunization of susceptible women, prevention of transmissible disease by modification of patient behavior, and identification and treatment of silent infections should become standards of practice. This will require educational initiatives for physicians and their patients as well as continued clinical trials to determine costs and effectiveness.

  11. The biogeography of polymicrobial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Apollo; McNally, Luke; Darch, Sophie E; Brown, Sam P; Whiteley, Marvin

    2016-02-01

    Microbial communities are spatially organized in both the environment and the human body. Although patterns exhibited by these communities are described by microbial biogeography, this discipline has previously only considered large-scale, global patterns. By contrast, the fine-scale positioning of a pathogen within an infection site can greatly alter its virulence potential. In this Review, we highlight the importance of considering spatial positioning in the study of polymicrobial infections and discuss targeting biogeography as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:26714431

  12. ORAL CANDIDIASIS AND HIV INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Rachana Vishnudas

    2013-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic, caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dramatically illustrates the awesome transmission capabilities of disease. Oral manifestations of HIV have been important in identification of patients harboring the HIV virus and in predicting the decline in their immune system Oral candidiasis is one of the earliest premonitory signs of HIV infection and its diagnosis may have grave prognostic implications for the eventual dev...

  13. Systems Biology of Fungal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    FabianHorn; ThorstenHeinekamp; JohannesPollmächer; AxelABrakhage

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections. A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal i...

  14. Trichinella infection in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Jarošová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Sumary This work deals with issues of trichinosis, gender Trichinella in Czech Republic, describes the best-known types of trichinosis, their occurrence, adaptation mechanisms important for survival, real danger of disease and preventative measures aimed at protection against the infection. Trichinellas are parasites that may cause a very dangerous disease called trichinelosa which can be fatal to humans. It occurs mainly in carnivores and humans may be infected by ingestion of under ...

  15. Rabbit model of rotavirus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, M E; Estes, M K; Graham, D Y

    1988-01-01

    A new small animal model was developed to study parameters of rotavirus infections, including the active immune response. Seronegative New Zealand White rabbits (neonatal to 4 months old) were inoculated orally with cultivatable rabbit rotavirus strains Ala, C11, and R2 and with the heterologous simian strain SA11. The course of infection was evaluated by clinical findings, virus isolation (plaque assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and serologic response. All four strains of virus ...

  16. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kelsey D. J.; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Over...

  17. Cytomegalovirus infection in transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Luiz Sergio; Pierrotti, Lígia Camera; Abdala, Edson; Costa, Silvia Figueiredo; Strabelli, Tânia Mara Varejão; Campos, Silvia Vidal; Ramos, Jéssica Fernandes; Latif, Acram Zahredine Abdul; Litvinov, Nadia; Maluf, Natalya Zaidan; Caiaffa Filho, Helio Hehl; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; Santos, Vera Aparecida dos; Linardi, Camila da Cruz Gouveia; Yasuda, Maria Aparecida Shikanai; Marques, Heloisa Helena de Sousa

    2015-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus infection is a frequent complication after transplantation. This infection occurs due to transmission from the transplanted organ, due to reactivation of latent infection, or after a primary infection in seronegative patients and can be defined as follows: latent infection, active infection, viral syndrome or invasive disease. This condition occurs mainly between 30 and 90 days after transplantation. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in particular, infection usually occurs within the first 30 days after transplantation and in the presence of graft-versus-host disease. The major risk factors are when the recipient is cytomegalovirus seronegative and the donor is seropositive as well as when lymphocyte-depleting antibodies are used. There are two methods for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection: the pp65 antigenemia assay and polymerase chain reaction. Serology has no value for the diagnosis of active disease, whereas histology of the affected tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis are useful in the diagnosis of invasive disease. Cytomegalovirus disease can be prevented by prophylaxis (the administration of antiviral drugs to all or to a subgroup of patients who are at higher risk of viral replication) or by preemptive therapy (the early diagnosis of viral replication before development of the disease and prescription of antiviral treatment to prevent the appearance of clinical disease). The drug used is intravenous or oral ganciclovir; oral valganciclovir; or, less frequently, valacyclovir. Prophylaxis should continue for 90 to 180 days. Treatment is always indicated in cytomegalovirus disease, and the gold-standard drug is intravenous ganciclovir. Treatment should be given for 2 to 3 weeks and should be continued for an additional 7 days after the first negative result for viremia. PMID:26222822

