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Sample records for bacterium rhodospirillum rubrum

  1. A static and dynamical Mössbauer study of photochemical biological switch of valence states in the respiratory pigments of rhodospirillum rubrum bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. R. P. M.; Iyengar, P. K.

    1986-04-01

    We have carried out a dynamical Mössbauer spectroscopy study of photochemical reversible biological switching of oxidation-reduction processes in iron atoms present in the respiratory pigments of Rhodospirillum rubrum bacterium. The experimental technique utilised enabled us to determine an upper limit to the reaction time of about 25 ms.

  2. Microaerophilic Cooperation of Reductive and Oxidative Pathways Allows Maximal Photosynthetic Membrane Biosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Grammel, Hartmut; Gilles, Ernst-Dieter; Ghosh, Robin

    2003-01-01

    The purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been employed to study physiological adaptation to limiting oxygen tensions (microaerophilic conditions). R. rubrum produces maximal levels of photosynthetic membranes when grown with both succinate and fructose as carbon sources under microaerophilic conditions in comparison to the level (only about 20% of the maximum) seen in the absence of fructose. Employing a unique partial O2 pressure (pO2) control strategy to reliably adjust the ...

  3. Identification and functional characterization of NifA variants that are independent of GlnB activation in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Yu; Pohlmann, Edward L.; Li, Jilun; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P.

    2008-01-01

    The activity of NifA, the transcriptional activator of the nitrogen fixation (nif) gene, is tightly regulated in response to ammonium and oxygen. However, the mechanisms for the regulation of NifA activity are quite different among various nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Unlike the well-studied NifL–NifA regulatory systems in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii, in Rhodospirillum rubrum NifA is activated by a direct protein–protein interaction with the uridylylated form of GlnB, which ...

  4. Whole-genome shotgun optical mapping of Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reslewic, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Zhou, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Place, M. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Zhang, Y. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Briska, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Goldstein, S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Churas, C. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Runnheim, R. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Forrest, D. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Lim, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Lapidus, A. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Han, C. S. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Roberts, G. P. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison; Schwartz, D. C. [Univ. Wisc.-Madison

    2005-09-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum is a phototrophic purple nonsulfur bacterium known for its unique and well-studied nitrogen fixation and carbon monoxide oxidation systems and as a source of hydrogen and biodegradable plastic production. To better understand this organism and to facilitate assembly of its sequence, three whole-genome restriction endonuclease maps (XbaI, NheI, and HindIII) of R. rubrum strain ATCC 11170 were created by optical mapping. Optical mapping is a system for creating whole-genome ordered restriction endonuclease maps from randomly sheared genomic DNA molecules extracted from cells. During the sequence finishing process, all three optical maps confirmed a putative error in sequence assembly, while the HindIII map acted as a scaffold for high-resolution alignment with sequence contigs spanning the whole genome. In addition to highlighting optical mapping's role in the assembly and confirmation of genome sequence, this work underscores the unique niche in resolution occupied by the optical mapping system. With a resolution ranging from 6.5 kb (previously published) to 45 kb (reported here), optical mapping advances a "molecular cytogenetics" approach to solving problems in genomic analysis.

  5. Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration by Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, J E; Weaver, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata were able to grow anaerobically in the dark either by a strict mixed-acid fermentation of sugars or, in the presence of an appropriate electron acceptor, by an energy-linked anaerobic respiration. Both species fermented fructose without the addition of accessory oxidants, but required the initial presence of bicarbonate before fermentative growth could begin. Major products of R. rubrum fermentation were succinate, acetate, propionate, form...

  6. Identification and functional characterization of NifA variants that are independent of GlnB activation in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Yu; Pohlmann, Edward L; Li, Jilun; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P

    2008-09-01

    The activity of NifA, the transcriptional activator of the nitrogen fixation (nif) gene, is tightly regulated in response to ammonium and oxygen. However, the mechanisms for the regulation of NifA activity are quite different among various nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Unlike the well-studied NifL-NifA regulatory systems in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Azotobacter vinelandii, in Rhodospirillum rubrum NifA is activated by a direct protein-protein interaction with the uridylylated form of GlnB, which in turn causes a conformational change in NifA. We report the identification of several substitutions in the N-terminal GAF domain of R. rubrum NifA that allow NifA to be activated in the absence of GlnB. Presumably these substitutions cause conformational changes in NifA necessary for activation, without interaction with GlnB. We also found that wild-type NifA can be activated in a GlnB-independent manner under certain growth conditions, suggesting that some other effector(s) can also activate NifA. An attempt to use Tn5 mutagenesis to obtain mutants that altered the pool of these presumptive effector(s) failed, though much rarer spontaneous mutations in nifA were detected. This suggests that the necessary alteration of the pool of effector(s) for NifA activation cannot be obtained by knockout mutations. PMID:18757802

  7. On the relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum Rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Nijenhuis, L.E.

    1950-01-01

    The relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum has been studied. The light intensity at which saturation is reached in photosynthesis proved to coincide with that at which the contrast sensitivity starts to decrease. Potassium cyanide, which preferably inhibits the Bla

  8. Partial purification and characterization of pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase from Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, S M; Budde, R J; Chollet, R

    1986-01-01

    We confirmed an earlier report (B. B. Buchanan, J. Bacteriol. 119:1066-1068, 1974) that the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum contains pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (EC 2.7.9.1) activity that is absolutely dependent upon all three substrates by performing enzyme assays in both the forward (phosphoenolpyruvate formation) and reverse (ATP formation) directions. Of the various carbon sources tested, photoheterotrophic growth on DL-lactate plus bicarbonate proved...

  9. Binding site on Rhodospirillum rubrum cytochrome c2 for the Rhodospirillum rubrum cytochrome bc1 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytochrome c2 and the detergent-solubilized cytochrome bc1 complex, both from Rhodospirillum rubrum, form a tight complex at a low ionic strength that can be isolated by gel permeation chromatography. The dissociation constant of the complex is estimated to be 10-6 M or less. [14C]-labelled and [3H]-labelled acetic anhydride were used in the acetylation experiments, and the 3H/14C ratio was analyzed. The binding site for the cytochrome bc1 complex on cytochrome c2 was analyzed by differential acetylation of lysine residues in free and cytochrome bc1 complex bound cytochrome c2. In bound cytochrome c2, three lysine residues at sequence positions 12, 13, and 97 were less reactive toward acetic anhydride. Lys13, which is located above the exposed heme edge, was the least reactive, i.e., the most shielded by the cytochrome bc1 complex. Correlating this information with the crystal structure of cytochrome c2 indicates that the binding site for the cytochrome bc1 complex on cytochrome c2 involves a surface area above, and probably including, the exposed heme edge. This mode of binding is similar to that observed for horse cytochrome c interacting with the mitochrondrial cytochrome bc1 complex. A simplified version of the method of differential chemical modification is presented

  10. Pyruvate-dependent diauxic growth of Rhodospirillum rubrum in light.

    OpenAIRE

    Solaiman, D; Uffen, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    When Rhodospirillum rubrum mutant C was first exposed to radiant energy after long-term anaerobic dark growth, the cells often exhibited a diauxic growth response. This happened with pyruvate in the medium and when cultures were exposed to a less-than-growth-saturating white light intensity of about 6,460 lx. Under the growth-saturating light condition, mutant C photometabolized and growth was not affected by Na hypophosphite, an inhibitor of pyruvate fermentation. In lower intensity light, i...

  11. GlnD is essential for NifA activation, NtrB/NtrC-regulated gene expression, and posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity in the photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoping; Pohlmann, Edward L; Roberts, Gary P

    2005-02-01

    GlnD is a bifunctional uridylyltransferase/uridylyl-removing enzyme and is thought to be the primary sensor of nitrogen status in the cell. It plays an important role in nitrogen assimilation and metabolism by reversibly regulating the modification of P(II) proteins, which in turn regulate a variety of other proteins. We report here the characterization of glnD mutants from the photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum and the analysis of the roles of GlnD in the regulation of nitrogen fixation. Unlike glnD mutations in Azotobacter vinelandii and some other bacteria, glnD deletion mutations are not lethal in R. rubrum. Such mutants grew well in minimal medium with glutamate as the sole nitrogen source, although they grew slowly with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source (MN medium) and were unable to fix N(2). The slow growth in MN medium is apparently due to low glutamine synthetase activity, because a DeltaglnD strain with an altered glutamine synthetase that cannot be adenylylated can grow well in MN medium. Various mutation and complementation studies were used to show that the critical uridylyltransferase activity of GlnD is localized to the N-terminal region. Mutants with intermediate levels of uridylyltransferase activity are differentially defective in nif gene expression, the posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase, and NtrB/NtrC function, indicating the complexity of the physiological role of GlnD. These results have implications for the interpretation of results obtained with GlnD in many other organisms. PMID:15687189

  12. Regulation of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum: effects of CO and oxygen on synthesis and activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonam, D; Lehman, L.; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum to carbon monoxide led to increased carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities due to de novo protein synthesis of both enzymes. Two-dimensional gels of [35S]methionine-pulse-labeled cells showed that induction of CO dehydrogenase synthesis was rapidly initiated (less than 5 min upon exposure to CO) and was inhibited by oxygen. Both CO dehydrogenase and the CO-induced hydrogenase were inactivated by oxygen in vivo an...

  13. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. [Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum, chlorobium phaeobacteroides, and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-06

    The anaerobic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been chosen for catalysis of the biological water gas shift reaction. Two bacteria, Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides, are being evaluated as candidates for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Since these latter two organisms both grow and convert H{sub 2}S in batch culture using standard basal medium, the choice of a suitable bacterium must be made in consideration of specific growth and uptake rates. Produced elemental sulfur stability against further oxidation to sulfate, and minimal use of H{sub 2} as a producing agent must also be considered. The effects of temperature on the performance of R. rubrum were evaluated. It was found that the cell concentration was highest at temperatures of 25 and 30{degree}C, and that the specific uptake rate was highest at temperatures of 30, 32 and 34{degree}C. No growth was observed at 37{degree}C. Also, temperature did not affect the yield of H{sub 2} from CO. Thus, R. rubrum may be used for biological rates gas shift at any temperature between 30 and 34{degree}C, although growth is maximized at lower temperatures. Preliminary studies with C. thiosulfatophilum showed rapid utilization of H{sub 2}S from the gas and liquid phases with subsequent production of elemental sulfur. Elemental sulfur production interfered with cell concentrations measurements, although a technique has been developed to rectify this problem.

  14. Polyadenylated mRNA from the photosynthetic procaryote Rhodospirillum rubrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total cellular RNA extracted from Rhodospirillum rubrum cultured in butyrate-containing medium under strict photosynthetic conditions to the stationary phase of growth has been fractionated on an oligodeoxy-thymidylic acid-cellulose column into polyadenylated [poly(A)+] RNA and poly(A)- RNA fractions. The poly(A)+ fraction was 9 to 10% of the total bulk RNA isolated. Analysis of the poly(A)+ RNA on a denaturing urea-polyacrylamide gel revealed four sharp bands of RNA distributed in heterodisperse fashion between 16S and 9S. Similar fractionation of the poly(A)- RNA resulted in the separation of 23, 16, and 5S rRNAs and 4S tRNA. Poly(A)+ fragments isolated after combined digestion with pancreatic A and T1 RNases and analysis by denaturing gel electrophoresis demonstrated two major components of 80 and 100 residues. Alkaline hydrolysis of the nuclease-resistant, purified residues showed AMP-rich nucleotides. Through the use of snake venom phosphodiesterase, poly(A) tracts were placed at the 3' end of poly(A)+ RNA. Stimulation of [3H]leucine incorporation into hot trichloroacetic acid-precipitable polypeptides in a cell-free system from wheat germ primed by the poly(A)+ RNA mixture was found to be 220-fold higher than that for poly(A)- RNAs (on a unit mass basis), a finding which demonstrated that poly(A)+ RNAs in R. rubrum are mRNAs. Gel electrophoretic analysis of the translation mixture revealed numerous 3H-labeled products including a major band (M/sub r/, 52,000). The parent protein was precipitated by antibodies to ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase and comprised 6.5% of the total translation products

  15. Regulation of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum: Effects of CO and oxygen on synthesis and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum to carbon monoxide led to increased carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities due to de novo protein synthesis of both enzymes. Two-dimensional gels of [35S]methionine-pulse-labeled cells showed that induction of CO dehydrogenase synthesis was rapidly initiated (less than 5 min upon exposure to CO) and was inhibited by oxygen. Both CO dehydrogenase and the CO-induced hydrogenase were inactivated by oxygen in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to CO dehydrogenase, the CO-induced hydrogenase was 95% inactivated by heating at 70 degrees C for 5 min. Unlike other hydrogenases, this CO-induced hydrogenase was inhibited only 60% by a 100% CO gas phase

  16. Functional interfacing of Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores to a conducting support for capture and conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, John W; Woronowicz, Kamil; Lamptey, Joana L; Awong, John; Baird, James; Moshar, Amir; Vittadello, Michele; Falkowski, Paul G; Niederman, Robert A

    2013-09-26

    Owing to the considerable current interest in replacing fossil fuels with solar radiation as a clean, renewable, and secure energy source, light-driven electron transport in natural photosynthetic systems offers a valuable blueprint for conversion of sunlight to useful energy forms. In particular, intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles (chromatophores) from the purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum provide a fully functional and robust photosynthetic apparatus, ideal for biophysical investigations of energy transduction and incorporation into biohybrid photoelectrochemical devices. These vesicular organelles, which arise by invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane, are the sites of the photochemical reaction centers and the light harvesting 1 (LH1) complex. The LH1 protein is responsible for collecting visible and near-IR radiant energy and funneling these excitations to the reaction center for conversion into a transmembrane charge separation. Here, we have investigated the morphology, fluorescence kinetics and photocurrent generation of chromatophores from Rsp. rubrum deposited directly onto gold surfaces in the absence of chemical surface modifications. Atomic force microscopy showed a significant coverage of the gold electrode surface by Rsp. rubrum chromatophores. By in situ fluorescence induction/relaxation measurements, a high retention of the quantum yield of photochemistry was demonstrated in the photoactive films. Chronoamperometric measurements showed that the assembled bioelectrodes were capable of generating sustained photocurrent under white light illumination at 220 mW/cm(2) with a maximum current of 1.5 μA/cm(2), which slowly declines in about 1 week. This study demonstrates the possibility of photoelectrochemical control of robust chromatophore preparations from Rsp. rubrum that paves the way for future incorporation into functional solar cells. PMID:23789750

  17. Identification of chromatophore membrane protein complexes formed under different nitrogen availability conditions in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selao, Tiago Toscano; Branca, Rui; Chae, Pil Seok;

    2011-01-01

    The chromatophore membrane of the photosynthetic diazotroph Rhodospirillum rubrum is of vital importance for a number of central processes, including nitrogen fixation. Using a novel amphiphile, we have identified protein complexes present under different nitrogen availability conditions by the use...... expressed proteins, such as subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex and other TCA cycle enzymes that are usually found in the cytosol, thus hinting at a possible association to the membrane in response to nitrogen deficiency. We propose a redox sensing mechanism that can influence the membrane...

  18. Toxicogenomic Response of Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H to the Micropollutant Triclosan▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pycke, Benny F.G.; Vanermen, Guido; Monsieurs, Pieter; De Wever, Heleen; Mergeay, Max; Verstraete, Willy; Leys, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project, a pilot study was performed to identify the effects of triclosan on the MELiSSA carbon-mineralizing microorganism Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H. Triclosan is a biocide that is commonly found in human excrement and is considered an emerging pollutant in wastewater and the environment. Chronic exposure to MELiSSA-relevant concentrations (≥25 μg liter−1) of triclosan resulted in a significant extension of the...

  19. Attempts to apply affinity labeling techniques to ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. [Comparison of spinach leaf and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, F. C.; Norton, I. L.; Stringer, C. D.; Schloss, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on carboxylases/oxygenases from different species may be necessary to confirm that a residue implicated as essential is indeed an active-site component. To provide an especially stringent test case for the identification of species invariant structural features the enzymes from two phylogenetically distant species, spinach and Rhodospirillum rubrum, were compared. To date, the reactions of Br-butanone-P/sub 2/ and BrAcNHEtOP with the spinach enayme have been rather thoroughly characterized; only preliminary experiments have been completed with the R. rubrum enzyme. Both enzymes were isolated and assayed for carboxylase activity (spectrophotometrically or /sup 14/CO/sub 2/-fixation) and for oxygenase activity.

  20. Metabolic Regulation as a Consequence of Anaerobic 5-Methylthioadenosine Recycling in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Justin A.; Sriram, Jaya; Chourey, Karuna; Ecker, Christopher D.; Sharma, Ritin; Wildenthal, John A.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhodospirillum rubrum possesses a novel oxygen-independent, aerobic methionine salvage pathway (MSP) for recycling methionine from 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA), the MTA-isoprenoid shunt. This organism can also metabolize MTA as a sulfur source under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the MTA-isoprenoid shunt may also function anaerobically as well. In this study, deep proteomics profiling, directed metabolite analysis, and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed metabolic changes in response to anaerobic growth on MTA versus sulfate as sole sulfur source. The abundance of protein levels associated with methionine transport, cell motility, and chemotaxis increased in the presence of MTA over that in the presence of sulfate. Purine salvage from MTA resulted primarily in hypoxanthine accumulation and a decrease in protein levels involved in GMP-to-AMP conversion to balance purine pools. Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) metabolic protein levels for lipid metabolism were lower in abundance, whereas poly-β-hydroxybutyrate synthesis and storage were increased nearly 10-fold. The known R. rubrum aerobic MSP was also shown to be upregulated, to function anaerobically, and to recycle MTA. This suggested that other organisms with gene homologues for the MTA-isoprenoid shunt may also possess a functioning anaerobic MSP. In support of our previous findings that ribulose-1,5-carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is required for an apparently purely anaerobic MSP, RubisCO transcript and protein levels both increased in abundance by over 10-fold in cells grown anaerobically on MTA over those in cells grown on sulfate, resulting in increased intracellular RubisCO activity. These results reveal for the first time global metabolic responses as a consequence of anaerobic MTA metabolism compared to using sulfate as the sulfur source. PMID:27406564

  1. [Recombinant intracellular Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase with low L-glutaminase activity and antiproliferative effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskaia, M V; Pokrovskiĭ, V S; Aleksandrova, S S; Anisimova, N Iu; Adrianov, R M; Treshchalina, E M; Ponomarev, G V; Sokolov, N N

    2013-01-01

    The recombinant producer of Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase (RrA) was received and purification procedure of RrA was developed. It was shown that RrA has following biochemical and catalytic characteristics: K(m) for L-asn 0.22 MM, pH optimum 9.2; temperature optimum 54 degrees C; pI = 5.1 +/- 0.3; L-gln activity seems to be low-to-negligible. K562, DU145 and MDA-MB-231 cellular lines displayed significant sensitivity towards the enzyme (IC50 = 1.80; 9.19 and 34.62 ME/ml, respectively. In comparison with L-asparaginases from E. coli II type (EcA) and Erwinia carotovora (EwA) cytotoxicity of RrA seems to be higher than EwA, but lower than EcA. 10-fold i.p. RrA administration (4000 ME/kg per day) in L5178y bearing mice showed T/C = 172%. The received results show that RrA belongs to I type cellular L-asparaginases with low L-gln activity and the high antiproliferative effect. PMID:23789346

  2. Nickel-specific, slow-binding inhibition of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum by cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibition of purified carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum by cyanide was investigated in both the presence and absence of CO and electron acceptor. The inhibition was a time-dependent process exhibiting pseudo-first-order kinetics under both sets of conditions. The true second-order rate constants for inhibition were 72.2 M-1 s-1 with both substrates present and 48.9 and 79.5 M-1 s-1, respectively, for the reduced and oxidized enzymes incubated with cyanide. CO partially protected the enzyme against inhibition after 25-min incubation with 100 μM KCN. Dissociation constants of 8.46 μM (KCN) and 4.70 μM (CO) were calculated for the binding of cyanide and CO to the enzyme. Cyanide inhibition was fully reversible under an atmosphere of CO after removal of unbound cyanide. N2 was unable to reverse the inhibition. The competence of nickel-deficient (apo) CO dehydrogenase to undergo activation by NiCl2 was unaffected by prior incubation with cyanide. Cyanide inhibition of holo-CO dehydrogenase was not reversed by addition of NiCl2. 14CN- remained associated with holoenzyme but not with apoenzyme through gel filtration chromatography. These findings suggest that cyanide is a slow-binding, active-site-directed, nickel-specific, reversible inhibitor of CO dehydrogenase. The authors propose that cyanide inhibits CO dehydrogenase by being a analogue of CO and by binding through enzyme-bound nickel

  3. Changes in Rhodospirillum rubrum cytochrome c2 and subsequent renaturation: An 15N NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 15N-enriched ferrocytochrome c2from Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied by 15N NMR at different solvent pH values. The mobility and chemical shift to the N-terminal glutamic acid (335.4 ppm at pH 5.1) were found to depend on pH. It was least mobile between pH 8 and 9.0, which is explained in terms of pH-dependent conformational changes and formation of salt linkages and/or hydrogen bonds. The resonances of the lysine side chains are centered around 341.7 ppm at low pH and move upfield with pH by about 8.4 ppm with pH/sub a/ values of 10.8. The exchange rates of the εNH protons are lowest near the pK/sub a/ values. The protein is very stable in the pH range between 4.9 and 10.0 but unfolds abruptly at pH 10.5-11. Denaturation was verified by the measurement of several parameters by NMR. The renaturation of the protein demonstrates that the folding begins with reformation of home coordination and establishment of a hydrophobic core, followed by positioning of side chains and peptide backbones linking the nucleation centers. The repositioning processes had time scales of minutes to hours in contrast to the reported values of seconds in some studies

  4. Shotgun Genome Sequence of the Large Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodospirillum photometricum DSM122

    OpenAIRE

    Duquesne, K.; Sturgis, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present the shotgun genome sequence of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum photometricum DSM122. The photosynthetic apparatus of this bacterium has been particularly well studied by microscopy. The knowledge of the genome of this oversize bacterium will allow us to compare it with the other purple bacterial organisms to follow the evolution of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  5. /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance study of the CO/sub 2/ activation of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase from Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, M.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison); Joworski, R.J.; Hartman, F.C.

    1979-02-01

    Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase (3-phospho-D-glycerate carboxy-lyase (dimerizing), EC 4.1.1.39) from Rhodospirillum rubrum is activated by CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/. /sup 13/C NMR spectra were determined for the unactivated enzyme and for enzyme that had been activated by /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/. In addition to the expected resonance for H/sup 13/CO/sub 3//sup -//CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ at 161.8 ppM downfield from tetramethylsilane, the spectrum of the activated enzyme shows a broad resonance at 164.9 ppM. Analogy with previous NMR studies of /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ binding to hemoglobin suggests that the CO/sub 2/ activation of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase involves formation of a carbamate between an enzyme amino group and CO/sub 2/.

  6. Complementation of a pleiotropic Nif-Gln regulatory mutant of Rhodospirillum rubrum by a previously unrecognized Azotobacter vinelandii regulatory locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C Z; Yoch, D C

    1990-01-01

    A spontaneous pleiotropic Nif- mutation in Rhodospirillum rubrum has been partially characterized biochemically and by complementation analysis with recombinant plasmids carrying Azotobacter vinelandii DNA in the vicinity of ORF12 [Jacobson et al. (1989) J. Bacteriol 171: 1017-1027]. In addition to being unable to grow on N2 as a nitrogen source the phenotypic characterization of this and other metronidazole enriched spontaneous mutants showed (a) no nitrogenase activity, (b) the absence of NifHDK polypeptides, (c) a slower growth rate on NH4+, (d) approximately 50% higher glutamine synthetase (GS) activity than the wild-type, which was repressible, (e) an inability to switch-off GS activity in response to an NH4+ up-shift, and (f) an inability to modify (32P-label) the GS polypeptide. The apparent relationship between the absence of nifHDK expression and the absence of GS adenylylation cannot be explained in terms of the current model for nif gene regulation. However, R. rubrum transconjugants receiving A. vinelandii DNA which originated immediately upstream from nifH, restored all aspects of the wild-type phenotype. These data suggest a here-to-fore unrecognized relationship between nif expression and GS switch-off (adenylylation) activity, and the existence of a previously unidentified regulatory locus in Azotobacter that complements this mutation. PMID:1980582

  7. Probing the bacteriochlorophyll binding site by reconstitution of the light-harvesting complex of Rhodospirillum rubrum with bacteriochlorophyll a analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural features of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a that are required for binding to the light-harvesting proteins of Rhodospirillum rubrum were determined by testing for reconstitution of the B873 or B820 (structural subunit of B873) light-harvesting complexes with BChl a analogues. The results indicate that the binding site is very specific; of the analogues tested, only derivatives of BChl a with ethyl, phytyl, and geranylgeranyl esterifying alcohols and BChl b (phytyl) successfully reconstituted to form B820-and B873-type complexes. BChl analogues lacking magnesium, the C-3 acetyl group, or the C132 carbomethoxy group did not reconstitute to form B820 or B873. Also unreactive were 132-hydroxy BChl a and 3-acetylchlorophyll a. Competition experiments showed that several of these nonreconstituting analogues significantly slowed BChl a binding to form B820 and blocked BChl a-B873 formation, indicating that the analogues may competitively bind to the protein even though they do not form red-shifted complexes. With the R. rubrum polypeptides, BChl b formed complexes that were further red-shifted than those of BChl a; however, the energies of the red shifts, binding behavior, and circular dichroism (CD) spectra were similar. B873 complexes reconstituted with the geranylgeranyl BChl a derivative, which contains the native esterifying alcohol for R. rubrum, showed in-vivo-like CD features, but the phytyl and ethyl B873 complexes showed inverted CD features in the near infrared. The B820 complex with the ethyl derivative was about 30-fold less stable than the two longer esterifying alcohol derivatives, but all formed stable B873 complexes

  8. Substitution of valine for histidine 265 in carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum affects activity and spectroscopic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, N J; Meyers, M R; Gierke, K L; Kerby, R L; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1998-02-13

    In carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Rhodospirillum rubrum, histidine 265 was replaced with valine by site-directed mutagenesis of the cooS gene. The altered form of CODH (H265V) had a low nickel content and a dramatically reduced level of catalytic activity. Although treatment with NiCl2 and CoCl2 increased the activity of H265V CODH by severalfold, activity levels remained more than 1000-fold lower than that of wild-type CODH. Histidine 265 was not essential for the formation and stability of the Fe4S4 clusters. The Km and KD for CO as well as the KD for cyanide were relatively unchanged as a result of the amino acid substitution in CODH. The time-dependent reduction of the [Fe4S4]2+ clusters by CO occurred on a time scale of hours, suggesting that, as a consequence of the mutation, a rate-limiting step had been introduced prior to the transfer of electrons from CO to the cubanes in centers B and C. EPR spectra of H265V CODH lacked the gav = 1.86 and gav = 1.87 signals characteristic of reduced forms of the active site (center C) of wild-type CODH. This indicates that the electronic properties of center C have been modified possibly by the disruption or alteration of the ligand-mediated interaction between the nickel site and Fe4S4 chromophore. PMID:9461598

  9. Low Earth orbit journey and ground simulations studies point out metabolic changes in the ESA life support organism Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Leys, Natalie; Benotmane, Rafi; Vanhavere, Filip; Janssen, Ann; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a project of closed regenerative life support system for future space flights developed by the European Space Agency. It consists of interconnected processes (i.e. bioreactors, higher plant compartments, filtration units,..) targeting the total recycling of organic waste into oxygen, water and food. Within the MELiSSA loop, the purple non-sulfur alpha-proteobacterium R. rubrum ATCC25903 is used to convert fatty acids released from the upstream raw waste digesting reactor to CO2 and biomass, and to complete the mineralization of aminoacids into NH4+ that will be forwarded to the nitrifying compartment. Among the numerous challenges of the project, the functional stability of the bioreactors in long term and under space flight conditions is of paramount importance for the efficiency of the life support system and consequently the crew safety. Therefore, the physiological and metabolic changes induced by space flight were investigated for R. rubrum. The bacterium grown on solid medium during 2 different 10-day space flights to the ISS (MES- SAGE2, BASE-A experiments) were compared to cells grown on Earth 1 g gravity or modeled microgravity and normal Earth radiation or simulated space flight radiation conditions in order to relate each single stress to its respective cellular response. For simulating the radiation environment, pure gamma and neutron sources were combined, while simulation of changes in gravity where performed using the Random Positioning Machine technology. Transcriptome analysis using R. rubrum total genome DNA-chip showed up-regulation of genes involved in oxidative stress response after a 10-day mission inside the ISS, without loss of viability. As an example, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, thioredoxin reductase and bacterioferritin genes are least 2 fold induced although the radiation dose experienced by the bacterium (4 mSv) is very low compared to its radiotolerance (D10 = 100 Sv

  10. FS-study on energy relaxation in light-harvesting (LH1) complexes from Rhodospirillum rubrum with carotenoids of different conjugation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution comprises of a comparative fs-spectroscopic study on light-harvesting (LH1) complexes from mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum. These complexes contain carotenoids of different conjugation lengths (n), Spirilloxanthin (Spx, n=13) as found in wild-type or tetra-hydro-Spirilloxanthin (thSpx, n=11), but no reaction center. After selective carotenoid (Car)-excitation we are able to separate the characteristic Car-signals in transient-absorption spectra, which are similar in both cases, but overall blue-shifted for thSpx. Besides the characteristic ground-state absorption bleaching, two excited state absorption components are observed. These are separated by about 1050 cm-1 and decay on different time scales. From comparison with an LH1 complex lacking Car, direct evidence is given for Car to bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer

  11. Pigment exchange in the light collecting complex of Rhodospirillum rubrum purple bacteria and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy on metallo-bacterio-pheophytins a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light collecting complexes (antennas) in membranes of photosynthetic bacteria and plants capture solar light during photosynthesis and transmit the excitation energy to the reaction centre where it is transformed into energy which can be used by the organism. Antennas and reaction centres are made of polypeptides and pigments (bacterio-chlorophylls) which have a crucial role in solar energy capture, but also in subsequent energy transfers. Whereas three-dimensional structures of some antennas and reaction centres are already known with a high resolution, there is almost no quantitative data on interactions between polypeptides and pigments which however confer their specificity to these complexes. A possibility to obtain such data is to introduce chemically modified pigments within antennas and reaction centres. In this research thesis, some metallo-bacteriopheophytins a have been synthesized and studied by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Vibrations modes have been studied. A process of exchange of the bacterio-chlorophyll a in the LHI antenna of the Rhodospirillum rubrum purple bacteria has been developed to obtain a good efficiency in antennas containing zinc-bacterio-pheophytin a and nickel-bacterio-pheophytin a, as well as bacterio-pheophytin a. Absorption spectra are discussed as well as the occurring relationships between complexes, and the extent of the occurring exchange

  12. Characterization of pH-dependent conformational heterogeneity in Rhodospirillum rubrum cytochrome c2 using 15N and 1H NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 15N-enriched ferricytochrome c2 from Rhodospirillum rubrum has been studied by 15N and 1H NMR spectroscopy as a function of pH. The 15N resonance of the heme and ligand τ nitrogen are broadened beyond detection because of paramagnetic relaxation. The 15N resonance of the ligand histidine π nitrogen was unambiguously identified at 184 ppm (pH 5.6). The 15N resonances of the single nonligand histidine are observed only at low pH, as in the ferrocytochrome because of the severe broadening caused by tautomerization. The dependence of the 15N and 1H spectra of the ferricytochrome on pH indicated that the ligand histidine π NH does not dissociate in the neutral pH range and is involved in a hydrogen bond, similar to that in the reduced state. Transitions having pKa's of 6.2, 8.6, and 9.2 are observed in the ferricytochrome. Structural heterogeneity leads to multiple resonances of the heme ring methyl at position 8. The exchange rate between the conformations is temperature dependent. The transition with a pKa of 6.2 is assigned to the His-42 imidazole group. The displacement of the ligand methionine causes gross conformational change near the heme center. There are multiple conformations at high pH, as judged by saturation-transfer experiments. The N-terminus of the ferricytochrome has a pKa of 8.6. In contrast to its partially restricted mobility in the reduced state, it is found to be very mobile, reflecting a looser structure of the ferricytochrome

  13. Biosynthesis of bacterial glycogen: activator specificity of the adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylases from the genus Rhodospirillum.

    OpenAIRE

    Preiss, J; Greenberg, E

    1981-01-01

    The adenosine diphosphate (ADP) glucose pyrophosphorylases from Rhodospirillum fulvum, Rhodospirillum molischianum, and Rhodospirillum tenue were partially purified, and their kinetic properties were studied. The enzyme from the three organisms was found to be activated by pyruvate and thus was similar to the Rhodospirillum rubrum enzyme that had been previously studied (C. E. Furlong, and J. Preiss, J. Biol. Chem. 244:2539-2548, 1979). The enzymes from R. fulvum, R. molischianum, and R. tenu...

  14. 红螺菌科光合细菌液体培养基的优化%Optimization of Liquid Medium for Rhodospirillum Branch of Photosynthetic Bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟为章; 罗一菁; 张忠智; 鲁莽

    2009-01-01

    红螺菌科光合细菌液体培养基由乙酸钠、氯化铵、磷酸二氢钾、硫酸镁、酵母膏等5种原料组成.采用L16(45)正交表,得到液体培养基的优化配方为:乙酸钠3.3 g·L-1、氯化铵0.6 g·L-1、磷酸二氢钾0.9 g·L-1、硫酸镁0.5 g·L-1、酵母膏1.5 g·L-1,细菌在光照3000 lx、温度(32±2)℃条件下,培养3 d即可达到生长峰值,细菌总数从1.63×109 cfu·mL-1提高到3.68×109 cfu·mL-1.%The liquid medium for Rhodospirillum branch of photosynthetic bacterium is composed of CH3COONa,NH4Cl,MgSO4,KH2PO4 and peptone. L16(45) Orthogonal design experiment was applied to optimize the culture medium,taking above 5 components as influencing factors on photosynthetic bacterium growth.According to the results,when the culture medium containing CH3COONa 3.3 g·L-1,NH4Cl 0.6 g·L-1,KH2PO4 0.9 g·L-1,MgSO4 0.5 g·L-1 and peptone 1.5 g·L-1,after 3 days growth under illumination of 3000 lx and temperature of (32±2)℃,the photosynthetic bacterium growth could reach the peak value.The total number of bacterium increased from initial 1.63×109 cfu·mL-1 to 3.68×109 cfu·mL-1.The optimized culture medium could effectively improve photosynthetic bacterium growth.

  15. Cultivo en biorreactores de rhodospirillum rubrum en condiciones fotoheterotróficas

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello Bergillos, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    La presente tesis está enmarcada en el desarrollo de los sistemas de soporte de vida biológicos, de especial aplicación para los viajes espaciales tripulados de larga duración. Concretamente, este trabajo se centra en el estudio, análisis, modelización y escalado de uno de los cinco compartimentos que integran el bucle MELiSSA, el compartimento fotoheterotrófico. Los experimentos han sido encaminados a determinar la influencia de la naturaleza de la radiación, de la irradiancia incidente y de...

  16. Ultra-broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy of carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll interactions in the LH1 complex of a purple bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways in the photosynthetic light harvesting 1 (LH1) complex of purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum with ultra-broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). We employ a 2DES apparatus in the partially collinear geometry, using a passive birefringent interferometer to generate the phase-locked pump pulse pair. This scheme easily lends itself to two-color operation, by coupling a sub-10 fs visible pulse with a sub-15-fs near-infrared pulse. This unique pulse combination allows us to simultaneously track with extremely high temporal resolution both the dynamics of the photoexcited carotenoid spirilloxanthin (Spx) in the visible range and the EET between the Spx and the B890 bacterio-chlorophyll (BChl), whose Qx and Qy transitions peak at 585 and 881 nm, respectively, in the near-infrared. Global analysis of the one-color and two-color 2DES maps unravels different relaxation mechanisms in the LH1 complex: (i) the initial events of the internal conversion process within the Spx, (ii) the parallel EET from the first bright state S2 of the Spx towards the Qx state of the B890, and (iii) the internal conversion from Qx to Qy within the B890

  17. Ultra-broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy of carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll interactions in the LH1 complex of a purple bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiuri, Margherita; Réhault, Julien; Carey, Anne-Marie; Hacking, Kirsty; Garavelli, Marco; Lüer, Larry; Polli, Dario; Cogdell, Richard J; Cerullo, Giulio

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways in the photosynthetic light harvesting 1 (LH1) complex of purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum with ultra-broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). We employ a 2DES apparatus in the partially collinear geometry, using a passive birefringent interferometer to generate the phase-locked pump pulse pair. This scheme easily lends itself to two-color operation, by coupling a sub-10 fs visible pulse with a sub-15-fs near-infrared pulse. This unique pulse combination allows us to simultaneously track with extremely high temporal resolution both the dynamics of the photoexcited carotenoid spirilloxanthin (Spx) in the visible range and the EET between the Spx and the B890 bacterio-chlorophyll (BChl), whose Qx and Qy transitions peak at 585 and 881 nm, respectively, in the near-infrared. Global analysis of the one-color and two-color 2DES maps unravels different relaxation mechanisms in the LH1 complex: (i) the initial events of the internal conversion process within the Spx, (ii) the parallel EET from the first bright state S2 of the Spx towards the Qx state of the B890, and (iii) the internal conversion from Qx to Qy within the B890. PMID:26049453

  18. Ultra-broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy of carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll interactions in the LH1 complex of a purple bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiuri, Margherita [CNR-IFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, P.zza L. da Vinci 32, Milano 20133 (Italy); Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Washington Road, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Réhault, Julien; Polli, Dario; Cerullo, Giulio, E-mail: giulio.cerullo@polimi.it [CNR-IFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, P.zza L. da Vinci 32, Milano 20133 (Italy); Carey, Anne-Marie; Hacking, Kirsty; Cogdell, Richard J. [Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, IBLS, University of Glasgow, 126 Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Garavelli, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, IT-40126 Bologna (Italy); CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université de Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Lüer, Larry [Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies, IMDEA Nanociencia, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-06-07

    We investigate the excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways in the photosynthetic light harvesting 1 (LH1) complex of purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum with ultra-broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). We employ a 2DES apparatus in the partially collinear geometry, using a passive birefringent interferometer to generate the phase-locked pump pulse pair. This scheme easily lends itself to two-color operation, by coupling a sub-10 fs visible pulse with a sub-15-fs near-infrared pulse. This unique pulse combination allows us to simultaneously track with extremely high temporal resolution both the dynamics of the photoexcited carotenoid spirilloxanthin (Spx) in the visible range and the EET between the Spx and the B890 bacterio-chlorophyll (BChl), whose Q{sub x} and Q{sub y} transitions peak at 585 and 881 nm, respectively, in the near-infrared. Global analysis of the one-color and two-color 2DES maps unravels different relaxation mechanisms in the LH1 complex: (i) the initial events of the internal conversion process within the Spx, (ii) the parallel EET from the first bright state S{sub 2} of the Spx towards the Q{sub x} state of the B890, and (iii) the internal conversion from Q{sub x} to Q{sub y} within the B890.

  19. Metabolic flexibility revealed in the genome of the cyst-forming α-1 proteobacterium Rhodospirillum centenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthies Heather J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhodospirillum centenum is a photosynthetic non-sulfur purple bacterium that favors growth in an anoxygenic, photosynthetic N2-fixing environment. It is emerging as a genetically amenable model organism for molecular genetic analysis of cyst formation, photosynthesis, phototaxis, and cellular development. Here, we present an analysis of the genome of this bacterium. Results R. centenum contains a singular circular chromosome of 4,355,548 base pairs in size harboring 4,105 genes. It has an intact Calvin cycle with two forms of Rubisco, as well as a gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC for mixotrophic CO2 fixation. This dual carbon-fixation system may be required for regulating internal carbon flux to facilitate bacterial nitrogen assimilation. Enzymatic reactions associated with arsenate and mercuric detoxification are rare or unique compared to other purple bacteria. Among numerous newly identified signal transduction proteins, of particular interest is a putative bacteriophytochrome that is phylogenetically distinct from a previously characterized R. centenum phytochrome, Ppr. Genes encoding proteins involved in chemotaxis as well as a sophisticated dual flagellar system have also been mapped. Conclusions Remarkable metabolic versatility and a superior capability for photoautotrophic carbon assimilation is evident in R. centenum.

  20. Differentiation between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum by sorbitol assimilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Rezusta, A; Rubio, M C; Alejandre, M C

    1991-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum was easily differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by its ability to assimilate sorbitol with an API 20C AUX strip. One hundred percent of 36 T. rubrum strains and none of 147 T. mentagrophytes strains assimilated sorbitol.

  1. Effects of laser irradiation on Trichophyton rubrum growth and ultrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhi-li; XU Jing; ZHUO Feng-lin; WANG Li; XU Wei; XU Ying; ZHANG Xiao-yan; ZHAO Jun-ying

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) is the most common causative agent of dermatophytosis worldwide.In this study,we examined the effect of laser irradiation on the growth and morphology of T.rubrum.Methods Colonies of T.rubrum were isolated (one colony per plate),and randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups:Q-switched 694 nm ruby laser treatment,long-pulsed Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser treatment,intense pulsed light (IPL)treatment,308 nm excimer laser treatment and the blank control group without treatment.Standardized photographs were obtained from grown-up fungal plates prior to treatment.Colonies were then exposed to various wavelengths and fluences of laser light.To compare the growth of colonies,they were re-photographed under identical conditions three and six days post-treatment.To investigate the morphology of T.rubrum,scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were obtained from specimens exposed to 24 hours of laser treatment.Results Growth of T.rubrum colonies was significantly inhibited following irradiation by 694 nm Q-switched and 1064nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG lasers.Other treatments exerted little or no effect.Q-switched laser irradiation exerted a stronger growth inhibitory effect than long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation.Following treatment by the Q-switched ruby laser system,T.rubrum hyphae became shrunken and deflated,and SEM images revealed rough,fractured hyphal surfaces,punctured with small destructive holes.TEM images showed that the hyphae were degenerating,as evidenced by the irregular shape of hyphae,rough and loose cell wall,and obscure cytoplasmic texture.Initially high elect(io)n density structure was visible in the cell; later,low-density structure appeared as a result of cytoplasmic dissolution.In contrast,the blank control group showed no obvious changes in morphology.Conclusion The Q-switched 694 nm ruby laser treatment significantly inhibits the growth and changes the morphology of T.rubrum.

  2. Trichophyton rubrum onychomycosis in an 8-week-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K Khurana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-week-old infant presented with 7 weeks history of nail involvement and discoloration. Lesions started over the middle fingernail of right hand at 1 week of age, spreading over to other nails within 2 weeks. Only two nails of the feet were spared. On KOH examination, fungal hyphae were seen and culture showed growth of Trichophyton rubrum. The purpose is to report the earliest case of onychomycosis having multiple nail involvement of fingers and toes (18 nails.