  18. Chronic Infection and Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Kraft, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Chronic bacterial infection is implicated in both the development and severity of asthma. The atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae have been identified in the airways of asthmatics and correlated with clinical features such as adult onset, exacerbation risks, steroid sensitivity, and symptom control. Asthmatic patients with evidence of bacterial infection may benefit from antibiotic treatment directed towards these atypical organisms. Examination of the airway microbiome may identify microbial communities that confer risk for or protection from severe asthma. PMID:27401621

  19. Bacterial infections: antibiotics and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah

    Infectious disease is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and micro-organisms including the mycoplasmas, rickettsiae and chlamydiae. Most of the infections commonly encountered in the UK are caused either by bacteria or viruses. This article describes bacterial structure and function to explain how antibiotics work and the processes of decontamination such as cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation, which are important in infection control. PMID:15224613

  20. Synanthropic Trichinella infection in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oivanen, Leena; Oksanen, Antti

    2009-02-23

    The first three human trichinellosis cases in Finland were recorded around 1890, and altogether eight cases were registered until 2008. The first infected Finnish swine was found in 1954. From the early 1980s, an increasing trend in the number of infected swine was seen, with the highest number registered in 1996, after which a decrease has been observed. Infected pigs were found yearly until 2004. Since 1954, all slaughtered pigs have been tested for Trichinella, regardless of subsequent export or domestic consumption purpose. All Trichinella infections revealed in pigs are, since 1998, analysed for species by multiplex PCR. So far, all larvae from pig infections have been identified as Trichinella spiralis. During the recent decreasing trend in prevalence, the number of pig farms has also decreased, while the yearly number of slaughtered pigs has remained stable or even slightly increased. For many decades, the Trichinella prevalence in Finnish wildlife has remained high. Foxes, raccoon dogs, wolves, and lynx in the southern part of the country exhibit prevalence exceeding 50%. The most common species in wildlife is Trichinella nativa, a species with very low infectivity to swine, but also, T. spiralis, Trichinella britovi, and Trichinella pseudospiralis occur in wildlife. PMID:19054618

  1. Preventing Infections During Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Angela; Tai, Eric; Nielsen, Danielle Beauchesne; Shropshire, Sonya; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology care, infections from both community and healthcare settings remain a major cause of hospitalization and death among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Neutropenia (low white blood cell count) is a common and potentially dangerous side effect in patients receiving chemotherapy treatments and may lead to higher risk of infection. Preventing infection during treatment can result in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality for patients with cancer. As part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients public health campaign, a public-private partnership was formed between the CDC Foundation and Amgen, Inc. The CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control developed and launched an interactive website, www.PreventCancerInfections.org, designed for patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The site encourages patients to complete a risk assessment for developing neutropenia during their treatment. After completing the assessment, patients receive information about how to lower the risk for infection and keep themselves healthy while receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25095295

  2. Rheumatoid arthritis and bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N L Prokopjeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To study features of bacterial infections course in pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and changes of laboratory measures after focus of infection sanation. Material and methods. 46 pts with definite rheumatoid arthritis were examined at the time of comorbid infection (Cl detection and after infection focus sanation. Bacteriological test with evaluation of flora sensitivity to antibiotics by disco-diffusion method was performed at baseline and after the course of antibacterial therapy to assess its efficacy. Hemogram, serum fibrinogen, rheumatoid factor, circulating immune complexes (CIC, C-reactive protein levels were assessed. Serum interleukin (IL 1(3, IL6 and neopterin concentrations were examined by immune-enzyme assay in a part of pts. Typical clinical features of Cl were present in only 28 (60,9% pts. 13 (28,3% pts had fever, 12 (26,0% — leukocytosis, 15 (32,6% — changes of leucocyte populations. Some laboratory measures (thrombocytes, fibrinogen, CIC, neopterin levels significantly decreased (p<0,05 after infection focus sanation without correction of disease modifying therapy. Cl quite often develop as asymptomatic processes most often in pts with high activity and can induce disturbances promoting appearance of endothelial dysfunction, atherothrombosis and reduction of life duration. So timely detection and proper sanation of infection focuses should be performed in pts with RA