  3. ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM, TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES AND TRICHOPHYTON VERRUCOSUM

    OpenAIRE

    F Zaini

    1991-01-01

    Since most of the studies on chemical compounds of dermatophytes have shown the existence of a relationship between their pathogenisity and proteolytec enzymes. Activities of 19 different enzymes in viable mycelia and cytoplasmic extracts of T.rubrum (CETr), T.mentagrophytes (CETm) and T.verrucosum (CETv) were investigated by the API-Zym System. The results showed that Viable mycelia of T.rubrm and T.mentagrophytes had valine arylamidase and cystine arylamidase activity where as no such activ...

  4. Sensibilidad al fluconazol de aislamientos de Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma T Gross-Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Trichophyton rubrum es el dermatofito más frecuentemente aislado a nivel mundial y afecta principalmente: piel glabra, uñas de las manos y de los pies. El fluconazol es utilizado con frecuencia para el tratamiento de las onicomicosis en nuestra población, por lo que el objetivo de la presente investigación fue estudiar la sensibilidad a este antifúngico, de aislamientos costarricenses de T. rubrum. Métodos: se investigó la sensibilidad in vitro al fluconazol de 80 aislamientos de T. rubrum, obtenidos de muestras de piel y sus anexos. El método utilizado fue el de microdilución M-38A, descrito por el “National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards”. Las diluciones finales del fluconazol fueron de 0,25 a 128 μg/ml. Resultados: la mayoría de los aislamientos fueron obtenidos de uñas de los pies (68,75%. El 86,25% de los aislamientos analizados presentaron una concentración mínima inhibitoria entre 0,25-8 μg/ml, el 8,75% entre 16-32 μg/ml y un 5% > 64 μg/ml. De estos aislamientos resistentes, dos fueron de uñas de los pies y dos de plantas de pie. Conclusión: debido a que la mayoría de los aislamientos de T. rubrum demostraron ser sensibles al fluconazol, solo se recomienda realizar la prueba de sensibilidad a este antifúngico en casos de falla terapéutica, especialmente en pacientes con onicomicosis en la cual el tratamiento es prolongado.

  5. Vibrios associated with red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum.

    OpenAIRE

    Romalde, J L; Barja, J L; Toranzo, A E

    1990-01-01

    Vibrios were isolated from red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum and also throughout the year in the Ria de Pontevedra, Spain. The isolates were grouped into 14 phena by numerical toxonomy. Strains associated with red tides were restricted to four phena: phena I and II were Vibrio alginolyticus, and phena III and IV were Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio anguillarum, respectively. V. anguillarum-like strains (phena V through XI) predominated throughout the year outside the red tide areas. Cytotoxic...

  6. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  7. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Xin; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Ran, Yuping

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors. PMID:26288747

  8. TrED: the Trichophyton rubrum Expression Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tao

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte species and the most frequent cause of fungal skin infections in humans worldwide. It's a major concern because feet and nail infections caused by this organism is extremely difficult to cure. A large set of expression data including expressed sequence tags (ESTs and transcriptional profiles of this important fungal pathogen are now available. Careful analysis of these data can give valuable information about potential virulence factors, antigens and novel metabolic pathways. We intend to create an integrated database TrED to facilitate the study of dermatophytes, and enhance the development of effective diagnostic and treatment strategies. Description All publicly available ESTs and expression profiles of T. rubrum during conidial germination in time-course experiments and challenged with antifungal agents are deposited in the database. In addition, comparative genomics hybridization results of 22 dermatophytic fungi strains from three genera, Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton, are also included. ESTs are clustered and assembled to elongate the sequence length and abate redundancy. TrED provides functional analysis based on GenBank, Pfam, and KOG databases, along with KEGG pathway and GO vocabulary. It is integrated with a suite of custom web-based tools that facilitate querying and retrieving various EST properties, visualization and comparison of transcriptional profiles, and sequence-similarity searching by BLAST. Conclusion TrED is built upon a relational database, with a web interface offering analytic functions, to provide integrated access to various expression data of T. rubrum and comparative results of dermatophytes. It is devoted to be a comprehensive resource and platform to assist functional genomic studies in dermatophytes. TrED is available from URL: http://www.mgc.ac.cn/TrED/.

  9. Xanthomegnin detection does not discriminate between Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Hazal; Ilkit, Macit; Çürük, Akif

    2015-04-01

    Here, we aimed to discriminate the Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complexes, via detection of xanthomegnin using HPLC. We concluded that it is not a reliable technique for discriminating the two complexes, because strains belonging to both T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complexes displayed xanthomegnin activity. PMID:25702626

  10. Functional analysis of embolism induced by air injection in Acer rubrum and Salix nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jegsen Melcher; Maciej Andrzej Zwieniecki

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of induced embolism with air injection treatments on the function of xylem in Acer rubrum L. and Salix nigra Marsh. Measurements made on mature trees of A. rubrum showed that pneumatic pressurization treatments that created a pressure gradient of 5.5 MPa across pit membranes (DPpit) had no effect on stomatal conductance or on branch-level sap flow. The same air injection treatments made on three year old potted A. rubrum plants also had no eff...

  11. Mass entrapment and lysis of Mesodinium rubrum cells in mucus threads observed in cultures with Dinophysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojamäe, Karin; Hansen, Per Juel; Lips, Inga

    2016-01-01

    The entrapment and death of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum in the mucus threads in cultures with Dinophysis is described and quantified. Feeding experiments with different concentrations and predator–prey ratios of Dinophysis acuta, Dinophysis acuminata and M. rubrum to study the motility loss and...... aggregate formation of the ciliates and the feeding behaviour of Dinophysis were carried out. In cultures of either Dinophysis species, the ciliates became entrapped in the mucus, which led to the formation of immobile aggregates of M. rubrum and subsequent cell lysis. The proportion of entrapped ciliates...... was influenced by the concentration of Dinophysis and the ratio of predator and prey in the cultures. At high cell concentrations of prey (136 cells mL−1) and predator (100 cells mL−1), a maximum of 17% of M. rubrum cells became immobile and went through cell lysis. Ciliates were observed trapped in...

  12. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Silva, Gabriel; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solan...

  13. Simulated herbivory advances autumn phenology in Acer rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2014-05-01

    To determine the degree to which herbivory contributes to phenotypic variation in autumn phenology for deciduous trees, red maple ( Acer rubrum) branches were subjected to low and high levels of simulated herbivory and surveyed at the end of the season to assess abscission and degree of autumn coloration. Overall, branches with simulated herbivory abscised ˜7 % more leaves at each autumn survey date than did control branches within trees. While branches subjected to high levels of damage showed advanced phenology, abscission rates did not differ from those of undamaged branches within trees because heavy damage induced earlier leaf loss on adjacent branch nodes in this treatment. Damaged branches had greater proportions of leaf area colored than undamaged branches within trees, having twice the amount of leaf area colored at the onset of autumn and having ˜16 % greater leaf area colored in late October when nearly all leaves were colored. When senescence was scored as the percent of all leaves abscised and/or colored, branches in both treatments reached peak senescence earlier than did control branches within trees: dates of 50 % senescence occurred 2.5 days earlier for low herbivory branches and 9.7 days earlier for branches with high levels of simulated damage. These advanced rates are of the same time length as reported delays in autumn senescence and advances in spring onset due to climate warming. Thus, results suggest that should insect damage increase as a consequence of climate change, it may offset a lengthening of leaf life spans in some tree species.

  14. Altered Acer Rubrum Fecundity Induced By Chemical Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforest, J. L.; Peters, A.

    2014-12-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is becoming the most dominating tree in North American eastern deciduous forests. Concurrently, human activities have altered the chemical climate of terrestrial ecosystems via acidic deposition, which increases the available of nitrogen (N), while decreasing phosphorus (P) availability. Once a minor forest component prior to European settlement, the abundance of red maple may be a symptom of the modern age. The current paradigm explaining red maple's rise to prominence concerns fire suppression that excludes competitors. However, this still does not explain why red maple is unique compared to other functionally similar trees. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactive influence of acid rain mitigation on the fecundity of red maple. Objectives were achieved by measuring flowering, seed production, germination, and growth from red maple on plots that have been experimentally manipulated to increase soil pH, P, or both in three unglaciated eastern deciduous hardwood forests. At least 50% of the red maple population is seed bearing in our control soils, however the median percent of seed-bearing trees declined to zero when mitigating soils from acidic deposition. This can be explained by the curious fact that red maple is polygamodioecious, or has labile sex-expression, in which an individual tree can change its sex-expression in response to the environment. Furthermore, seed-bearing trees in the mitigated plots grew less, produced less seeds, and germinated at lower rates than their counterparts in control soils. Our results provide evidence that chemical climate change could be the primary contributing factor accelerating the dominance of red maple in eastern North American forests. Our observations can provide a boarder conceptual framework for understanding how nutrient limitations can be applied beyond plant productivity towards explaining distribution changes in vegetation.

  15. TRANSUNGUAL PERMEATION OF THE VORICONAZOLE NAIL LACQUER AGAINST TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Tandel Amruta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral therapies encounter side effects and topical therapies for nail diseases are limited by poor permeability of nail plate. An optimal penetration enhancer would improve drug delivery through nail plate facilitating new possibilities for treating neighboring target sites if the systemic circulation is reached. The purpose of study was to determine amount of voriconazole permeating through the nail plate from the nail lacquer formulation containing permeation enhancer and to demonstrate its susceptibility to the onchomycotic dermatophyte. The permeability studies were performed on avulsed human cadaver nail plates using modified Franz diffusion apparatus containing phosphate buffer saline in the acceptor chamber. The amount of Voriconazole permeated was quantitatively determined by the UV spectrophotometer. The amount of Voriconazole remaining in the nail after permeation had been retrieved by milling test. The addition of thioglycolic acid, 5% improved the permeability of the drug by 0.7 as the enhancement factor. The formulation followed zero order kinetics and Korsmeyer- Peppas mechanism of drug release on analyzing on DDSolver. The voriconazole flux of 5592.1 µg/cm/min and 596.75 µg/cm/min had been observed at 24 and 48 hours aliquots respectively for the nail lacquer containing an enhancer. Significantly higher permeation rates were achieved in the presence of an enhancer. The inhibitory zones for the voriconazole transungual nail lacquer were evaluated by testing against the dermatophyte, Trichophyton rubrum on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar. The effective zones of inhibitions suggested Voriconazole nail lacquer exhibiting moderate antifungal activity for the onchomycosis treatment.

  16. TRANSUNGUAL PERMEATION OF THE VORICONAZOLE NAIL LACQUER AGAINST TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta Ashok Tandel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The oral therapies encounter side effects and topical therapies for nail diseases are limited by poor permeability of nail plate. An optimal penetration enhancer would improve drug delivery through nail plate facilitating new possibilities for treating neighboring target sites if the systemic circulation is reached. The purpose of study was to determine amount of voriconazole permeating through the nail plate from the nail lacquer formulation containing permeation enhancer and to demonstrate its susceptibility to the onchomycotic dermatophyte. Methods and materials: The permeability studies were performed on avulsed human cadaver nail plates using modified Franz diffusion apparatus containing phosphate buffer saline in the acceptor chamber. The amount of Voriconazole permeated was quantitatively determined by the UV spectrophotometer. The amount of Voriconazole remaining in the nail after permeation had been retrieved by milling test. Results and discussion: The addition of thioglycolic acid, 5% improved the permeability of the drug by 0.7 as the enhancement factor. The formulation followed zero order kinetics and Korsmeyer- Peppas mechanism of drug release on analyzing on DDSolver. The voriconazole flux of 5592.1 µg/cm/min and 596.75 µg/cm/min had been observed at 24 and 48 hours aliquots respectively for the nail lacquer containing an enhancer. Significantly higher permeation rates were achieved in the presence of an enhancer. Conclusion: The inhibitory zones for the voriconazole transungual nail lacquer were evaluated by testing against the dermatophyte, Trichophyton rubrum on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar. The effective zones of inhibitions suggested Voriconazole nail lacquer exhibiting moderate antifungal activity for the onchomycosis treatment.

  17. Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2 Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress. PMID:24811710

  18. Crystallization and structure of a recombinant ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Gunter; Lindqvist, Ylva; Brändén, Carl-Ivar; Lorimer, George

    1988-07-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase is the key enzyme in photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation and photorespiration. The dimeric carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant enzyme has been crystallized in a number of different crystal forms. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme has been determined by X-ray crystallographic methods to 2.9Åresolution.

  19. Effect of gibberellic acid on total antioxidant activity during Chenopodium rubrum L. ontogenesis invitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Aleksandra; Bogdanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity (TAA) represents the combined ability of diverse antioxidants present in a sample of plant material to scavenge free radicals. Chenopodium rubrum L. sel. 184 is a qualitatively short-day plant; as an early-flowering species, it is a suitable object for studying ontogenesis in vitro. We investigated the effect of GA3 (5 mg/l) on TAA during C. rubrum ontogenesis under two different inductive photoperiodic regimes in vitro. Total antioxidant activ­ity does not change i...

  20. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Silva, Gabriel; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.). Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets. PMID:26257814

  1. Transmission of phytoplasmas associated with full blossom disease in Ribes rubrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Kubelková, Darina; Špaková, Vlastimila

    Leueven 1 : ISHS Acta Horticulturea, 2008 - (Martin, R.), s. 67-70 ISBN 978-90-6605-038-9. ISSN 0567-7572. [International Symposium on Small Fruit Virus Diseases /11./. Antalya (TR), 22.05.2006-26.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : currant * aster yellows phytoplasma * Ribes rubrum Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  2. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Takahasi Komoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.. Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets.

  3. Studies on the Chromosome Karyotype of Loropetalum chinense Var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense Var. semper rubrum%红花木、长红木染色体核型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连芳青; 肖德兴

    2001-01-01

    首次报道红花木(Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum)、长红木(Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum)的染色体数目及其核型分析。两者体细胞染色体数目均为2n=24。按Levan和我国植物染色体的分类标准,红花木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St;长红木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=12m+10Sm+2St。根据Stebbins划分的核型对称性的标准,两者都属“2A”型。%The chromosome number and karyotype analysis of two plants namely, Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, are reported for the first time. The two plants' chromosome numbers are the same, 2n=24. According to the classification criteria on both Levan and the plant chromosome in China, the two plants’ karyotype formula are as follows: for Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum, 2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St and for Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, 2n=2x=24=12m+10S+2St. Based on stebbins classification criterion of karyotype symmetry, the two plants belong to “2A” karyotype.

  4. A new biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution; red marine alga, Ceramium rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Ege A.; Doner G.

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption is an effective technique for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this study, dried, sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde modified red alga, Ceramium rubrum were used for the biosorption of copper from aqueous solution. The biosorption characteristics such as pH, biomass dosage, temperature and contact time were investigated. Also, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotemetric analysis of C.rubrum was performed to identify its structure. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm m...

  5. Refractory onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum: combination therapy with itraconazole and terbinafine

    OpenAIRE

    Bonifaz Alexandro; Vázquez-González Denisse; Saúl Amado; Fierro-Arias Leonel; Ponce-Olivera M. Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole plus terbinafine for refractory onychomycosis. This is a prospective clinical trial. Patients with proven Trychophyton rubrum onychomycosis of toenails were enrolled; the treatment consisted of weekly administration: itraconazole 200mg/day and terbinafine 250mg/day, for four months. Results: Thirty-two patients with onychomycosis were studied. Twenty-eight cases had distal subungual onychomycosis and 4 total dystrophic onychom...

  6. Endonyx toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: treatment with photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye*

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye for the treatment of endonyx toenail onychomycosis. Four patients with endonyx onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum were treated with 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated with light emission diode at 630 nm and an energy density of 36 J/cm2 for 6 months at 2-week intervals. The preliminary study showed the effectiveness of this therapy in the treatment of endonyx onychomycosis, and also indi...

  7. Analysis of tests used to differentiate Trichophyton rubrum from Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinski, J T; Van Avermaete, D; Kelley, L M

    1981-01-01

    Differential identification of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was evaluated by using the standard in vitro hair perforation test as a criterion for identification and comparing its effectiveness with that of nine other tests used to differentiate these two taxa. Correlation and multiple regression analysis showed that no single test or combination of these tests was able to make the differentiation as effectively as the standard in vitro hair perforation test. Using relat...

  8. Establishing a Method of Inoculum Preparation for Susceptibility Testing of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, D. A.; Barros, M. E. S.; J. S. Hamdan

    2006-01-01

    A total of 92 clinical isolates of dermatophytes (52 of Trichophyton rubrum and 40 of Trichophyton mentagrophytes) were selected for testing with six antifungal drugs (terbinafine, griseofulvin, clotrimazole, miconazole, isoconazole, and fluconazole) and two pairs of drug combinations (ketoconazole-cyclopiroxolamine and itraconazole-cyclopiroxolamine). Two methods of inoculum preparation for susceptibility testing were evaluated that used (i) inocula consisting only of microconidia of dermato...

  9. Rapid method for differentiation of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and related dermatophyte species.

    OpenAIRE

    Summerbell, R C; Rosenthal, S. A.; Kane, J.

    1988-01-01

    Bromocresol purple-milk solids-glucose medium, proposed by Fischer and Kane in 1971 (Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 43:169-180, 1971) as an aid in the rapid determination of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, was evaluated across a wide range of isolates to determine its accuracy and efficacy in the clinical laboratory. Results showed that it facilitated accurate determination of typical and atypical isolates of both species and also permitted the rapid identification of other clo...

  10. Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Anderson; Peter Ryser

    2015-01-01

    Several theories exist about the role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. To elucidate factors contributing to variation in autumn leaf anthocyanin contents among individual trees, we analysed anthocyanins and other leaf traits in 27 individuals of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) over two growing seasons in the context of timing of leaf senescence. Red maple usually turns bright red in the autumn, but there is considerable variation among the trees. Leaf autumn anthocyanin contents were consiste...

  11. Comparison between gene expression of conidia and germinating phase in Trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li; ZHANG Qian; QI YiPeng; JIN Qi; WANG LingLing; PENG JunPing; YU Lu; LIU Tao; LENG WenChuan; YANG Jian; CHEN LiHong; ZHANG WenLiang

    2007-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a dominating superficial dermatophyte, whose conidial germination is correlated to pathopoiesis and a highly important developmental process. To investigate the changes of physiology, biochemistry and cytology during the germination, we selected 3364 function identified ESTs from T. rubrum cDNA library to construct cDNA microarrays, and compared the gene expression levels of conidia and germinating phase. Data analysis indicated that 335 genes were up-regulated during the germination, which mainly encoded translated, modified proteins and structural proteins.The constituents of cell wall and cell membrane were synthetized abundantly, suggesting that they are the foundation of cell morphogenesis. The ingredients of the two-component signal transduction system were up-regulated, presuming that they were important for the conidial germination. Genes of various metabolic pathways were expressed prosperously, especially the genes that participated in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were up-regulated on the whole, demonstrating that in the environment with sufficient oxygen and glucose, conidia obtained energy through aerobic respiration.This paper provides important clues which are helpful to understanding the changes in gene expression, signal conduction and metabolism characteristics during T. rubrum conidial germination, and possess significant meaning to the study of other superficial dermatophytes.

  12. Comparison between gene expression of conidia and germinating phase in Trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a dominating superficial dermatophyte, whose conidial germination is corre- lated to pathopoiesis and a highly important developmental process. To investigate the changes of physiology, biochemistry and cytology during the germination, we selected 3364 function identified ESTs from T. rubrum cDNA library to construct cDNA microarrays, and compared the gene expression levels of conidia and germinating phase. Data analysis indicated that 335 genes were up-regulated during the germination, which mainly encoded translated, modified proteins and structural proteins. The constituents of cell wall and cell membrane were synthetized abundantly, suggesting that they are the foundation of cell morphogenesis. The ingredients of the two-component signal transduction sys- tem were up-regulated, presuming that they were important for the conidial germination. Genes of various metabolic pathways were expressed prosperously, especially the genes that participated in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were up-regulated on the whole, demonstrating that in the environment with sufficient oxygen and glucose, conidia obtained energy through aerobic respiration. This paper provides important clues which are helpful to understanding the changes in gene expres- sion, signal conduction and metabolism characteristics during T. rubrum conidial germination, and possess significant meaning to the study of other superficial dermatophytes.

  13. Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate within Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Dana L; McElwain, Jennifer C; Adams, Jonathan M; Wilf, Peter

    2008-01-01

    * Variation in the size and shape (physiognomy) of leaves has long been correlated to climate, and paleobotanists have used these correlations to reconstruct paleo-climate. Most studies focus on site-level means of largely nonoverlapping species sets. The sensitivity of leaf shape to climate within species is poorly known, which limits our general understanding of leaf-climate relationships and the value of intraspecific patterns for paleoclimate reconstructions. * The leaf physiognomy of two species whose native North American ranges span large climatic gradients (Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii) was quantified and correlated to mean annual temperature (MAT). Quercus kelloggii was sampled across a wide elevation range, but A. rubrum was sampled in strictly lowland areas. * Within A. rubrum, leaf shape correlates with MAT in a manner that is largely consistent with previous site-level studies; leaves from cold climates are toothier and more highly dissected. By contrast, Q. kelloggii is largely insensitive to MAT; instead, windy conditions with ample plant-available water may explain the preponderance of small teeth at high elevation sites, independent of MAT. * This study highlights the strong correspondence between leaf form and climate within some species, and demonstrates that intraspecific patterns may contribute useful information towards reconstructing paleoclimate. PMID:18507771

  14. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Final report, August 31, 1990--September 3, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Johnson, E.R.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Based upon the results of this culture screening study, Rhodospirillum rubrum is recommended for biocatalysis of the water gas shift reaction and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is recommended for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Both bacteria require tungsten light for growth and can be co-cultured together if H{sub 2}S conversion is not complete (required concentration of at least 1 ppM), thereby presenting H{sub 2} uptake by Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum. COS degradation may be accomplished by utilizing various CO-utilizing bacteria or by indirectly converting COS to elemental sulfur after the COS first undergoes reaction to H{sub 2} in water. The second alternative is probably preferred due to the low expected concentration of COS relative to H{sub 2}S. Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. Rhodospirillum rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is also a photosynthetic anaerobic bacteria, and converts H{sub 2}S and COS to elemental sulfur.

  15. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Kampo Medicine Water Extracts against Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Xia; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Hein, Kyaw Zaw; Morita, Eishin

    2016-06-01

    Kampo medicines consist of a variety of crude animal, plant, and mineral extracts that have long been used to relieve different symptoms, and are relatively safe. However, their mechanisms of actions have not been well investigated. We screened 61 commercially available Kampo medicines to determine if they contain constituents with antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal effect of the Kampo medicines was determined by measuring the mean absorbance of treated fungal culture media. Lower absorbance values suggested a higher inhibition of the growth rate of T. rubrum by the Kampo medicines. We found that seven of the evaluated formulations exhibited a comparable antifungal activity to that of fluconazole at 14 mg/mL. The seven active Kampo medicines were Saiko-keishi-kankyou-to, Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Saiko-keishi-to, Keishi-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, Dai-saiko-to, Bohu-tsu-sho-san, and Otsu-ji-to. The seven Kampo medicines with antifungal activity contain 30 different crude extracts, and Ou-gon (Scutellaria root) is a supplement contained in six of the seven formulations. Therefore, Ou-gon was considered to play a major role in their antifungal effect. The antifungal assay of the Ou-gon water extract showed that it significantly inhibited the growth of T. rubrum at a concentration of 20 mg/mL. Future studies will focus on the isolation and identification of the antifungal components of the crude extracts of Ou-gon, which may be potentially useful, new, and safe antifungal drugs. PMID:27534111

  16. Polyclonality of Trichophyton rubrum Isolates in aDermatophytosis Patient with Multiple Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kiminobu; Mochizuki, Hirokazu; Izumi, Katsuhiko; Sakata, Yuichi; Ushigami, Tsuyoshi; Nishibu, Akiko; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We cultured 15 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum and one isolate of Trichophyton mentagrophytes from an 82-year-old male tinea patient with multiple lesions. To determine whether feet lesions were the source of dermatophytes of other tinea lesions, we extracted total cellular DNA from the T. rubrum isolates(13 from feet, two from right waist and buttock). PCR targeting the non-transcribed spacer(NTS)region of ribosomal RNA gene was performed. Molecular polymorphisms were detected by length variation of amplicons.Four molecular types were found among the 15 isolates. The predominant type, which we previously named Type III, comprised seven isolates cultured from both feet and from left waist and buttock. This was followed by Type VI, five isolates; Type V, two isolates; and Type IV, one isolate. Apart from type III, which was cultured from both feet, isolates were cultured from one foot only. The patient was successfully treated for all types with a six-month course of oral terbinafine and topical luliconazole. The molecular typing supported the notion that tinea pedis was the source of tinea corporis in the patient. PMID:27251316

  17. Molecular Characterization of Subunit G of the Vacuolar ATPase in Pathogen Dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rezaie

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is an anthropophilic fungus causing up to 90% of chronic cases of dermatophytosis. Several properties of this fungus have been investigated so far. However, a few studies were carried out in the field of molecular biology of this fungus. In the present study, we tried to identify the subunit G of its vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase. Pairs of 21 nt primers were designed from highly conserved regions of the V-ATPase subunit G genes in other fungi. Mentioned primers were utilized in PCR using isolated genomic DNA template as well as cytoplasmic RNA of T.rubrum and the PCR and RT-PCR fragments were then sequenced. About 469 nucleotides were sequenced which encoded a polypeptide with 119 amino acids. Nucleotide sequence comparison in gene data banks (NCBI, NIH for both the DNA and its deduced amino acid sequence revealed significant homology with V-ATPase subunit G genes and proteins of other eukaryotic cells. The amino acid sequence of the encoded protein was about 84% identical to the sequence of V-ATPase subunit G from other fungi. In summary, we have cloned the first V-ATPase subunit G of dermatophytes and characterized it as a member of this gene family in other eukaryotic cells.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Paenibacillus kribbensis POC 115 against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, Simone Raposo; da Mota, Fabio Faria; Tupinambá, Gleiser; Ishida, Kelly; Rozental, Sonia; E Silva, Davi Oliveira; da Silva, Antônio Jorge Ribeiro; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2012-03-01

    In a search for an antifungal substance with activity against the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton rubrum, strain POC 115 was chosen among different Paenibacillus strains for its phenotypic and genetic characterization and for preliminary characterization of its antimicrobial substance. Strain POC 115 was identified as belonging to Paenibacillus kribbensis. Physico-chemical characterization of the antimicrobial substance showed that it was not stable during heat and organic solvents treatments, but its activity was preserved at a wide range of pH and after treatment with pronase E, trypsin and DNase I. The crude concentrated supernatant of POC 115 culture was partially purified and the fraction presenting antimicrobial activity was further analyzed by UPLC/Mass Spectrometry. Two peaks were observed at 2.02 (mass 1,207 D) and 2.71 (mass 1,014 D) min in the mass chromatogram. The antimicrobial substance produced by POC 115 was correlated to iturin family compounds based on a set of primers designed for the amplification of PKS operon in the POC 115 genome. As happens with the mode of action of the antibiotics of the iturin group, the AMS produced by POC 115 caused the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane of T. rubrum and the subsequent withdraw of the intracellular material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances in P. kribbensis, and it may be of great relevance as an alternative or supplementary substance to antifungal drugs currently used against dermatophytes. PMID:22805816

  19. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the Protaminobacter rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravaud, Stéphanie [Laboratoire de BioCristallographie, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, CNRS and Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR 5086, IFR 128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland, F-69367 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Watzlawick, Hildegard [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Industrielle Genetik, Allmandring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Haser, Richard [Laboratoire de BioCristallographie, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, CNRS and Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR 5086, IFR 128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland, F-69367 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Mattes, Ralf [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Industrielle Genetik, Allmandring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Aghajari, Nushin, E-mail: n.aghajari@ibcp.fr [Laboratoire de BioCristallographie, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, CNRS and Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR 5086, IFR 128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland, F-69367 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France)

    2006-01-01

    The P. rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA, a key enzyme in the industrial production of isomaltulose, was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.95 Å resolution. Palatinose (isomaltulose, α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-d-fructofuranose), a nutritional and acariogenic reducing sugar, is industrially obtained from sucrose by using immobilized cells of Protaminobacter rubrum that produce the sucrose isomerase SmuA. The isomerization of sucrose catalyzed by this enzyme also results in the formation of trehalulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose) in smaller amounts and glucose, fructose and eventually isomaltose as by-products, which lower the yield of the reaction and complicate the recovery of palatinose. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of SmuA will provide a basis for rational protein-engineering studies in order to optimize the industrial production of palatinose. A recombinant form of the 67.3 kDa SmuA enzyme has been crystallized in the native state by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 81.4, c = 135.6 Å, and diffract to 1.95 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source.

  20. Dermatofitose por Tricophyton rubrum como infecção oportunista em pacientes com doença de Cushing Dermatophytosis caused by Tricophyton rubrum as an opportunistic infection in patients with Cushing disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isy Peixoto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O dermatófito Trichophyton rubrum é um agente comum nas micoses superficiais, podendo apresentar lesões extensas pauci-inflamatórias de evolução crônica, especialmente em imunocomprometidos. O hipercortisolismo, na síndrome de Cushing, aumenta o risco de infecções, resultado do efeito imunossupressor dos glicocorticóides. Os casos relatados apresentam duas formas distintas de dermatofitose, em pacientes com doença de Cushing, causadas por Tricophyton rubrum e posterior remissão após normalização da cortisolemia.Trichophyton rubrum is a common agent found in superficial mycoses, which present ample nonin?ammatory lesions, with chronic evolution, especially in immunocompromised patients. The hypercortisolism in Cushing's syndrome increases the risk of infections as a result of the immunosuppressive effect of glucocorticoids. The reported cases here refer to two different types of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum in patients with Cushing's disease, resistant to antifungal treatment. The disease remitted after the levels of cortisol went back to normal.

  1. A new biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous solution; red marine alga, Ceramium rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption is an effective technique for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this study, dried, sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde modified red alga, Ceramium rubrum were used for the biosorption of copper from aqueous solution. The biosorption characteristics such as pH, biomass dosage, temperature and contact time were investigated. Also, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotemetric analysis of C.rubrum was performed to identify its structure. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption of Cu2+ onto C.rubrum biomass at the equilibrium. Langmuir model fitted well the equilibrium data for all biosorbents. Maximum biosorption capacity of dried biomass was calculated 25.51 mg/g, while it was calculated 42.92 mg/g and 30.03 mg/g for sodium hydroxide modified and formaldehyde modified biomass, respectively. Modified biomasses have higher maximum biosorption capacities indicating that modification of biomass with NaOH and HCHOH may increase responsible active sites for biosorption on the C.rubrum.

  2. Refractory onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum: combination therapy with itraconazole and terbinafine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifaz Alexandro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole plus terbinafine for refractory onychomycosis. This is a prospective clinical trial. Patients with proven Trychophyton rubrum onychomycosis of toenails were enrolled; the treatment consisted of weekly administration: itraconazole 200mg/day and terbinafine 250mg/day, for four months. Results: Thirty-two patients with onychomycosis were studied. Twenty-eight cases had distal subungual onychomycosis and 4 total dystrophic onychomycosis. At the end of the follow-up 17/32 patients had clinical and mycologic cure (53.12%, 5 had clinical improvement only (15.6%, and 10 (31.2% failed. Conclusion: Weekly alternate therapy with itraconazole + terbinafine represents a safe rescue treatment.

  3. Potential risk of Mesodinium rubrum bloom in aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove, China: diurnal changes in the ciliate community structure in the surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxue Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal changes in the structure of the ciliate community in surface waters were studied in the aquaculture area of Dapeng'ao cove,China. Two periods of heavy rainfall occurred during the study period, intensifying water column stratification and influencing the water'sproperties. A total of 21 ciliate taxa from 15 genera were identified; the dominant species was Mesodinium rubrum. The maximumabundance of M. rubrum reached 3.92 × 104 indiv. dm-3,contributing 95.1% (mean value to the total ciliate abundance.Diurnal changes in M. rubrum abundance were highly variable, the driving force probably being irradiance and food availability.The results suggest that M. rubrum may form blooms in aquaculture areas when there is a suitable physical regime with enriched nutrients,which is potentially harmful to the fish-farming industry.

  4. Lactococcus lactis - a diploid bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Ole; Hansen, Flemming G.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    In contrast to higher eukaryotes, bacteria are haploid, i.e. they store their genetic information in a single chromosome, which is then duplicated during the cell cycle. If the growth rate is sufficiently low, the bacterium is born with only a single copy of the chromosome, which gets duplicated...... before the bacterium divides. Fast-growing bacteria have overlapping rounds of replication, and can contain DNA corresponding to more than four genome equivalents. However, the terminus region of the chromosome is still present in just one copy after division, and is not duplicated until right before...... the next division. Thus, the regions of the chromosome that are the last to be replicated are haploid even in fast-growing bacteria. In contrast to this general rule for bacteria, we found that Lactococcus lactis, a bacterium which has been exploited for thousands of years for the production of fermented...

  5. Single Bacterium Detection Using Sers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Baikova, T. V.; Alushin, M. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Minaeva, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of a single Staphylococcus aureus bacterium detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was shown that SERS allows increasing sensitivity of predominantly low frequency lines connected with the vibrations of Amide, Proteins and DNA. At the same time the lines of carotenoids inherent to this kind of bacterium are well-detected due to the resonance Raman scattering mechanism. The reproducibility and stability of Raman spectra strongly depend on the characteristics of nanostructured substrate, and molecular structure and size of the tested biological object.

  6. Single-enzyme conversion of FMNH2 to 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, the lower ligand of B12

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Michael J.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB), the lower ligand of coenzyme B12, has remained elusive. We report in vitro and in vivo evidence that the BluB protein of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum is necessary and sufficient for catalysis of the O2-dependent conversion of FMNH2 to DMB. The product of the reaction (DMB) was isolated by using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, and its identity was established by UV-visible spectroscopy and MS. No metals ...

  7. Distal and lateral toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: treatment with photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye*

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The study showed the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue to treat severe distal and lateral subungual toenail onychomycosis. 22 patients were divided into two groups: group A consisting of 11 patients with severe toenail onychomycosis and group B consisting of 11 patients with mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis. All patients had onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patients were treated with sessions of 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated wi...

  8. Sertaconazole Nitrate Shows Fungicidal and Fungistatic Activities against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum, Causative Agents of Tinea Pedis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso J.; Tur-Tur, Cristina; Cárdenes, Delia C.; Estivill, Dolors; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The fungistatic and fungicidal activities of sertaconazole against dermatophytes were evaluated by testing 150 clinical isolates of causative agents of tinea pedis, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The overall geometric means for fungistatic and fungicidal activities of sertaconazole against these isolates were 0.26 and 2.26 μg/ml, respectively, although values were higher for T. mentagrophytes than for the others. This is the first comprehensive...

  9. Extracellular Production of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Three Common Species of Dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis

    OpenAIRE

    Moazeni, Maryam; Rashidi, Niloofar; Shahverdi, Ahmad R; Noorbakhsh, Fatemeh; Sassan REZAIE

    2012-01-01

    Background: To develop a new green approach for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, myconanotechnology has been represented as a novel field of study in nanotechnology. In this study, we have reported the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using three species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Methods: Clinical strains of these species were grown in a liquid medium containing mineral salt and incubated at 25°C...

  10. Disparate SAR Data of Griseofulvin Analogues for the Dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Raab, Marc S.; Anderhub, Simon; Boesen, Sven; Krämer, Alwin; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2012-01-01

    Griseofulvin and 53 analogues of this compound have been tested against the pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes as well as against the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The modifications to griseofulvin include the 4, 5, 6, 2', 3', and 4' positions. The SAR of the griseofulvin analogues toward the two fungi followed the same trend with the majority being less active than griseofulvin and none had more than twice the potency of the parent compound. A ...

  11. Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L. Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Anderson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several theories exist about the role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. To elucidate factors contributing to variation in autumn leaf anthocyanin contents among individual trees, we analysed anthocyanins and other leaf traits in 27 individuals of red maple (Acer rubrum L. over two growing seasons in the context of timing of leaf senescence. Red maple usually turns bright red in the autumn, but there is considerable variation among the trees. Leaf autumn anthocyanin contents were consistent between the two years of investigation. Autumn anthocyanin content strongly correlated with degree of chlorophyll degradation mid to late September, early senescing leaves having the highest concentrations of anthocyanins. It also correlated positively with leaf summer chlorophyll content and dry matter content, and negatively with specific leaf area. Time of leaf senescence and anthocyanin contents correlated with soil pH and with canopy openness. We conclude that the importance of anthocyanins in protection of leaf processes during senescence depends on the time of senescence. Rather than prolonging the growing season by enabling a delayed senescence, autumn anthocyanins in red maple in Ontario are important when senescence happens early, possibly due to the higher irradiance and greater danger of oxidative damage early in the season.

  12. Quantifying spatial genetic structuring in mesophotic populations of the precious coral Corallium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Federica; Carlesi, Lorenzo; Abbiati, Marco

    2013-01-01

    While shallow water red coral populations have been overharvested in the past, nowadays, commercial harvesting shifted its pressure on mesophotic organisms. An understanding of red coral population structure, particularly larval dispersal patterns and connectivity among harvested populations is paramount to the viability of the species. In order to determine patterns of genetic spatial structuring of deep water Corallium rubrum populations, for the first time, colonies found between 58-118 m depth within the Tyrrhenian Sea were collected and analyzed. Ten microsatellite loci and two regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtMSH and mtC) were used to quantify patterns of genetic diversity within populations and to define population structuring at spatial scales from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Microsatellites showed heterozygote deficiencies in all populations. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were observed at all investigated spatial scales, suggesting that populations are likely to be isolated. This differentiation may by the results of biological interactions, occurring within a small spatial scale and/or abiotic factors acting at a larger scale. Mitochondrial markers revealed significant genetic structuring at spatial scales greater then 100 km showing the occurrence of a barrier to gene flow between northern and southern Tyrrhenian populations. These findings provide support for the establishment of marine protected areas in the deep sea and off-shore reefs, in order to effectively maintain genetic diversity of mesophotic red coral populations. PMID:23646109

  13. Quantifying spatial genetic structuring in mesophotic populations of the precious coral Corallium rubrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Costantini

    Full Text Available While shallow water red coral populations have been overharvested in the past, nowadays, commercial harvesting shifted its pressure on mesophotic organisms. An understanding of red coral population structure, particularly larval dispersal patterns and connectivity among harvested populations is paramount to the viability of the species. In order to determine patterns of genetic spatial structuring of deep water Corallium rubrum populations, for the first time, colonies found between 58-118 m depth within the Tyrrhenian Sea were collected and analyzed. Ten microsatellite loci and two regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtMSH and mtC were used to quantify patterns of genetic diversity within populations and to define population structuring at spatial scales from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Microsatellites showed heterozygote deficiencies in all populations. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were observed at all investigated spatial scales, suggesting that populations are likely to be isolated. This differentiation may by the results of biological interactions, occurring within a small spatial scale and/or abiotic factors acting at a larger scale. Mitochondrial markers revealed significant genetic structuring at spatial scales greater then 100 km showing the occurrence of a barrier to gene flow between northern and southern Tyrrhenian populations. These findings provide support for the establishment of marine protected areas in the deep sea and off-shore reefs, in order to effectively maintain genetic diversity of mesophotic red coral populations.

  14. Root - shoot - signaling in Chenopodium rubrum L. as studied by 15O labeled water uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It has been demonstrated with C. rubrum that the different organ systems are transmitting surface action potentials which might be the basis for systemic signal transduction. Shoot tip respectively root generated action potentials travel along the stem axis. Shoot tip generated action potentials arriving at the basis can be reflected and travel upwards. The radioactive labeling technique was established at the NIRS in Inage, Japan. About 2 GBq of 15O labeled Hoagland's solution was supplied to the plant root or cut stem in a phytotron at 25oC with 45 % of relative humidity and continuous light. By cutting the shoot apical bud and the apices of main side branches the uptake of 15O labeled water was inhibited in plants with intact roots but not in plants with roots cut. Because of the short half-life of 15O (2 min), experiments could be repeated in hourly intervals. Cutting the apex probably limits root water uptake via a hydraulic-electrochemical signal. The results are discussed with respect to the significance of a continuous communication between the root system and the shoot apical meristem(s) in the adaptation of plants to their environment. (author)

  15. The Inhibition of Human Pathogens: Trichophyton rubrum and Trichoderma harzianum by a Natural Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rand R. Hafidh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A number of studies have recently conducted to identify novel and potent antifungal components from natural products. One of the reasons is to overcome the antifungal resistant developed against most of commercially available drugs. Studies confirmed that mung beans have increased phenolic compounds and enhanced defenses during germination. Approach: We hypothesized that antifungal activities might be found in sprouts of mung beans, or Vigna radiate (L. R. Wilczek. The screening method was conducted using disc diffusion assay against 12 fungi. It was followed by the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum fungicidal concentration. Results: The screening results revealed a potential antifungal activity by mung bean sprout extract against 2 out of 12 fungi including remarkable antifungal activity against human fungal pathogens, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichoderma harzianum. The potential antifungal activity of mung bean sprout reflects effective quality/quantity of polyphenolic compounds present after bean germination. Conclusion/Recommendations: This unprecedented study showed that mung bean sprout extract is a potential source for novel antifungal compound (s that is inexpensive and readily available at a large scale for pharmaceutical companies.

  16. Disparate SAR Data of Griseofulvin Analogues for the Dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Raab, Marc S.; Anderhub, Simon;

    2012-01-01

    Griseofulvin and 53 analogues of this compound have been tested against the pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes as well as against the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The modifications to griseofulvin include the 4, 5, 6, 2', 3', and 4' positions. The...... analogues showed increased activity against the cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, highlighted by 2'-benzyloxy-2'-demethoxy-griseofulvin, which showed low activity against both fungi but was among the most potent compounds against MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Tubulin has been proposed as the target of griseofulvin in...

  17. HLA in Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews with chronic dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum Antígenos Leucocitários Humanos (HLA em Judeus Ashkenazitas Brasileiros portadores de dermatofitose crônica causada por Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Sadahiro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigens was analyzed in 25 non-consanguineous Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews, resident in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, suffering from chronic dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum, and in 25 non-infected individuals belonging to the same ethnic group. Statistically significant values (pA freqüência dos HLA foi analisada em 25 Judeus Ashkenazitas, não consangüíneos, residentes em São Paulo, Brasil, com dermatofitose crônica causada por T. rubrum e em 25 indivíduos sadios, pertencentes ao mesmo grupo étnico dos pacientes. Observou-se valor estatisticamente significante (p<0,05 para HLA-B14 associado a resistência à dermatofitose crônica enquanto HLA-DQB1*06 (p=0,05 possivelmente relacionado a susceptibilidade. Estes achados indicam que o desenvolvimento da dermatofitose crônica pode ser influenciado por genes localizados no cromossomo 6, na região do complexo principal de histocompatibilidade.

  18. Phototoxic action of light emitting diode in the in vitro viability of Trichophyton rubrum Ação fototóxica do diodo emissor de luz na viabilidade de Trichophyton rubrum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Faria Amorim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of superficial mycosis of the skin and nails causing long lasting infections and high recurrence rates. Current treatment drawbacks involve topical medications not being able to reach the nail bed at therapeutic concentrations, systemic antifungal drugs failing to eradicate the fungus before the nails are renewed, severe side effects and selection of resistant fungal isolates. Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been a promising alternative to conventional treatments. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of toluidine blue O (TBO irradiated by Light emitting diode (LED in the reduction of T. rubrum viability. METHODS: The fungal inoculums' was prepared and exposed to different TBO concentrations and energy densities of Light emitting diode for evaluate the T. rubrum sensibility to PDT and production effect fungicidal after photodynamic treatment. In addition, the profiles of the area and volume of the irradiated fungal suspensions were also investigated. RESULTS: A small reduction, in vitro, of fungal cells was observed after exposition to 100 µM toluidine blue O irradiated by 18 J/cm² Light emitting diode. Fungicidal effect occurred after 25 µM toluidine blue O irradiation by Light emitting diode with energy density of 72 J/cm². The analysis showed that the area and volume irradiated by the Light emitting diode were 52.2 mm² and 413.70 mm³, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results allowed to conclude that Photodynamic therapy using Light emitting diode under these experimental conditions is a possible alternative approach to inhibit in vitro T. rubrum and may be a promising new treatment for dermatophytosis caused by this fungus.FUNDAMENTOS: Trichophyton rubrum é o agente mais comum das micoses superficiais de pele e unhas causando infecções de longa duração e altas taxas de recidiva. As desvantagens do tratamento atual envolvem medicações tópicas as quais n

  19. Microbial treatment of aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium accumulated extracellularly on the surface of Rhodobacter capsulata and Rhodospirillum rubrum cells. The rate and extent accumulation were subject to environmental parameter such as pH, temperature, carbon source, trace element and interference by certain cations. Uranium accumulation by the cells was rapid and metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by both organism. Cell-bound uranium reached concentration of 22% (Rhodospirillum rubrum) and 24% (Rhdobacter capsulata)of the dry cell weight, but in the cells grown in the presence of inhibitory concentration of CoCl2, cell-bound uranium reached concentration of 27% (Rhodospirillum rubrum) and 29% (Rhodobacter capsulata) of dry cell weight. (Author)

  20. Eficacia de Medios de Cultivo con Infusiones de Variedades de Papa en la Identificación del Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Urcia A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue demostrar la eficacia de los extractos de diferentes variedades de papa como ingredientes del medio de cultivo para la identificación del Trichophyton rubrum y proponer su empleo en el diagnóstico de dermatomicosis. Se utilizaron las infusiones naturales de las variedades Solanum tuberosum (papa blanca, Solanum chaucha (papa huayro y Solanum goniocalyx (papa amarilla, para preparar los medios de cultivo análogos al estándar de formulación comercial Agar Papa Dextrosa (APDc. Las cepas de T. rubrum fueron inoculadas en los diferentes medios de cultivo, incubados a 2°C durante 10 días. Para la evaluación consideramos características culturales y microscópicas. Los resultados muestran que el medio de cultivo Agar Papa Huayro Dextrosa (APHD fue más eficiente en la producción del pigmento rojo vino, pero se obtuvo mayor esporulación en los medios de cultivo Agar Papa Blanca Dextrosa (APBD y Agar Papa Amarilla Dextrosa (APAD.

  1. Discovery of a sexual stage in Trichophyton onychocola, a presumed geophilic dermatophyte isolated from toenails of patients with a history of T. rubrum onychomycosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nissen, Christoffer V; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Arendrup, Maiken C; Cmokova, Adela; Kubatova, Alena; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton onychocola is a recently described geophilic dermatophyte that has been isolated from a toenail of Czech patient with a history of onychomycosis due to T. rubrum and clinical suspicion of relapse. In this study, we report a similar case from Denmark in an otherwise healthy 56-year...

  2. A darklight transition triggers expression of the floral promoter CrFTL1 and downregulates CONSTANS-like genes in a short-day plant Chenopodium rubrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabešová, Jana; Cháb, David; Kolář, Jan; Haškovcová, Kateřina; Štorchová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 8 (2014), s. 2137-2146. ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/05/0300; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1359 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chenopodium rubrum * CONSTANS-like * flowering Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014

  3. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  4. DNA-binding properties of a cGMP-binding CRP homologue that controls development of metabolically dormant cysts of Rhodospirillum centenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Sugata; Dong, Qian; Bauer, Carl E

    2015-11-01

    Rhodospirillum centenum utilizes 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) as a messenger to regulate development of desiccation-resistant cysts. In this study, we demonstrated that gcyA, gcyB and gcyC, coding for putative subunits of a guanylyl cyclase, increase expression from 8- to 500-fold when cells transition from vegetative to cyst phases of growth. This induction did not occur in a strain that is defective in cGMP synthesis or in a strain that contains a deletion of cgrA that codes for a cGMP-binding homologue of Escherichia coli catabolite repressor protein (CRP). We also demonstrated that cgrA auto-induces its own expression in the presence of cGMP, indicating that a feed-forward loop is used to ramp up cGMP production as cells undergo encystment. Inspection of an intragenic region upstream of gcyB revealed a sequence that is identical to the CRP consensus sequence from E. coli. DNase I and fluorescence anisotropy analyses demonstrated that CgrA bound to this target sequence at a protein : cGMP ratio of 1 : 2 with Kd ∼61 nM. This was in contrast to CgrA in the presence of cAMP, which exhibited Kd ∼1795 nM. CgrA thus constitutes a novel variant of CRP that utilizes cGMP to regulate production of cGMP synthase for the control of cyst development. PMID:26362215

  5. Isolation, Stereochemical Study, and Antioxidant Activity of Benzofuranone Derivatives from a Mangrove-derived Fungus Eurotium rubrum MA-150.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Hong; Mándi, Attila; Li, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yang; Kurtán, Tibor; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-08-01

    Enantiomers of a 2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one derivative [(-)- and (+)-] and four known analogs () were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Eurotium rubrum MA-150, a fungus obtained from the mangrove-derived rizospheric soil. Their structures were established by detailed interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and the structure of (±)- was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The absolute configuration of the enantiomers (-)- and (+)- was determined by means of online high-performance liquid chromatography - electronic circular dichroism (HPLC-ECD) measurements and time-dependent Density Functional Theory - electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT-ECD) calculations. Compounds (±)- as well as and exhibited potent DPPH radical scavenging activities with IC50 values of 1.23, 2.26, and 3.99 μg/mL, respectively. Chirality 28:581-584, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27376714

  6. Extracellular Production of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Three Common Species of Dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a new green approach for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, myconanotechnology has been represented as a novel field of study in nano technology. In this study, we have reported the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using three species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Methods: Clinical strains of these species were grown in a liquid medium containing mineral salt and incubated at 25degreeC for 5-7 days. The cell-free filtrate of each culture was obtained and subjected to synthesize silver nanoparticles in the presence of 1 m M AgNO3. Results: The reduction of Ag+ ions in metal nanoparticles was investigated virtually by tracing the solution color which was switched into reddish-light brown after 72 h. For T. mentagrophytes, a UV-visible spectra demonstrating a strong, quite narrow peak located between 422 and 425 nm was obtained. For M. canis, a fairly wide peak centering at 441 nm and for T. rubrum, a weak spectrum to decipher were observed. According to transmission electron microscopy results, fairly uniform, spherical, and small in size with almost less than 50 nm particles were forms in case of T. mentagrophytes. For the other two species, transmission electron microscopy images showed existence of small spherical nano silvers but not as small as nanoparticles synthesized by T. mentagrophytes. Conclusion: We observed that species belong to a single genus of the fungi have variable ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles extracellulary with different efficiency. Furthermore, the extracellular synthesis may make the process simpler and easier for following processes.

  7. Gene : CBRC-BTAU-01-2549 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2549 Novel UN B UNKNOWN CS055_HUMAN 1.0 28% ref|YP_427378.1| DNA /RNA non-specific e ... [Rhodospirillum rubrum ATCC 11170] gb|ABC23091.1| DNA /RNA non-specific endonuclease [Rhodospirillum rubr ...

  8. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study. PMID:27231270

  9. Trans-chalcone and quercetin down-regulate fatty acid synthase gene expression and reduce ergosterol content in the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Massaroto, Bruna Gabriele; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a promising antifungal target due to its marked structural differences between fungal and mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of flavonoids described in the scientific literature as FAS inhibitors (quercetin, trans-chalcone, ellagic acid, luteolin, galangin, and genistein) against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and their effects on fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis. Methods The antifungal activity of th...

  10. Transcription profile of Trichophyton rubrum conidia grown on keratin reveals the induction of an adhesin-like protein gene with a tandem repeat pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Macedo, Claudia; Franco, Matheus Eloy; Assis, Amanda Freire; Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Stehling, Eliana Guedes; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Malavazi, Iran; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Background Trichophyton rubrum is a cosmopolitan filamentous fungus that can infect human keratinized tissue (skin, nails and, rarely, hair) and is the major agent of all chronic and recurrent dermatophytoses. The dermatophyte infection process is initiated through the release of arthroconidial adhesin, which binds to the host stratum corneum. The conidia then germinate, and fungal hyphae invade keratinized skin structures through the secretion of proteases. Although arthroconidia play a cent...

  11. Results of German multicenter study of antimicrobial susceptibilities of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes strains causing tinea unguium. German Collaborative Dermatophyte Drug Susceptibility Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Korting, H C; Ollert, M.; Abeck, D.

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-two strains of Trichophyton rubrum and 16 strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes isolated from patients with tinea unguium in various parts of Germany were subjected to a microdilution test with six systemic or topical antimycotic agents. Apart from griseofulvin, there were no species-specific differences between the two species. Terbinafine was the most active antimycotic agent, with a MIC not exceeding 0.05 micrograms/ml.

  12. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Project status report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerson, M.D.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-06-30

    Overall mass transfer coefficients for CO have been determined in a continuous stirred-tank reactor at agitation rates of 300--700 rpm using a biological system with the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. A non-steady state approach was employed in order to separate mass transfer and kinetic limited regions of the fermentation. As a result, a kinetic model could be developed for specific CO uptake by the culture including the apparent CO inhibition. The maximum specific CO uptake rate found matched the earlier results obtained in batch culture and by other investigators. CO inhibition was more predominant in CSTR culture than in batch culture, perhaps due to CO acclimation. The growth of the photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum on CO{sub 2} has been studied at light intensities ranging from 27-1723 lux in batch culture. Modeling results indicate that growth is dependent upon light intensity according to a Monod type relationship.

  13. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerson, M.D.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-06-30

    Overall mass transfer coefficients for CO have been determined in a continuous stirred-tank reactor at agitation rates of 300--700 rpm using a biological system with the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. A non-steady state approach was employed in order to separate mass transfer and kinetic limited regions of the fermentation. As a result, a kinetic model could be developed for specific CO uptake by the culture including the apparent CO inhibition. The maximum specific CO uptake rate found matched the earlier results obtained in batch culture and by other investigators. CO inhibition was more predominant in CSTR culture than in batch culture, perhaps due to CO acclimation. The growth of the photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum on CO[sub 2] has been studied at light intensities ranging from 27-1723 lux in batch culture. Modeling results indicate that growth is dependent upon light intensity according to a Monod type relationship.

  14. The use of global transcriptional analysis to reveal the biological and cellular events involved in distinct development phases of Trichophyton rubrum conidial germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Guohui

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conidia are considered to be the primary cause of infections by Trichophyton rubrum. Results We have developed a cDNA microarray containing 10250 ESTs to monitor the transcriptional strategy of conidial germination. A total of 1561 genes that had their expression levels specially altered in the process were obtained and hierarchically clustered with respect to their expression profiles. By functional analysis, we provided a global view of an important biological system related to conidial germination, including characterization of the pattern of gene expression at sequential developmental phases, and changes of gene expression profiles corresponding to morphological transitions. We matched the EST sequences to GO terms in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD. A number of homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes related to signalling pathways and some important cellular processes were found to be involved in T. rubrum germination. These genes and signalling pathways may play roles in distinct steps, such as activating conidial germination, maintenance of isotropic growth, establishment of cell polarity and morphological transitions. Conclusion Our results may provide insights into molecular mechanisms of conidial germination at the cell level, and may enhance our understanding of regulation of gene expression related to the morphological construction of T. rubrum.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF THE BACTERIUM TOMATO STEM CANKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goner A. Shaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseased tomato samples were collected from green house was evaluated for isolation, pathogenicity and biochemical tests. The symptoms of the infected tomato plants were as sudden wilting after curled on leaves and necrotic streak regions developed at the crown and base of the stem and the cavities deepen and expand up and down, brown discoloration and necrosis occurring on xylem and phloem vasculer. All of ages of tomato plant were susceptible to bacteria when the weather condition favorable and immediately, seen collapse symptom on tomato plant at once fail and die. The bacterium was isolated from diseased plant in all regions on nutrient Agar; a yellow bacterium was isolated from infected tomato plant in green houses and fields in Abu-Ghraib, Rashiedia and Qanat Al-Geiaysh nurseries in Baghdad provinces of Iraq. The bacterium was found gram positive, rod-shaped, non-motile and capable an aerobic growth and based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics revealed that this bacterium belongs to: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. (smith pathogenicity and hypersensitivity of the bacterium Cmm showed the disease index were 18.33, 6.66, 16.66, 5, 0% for tomato seedlings were inoculated treatments as the wounding roots, without wounding roots, crown of the stem, petiole and control respectively.

  16. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. [Quarterly] technical report No. 2-1, September 5, 1991--December 4, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-06

    The anaerobic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been chosen for catalysis of the biological water gas shift reaction. Two bacteria, Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides, are being evaluated as candidates for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Since these latter two organisms both grow and convert H{sub 2}S in batch culture using standard basal medium, the choice of a suitable bacterium must be made in consideration of specific growth and uptake rates. Produced elemental sulfur stability against further oxidation to sulfate, and minimal use of H{sub 2} as a producing agent must also be considered. The effects of temperature on the performance of R. rubrum were evaluated. It was found that the cell concentration was highest at temperatures of 25 and 30{degree}C, and that the specific uptake rate was highest at temperatures of 30, 32 and 34{degree}C. No growth was observed at 37{degree}C. Also, temperature did not affect the yield of H{sub 2} from CO. Thus, R. rubrum may be used for biological rates gas shift at any temperature between 30 and 34{degree}C, although growth is maximized at lower temperatures. Preliminary studies with C. thiosulfatophilum showed rapid utilization of H{sub 2}S from the gas and liquid phases with subsequent production of elemental sulfur. Elemental sulfur production interfered with cell concentrations measurements, although a technique has been developed to rectify this problem.

  17. Isolation of flavonoids from Anemopaegma arvense (Vell Stellf. ex de Souza and their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Di Giovane Costanzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemopaegma arvense (Vell Stellf. ex de Souza belongs to the family Bignoniaceae, and is popularly known as catuaba. To evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of A. arvense, fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (rutin and flavonoid 2 (quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-galactopyranoside were isolated from the leaves of this plant. Fraction F3 and flavonoids 1 and 2 exhibited no antibacterial activity. Furthermore, no cytotoxic activity of fraction 3 or flavonoids 1 and 2 was observed against the tumor cells tested. However, analysis of the antifungal activity of flavonoids 1 and 2 revealed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25 mg/mL, respectively, against the Trichophyton rubrum strains tested (wild type and mutant. This study demonstrates for the first time the antifungal activity of isolated flavonoids, validating the same activity for A. arvense.

  18. Mycostatic effect of recombinant dermcidin against Trichophyton rubrum and reduced dermcidin expression in the sweat of tinea pedis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Satoru; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Maruyama, Sachie; Nakano, Toshiaki; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2015-01-01

    Trichophytosis, a common dermatophytosis, affects nearly 20-25% of the world's population. However, little is known about mechanisms for preventing colonization of Trichophyton on the skin. Dermcidin, an antimicrobial peptide that provides innate immunity to the skin and is constitutively secreted even in the absence of inflammatory stimulation, was studied to elucidate its antimycotic activity against Trichophyton. Recombinant dermcidin was determined to have antimycotic activity against Trichophyton rubrum, as evaluated by colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. The killing rate of dermcidin was 40.5% and 93.4% at 50 μg/mL (the average dermcidin concentration in healthy subjects) and 270 μg/mL, respectively. An effect of dermcidin treatment was found to be a reduction of the metabolic activity of Trichophyton as determined by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide assay. Further, dermcidin concentrations in sweat of tinea pedis patients were found to be lower than those of healthy subjects. These findings suggest a mycostatic role for dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations. Accordingly, we suspect that dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations, inhibits growth of Trichophyton, where Trichophyton is subsequently eliminated in conjunction with epidermis turnover. Dermcidin, therefore, appears to play a role in the skin protection mechanism that prevents colonization of tinea pedis. PMID:25384912

  19. Spirochaetes dominate the microbial community associated with the red coral Corallium rubrum on a broad geographic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Jeroen A J M; Melkonian, Rémy; Junca, Howard; Voolstra, Christian R; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Allemand, Denis; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Mass mortality events in populations of the iconic red coral Corallium rubrum have been related to seawater temperature anomalies that may have triggered microbial disease development. However, very little is known about the bacterial community associated with the red coral. We therefore aimed to provide insight into this species' bacterial assemblages using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons generated from samples collected at five locations distributed across the western Mediterranean Sea. Twelve bacterial species were found to be consistently associated with the red coral, forming a core microbiome that accounted for 94.6% of the overall bacterial community. This core microbiome was particularly dominated by bacteria of the orders Spirochaetales and Oceanospirillales, in particular the ME2 family. Bacteria belonging to these orders have been implicated in nutrient cycling, including nitrogen, carbon and sulfur. While Oceanospirillales are common symbionts of marine invertebrates, our results identify members of the Spirochaetales as other important dominant symbiotic bacterial associates within Anthozoans. PMID:27263657

  20. Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationship studies of maplexins A-I, gallotannins from red maple (Acer rubrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-05-01

    Maplexins A-I are a series of structurally related gallotannins recently isolated from the red maple (Acer rubrum) species. They differ in number and location of galloyl derivatives attached to 1,5-anhydro-glucitol. Here, maplexins A-I were evaluated for anticancer effects against human tumorigenic (colon, HCT-116; breast, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (colon, CCD-18Co) cell lines. The maplexins which contained two (maplexins C-D) or three (maplexins E-I) galloyl derivatives each, inhibited cancer cell growth while those with only one galloyl group (maplexins A-B) did not. Moreover, maplexins C-D showed greater antiproliferative effects than maplexins E-I (IC(50)=59.8-67.9 and 95.5-108.5 μM vs. 73.7-165.2 and 115.5-182.5 μM against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells, respectively). Notably, the cancer cells were up to 2.5-fold more sensitive to the maplexins than the normal cells. In further mechanistic studies, maplexins C-D (at 75 μM concentrations) induced apoptosis and arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) of the cancer cells. These results suggest that the number of galloyl groups attached to the 1,5-anhydro-glucitol moiety in these gallotannins are important for antiproliferative activity. Also, this is the first in vitro anticancer study of maplexins. PMID:22387705

  1. Spirochaetes dominate the microbial community associated with the red coral Corallium rubrum on a broad geographic scale

    KAUST Repository

    van de Water, Jeroen A. J. M.

    2016-06-06

    Mass mortality events in populations of the iconic red coral Corallium rubrum have been related to seawater temperature anomalies that may have triggered microbial disease development. However, very little is known about the bacterial community associated with the red coral. We therefore aimed to provide insight into this species’ bacterial assemblages using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons generated from samples collected at five locations distributed across the western Mediterranean Sea. Twelve bacterial species were found to be consistently associated with the red coral, forming a core microbiome that accounted for 94.6% of the overall bacterial community. This core microbiome was particularly dominated by bacteria of the orders Spirochaetales and Oceanospirillales, in particular the ME2 family. Bacteria belonging to these orders have been implicated in nutrient cycling, including nitrogen, carbon and sulfur. While Oceanospirillales are common symbionts of marine invertebrates, our results identify members of the Spirochaetales as other important dominant symbiotic bacterial associates within Anthozoans.

  2. Microflora of urogenital tract in pregnancy with asymptomatic bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains results of research interrelationship from colonization of vagina and urinary tract diseases. E.coli one of the main factors in development asymptomatic bacterium. Presented high effects of penicillin medicaments and nitrofurans in treatment of asymptomatic bacterium

  3. Bio-optical characteristics of a red tide induced by Mesodinium rubrum in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Laurencia; Varela, Ramón; Muller-Karger, Frank; Lorenzoni, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The bio-optical changes of the water induced by red tides depend on the type of organism present, and the spectral characterization of such changes can provide useful information on the organism, abundance and distribution. Here we present results from the bio-optical characterization of a non-toxic red tide induced by the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Particle absorption was high [ap(440) = 1.78 m- 1], as compared to measurements done in the same region [ap(440) = 0.09 ± 0.06 m- 1], with detrital components contributing roughly 11% [ad(440) = 0.19 m- 1]. The remainder was attributed to absorption by phytoplankton pigments [aph(440) = 1.60 m- 1]. These aph values were ~ 15 times higher than typical values for these waters. High chlorophyll a concentrations were also measured (52.73 μg L- 1), together with alloxanthin (9.52 μg L- 1) and chlorophyll c (6.25 μg L- 1). This suite of pigment is typical of the algal class Cryptophyceae, from which Mesodinium obtains its chloroplasts. Remote sensing reflectance showed relatively low values [Rrs(440) = 0.0007 sr- 1], as compared to other Rrs values for the region under high bloom conditions [Rrs(440) = 0.0028 sr- 1], with maxima at 388, 484, 520, 596 and 688 nm. Based on the low reflection in the green-yellow, as compared to other red tides, we propose a new band ratio [Rrs(688)/Rrs(564)] to identify blooms of this particular group of organisms.

  4. Effect of Culture Supernatant Derived from Trichophyton Rubrum Grown in the Nail Medium on the Innate Immunity-related Molecules of HaCaT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Zhu Huang; Pan-Pan Liang; Han Ma; Jin-Ling Yi; Song-Chao Yin; Zhi-Rui Chen; Mei-Rong Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum is superficial fungi characteristically confined to dead keratinized tissues.These observations suggest that the soluble components released by the fungus could influence the host immune response in a cell in contact-free manner.Therefore,this research aimed to analyze whether the culture supematant derived from T.rubrum grown in the nail medium could elicit the immune response of keratinocyte effectively.Methods: The culture supematants of two strains (T1a, TXHB) were compared for the β-glucan concentrations and their capacity to impact the innate immunity of keratinocytes.The β-glucan concentrations in the supernatants were determined with the fungal G-test kit and protein concentrations with bicinchoninic acid protein quantitative method, then HaCaT was stimulated with different concentrations of culture supernatants by adopting morphological method to select a suitable dosage.Expressions of host defense genes were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction after the HaCaT was stimulated with the culture supernatants.Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, followed by the least significant difference test.Results: The T.rubrum strains (T1 a and TXHB) released β-glucan of 87.530 ± 37.581 pg/ml and 15.747 ± 6.453 pg/ml, respectively into the media.The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CARD9 were moderately up-regulated in HaCaT within 6-h applications of both supernatants.HaCaT cells were more responsive to T1 a than TXHB.The slight increase of dendritic cells-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin expression was faster and stronger, induced by T1 a supernatant than TXHB.The moderate decreases of RNase 7, the slight up-regulations of Dectin-1 and interleukin-8 at the mRNA level were detected only in response to T1a rather than TXHB.After a long-time contact, all the elevated defense genes decreased after 24 h.Conclusion: The culture

  5. Effect of Culture Supernatant Derived from Trichophyton Rubrum Grown in the Nail Medium on the Innate Immunity-related Molecules of HaCaT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Zhu Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichophyton rubrum is superficial fungi characteristically confined to dead keratinized tissues. These observations suggest that the soluble components released by the fungus could influence the host immune response in a cell in contact-free manner. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze whether the culture supernatant derived from T. rubrum grown in the nail medium could elicit the immune response of keratinocyte effectively. Methods: The culture supernatants of two strains (T1a, T XHB were compared for the β-glucan concentrations and their capacity to impact the innate immunity of keratinocytes. The β-glucan concentrations in the supernatants were determined with the fungal G-test kit and protein concentrations with bicinchoninic acid protein quantitative method, then HaCaT was stimulated with different concentrations of culture supernatants by adopting morphological method to select a suitable dosage. Expressions of host defense genes were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction after the HaCaT was stimulated with the culture supernatants. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, followed by the least significant difference test. Results: The T. rubrum strains (T1a and T XHB released β-glucan of 87.530 ± 37.581 pg/ml and 15.747 ± 6.453 pg/ml, respectively into the media. The messenger RNA (mRNA expressions of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2, TLR4, and CARD9 were moderately up-regulated in HaCaT within 6-h applications of both supernatants. HaCaT cells were more responsive to T1a than T XHB . The slight increase of dendritic cells-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin expression was faster and stronger, induced by T1a supernatant than T XHB . The moderate decreases of RNase 7, the slight up-regulations of Dectin-1 and interleukin-8 at the mRNA level were detected only in response to T1a rather than T XHB . After a long-time contact, all the elevated defense genes decreased after

  6. Metal resistance in populations of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) from a metal-contaminated region and neighbouring non-contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal resistance in populations of Acer rubrum and Betula papyrifera in the industrially contaminated region of Sudbury, Ontario, was compared with resistance in populations from neighbouring uncontaminated regions. In two one-season experiments, seedlings were grown outdoors on contaminated (mainly Cu, Ni) and uncontaminated substrates. Sudbury populations of both species responded less to contamination than populations from uncontaminated regions. In A. rubrum this difference was small. For both species, Sudbury plants were smaller when grown on uncontaminated substrate. B. papyrifera from Sudbury grew better on contaminated substrate than the other populations. There is indication of variation in metal resistance within the populations from the non-contaminated regions. The data shows that trees may develop adaptive resistance to heavy metals, but the low degree of resistance indicates that the development of such resistances are slower than observed for herbaceous species with shorter generation times. - Highlights: ► Metal resistance in trees from an industrially contaminated region was investigated. ► Both red maple and white birch have developed some degree of resistance. ► There is indication of a cost for resistance. ► Populations from non-contaminated regions show variation in response to contamination. - Adaptive metal resistance can also develop in trees with long generation times, but the degree of resistance is lower than for herbaceous species from the same region.

  7. A Rapid Method for the Extraction and Analysis of Carotenoids and Other Hydrophobic Substances Suitable for Systems Biology Studies with Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Sawodny

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and inexpensive extraction method for carotenoids and other non-polar compounds present in phototrophic bacteria has been developed. The method, which has been extensively tested on the phototrophic purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, is suitable for extracting large numbers of samples, which is common in systems biology studies, and yields material suitable for subsequent analysis using HPLC and mass spectroscopy. The procedure is particularly suitable for carotenoids and other terpenoids, including quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a, and is also useful for the analysis of polar phospholipids. The extraction procedure requires only a single step extraction with a hexane/methanol/water mixture, followed by HPLC using a Spherisorb C18 column, with a mobile phase consisting of acetone-water and a non-linear gradient of 50%–100% acetone. The method was employed for examining the carotenoid composition observed during microaerophilic growth of R. rubrum strains, and was able to determine 18 carotenoids, 4 isoprenoid-quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a as well as four different phosphatidylglycerol species of different acyl chain compositions. The analytical procedure was used to examine the dynamics of carotenoid biosynthesis in the major and minor pathways operating simultaneously in a carotenoid biosynthesis mutant of R. rubrum.

  8. Isolation of a Bacterium Strain Degraded Agar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One in 58 strains of bacteria isolated from the compost showed clear colonies after a few days of growth on the plates containing medium made of only agar and water.Water suspension contained only agar (2 and 8g·L -1 ) with two controls (normal saline,LB medium) was inoculated with the bacterium BR5-1 to see whether there was an increasement of the alive bacteria concentration after 48 h of the growth.The results showed that there was a significant rising of the alive bacteria concentration in the agar susp...

  9. Differential sensitivity of membrane-associated pyrophosphatases to inhibition by diphosphonates and fluoride delineates two classes of enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykov, A A; Dubnova, E B; Bakuleva, N P; Evtushenko, O A; Zhen, R G; Rea, P A

    1993-07-26

    1,1-Diphosphonate analogs of pyrophosphate, containing an amino or a hydroxyl group on the bridge carbon atom, are potent inhibitors of the H(+)-translocating pyrophosphatases of chromatophores prepared from the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum and vacuolar membrane vesicles prepared from the plant Vigna radiata. The inhibition constant for aminomethylenediphosphonate, which binds competitively with respect to substrate, is below 2 microM. Rat liver mitochondrial pyrophosphatase is two orders of magnitude less sensitive to this compound but extremely sensitive to imidodiphosphate. By contrast, fluoride is highly effective only against the mitochondrial pyrophosphatase. It is concluded that the mitochondrial pyrophosphatase and the H(+)-pyrophosphatases of chromatophores and vacuolar membranes belong to two different classes of enzyme. PMID:8392953

  10. Performance of biological hydrogen production process from synthesis gas, mass transfer in batch and continuous bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological hydrogen production by anaerobic bacterium, rhodospirillum rubrum was studied in batch and continuous bioreactors using synthesis gas(Co) as substrate. The systems were operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Correlations available in the literature were used to estimate the gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (KLa) in batch reactor. Based on experimental results for the continuous reactor, new correlation was generated. The results showed that the agitation. gas flow rate and dilution rate were greatly influenced the hydrogen production as well as on KLa. It was found that the KLa of continuous bioreactor was 180 times higher than the mass transfer coefficient reported in batch reactor. It can be considered that the estimation of KLa for the continuous bioreactor may be successful for the large-scale biological hydrogen production

  11. Biodegradation of heavy oils by halophilic bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixia Hao; Anhuai Lu

    2009-01-01

    A halophilic bacterial strain TM-1 was isolated from the reservoir of the Shengli oil field in East China. Strain TM-1, which was found to be able to degrade crude oils, is a gram-positive non-motile bacterium with a coccus shape that can grow at temperatures of up to 58 ℃ and in 18% NaCl solution. Depending on the culture conditions, the organism may occur in tetrads. In addition, strain TM-1 pro-duced acid from glucose without gas formation and was catalase-negative. Furthermore, strain TM-I was found to be a facultative aer-obe capable of growth under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, it produced butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid-bis ester and dibutyl phthalate and could use different organic substrates. Laboratory studies indicated that strain TM-1 affected different heavy oils by degrading various components and by changing the chemical properties of the oils. In addition, growth of the bacterium in heavy oils resulted in the loss of aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes, and enrichment with light hydrocarbons and an overall redistribution of these hydrocarbons.

  12. Ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane: isolation of the causal bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M J; Gillaspie, A G; Harris, R W; Lawson, R H

    1980-12-19

    A small coryneform bacterium was consistently isolated from sugarcane with ratoon stunting disease and shown to be the causal agent. A similar bacterium was isolated from Bermuda grass. Both strains multiplied in sugarcane and Bermuda grass, but the Bermuda grass strain did not incite the symptoms of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane. Shoot growth in Bermuda grass was retarded by both strains. PMID:17817853

  13. Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing of Bacterium Odors

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Hung-Chih; King, Maria D; Kwan, Chiman

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the possibility to detect and identify bacteria by sensing their odor via fluctuation-enhanced sensing with commercial Taguchi sensors. The fluctuations of the electrical resistance during exposure to different bacterial odors, Escherichia coli and anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis, have been measured and analyzed. In the present study, the simplest method, the measurement and analysis of power density spectra was used. The sensors were run in the normal heated and the sampling-and-hold working modes, respectively. The results indicate that Taguchi sensors used in these fluctuation-enhanced modes are effective tools of bacterium detection and identification even when they are utilizing only the power density spectrum of the stochastic sensor signal.

  14. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, William R.; Muscarella, Mario E.; Lennon, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments.

  15. Trichloroethylene Biodegradation by a Methane-Oxidizing Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Little, C. Deane; Palumbo, Anthony V; Herbes, Stephen E.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Tyndall, Richard L.; Gilmer, Penny J.

    1988-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, is a suspected carcinogen that is highly resistant to aerobic biodegradation. An aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacterium was isolated that degrades TCE in pure culture at concentrations commonly observed in contaminated groundwater. Strain 46-1, a type I methanotrophic bacterium, degraded TCE if grown on methane or methanol, producing CO2 and water-soluble products. Gas chromatography and 14C radiotracer techniques were used to determine...

  16. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phelps, T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  17. Cloning and Sequence Analyzing of Chalcone Synthase Gene in Loropetalum chinense var.Rubrum%红花檵木CHS基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 于晓英; 陈己任; 符红艳; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 李达

    2013-01-01

    查尔酮合酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)是进入类黄酮和花色素苷次生代谢的第1个关键酶.根据植物查尔酮合成酶保守区序列设计引物,以红花檵木Loropetalurn chinense var.Rubrum)大叶红的嫩叶为材料,用RT-PCR方法,分离得到了一个查尔酮合成酶基因的eDNA(GenBank登录号为JQ609678),将该基因命名为Lc vrCHS1.该序列长927 bp,编码232个氨基酸残基.其核苷酸序列与GenBank已登录的同样来源的核桃、山茶属植物CHS序列同源性达83%,与其他科植物(绣球花、葡萄、桃、马铃薯、甘草、领春木属)CHS序列同源性也达到80%以上;其编码的氨基酸序列与山茶属、葡萄、鳄梨、洋梨、沙梨、映山红CHS基因编码的氨基酸序列同样具有高度同源性,同源性高达98%.%Chalcone synthase (chalcone synthase, CHS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first step in flavonoids biosynthesis and anthocyanins secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA encoding CHS was cloned from the young leaves of Loropetalurn chinense var. rubrum by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the highly conserved sequences of plant CHS that had already known. Blast search revealed that it was a new gene, and was named as LcvrCHSl (GenBank accession: JQ609678). The sequence was 927 bp, encoding 232 amino acid residues. It had 83% sequence homology with walnut and camellia that had been logged in GenBank; with other genus plants (hydrangea, grapes, peaches, potatoes, licorice, Euptelea genus), CHS sequence homology was also more than 80%; with other plants (camellia, grapes, avocados, bartlett pear, sand pear, azalea), CHS sequence also had high homology, up to 98% homology.

  18. Extreme Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra

    2013-01-01

    potential for transfer, and subsequent proliferation, on another solar body such as Mars and Europa. These organisms are more likely to escape planetary protection assays, which only take into account presence of spores. Hence, presences of extreme radiation-resistant Deinococcus in the cleanroom facility where spacecraft are assembled pose a serious risk for integrity of life-detection missions. The microorganism described herein was isolated from the surfaces of the cleanroom facility in which the Phoenix Lander was assembled. The isolated bacterial strain was subjected to a comprehensive polyphasic analysis to characterize its taxonomic position. This bacterium exhibits very low 16SrRNA similarity with any other environmental isolate reported to date. Both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate that this isolate belongs to the genus Deinococcus and represents a novel species. The name Deinococcus phoenicis was proposed after the Phoenix spacecraft, which was undergoing assembly, testing, and launch operations in the spacecraft assembly facility at the time of isolation. D. phoenicis cells exhibited higher resistance to ionizing radiation (cobalt-60; 14 kGy) than the cells of the D. radiodurans (5 kGy). Thus, it is in the best interest of NASA to thoroughly characterize this organism, which will further assess in determining the potential for forward contamination. Upon the completion of genetic and physiological characteristics of D. phoenicis, it will be added to a planetary protection database to be able to further model and predict the probability of forward contamination.

  19. Whole-genome shotgun optical mapping of rhodospirillumrubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reslewic, Susan; Zhou, Shiguo; Place, Mike; Zhang, Yaoping; Briska, Adam; Goldstein, Steve; Churas, Chris; Runnheim, Rod; Forrest,Dan; Lim, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Han, Cliff S.; Roberts, Gary P.; Schwartz,David C.

    2004-07-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum is a phototrophic purple non-sulfur bacterium known for its unique and well-studied nitrogen fixation and carbon monoxide oxidation systems, and as a source of hydrogen and biodegradable plastics production. To better understand this organism and to facilitate assembly of its sequence, three whole-genome restriction maps (Xba I, Nhe I, and Hind III) of R. rubrum strain ATCC 11170 were created by optical mapping. Optical mapping is a system for creating whole-genome ordered restriction maps from randomly sheared genomic DNA molecules extracted directly from cells. During the sequence finishing process, all three optical maps confirmed a putative error in sequence assembly, while the Hind III map acted as a scaffold for high resolution alignment with sequence contigs spanning the whole genome. In addition to highlighting optical mapping's role in the assembly and validation of genome sequence, our work underscores the unique niche in resolution occupied by the optical mapping system. With a resolution ranging from 6.5 kb (previously published) to 45 kb (reported here), optical mapping advances a ''molecular cytogenetics'' approach to solving problems in genomic analysis.

  20. Molybdate Reduction to Molybdenum Blue by an Antarctic Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Ahmad; Shukor, M. Y.; Shamaan, N. A.; W. P. Mac Cormack; Syed, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    A molybdenum-reducing bacterium from Antarctica has been isolated. The bacterium converts sodium molybdate or Mo6+ to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue). Electron donors such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose supported molybdate reduction. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source for molybdate reduction. Optimal conditions for molybdate reduction were between 30 and 50 mM molybdate, between 15 and 20°C, and initial pH between 6.5 and 7.5. The Mo-blue produced had a unique absorption spe...

  1. Micropollutants in closed life-support systems: the case of triclosan, a biocide excreted via urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Pycke, Benny; Boon, Nico; de Wever, Heleen; Hendrickx, Larissa; Mastroleo, Felice; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max; Verstraete, Willy

    OBJECTIVES: The impact of triclosan on the growth and physiology of the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied in the frame of the regenerative life-support system, Micro- Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA). A wide range of compounds, such as steroid hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, might enter the life support system via the excrements that are to be treated and recycled. Triclosan was chosen as the first compound to be tested because MELiSSA is a closed system, which is consequently particularly sensitive to compounds inhibiting the microbial metabolism. Because triclosan is increasingly used as an antimicrobial biocide in hygienic formulations (such as toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants, etc.) and due to its chemical stability, it is considered an emerging pollutant in terrestrial ecosystems. METHODS: In a first phase, the triclosan concentration expected in the life-support system was estimated, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined via plating, and the effect on growth kinetics was assessed by comparing growth parameters in the Gompertz model. In a second phase, the secondary effects of triclosan on cell physiology and gene expression were studied through flow-cytometry and microarray analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Based on the pharmacokinetic data from literature, the predicted concentration range is estimated to be 6-25µg/L triclosan in the Rhodospirillum rubrum compartment of the MELiSSA. The minimal inhibitory concentration of triclosan was determined to be 71 µg/L after 7 days of exposure on Sistrom medium. Upon exposure to 50-200µg/L triclosan, triclosan-resistant mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum arose spontaneously at high frequency (3.1 ∗ 10 - 4). Analysis of the growth kinetics of the wild-type revealed that triclosan causes an important elongation of the lag-phase and a decrease in growth rate. At concentrations higher than 75mg/L(LD = 500mg/L), triclosan is bactericidal to wild

  2. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (ψL) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (gwv) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (Pn), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and Pn demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Oral Bacterium Streptococcus mutans JH1140

    OpenAIRE

    Escano, Jerome; Deng, Peng; Lu, Shi-En; Smith, Lief

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is an oral bacterium known to produce the bacteriocin mutacin 1140, and the strain has been genetically engineered to combat dental caries. Here, we report the 2.0-Mb draft genome of S. mutans JH1140. This genome provides new insights into the strain’s superior colonization properties and its utility in replacement therapy.

  4. Genome of a mosquito-killing bacterium decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Researchers with the CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology (WHIOV) recently completed the genome sequencing of a mosquitocidal bacterium Bacillus shaericus C3-41. The feat, first of its kind in China, is expected to further promote the bio-control studies of mosquitoes.

  5. Rnf Genes in Purple Sulfur Bacterium Allochromatium vinosum

    OpenAIRE

    DİNÇTÜRK, H. Benan; DEMİR, Volkan

    2006-01-01

    Allochromatium vinosum is a photosynthetic, diazotrophic purple sulfur bacterium that oxidizes reduced sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur and thiosulfide. In this article, we report the presence of rnf genes in Allochromatium vinosum, some of which have been reported to take part in nitrogen fixation in some species.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Oral Bacterium Streptococcus mutans JH1140

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escano, Jerome; Deng, Peng; Lu, Shi-En

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is an oral bacterium known to produce the bacteriocin mutacin 1140, and the strain has been genetically engineered to combat dental caries. Here, we report the 2.0-Mb draft genome of S. mutans JH1140. This genome provides new insights into the strain’s superior colonization properties and its utility in replacement therapy. PMID:27257196

  7. Simulated microgravity allows to demonstrate cell-to-cell communication in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; van Houdt, Rob; Mergeay, Max; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    Through the MELiSSA project, the European Space Agency aims to develop a closed life support system for oxygen, water and food production to support human life in space in forth-coming long term space exploration missions. This production is based on the recycling of the missions organic waste, including CO2 and minerals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospir-illum rubrum S1H is used in MELiSSA to degrade organics with light energy and is the first MELiSSA organism that has been studied in space related environmental conditions (Mastroleo et al., 2009). It was tested in actual space flight to the International Space Station (ISS) as well as in ground simulations of ISS-like ionizing radiation and microgravity. In the present study, R. rubrum S1H was cultured in liquid medium in 2 devices simulating microgravity conditions, i.e. the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) and the Random Positioning Machine (RPM). The re-sponse of the bacterium was evaluated at both the transcriptomic and proteomic levels using respectively a dedicated whole-genome microarray and high-throughput gel-free quantitative proteomics. Both at transcriptomic and proteomic level, the bacterium showed a significant response to cultivation in simulated microgravity. The response to low fluid shear modeled microgravity in RWV was different than to randomized microgravity in RPM. Nevertheless, both tests pointed out a change in and a likely interrelation between cell-to-cell communica-tion (i.e. quorum sensing) and cell pigmentation (i.e. photosynthesis) for R. rubrum S1H in microgravity conditions. A new type of cell-to-cell communication molecule in R. rubrum S1H was discovered and characterized. It is hypothised that the lack of convection currents and the fluid quiescence in (simulated) microgravity limits communications molecules to be spread throughout the medium. Cultivation in this new artificial environment of simulated micro-gravity has showed new properties of this well know bacterium

  8. In vitro model of infected stratum corneum for the efficacy evaluation of poloxamer 407-based formulations of ciclopirox olamine against Trichophyton rubrum as well as differential scanning calorimetry and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2015-10-15

    Superficial fungal skin infections are a common disease and concern 20-25% of the world's population with the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum being the main trigger. Due to autoinoculation, fungal skin infections of the feet (tinea pedis) often occur simultaneously with fungal nail infections (onychomycosis). Therefore, the overall objective was the development and characterisation of poloxamer 407-based formulations with the antimycotic active ingredient ciclopirox olamine (CPX) for simultaneous antifungal therapy. The formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, water, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol and medium chain triglycerides in given ratios. The in vitro antifungal efficacy against T. rubrum was tested in a novel in vitro model of infected stratum corneum in comparison to a marketed semi-solid formulation containing 1% (w/w) ciclopirox olamine and a marketed nail lacquer containing 8% ciclopirox. Several liquid poloxamer 407-based formulations with only 1% CPX completely inhibited fungal growth after 6 days of incubation, whereas the marketed semi-solid formulation did not inhibit fungal growth. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealing the interaction between the formulations and the SC showed that increasing isopropyl alcohol/propylene glycol concentrations as well as increasing CPX concentrations caused increasing endothermic transition shifts. Moreover, stability studies at 30 °C exhibited only a slight decrease of the CPX amount after 12 months of storage. Each formulation contained >90% of the initial CPX concentration after termination of the stability studies. PMID:26276254

  9. Variation of the Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activities of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade Associated with Different Drying Methods and Polyphenol Oxidase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different drying methods (freeze drying, vacuum oven drying, and shade drying) on the phytochemical constituents associated with the antioxidant activities of Z. officinale var. rubrum Theilade were evaluated to determine the optimal drying process for these rhizomes. Total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic acids and flavonoids, 6- and 8-gingerol and shogaol were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used for the evaluation of antioxidant activities. The highest reduction in moisture content was observed after freeze drying (82.97%), followed by vacuum oven drying (80.43%) and shade drying (72.65%). The highest TPC, TFC, and 6- and 8-shogaol contents were observed in samples dried by the vacuum oven drying method compared to other drying methods. The highest content of 6- and 8-gingerol was observed after freeze drying, followed by vacuum oven drying and shade drying methods. Fresh samples had the highest PPO activity and lowest content of flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds compared to dried samples. Rhizomes dried by the vacuum oven drying method represent the highest DPPH (52.9%) and FRAP activities (566.5 μM of Fe (II)/g DM), followed by freeze drying (48.3% and 527.1 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) and shade drying methods (37.64% and 471.8 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) with IC50 values of 27.2, 29.1, and 34.8 μg/mL, respectively. Negative and significant correlations were observed between PPO and antioxidant activity of rhizomes. Vacuum oven dried rhizomes can be utilized as an ingredient for the development of value-added food products as they contain high contents of phytochemicals with valuable antioxidant potential. PMID:27322227

  10. A Streamlined Strategy for Biohydrogen Production with an Alkaliphilic Bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Wall, Judy D. [University of Missouri; Mormile, Dr. Melanie R. [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Begemann, Matthew B [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are anticipated to enable a shift from fossil fuels for renewable transportation and manufacturing fuels, with biohydrogen considered attractive since it could offer the largest reduction of global carbon budgets. Currently, biohydrogen production remains inefficient and heavily fossil fuel-dependent. However, bacteria using alkali-treated biomass could streamline biofuel production while reducing costs and fossil fuel needs. An alkaliphilic bacterium, Halanaerobium strain sapolanicus, is described that is capable of biohydrogen production at levels rivaling neutrophilic strains, but at pH 11 and hypersaline conditions. H. sapolanicus ferments a variety of 5- and 6- carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose including cellobiose, and forms the end products hydrogen and acetate. Further, it can also produce biohydrogen from switchgrass and straw pretreated at temperatures far lower than any previously reported and in solutions compatible with growth. Hence, this bacterium can potentially increase the efficiency and efficacy of biohydrogen production from renewable biomass resources.