  3. Opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shikha Baisakhiya DOMS; FGO

    2008-01-01

    As the number of HIV infected patients is multiplying exponentially day by day so are the associated ocular complications.The increasing longevity of individuals with HIV disease has resulted in greater numbers of pa-tients with ocular opportunistic infection.By the means of this article we describe various opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS and their clinical manifestations,discussed under four headings;1 )adnexal manifestation;2)anterior segment manifestation;3)posterior segment manifestation;4)neuro ophthalmic manifestation . Herpes zoster ophthalmicus,molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi sarcoma are common adnexal manifestations. Molluscum contagiosum being the commonest.Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)and herpes simplex virus (HSV) most commonly cause infectious keratitis in HIV-positive patients .As compared to the immunocompetent indi-viduals the frequency of bacterial and fungal keratitis is not more in HIV patients,but it tends to be more se-vere.Posterior segment structures involved in HIV-positive patients include the retina,choroid,and optic nerve head.The herpesvirus family is implicated most commonly in infections of the retina and choroid in HIV positive patients.CMV is the most common cause of retinitis and the commonest intraocular infection in AIDS. Atypical presentations resistance to conventional treatment and higher rate of recurrence make the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention more difficult and challenging.In addition,in one eye,several infections may occur at the same time,rendering the situation more difficult.

  4. Pancreatic Involvement in Salmonella Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzilli R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Salmonella has been identified as a causative agent of acute pancreatitis. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated the frequency of acute pancreatitis, pancreatic enzyme elevation and morphological pancreatic abnormalities in patients with Salmonella infection. SUBJECTS: Thirty consecutive patients with salmonellosis (Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis: n=25; Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: n=5 and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were studied. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All subjects underwent serum amylase and lipase determination and ultrasonography. RESULTS: None of the subjects developed acute pancreatitis. Two patients (6.7% and two controls showed serum amylase activity above the upper reference limit whereas, in five patients (16.7% and one control subject (3.3%, the serum lipase activity appeared above the upper reference limit. Salmonella infection significantly increased serum activity of lipase (P less than 0.001 while it did not significantly affect serum amylase levels (P=0.204. Serum lipase activity was significantly higher in patients infected by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium than in those infected by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (P=0.012. Ultrasonography did not show pancreatic abnormalities in any of the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated an elevation of serum lipase activity in gastroenteritis due to Salmonella infection, but this elevation does not seem to have clinical significance. The elevation of serum lipase seems to be particularly related to infection from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

  5. Streptococcal infections of skin and PANDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Rosanna; Pallanti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Group A streptococcal infections are associated with a variety of infections and a subset of obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or tic disorders. Screening of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tics in patient with streptococcal infection of skin must be effective in identifying subjects who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). PMID:24502308

  6. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  7. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J;

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome. In...... addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  8. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. PMID:26177232

  9. Acute focal infections of dental origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses

  10. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth Donald R; Bagaitkar Juhi; Scott David A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacteri...

  11. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis muscle infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, M.V.; Beiting, D.P.; Bliss, S.K.; Appleton, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis larvae establish chronic infections in skeletal muscles of immunocompetent hosts. Muscle infection is crucial to transmission and survival of the parasite in nature. Chronic infections by this highly immunogenic parasite are associated with modulation or escape from potentially destructive immune responses. This review summarizes our current knowledge of immunity to muscle infection with T. spiralis.