  11. Rock Phosphate Solubilization Mechanisms of One Fungus and One Bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qi-mei; ZHAO Xiao-rong; ZHAO Zi-juan; LI Bao-guo

    2002-01-01

    Many microorganisms can dissolve the insoluble phosphates like apatite. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study was an attempt to investigate the mechanisms of rock phosphate solubilization by an Aspergillus 2TCiF2 and an Arthrobacter1TCRi7. The results indicated that the fungus produced a large amount of organic acids, mainly oxalic acid. The total quantity of the organic acids produced by the fungus was 550 times higher than that by the bacterium. Different organic acids had completely different capacities to solubilize the rock. Oxalic acid and citric acid had stronger capacity to dissolve the rock than malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid and succinic acid. The fungus solubilized the rock through excreting both proton and organic acids. The rock solubilization of the bacterium depended on only proton.

  12. A physical map of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus chromosome.

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Z; Mages, W; Schmitt, R.

    1994-01-01

    A genomic map of the hyperthermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus was established with NotI (GC/GGCCGC), SpeI (A/CTAGT), and XbaI (T/CTAGA). Linking clones and cross-hybridization of restriction fragments revealed a single circular chromosome of 1.6 Mbp. A single flagellin gene and six rRNA gene units were located on this map by Southern hybridization.

  13. Isolation of a Bacterium Capable of Degrading Peanut Hull Lignin

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Thomas J.; Kerr, Robert D.; Benner, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose and [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the...

  14. Salt-inducible promoter derivable from a lactic acid bacterium, and its use in a lactic acid bacterium for production of a desired protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Jan Willem; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard; Ledeboer, Adrianus Marinus

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a salt-inducible promoter present in SEQ ID NO: 10 and derivable from a lactic acid bacterium in isolation from the coding sequence normally controlled by said promoter in a wild-type lactic acid bacterium, with modifications and important parts thereof. Also provided are a re

  15. Research Progress and Perspectives of Nitrogen Fixing Bacterium, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, in Monocot Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen fixing bacterium originally found in monocotyledon sugarcane plants in which the bacterium actively fixes atmosphere nitrogen and provides significant amounts of nitrogen to plants. This bacterium mainly colonizes intercellular spaces within the roots and stems of plants and does not require the formation of the complex root organ like nodule. The bacterium is less plant/crop specific and indeed G. diazotrophicus has been found in a number of unrelated plant species. Importantly, as the bacterium was of monocot plant origin, there exists a possibility that the nitrogen fixation feature of the bacterium may be used in many other monocot crops. This paper reviews and updates the research progress of G. diazotrophicus for the past 25 years but focuses on the recent research development.

  16. Phosphate enhances levan production in the endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    OpenAIRE

    Idogawa, Nao; Amamoto, Ryuta; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a gram-negative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has several beneficial effects in host plants; thus, utilization of this bacterium as a biofertilizer in agriculture may be possible. G. diazotrophicus synthesizes levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with β-(2→6) linkages, as an exopolysaccharide and the synthesized levan improves the stress tolerance of the bacterium. In this study, we found that phosphate enhances levan production by G. diazotro...

  17. A Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium That Decreases Nickel Toxicity in Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Genrich I.; Dixon, D. George; Glick, Bernard R.

    1998-01-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and CrO4−, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride w...

  18. Magnetic guidance of the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, Johannes; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Schüler, Dirk; Fischer, Thomas M

    2016-04-21

    Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense is a magnetotactic bacterium with a permanent magnetic moment capable of swimming using two bipolarly located flagella. In their natural environment these bacteria swim along the field lines of the homogeneous geomagnetic field in a typical run and reversal pattern and thereby create non-differentiable trajectories with sharp edges. In the current work we nevertheless achieve stable guidance along curved lines of mechanical instability by using a heterogeneous magnetic field of a garnet film. The successful guidance of the bacteria depends on the right balance between motility and the magnetic moment of the magnetosome chain. PMID:26972517

  19. Intracellular iron minerals in a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, Susan; Langley, Sean; Beveridge, Terry J

    2002-01-01

    Among prokaryotes, there are few examples of controlled mineral formation; the formation of crystalline iron oxides and sulfides [magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4)] by magnetotactic bacteria is an exception. Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium that is capable of dissimilatory iron reduction, produced microscopic intracellular grains of iron oxide minerals during growth on two-line ferrihydrite in a hydrogen-argon atmosphere. The minerals, formed at iron concentrations found in the soil and sedimentary environments where these bacteria are active, could represent an unexplored pathway for the cycling of iron by bacteria. PMID:11778045

  20. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  1. Screening, identification and desilication of a silicate bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong-bo; ZENG Xiao-xi; LIU Fei-fei; QIU Guan-zhou; HU Yue-hua

    2006-01-01

    The strain Lv1-2 isolated from the Henan bauxite was characterized by morphological observation, biochemical and physiological identification, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The influences of temperature, initial pH value, the volume of medium, shaking speed and illite concentration on the desilicating ability of the strain Lv1-2 were investigated. The results show that the bacterium is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium with oval endspores and thick capsule, but without flagellum. The biochemical and physiological tests indicate that the strain Lv1-2 is similar to Bacillus mucilaginosus. In GenBank the 16S rDNA sequence similarity of the strain Lv1-2 and the B. mucilaginosus YNUCC0001 (AY571332) is more than 99 %. Based on the above results, the strain Lv1-2 is identified as B. mucilaginosus. The optimum conditions for the strain Lv1-2 to remove silicon from illite are as follows: temperature is 30℃ ;initial pH value is 7.5; medium volume in 200 mL bottle is 60 mL; shaking speed of rotary shaker is 220 r/m; illite concentration is 1%.

  2. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeong Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla.

  3. Isolation and characterization of luminescent bacterium for sludge biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahaba, Maryam; Halmi, Mohd Izuan Effendi; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Syed, Mohd Arif

    2015-11-01

    Microtox is based on the inhibition of luminescence of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri by the toxicants. This technique has been accepted by the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) as a biomonitoring tool for remediation of toxicants such as hydrocarbon sludge. In the present study, a luminescent bacterium was isolated from yellow striped scad (Selaroides leptolepis) and was tentatively identified as Vibrio sp. isolate MZ. This aerobic isolate showed high luminescence activity in a broad range of temperature from 25 to 35 °C. In addition, optimal conditions for high bioluminescence activity in range of pH 7.5 to 8.5 and 10 gl(-1) of sodium chloride, 10 gl(-1) of peptone and 10 gl(-1) of sucrose as carbon source. Bench scale biodegradation 1% sludge (w/v) was set up and degradation was determined using gas chromatography with flame ionised detector (GC-FID). In this study, Rhodococcus sp. strain AQ5NOL2 was used to degrade the sludge. Based on the preliminary results obtained, Vibrio sp. isolate MZwas able to monitor the biodegradation of sludge. Therefore, Vibrio sp. isolate MZ has the potential to be used as a biomonitoring agent for biomonitoring of sludge biodegradation particularly in the tropical ranged environment. PMID:26688958

  4. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2016-07-01

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. This review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkable ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications. PMID:27263016

  5. Structure and morphology of magnetite anaerobically-produced by a marine magnetotactic bacterium and a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, N.H.C.; Mann, S.; Bazylinski, D.A.; Lovley, D.R.; Jannasch, H.W.; Frankel, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Intracellular crystals of magnetite synthesized by cells of the magnetotactic vibroid organism, MV-1, and extracellular crystals of magnetite produced by the non-magnetotactic dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium strain GS-15, were examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and 57Fe Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. The magnetotactic bacterium contained a single chain of approximately 10 crystals aligned along the long axis of the cell. The crystals were essentially pure stoichiometric magnetite. When viewed along the crystal long axis the particles had a hexagonal cross-section whereas side-on they appeared as rectangules or truncated rectangles of average dimension, 53 ?? 35 nm. These findings are explained in terms of a three-dimensional morphology comprising a hexagonal prism of {110} faces which are capped and truncated by {111} end faces. Electron diffraction and lattice imaging studies indicated that the particles were structurally well-defined single crystals. In contrast, magnetite particles produced by the strain, GS-15 were irregular in shape and had smaller mean dimensions (14 nm). Single crystals were imaged but these were not of high structural perfection. These results highlight the influence of intracellular control on the crystallochemical specificity of bacterial magnetites. The characterization of these crystals is important in aiding the identification of biogenic magnetic materials in paleomagnetism and in studies of sediment magnetization. ?? 1990.

  6. Treatment of common warts with the immune stimulant Propionium bacterium parvum Tratamento das verrugas vulgares com o imunoestimulante Propionium bacterium parvum

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Warts are epithelial proliferations in the skin and mucous membrane caused by various types of HPV. They can decrease spontaneously or increase in size and number according to the patient's immune status. The Propionium bacterium parvum is a strong immune stimulant and immune modulator and has important effects in the immune system and it is able to produce antibodies in the skin. OBJECTIVE: To show the efficacy of the Propionium bacterium parvum in saline solution in the treatmen...

  7. Dense populations of a giant sulfur bacterium in Namibian shelf sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Brinkhoff, T.; Ferdelman, TG;

    1999-01-01

    A previously unknown giant sulfur bacterium is abundant in sediments underlying the oxygen minimum zone of the Benguela Current upwelling system. The bacterium has a spherical cell that exceeds by up to 100-fold the biovolume of the largest known prokaryotes. On the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Ensifer adhaerens M78, a Mineral-Weathering Bacterium Isolated from Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanli; Chen, Wei; He, Linyan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Ensifer adhaerens M78, a bacterium isolated from soil, can weather potash feldspar and release Fe, Si, and Al from rock under nutrient-poor conditions. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain M78, which may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in mineral weathering by the bacterium. PMID:27609930

  9. Burkholderia phytofirmans sp. nov., a novel plant-associated bacterium with plant-beneficial properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sessitsch, A; Coenye, T; Sturz, AV; Vandamme, P; Barka, EA; Salles, JF; Van Elsas, JD; Faure, D; Reiter, B; Glick, BR; Wang-Pruski, G; Nowak, J

    2005-01-01

    A Gram-negative, non-sporulating, rod-shaped, motile bacterium, with a single polar flagellum, designated strain PsJNT, was isolated from surface-sterilized onion roots. This isolate proved to be a highly effective plant-beneficial bacterium, and was able to establish rhizosphere and endophytic popu

  10. Effects of high LET radiation on radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that Deinococcus radiodurans is extremely resistant to ionizing and ultraviolet (UV) radiations, as well as chemical agents and hyperthermia (heat treatment) which cause DNA damage. It was reported in this paper that studies on the synergistic killing effect of high LET (linear energy transfer) radiation and hyperthermia in D. radiodurans were performed in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University as the Visiting Researcher's Program. The difference of cellular response in this bacterium against low LET (i.e. gamma) and high LET (i.e. BNC beam and heavy ion beam) radiations was analyzed by using Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) operated at 5 MW and AVF cyclotron in Takasaki Ion Accelerator for Radiation Application (TIARA). Also, The DNA sequence specificity (hot spot) for mutation on supF gene of a shuttle vector plasmid pZ189 induced by BNC beam is being researched using Escherichia coli DNA repair capability. (author)

  11. Genome analysis of the Anerobic Thermohalophilic bacterium Halothermothrix orenii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Anderson, Iain; Lykidis, Athanasios; Hooper, Sean D.; Sun, Hui; Kunin, Victor; Lapidus, Alla; Hugenholtz, Philip; Patel, Bharat; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2008-11-03

    Halothermothirx orenii is a strictly anaerobic thermohalophilic bacterium isolated from sediment of a Tunisian salt lake. It belongs to the order Halanaerobiales in the phylum Firmicutes. The complete sequence revealed that the genome consists of one circular chromosome of 2578146 bps encoding 2451 predicted genes. This is the first genome sequence of an organism belonging to the Haloanaerobiales. Features of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were identified with the presence of both a sporulating mechanism typical of Firmicutes and a characteristic Gram negative lipopolysaccharide being the most prominent. Protein sequence analyses and metabolic reconstruction reveal a unique combination of strategies for thermophilic and halophilic adaptation. H. orenii can serve as a model organism for the study of the evolution of the Gram negative phenotype as well as the adaptation under thermohalophilic conditions and the development of biotechnological applications under conditions that require high temperatures and high salt concentrations.

  12. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-03-11

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. PMID:26965627

  13. Algicidal lactones from the marine Roseobacter clade bacterium Ruegeria pomeroyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Riclea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles released by the marine Roseobacter clade bacterium Rugeria pomeroyi were collected by use of a closed-loop stripping headspace apparatus (CLSA and analysed by GC–MS. Several lactones were found for which structural proposals were derived from their mass spectra and unambiguously verified by the synthesis of reference compounds. An enantioselective synthesis of two exemplary lactones was performed to establish the enantiomeric compositions of the natural products by enantioselective GC–MS analyses. The lactones were subjected to biotests to investigate their activity against several bacteria, fungi, and algae. A specific algicidal activity was observed that may be important in the interaction between the bacteria and their algal hosts in fading algal blooms.

  14. The capacity of phototrophic sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina for chemosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratieva, E N; Zhukov, V G; Ivanovsky, R N; Petushkova, U P; Monosov, E Z

    1976-07-01

    Purple sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina strain BBS requiring vitamin B12 may grow in the dark in media containing no other organic compounds. Under such conditions the cells oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate with the use of O2 and assimilate carbon dioxide. After 10--30s assimilation of NaH14CO3 about 60% of radioactivity is found in phosphorylated compounds characteristic for the reductive pentose phosphate cycle. The possibility of the function of this cycle in the dark in the presence of O2 is confirmed by the capacity of cells grown under such conditions to synthesize ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase. All this evidence suggests the ability of T. roseopersicina to change from phototrophy to aerobic chemolithoautotrophy. PMID:942280

  15. Moritella viscosa, a pathogenic bacterium affecting the fillet quality in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    Moritella viscosa is a bacterium belonging to the family Moritellaceae and was formerly known as Vibrio viscosus. The name ‘viscosa’ originates from the slimy nature of the bacterium. M. viscosa is considered to be the main causative agent of the phenomenon ‘winter ulcer’ or ‘cold-water ulcer......’ which affects various fish species in seawater during cold periods (Lunder et al. 1995). The bacterium is mainly a problem for farmed salmonid species, such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but has also been isolated from other fish species, including Atlantic...

  16. Treatment of common warts with the immune stimulant Propionium bacterium parvum Tratamento das verrugas vulgares com o imunoestimulante Propionium bacterium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warts are epithelial proliferations in the skin and mucous membrane caused by various types of HPV. They can decrease spontaneously or increase in size and number according to the patient's immune status. The Propionium bacterium parvum is a strong immune stimulant and immune modulator and has important effects in the immune system and it is able to produce antibodies in the skin. OBJECTIVE: To show the efficacy of the Propionium bacterium parvum in saline solution in the treatment of skin warts. METHODS: A randomized double-blind study. Twenty patients with multiple warts were divided into two groups: one received 0,1ml intradermal injection of placebo solution in just one of the warts and the other received 0,1 ml of saline solution of Propionium bacterium parvum, one dose a month, for 3 to 5 months. RESULTS: Among the 20 patients who participated in the study, ten received the placebo and ten received the saline solution with Propionium bacterium parvum. In 9 patients treated with the Propionium bacterium parvum solution the warts disappeared without scars and in 1 patient it decreased in size. In 9 patients who received the placebo no change to the warts was observed and in 1 it decreased in size. CONCLUSIONS: The immune modulator and immune stimulant Propionium bacterium parvum produced antibodies in the skin which destroyed the warts without scars, with statistically significant results (PFUNDAMENTOS: Verrugas são proliferações epiteliais na pele e mucosas causadas por diversos tipos de HPV. Elas podem involuir espontaneameme ou aumentar em número e tamanho de acordo com estado imunitário do paciente. O Propionium bacterium parvum é urn potente imunoestimulador e imunomodulador e tem efeitos importantes no sistema imune e é capaz de produzir anticorpos na pele. OBJETIVO: Mostrar a eficácia do Propionium bacterium parvum diluído em solução salina no tratamento de verrugas cutâneas. MÊTODOS: Estudo duplo

  17. High cell density cultivation of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Benedek; Török, Tibor; Sándor, Erzsébet; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Karaffa, Levente

    2016-05-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is a chemolithoautotrophic nitrifier, a gram-negative bacterium that can obtain all energy required for growth from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, and this may be beneficial for various biotechnological and environmental applications. However, compared to other bacteria, growth of ammonia oxidizing bacteria is very slow. A prerequisite to produce high cell density N. europaea cultures is to minimize the concentrations of inhibitory metabolic by-products. During growth on ammonia nitrite accumulates, as a consequence, N. europaea cannot grow to high cell concentrations under conventional batch conditions. Here, we show that single-vessel dialysis membrane bioreactors can be used to obtain substantially increased N. europaea biomasses and substantially reduced nitrite levels in media initially containing high amounts of the substrate. Dialysis membrane bioreactor fermentations were run in batch as well as in continuous mode. Growth was monitored with cell concentration determinations, by assessing dry cell mass and by monitoring ammonium consumption as well as nitrite formation. In addition, metabolic activity was probed with in vivo acridine orange staining. Under continuous substrate feed, the maximal cell concentration (2.79 × 10(12)/L) and maximal dry cell mass (0.895 g/L) achieved more than doubled the highest values reported for N. europaea cultivations to date. PMID:26358065

  18. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resulted in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to “green” chemicals and fuels. PMID:26902345

  19. Presence of an unusual methanogenic bacterium in coal gasification waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomei, F.A.; Rouse, D.; Maki, J.S.; Mitchell, R.

    1988-12-01

    Methanogenic bacteria growing on a pilot-scale, anaerobic filter processing coal gasification waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential energy sources. Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain of Methanosarcina barkeri, but eventually small cocci became dominant. The cocci growing on methanol produced methane and exhibited the typical fluorescence of methanogenic bacteria. They grew in the presence of the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics D-cycloserine, fosfomycin, penicillin G, and vancomycin as well as in the presence of kanamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in eubacteria. The optimal growth temperature was 37 degrees C, and the doubling time was 7.5 h. The strain lysed after reaching stationary phase. The bacterium grew poorly with hydrogen as the energy source and failed to grow on acetate. Morphologically, the coccus shared similarities with Methanosarcina sp. Cells were 1 ..mu..m wide, exhibited the typical thick cell wall and cross-wall formation, and formed tetrads. Packets and cysts were not formed. 62 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henard, Calvin A; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Pienkos, Philip T; Guarnieri, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resulted in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to "green" chemicals and fuels. PMID:26902345

  1. Electromicrobiology of Dissimilatory Sulfur Reducing Bacterium Desulfuromonas acetexigens

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Bandar, Khaled

    2014-12-01

    Bioelectrochmical systems (BES) are engineered electrochemical devices that harness hidden chemical energy of the wastewater in to the form of electricity or hydrogen. Unique microbial communities enrich in these systems for oxidation of organic matter as well as transfer of resulted electron to anode, known them as “electricigens” communities. Exploring novel electricigenesis microbial communities in the nature and understanding their electromicrobiology is one the important aspect for BES systems scale up. Herein, we report first time the electricigenesis property of an anaerobic, fresh water sediment, sulfur reducing bacterium Desulfuromona acetexigens. The electrochemical behavior of D. acetexigens biofilms grown on graphite-rod electrodes in batch-fed mode under an applied potential was investigated with traditional electroanalytical tools, and correlate the electron transfer from biofilms to electrode with a model electricigen Geobacter sulfurreducens electrochemical behavior. Research findings suggest that D. acetexigens has the ability to use electrode as electron acceptor in BES systems through establishing the direct contact with anode by expressing the membrane bound redox proteins, but not due to the secretion of soluble redox mediators. Preliminary results revealed that D. acetexigens express three distinct redox proteins in their membranes for turnover of the electrons from biofilm to electrode, and the 4 whole electricigenesis process observed to be unique in the D. acetexigens compared to that of well-studied model organism G. sulfurreducens.

  2. Molecular study on cloned endoglucanase gene from rumen bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkose, Emin; Akyol, Ismail; Ekinci, Mehmet Sait

    2004-01-01

    An endoglucanase gene was subcloned from anaerobic rumen bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciens strain 17. To express endoglucanase gene in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus bovis JB1, an endoglucanase gene fragment was inserted into pVA838-based shuttle vectors. Removal of endoglucanase gene promoter and expression of endoglucanase by promoter of S. bovis JB1 alpha-amylase gene (pACMCS) was also achieved. Survival of constructs pVACMCI, pTACMC and pACMCS, which carry endoglucanase gene, and stability of endoglucanase gene in S. bovis JB1, were observed. Maximal endoglucanase activities from S. bovis JB1/pVACMCI were 2- to 3-fold higher than from E. coli/pVACMCI. Specific cell activity of E. coli/pACMCS was found to be approximately 2- to -3 fold higher than the both E. coli/pVACMCI and E. coli/pTACMC. Specific cell activity of S. bovis JB1/pACMCS was also found to be approximately 2-fold higher than the both S. bovis/pVACMCI and S. bovis JB1/pTACMC. PMID:15925902

  3. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangdong; Gao, Xiyan; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Zhipei

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium, strain S1-1, was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system. Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp. TSBY-70. Strain S1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite, and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%, respectively. The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low level accumulation of nitrite, suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S1-1 occurred mainly in this phase. The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1. Finally, factors affecting the growth of strain S1-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated. Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N ratio15, salinity 10 g/L NaCl, incubation temperature 20 degrees C and initial pH 6.5. PMID:22432315

  4. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Zheng; Ying Liu; Guangdong Sun; Xiyan Gao; Qingling Zhang; Zhipei Liu

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium,strain S1-1,was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system.Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp.based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence,which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp.TSBY-70.Strain S 1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite,and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%,respectively.The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low leve 1 accumulation of nitrite,suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S l-1 occurred mainly in this phase.The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1.Finally,factors affecting the growth of strain Sl-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated.Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source,C/N ratio15,salinity 10 g/L NaCl,incubation temperature 20℃ and initial pH 6.5.

  5. Isolation and characterization of Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic, anaerobic bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Mathrani, Indra M.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    An anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain 6A, was isolated from an alkaline hot spring in Hverageroi, Iceland. The bacterium was non-motile, rod-shaped (1.5-3.5 x 0.7 mu m) and occurred singly, in pairs or in chains and stained gram-negative. The growth...... temperature was between 50 and 78 degrees C with a temperature optimum near 68 degrees C. Growth occurred between pH 5.8 and 8.2 with an optimum mum near 7.0. The bacterium fermented microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) and produced lactate, acetate and H-2 as the major fermentation products, and CO2...... and ethanol occurred as minor fermentation products. Only a restricted number of carbon sources (cellulose, xylan, starch, pectin, cellobiose, xylose, maltose and lactose) were used as substrates. During growth on Avicel, the bacterium produced free cellulases with carboxymethylcellulase and avicelase...

  6. Dinoroseobacter shibae gen. nov., sp. nov., a new aerobic phototrophic bacterium isolated from dinoflagellates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biebl, H.; Allgaier, M.; Tindall, B. J.; Koblížek, Michal; Lünsdorf, H.; Pukall, R.; Wagner-Döbler, I.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, - (2005), s. 1089-1096. ISSN 1466-5026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Dinoroseobacter shibae * phototrophic bacterium Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2005

  7. Carbohydrate utilization patterns for the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus reveal broad growth substrate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanfossen, A.L.; Verhaart, M.R.A.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Kelly, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Co-utilization of hexoses and pentoses derived from lignocellulose is an attractive trait in microorganisms considered for consolidated biomass processing to biofuels. This issue was examined for the H2-producing, extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus growing on indiv

  8. Genome Sequence of the Haloalkaliphilic Methanotrophic Bacterium Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z

    OpenAIRE

    Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Bringel, Françoise; Reshetnikov, Alexandr S.; Lajus, Aurélie; Mangenot, Sophie; Rouy, Zoé; Op Den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S. M.; DiSpirito, Alan A.; Dunfield, Peter; Klotz, Martin G.; Semrau, Jeremy D.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Barbe, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Methylomicrobium strains are widespread in saline environments. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z, a haloalkaliphilic methanotrophic bacterium, which will provide the basis for detailed characterization of the core pathways of both single-carbon metabolism and responses to osmotic and high-pH stresses. Final assembly of the genome sequence revealed that this bacterium contains a 128-kb plasmid, making M. alcaliphilum 20Z the first methanotrophic...

  9. Effect of alginic acid decomposing bacterium on the growth of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You; TANG Xue-xi; YANG Zhen; YU Zhi-ming

    2006-01-01

    We collected the diseased blades of Laminaria japonica from Yantai Sea Farm from October to December 2002, and the alginic acid decomposing bacterium on the diseased blade was isolated and purified, and was identified as Alteromonas espejiana. This bacterium was applied as the causative pathogen to infect the blades of L. japonica under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of the bacterium on the growth of L. japonica, and to find the possibly effective mechanism. Results showed that: (1)The blades of L.japonica exhibited symptoms of lesion,bleaching and deterioration when infected by the bacterium,and their growth and photosynthesis were dramatically suppressed. At the same time, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation enhanced obviously, and the relative membrane permeability increased significantly. The contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) and free fatty acid in the microsomol membrane greatly elevated, but the phospholipid content decreased. Result suggested an obvious peroxidation and deesterrification in the blades of L. japonica when infected by the bacterium. (2) The simultaneous assay on the antioxidant enzyme activities demonstrated that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased greatly when infected by the bacterium, but glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) did not exhibit active responses to the bacterium throughout the experiment. (3) The histomorphological observations gave a distinctive evidence of the severity of the lesions as well as the relative abundance in the bacterial population on the blades after infection. The bacterium firstly invaded into the endodermis of L. japonica and gathered around there, and then resulted in the membrane damage, cells corruption and ultimately, the death of L.japonica.

  10. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio)

    OpenAIRE

    Knauf, Sascha; Barnett, Ulrike; Maciej, Peter; Klapproth, Matthias; Ndao, Ibrahima; Frischmann, Sieghard; Fischer, Julia; Zinner, Dietmar; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papi...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of DLB, a Dyella-Like Bacterium from the Planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Tamar; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Naor, Vered; Freilich, Shiri

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a Dyella-like bacterium (DLB) isolated from Hyalesthes obsoletus, the insect vector of the uncultivable mollicute bacterium “Candidatus Phytoplasma.” This isolate inhibits Spiroplasma melliferum, a cultivable mollicute. The draft genome of DLB consists of 4,196,214 bp, with a 68.6% G+C content, and 3,757 genes were predicted. PMID:27445378

  12. Biosynthesis Of Gold Nanoparticles By Marine Purple Non Sulphur Bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas Sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami. G; Asmathunisha. N; Kathiresan. K

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time that an anaerobic marine bacterium is capable of producing gold nanoparticles. A marine purple non-sulphur bacterium was isolated from mangrove sediment and identified as Rhodopseudomonas sp. . The bacterial culture was tested for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by using aqueous HAuCl4 solution as substrate in darkness. The gold nanoparticles synthesized were found to be of cubical structure in the size range of 10–20 nm.

  13. Simple determination of the CO2/O2 specificity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase by the specific radioactivity of [14C] glycerate 3-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method is presented for measurement of the CO2/O2 specificity factor of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The [14C]3-phosphoglycerate (PGA) from the Rubisco carboxylase reaction and its dilution by the Rubisco oxygenase reaction was monitored by directly measuring the specific radioactivity of PGA. 14CO2 fixation with Rubisco occurred under two reaction conditions: carboxylase with oxygenase with 40 micromolar CO2 in O2-saturated water and carboxylase only with 160 micromolar CO2 under N2. Detection of the specific radioactivity used the amount of PGA as obtained from the peak area, which was determined by pulsed amperometry following separation by high-performance anion exchange chromatography and the radioactive counts of the [14C]PGA in the same peak. The specificity factor of Rubisco from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) (93 ± 4), from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (66 ± 1), and from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum (13) were comparable with the published values measured by different methods

  14. Quenching Capabilities of Long-Chain Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting-2 Complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides with an Engineered Carotenoid Synthesis Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Six light-harvesting-2 complexes (LH2) from genetically modified strains of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were studied using static and ultrafast optical methods and resonance Raman spectroscopy. These strains were engineered to incorporate carotenoids for which the number of conjugated groups (N = NC=C + NC=O) varies from 9 to 15. The Rb. sphaeroides strains incorporate their native carotenoids spheroidene (N = 10) and spheroidenone (N = 11), as well as longer-chain analogues including spirilloxanthin (N = 13) and diketospirilloxantion (N = 15) normally found in Rhodospirillum rubrum. Measurements of the properties of the carotenoid first singlet excited state (S1) in antennas from the Rb. sphaeroides set show that carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) interactions are similar to those in LH2 complexes from various other bacterial species and thus are not significantly impacted by differences in polypeptide composition. Instead, variations in carotenoid-to-BChl a energy transfer are primarily regulated by the N-determined energy of the carotenoid S1 excited state, which for long-chain (N ≥ 13) carotenoids is not involved in energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of the long-chain carotenoids switches from a light-harvesting supporter (via energy transfer to BChl a) to a quencher of the BChl a S1 excited state B850*. This quenching is manifested as a substantial (∼2-fold) reduction of the B850* lifetime and the B850* fluorescence quantum yield for LH2 housing the longest carotenoids. PMID:27285777

  15. Carbonate biomineralization induced by soil bacterium Bacillus megaterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Bin; Hu, Qiaona; Chen, Jun; Ji, Junfeng; Teng, H. Henry

    2006-11-01

    Biogenic carbonates spawned from microbial activities are common occurrences in soils. Here, we investigate the carbonate biomineralization mediated by the bacterium Bacillus megaterium, a dominant strain separated from a loess profile in China. Upon completing bacterial cultivation, the ensuring products are centrifuged, and the resultant supernatant and the concentrated bacterial sludge as well as the un-separated culture are added separately into a Ca-CO 3 containing solution for crystallization experiments. Results of XRD and SEM analysis indicate that calcite is the dominant mineral phase formed when the bacteria are present. When the supernatant alone is used, however, a significant portion of vaterite is also precipitated. Experimental results further reveal that the bacteria have a strong tendency to colonize the center area of the calcite {1 0 1¯ 4} faces. Observed crystal morphology suggests that the bacterial colony may promote the growth normal to each individual {1 0 1¯ 4} face of calcite when the cell concentration is high, but may retard it or even cause dissolution of the immediate substrate surfaces when the concentration is low. SEM images taken at earlier stages of the crystallization experiments demonstrate the nucleation of calcite on the bacterial cell walls but do not show obvious morphological changes on the nanometer- to submicron-sized nuclei. δ 13C measurements unveil that the crystals grown in the presence of bacteria are further enriched in the heavy carbon isotope, implying that the bacterial metabolism may not be the carbon sources for the mineralization. Based upon these findings, we propose a mechanism for the B. megaterium mediated calcite mineralization and conclude that the whole process involves epi- and inter-cellular growth in the local microenvironments whose conditions may be controlled by cell sequestration and proton pumping during bacterial respiration.

  16. Metabolic evolution of a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Aquifex aeolicus is a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium restricted to hydrothermal vents and hot springs. These characteristics make it an excellent model system for studying the early evolution of metabolism. Here we present the whole-genome metabolic network of this organism and examine in detail the driving forces that have shaped it. We make extensive use of phylometabolic analysis, a method we recently introduced that generates trees of metabolic phenotypes by integrating phylogenetic and metabolic constraints. We reconstruct the evolution of a range of metabolic sub-systems, including the reductive citric acid (rTCA) cycle, as well as the biosynthesis and functional roles of several amino acids and cofactors. We show that A. aeolicus uses the reconstructed ancestral pathways within many of these sub-systems, and highlight how the evolutionary interconnections between sub-systems facilitated several key innovations. Our analyses further highlight three general classes of driving forces in metabolic evolution. One is the duplication and divergence of genes for enzymes as these progress from lower to higher substrate specificity, improving the kinetics of certain sub-systems. A second is the kinetic optimization of established pathways through fusion of enzymes, or their organization into larger complexes. The third is the minimization of the ATP unit cost to synthesize biomass, improving thermodynamic efficiency. Quantifying the distribution of these classes of innovations across metabolic sub-systems and across the tree of life will allow us to assess how a tradeoff between maximizing growth rate and growth efficiency has shaped the long-term metabolic evolution of the biosphere. PMID:24516572

  17. Interaction of Cadmium With the Aerobic Bacterium Pseudomonas Mendocina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, P. J.; Haack, E. A.; Maurice, P. A.

    2006-05-01

    The fate of toxic metals in the environment can be heavily influenced by interaction with bacteria in the vadose zone. This research focuses on the interactions of cadmium with the strict aerobe Pseudomonas mendocina. P. mendocina is a gram-negative bacterium that has shown potential in the bioremediation of recalcitrant organic compounds. Cadmium is a common environmental contaminant of wide-spread ecological consequence. In batch experiments P. mendocina shows typical bacterial growth curves, with an initial lag phase followed by an exponential phase and a stationary to death phase; concomitant with growth was an increase in pH from initial values of 7 to final values at 96 hours of 8.8. Cd both delays the onset of the exponential phase and decreases the maximum population size, as quantified by optical density and microscopic cell counts (DAPI). The total amount of Cd removed from solution increases over time, as does the amount of Cd removed from solution normalized per bacterial cell. Images obtained with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the production of a cadmium, phosphorus, and iron containing precipitate that was similar in form and composition to precipitates formed abiotically at elevated pH. However, by late stationary phase, the precipitate had been re-dissolved, perhaps by biotic processes in order to obtain Fe. Stressed conditions are suggested by TEM images showing the formation of pili, or nanowires, when 20ppm Cd was present and a marked decrease in exopolysaccharide and biofilm material in comparison to control cells (no cadmium added).

  18. Metabolic evolution of a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Braakman

    Full Text Available Aquifex aeolicus is a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium restricted to hydrothermal vents and hot springs. These characteristics make it an excellent model system for studying the early evolution of metabolism. Here we present the whole-genome metabolic network of this organism and examine in detail the driving forces that have shaped it. We make extensive use of phylometabolic analysis, a method we recently introduced that generates trees of metabolic phenotypes by integrating phylogenetic and metabolic constraints. We reconstruct the evolution of a range of metabolic sub-systems, including the reductive citric acid (rTCA cycle, as well as the biosynthesis and functional roles of several amino acids and cofactors. We show that A. aeolicus uses the reconstructed ancestral pathways within many of these sub-systems, and highlight how the evolutionary interconnections between sub-systems facilitated several key innovations. Our analyses further highlight three general classes of driving forces in metabolic evolution. One is the duplication and divergence of genes for enzymes as these progress from lower to higher substrate specificity, improving the kinetics of certain sub-systems. A second is the kinetic optimization of established pathways through fusion of enzymes, or their organization into larger complexes. The third is the minimization of the ATP unit cost to synthesize biomass, improving thermodynamic efficiency. Quantifying the distribution of these classes of innovations across metabolic sub-systems and across the tree of life will allow us to assess how a tradeoff between maximizing growth rate and growth efficiency has shaped the long-term metabolic evolution of the biosphere.

  19. Paenibacillus xylanilyticus sp. nov., an airborne xylanolytic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Raúl; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2005-01-01

    During a search for xylan-degrading micro-organisms, a sporulating bacterium was recovered from xylan-containing agar plates exposed to air in a research laboratory (Salamanca University, Spain). The airborne isolate (designated strain XIL14T) was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as representing a Paenibacillus species most closely related to Paenibacillus illinoisensis JCM 9907T (99.3 % sequence similarity) and Paenibacillus pabuli DSM 3036T (98 % sequence similarity). Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and DNA-DNA hybridization data indicated that the isolate belongs to a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus. Cells of strain XIL14T were motile, sporulating, rod-shaped, Gram-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 0). The DNA G+C content of strain XIL14T was 50.5 mol%. Growth was observed with many carbohydrates, including xylan, as the only carbon source and gas production was not observed from glucose. Catalase was positive and oxidase was negative. The airborne isolate produced a variety of hydrolytic enzymes, including xylanases, amylases, gelatinase and beta-galactosidase. DNA-DNA hybridization levels between strain XIL14T and P. illinoisensis DSM 11733T and P. pabuli DSM 3036T were 43.3 and 36.3 %, respectively. According to the data obtained, strain XIL14T is considered to represent a novel species for which the name Paenibacillus xylanilyticus sp. nov. is proposed (=LMG 21957T=CECT 5839T). PMID:15653909

  20. Regulation of Polyhydroxybutyrate Synthesis in the Soil Bacterium Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelas, J I; Mesa, S; Mongiardini, E J; Jendrossek, D; Lodeiro, A R

    2016-07-15

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a carbon and energy reserve polymer in various prokaryotic species. We determined that, when grown with mannitol as the sole carbon source, Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens produces a homopolymer composed only of 3-hydroxybutyrate units (PHB). Conditions of oxygen limitation (such as microoxia, oxic stationary phase, and bacteroids inside legume nodules) were permissive for the synthesis of PHB, which was observed as cytoplasmic granules. To study the regulation of PHB synthesis, we generated mutations in the regulator gene phaR and the phasin genes phaP1 and phaP4 Under permissive conditions, mutation of phaR impaired PHB accumulation, and a phaP1 phaP4 double mutant produced more PHB than the wild type, which was accumulated in a single, large cytoplasmic granule. Moreover, PhaR negatively regulated the expression of phaP1 and phaP4 as well as the expression of phaA1 and phaA2 (encoding a 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A [CoA] thiolases), phaC1 and phaC2 (encoding PHB synthases), and fixK2 (encoding a cyclic AMP receptor protein [CRP]/fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator [FNR]-type transcription factor of genes for microoxic lifestyle). In addition to the depressed PHB cycling, phaR mutants accumulated more extracellular polysaccharides and promoted higher plant shoot dry weight and competitiveness for nodulation than the wild type, in contrast to the phaC1 mutant strain, which is defective in PHB synthesis. These results suggest that phaR not only regulates PHB granule formation by controlling the expression of phasins and biosynthetic enzymes but also acts as a global regulator of excess carbon allocation and symbiosis by controlling fixK2 IMPORTANCE: In this work, we investigated the regulation of polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis in the soybean-nodulating bacterium Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens and its influence in bacterial free-living and symbiotic lifestyles. We uncovered a new interplay between the synthesis of this carbon reserve polymer

  1. Photoactive yellow protein from the halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmi, Samy; Kyndt, John; Meyer, Terry; Devreese, Bart; Cusanovich, Michael; Van Beeumen, Jozef

    2008-02-19

    A gene for photoactive yellow protein (PYP) was identified from the genome sequence of the extremely halophilic aerobic bacterium Salinibacter ruber (Sr). The sequence is distantly related to the prototypic PYP from Halorhodospira halophila (Hh) (37% identity) and contains most of the amino acid residues identified as necessary for function. However, the Sr pyp gene is not flanked by its two biosynthetic genes as in other species. To determine as to whether the Sr pyp gene encodes a functional protein, we cloned and expressed it in Escherichia coli, along with the genes for chromophore biosynthesis from Rhodobacter capsulatus. The Sr PYP has a 31-residue N-terminal extension as compared to other PYPs that appears to be important for dimerization; however, truncation of these extra residues did not change the spectral and photokinetic properties. Sr PYP has an absorption maximum at 431 nm, which is at shorter wavelengths than the prototypical Hh PYP (at 446 nm). It is also photoactive, being reversibly bleached by either blue or white light. The kinetics of dark recovery is slower than any of the PYPs reported to date (4.27 x 10(-4) s(-1) at pH 7.5). Sr PYP appears to have a normal photocycle with the I1 and I2 intermediates. The presence of the I2' intermediate is also inferred on the basis of the effects of temperature and alchohol on recovery. Sr PYP has an intermediate spectral form in equilibrium with the 431 nm form, similar to R. capsulatus PYP and the Y42F mutant of Hh PYP. Increasing ionic strength stabilizes the 431 nm form at the expense of the intermediate spectral form, and the kinetics of recovery is accelerated 6.4-fold between 0 and 3.5 M salt. This is observed with ions from both the chaotropic and the kosmotropic series. Ionic strength also stabilizes PYP against thermal denaturation, as the melting temperature is increased from 74 degrees C in buffer alone to 92 degrees C in 2 M KCl. Sr accumulates KCl in the cytoplasm, like Halobacterium, to

  2. 亚硝基胍诱变选育高转化率异麦芽酮糖菌株%Screening of high isomaltulose-conversion rate protaminobacter rubrum strain by NTG mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢汉浪; 许黎明; 吕军; 蒋永强

    2012-01-01

    异麦芽酮糖作为一种新型的功能性蔗糖替代品,特别适合应用于运动型、功能性和健康型的食品和饮料中,目前工业化生产是以蔗糖为主要原料通过蔗糖异构酶转化形成,产蔗糖异构酶的主要菌种包括红色精朊杆菌、大黄欧文氏菌等.但是由于异麦芽酮糖生产工艺长、能耗多和蔗糖原料成本高,抑制了它的市场成长率,因此提高蔗糖的收率、降低生产成本成为亟需解决的问题.本文利用亚硝基胍在0.2mg/mL的浓度下处理60min对处于对数生长期的红色精朊杆菌进行诱变,采用班氏试剂和高效液相色谱法筛选出酶活力显著提高、遗传稳定且转化蔗糖生成异麦芽酮糖的比例较高的菌株,干细胞酶活力最高为1230U/g,异麦芽酮糖在蔗糖完全转化溶液中占固型物的最高比例为87.7%,分别比原始菌株提高了一倍和7.48%.%As a new functional sugar substitute, Isomaltulose is perfectly for all sports, functional and wellness food and beverages. At present isomaltulose is industrially produced by a enzyme - converting process in which sucrose is transformed into isomaltulose. The main strains which can produce sucrose isomerase include Protaminobacter rubrum, Erwinia rhqpontici. However, the market growth of isomaltulose was inhibited because of the long production processes , high energy consumption and high costs of sucrose. In this study, a highly active sucrose isomerase and high isomaltulose - convertion rate Protaminobacter rubrum mutant strain was screened using nitrosoguanidine (NTG) - mutated method. The wild strain was mutated 60 minutes by 0. 2mg/mL NTG in the exponential phase, and the mutant strain was screened by Benedict reagent and HPLC. The mutant strain showed excellent genetic stability and the activity of sucrose isomerase could reach 1230U per gram of dried cell. Then the mutant strain was used in converting sucrose to isomaltulose. The maximum content of

  3. A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1998-10-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

  4. Action of the Selenomorpholine Compounds on the Bacterium Growth by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Xi(李曦); LIU,Yi(刘义); WU,Jun(吴军); QU,Song-Sheng(屈松生)

    2002-01-01

    The action of β-(N-selenomorpholine) ethyl phenyl ketone hy drochloride and 4-(N-selenomorpholine)-2-butanone hydrochloride on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was studied by microcalorimetry. Differences in their capacities to affect the metabolism of this bacterium were observed. The kinetics shows that the selenomorphline compounds had action on the metabolism process of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The rate constant (k) of the studied bacterium in the presence of the drugs are concentration-dependant. The growth rate constants decrease with an increase in the mass of the selenomorpholine compounds, but their relationship is different. As deduced from the rate constant (k) of the studied bacterium (in log phase) and the half inhibitory concentration (IC50), the experimental results reveal that the studied selenomorphline compounds all have good antibiotic activity and better antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus than on Escherichia coli.

  5. Studies on the pathogenic bacterium of ulcer disease in Epinephelus awoara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the cause of the acute mortality of cage-cultured Epinephelus awoara in the Tong'an Bay of Xiamen, China during the summer of 2002. Predominant bacteria strain TS-628 was isolated from the diseased grouper. The virulence test confirmed that TS-628 was the pathogenic bacterium. Biochemical characteristics of the isolates were determined using the automatic bacterial identification system and standard tube tests. To further confirm the identification, a 1 121 bp 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate was amplified by PCR, which had been deposited into Genbank (accession number: AY747308). According to the biochemical characteristics and by comparing the 16S rRNA gene homology of the isolate, the pathogenic bacterium was identified as Vibrio harveyi. Drug sensitivity tests showed that this pathogenic bacterium was sensitive to 16 antibacterials, especially to chloramphenicol and actinospectacin, but completely resistant to antibacterials likes vancomycin, penicillin, lincomycin, and so on.

  6. Action of the Selenomorpholine Compounds on the Bacterium Growth by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曦; 刘义; 等

    2002-01-01

    The action of β-(N-selenomorpholine) ethyl phenyl ketone hydrochloride and 4-(N-selenomorpholine)-2-butanone hydro-chloride on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was studied by microcalorimetry,Differences in their capacities to affect the metabolism of this bacterium were observed.The kinetics shows that the selenomorpholine compounds had action on the metabolism process of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.The rate constant (k) of the studied bacterium in the presence of the drugs are concentration-dependant.The growth rate constants decrease with an increase in the mass of the selenomorpholine compounds ,but their relationship is different.As deduced from the rate constant(k) of the studied bacterium(in log phase )and the half inhibitory concentration (IC50),the experimental results reveal that the studied selenomorpholine compounds all have good antibiotic activity and better antibacterial activity on Staphylcoccus aureus than on Escherichia coli.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer-ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi-cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome squence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Mun Su [University of Florida, Gainesville; Moritz, Brelan E. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Patel, Milind [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ou, Mark [University of Florida, Gainesville; Harbrucker, Roberta [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ingram, Lonnie O. [University of Florida; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T. [University of Florida

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer- ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this spo- rogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attrac- tive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi- cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome se- quence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  9. Removal of corper(II) Ions from aqueous solution by a lactic acid bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yilmaz(Department of Physics, Gazi University, Ankara); T. Tay; M. Kivanc; H. Turk

    2010-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium, a lactic acid bacterium (LAB), was evaluated for its ability to remove copper(II) ions from water. The effects of the pH, contact time, initial concentration of copper(II) ions, and temperature on the biosorption rate and capacity were studied. The initial concentrations of copper(II) ions used to determine the maximum amount of biosorbed copper(II) ions onto lyophilised lactic acid bacterium varied from 25 mg L-1 to 500 mg L-1. Maximum biosorption capacities were attain...

  10. Sensitivity of the bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis as an insect disease agent to gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation on the viability of the entomopathogenic spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, was tested. The different gamma doses varied much in their effect on such bacterium. All irradiated Bacillus suspensions with doses below 85 krad showed different degrees of inhibitory activity. However, bacterial suspensions irradiated at a dose of 90 krad. proved to promote spore germination. Changes in the physiological, and morphological characters of the irradiated Bacillus at these levels were detected. The new observed characters were induced at a particular dose level of 90 krad. These new characters are assumed to be due to genetic changes induced at this particular gamma dose

  11. Physiological and taxonomic description of the novel autotrophic, metal oxidizing bacterium, Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Karrie A; Hedrick, David B.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Thrash, J. Cameron; White, David C.; Achenbach, Laurie A.; Coates, John D.

    2009-01-01

    A lithoautotrophic, Fe(II) oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacterium, strain 2002 (ATCC BAA-1479; =DSM 18807), was isolated as part of a study on nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation in freshwater lake sediments. Here we provide an in-depth phenotypic and phylogenetic description of the isolate. Strain 2002 is a gram-negative, non-spore forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterium which tested positive for oxidase, catalase, and urease. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain 2002 in...

  12. Aminomonas paucivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a mesophilic, anaerobic, amino-acid-utilizing bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Baena, S.; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Ollivier, Bernard; Labat, Marc; Thomas, P; Garcia, Jean-Louis; Patel, B.K.C.

    1999-01-01

    A novel, asaccharolytic, amino-acid-degrading bacterium, designated strain GLU-3T, was isolated from an anaerobic lagoon of a dairy wastewater treatment plant. Strain GLU-3T stained Gram-negative and was an obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacterium (0.3 x 4.0-6.0 micrometers) which existed singly or in pairs. The DNA G+C content was 43 mol%. Optimum growth occurred at 35°C and pH 7.5 on arginine, histidine, threonine and glycine. Acetate was the end-produc...

  13. Genome sequence of Symbiobacterium thermophilum, an uncultivable bacterium that depends on microbial commensalism

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Kenji; YAMASHITA Atsushi; Ishikawa, Jun; Shimada, Masafumi; Watsuji, Tomo-o; Morimura, Kohji; Ikeda, Haruo; Hattori, Masahira; Beppu, Teruhiko

    2004-01-01

    Symbiobacterium thermophilum is an uncultivable bacterium isolated from compost that depends on microbial commensalism. The 16S ribosomal DNA-based phylogeny suggests that this bacterium belongs to an unknown taxon in the Gram-positive bacterial cluster. Here, we describe the 3.57 Mb genome sequence of S.thermophilum. The genome consists of 3338 protein-coding sequences, out of which 2082 have functional assignments. Despite the high G + C content (68.7%), the genome is closest to that of Fir...

  14. Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus NY-4, a novel denitrifying, moderately halophilic marine bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rongpeng; Zi, Xiaoli; Wang, Xinfeng; Zhang, Xia; Gao, Haofeng; Hu, Nan

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of a novel halophilic denitrifying marine bacterium is described. The halophilic bacterium, designated as NY-4, was isolated from soil in Yancheng City, China, and identified as Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus by 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis. This organism can grow in NaCl concentrations ranging from 20 to 120 g/L. Optimum growth occurs at 80 g/L NaCl and pH 8.0. The organism can grow on a broad range of carbon sources and demonstrated eff...

  15. Purification and Characterization of Haloalkaline, Organic Solvent Stable Xylanase from Newly Isolated Halophilic Bacterium-OKH

    OpenAIRE

    Sanghvi, Gaurav; Jivrajani, Mehul; Patel, Nirav; Jivrajani, Heta; Bhaskara, Govinal Badiger; Patel, Shivani

    2014-01-01

    A novel, alkali-tolerant halophilic bacterium-OKH with an ability to produce extracellular halophilic, alkali-tolerant, organic solvent stable, and moderately thermostable xylanase was isolated from salt salterns of Mithapur region, Gujarat, India. Identification of the bacterium was done based upon biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence. Maximum xylanase production was achieved at pH 9.0 and 37°C temperature in the medium containing 15% NaCl and 1% (w/v) corn cobs. Sugarcane bagasse and whe...

  16. Enhanced Cadmium (Cd) Phytoextraction from Contaminated Soil using Cd-Resistant Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Kunchaya Setkit; Acharaporn Kumsopa; Jaruwan Wongthanate; Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2014-01-01

    A cadmium (Cd)-resistant bacterium, Micrococcus sp. MU1, is able to produce indole-3-acetic acid and promotes root elongation and plant growth. The potential of this bacterium on enhancement of Cd uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd in Helianthus annuus L. planted in Cd-contaminated soil was evaluated in greenhouse condition. The results showed that Micrococcus sp. MU1promoted the growth of H. annuus L. by increasing the root length, stem height, dry biomass, root to shoot ratio and also signifi...

  17. A genome phylogeny for mitochondria among alpha-proteobacteria and a predominantly eubacterial ancestry of yeast nuclear genes

    OpenAIRE

    Esser, C.; Ahmadinejad, N.; C. Wiegand; Rotte, C.; Sebastiani, F.; Gelius-Dietrich, G; Henze, K; Kretschmann, E.; Richly, E.; Leister, D.; Bryant, D; Steel, M; Lockhart, P; Penny, D; Martin, W

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of 55 individual and 31 concatenated protein data sets encoded in Reclinomonas americana and Marchantia polymorpha mitochondrial genomes revealed that current methods for constructing phylogenetic trees are insufficiently sensitive (or artifact-insensitive) to ascertain the sister of mitochondria among the current sample of eight alpha-proteobacterial genomes using mitochondrially-encoded proteins. However, Rhodospirillum rubrum came as close to mitochondria as any alpha-proteobacter...

  18. Isolation from swine feces of a bacterium which decarboxylates p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to 4-methylphenol (p-cresol).

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Ward; Johnson, K A; Robinson, I.M.; Yokoyama, M T

    1987-01-01

    An obligate anaerobe has been isolated from swine feces which decarboxylates p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to 4-methylphenol (p-cresol). The bacterium was an ovoid rod, gram positive, nonsporeforming, and nonmotile. Lactate and acetate were major end products of glucose fermentation. Based on its characteristics, the bacterium is tentatively assigned to the genus Lactobacillus.

  19. New recombinant bacterium comprises a heterologous gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase and/or an up-regulated native gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase, useful for producing ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    TECHNOLOGY FOCUS - BIOTECHNOLOGY - Preparation (claimed): Producing recombinant bacterium having enhanced ethanol production characteristics when cultivated in growth medium comprising glycerol comprises: (a) transforming a parental bacterium by (i) the insertion of a heterologous gene encoding...... glycerol dehydrogenase; and/or (ii) up-regulating a native gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase; and (b) obtaining the recombinant bacterium. Preferred Bacterium: In the recombinant bacterium above, the inserted heterologous gene and/or the up-regulated native gene is encoding a glycerol dehydrogenase...... dehydrogenase encoding region of the bacterium, or is inserted into a phosphotransacetylase encoding region of the bacterium, or is inserted into an acetate kinase encoding region of the bacterium. It is operably linked to an inducible, a regulated or a constitutive promoter. The up-regulated glycerol...

  20. 红花檵木叶片花色素提取及其性质研究%Extraction and Characterization of Anthocyanidins from Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum Yieh Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辛雷; 李纪元; 范正琪

    2011-01-01

    The anthocyanidinsins in Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum Yieh leaves were extracted by solvent extraction method and analyzed for their physico-chemical properties.The best extraction conditions were found as follows: 99.5% methanol as extraction solvent at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:5(g/mL) for 2 h extraction at 60 ℃.The pigments were unstable to light and heating but stable to strongly acidic environments and had a different color in slightly acidic and nearly neutral environments.Their tolerance to H2O2 and Na2SO3 was poor and their sensitivity to EDTA and sodium benzoate was high.Glucose and sucrose had little effect on the pigments.Salt,citric acid and some metal ions such as A13+,Ca2+ and Co2+ had hyperchromic effect on them and vitamin C and other metal ions such as Cu2+,Mg2+,Zn2+,Mn2+,K+ and Sn2+ had hypochromic effect.Moreover,Fe2+,Fe3+ and Pb2+ affected the stability of the pigments.%以红花檵木叶片为材料,对其花色素的提取条件及理化性质进行研究。结果表明,红花檵木叶片花色素提取的最佳条件为:99.5%的甲醇、料液比1:5(g/mL)、浸提温度60℃、浸提时间2h。红花檵木叶片花色素具光、热不稳定性;在强酸性时稳定,微酸近中性时变色。色素抗氧化、还原能力差;对螯合剂、苯甲酸钠敏感。葡萄糖、蔗糖对色素无明显影响,食盐、柠檬酸有增色作用,VC具减色作用。金属离子A13+、Ca2+、Co2+等具增色作用,Cu2+、Mg2+、Zn2+、Mn2+、K+、Sn2+等有减色作用,Fe2+、Fe3+、Pb2+影响色素稳定性。

  1. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of a Novel Yellow Pigment from the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kumar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is a major source for many novel natural compounds. A new yellow pigment has been isolated from the marine bacterium P. tunicata and identified as a new member of the tambjamine class of compounds. The structural identification was achieved by a combination of 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry data.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, a Chromium-Resistant Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Nahar, Noor; Olsson, Björn; Mandal, Abul

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported a chromium-resistant bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, isolated from the landfills of tannery industries in Bangladesh. Here, we investigated its genetic composition using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Enterobacter genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of ~4.21 Mb in size. PMID:27257201

  3. Identification and Characterization of Clostridium paraputrificum, a Chitinolytic Bacterium of Human Digestive Tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimůnek, Jiří; Kopečný, Jan; Hodrová, Blanka; Bartoňová, Hana

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2002), s. 559-564. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5020115; GA ČR GA525/00/0984; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : Clostridium paraputrificum * Chitinolytic bacterium * digestive tract Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002

  4. Complete genome sequence of the bioleaching bacterium Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Alonso; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Valdés, Natalia; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Orellana, Omar; Levicán, Gloria

    2016-03-20

    We describe the complete genome sequence of Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1, an acidophilic bioleaching bacterium isolated from an acid mine drainage (AMD). This work provides data to gain insights about adaptive response of Leptospirillum spp. to the extreme conditions of bioleaching environments. PMID:26853478

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Moderately Thermophilic Bacterium Schleiferia thermophila Strain Yellowstone (Bacteroidetes)

    OpenAIRE

    Thiel, Vera; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Burhans, Richard; Gay, Scott E.; Ramaley, Robert F.; Stephan C Schuster; Steinke, Laurey; Bryant, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic bacterium Schleiferia thermophila strain Yellowstone (Bacteroidetes), isolated from Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) was sequenced and comprises 2,617,694 bp in 35 contigs. The draft genome is predicted to encode 2,457 protein coding genes and 37 tRNA encoding genes and two rRNA operons.

  6. Genome Sequence of the Acetogenic Bacterium Moorella mulderi DSM 14980T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Villamizar, Genis Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Moorella mulderi DSM 14980T, a thermophilic acetogenic bacterium, which is able to grow autotrophically on H2 plus CO2 using the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The genome consists of a circular chromosome (2.99 Mb). PMID:27231372

  7. Removal of zinc from aqueous solution by metal resistant symbiotic bacterium Mesorhizobium amorphae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Xiuli; Mohamad, Osama Abdalla; Xie, Pin;

    2014-01-01

    Biosorption of zinc by living biomasses of metal resistant symbiotic bacterium Mesorhizobium amorphae CCNWGS0123 was investigated under optimal conditions at pH 5.0, initial metal concentrations of 100 mg L-1, and a dose of 1.0 g L-1. M. amorphae exhibited an efficient removal of Zn2+ from aqueous...

  8. Cloning, sequencing, and sequence analysis of two novel plasmids from the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Anaerocellum thermophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Schrøder, I.;

    2004-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of two novel plasmids isolated from the extreme thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Anaerocellum thermophilum DSM6725 (A. thermophilum), growing optimally at 70degreesC, has been determined. pBAS2 was found to be a 3653 bp plasmid with a GC content of 43%, and the sequence...

  9. Thermaerobacter litoralis sp. nov., a strictly aerobic and thermophilic bacterium isolated from a coastal hydrothermal field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanaka, Reiji; Kawaichi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Hiroshi;

    2006-01-01

    A novel thermophilic bacterium, strain KW1T, was isolated from a coastal hydrothermal field on the Satsuma Peninsula, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The variably Gram-stained cells were motile rods with flagella, did not form spores and proliferated at 52-78°C (optimum, 70°C), pH 5-8 (optimum, pH 7...

  10. The atherogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis evades circulating phagocytes by adhering to erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Damgaard, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    A relationship between periodontitis and coronary heart disease has been investigated intensively. A pathogenic role for the oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis has been suggested for both diseases. We examined whether complement activation by P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277 allows the bacter......A relationship between periodontitis and coronary heart disease has been investigated intensively. A pathogenic role for the oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis has been suggested for both diseases. We examined whether complement activation by P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277 allows...... the bacterium to adhere to human red blood cells (RBCs) and thereby evade attack by circulating phagocytes. On incubation with normal human serum, the P. gingivalis strain efficiently fixed complement component 3 (C3). Incubation of bacteria with washed whole blood cells suspended in autologous serum resulted......) and that by monocytes after between 15 min and 30 min of incubation (by 66% and 53%, respectively). The attachment of C3b/iC3b to bacterium-bearing RBCs decreased progressively after 15 min, indicating that conversion of C3 fragments into C3dg occurred, decreasing the affinity for CR1 on RBCs. We propose that P...

  11. Isolation and algae-lysing characteristics of the algicidal bacterium B5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Water blooms have become a worldwide environmental problem. Recently, algicidal bacteria have attracted wide attention as possible agents for inhibiting algal water blooms. In this study, one strain of algicidal bacterium B5 was isolated from activated sludge. On the basis of analysis of its physiological characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence, it was identified as Bacillus fusiformis. Its algae-lysing characteristics on Microcystis aeruginosa, Chlorella and Scenedesmus were tested. The results showed that: (1) the algicidal bacterium B5 is a Gram-negative bacterium. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence homology of strain B5 with 2 strains of B. fusiformis reached 99.86%, so B5 was identified as B. fusiformis; (2) the algal-lysing effects of the algicidal bacterium B5 on M. aeruginosa, Chlorella and Scenedesmus were pronounced. The initial bacterial and algal cell densities strongly influence the removal rates of chlorophyll-a. The greater the initial bacterial cell density, the faster the degradation of chlorophyll-a. The greater the initial algal cell density, the slower the degradation of chlorophyll-a. When the bacterial cell density was 3.6 × 107 cells/ml, nearly 90% of chlorophyll-a was removed. When the chlorophyll-a concentration was less than 550 μg/L, about 70 % was removed; (3) the strain B5 lysed algae not directly but by secreting metabolites and these metabolites could bear heat treatment.

  12. Engineering a predatory bacterium as a proficient killer agent for intracellular bio-products recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Virginia; Herencias, Cristina; Jurkevitch, Edouard;

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the potential of the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100, an obligate predator of other Gram-negative bacteria, as an external cell-lytic agent for recovering valuable intracellular bio-products produced by prey cultures. The bio-product targets to be recovered...

  13. The Mechanism and Usage for Enhanced Oil Recovery by Chemotaxis of Bacterium BS2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYiqian; JingGuicheng; GaoShusheng; XungWei

    2005-01-01

    Due to its chemotaxis, the motion ability of bacterium BS2 is very strong, and under the microscope, the distribution grads of bacterium concentration can be seen at the oil-water interface. During the experiments in glass box, it can be observed, with eyes, because of the chemotaxis, that muddy gets thicker and thicker at the interface gradually, and it is measured there, from sampling, that the bacterium concentration is 109 cells/mL, pH value 4.4 and the concentration of bio-surfactant 2.87%; The microbial oil-displacement experiments are carried out in emulational network models, and the oil-displacement mechanism by the bacterium and its metabolizing production is studied. And, during oil-displacement experiments in the gravel-input glass models, because of the profile control of thalli and the production, the sweep area of subsequent waterflood becomes wider, which can be seen with eyes and the recovery is enhanced by 13.6%. Finally, the successful field test is introduced in brief: the ratio of response producers is 85.7%, and the water-cut degrades by 6.4%, while 20038t oil has increased in accumulative total in 2 years.

  14. Two-dimensional gel-based alkaline proteome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majumder, Avishek; Cai, Liyang; Ejby, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) is a well‐documented probiotic bacterium isolated from human gut. Detailed 2D gel‐based NCFM proteomics addressed the so‐called alkaline range, i.e., pH 6–11. Proteins were identified in 150 of the 202 spots picked from the Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained 2D...

  15. Photobacterium galatheae sp. nov., a bioactive bacterium isolated from a mussel in the Solomon Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Giubergia, Sonia; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina;

    2015-01-01

    A novel, Gram-negative marine bacterium, S2753T, was isolated from a mussel of the Solomon Sea, Solomon Islands. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole genome sequence data placed strain S2753T in the genus Photobacterium with the closest relative being Photobacterium halotolerans...

  16. Design of semi industrial radium separator by a new bacterium MGF-48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following of a research work which has been recently published in AEOI scientific Bulletin no. 14, a semi industrial bioreactor has been designed for separation of radium using a new bacterium MGF-48. This bioreactor could be utilized for a high rate separation of radium in semi industrial scale. (author)

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingomonas sp. Strain NIC1, an Efficient Nicotine-Degrading Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiongyu; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain NIC1, an efficient nicotine-degrading bacterium, was isolated from tobacco leaves. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of strain NIC1, which contains one circular chromosome and two circular plasmids. The genomic information will provide insights into its molecular mechanism for nicotine degradation. PMID:27417841

  18. First Insights into the Genome of the Moderately Thermophilic Bacterium Clostridium tepidiprofundi SG 508T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlein, Anja; Friedrich, Ines; Krüger, Larissa; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The moderately thermophilic bacterium Clostridium tepidiprofundi is Gram-positive and belongs to clostridial cluster I. It was isolated from a hydrothermal vent chimney. Substrates utilized by C. tepidiprofundi include casein, peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract, starch, maltose, and glucose. The genome consists of one replicon (3.06 Mb). PMID:27174286

  19. First Insights into the Genome of the Moderately Thermophilic Bacterium Clostridium tepidiprofundi SG 508T

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlein, Anja; Friedrich, Ines; Krüger, Larissa; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The moderately thermophilic bacterium Clostridium tepidiprofundi is Gram-positive and belongs to clostridial cluster I. It was isolated from a hydrothermal vent chimney. Substrates utilized by C. tepidiprofundi include casein, peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract, starch, maltose, and glucose. The genome consists of one replicon (3.06 Mb).

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Khalil, Kamal M; Tisa, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.27-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, with a G+C content of 42.4% and containing 4,243 candidate protein-coding genes. PMID:26988056

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Khalil, Kamal M.; Tisa, Louis S.

    2016-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.27-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, with a G+C content of 42.4% and containing 4,243 candidate protein-coding genes.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Ionic Liquid-Tolerant Bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CMW1

    OpenAIRE

    Kurata, Atsushi; Hirose, Yuu; Misawa, Naomi; Hurunaka, Kohei; Kishimoto, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of an ionic liquid-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CMW1, which is newly isolated from a Japanese fermented soybean paste. The genome sequence will allow for a characterization of the molecular mechanism of its ionic liquid tolerance.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of a Bacillus Bacterium from the Atacama Desert Wetlands Metagenome

    OpenAIRE

    Vilo, Claudia; Galetovic, Alexandra; Araya, Jorge E.; Gómez-Silva, Benito; Dong, Qunfeng

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a Bacillus bacterium isolated from the microflora of Nostoc colonies grown at the Andean wetlands in northern Chile. We consider this genome sequence to be a molecular tool for exploring microbial relationships and adaptation strategies to the prevailing extreme conditions at the Atacama Desert.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of a Bacillus Bacterium from the Atacama Desert Wetlands Metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilo, Claudia; Galetovic, Alexandra; Araya, Jorge E; Gómez-Silva, Benito; Dong, Qunfeng

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a Bacillus bacterium isolated from the microflora of Nostoc colonies grown at the Andean wetlands in northern Chile. We consider this genome sequence to be a molecular tool for exploring microbial relationships and adaptation strategies to the prevailing extreme conditions at the Atacama Desert. PMID:26294639

  5. Genome Sequence of Bacillus mycoides B38V, a Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; de Souza, Rocheli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Alvarenga, Samuel M; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus mycoides B38V is a bacterium isolated from the sunflower rhizosphere that is able to promote plant growth and N uptake. The genome of the isolate has approximately 5.80 Mb and presents sequence codifiers for plant growth-promoting characteristics, such as nitrate reduction and ammonification and iron-siderophore uptake. PMID:25838494

  6. Genome Sequence of Bacillus mycoides B38V, a Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant’Anna, Fernando Hayashi; de Souza, Rocheli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Alvarenga, Samuel M.; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus mycoides B38V is a bacterium isolated from the sunflower rhizosphere that is able to promote plant growth and N uptake. The genome of the isolate has approximately 5.80 Mb and presents sequence codifiers for plant growth-promoting characteristics, such as nitrate reduction and ammonification and iron-siderophore uptake.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Perfluorooctane Acid-Degrading Bacterium Pseudomonas parafulva YAB-1

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Langbo; Tang, Chongjian; Peng, Qingjing; Peng, Qingzhong; Chai, Liyuan

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas parafulva YAB-1, isolated from perfluorinated compound-contaminated soil, has the ability to degrade perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) compound. Here, we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of the PFOA-degrading bacterium P. parafulva YAB-1. The data provide the basis to investigate the molecular mechanism of PFOA metabolism.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Perfluorooctane Acid-Degrading Bacterium Pseudomonas parafulva YAB-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chongjian; Peng, Qingjing; Peng, Qingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas parafulva YAB-1, isolated from perfluorinated compound-contaminated soil, has the ability to degrade perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) compound. Here, we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of the PFOA-degrading bacterium P. parafulva YAB-1. The data provide the basis to investigate the molecular mechanism of PFOA metabolism. PMID:26337877

  9. Comment on "A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Lei

    2016-08-19

    Yoshida et al (Report, 11 March 2016, p. 1196) reported that the bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 can degrade and assimilate poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). However, the authors exaggerated degradation efficiency using a low-crystallinity PET and presented no straightforward experiments to verify depolymerization and assimilation of PET. Thus, the authors' conclusions are rather misleading. PMID:27540159

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia cenocepacia Strain 869T2, a Plant-Beneficial Endophytic Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ying-Ning; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    An endophytic bacterium, Burkholderia cenocepacia 869T2, isolated from vetiver grass, has shown its abilities for both in planta biocontrol and plant growth promotion. Its draft genome sequence was determined to provide insights into those metabolic pathways involved in plant-beneficial activity. This is the first genome report for endophytic B. cenocepacia. PMID:26564046

  11. Expression of Heterogenous Arsenic Resistance Genes in the Obligately Autotrophic Biomining Bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Ji-Bin; Yan, Wang-Ming; Bao, Xue-Zhen

    1994-01-01

    Two arsenic-resistant plasmids were constructed and introduced into Thiobacillus ferrooxidans strains by conjugation. The plasmids with the replicon of wide-host-range plasmid RSF1010 were stable in T. ferrooxidans. The arsenic resistance genes originating from the heterotroph were expressed in this obligately autotrophic bacterium, but the promoter derived from T. ferrooxidans showed no special function in its original host.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ, a Halotolerant Di-n-Butyl-Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Decai; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xinxin; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ is a halotolerant di-n-butyl-phthalate-degrading bacterium, isolated from the Haihe estuary in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China. Here, we report the 5.1-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Sphingobium spp. and the mechanism of phthalate ester degradation in the estuary. PMID:27313307

  13. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Pseudomonas viridiflava, a Bacterium Species Pathogenic to Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Lefort, Francois; Calmin, Gautier; Crovadore, Julien; Osteras, Magne; Farinelli, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    We report here the first whole-genome shotgun sequence of Pseudomonas viridiflava strain UASWS38, a bacterium species pathogenic to the biological model plant Arabidopsis thaliana but also usable as a biological control agent and thus of great scientific interest for understanding the genetics of plant-microbe interactions.

  14. Biohydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus: Current Status and Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielen, A.A.M.; Verhaart, M.R.A.; Oost, van der J.; Kengen, S.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is one of the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms known to date. This Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium ferments a broad spectrum of mono-, di- and polysaccharides to mainly acetate, CO2 and hydrogen. With hydrogen yields approaching the theoretical limit fo

  15. Genome sequence of the mycorrhizal helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6R8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveau, Aurelie [French National Insitute for Agricultural Research (INRA); Grob, Harald [University of Bonn, Germany; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Utturkar, Sagar M [ORNL; Mehnaz, Samina [University of the Punjab, Pakistan; Kurz, Sven [University of Bonn, Germany; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France; Frey-Klett, Pascale [INRA, Nancy, France; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain BBc6R8 . Several traits which could be involved in the mycorrhiza helper ability of the bacterial strain such as multiple secretion systems, auxin metabolism and phosphate mobilization were evidenced in the genome.

  16. Complete genome sequence of a novel chlorpyrifos degrading bacterium, Cupriavidus nantongensis X1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yi-Fei; Zhou, Yan-Long; Wang, Dao-Sheng; Sun, Le-Ni; Tang, Xin-Yun; Hua, Ri-Mao

    2016-06-10

    Cupriavidus nantongensis X1 is a chlorpyrifos degrading bacterium, which was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. It is the first time to report the complete genome sequence of C. nantongensis species, which has been reported as a novel species of Cupriavidus genus. It could provide further pathway information in chlorpyrifos degradation. PMID:27063140

  17. Toxicity of herbicides used in the sugarcane crop to diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio; Marcelo Ferreira Fernandes; Daniele Araújo Teles; José Guedes Sena Filho; Alberto Cargnelutti Filho; Marcelo Araújo Resende; Leandro Vargas

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify herbicides used in the sugarcane crop that affects neither the growth, the development, of nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Eighteen herbicides (paraquat, ametryne, tebuthiuron, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne], gly...

  18. An ATP transport system in the intracellular bacterium, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby, E G; McCabe, J B

    1986-01-01

    The intracellularly growing bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J transports intact ATP by a specific, energy-requiring process. ATP transport does not involve either an ADP-ATP or an AMP-ATP exchange mechanism but, instead, has characteristics of an active transport permease. Kinetically distinct systems for ATP transport are expressed by the two developmental stages of the bdellovibrio life cycle.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, a Chromium-Resistant Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Nahar, Noor; Olsson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported a chromium-resistant bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, isolated from the landfills of tannery industries in Bangladesh. Here, we investigated its genetic composition using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Enterobacter genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of ~4.21 Mb in size. PMID:27257201

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Radioresistant Bacterium Deinococcus grandis, Isolated from Freshwater Fish in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Takefumi; Omoso, Kota; Takeda-Yano, Kiyoko; Katayama, Takeshi; Oono, Yutaka; Narumi, Issay

    2016-01-01

    Deinococcus grandis is a radioresistant bacterium isolated from freshwater fish in Japan. Here we reported the draft genome sequence of D. grandis (4.1 Mb), which will be useful for elucidating the common principles of radioresistance in Deinococcus species through the comparative analysis of genomic sequences. PMID:26868384

  1. Genome Sequence of the Spinosyns-Producing Bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL 18395 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanlong; Yang, Xi; Li, Jing; Zhang, Ruifen; Hu, Yongfei; Zhou, Yuguang; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Baoli

    2011-01-01

    Saccharopolyspora spinosa is a Gram-positive bacterium that produces spinosad, a well-known biodegradable insecticide that is used for agricultural pest control and has an excellent environmental and mammalian toxicological profile. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of the type strain Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL 18395, which consists of 22 scaffolds. PMID:21478350

  2. Genome Sequence of Marichromatium gracile YL-28, a Purple Sulfur Bacterium with Bioremediation Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhao, Chungui; Hong, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Marichromatium gracile YL-28 contains 3,840,251 bp, with a G+C content of 68.84%. The annotated genome sequence provides the genetic basis for revealing its role as a purple sulfur bacterium in the harvesting of energy and the development of bioremediation applications. PMID:27151789

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Oyster Larval Probiotic Bacterium Vibrio sp. Strain OY15

    OpenAIRE

    Harold J. Schreier; Schott, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain OY15, a Gram-negative marine bacterium isolated from an oyster (Crassostrea virginica) digestive tract and shown to possess probiotic activity. The availability of this genome sequence will facilitate the study of the mechanisms of probiotic activity as well as virulence capacity.

  4. Genome Sequence of the Highly Efficient Arsenite-Oxidizing Bacterium Achromobacter arsenitoxydans SY8

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiangyang; Hu, Yao; Gong, Jing; Lin, Yanbing; Johnstone, Laurel; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2012-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Achromobacter arsenitoxydans SY8, the first reported arsenite-oxidizing bacterium belonging to the genus Achromobacter and containing a genomic arsenic island, an intact type III secretion system, and multiple metal(loid) transporters. The genome may be helpful to explore the mechanisms intertwining metal(loid) resistance and pathogenicity.

  5. A commensal symbiotic interrelationship for the growth of Symbiobacterium toebii with its partner bacterium, Geobacillus toebii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masui Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symbiobacterium toebii is a commensal symbiotic thermophile that absolutely requires its partner bacterium Geobacillus toebii for growth. Despite development of an independent cultivation method using cell-free extracts, the growth of Symbiobacterium remains unknown due to our poor understanding of the symbiotic relationship with its partner bacterium. Here, we investigated the interrelationship between these two bacteria for growth of S. toebii using different cell-free extracts of G. toebii. Results Symbiobacterium toebii growth-supporting factors were constitutively produced through almost all growth phases and under different oxygen tensions in G. toebii, indicating that the factor may be essential components for growth of G. toebii as well as S. toebii. The growing conditions of G. toebii under different oxygen tension dramatically affected to the initial growth of S. toebii and the retarded lag phase was completely shortened by reducing agent, L-cysteine indicating an evidence of commensal interaction of microaerobic and anaerobic bacterium S. toebii with a facultative aerobic bacterium G. toebii. In addition, the growth curve of S. toebii showed a dependency on the protein concentration of cell-free extracts of G. toebii, demonstrating that the G. toebii-derived factors have nutrient-like characters but not quorum-sensing characters. Conclusions Not only the consistent existence of the factor in G. toebii during all growth stages and under different oxygen tensions but also the concentration dependency of the factor for proliferation and optimal growth of S. toebii, suggests that an important biosynthetic machinery lacks in S. toebii during evolution. The commensal symbiotic bacterium, S. toebii uptakes certain ubiquitous and essential compound for its growth from environment or neighboring bacteria that shares the equivalent compounds. Moreover, G. toebii grown under aerobic condition shortened the lag phase of S

  6. Evaluation of Biosynthetic Pathways of 2Н- and 13С-Labeled Amino Acids by an Obligate Methylotrophic Bacterium Methylobacillus Flagellatum and a Facultative Methylotrophic Bacterium Brevibacterium Methylicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available By the method of electron impact mass-spectrometry was studied the pathways of biosynthesis of 2H, 13C-labeled amino acids of a facultative methylotrophic bacterium Brevibacterium methylicum and an obligate methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacillus flagellatum obtained on growth media containing as a source of stable isotopes [2H]methanol, [13C]methanol and 2H2O. For mass-spectrometric analysis the multicomponential mixtures of 2H- and 13C-labeled amino acids, derived from cultural media and protein hydrolysates after hydrolysis in 6 M 2HСl (3 % phenol and 2 M Ва(OH2 were modified into N-benzyloxycarbonyl-derivatives of amino acids as well as into methyl esters of N-5-(dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl derivatives of [2H, 13С]amino acids, which were preparative separated using a method of reverse-phase HCLP. Biosynthetically obtained 2H- and 13C-labeled amino acids represented the mixtures differing in quantities of isotopes incorporated into molecule. The levels of 2H and 13С enrichment of secreted amino acids and amino acid resigues of protein were found to vary from 20,0 atom % to L-leucine/isoleucine up to 97,5 atom % for L-alanine depending on concentration of 2H- and 13C-labelled substrates.

  7. Influence of pH and Oxidant Ozone to Amount of Bacterium Coliform at Hospital Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of pH and oxidant ozone to amount of bacterium coliform at hospital waste have been done. As sample is liquid waste Public Hospital of town (RSUD) Yogyakarta. Sample waste processed by 3 kinds of treatment, that is first certain ozone waste during, that is waste given by the third and just chalk of waste given by the certain and ozonization chalk during. From third the treatment, in the reality third treatment which can give the maximal result, that is waste given the chalk until pH waste 8.5 and ozonization during 40 minute give the following result : bacterium coliform from 810.000 MPN become 0 MPN ( cell / 100 mL). This result have fulfilled the conditions as according to decision of Governor of DIY no. 65 year 1999 for the waste of faction II, that is waste used for the irrigation of fishery and agriculture. (author)

  8. Crystal structure of ribosomal protein L1 from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonova, E. Yu.; Tishchenko, S. V.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Shklyaeva, A. A.; Garber, M. B.; Nikonov, S. V.; Nevskaya, N. A.

    2011-07-01

    The crystal structure of ribosomal protein L1 from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus was solved by the molecular-replacement method and refined to R cryst = 19.4% and R free = 25.1% at 2.1 Å protein consists of two domains linked together by a flexible hinge region. In the structure under consideration, the domains are in close proximity and adopt a closed conformation. Earlier, this conformation has been found in the structure of protein L1 from the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, whereas the structures of archaeal L1 proteins and the structures of all L1 proteins in the RNA-bound form have an open conformation. The fact that a closed conformation was found in the structures of two L1 proteins which crystallize in different space groups and belong to different bacteria suggests that this conformation is a characteristic feature of L1 bacterial proteins in the free form.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a new arsenic methylating bacterium from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honschopp, S. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Mikrobiologie; Brunken, N. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie; Nehrkorn, A. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Mikrobiologie; Breunig, H.J. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie

    1996-12-31

    An arsenic resistant and arsenic methylating bacterium belonging to the Flavobacterium-Cytophaga group was isolated from soil with an arsenic content of 1.5 ppm. The growth of the bacterium is enhanced in the presence of As compounds in concentrations up to 200 ppm in the cultural media with a stronger effect of As(V) than of As(III) compounds. As a volatile product of the methylation of both NaH{sub 2}AsO{sub 3} and NaH{sub 2}AsO{sub 4} exclusively, Me{sub 3}As was formed and detected by mass spectrometry. Quantitative aspects of the methylation were studied with GC/MS. The intracellular accumulation of arsenic in the methylating strain was compared with two non methylating strains from the same soil. (orig.)

  10. Effect of Sulfate Reduced Bacterium on Corrosion Behavior of 10CrMoAl Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; LIANG Cheng-hao

    2007-01-01

    The effects of sulfate reduced bacterium (SRB) on the corrosion behavior of 10CrMoAl steel in seawater were studied by chemical immersion, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, and scanning electron microscope techniques. The results show that the content of element sulfur in the corrosion product of 10CrMoAl steel in seawater with SRB is up to 9.23%, which is higher than that of the same in sterile seawater. X-ray diffraction demonstrates that the main corrosion product is FeS. SRB increases the corrosion rate by anodic depolarization of the metabolized sulfide product. SEM observation indicates that the corrosion product is not distributed continuously; in addition, bacilliform sulfate-reduced bacterium accumulates on the local surface of 10CrMoAl steel. Hence, SRB enhances sensitivity to the localized corrosion of 10CrMoAl steel in seawater.

  11. Isolation and biological characteristics of aerobic marine magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jun; PAN Hongmiao; YUE Haidong; SONG Tao; ZHAO Yong; CHEN Guanjun; Wu Longfei; XIAO Tian

    2006-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have become a hot spot of research in microbiology attracting intensive interest of researchers in multiple disciplinary fields. However, the studies were limited in few fastidious bacteria. The objective of this study aims at isolating new marine magnetic bacteria and better comprehension of magnetotactic bacteria. In this study, an aerobic magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1 was isolated from sediments in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). In TEM, magnetic cells have one or several circular magnetosomes in dimeter of 100nm, and consist of Fe and Co shown on energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The biological and physiological characteristics of this bacterium were also described. The colour of YSC-1 colony is white in small rod. The gran stain is negative. Results showed that Strain YSC-1 differs from microaerophile magnetotactic bacteria MS-1 and WD-1 in biology.

  12. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of NiZn alloy coatings by Delftia acidovorans bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Delftia acidovorans isolated from water treatment pipe system. ► Bacterium attached to the alloy coatings. ► Ecorr exhibited cathodic shift. ► Mass loss reached highest value after inoculation. ► Crevice corrosion was observed on the surface due to bacterium. - Abstract: In this study, Delftia acidovorans was isolated from water treatment pipe system and used to demonstrate microbiologically influenced corrosion of NiZn alloy coatings using electrochemical techniques. The surface morphologies and the corrosion products were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) analysis. Results showed that when the metabolic activity reached maximum level, corrosion activity of NiZn alloy coatings significantly increased in correlation with Ecorr, Icorr, QCM and Rct. Furthermore, crevice corrosion which has been seen due to bacterial adhesion confirms that D. acidovorans plays an important role in corrosion of NiZn alloy coating.