  12. Nocardia pulmonary infection, Case report and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocardia infections are an important cause of pulmonary morbidity, in part associated with the use of immunosuppressant therapy in patients with hematological neoplasia, organ transplants and in patients with HIV infection. In this article we report a case of nocardia infection in a patient with high doses of steroids and diabetes mellitus, and make a review of the literature of nocardia infections

  13. Modeling Zika Virus Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Shannan L; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and microcephaly requires in vivo models of ZIKV infection in pregnant adults and fetuses. Three studies recently generated such mouse models of ZIKV infection, which corroborate previous in vitro evidence linking ZIKV infection and apoptosis induction in neurons and progenitors to microcephaly. PMID:27392219

  14. Protective immune responses in lawsonia intracellularis infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordes, Henriette; Riber, Ulla; Boutrup, Torsten;

    primary L. intracellularis experimental infection in pigs protects against re-colonisation (re-infection) with a virulent L. intracellularis isolate. After re-infection the animals had reduced L. intracellularis colonisation of the intestinal mucosa compared to controls, no bacterial shedding and no...... exhibited a high, but short-lasting peak after re-infection. Specific IFN responses were also measured using a whole blood IFN-γ assay. These were very high in challenge infected and re-infected animals as compared to controls. These specific immune responses may contribute to the explanation of mechanisms...... behind the observed protection against re-infection with L. intracellularis....

  15. Prosthesis infections after orthopedic joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhijun; Borgwardt, Lotte; Høiby, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Prosthesis-related infection is a serious complication for patients after orthopedic joint replacement, which is currently difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, in most cases, removal of the infected prosthesis is the only solution to cure the infection. It is, therefore......, important to understand the comprehensive interaction between the microbiological situation and the host immune responses that lead to prosthesis infections. Evidence indicates that prosthesis infections are actually biofilm-correlated infections that are highly resistant to antibiotic treatment and the...... microbiological and surgical measures. Recent progress in research into bacterial biofilm and possible future treatment options of prosthesis-related infections are discussed....

  16. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world. PMID:18456385

  17. INFECTIONS IN THALASSEMIA AND HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Rund

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The clinical approach to thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies, specifically Sickle Cell Disease (SCD, based on transfusions, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation has ameliorated their prognosis. Nevertheless, infections still may cause serious complications in these patients. The susceptibility to infections in thalassemia and SCD arises both from a large spectrum of immunological abnormalities and from exposure to specific infectious agents. Four fundamental issues will be focused upon as central causes of immune dysfunction: the diseases themselves; iron overload, transfusion therapy and the role of the spleen. Thalassemia and SCD differ in their pathogenesis and clinical course. It will be outlined how these differences affect immune dysfunction, the risk of infections and the types of most frequent infections in each disease. Moreover, since transfusions are a fundamental tool for treating these patients, their safety is paramount in reducing the risks of infections. In recent years, careful surveillance worldwide and improvements in laboratory tests reduced greatly transfusion transmitted infections, but the problem is not completely resolved. Finally, selected topics will be discussed regarding Parvovirus B19 and transfusion transmitted infections as well as the prevention of infectious risk postsplenectomy or in presence of functional asplenia.

  18. Mouse Adenovirus Type 1 Infection of Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, Shanna L.; Welton, Amanda R.; Harwood, Kirsten M.; van Rooijen, Nico; Spindler, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) causes acute and persistent infections in mice, with high levels of virus found in the brain, spinal cord and spleen in acute infections. MAV-1 infects endothelial cells throughout the mouse, and monocytes/macrophages have also been implicated as targets of the virus. Here we determined the extent and functional importance of macrophage infection by MAV-1. Bone marrow-derived macrophages expressed MAV-1 mRNAs and proteins upon ex vivo infection. Adherent perito...

  19. Bacterial infections in patients with liver cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Preveden Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by a reduced defensive reaction to bacterial infections and patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk of developing infections, sepsis and death. The most common bacterial infections in these patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infection and bacteremia. The most common causes are Gram negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to determi...

  20. How to avoid infections in Ramadan, especially urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Naseem

    2015-05-01

    Prolonged and poor control of diabetes has detrimental effects on the immune system by reducing both B and T cell function, causing neutrophilic dysfunction and less production of inflammatory cytokines. This makes people with diabetes vulnerable to various bacterial, viral and fungal infections in all body organs. The commonest cause of chronic renal disease is uncontrolled diabetes, placing patients, particularly women, at high risk for recurrent and complicated urinary tract infections. Diabetic patients who opt to fast during Ramadan must be clearly counseled about keeping themselves hydrated between non-fasting hours and maintaining good glycaemic control through diet and antidiabetic drugs. PMID:26013793