  13. N-Acyl Dehydrotyrosines, Tyrosinase Inhibitors from the Marine Bacterium Thalassotalea sp. PP2-459.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Robert W; Chen, Jianwei; Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Dubert, Javier; Barja, Juan L; Seeram, Navindra P; Wang, Hong; Rowley, David C

    2016-02-26

    Thalassotalic acids A-C and thalassotalamides A and B are new N-acyl dehydrotyrosine derivatives produced by Thalassotalea sp. PP2-459, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from a marine bivalve aquaculture facility. The structures were elucidated via a combination of spectroscopic analyses emphasizing two-dimensional NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometric data. Thalassotalic acid A (1) displays in vitro inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase with an IC50 value (130 μM) that compares favorably to the commercially used control compounds kojic acid (46 μM) and arbutin (100 μM). These are the first natural products reported from a bacterium belonging to the genus Thalassotalea. PMID:26824128

  14. Economic Game Theory to Model the Attenuation of Virulence of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Damian; Meyer, Damien F

    2016-01-01

    Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host's defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g., with Ehrlichia ruminantium), there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:27610355

  15. The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila inhibits phospholipases A2 from insect, prokaryote, and vertebrate sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun; Stanley, David

    The bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, is a virulent insect pathogen. Part of its pathogenicity is due to impairing cellular immunity by blocking biosynthesis of eicosanoids, the major recognized signal transduction system in insect cellular immunity. X. nematophila inhibits the first step in eicosanoid biosynthesis, phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Here we report that the bacterium inhibits PLA2 from two insect immune tissues, hemocytes and fat body, as well as PLA2s selected to represent a wide range of organisms, including prokaryotes, insects, reptiles, and mammals. Our finding on a bacterial inhibitor of PLA2 activity contributes new insight into the chemical ecology of microbe-host interactions, which usually involve actions rather than inhibitors of PLA2s.

  16. A Streamlined Strategy for Biohydrogen Production with Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, an Alkaliphilic Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eBegemann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are anticipated to enable a shift from fossil fuels for renewable transportation and manufacturing fuels, with biohydrogen considered attractive since it could offer the largest reduction of global carbon budgets. Currently, lignocellulosic biohydrogen production remains inefficient with pretreatments that are heavily fossil fuel-dependent. However, bacteria using alkali-treated biomass could streamline biofuel production while reducing costs and fossil fuel needs. An alkaliphilic bacterium, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, is described that is capable of biohydrogen production at levels rivaling neutrophilic strains, but at pH 11 and hypersaline conditions. H. hydrogeniformans ferments a variety of 5- and 6- carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose including cellobiose, and forms the end products hydrogen, acetate and formate. Further, it can also produce biohydrogen from switchgrass and straw pretreated at temperatures far lower than any previously reported and in solutions compatible with growth. Hence, this bacterium can potentially increase the efficiency and efficacy of biohydrogen production from renewable biomass resources.

  17. Chlorhexidine resistance in a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from an aquatic source

    OpenAIRE

    Sekavec, Jeffrey G.; Moore, William T.; Gillock, Eric T.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium of considerable importance in both clinical, especially nosocomial infections, and zoonotic respects, both aquatic and terrestrial infections. In addition to the ability to thrive in a wide range of conditions, A. hydrophila is resistant to numerous antibiotics and antimicrobials. In conjunction with Kansas State University and the Kansas Water Office, water samples from various locations within Kansas were screened for organisms resistant to ...

  18. Sensitivity of ribosomes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus to aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Bocchetta, M; Huber, R.; Cammarano, P

    1996-01-01

    A poly(U)-programmed cell-free system from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus has been developed, and the susceptibility of Aquifex ribosomes to the miscoding-inducing and inhibitory actions of all known classes of aminoglycoside antibiotics has been assayed at temperatures (75 to 80 degrees C) close to the physiological optimum for cell growth. Unlike Thermotoga maritima ribosomes, which are systematically refractory to all known classes of aminoglycoside compounds (P. Londei...

  19. Calcium-ion mediated assembly and function of glycosylated flagellar sheath of marine magnetotactic bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre, Christopher T; Santini, Claire-Lise; Bernadac, Alain; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Ying LI; Wu, Long-Fei

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Flagella of some pathogens or marine microbes are sheathed by an apparent extension of the outer cell membrane. Although flagellar sheath has been reported for almost 60 years, little is known about its function and the mechanism of its assembly. Recently, we have observed a novel type of sheath that encloses a flagellar bundle, instead of a single flagellum, in a marine magnetotactic bacterium MO-1. Here, we reported isolation and characterization of the sheath which can ...

  20. Campylobacter pylori, the spiral bacterium associated with human gastritis, is not a true Campylobacter sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Romaniuk, P J; Zoltowska, B; Trust, T J; Lane, D J; Olsen, G.J.; Pace, N R; Stahl, D A

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of partial 16S rRNA sequences from representative Campylobacter species indicates that the Campylobacter species form a previously undescribed basic eubacterial group, which is related to the other major groups only by very deep branching. This analysis was extended to include the spiral bacterium associated with human gastritis, Campylobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pyloridis). The distance between C. pylori and the other Campylobacter species is sufficient to exclude the p...

  1. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J.; Bernard R. Glick

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 gen...

  2. Physiological Adaptation of the Bacterium Lactococcus lactis in Response to the Production of Human CFTR*

    OpenAIRE

    A. Steen; Wiederhold, E.; T Gandhi; Breitling, R.; D. J. Slotboom

    2010-01-01

    Biochemical and biophysical characterization of CFTR (the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is thwarted by difficulties to obtain sufficient quantities of correctly folded and functional protein. Here we have produced human CFTR in the prokaryotic expression host Lactococcus lactis. The full-length protein was detected in the membrane of the bacterium, but the yields were too low (< 0.1% of membrane proteins) for in vitro functional and structural characterization, and indu...

  3. Bioinformatic Prediction of Gene Functions Regulated by Quorum Sensing in the Bioleaching Bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Banderas; Nicolas Guiliani

    2013-01-01

    The biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans oxidizes sulfide ores and promotes metal solubilization. The efficiency of this process depends on the attachment of cells to surfaces, a process regulated by quorum sensing (QS) cell-to-cell signalling in many Gram-negative bacteria. At. ferrooxidans has a functional QS system and the presence of AHLs enhances its attachment to pyrite. However, direct targets of the QS transcription factor AfeR remain unknown. In this study, a bioinforma...

  4. Functional Genomic Analysis of Three Nitrogenase Isozymes in the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris‡

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Yasuhiro; Samanta, Sudip K.; Rey, Federico E.; Wu, Liyou; Liu, Xiudan; Yan, Tingfen; Zhou, Jizhong; Harwood, Caroline S.

    2005-01-01

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris is one of just a few prokaryotes described so far that has vnf and anf genes for alternative vanadium cofactor (V) and iron cofactor (Fe) nitrogenases in addition to nif genes for a molybdenum cofactor (Mo) nitrogenase. Transcriptome data indicated that the 32 genes in the nif gene cluster, but not the anf or vnf genes, were induced in wild-type and Mo nitrogenase-expressing strains grown under nitrogen-fixing conditions in Mo-containing...

  5. Identifying the assembly pathway of cyanophage inside the marine bacterium using electron cryo-tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in electron cryo-tomography open up a new avenue to visualize the 3-D internal structure of a single bacterium before and after its infection by bacteriophages in its native environment, without using chemical fixatives, fluorescent dyes or negative stains. Such direct observation reveals the presence of assembly intermediates of the bacteriophage and thus allows us to map out the maturation pathway of the bacteriophage inside its host.

  6. Two New Cholic Acid Derivatives from the Marine Ascidian-Associated Bacterium Hasllibacter halocynthiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hun Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of secondary metabolites in liquid cultures of a recently discovered marine bacterium, Hasllibacter halocynthiae strain KME 002T, led to the isolation of two new cholic acid derivatives. The structures of these compounds were determined to be 3,3,12-trihydroxy-7-ketocholanic acid (1 and 3,3,12-trihydroxy-7-deoxycholanic acid (2 through HRFABMS and NMR data analyses.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Uncultured SAR324 Bacterium lautmerah10, Binned from a Red Sea Metagenome

    KAUST Repository

    Haroon, Mohamed F.

    2016-02-11

    A draft genome of SAR324 bacterium lautmerah10 was assembled from a metagenome of a surface water sample from the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. The genome is more complete and has a higher G+C content than that of previously sequenced SAR324 representatives. Its genomic information shows a versatile metabolism that confers an advantage to SAR324, which is reflected in its distribution throughout different depths of the marine water column.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Antitrypanosomally Active Sponge-Associated Bacterium Actinokineospora sp. Strain EG49

    KAUST Repository

    Harjes, Janno

    2014-03-06

    The marine sponge-associated bacterium Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49 produces the antitrypanosomal angucycline-like compound actinosporin A. The draft genome of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 has a size of 7.5 megabases and a GC content of 72.8% and contains 6,629 protein-coding sequences (CDS). antiSMASH predicted 996 genes residing in 36 secondary metabolite gene clusters.

  9. Encapsulated in silica: genome, proteome and physiology of the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1

    OpenAIRE

    Saw, Jimmy H; Mountain, Bruce W; Feng, Lu; Omelchenko, Marina V; Hou, Shaobin; Saito, Jennifer A.; Stott, Matthew B.; Li, Dan; Zhao, Guang; Wu, Junli; Galperin, Michael Y.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Anoxybacillus have been found in diverse thermophilic habitats, such as geothermal hot springs and manure, and in processed foods such as gelatin and milk powder. Anoxybacillus flavithermus is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium found in super-saturated silica solutions and in opaline silica sinter. The ability of A. flavithermus to grow in super-saturated silica solutions makes it an ideal subject to study the processes of sinter formation, whic...

  10. The Genome Sequence of the Obligately Chemolithoautotrophic, Facultatively Anaerobic Bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans

    OpenAIRE

    Beller, Harry R.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Letain, Tracy E.; Chakicherla, Anu; Larimer, Frank W.; Richardson, Paul M.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Wood, Ann P.; Kelly, Donovan P.

    2006-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Thiobacillus denitrificans ATCC 25259 is the first to become available for an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-compound-oxidizing, β-proteobacterium. Analysis of the 2,909,809-bp genome will facilitate our molecular and biochemical understanding of the unusual metabolic repertoire of this bacterium, including its ability to couple denitrification to sulfur-compound oxidation, to catalyze anaerobic, nitrate-dependent oxidation of Fe(II) and U(IV), and to...

  11. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Amable J. Rivas; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin) and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role...

  12. A Highly Stable d-Amino Acid Oxidase of the Thermophilic Bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Shouji; Furukawara, Makoto; Omae, Keishi; Tadokoro, Namiho; Saito, Yayoi; Abe, Katsumasa; Kera, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a biotechnologically attractive enzyme that can be used in a variety of applications, but its utility is limited by its relatively poor stability. A search of a bacterial genome database revealed a gene encoding a protein homologous to DAO in the thermophilic bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus (RxDAO). The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was a monomeric protein containing noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. This protei...

  13. Sexual transmission of a plant pathogenic bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, between conspecific insect vectors during mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder S Mann

    Full Text Available Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is a fastidious, phloem-inhabiting, gram-negative bacterium transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae. The bacterium is the presumed causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB, one of the most destructive and economically important diseases of citrus. We investigated whether Las is transmitted between infected and uninfected D. citri adults during courtship. Our results indicate that Las was sexually transmitted from Las-infected male D. citri to uninfected females at a low rate (<4% during mating. Sexual transmission was not observed following mating of infected females and uninfected males or among adult pairs of the same sex. Las was detected in genitalia of both sexes and also in eggs of infected females. A latent period of 7 days or more was required to detect the bacterium in recipient females. Rod shaped as well as spherical structures resembling Las were observed in ovaries of Las-infected females with transmission electron microscopy, but were absent in ovaries from uninfected D. citri females. The size of the rod shaped structures varied from 0.39 to 0.67 µm in length and 0.19 to 0.39 µm in width. The spherical structures measured from 0.61 to 0.80 µm in diameter. This investigation provides convincing evidence that a plant pathogenic bacterium is sexually transmitted from male to female insects during courtship and established evidence that bacteria persist in reproductive organs. Moreover, these findings provide an alternative sexually horizontal mechanism for the spread of Las within populations of D. citri, even in the absence of infected host trees.

  14. Expression of Heterogenous Arsenic Resistance Genes in the Obligately Autotrophic Biomining Bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J B; Yan, W M; Bao, X Z

    1994-07-01

    Two arsenic-resistant plasmids were constructed and introduced into Thiobacillus ferrooxidans strains by conjugation. The plasmids with the replicon of wide-host-range plasmid RSF1010 were stable in T. ferrooxidans. The arsenic resistance genes originating from the heterotroph were expressed in this obligately autotrophic bacterium, but the promoter derived from T. ferrooxidans showed no special function in its original host. PMID:16349341

  15. Physiological features of Halomonas lionensis sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a Mediterranean Sea sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Gaboyer, Frederic; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, Odile; Cao, Junwei; Ciobanu, Maria-Cristina; Jebbar, Mohamed; Le Romancer, Marc; Alain, Karine

    2014-01-01

    A novel halophilic bacterium, strain RHS90T, was isolated from marine sediments from the Gulf of Lions, in the Mediterranean Sea. Its metabolic and physiological characteristics were examined under various cultural conditions, including exposure to stressful ones (oligotrophy, high pressure and high concentrations of metals). Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, the strain was found to belong to the genus Halomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. Its closest relatives are H....

  16. The Potential Biotechnological Applications of the Exopolysaccharide Produced by the Halophilic Bacterium Halomonas almeriensis

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Béjar; Emilia Quesada; Juan Antonio Mata; Inmaculada Llamas; Hakima Amjres

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) produced by the type strain, M8T, of the halophilic bacterium Halomonas almeriensis, to ascertain whether it might have any biotechnological applications. All the cultural parameters tested influenced both bacterial growth and polysaccharide production. EPS production was mainly growth-associated and under optimum environmental and nutritional conditions M8T excreted about...

  17. Biohydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus: Current Status and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kengen, Servé W. M.; Verhaart, Marcel R. A.; John van der Oost; Abraham A. M. Bielen

    2013-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is one of the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms known to date. This Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium ferments a broad spectrum of mono-, di- and polysaccharides to mainly acetate, CO2 and hydrogen. With hydrogen yields approaching the theoretical limit for dark fermentation of 4 mol hydrogen per mol hexose, this organism has proven itself to be an excellent candidate for biological hydrogen production. This review provides an overview of the resear...

  18. Copper-induced production of copper-binding supernatant proteins by the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood-Sears, V; Gordon, A S

    1990-01-01

    Growth of the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus is temporarily inhibited by micromolar levels of copper. During the copper-induced lag phase, supernatant compounds which complex and detoxify copper are produced. In this study two copper-inducible supernatant proteins having molecular masses of ca. 21 and 19 kilodaltons (CuBP1 and CuBP2) were identified; these proteins were, respectively, 25 and 46 times amplified in supernatants of copper-challenged cultures compared with controls. Experi...

  19. Dynamic detection of a single bacterium: nonlinear rotation rate shifts of driven magnetic microsphere stages

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton, Brandon H.; Agayan, Rodney R.; Kopelman, Raoul

    2006-01-01

    We report on a new technique which was used to detect single Escherichia coli that is based on the changes in the nonlinear rotation of a magnetic microsphere driven by an external magnetic field. The presence of one Escherichia Coli bacterium on the surface of a 2.0 micron magnetic microsphere caused an easily measurable change in the drag of the system and, therefore, in the nonlinear rotation rate. The straight-forward measurement uses standard microscopy techniques and the observed averag...

  20. Five new amicoumacins isolated from a marine-derived Bacterium bacillus subtilis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongxin

    2012-02-03

    Four novel amicoumacins, namely lipoamicoumacins A-D (1-4), and one new bacilosarcin analog (5) were isolated from culture broth of a marine-derived bacterium Bacillus subtilis, together with six known amicoumacins. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (2D NNR, IR, CD and MS) analysis and in comparison with data in literature. 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  1. Novel Poly[(R)-3-Hydroxybutyratel-producing bacterium isolated from a bolivian hypersaline lake

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Contreras, Alejandra María; Koller, Martin; de Sousa Dias, Miranda; Calafell Monfort, Margarita; Braunegg, Gerhart; Marqués Calvo, M. Soledad

    2013-01-01

    Poly [ ( R )-3-hydroxybutyrate ] (PHB) constitutes a biopolymer synthesized from renew- able resources by various microorganisms. This work focuses on finding a new PHB-produc- ing bacterium capable of growing in conventional media used for industrial biopolymer production, its taxonomical identification, and characterization of its biopolymer. Thus, a bacterial isolation process was carried out from environmental samples of water and mud. Among the isolates, ...

  2. Purification and Characterization of a Feruloyl Esterase from the Intestinal Bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaokun; Geng, Xin; Egashira, Yukari; Sanada, Hiroo

    2004-01-01

    Dietary ferulic acid (FA), a significant antioxidant substance, is currently the subject of extensive research. FA in cereals exists mainly as feruloylated sugar ester. To release FA from food matrices, it is necessary to cleave ester cross-linking by feruloyl esterase (FAE) (hydroxycinnamoyl esterase; EC 3.1.1.73). In the present study, the FAE from a human typical intestinal bacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus, was isolated, purified, and characterized for the first time. The enzyme was pu...

  3. Cadmium resistance and uptake by bacterium, Salmonella enterica 43C, isolated from industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zaman; Rehman, Abdul; Hussain, Syed Z; Nisar, Muhammad A; Zulfiqar, Soumble; Shakoori, Abdul R

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium resistant bacterium, isolated from industrial wastewater, was characterized as Salmonella enterica 43C on the basis of biochemical and 16S rRNA ribotyping. It is first ever reported S. enterica 43C bared extreme resistance against heavy metal consortia in order of Pb(2+)>Cd(2+)>As(3+)>Zn(2+)>Cr(6+)>Cu(2+)>Hg(2+). Cd(2+) stress altered growth pattern of the bacterium in time dependent manner. It could remove nearly 57 % Cd(2+) from the medium over a period of 8 days. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies based on various adsorption isotherm models (Langmuir and Freundlich) depicted the Cd(2+) biosorption as spontaneous, feasible and endothermic in nature. Interestingly, the bacterium followed pseudo first order kinetics, making it a good biosorbent for heavy metal ions. The S. enterica 43C Cd(2+) processivity was significantly influenced by temperature, pH, initial Cd(2+) concentration, biomass dosage and co-metal ions. FTIR analysis of the bacterium revealed the active participation of amide and carbonyl moieties in Cd(2+) adsorption confirmed by EDX analysis. Electron micrographs beckoned further surface adsorption and increased bacterial size due to intracellular Cd(2+) accumulation. An overwhelming increase in glutathione and other non-protein thiols levels played a significant role in thriving oxidative stress generated by metal cations. Presence of metallothionein clearly depicted the role of such proteins in bacterial metal resistance mechanism. The present study results clearly declare S. enterica 43C a suitable candidate for green chemistry to bioremediate environmental Cd(2+). PMID:27491862

  4. Studies of the Extracellular Glycocalyx of the Anaerobic Cellulolytic Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7▿

    OpenAIRE

    Weimer, Paul J.; Price, Neil P. J.; Kroukamp, Otini; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Wolfaardt, Gideon M.; Van Zyl, Willem H

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, including production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As the compositions and structures of these glycocalyces have not been elucidated, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) and chemical analysis were used to characterize the glycocalyx of the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus strain 7. VP-SEM revealed that growth of this strain was accompanied b...

  5. Purification and Characterization of EDTA Monooxygenase from the EDTA-Degrading Bacterium BNC1

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Jason W.; Bolton, Harvey; Campbell, James A.; XUN, Luying

    1998-01-01

    The synthetic chelating agent EDTA can mobilize radionuclides and heavy metals in the environment. Biodegradation of EDTA should reduce this mobilization. Although several bacteria have been reported to mineralize EDTA, little is known about the biochemistry of EDTA degradation. Understanding the biochemistry will facilitate the removal of EDTA from the environment. EDTA-degrading activities were detected in cell extracts of bacterium BNC1 when flavin mononucleotide (FMN), NADH, and O2 were p...

  6. Regulation of dissimilatory sulfur oxidation in the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum

    OpenAIRE

    Frauke eGrimm; Bettina eFranz; Christiane eDahl

    2011-01-01

    In the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum, thiosulfate oxidation is strictly dependent on the presence of three periplasmic Sox proteins encoded by the soxBXAK and soxYZ genes. It is also well documented that proteins encoded in the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsr) operon, dsrABEFHCMKLJOPNRS, are essential for the oxidation of sulfur that is stored intracellularly as an obligatory intermediate during the oxidation of thiosulfate and sulfide. Until recently, detailed knowledge...

  7. Comprehensive insights into the response of Alexandrium tamarense to algicidal component secreted by a marine bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Xueqian; Li, Dong; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Chen, Yao; Cai, Guanjing; Yang, Xujun; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms occur throughout the world, threatening human health, and destroying marine ecosystems. Alexandrium tamarense is a globally distributed and notoriously toxic dinoflagellate that is responsible for most paralytic shellfish poisoning incidents. The culture supernatant of the marine algicidal bacterium BS02 showed potent algicidal effects on A. tamarense ATGD98-006. In this study, we investigated the effects of this supernatant on A. tamarense at physiological and biochemica...

  8. Isolation and characterization of an anaerobic ruminal bacterium capable of degrading hydrolyzable tannins.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, K E; A. N. Pell; Schofield, P; Zinder, S

    1995-01-01

    An anaerobic diplococcoid bacterium able to degrade hydrolyzable tannins was isolated from the ruminal fluid of a goat fed desmodium (Desmodium ovalifolium), a tropical legume which contains levels as high as 17% condensed tannins. This strain grew under anaerobic conditions in the presence of up to 30 g of tannic acid per liter and tolerated a range of phenolic monomers, including gallic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids. The predominant fermentation product from tannic acid breakdown was pyrog...

  9. Metabolism of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol in a Gram-positive bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA

    OpenAIRE

    Arora Pankaj; Sharma Ashutosh; Mehta Richa; Shenoy Belle; Srivastava Alok; Singh Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chloronitrophenols (CNPs) are widely used in the synthesis of dyes, drugs and pesticides, and constitute a major group of environmental pollutants. 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) is an isomer of CNPs that has been detected in various industrial effluents. A number of physicochemical methods have been used for treatment of wastewater containing 4C2NP. These methods are not as effective as microbial degradation, however. Results A 4C2NP-degrading bacterium, Exiguobacterium s...

  10. Coregulation of beta-galactoside uptake and hydrolysis by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana

    OpenAIRE

    Galperin, MY; Noll, KM; Romano, AH

    1997-01-01

    Regulation of the beta-galactoside transport system in response to growth substrates in the extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana was studied with the nonmetabolizable analog methyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (TMG) as the transport substrate. T. neapolitana cells grown on galactose or lactose accumulated TMG against a concentration gradient in an intracellular free sugar pool that was exchangeable with external galactose or lactose and showed induced levels of be...

  11. Desulfotomaculum thermobenzoicum subsp. thermosyntrophicum subsp. nov., a thermophilic, syntrophic, propionate-oxidizing, spore-forming bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Plugge, C. M.; Balk, M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    From granular sludge from a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor operated at 55 degrees C with a mixture of volatile fatty acids as feed, a novel anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, syntrophic, spore-forming bacterium, strain TPO, was enriched on propionate in co-culture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Z245. The axenic culture was obtained by using pyruvate as the sole source of carbon and energy. The cells were straight rods with pointed ends and became lens-shaped ...

  12. Direct bioconversion of brown algae into ethanol by thermophilic bacterium Defluviitalea phaphyphila

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Shi-Qi; Wang, Bing; Lu, Ming; Li, Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Brown algae are promising feedstocks for biofuel production with inherent advantages of no structural lignin, high growth rate, and no competition for land and fresh water. However, it is difficult for one microorganism to convert all components of brown algae with different oxidoreduction potentials to ethanol. Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 is the first characterized thermophilic bacterium capable of direct utilization of brown algae. Results Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 can si...

  13. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of intact cells of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, A. A.; Ristić, M.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Chernyshev, A. V.; Ignatov, V. V.

    1997-06-01

    The data of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements performed on intact cells of the soil nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense grown in a standard medium and under the conditions of an increased metal uptake are compared and discussed. The structural FTIR information obtained is considered together with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) data on the content of metal cations in the bacterial cells. Some methodological aspects concerning preparation of bacterial cell samples for FTIR measurements are also discussed.

  14. Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Strain KB1, a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Phytopathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Jo, Sung Hee; Hong, Chi Eun; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely known microbial pesticide used in agricultural applications. Herein, we report a draft genome sequence of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis strain KB1, which exhibits antagonism against phytopathogens.

  15. Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Strain KB1, a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Jo, Sung Hee; Hong, Chi Eun; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Bacillus thuringiensisis the most widely known microbial pesticide used in agricultural applications. Herein, we report a draft genome sequence of the endophytic bacterium ITALIC! Bacillus thuringiensisstrain KB1, which exhibits antagonism against phytopathogens. PMID:27103716

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa EBL06, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Isolated from Wheat Phyllosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Shengxian; Jin, Decai; Wang, Xinxin; Fan, Haiyan; Bai, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa strain EBL06 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium with high antifungal activity. The estimated genome of this strain is 5.68 Mb in size and harbors 4,792 coding sequences (CDSs).

  17. Phosphate enhances levan production in the endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idogawa, Nao; Amamoto, Ryuta; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a gram-negative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has several beneficial effects in host plants; thus, utilization of this bacterium as a biofertilizer in agriculture may be possible. G. diazotrophicus synthesizes levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with β-(2→6) linkages, as an exopolysaccharide and the synthesized levan improves the stress tolerance of the bacterium. In this study, we found that phosphate enhances levan production by G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a wild type strain that showed a stronger mucous phenotype on solid medium containing 28 mM phosphate than on solid medium containing 7 mM phosphate. A G. diazotrophicus Pal5 levansucrase disruptant showed only a weak mucous phenotype regardless of the phosphate concentration, indicating that the mucous phenotype observed on 28 mM phosphate medium was caused by levan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of a high concentration of phosphate on exopolysaccharide production. PMID:24717418

  18. Studies on culture condition of new marine bacterium Zooshikella sp. SY01

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjian LAN; Linfeng MO; Chuanghua CAI; Yipin ZHOU; Junhua YAO; Houjin LI

    2008-01-01

    New marine bacterium Zooshikella sp. SY01, producer of prodigiosin, was isolated from the seawaters of Sanya Bay. The culture conditions of this bacterium were investigated. Zooshikella sp. SY01 was cultured in 2216E media which contained tryptophan, histidine, lac-tonic acid, camphor, limonene, casein, diphenyl guani-dine, coumarin and 1,3-dinitrobenzene, respectively. After 5 days cultivation, the extracts of different culture broths were detected by direct infusion mass spectroscopy using positive ESI mode. As the results, tryptophan, his-tidine and casein didn't show any observable influences on the biosynthesis of prodigiosin. Lactonic acid, camphor, limonene, diphenyl guanidine, coumarin could inhibit the bacterium growth and prodigiosin biosynthesis to a cer-tain extent, slower the culture broth to turn red. However, 1, 3-dinitrobenzene inhibited the bacteria to produce pro-digiosin completely. MS data suggested that various metabolites with chemodiversity were produced in differ-ent culture media. In particular, a series of high-molecu-lar-weight compounds with high relative abundances were observed in the medium containing limonene. To further optimize the culture condition, more new prodigiosin ana-logues and lead compounds can be obtained and the goal of "one strain-many compounds" can be achieved.

  19. Programmed cell death in Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) tissues infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gaoge; LIN Wei; ZHANG Lijing; YAN Xiaojun; DUAN Delin

    2004-01-01

    TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) is a sensitive and valid method for detecting DNA cleavage in programmed cell death (PCD). Using this method, DNA cleavage was observed in Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues, which were infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium. It was found that DNA cleavage occurred 5 min after the infection, the fragments with 3′-OH groups of cleaved nuclear DNA increased with time of infection and spread from the infection site. Although no typical DNA ladder (200 bp/180 bp) was detected by routine agarose gel electrophoresis, the cleavage of nuclear DNA fragments of 97~48.5 kb could be detected by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By using CaspGLOWTM fluorescein active caspase-3 staining method, caspase-3 activity has been detected in response to the infection of alginic acid decomposing bacterium. Our results are similar to the observations in hypersensitive response (HR) of higher plant, suggesting that the rapid cell death of L. Japonica infected by alginic acid decomposing bacterium might be involved in PCD, and indicating that the occurrence of PCD is an active defense process against the pathogen's infection.

  20. Antagonism and Molecular Identification of an Antibiotic Bacterium BS04 Against Phytopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Jing(谢晶); Ge Shaorong; Tao Yong; Gao Ping; Liu Kun; Liu Shigui

    2004-01-01

    Through a modified agar well diffusion assay, antagonism of bacterium BS04 is tested. The data show that BS04 has antibiotic activity against phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria, including Phoma wasabiae Yokogi, Cochlibolus Heterostrophu, Exserohilum Turcicum, Curuvularia Lunata (Walk) Boed, Thantephorus cucumris, Fusarium graminearum, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Citri (Hasse) Dye and Xanthomonas zingiberi (Uyeda) Savulescu. The products of bacterium BS04 can endure the treatment of a wide range of pH, and maintain the antibiotic activity after treatment of 100℃ for 30 min. The result suggests that bacterium BS04 has the potential as a promising biocontrol agent. In order to determine the taxonomic placement, the molecular identification of BS04 is performed. The comparative analysis of 16s rDNA sequences indicates that the 16s rDNA sequence of BS04 is highly homologous with sequences of typical Paenibacillus bacteria from the RPD library (from 92% to 99%). And the constructed phylogenetic tree by using maximum-likelihood method with Bootstrap Trial 1000 proves that BS04 is subjected to Paenibacillus polymyxa.

  1. The effect of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. as manganese oxidizing bacterium on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated the role of manganese oxidizing bacterium (MOB), namely Pseudoxanthomonas sp. on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. This bacterium was isolated from sewage treatment plants and identified by biochemical and molecular methods. The electrochemical techniques such as open circuit potentiometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic and cyclic polarization were used to measure the corrosion rate and observe the corrosion mechanism. Also, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies were applied to surface analysis. This study revealed the strong adhesion of the biofilm on the metal surface in the presence of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. that enhanced the corrosion of carbon steel. X-ray diffraction patterns identified a high content of MnO2 deposition within these biofilms. This is the first report that discloses the involvement of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. as manganese oxidizing bacteria on the corrosion of carbon steel. - Highlights: ► A new type of manganese oxidizing bacteria, namely Pseudoxanthomonas sp. was indicated. ► This bacterium can create a biofilm on the part of metal surface and affect localized corrosion. ► In the presence of biofilm, the diffusion of oxygen vacancies and manganese ions has occurred.

  2. Chitin Degradation Proteins Produced by the Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi Growing on Different Forms of Chitin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitil, A. L.; Chadhain, S.; Moore, J. A.; Kirchman, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the number, diversity, and function of chitinases produced by bacteria, even though chitin is one of the most abundant polymers in nature. Because of the importance of chitin, especially in marine environments, we examined chitin-degrading proteins in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. This bacterium had a higher growth rate and more chitinase activity when grown on (beta)-chitin (isolated from squid pen) than on (alpha)-chitin (isolated from snow crab), probably because of the more open structure of (beta)-chitin. When exposed to different types of chitin, V. harveyi excreted several chitin-degrading proteins into the culture media. Some chitinases were present with all of the tested chitins, while others were unique to a particular chitin. We cloned and identified six separate chitinase genes from V. harveyi. These chitinases appear to be unique based on DNA restriction patterns, immunological data, and enzyme activity. This marine bacterium and probably others appear to synthesize separate chitinases for efficient utilization of different forms of chitin and chitin by-products. PMID:16535505

  3. Antimicrobial activity and biosynthesis of nanoparticles by endophytic bacterium inhabiting Coffee arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Baker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interface between endophytes and nanomaterials is a relatively new and unexplored area the present study evaluates screening of bacterial endophytes from surfaced sterilized leaf and stem segments of agro economical plant Coffee arabica L. towards synthesis of silver nanoparticles and antimicrobial metabolites. Among thirty two endophytes isolated nine isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity among which one bacterium was capable of extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles upon evaluation of supernatant with 1 mM of silver nitrate, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles were assessed by UV-Visible Spectroscopy and the bacterium was capable of secreting antimicrobial secondary metabolites upon crude ethyl acetate extract evaluated for antimicrobial activity against panel of both gram positive and gram negative as well as phytopathogenic fungi. Partial characterization was carried out via bioautographic technique with Rf value 0.3 and 0.6 exhibiting antimicrobial activity against MRSA strain. Further studies in this area will be promising enough for molecular characterization of endophytic bacterium and chemical profiling of antimicrobial metabolites at the same time physiochemical characterization of nanoparticles will be valuable to reveal the size and shape. 

  4. Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous mixed low level wastes (MLLW) containing radionuclides, solvents, and/or heavy metals represent a serious current and future problem for DOE environmental management and cleanup. In order to provide low-cost treatment alternatives under mild conditions for such contained wastes, we have proposed to use the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans. This project has focused on developing D. radiodurans strains for dual purpose processes: cometabolic treatment of haloorganics and other solvents and removal of heavy metals from waste streams in an above-ground reactor system. The characteristics of effective treatment strains that must be attained are: (a) high biodegradative and metal binding activity; (b) stable treatment characteristics in the absence of selection and in the presence of physiological stress; (c) survival and activity under harsh chemical conditions, including radiation. The result of this project has been a suite of strains with high biodegradative capabilities that are candidates for pilot stage treatment systems. In addition, we have determined how to create conditions to precipitate heavy metals on the surface of the bacterium, as the first step towards creating dual-use treatment strains for contained mixed wastes of importance to the DOE. Finally, we have analyzed stress response in this bacterium, to create the foundation for developing treatment processes that maximize degradation while optimizing survival under high stress conditions

  5. Deinococcus mumbaiensis sp. nov., a radiation-resistant pleomorphic bacterium isolated from Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2006-01-01

    A radiation-resistant, Gram-negative and pleomorphic bacterium (CON-1) was isolated from a contaminated tryptone glucose yeast extract agar plate in the laboratory. It was red pigmented, nonmotile, nonsporulating, and aerobic, and contained MK-8 as respiratory quinone. The cell wall of this bacterium contained ornithine. The major fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C18:1 and iso C18:0. The DNA of CON-1 had a G+C content of 70 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that CON-1 exhibited a maximum similarity (94.72%) with Deinococcus grandis. Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the bacterium CON-1 was identified as a new species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus mumbaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of D. mumbaiensis is CON-1 (MTCC 7297(T)=DSM 17424(T)). PMID:16445756

  6. Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes--Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary E. Lidstrom

    2003-12-26

    Aqueous mixed low level wastes (MLLW) containing radionuclides, solvents, and/or heavy metals represent a serious current and future problem for DOE environmental management and cleanup. In order to provide low-cost treatment alternatives under mild conditions for such contained wastes, we have proposed to use the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans. This project has focused on developing D. radiodurans strains for dual purpose processes: cometabolic treatment of haloorganics and other solvents and removal of heavy metals from waste streams in an above-ground reactor system. The characteristics of effective treatment strains that must be attained are: (a) high biodegradative and metal binding activity; (b) stable treatment characteristics in the absence of selection and in the presence of physiological stress; (c) survival and activity under harsh chemical conditions, including radiation. The result of this project has been a suite of strains with high biodegradative capabilities that are candidates for pilot stage treatment systems. In addition, we have determined how to create conditions to precipitate heavy metals on the surface of the bacterium, as the first step towards creating dual-use treatment strains for contained mixed wastes of importance to the DOE. Finally, we have analyzed stress response in this bacterium, to create the foundation for developing treatment processes that maximize degradation while optimizing survival under high stress conditions.

  7. The Role of Exopolymers in Protection of Ralstonia sp., a Cadmium-resistant Bacterium, from Cadmium Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Anchulee Watcharamusik; Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2008-01-01

    Production of exopolymers is one of heavy metal resistance mechanisms in bacteria. Ralstonia sp. TAK1, a cadmium-resistant bacterium, was isolated from a high cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil at the zinc mine, Tak province, Thailand. The bacterium was cultivated in LB broth and its growth was monitored. The yields of exopolymers were measured by the phenol-sulfuric method at different growth phases. The levels of Cd resistance were quantitatively determined by survival cell assay. The highest a...

  8. Photoproduction of hydrogen by a non-sulphur bacterium isolated from root zones of water fern Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Srivastava, S.C.; Pandey, K.D. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (IN). Centre of Advanced Study in Botany)

    1990-01-01

    A photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. BHU strain 1 was isolated from the root zone of water fern Azolla pinnata. The bacterium was found to produce hydrogen with potato starch under phototrophic conditions. The immobilized bacterial cells showed sustained hydrogen production with a more than 4-fold difference over free cell suspensions. The data have been discussed in the light of possible utilization of relatively cheaper raw materials by non-sulphur bacteria to evolve hydrogen. (author).

  9. Anaerobic, Nitrate-Dependent Oxidation of U(IV) Oxide Minerals by the Chemolithoautotrophic Bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, H R

    2004-06-25

    Under anaerobic conditions and at circumneutral pH, cells of the widely-distributed, obligate chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans oxidatively dissolved synthetic and biogenic U(IV) oxides (uraninite) in nitrate-dependent fashion: U(IV) oxidation required the presence of nitrate and was strongly correlated to nitrate consumption. This is the first report of anaerobic U(IV) oxidation by an autotrophic bacterium.

  10. Pontibacter diazotrophicus sp. nov., a novel nitrogen-fixing bacterium of the family Cytophagaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghua Xu

    Full Text Available Few diazotrophs have been found to belong to the family Cytophagaceae so far. In the present study, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that forms red colonies, was isolated from sands of the Takalamakan desert. It was designated H4XT. Phylogenetic and biochemical analysis indicated that the isolate is a new species of the genus Pontibacter. The 16S rRNA gene of H4XT displays 94.2-96.8% sequence similarities to those of other strains in Pontibacter. The major respiratory quinone is menaquinone-7 (MK-7. The DNA G+C content is 46.6 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids are iso-C15∶0, C16∶1ω5c, summed feature 3 (containing C16∶1ω6c and/or C16∶1ω7c and summed feature 4 (comprising anteiso-C17∶1B and/or iso-C17∶1I. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, one aminophospholipid (APL and some unknown phospholipids (PLs. It is interesting to see that this bacterium can grow very well in a nitrogen-free medium. PCR amplification suggested that the bacterium possesses at least one type of nitrogenase gene. Acetylene reduction assay showed that H4XT actually possesses nitrogen-fixing activity. Therefore, it can be concluded that H4XT is a new diazotroph. We thus referred it to as Pontibacter diazotrophicus sp. nov. The type strain is H4XT ( = CCTCC AB 2013049T = NRRL B-59974T.

  11. Treatment of Alkaline Cr(VI)-Contaminated Leachate with an Alkaliphilic Metal-Reducing Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mathew P; Khijniak, Tatiana V; Boothman, Christopher; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-08-15

    Chromium in its toxic Cr(VI) valence state is a common contaminant particularly associated with alkaline environments. A well-publicized case of this occurred in Glasgow, United Kingdom, where poorly controlled disposal of a cementitious industrial by-product, chromite ore processing residue (COPR), has resulted in extensive contamination by Cr(VI)-contaminated alkaline leachates. In the search for viable bioremediation treatments for Cr(VI), a variety of bacteria that are capable of reduction of the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) to the relatively nontoxic and less mobile Cr(III) oxidation state, predominantly under circumneutral pH conditions, have been isolated. Recently, however, alkaliphilic bacteria that have the potential to reduce Cr(VI) under alkaline conditions have been identified. This study focuses on the application of a metal-reducing bacterium to the remediation of alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated leachates from COPR. This bacterium, belonging to the Halomonas genus, was found to exhibit growth concomitant to Cr(VI) reduction under alkaline conditions (pH 10). Bacterial cells were able to rapidly remove high concentrations of aqueous Cr(VI) (2.5 mM) under anaerobic conditions, up to a starting pH of 11. Cr(VI) reduction rates were controlled by pH, with slower removal observed at pH 11, compared to pH 10, while no removal was observed at pH 12. The reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) resulted in the precipitation of Cr(III) biominerals, which were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM-EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effectiveness of this haloalkaliphilic bacterium for Cr(VI) reduction at high pH suggests potential for its use as an in situ treatment of COPR and other alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated environments. PMID:26048926

  12. Studies of the extracellular glycocalyx of the anaerobic cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Paul J; Price, Neil P J; Kroukamp, Otini; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Van Zyl, Willem H

    2006-12-01

    Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, including production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As the compositions and structures of these glycocalyces have not been elucidated, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) and chemical analysis were used to characterize the glycocalyx of the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus strain 7. VP-SEM revealed that growth of this strain was accompanied by the formation of thin cellular extensions that allowed the bacterium to adhere to cellulose, followed by formation of a ramifying network that interconnected individual cells to one another and to the unraveling cellulose microfibrils. Extraction of 48-h-old whole-culture pellets (bacterial cells plus glycocalyx [G] plus residual cellulose [C]) with 0.1 N NaOH released carbohydrate and protein in a ratio of 1:5. Boiling of the cellulose fermentation residue in a neutral detergent solution removed almost all of the adherent cells and protein while retaining a residual network of adhering noncellular material. Trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis of this residue (G plus C) released primarily glucose, along with substantial amounts of xylose and mannose, but only traces of galactose, the most abundant sugar in most characterized bacterial exopolysaccharides. Linkage analysis and characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that most of the glucosyl units were not present as partially degraded cellulose. Calculations suggested that the energy demand for synthesis of the nonprotein fraction of EPS by this organism represents only a small fraction (<4%) of the anabolic ATP expenditure of the bacterium. PMID:17028224

  13. Adhesive properties of a symbolic bacterium from a wood-boreing marine shipworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhesive properties of cellulolytic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from a marine shipworm are described. 35S-labeled cells of the shipworm bacterium bound preferentially Whatman no.1 cellulose filter paper, compared with its binding to other cellulose substrata or substrata lacking cellulose. The ability of the bacteria to bind to Whatman no. 1 filter paper was significantly reduced by glutaraldehyde or heat treatment of cells. Pretreatment of cells with azide, valinomycin, gramicidin-D, bis-hexafluoroacetylacetone (1799), or carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone inhibited adhesion activity. Cells pretreated with pronase or trypsin also exhibited reduced binding activity, but chymotrypsin and peptidase had no effect on adhesion activity. Cellodextrins and methyl cellulose 15 inhibited the adhesion of the shipworm bacteria to filter paper, whereas glucose, cellobiose, and soluble carboxymethyl cellulose had no significant effect. The divalent cation chelators EDTA and EGTA [ethylene hlycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid] had little or no effect on adhesive properties of shipworm bacteria. Also, preabsorbing the substratum with extracellular endoglucanase isolated from the ship worm bacterium or 1% bovine serum albumin had no apparent effect on bacterial binding. Low concentration (0.01%) of sodium dodecyl sulfate solubilized a fraction from whole cells, which appeared to be involved in cellular binding activity. After removal of sodium dodecyl, sulfate, several proteins in this fraction associated with intact cells. These cells exhibited up to 50% enhanced binding to filter paper in comparison to cells which had not been exposed to the sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized fraction

  14. Biochemical Analyses of Multiple Endoxylanases from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 and Their Synergistic Activities with Accessory Hemicellulose-Degrading Enzymes ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Young Hwan; Iakiviak, Michael; Bauer, Stefan; Roderick I. Mackie; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a ruminal bacterium capable of metabolizing hemicellulose and cellulose, the major components of the plant cell wall. The enzymes that allow this bacterium to capture energy from the two polysaccharides, therefore, have potential application in plant cell wall depolymerization, a process critical to biofuel production. For this purpose, a partial genome sequence of R. albus 8 was generated. The genomic data depicted a bacterium endowed with multiple forms of plant cell...

  15. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase from the ancestral bacterium Aquifex aeolicus contains relics of synthetase evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ming-Wei; Zhu, Bin; Hao, Rui; Xu, Min-Gang; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2005-01-01

    The editing reactions catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are critical for the faithful protein synthesis by correcting misactivated amino acids and misaminoacylated tRNAs. We report that the isolated editing domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase from the deep-rooted bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (αβ-LeuRS) catalyzes the hydrolytic editing of both mischarged tRNALeu and minihelixLeu. Within the domain, we have identified a crucial 20-amino-acid peptide that confers editing capacity when transplan...

  16. Microbial coal desulfurization in an airlift bioreactor by sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus ferooxidans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, H.W.; Chang, Y.K.; Kim, S.D. (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center)

    1993-12-01

    Microbial desulfurization of a domestic anthracite coal by using an acidophilic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, [ital Thiobacillus ferrooxidans] has been studied in an airlift slurry reactor of 12 L volume. Effects of coal slurry density and CO[sub 2] supplement on microbial pyrite removal have been evaluated. High sulfur removal rates have been obtained even for very high coal slurry densities (up to 70% w/v). About 90-95% of the sulfur in the coal could be removed in 15-20 days. The efficiency of microbial desulfurization was significantly improved with CO[sub 2] enriched air supply for high coal slurry densities. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Biodegradation of bisphenol A and other bisphenols by a gram-negative aerobic bacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Lobos, J. H.; Leib, T K; Su, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    A novel bacterium designated strain MV1 was isolated from a sludge enrichment taken from the wastewater treatment plant at a plastics manufacturing facility and shown to degrade 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol or bisphenol A). Strain MV1 is a gram-negative, aerobic bacillus that grows on bisphenol A as a sole source of carbon and energy. Total carbon analysis for bisphenol A degradation demonstrated that 60% of the carbon was mineralized to CO2, 20% was associated...

  18. Isolation and Characterization of a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium That Anaerobically Degrades Alkanes

    OpenAIRE

    So, Chi Ming; Young, L. Y.

    1999-01-01

    An alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, AK-01, was isolated from an estuarine sediment with a history of chronic petroleum contamination. The bacterium is a short, nonmotile, non-spore-forming, gram-negative rod. It is mesophilic and grows optimally at pH 6.9 to 7.0 and at an NaCl concentration of 1%. Formate, fatty acids (C4 to C16) and hydrogen were readily utilized as electron donors. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate were used as electron acceptors, but sulfur, nitrite, an...

  19. Aggregation of the rhizospheric bacterium Azospirillum brasilense in response to oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Hamid; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Azospirillum brasilense spp. have ecological, scientific and agricultural importance. As model plant growth promoting rhizobacteria they interact with a large variety of plants, including important food and cash crops. Azospirillum strains are known for their production of plant growth hormones that enhance root systems and for their ability to fix nitrogen. Azospirillum cells transform in response to environmental cues. The production of exopolysaccharides and cell aggregation during cellular transformation are important steps in the attachment of Azospirillum to roots. We investigate signals that induce cellular transformation and aggregation in the Azospirillum and report on the importance of oxygen to the process of aggregation in this rhizospheric bacterium.

  20. Bisucaberin B, a Linear Hydroxamate Class Siderophore from the Marine Bacterium Tenacibaculum mesophilum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Sakai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A siderophore, named bisucaberin B, was isolated from Tenacibaculum mesophilum bacteria separated from a marine sponge collected in the Republic of Palau. Using spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structure of bisucaberin B (1 was clearly determined to be a linear dimeric hydroxamate class siderophore. Although compound 1 is an open form of the known macrocyclic dimer bisucaberin (2, and was previously described as a bacterial degradation product of desferrioxamine B (4, the present report is the first description of the de novo biosynthesis of 1. To the best of our knowledge, compound 1 is the first chemically characterized siderophore isolated from a bacterium belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes.

  1. Bisucaberin B, a linear hydroxamate class siderophore from the marine bacterium Tenacibaculum mesophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masaki J; Nakano, Koji; Sakai, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    A siderophore, named bisucaberin B, was isolated from Tenacibaculum mesophilum bacteria separated from a marine sponge collected in the Republic of Palau. Using spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structure of bisucaberin B (1) was clearly determined to be a linear dimeric hydroxamate class siderophore. Although compound 1 is an open form of the known macrocyclic dimer bisucaberin (2), and was previously described as a bacterial degradation product of desferrioxamine B (4), the present report is the first description of the de novo biosynthesis of 1. To the best of our knowledge, compound 1 is the first chemically characterized siderophore isolated from a bacterium belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. PMID:23549298

  2. Isolation and identification of a novel alginate-degrading bacterium, Ochrobactrum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-wei Zhao

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An alginate-degrading bacterium, identified as Ochrobactrum sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing, was isolated from brown algal samples collected from the waters in close vicinity to the Dongtou Isles in the East China Sea. The strain, designated WZUH09-1, is a short rod, gram-negative, obligatory aerobic, grows under the following conditions: 5-40oC, pH 3-9, and 0-2 times of the seawater concentration, and is able to depolymerize alginates with higher enzyme activity than that of others reported so far.

  3. Mutagenesis and reparation processes in the methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas methanolica after UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resistance of cells of methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas methanolica to bactericidal and mutagenous effects of ultraviolet irradiation is shown as well as activity of reparation processes after UV irradiation. The presence of low photoreactivating activity in P. methanolica is shown as well. Observed recovery in innutritious medium and decrease of irradiated cells survival rates under effect of reparation inhibitors (coffeine and acriflavine) testify to activity of excision reparation and, perhaps, recombination branch of postreplicative reparation. No manifestation of inducible reparation system is discovered. It is concluded that increased resistance of P. methanolica cells to bactericidal and mutagenous effects of short-wave ultraviolet radiation is related to activity of exact reparation systems

  4. Aerobic Reduction of Arsenate by a Bacterium Isolated From Activated Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, N.; Ohnuki, T.; Hanada, S.; Nakamura, K.; Francis, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    Microlunatus phosphovorus strain NM-1 is a polyphosphate-accumulating bacterium isolated from activated sludge. This bacterium takes up a large amount of polyphosphate under aerobic conditions and release phosphate ions by hydrolysis of polyphosphate to orthophosphate under anaerobic conditions to derive energy for taking up substrates. To understand the nature of this strain, especially, influence of potential contaminants in sewage and wastewater on growth, we have been investigating behavior of this bacterium in media containing arsenic. The present paper mainly reports reduction of arsenate by this bacterium under aerobic conditions. The strain NM-1 (JCM 9379) was aerobically cultured at 30 °C in a nutrient medium containing 2.5 g/l peptone, 0.5 g/l glucose, 1.5 g/l yeast extract, and arsenic [Na2HAsO4 (As(V)) or Na3AsO3 (As(III))] at concentrations between 0 and 50 mM. The cells collected from arsenic-free media were dispersed in buffer solutions containing 2mM HEPES, 10mM NaCl, prescribed concentrations of As(V), and 0-0.2 percent glucose. Then, this cell suspension was kept at 20 °C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The speciation of arsenic was carried out by ion chromatography and ICP-MS. The growth of the strain under aerobic conditions was enhanced by the addition of As(V) at the concentration between 1 and 10 mM. The maximum optical density of the culture in the medium containing 5mM As(V) was 1.4 times greater than that of the control culture. Below the As(V) concentration of 10mM, most of the As(V) was reduced to As(III). The growth of the strain under anaerobic conditions has not been observed so far. The cells in the buffer solutions reduced As(V) under aerobic condition. The reduction was enhanced by the addition of glucose. However, the cell did not reduce As(V) under anaerobic conditions. The strain NM-1 showed high resistance to As(V) and As(III). The maximum optical density of the culture grown in a medium containing 50 mM As(V) was only

  5. Acetylcholinesterase-Inhibiting Activity of Pyrrole Derivatives from a Novel Marine Gliding Bacterium, Rapidithrix thailandica

    OpenAIRE

    Khanit Suwanborirux; Anuchit Plubrukarn; Kornkanok Ingkaninan; Akkharawit Kanjana-opas; Supreeya Yuenyongsawad; Oraphan Sakulkeo; Yutthapong Sangnoi

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting activity of marinoquinoline A (1), a new pyrroloquinoline from a novel species of a marine gliding bacterium Rapidithrix thailandica, was assessed (IC50 4.9 mM). Two related pyrrole derivatives, 3-(2'-aminophenyl)-pyrrole (3) and 2,2-dimethyl-pyrrolo-1,2-dihydroquinoline (4), were also isolated from two other strains of R. thailandica. The isolation of 3 froma natural source is reported here for the first time. Compound 4 was proposed to be an isolation artifac...

  6. Acetylcholinesterase-Inhibiting Activity of Pyrrole Derivatives from a Novel Marine Gliding Bacterium, Rapidithrix thailandica

    OpenAIRE

    Sangnoi, Yutthapong; Sakulkeo, Oraphan; Yuenyongsawad, Supreeya; Kanjana-opas, Akkharawit; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Plubrukarn, Anuchit; Suwanborirux, Khanit

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting activity of marinoquinoline A (1), a new pyrroloquinoline from a novel species of a marine gliding bacterium Rapidithrix thailandica, was assessed (IC50 4.9 μM). Two related pyrrole derivatives, 3-(2′-aminophenyl)-pyrrole (3) and 2,2-dimethyl-pyrrolo-1,2-dihydroquinoline (4), were also isolated from two other strains of R. thailandica. The isolation of 3 from a natural source is reported here for the first time. Compound 4 was proposed to be an isolation artifa...

  7. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas azotoformans S4, a potential biocontrol bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yang; Wu, Lijuan; Chen, Guoqing; Feng, Guozhong

    2016-06-10

    Pseudomonas azotoformans is a Gram-negative bacterium and infects cereal grains, especially rice. P. azotoformans S4 from soil sample derived from Lijiang, Yunnan Province, China, appeared to be strong inhibitory activity against Fusarium fujikurio, a serious rice fungal pathogen. Here, we present the complete genome of P. azotoformans S4, which consists of 6,859,618bp with a circle chromosome, 5991 coding DNA sequences, 70 tRNA and 19 rRNA. The genomic analysis revealed that 9 candidate gene clusters are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. PMID:27080451

  8. Genome sequence of the marine bacterium Corynebacterium maris type strain Coryn-1T (= DSM 45190T)

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffert, Lena; Albersmeier, Andreas; Bednarz, Hanna; Niehaus, Karsten; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium maris Coryn-1T Ben-Dov et al. 2009 is a member of the genus Corynebacterium which contains Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria with a high G+C content. C. maris was isolated from the mucus of the Scleractinian coral Fungia granulosa and belongs to the aerobic and non-haemolytic corynebacteria. It displays tolerance to salts (up to 10%) and is related to the soil bacterium Corynebacterium halotolerans . As this is a type strain in a subgroup of Corynebacterium without com...

  9. A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe-Simon, F; Blum, J S; Kulp, T R; Gordon, G W; Hoeft, S E; Pett-Ridge, J; Stolz, J F; Webb, S M; Weber, P K; Davies, P W; Anbar, A D; Oremland, R S

    2010-11-01

    Life is mostly composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus. Although these six elements make up nucleic acids, proteins and lipids and thus the bulk of living matter, it is theoretically possible that some other elements in the periodic table could serve the same functions. Here we describe a bacterium, strain GFAJ-1 of the Halomonadaceae, isolated from Mono Lake, CA, which substitutes arsenic for phosphorus to sustain its growth. Our data show evidence for arsenate in macromolecules that normally contain phosphate, most notably nucleic acids and proteins. Exchange of one of the major bio-elements may have profound evolutionary and geochemical significance.

  10. Characterization of Two New Glycosyl Hydrolases from the Lactic Acid Bacterium Carnobacterium piscicola Strain BA

    OpenAIRE

    Coombs, Jonna; Brenchley, Jean E.

    2001-01-01

    Three genes with homology to glycosyl hydrolases were detected on a DNA fragment cloned from a psychrophilic lactic acid bacterium isolate, Carnobacterium piscicola strain BA. A 2.2-kb region corresponding to an α-galactosidase gene, agaA, was followed by two genes in the same orientation, bgaB, encoding a 2-kb β-galactosidase, and bgaC, encoding a structurally distinct 1.76-kb β-galactosidase. This gene arrangement had not been observed in other lactic acid bacteria, including Lactococcus la...

  11. Role for Vitamin B12 in Light Induction of Gene Expression in the Bacterium Myxococcus xanthus

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes, María; Murillo, Francisco J.

    2002-01-01

    A light-inducible promoter (PB) drives the carB operon (carotenoid genes) of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. A gene encoding a regulator of carotenoid biosynthesis was identified by studying mutant strains carrying a transcriptional fusion to PB and deletions in three candidate genes. Our results prove that the identified gene, named carA, codes for a repressor of the PB promoter in the dark. They also show that the carA gene product does not participate in the light activation of two other...

  12. Halomonas olivaria sp nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from olive-processing effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Amouric, A.; Liebgott, Pierre-Pol; Joseph, Manon; Brochier-Armanet, C; LORQUIN, Jean

    2014-01-01

    A moderately halophilic, Gram-stain-negative, non-sporulating bacterium designed as strain TYRC17(T) was isolated from olive-processing effluents. The organism was a straight rod, motile by means of peritrichous flagella and able to respire both oxygen and nitrate. Growth occurred with 0-25 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 7%), at pH 5-11 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 4-50 degrees C (optimally at 35 degrees C). It accumulated poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate granules and produced exopolysaccharides. The predomina...

  13. Sequencing and Characterization of the xyl Operon of a Gram-Positive Bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEDA, YASUO; Takase, Kazuma; Yamato, Ichiro; Abe, Keietsu

    1998-01-01

    The xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila (previously called Pediococcus halophilus), was cloned and sequenced. The DNA was about 7.7 kb long and contained genes for a ribose binding protein and part of a ribose transporter, xylR (a putative regulatory gene), and the xyl operon, along with its regulatory region and transcription termination signal, in this order. The DNA was AT rich, the GC content being 35.8%, consistent with the GC content of this gram-positive ...

  14. Mageeibacillus indolicus gen. nov., sp. nov: A novel bacterium isolated from the female genital tract

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Michele N.; Rabe, Lorna K.; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Fredricks, David N.; Wiesenfeld, Harold C.; Hillier, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Three isolates of a bacterium recovered from human endometrium using conventional culture methods were characterized biochemically and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Isolates were non-motile, obligately anaerobic, non-spore forming, asaccharolytic, non-cellulolytic, indole positive, Gram positive rods. Cell wall fatty acid profiling revealed C14:0, C16:0, C18:2 ω6, 9c, C18:1 ω9c and C18:0 to be the major fatty acid composition. The DNA mol % G+C was determine...

  15. Ercella succinigenes gen. nov., sp. nov., ananaerobic succinate-producing bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gelder, A.H.; Sousa, D.Z.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; J. S. Sinninghe Damsté; Stams, A. J. M.; Sánchez-Andrea, I.

    2014-01-01

    A novel anaerobic succinate-producing bacterium, strain ZWBT, was isolated from sludge collected from a biogas desulfurization bioreactor (Eerbeek, The Netherlands). Cells were non-spore forming, motile, slightly curved rods (0.4 to 0.5 µm in diameter and 2 to 3 µm in length), and stained Gram-negative. The temperature range for growth was 25 to 40°C, with an optimum at 37°C. The pH range for growth was 7.0 to 9.0, with an optimum at pH 7.5. Strain ZWBT ferments glycerol and several carbohydr...

  16. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5–0.8 μm in diameter, and 2–8 μm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37°C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H2/CO2 to acetate, usually as the only product. ...

  17. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage

    OpenAIRE

    Balk, M.; Mehboob, F.; Gelder, van, M.; Rijpstra, I.; Sinninghe-Damsté, J.S.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually a...

  18. Pseudomonas chloritidismutans sp. nov., a non-denitrifying chlorate-reducing bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Wolterink, A.F.W.M.; Jonker, A.B.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, dissimilatory chlorate-reducing bacterium, strain AW-1(T), was isolated from biomass of an anaerobic chlorate-reducing bioreactor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence showed 100␜equence similarity to Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM 50227 and 98.6␜equence similarity to the type strain of P. stutzeri (DSM 5190(T)). The species P. stutzeri possesses a high degree of genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Therefore, eight genomic groups, ...

  19. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage

    OpenAIRE

    Balk, M.; Mehboob, F.; van Gelder, T; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; J. S. Sinninghe Damsté; Stams, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5–0.8 μm in diameter, and 2–8 μm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37°C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H2/CO2 to acetate, usually as the only product. ...

  20. Genome Sequence of the Boron-Tolerant and -Requiring Bacterium Bacillus boroniphilus

    OpenAIRE

    ÇÖL, Bekir; Özkeserli, Zeynep; Kumar, Dibyendu; ÖZDAĞ, Hilal; Alakoç, Yeşim D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus boroniphilus is a highly boron-tolerant bacterium that also requires this element for its growth. The complete genome sequence of B. boroniphilus was determined by a combination of shotgun sequencing and paired-end sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. A total of 84,872,624 reads from shotgun sequencing and a total of 194,092,510 reads from paired-end sequencing were assembled using Newbler 2.3. The estimated size of the draft genome is 5.2 Mb.

  1. Clostridium peptidivorans sp. nov., a peptide-fermenting bacterium from an olive mill wastewater treatment digester

    OpenAIRE

    Mechichi, T.; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Labat, Marc; Garcia, Jean-Louis; Verhé, F.; Patel, B.K.C.

    2000-01-01

    A new peptid-degrading, strictly anaerobic bacterium, designated strain TMC4T, was isolated from an olive mill wastewater treatment digester. Cells of strain TMC4T were motile, rod-shaped (5-10 x 0.6-1.2 microns), stained Gram-positive and formed terminal to subterminal spores that distended the cells. Optimal growth occurred at 37°C and pH 7 in an anaerobic basal medium containing 0.5% Casamino acids. Arginine, lysine, cysteine, methionine, histidine, serine, isoleucine, yeast extract, pepto...

  2. p-cresol methylhydroxylase from a denitrifying bacterium involved in anaerobic degradation of p-cresol.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, D. J.; Bossert, I D; Rhodes-Roberts, M E

    1991-01-01

    A bacterium, strain PC-07, previously isolated as part of a coculture capable of growing on p-cresol under anaerobic conditions with nitrate as the acceptor was identified as an Achromobacter sp. The first enzyme of the pathway, p-cresol methylhydroxylase, which converts its substrate into p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, was purified. The enzyme had an Mr of 130,000 and the spectrum of a flavocytochrome. It was composed of flavoprotein subunits of Mr 54,000 and cytochrome subunits of Mr 12,500. The ...

  3. Response to Comments on "A Bacterium That Can Grow Using Arsenic Instead of Phosphorus"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe-Simon, F; Blum, J S; Kulp, T R; Gordon, G W; Hoeft, S E; Pett-Ridge, J; Stolz, J F; Webb, S M; Weber, P K; Davies, P W; Anbar, A D; Oremland, R S

    2011-03-07

    Concerns have been raised about our recent study describing a bacterium that can grow using arsenic (As) instead of phosphorus (P). Our data suggested that As could act as a substitute for P in major biomolecules in this organism. Although the issues raised are of investigative interest, we contend that they do not invalidate our conclusions. We argue that while no single line of evidence we presented was sufficient to support our interpretation of the data, taken as an entire dataset we find no plausible alternative to our conclusions. Here we reply to the critiques and provide additional arguments supporting the assessment of the data we reported.

  4. Coarse grained simulation reveals antifreeze properties of hyperactive antifreeze protein from Antarctic bacterium Colwellia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung; Van, Thanh Dac; Le, Ly

    2015-10-01

    The novel hyperactive antifreeze protein (AFP) of Antarctic sea ice bacterium Colwellia sp. provides a target for studying the protection of psychrophilic microgoranisms against freezing environment. Interestingly, the Colwellia sp. hyperactive antifreeze protein (ColAFP) was crystallized without the structural dynamic characteristics. Here, the result indicated, through coarse grained simulation of ColAFP under various subfreezing temperature, that ColAFP remains active at temperature of equal and greater than 275 K (∼2 °C). Extensive simulation analyses also revealed the adaptive mechanism of ColAFP in subfreezing environment. Our result provides a structural dynamic understanding of the ColAFP.

  5. Penetration of the Coral-Bleaching Bacterium Vibrio shiloi into Oculina patagonica

    OpenAIRE

    Banin, E.; Israely, T.; Kushmaro, A.; Y. Loya; Orr, E; Rosenberg, E

    2000-01-01

    Inoculation of the coral-bleaching bacterium Vibrio shiloi into seawater containing its host Oculina patagonica led to adhesion of the bacteria to the coral surface via a β-d-galactose receptor, followed by penetration of the bacteria into the coral tissue. The internalized V. shiloi cells were observed inside the exodermal layer of the coral by electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy using specific anti-V. shiloi antibodies to stain the intracellular bacteria. At 29°C, 80% of the bac...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Filamentous Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang [Washington University, St. Louis; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Honchak, Barbara M [Washington University, St. Louis; Karbach, Lauren E [Washington University, St. Louis; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Pierson, Beverly K [University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA

    2011-01-01

    Chloroflexus aurantiacus is a thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic (FAP) bacterium, and can grow phototrophically under anaerobic conditions or chemotrophically under aerobic and dark conditions. According to 16S rRNA analysis, Chloroflexi species are the earliest branching bacteria capable of photosynthesis, and Cfl. aurantiacus has been long regarded as a key organism to resolve the obscurity of the origin and early evolution of photosynthesis. Cfl. aurantiacus contains a chimeric photosystem that comprises some characters of green sulfur bacteria and purple photosynthetic bacteria, and also has some unique electron transport proteins compared to other photosynthetic bacteria.

  7. Improved manganese-oxidizing activity of DypB, a peroxidase from a lignolytic bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rahul; Grigg, Jason C.; Qin, Wei; Kadla, John F.; Murphy, Michael E. P.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2013-01-01

    DypB, a dye-decolorizing peroxidase from the lignolytic soil bacterium Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, catalyzes the peroxide-dependent oxidation of divalent manganese (Mn2+), albeit less efficiently than fungal manganese peroxidases. Substitution of Asn246, a distal heme residue, with alanine, increased the enzyme’s apparent kcat and kcat/Km values for Mn2+ by 80- and 15-fold, respectively. A 2.2 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of the N246A variant revealed the Mn2+ to be bound within a pocket...

  8. Inflammasomes Coordinate Pyroptosis and Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity to Clear Infection by a Ubiquitous Environmental Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltez, Vivien I; Tubbs, Alan L; Cook, Kevin D; Aachoui, Youssef; Falcone, E Liana; Holland, Steven M; Whitmire, Jason K; Miao, Edward A

    2015-11-17

    Defective neutrophils in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) cause susceptibility to extracellular and intracellular infections. Microbes must first be ejected from intracellular niches to expose them to neutrophil attack, so we hypothesized that inflammasomes detect certain CGD pathogens upstream of neutrophil killing. Here, we identified one such ubiquitous environmental bacterium, Chromobacterium violaceum, whose extreme virulence was fully counteracted by the NLRC4 inflammasome. Caspase-1 protected via two parallel pathways that eliminated intracellular replication niches. Pyroptosis was the primary bacterial clearance mechanism in the spleen, but both pyroptosis and interleukin-18 (IL-18)-driven natural killer (NK) cell responses were required for liver defense. NK cells cleared hepatocyte replication niches via perforin-dependent cytotoxicity, whereas interferon-γ was not required. These insights suggested a therapeutic approach: exogenous IL-18 restored perforin-dependent cytotoxicity during infection by the inflammasome-evasive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, inflammasomes can trigger complementary programmed cell death mechanisms, directing sterilizing immunity against intracellular bacterial pathogens. PMID:26572063

  9. Hyperthermostable and oxygen resistant hydrogenases from a hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus: Physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiral, Marianne; Tron, Pascale; Belle, Valerie; Aubert, Corinne; Leger, Christophe; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Therese [Laboratoire de Bioenergetique et Ingenierie des Proteines (BIP) IBSM, CNRS, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille cedex 20 (France)

    2006-09-15

    The discovery of hydrogenases in hyperthermophiles has important ramifications not only in microbial physiology and evolution but also in biotechnologies. These organisms are the source of extremely stable enzymes (regarding temperature, pressure, and O{sub 2}). Aquifex aeolicus is a microaerophilic, hyperthermophilic bacterium containing three [NiFe] hydrogenases. It is the most hyperthermophilic bacterium known to date and grows at 85{sup o}C under a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere. The Aquificales represent the earliest branching order of the bacterial domain indicating that they are the most ancient bacteria. Two Aquifex hydrogenases (one membrane-bound and one soluble) have been purified and characterized. In contrast to the majority of the [NiFe] hydrogenases, the hydrogenases from A. aeolicus are rather tolerant to oxygen. The molecular basis of the oxygen resistance of Aquifex hydrogenases has been investigated. The great stability of Aquifex hydrogenases with respect to oxygen and high temperatures make these enzymes good candidates for biotechnological uses. (author)

  10. Enrichment and physiological characterization of a novel Nitrospira-like bacterium obtained from a marine sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Off, Sandra; Alawi, Mashal; Spieck, Eva

    2010-07-01

    Members of the nitrite-oxidizing genus Nitrospira are most likely responsible for the second step of nitrification, the conversion of nitrite (NO(2)(-)) to nitrate (NO(3)(-)), within various sponges. We succeeded in obtaining an enrichment culture of Nitrospira derived from the mesohyl of the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba using a traditional cultivation approach. Electron microscopy gave first evidence of the shape and ultrastructure of this novel marine Nitrospira-like bacterium (culture Aa01). We characterized these bacteria physiologically with regard to optimal incubation conditions, especially the temperature and substrate range in comparison to other Nitrospira cultures. Best growth was obtained at temperatures between 28 degrees C and 30 degrees C in mineral medium with 70% North Sea water and a substrate concentration of 0.5 mM nitrite under microaerophilic conditions. The Nitrospira culture Aa01 is very sensitive against nitrite, because concentrations higher than 1.5 mM resulted in a complete inhibition of growth. Sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the novel Nitrospira-like bacterium is separated from the sponge-specific subcluster and falls together with an environmental clone from Mediterranean sediments (98.6% similarity). The next taxonomically described species Nitrospira marina is only distantly related, with 94.6% sequence similarity, and therefore the culture Aa01 represents a novel species of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:20511427

  11. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage.

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2010-08-03

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts.

  12. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zou, Wenzheng; Yan, Qingpi

    2008-08-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  13. Evaluation of nitrate removal by continuous culturing of an aerobic denitrifying bacterium, Paracoccus pantotrophus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa-Kurisu, K; Otani, Y; Hanaki, K

    2006-01-01

    Nitrate removal under aerobic conditions was investigated using pure cultures of Paracoccus pantotrophus, which is a well-known aerobic-denitrifying (AD) bacterium. When a high concentration of cultures with a high carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio was preserved at the beginning of batch experiments, subsequently added nitrate was completely removed. When continuous culturing was perpetuated, a high nitrate removal rate (66.5%) was observed on day 4 post-culture, although gradual decreases in AD ability with time were observed. The attenuation in AD ability was probably caused by carbon limitation, because when carbon concentration of inflow water was doubled, nitrate removal efficiency improved from 18.1% to 59.6%. Bacterial community analysis using the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method showed that P. pantotrophus disappeared in the suspended medium on day 8 post-culture, whereas other bacterial communities dominated by Acidovorax sp. appeared. Interestingly, this replaced bacterial community also showed AD ability. As P. pantotrophus was detected as attached colonies around the membrane and bottom of the reactor, this bacterium can therefore be introduced in a fixed form for treatment of wastewater containing nitrate with a high C/N ratio. PMID:17163031

  14. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  15. Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swetha Sunkar; C Valli Nachiyar

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To synthesize the ecofriendly nanoparticles, which is viewed as an alternative to the chemical method which initiated the use of microbes like bacteria and fungi in their synthesis. Methods: The current study uses the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the Garcinia xanthochymus to synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate solution by the endophytic bacterium after incubation for 3-5 d at room temperature. The synthesis was initially observed by colour change from pale white to brown which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX and TEM analyses. Results:The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical with the size in the range of 20-40 nm which showed a slight aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectra of the nanoparticle dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against a few pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions:The endophytic bacteria identified as Bacillus cereus was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with potential antibacterial activity.

  16. Production and characterization of bioemulsifier from a marine bacterium, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Phetrong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacterium strain SM7 was isolated as a bioemulsifier-producing bacterium from oil-spilled seawater in Songkhla lagoon, Thailand. It was identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus based on morphology, biochemicalcharacteristics and 16S rRNA sequence. A. calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7 produced an extracellular emulsifying agent when grown in a minimal salt medium (pH 7.0 containing 0.3% (v/v n-heptadecane and 0.1% (w/v ammoniumhydrogen carbonate as carbon source and nitrogen source, respectively, at 30oC with agitation rate of 200 rpm. Crude bioemulsifier was recovered from the culture supernatant by ethanol precipitation with a yield of 2.94 g/l and had a criticalemulsifier concentration of 0.04 g/ml. The crude bioemulsifier was capable of emulsifying n-hexadecane in a broad pH range (6-12, temperatures (30-121oC and in the presence of NaCl up to 12% (w/v. The bioemulsifier was stable in saltsolution ranging from 0 to 0.1% (w/v of MgCl2 and CaCl2. The broad range of pH stability, thermostability and salt tolerance suggested that the bioemulsifier from A. calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7 could be useful in environmentalapplication, especially bioremediation of oil-polluted seawater.

  17. Microfabrication of patterns of adherent marine bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens using soft lithography and scanning probe lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Burchardt, Malte; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Beardsley, Christine; Simon, Meinhard; Wittstock, Gunther

    2010-06-01

    Two lithographic approaches have been explored for the microfabrication of cellular patterns based on the attachment of marine bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens strain T5. Strain T5 produces a new antibiotic that makes this bacterium potentially interesting for the pharmaceutical market and as a probiotic organism in aquacultures and in controlling biofouling. The microcontact printing (microCP) method is based on the micropatterning of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) terminated with adhesive end groups such as CH(3) and COOH and nonadhesive groups (e.g., short oligomers of ethylene glycol (OEG)) to form micropatterned substrates for the adhesion of strain T5. The scanning probe lithographic method is based on the surface modification of OEG SAM by using a microelectrode, the probe of a scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM). Oxidizing agents (e.g., Br(2)) were electrogenerated in situ at the microelectrodes from Br(-) in aqueous solution to remove OEG SAMs locally, which allows the subsequent adsorption of bacteria. Various micropatterns of bacteria could be formed in situ on the substrate without a prefabricated template. The fabricated cellular patterns may be applied to a variety of marine biological studies that require the analysis of biofilm formation, cell-cell and cell-surface interactions, and cell-based biosensors and bioelectronics. PMID:20397716

  18. INDISIM-Paracoccus, an individual-based and thermodynamic model for a denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Granda, Pablo; Gras, Anna; Ginovart, Marta; Moulton, Vincent

    2016-08-21

    We have developed an individual-based model for denitrifying bacteria. The model, called INDISIM-Paracoccus, embeds a thermodynamic model for bacterial yield prediction inside the individual-based model INDISIM, and is designed to simulate the bacterial cell population behavior and the product dynamics within the culture. The INDISIM-Paracoccus model assumes a culture medium containing succinate as a carbon source, ammonium as a nitrogen source and various electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide to simulate in continuous or batch culture the different nutrient-dependent cell growth kinetics of the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans. The individuals in the model represent microbes and the individual-based model INDISIM gives the behavior-rules that they use for their nutrient uptake and reproduction cycle. Three previously described metabolic pathways for P. denitrificans were selected and translated into balanced chemical equations using a thermodynamic model. These stoichiometric reactions are an intracellular model for the individual behavior-rules for metabolic maintenance and biomass synthesis and result in the release of different nitrogen oxides to the medium. The model was implemented using the NetLogo platform and it provides an interactive tool to investigate the different steps of denitrification carried out by a denitrifying bacterium. The simulator can be obtained from the authors on request. PMID:27179457

  19. Data supporting functional diversity of the marine bacterium Cobetia amphilecti KMM 296.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Larissa; Nedashkovskaya, Olga; Podvolotskaya, Anna; Slepchenko, Lubov; Golotin, Vasily; Belik, Alexey; Shevchenko, Ludmila; Son, Oksana; Rasskazov, Valery

    2016-09-01

    Data is presented in support of functionality of hyper-diverse protein families encoded by the Cobetia amphilecti KMM 296 (formerly Cobetia marina KMM 296) genome ("The genome of the marine bacterium Cobetia marina KMM 296 isolated from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Dunker, 1853)" [1]) providing its nutritional versatility, adaptability and biocontrol that could be the basis of the marine bacterium evolutionary and application potential. Presented data include the information of growth and biofilm-forming properties of the food-associated isolates of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Listeria, Salmonella and Staphylococcus under the conditions of their co-culturing with C. amphilecti KMM 296 to confirm its high inter-species communication and anti-microbial activity. Also included are the experiments on the crude petroleum consumption by C. amphilecti KMM 296 as the sole source of carbon in the presence of sulfate or nitrate to ensure its bioremediation capacity. The multifunctional C. amphilecti KMM 296 genome is a promising source for the beneficial psychrophilic enzymes and essential secondary metabolites. PMID:27508225

  20. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amable J. Rivas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role in virulence for homeotherms and poikilotherms. The acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes Dly and HlyApl has likely constituted a main driving force in the evolution of a highly hemolytic lineage within the subspecies. Interestingly, strains that naturally lack pPHDD1 show a strong pathogenic potential for a variety of fish species, indicating the existence of yet uncharacterized virulence factors. Future and deep analysis of the complete genome sequence of P. damselae subsp. damselae will surely provide a clearer picture of the virulence factors employed by this bacterium to cause disease in such a varied range of hosts.

  1. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Amable J; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R

    2013-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin) and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role in virulence for homeotherms and poikilotherms. The acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes Dly and HlyApl has likely constituted a main driving force in the evolution of a highly hemolytic lineage within the subspecies. Interestingly, strains that naturally lack pPHDD1 show a strong pathogenic potential for a variety of fish species, indicating the existence of yet uncharacterized virulence factors. Future and deep analysis of the complete genome sequence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae will surely provide a clearer picture of the virulence factors employed by this bacterium to cause disease in such a varied range of hosts. PMID:24093021

  2. The fate of a nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Yang, Juan; Chen, Shaoyi

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the fate of a nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium, Klebsiella oxytoca NBA-1, which was isolated from a pharmaceutical wastewater treatment facility. The 90-day survivability of strain NBA-1 after exposure to sludge under anaerobic and aerobic conditions was investigated. The bacterium was inoculated into sludge amended with glucose and p-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) to compare the bacterial community variations between the modified sludge and nitrobenzene amendment. The results showed that glucose had no obvious effect on nitrobenzene biodegradation in the co-metabolism process, regardless of the presence/absence of oxygen. When p-CNB was added under anaerobic conditions, the biodegradation rate of nitrobenzene remained unchanged although p-CNB inhibited the production of aniline. The diversity of the microbial community increased and NBA-1 continued to be one of the dominant strains. Under aerobic conditions, the degradation rate of both nitrobenzene and p-CNB was only 20% of that under anaerobic conditions. p-CNB had a toxic effect on the microorganisms in the sludge so that most of the DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) bands, including that of NBA-1, began to disappear under aerobic conditions after 90days of exposure. These data show that the bacterial community was stable under anaerobic conditions and the microorganisms, including NBA-1, were more resistant to the adverse environment. PMID:26086561

  3. Structural characterization of the lipid A from the LPS of the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Halomonas pantelleriensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillo, Sara; Pieretti, Giuseppina; Casillo, Angela; Lindner, Buko; Romano, Ida; Nicolaus, Barbara; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Giuliano, Mariateresa; Cammarota, Marcella; Lanzetta, Rosa; Corsaro, Maria Michela

    2016-09-01

    Halomonas pantelleriensis DSM9661(Τ) is a Gram-negative haloalkaliphilic bacterium isolated from the sand of the volcanic Venus mirror lake, closed to seashore in the Pantelleria Island in the south of Italy. It is able to optimally grow in media containing 3-15 % (w/v) total salt and at pH between 9 and 10. To survive in these harsh conditions, the bacterium has developed several strategies that probably concern the bacteria outer membrane, a barrier regulating the exchange with the environment. In such a context, the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), which are among the major constituent of the Gram-negative outer membrane, are thought to contribute to the restrictive membrane permeability properties. The structure of the lipid A family derived from the LPS of Halomonas pantelleriensis DSM 9661(T) is reported herein. The lipid A was obtained from the purified LPS by mild acid hydrolysis. The lipid A, which contains different numbers of fatty acids residues, and its partially deacylated derivatives were completely characterized by means of ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometry and chemical analysis. Preliminary immunological assays were performed, and a comparison with the lipid A structure of the phylogenetic proximal Halomonas magadiensis is also reported. PMID:27329160

  4. Isolation, cloning and characterization of an azoreductase from the halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Maryam; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Asad, Sedigheh

    2016-04-01

    Azo dyes are a major class of colorants used in various industries including textile, paper and food. These dyes are regarded as pollutant since they are not readily reduced under aerobic conditions. Halomonas elongata, a halophilic bacterium, has the ability to decolorize different mono and di-azo dyes in anoxic conditions. In this study the putative azoreductase gene of H. elongata, formerly annotated as acp, was isolated, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. The gene product, AzoH, was found to have a molecular mass of 22 kDa. The enzyme requires NADH, as an electron donor for its activity. The apparent Km was 63 μM for NADH and 12 μM for methyl red as a mono-azo dye substrate. The specific activity for methyl red was 0.27 μmol min(-1)mg(-1). The optimum enzyme activity was achieved in 50mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 6. Although increased salinity resulted in reduced activity, AzoH could decolorize azo dye at NaCl concentrations up to 15% (w/v). The enzyme was also shown to be able to decolorize remazol black B as a representative of di-azo dyes. This is the first report describing the sequence and activity of an azo-reducing enzyme from a halophilic bacterium. PMID:26724685

  5. Emulsification potential of a newly isolated biosurfactant-producing bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. strain TA6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavandi, Mahmoud; Mohebali, Ghasemali; Haddadi, Azam; Shakarami, Heidar; Nuhi, Ashrafossadat

    2011-02-01

    An indigenous biosurfactant producing bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. strain TA6 was isolated from Iranian oil contaminated soil using an efficient enrichment and screening method. During growth on sucrose and several hydrocarbon substrates as sole carbon source, the bacterium could produce biosurfactants. As a result of biosurfactant synthesis, the surface tension of the growth medium was reduced from 68mNm(-1) to values below 30mNm(-1). The biosurfactant was capable of forming stable emulsions with various hydrocarbons ranging from pentane to light motor oil. Preliminary chemical characterization revealed that the TA6 biosurfactant consisted of extracellular lipids and glycolipids. The biosurfactant was stable during exposure to high salinity (10% NaCl), elevated temperatures (120°C for 15min) and within a wide pH range (4.0-10.0). The culture broth was effective in recovering up to 70% of the residual oil from oil-saturated sand packs which indicates the potential value of the biosurfactant in enhanced oil recovery. PMID:21030223

  6. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Melike; Mehboob, Farrakh; van Gelder, Antonie H; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Stams, Alfons J M

    2010-09-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts. PMID:20680263

  7. Enhanced Cadmium (Cd Phytoextraction from Contaminated Soil using Cd-Resistant Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunchaya Setkit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cadmium (Cd-resistant bacterium, Micrococcus sp. MU1, is able to produce indole-3-acetic acid and promotes root elongation and plant growth. The potential of this bacterium on enhancement of Cd uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd in Helianthus annuus L. planted in Cd-contaminated soil was evaluated in greenhouse condition. The results showed that Micrococcus sp. MU1promoted the growth of H. annuus L. by increasing the root length, stem height, dry biomass, root to shoot ratio and also significantly increased Cd accumulation in the root and above-ground tissues of H. annuus L. compared to uninoculated control. Re-inoculation with Micrococcus sp. MU1in contaminated soil helped in promoting plant growth and Cd phytoextraction throughout the cultivation period. In addition, phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor (TF of H. annuus L. inoculated with Micrococcus sp. MU1were higher than that of uninoculated control and TF continuously increased with time. Our results suggested that Micrococcus sp. MU1 has an ability to enhance plant growth and Cd uptake in H. annuus L. Synergistic interaction between Micrococcus sp. MU1 and H. annuus L. could be further applied for Cd phytoextraction in polluted areas.

  8. Melanin from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum: a spectroscopic characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulie Banerjee

    Full Text Available Melanins, the ubiquitous hetero-polymer pigments found widely dispersed among various life forms, are usually dark brown/black in colour. Although melanins have variety of biological functions, including protection against ultraviolet radiation of sunlight and are used in medicine, cosmetics, extraction of melanin from the animal and plant kingdoms is not an easy task. Using complementary physicochemical techniques (i.e. MALDI-TOF, FTIR absorption and cross-polarization magic angle spinning solid-state (13C NMR, we report here the characterization of melanins extracted from the nitrogen-fixing non-virulent bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum, a safe viable source. Moreover, considering dihydroxyindole moiety as the main constituent, an effort is made to propose the putative molecular structure of the melanin hetero-polymer extracted from the bacterium. Characterization of the melanin obtained from Azotobacter chroococcum would provide an inspiration in extending research activities on these hetero-polymers and their use as protective agent against UV radiation.

  9. Removal of corper(II Ions from aqueous solution by a lactic acid bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yilmaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecium, a lactic acid bacterium (LAB, was evaluated for its ability to remove copper(II ions from water. The effects of the pH, contact time, initial concentration of copper(II ions, and temperature on the biosorption rate and capacity were studied. The initial concentrations of copper(II ions used to determine the maximum amount of biosorbed copper(II ions onto lyophilised lactic acid bacterium varied from 25 mg L-1 to 500 mg L-1. Maximum biosorption capacities were attained at pH 5.0 and 6.0. Temperature variation between 20°C and 40°C did not affect the biosorption capacity of the bacterial biomass. The highest copper(II ion removal capacity was 106.4 mg per g dry biomass. The correlation regression coefficients show that the biosorption process can be well defined by the Freundlich equation. The change in biosorption capacity with time was found to fit a pseudo-second-order equation.

  10. The algae-lytic ability of bacterium DC10 and the influence of environmental factors on the ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Shunyu; LIU; Yongding; SHEN; Yinwu; LI; Genbao

    2005-01-01

    A lysing-bacterium DC10, isolated from Dianchi Lake of Yunnan Province, was characterized to be Pseudomonas sp. It was able to lyse some algae well, such as Microcystis viridis, Selenastrum capricornutum, and so on. In this study, it was shown that the bacterium lysed the algae by releasing a substance; the best lytic effects were achieved at Iow temperatures and in the dark. Different concentrations of CaCI2 and NaNO3 influenced the lytic effects;the ability to lyse algae decreased in the following order: pH 4 > pH 9 > pH 7 > pH 5.5. It was significant to develop a special technology with this kind of bacterium for controlling the bloomforming planktonic microalgae.

  11. Cloning of the cnr operon into a strain of Bacillaceae bacterium for the development of a suitable biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosso-Kankeu, Elvis; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine F; Piater, Lizelle A; Tlou, Matsobane G

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a potential microbial biosorbent was engineered to improve its capacity to remediate heavy metal contaminated water resources. A Bacillaceae bacterium isolated from a mining area was transformed with a plasmid carrying the (pECD312)-based cnr operon that encodes nickel and cobalt resistance. The bioadsorption ability of the transformed strain was evaluated for removal of nickel from metallurgical water relative to the wildtype strain. Results showed that transformation improved the adsorption capacity of the bacterium by 37 % at nickel concentrations equivalent to 150 mg/L. Furthermore it was possible to apply prediction modelling to study the bioadsorption behaviour of the transformed strain. As such, this work may be extended to the design of a nickel bioremediation plant utilising the newly developed Bacillaceae bacterium as a biosorbent. PMID:27263009

  12. Antibacterial Property of a Coral-Associated Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea Against Shrimp Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi (In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCKY KARNA RADJASA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A coral-associated bacterium was successfully screened for secondary metabolites production based on PCR amplification of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene and was identified as closely related to Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea based on its 16S rDNA.The bacterium was found to inhibit the growth of shrimp pathogenic bacterium tested, Vibrio harveyi. To characterize the inhibiting metabolite, a 279 bp long DNA fragment was obtained and the deduced amino acid sequence showed conserved signature regions for peptide synthetases and revealed a high similarity to NosD (40% identity, a multifunctional peptide synthetase from Nostoc sp. GSV224, and NdaB (44% identity, a peptide synthetase module of Nodularia spumigena.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter spp. MR1, Isolated from Drought Tolerant Plant (Butea monosperma)

    OpenAIRE

    Parakhia, Manoj V.; Tomar, Rukam S.; Malaviya, Bipin J.; Dhingani, Rashmin M.; Rathod, Visha M.; Thakkar, Jalpa R.; Golakiya, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. MR1 an endophytic plant growth promoting bacterium was isolated from the roots of Butea monosperma, a drought tolerant plant. Genome sequencing of Enterobacter spp. MR1 was carried out in Ion Torrent (PGM), Next Generation Sequencer. The data obtained revealed 640 contigs with genome size of 4.58 Mb and G+C content of 52.8 %. This bacterium may contain genes responsible for inducing drought tolerance in plant, including genes for phosphate solubilization, growth hormones and ...

  14. Bacterium-like Particles for efficient immune stimulation of existing vaccines and new subunit vaccines in mucosal applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija eVan Braeckel-Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of a mucosal vaccine critically depends on the use of a safe and effective immunostimulant and/or carrier system. This review describes the effectiveness and mode of action of an immunostimulating particle derived from bacteria in mucosal subunit vaccines. The non-living particles, designated Bacterium-like Particles (BLPs are based on the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis. The focus of the overview is on the development of intranasal BLP-based vaccines to prevent diseases caused by influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, and includes a selection of Phase I clinical data for the intranasal FluGEM vaccine.

  15. Bacterium-Like Particles for Efficient Immune Stimulation of Existing Vaccines and New Subunit Vaccines in Mucosal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Braeckel-Budimir, Natalija; Haijema, Bert Jan; Leenhouts, Kees

    2013-01-01

    The successful development of a mucosal vaccine depends critically on the use of a safe and effective immunostimulant and/or carrier system. This review describes the effectiveness and mode of action of an immunostimulating particle, derived from bacteria, used in mucosal subunit vaccines. The non-living particles, designated bacterium-like particles are based on the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis. The focus of the overview is on the development of intranasal BLP-based vaccines to prevent diseases caused by influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, and includes a selection of Phase I clinical data for the intranasal FluGEM vaccine. PMID:24062748

  16. Ammonium inhibition of nitrogenase activity in Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, H.; Burris, R.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1989-06-01

    The effect of oxygen, ammonium ion, and amino acids on nitrogenase activity in the root-associated N{sub 2}-fixing bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae was investigated in comparison with Azospirillum spp. and Rhodospirillum rubrum. H. seropedicae is microaerophilic, and its optimal dissolved oxygen level is from 0.04 to 0.2 kPa for dinitrogen fixation but higher when it is supplied with fixed nitrogen. No nitrogenase activity was detected when the dissolved O{sub 2} level corresponded to 4.0 kPa. Ammonium, a product of the nitrogenase reaction, reversible inhibited nitrogenase activity when added to derepressed cell cultures. However, the inhibition of nitrogenase activity was only partial even with concentrations of ammonium chloride as high as 20 mM. Amides such as glutamine and asparagine partially inhibited nitrogenase activity, but glutamate did not. Nitrogenase in crude extracts prepared from ammonium-inhibited cells showed activity as high as in extracts from N{sub 2}-fixing cells. The pattern of the dinitrogenase and the dinitrogenase reductase revealed by the immunoblotting technique did not change upon ammonium chloride treatment of cells in vivo. No homologous sequences were detected with the draT-draG probe from Azospirillum lipoferum. There is no clear evidence that ADP-ribosylation of the dinitrogenase reductase is involved in the ammonium inhibition of H. seropedicae. The uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone decreased the intracellular ATP concentration and inhibited the nitrogenase activity of whole cells. The ATP pool was significantly disturbed when cultures were treated with ammonium in vivo.

  17. Dehalobacter restrictus gen. nov. and sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium that reductively dechlorinates tetra- and trichloroethene in an anaerobic respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holliger, C; Hahn, D; Harmsen, H; Ludwig, W; Schumacher, W; Tindall, B; Vazquez, F; Weiss, N; Zehnder, AJB

    1998-01-01

    The highly enriched anaerobic bacterium that couples the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene to growth, previously referred to as PER-K23, was obtained in pure culture and characterized. The bacterium, which does not form spores, is a small, gram-negative rod with one lateral flagellum. It

  18. 2种除草剂及混用对红花檵木容器苗杂草的防除效果%Weed Control Efficacy of Two Kinds of Herbicide and Their Mixture in Container Seedling Breeding of Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金久宏

    2012-01-01

    A weed control experiment was conducted for Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum container seedlings with 24% oxyfluorfen EC, 10. 8% Haloxyfop-P-methyl EC, and the combination of 24% oxyfluorfen EC and 10. 8% Haloxyfop-P-methyl EC. The results showed that the control effect of 20 mL/667 m2 of 24% oxyfluorfen EC 30 days after application was 90.3% out of the plants, and 87. 8% by the fresh weight. While the control effect of 20 mL/667 m2 of 24% oxyfluorfen EC 40 days after application was 91.7% out of the plants, and 91.6% by the fresh weight. The weed control effect of 20 mL/667 m2 of 24% oxyfluorfen EC was better than that of the other two types of herbicide. It was also safer to the container seedlings of L chinense var. rubrum, so it should be further extended to larger area.%用24.0%乙氧氟草醚乳油,10.8%高效氟吡甲禾灵乳油及这2种药剂的混合共3种处理对红花槛木容器苗进行杂草除治试验,结果表明:喷施24%乙氧氟草醚乳油20mL/667m2后,第30天的株防效为90.3%、鲜质量防效为87.8%;第40天的株防效为91.7%、鲜质量防效为91.6%,均明显好于另外2种药剂处理的除草效果,且对苗木较为安全,基本上能达到除治杂草的目的,可进一步推广应用.

  19. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Knauf

    Full Text Available The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum, yaws (ssp. pertenue, and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90% baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560 versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7. Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication

  20. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Barnett, Ulrike; Maciej, Peter; Klapproth, Matthias; Ndao, Ibrahima; Frischmann, Sieghard; Fischer, Julia; Zinner, Dietmar; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio) at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90%) baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560) versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7). Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication campaign with

  1. Metabolism of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol in a Gram-positive bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Pankaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloronitrophenols (CNPs are widely used in the synthesis of dyes, drugs and pesticides, and constitute a major group of environmental pollutants. 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP is an isomer of CNPs that has been detected in various industrial effluents. A number of physicochemical methods have been used for treatment of wastewater containing 4C2NP. These methods are not as effective as microbial degradation, however. Results A 4C2NP-degrading bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA, which uses 4C2NP as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from a chemically-contaminated site in India. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP with the release of stoichiometeric amounts of chloride and ammonium ions. The effects of different substrate concentrations and various inoculum sizes on degradation of 4C2NP were investigated. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP up to a concentration of 0.6 mM. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry identified 4-chloro-2-aminophenol (4C2AP and 2-aminophenol (2AP as possible metabolites of the 4C2NP degradation pathway. The crude extract of 4C2NP-induced PMA cells contained enzymatic activity for 4C2NP reductase and 4C2AP dehalogenase, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in the degradation of 4C2NP. Microcosm studies using sterile and non-sterile soils spiked with 4C2NP were carried out to monitor the bioremediation potential of Exiguobacterium sp. PMA. The bioremediation of 4C2NP by Exiguobacterium sp. PMA was faster in non-sterilized soil than sterilized soil. Conclusions Our studies indicate that Exiguobacterium sp. PMA may be useful for the bioremediation of 4C2NP-contaminated sites. This is the first report of (i the formation of 2AP in the 4C2NP degradation pathway by any bacterium and (iii the bioremediation of 4C2NP by any bacterium.

  2. Isolation of pigmentation mutants of the green filamentous photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutants deficient in the production of bateriochlorophyll c (Bchl c) and one mutant lacking colored carotenoids were isolated from the filamentous gliding bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus, Mutagenesis was achieved by using UV radiation or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Several clones were isolated that were deficient in Bchl c synthesis. All reverted. One double mutant deficient both in Bchl c synthesis and in the synthesis of colored carotenoids under anaerobic conditions was isolated. Isolation of a revertant in Bchl c synthesis from this double mutant produced a mutant strain of Chloroflexus that grew photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions and lacked colored carotenoids. Analysis of pigment contents and growth rates of the mutants revealed a positive association between growth rate and content of Bchl c under light-limiting conditions. 11 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  3. Two-dimensional gel-based alkaline proteome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Avishek; Cai, Liyang; Ejby, Morten; Schmidt, Bjarne G; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jacobsen, Susanne; Svensson, Birte

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) is a well-documented probiotic bacterium isolated from human gut. Detailed 2D gel-based NCFM proteomics addressed the so-called alkaline range, i.e., pH 6-11. Proteins were identified in 150 of the 202 spots picked from the Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained 2D gel using MALDI-TOF-MS. The 102 unique gene products among the 150 protein identifications were assigned to different functional categories, and evaluated by considering a calculated distribution of abundance as well as grand average of hydrophobicity values. None of the very few available lactic acid bacteria proteome reference maps included the range of pI >7.0. The present report of such data on the proteome of NCFM fundamentally complements current knowledge on protein profiles limited to the acid and neutral pH range. PMID:22522807

  4. A Mutant Strain of a Surfactant-Producing Bacterium with Increased Emulsification Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qingmei; Yao Jianming; Pan Renrui; Yu Zengliang

    2005-01-01

    As reported in this paper, a strain of oil-degrading bacterium Sp- 5- 3 was determined to belong to Enterobacteriaceae, which would be useful for microbial enhanced oil recovery(MEOR). The aim of our study was to generate a mutant using low energy N+ beam implantation. With 10 keV of energy and 5.2 × 10TM N+/cm2 of dose - the optimum condition, a mutant,S - 34, was obtained, which had nearly a 5-fold higher surface and a 13-fold higher of emulsification activity than the wild type. The surface activity was measured by two methods, namely, a surface tension measuring instrument and a recording of the repulsive circle of the oil film; the emulsification activity was scaled through measuring the separating time of the oil-fermentation mixture. The metabolic acid was determined as methane by means of gas chromatography.

  5. A Mutant Strain of a Surfactant-Producing Bacterium with Increased Emulsification Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingmei; Yao, Jianming; Pan, Renrui; Yu, Zengliang

    2005-06-01

    As reported in this paper, a strain of oil-degrading bacterium Sp-5-3 was determined to belong to Enterobacteriaceae, which would be useful for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The aim of our study was to generate a mutant using low energy N+ beam implantation. With 10 keV of energy and 5.2 × 1014 N+/cm2 of dose - the optimum condition, a mutant, S-34, was obtained, which had nearly a 5-fold higher surface and a 13-fold higher of emulsification activity than the wild type. The surface activity was measured by two methods, namely, a surface tension measuring instrument and a recording of the repulsive circle of the oil film; the emulsification activity was scaled through measuring the separating time of the oil-fermentation mixture. The metabolic acid was determined as methane by means of gas chromatography.

  6. A Marine Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Producing Multiple Antibiotics: Biological and Chemical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A marine sulfate-reducing bacterium SRB-22 was isolated by means of the agar shake dilution method and identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis. In the bioassay, its extract showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity using the paper disc agar diffusion method. This isolate showed a different antimicrobial profile than either ampicillin or nystatin and was found to produce at least eight antimicrobial components by bioautography. Suitable fermentation conditions for production of the active constituents were determined to be 28 day cultivation at 25 °C to 30 °C with a 10% inoculation ratio. Under these conditions, the SRB-22 was fermented, extracted and chemically investigated. So far an antimicrobial compound, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and an inactive compound, thymine, have been isolated and characterized.

  7. Genome sequence of the marine bacterium Corynebacterium maris type strain Coryn-1(T) (= DSM 45190(T)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffert, Lena; Albersmeier, Andreas; Bednarz, Hanna; Niehaus, Karsten; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian

    2013-07-30

    Corynebacterium maris Coryn-1(T) Ben-Dov et al. 2009 is a member of the genus Corynebacterium which contains Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria with a high G+C content. C. maris was isolated from the mucus of the Scleractinian coral Fungia granulosa and belongs to the aerobic and non-haemolytic corynebacteria. It displays tolerance to salts (up to 10%) and is related to the soil bacterium Corynebacterium halotolerans. As this is a type strain in a subgroup of Corynebacterium without complete genome sequences, this project, describing the 2.78 Mbp long chromosome and the 45.97 kbp plasmid pCmaris1, with their 2,584 protein-coding and 67 RNA genes, will aid the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:24501635

  8. The Antitumor Components from Marine-derived Bacterium Streptoverticillium luteoverticillatum 11014 Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dehai; ZHU Tianjiao; FANG Yuchun; LIU Hongbing; GU Qianqun; ZHU Weiming

    2007-01-01

    Eight known compounds were isolated from a marine-derived bacterium Streptoverticillium luteoverticillatum 11014 using bioassay-guided fractionations. Their structures were identified by spectral analysis as bis (4-hydroxybenzyl) ether (1), p-hydroxyphenylethyl alcohol (2), N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl) acetamide (3), indole-3 carboxylic acid methyl ester (4), dibenzo[b,e] [1,4]dioxine (5), thymine (6), cytosine deoxyribonucleoside (7) and 2, 3-butanediol (8). These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against K562 cell line with the SRB method for the first time. Compounds 2 and 4 showed cytotoxcities with IC50 values of 101.1 and 165.3 μmolL-1, respectively. All compounds were isolated from S. luteoverticillatum 11014 for the first time.

  9. Analysis of convergent gene transcripts in the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Woodard

    Full Text Available Termination of transcription is an important component of bacterial gene expression. However, little is known concerning this process in the obligate intracellular pathogen and model for reductive evolution, Rickettsia prowazekii. To assess transcriptional termination in this bacterium, transcripts of convergent gene pairs, some containing predicted intrinsic terminators, were analyzed. These analyses revealed that, rather than terminating at a specific site within the intervening region between the convergent genes, most of the transcripts demonstrated either a lack of termination within this region, which generated antisense RNA, or a putative non-site-specific termination that occurred throughout the intervening sequence. Transcripts terminating at predicted intrinsic terminators, as well as at a putative Rho-dependant terminator, were also examined and found to vary based on the rickettsial host environment. These results suggest that transcriptional termination, or lack thereof, plays a role in rickettsial gene regulation.

  10. Identification of a denitrifying bacterium and verification of its anaerobic ammonium oxidation ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Baolan; ZHENG; Ping; LI; Jinye; XU; Xiangyang; JIN; Rencun

    2006-01-01

    A strain D3 of denitrifying bacterium was isolated from an anammox reactor, and identified as Pseudomonas mendocina based on the morphological and physiological assay, Vitek test,Biolog test, (G+C) mol% content, and 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis. As a typical denitrifying bactration of 88.5 mg N/L. The optimal pH and growth temperature were 7.84 and 34.9℃, respectively.Strain D3 was able to oxidize ammonia under anaerobic condition. The maximum nitrate and ammoof ammonia to nitrate was 1:1.91. Electron microscopic observation revealed peculiar cell inclusions in strain D3. Because of its relation to anammox activity, strain D3 was presumed to be anammoxosome.The present investigation proved that denitrifying bacteria have the anammox ability, and the results have engorged the range of anammox populations.

  11. Plague bacterium as a transformer species in prairie dogs and the grasslands of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E

    2015-08-01

    Invasive transformer species change the character, condition, form, or nature of ecosystems and deserve considerable attention from conservation scientists. We applied the transformer species concept to the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis in western North America, where the pathogen was introduced around 1900. Y. pestis transforms grassland ecosystems by severely depleting the abundance of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) and thereby causing declines in native species abundance and diversity, including threatened and endangered species; altering food web connections; altering the import and export of nutrients; causing a loss of ecosystem resilience to encroaching invasive plants; and modifying prairie dog burrows. Y. pestis poses an important challenge to conservation biologists because it causes trophic-level perturbations that affect the stability of ecosystems. Unfortunately, understanding of the effects of Y. pestis on ecosystems is rudimentary, highlighting an acute need for continued research. PMID:25817984

  12. The glucose transport system of the hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galperin, M.Y.; Noll, K.M.; Romano, A.H. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The glucose transport system of the extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana was studied with the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG). T. neapolitana accumulated 2-DOG against a concentration gradient in an intracellular free sugar pool that was exchangeable with external D-glucose. This active transport of 2-DOG was dependent upon the presence of sodium ion and an external source of energy, such as pyruvate, and was inhibited by arsenate and gramicidin D. There was no phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation of glucose, 2-DOG, or fructose by cell extracts or toluene-treated cells, indicating the absence of a phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. These data indicate that D-glucose is taken up by T.neapolitana via an active transport system that is energized by an ion gradient generated by ATP, derived from substrate-level phosphorylation. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Microbially influenced corrosion of stainless steel by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens: (I) Corrosion behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Sha; Tian Jintao [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Chen Shougang, E-mail: sgchen@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Lei Yanhua; Chang Xueting; Liu Tao [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Yin Yansheng, E-mail: yys2006@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2009-04-30

    The microbially influenced corrosion of stainless steel (SS) by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens (V. natriegens) was investigated using surface analysis (atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA)) and electrochemical techniques (the open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization curves ). AFM images corroborated the results from the EIS models which show biofilm attachment and subsequent detachment over time. The SEM images revealed the occurrence of micro-pitting corrosion underneath the biofilms on the metal surface after the biofilm removal. The presence of carbon, oxygen, phosphor and sulfur obtained from EDXA proved the formation of biofilm. The electrochemical results showed that the corrosion of SS was accelerated in the presence of V. natriegens based on the decrease in the resistance of the charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) obtained from EIS and the increase in corrosion current densities obtained from potentiodynamic polarization curves.

  14. Microbially influenced corrosion of 303 stainless steel by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens: (II) Corrosion mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Yansheng, E-mail: yys2006@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Ocean Materials and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); Cheng Sha [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Chen Shougang, E-mail: sgchen@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Tian Jintao; Liu Tao; Chang Xueting [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2009-04-30

    Electrochemical techniques (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization curves) and surface analysis (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) were carried out to determine the possible mechanism of the microbially influenced corrosion of 303 stainless steel (303 SS) by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens (V. natriegens). In order to clarify the mechanism, 303 SS coupons were immersed in four different mediums. EIS results were interpreted with different equivalent circuits to model the physicoelectric characteristics of the electrode/biofilm/solution interface. The results showed that N{sub 2}-fixation actually promoted the corrosion of 303 SS; however, the influence of the produced NH{sub 3} was negligible. It can be speculated that the electron transfer and/or the nitrogenase catalyzing the process may influence the corrosion.

  15. Uncoupling effect of fatty acids in halo- and alkalotolerant bacterium Bacillus pseudofirmus FTU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, I V; Bodrova, M E; Mokhova, E N; Muntyan, M S

    2004-10-01

    Natural uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, long-chain non-esterified fatty acids, cause uncoupling in the alkalo- and halotolerant bacterium Bacillus pseudofirmus FTU. The uncoupling effect in the bacterial cells was manifested as decrease of membrane potential and increase of respiratory activity. The membrane potential decrease was detected only in bacterial cells exhausted by their endogenous substrates. In proteoliposomes containing reconstituted bacterial cytochrome c oxidase, fatty acids caused a "mild" uncoupling effect by reducing membrane potential only at low rate of membrane potential generation. "Free respiration" induced by the "mild" uncouplers, the fatty acids, can be considered as possible mechanism responsible for adaptation of the bacteria to a constantly changed environment. PMID:15527418

  16. Vibrio ruber (S2A1, a Marine Bacterium that Exhibits Significant Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Norhana, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential antimicrobial-producing marine bacterium, designated as S2A1, was isolated from a seagrass collected in Setiu Lagoon, Terengganu. S2A1 was a Gram negative rod that was motile by means of a polar flagellum. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation indicated that strain S2A1 represented a species in the genus Vibrio. The antimicrobial activities of S2A1 against a number of test microorganisms showed a broad antimicrobial spectrum property with inhibition towards 25 out of 29 test microorganisms. The antimicrobial compound(s of S2A1 was more effective against Gram-positive bacteria with 100% inhibition, compared to yeast (88.8% and Gram-negative bacteria (75.0% tested. High activity scores were observed when using whole cells compared to cell free extract.

  17. Microbially influenced corrosion of 303 stainless steel by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens: (II) Corrosion mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical techniques (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization curves) and surface analysis (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) were carried out to determine the possible mechanism of the microbially influenced corrosion of 303 stainless steel (303 SS) by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens (V. natriegens). In order to clarify the mechanism, 303 SS coupons were immersed in four different mediums. EIS results were interpreted with different equivalent circuits to model the physicoelectric characteristics of the electrode/biofilm/solution interface. The results showed that N2-fixation actually promoted the corrosion of 303 SS; however, the influence of the produced NH3 was negligible. It can be speculated that the electron transfer and/or the nitrogenase catalyzing the process may influence the corrosion.

  18. Microbially influenced corrosion of stainless steel by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens: (I) Corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbially influenced corrosion of stainless steel (SS) by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens (V. natriegens) was investigated using surface analysis (atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA)) and electrochemical techniques (the open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization curves ). AFM images corroborated the results from the EIS models which show biofilm attachment and subsequent detachment over time. The SEM images revealed the occurrence of micro-pitting corrosion underneath the biofilms on the metal surface after the biofilm removal. The presence of carbon, oxygen, phosphor and sulfur obtained from EDXA proved the formation of biofilm. The electrochemical results showed that the corrosion of SS was accelerated in the presence of V. natriegens based on the decrease in the resistance of the charge transfer resistance (Rct) obtained from EIS and the increase in corrosion current densities obtained from potentiodynamic polarization curves.

  19. A cultured greigite-producing magnetotactic bacterium in a novel group of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Christopher T; Menguy, Nicolas; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Pósfai, Mihály; Prozorov, Tanya; Pignol, David; Frankel, Richard B; Bazylinski, Dennis A

    2011-12-23

    Magnetotactic bacteria contain magnetosomes--intracellular, membrane-bounded, magnetic nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) or greigite (Fe(3)S(4))--that cause the bacteria to swim along geomagnetic field lines. We isolated a greigite-producing magnetotactic bacterium from a brackish spring in Death Valley National Park, California, USA, strain BW-1, that is able to biomineralize greigite and magnetite depending on culture conditions. A phylogenetic comparison of BW-1 and similar uncultured greigite- and/or magnetite-producing magnetotactic bacteria from freshwater to hypersaline habitats shows that these organisms represent a previously unknown group of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Deltaproteobacteria. Genomic analysis of BW-1 reveals the presence of two different magnetosome gene clusters, suggesting that one may be responsible for greigite biomineralization and the other for magnetite. PMID:22194580

  20. An outbreak in 1965 of severe respiratory illness caused by the Legionnaires' disease bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, S B; Bennett, J V; Tsai, T F; Fraser, D W; McDade, J E; Shepard, C C; Williams, K H; Stuart, W H; Dull, H B; Eickhoff, T C

    1978-10-01

    In January 1977 an unsolved outbreak of infection at St. Elizabeth's Hospital (Washington, D.C.) that occurred in 1965 was linked with Legionnaires' disease. The link was made by fluorescent antibody testing with the bacterium isolated from tissues of persons with Legionnaires' disease in the 1976 outbreak in Philadelphia. In July and August 1965, an epidemic of severe respiratory disease characterized by abrupt onset of high fever, weakness, malaise, and nonproductive cough, frequently accompanied by radiographic evidence of pneumonia, affected at least 81 patients at St. Elizabeth's Hospital, a general psychiatric hospital. Fourteen (17%) of the affected patients died. Intensive epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in 1965 did not determine the etiology. The etiologic organism may have become airborne from sites of soil excavation. PMID:361897

  1. DNA Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression in Antifungal Bacterium of Bacillus lenthmorbus WJ5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This simultaneous expression levels of antifungal activity related was analyzed by DNA microarray. We constructured DNA chips contained 2,000 randomly digested genome spots of the antifungal bacterium of Bacillus lentimorbus WJ5 and compared it squantitative aspect with 7 antifungal activity deficient mutants induced by gamma radiation . From the analysis of microarray hybridization by the Gene Cluster, totally 408 genes were expressed and 20 genes among them were significantly suppressed in mutants. pbuX, ywbA, ptsG,yufO, and ftsY were simultaneously down-regulated in all muatants. It suggested that they were supposed to be related to the antifungal activity of B. lentimorbus WJ5

  2. Brevibacterium rufescens nov. comb. , a facultative anaerobic methylotrophic bacterium from oil-bearing strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazina, T.N.

    1981-03-01

    The paper presents the results of studying the bacterial population from the microaerophilic zone of oil-bearing strata of the Apsheron Peninsula. The incidence of bacteria capable of growing at the account of organic substances present in stratal water could reach dozens of thousands of cells in 1 ml. A bacterium predominant in the bacterial cenosis of the microaerophilic zone was islated as a pure culture. A new combination, Brevibacterium rufescens nov. comb. was created on the basis of morphological, physiologo-biochemical properties and the GC content in the DNA of the organism under study. The microorganism is adapted to its habitat in a number of properties. The necessity of recreating the genus Brevibacterium is discussed.

  3. UV-induced variability of the amylolytic thermophilic bacterium Bacillus diastaticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV-induced variability of a thermophilic bacterium Bacillus diastaticus 13 by amylase formation has been studied. It has been shown, that variability limits in amylase biosynthesis vary from 2.2 to 158.7% under UV irradiation. At 41.8x102 erg/mm2 UV dose a ''plus-variant'' designated as the UV1 mutant has been prepared. Its subsequent selection without using mutagene permitted to select the UV 1-25 variant, exceeding the initial strain in amylase biosynthesis by 43.3%. Under UV irradiation two low-active in biosynthesis amylases of the mutant were prepared. Demands for growth factors of some mutant have been studied as well

  4. Triplet excited state spectra and dynamics of carotenoids from the thermophilic purple photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Blankenship, R. E.

    2011-01-13

    Light-harvesting complex 2 from the anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum was purified and studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence and flash photolysis spectroscopy. Steady-state absorption and fluorescence measurements show that carotenoids play a negligible role as supportive energy donors and transfer excitation to bacteriochlorophyll-a with low energy transfer efficiency of ~30%. HPLC analysis determined that the dominant carotenoids in the complex are rhodopin and spirilloxanthin. Carotenoid excited triplet state formation upon direct (carotenoid) or indirect (bacteriochlorophyll-a Q{sub x} band) excitation shows that carotenoid triplets are mostly localized on spirilloxanthin. In addition, no triplet excitation transfer between carotenoids was observed. Such specific carotenoid composition and spectroscopic results strongly suggest that this organism optimized carotenoid composition in the light-harvesting complex 2 in order to maximize photoprotective capabilities of carotenoids but subsequently drastically suppressed their supporting role in light-harvesting process.

  5. Structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase has been determined to 1.72 Å resolution and is presented with a brief comparison to other known ribose 5-phosphate isomerase A structures. The structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC188 has been determined at 1.72 Å resolution. The structure was solved by molecular replacement, which identified the functional homodimer in the asymmetric unit. Despite only showing 57% sequence identity to its closest homologue, the structure adopted the typical α and β d-ribose 5-phosphate isomerase fold. Comparison to other related structures revealed high homology in the active site, allowing a model of the substrate-bound protein to be proposed. The determination of the structure was expedited by the use of in situ crystallization-plate screening on beamline I04-1 at Diamond Light Source to identify well diffracting protein crystals prior to routine cryocrystallography

  6. Separation and characterization of a radioresistant bacterium strain BR501 from radiation polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain BR501, an extremely radioresistant bacterium isolated from the radioactive experimental soil. The optimal temperature for the growth of strain BR501 was 30 degree C. The UV radiation and γ-radiation survival curves showed the strain BR501 had highly radio-resistance. The strain was sensitive to Amp, Km, Rif, Cm and Tc. The 16S rDNA of the BR501 shared highly similarity to those of species in genus Deinococcus, especially to that of D.radiodurans r1(99%). Based on the 16S rDNA sequence analysis and the phenotype characteristics, the BR501 belongs to the evolution branch of Deinococcus and was designated Deinococcus sp. BR501. (authors)

  7. Extraction and physicochemical characteristics of a red pigment produced by marine bacterium strain S-9801

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田黎; 何培青; 刘晨临; 边际; 苗金来

    2002-01-01

    -- A red pigment that has better biological properties is produced by marine bacterium strain S- 9801. The extraction methods, physicochemical and toxicity of the pigment have been studied.Dissolubility of pigment in the five organic solvent has been tested, and ethanol is optimally chosen for extraction. Physicochemical characteristics of this pigment was stable. The absorbance of the pigment solution was no losing when put under natural light for 10 days or treated by UV for 30 minutes, color of the pigment unchanged after 100 ℃ hythere for 1 h or 80 ℃ xerother for 2 h. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the rat by celiac injection was 670.04 mg/kg and minimum lethal dose of oral was greater than 2 000 mg/kg.

  8. Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Maresca, Julia A; Yunker, Colleen E;

    2004-01-01

    The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum is a strict anaerobe and an obligate photoautotroph. On the basis of sequence similarity with known enzymes or sequence motifs, nine open reading frames encoding putative enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis were identified in the genome sequence of C....... tepidum, and all nine genes were inactivated. Analysis of the carotenoid composition in the resulting mutants allowed the genes encoding the following six enzymes to be identified: phytoene synthase (crtB/CT1386), phytoene desaturase (crtP/CT0807), zeta-carotene desaturase (crtQ/CT1414), gamma......-carotene desaturase (crtU/CT0323), carotenoid 1',2'-hydratase (crtC/CT0301), and carotenoid cis-trans isomerase (crtH/CT0649). Three mutants (CT0180, CT1357, and CT1416 mutants) did not exhibit a discernible phenotype. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in C. tepidum is similar to that in cyanobacteria and plants...

  9. Bioluminescent reporter bacterium for toxicity monitoring in biological wastewater treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, C.J.; Lajoie, C.A.; Layton, A.C.; Sayler, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    Toxic shock due to certain chemical loads in biological wastewater treatment systems can result in death of microorganisms and loss of floc structure. To overcome the limitations of existing approaches to toxicity monitoring, genes encoding enzymes for light production were inserted to a bacterium (Shk 1) isolated from activated sludge. The Shk 1 bioreporter indicated a toxic response to concentrations of cadmium, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and hydroquinone by reductions in initial levels of bioluminescence on exposure to the toxicant. The decrease in bioluminescence was more severe with increasing toxicant concentration. Bioluminescence did not decrease in response to ethanol concentrations up to 1,000 mg/L or to pH conditions between 6.1 and 7.9. A continuous toxicity monitoring system using this bioreporter was developed for influent wastewater and tested with hydroquinone. The reporter exhibited a rapid and proportional decrease in bioluminescence in response to increasing hydroquinone concentrations.

  10. Genomic Sequence of Burkholderia multivorans NKI379, a Soil Bacterium That Inhibits the Growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    OpenAIRE

    Hsueh, Pei-Tan; Liu, Jong-Kang; Chen, Ya-Lei; Liu, Pei-Ju; Ni, Wen-Fan; Chen, Yao-Shen; Wu, Keh-Ming; Lin, Hsi-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia multivorans NKI379 is a soil bacterium that exhibits an antagonistic effect against the growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of the infectious disease melioidosis. We report the draft genomic sequence of B. multivorans NKI379, which has a G+C content of 67% and 5,203 candidate protein-encoding genes.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a Human Commensal Bacterium Highly Prevalent in the Digestive Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides.

  12. Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov., an anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, high ethanol-yielding bacterium isolated from household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    An extremely thermophilic, xylanolytic, spore-forming and strict anaerobic bacterium DTU01(T) was isolated from a continuously stirred tank reactor fed with xylose and household waste. Cells stained Gram-negative and were rod-shaped (0.5-2 µm in length). Spores were terminal with a diameter...

  13. Marinimicrobium haloxylanilyticum sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic, polysaccharide-degrading bacterium isolated from Great Salt Lake, Utah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh Møller, Mette; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2010-01-01

    A new moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, strain SX15T, was isolated from hypersaline surface sediment of the southern arm of Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA). The strain grew on a number of carbohydrates and carbohydrate polymers such as xylan, starch, carboxymethyl...

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Bacterium Aalborg_AAW-1, Representing a Novel Family within the Candidate Phylum SR1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Albertsen, Mads; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel;

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the candidate phylum SR1 bacterium Aalborg_AAW-1. Its 16S rRNA gene is only 85.5% similar to that of the closest relative, RAAC1_SR1, and the genome of Aalborg_AAW-1 consequently represents the first of a novel family within the candidate phylum SR1....

  15. Concentration and Transport of Nitrate by the Mat-Forming Sulfur Bacterium Thioploca Rid E-1821-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FOSSING, H.; GALLARDO, VA; JØRGENSEN, BB;

    1995-01-01

    , at between 40 and 280 m water depth. The metabolism of this marine bacterium(5,6) remained a mystery until long after its discovery(1,7). We report here that Thioploca cells are able to concentrate nitrate to up to 500 mM in a liquid vacuole that occupies >80% of the cell volume. Gliding filaments transport...

  16. Thermoregulation of N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone-Based Quorum Sensing in the Soft Rot Bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Latour, Xavier; Diallo, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Sylvie; Morin, Danièle; Smadja, Bruno; Burini, Jean-François; Haras, Dominique; Orange, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The psychrotolerant bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum produces four N-acyl homoserine lactones under a wide range of temperatures. Their thermoregulation differs from that of the exoenzyme production, described as being under quorum-sensing control. A mechanism involved in this thermoregulation consists of controlling N-acyl homoserine lactones synthase production at a transcriptional level.

  17. Extraction of DNA from orange juice and detection of bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus by real-time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange juice processed from Huanglongbing (HLB) affected fruit is often associated with bitter taste and/or off-flavor. HLB disease in Florida is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), a phloem limited bacterium. The current standard to confirm CLas for citrus trees is to take sam...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens Strain BA1, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes Found in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Hurst, Sheldon G; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Badr, Usama M; Hussein, Mona A; Abouzaied, Mohamed A; Khalil, Kamal M; Tisa, Louis S

    2014-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens strain BA1 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.0-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminscens strain BA1, with a G+C content of 42.46% and 4,250 candidate protein-coding genes. PMID:24786955

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus temperata Strain Meg1, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Heterorhabditis megidis Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Sheldon G.; Ghazal, Shimaa; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Badr, Usama M.; Hussein, Mona A.; AbouZaied, Mohamed A.; Khalil, Kamal M.; Tisa, Louis S.

    2014-01-01

    Photorhabdus temperata strain Meg1 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 4.9-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. temperata strain Meg1, with a G+C content of 43.18% and containing 4,340 candidate protein-coding genes.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus temperata Strain Meg1, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Heterorhabditis megidis Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sheldon G; Ghazal, Shimaa; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Badr, Usama M; Hussein, Mona A; AbouZaied, Mohamed A; Khalil, Kamal M; Tisa, Louis S

    2014-01-01

    Photorhabdus temperata strain Meg1 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 4.9-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. temperata strain Meg1, with a G+C content of 43.18% and containing 4,340 candidate protein-coding genes. PMID:25502670

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens Strain BA1, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes Found in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Hurst, Sheldon G.; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Badr, Usama M.; Hussein, Mona A.; AbouZaied, Mohamed A.; Khalil, Kamal M.; Tisa, Louis S.

    2014-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens strain BA1 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.0-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminscens strain BA1, with a G+C content of 42.46% and 4,250 candidate protein-coding genes.

  2. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of the Keratinolytic Bacterium Lysobacter sp. A03, Isolated from the Antarctic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant’Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Adriano BRANDELLI; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Lysobacter sp. strain A03 is a protease-producing bacterium isolated from decomposing-penguin feathers collected in the Antarctic environment. This strain has the ability to degrade keratin at low temperatures. The A03 genome sequence provides the possibility of finding new genes with biotechnological potential to better understand its cold-adaptation mechanism and survival in cold environments.

  3. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of the Keratinolytic Bacterium Lysobacter sp. A03, Isolated from the Antarctic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Pedrosa, Fábio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Brandelli, Adriano; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-01-01

    Lysobacter sp. strain A03 is a protease-producing bacterium isolated from decomposing-penguin feathers collected in the Antarctic environment. This strain has the ability to degrade keratin at low temperatures. The A03 genome sequence provides the possibility of finding new genes with biotechnological potential to better understand its cold-adaptation mechanism and survival in cold environments. PMID:25838495

  4. Thermoregulation of N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone-Based Quorum Sensing in the Soft Rot Bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, Xavier; Diallo, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Sylvie; Morin, Danièle; Smadja, Bruno; Burini, Jean-François; Haras, Dominique; Orange, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The psychrotolerant bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum produces four N-acyl homoserine lactones under a wide range of temperatures. Their thermoregulation differs from that of the exoenzyme production, described as being under quorum-sensing control. A mechanism involved in this thermoregulation consists of controlling N-acyl homoserine lactones synthase production at a transcriptional level. PMID:17468275

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a Human Commensal Bacterium Highly Prevalent in the Digestive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides. PMID:26847886

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1, a Lactic Acid Bacterium Isolated from French Handcrafted Fermented Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Julie; Irlinger, Françoise; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Passot, Stéphanie; Béal, Catherine; Layec, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a lactic acid bacterium widely used for the production of yogurt and cheeses. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. bulgaricus CFL1 to improve our knowledge on its stress-induced damages following production and end-use processes. PMID:26941141

  7. Isolation and characterization of an Enterococcus-like bacterium causing muscle necrosis and mortality in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W; Chen, J C

    1998-10-01

    A Gram-positive, ovoid, diplococoid bacterium tentatively identified as Enterococcus-like was isolated from diseased Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Taiwanese aquaculture ponds. The diseased prawns displayed poor growth, anorexia, inactivity, opaque and whitish musculature, and mortality. In histological preparations, melanized hemocytic granulomas were seen in the connective tissue around hemal sinuses together with hemocytic aggregation in necrotic musculature. Five isolates of diplococci were collected from diseased prawns at 4 farms and these were evaluated for 93 characteristics including morphology, physiology, biochemistry and sensitivity to antibiotics. The results indicated that the isolates belonged to a single species. They grew in 0.5 to 6.0% NaCl, at 10 to 40 degrees C, at pH 9.6 and on bile esculin medium, gave positive pyrrolidonylarylamidase, arginine dehydrolase and Voges-Proskauer tests, were resistant to bacitracin and SXT, and were CAMP-negative and non-hemolytic on sheep blood agar. These findings indicated an Enterococcus-like bacterium closely related to Enterococcus seriolicida (recently reduced to synonymy with Lactococcus garvieae). Experimental injection of 3 x 10(5) cells of strain KM002 of this Enterococcus-like bacterium into the ventral sinus of the prawn cephalothorax caused 100% mortality in 11 d, and induced muscular necrosis and hepatopancreatitis, gross signs and histopathology similar to those observed in the naturally infected prawns. It was concluded that this Enterococcus-like bacterium was the etiological agent associated with mortality of the farmed, diseased prawns. PMID:9828405

  8. Complete genome of Pandoraea pnomenusa RB-38, an oxalotrophic bacterium isolated from municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Yong, Delicia; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-11-20

    Pandoraea pnomenusa RB-38 is a bacterium isolated from a former sanitary landfill site. Here, we present the complete genome of P. pnomenusa RB38 in which an oxalate utilization pathway was identified. The genome analysis suggested the potential of this strain as an effective biocontrol agent against oxalate-producing phytopathogens. PMID:26393955

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Extremely Halophilic Bacterium Halomonas salina Strain CIFRI1, Isolated from the East Coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Behera, Bijay Kumar; Das, Priyanka; Maharana, Jitendra; Paria, Prasenjit; Mandal, Shambhu Nath; Meena, Dharmendra Kumar; Sharma, Anil Prakash; Jayarajan, Rijith; Dixit, Vishal; Verma, Ankit; Vellarikkal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Rao, Atmakuri Ramakrishna; Mohapatra, Trilochan

    2015-01-01

    Halomonas salina strain CIFRI1 is an extremely salt-stress-tolerant bacterium isolated from the salt crystals of the east coast of India. Here we report the annotated 3.45-Mb draft genome sequence of strain CIFRI1 having 86 contigs with 3,139 protein coding loci, including 62 RNA genes.

  10. Antioxidants keep the potentially probiotic but highly oxygen-sensitive human gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii alive at ambient air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M. Tanweer; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J M

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a 'probiotic of the future' since it produces high amounts of butyrate and anti-inflammatory compounds. However, this bacterium is highly oxygen-senstive, making it notoriously difficult to cultivate and preserve. This has so far precl

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus farraginis R-6540T (DSM 16013), a Spore-Forming Bacterium Isolated at Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-ping; Liu, Guo-hong; Ge, Ci-bin; Xiao, Rong-feng; Zheng, Xue-fang; Shi, Huai

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus farraginis R-6540T is a Gram-positive, aerobic, and spore-forming bacterium with very high intrinsic heat resistance. Here, we report the 5.32-Mb draft genome sequence of B. farraginis R-6540T, which is the first genome sequence of this species and will promote its fundamental research. PMID:27313303

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1, a Lactic Acid Bacterium Isolated from French Handcrafted Fermented Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Julie; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Irlinger, Françoise; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Passot, Stéphanie; Béal, Catherine; Layec, Séverine; Fonseca, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a lactic acid bacterium widely used for the production of yogurt and cheeses. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. bulgaricus CFL1 to improve our knowledge on its stress-induced damages following production and end-use processes. PMID:26941141

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Nitrosospira sp. Strain APG3, a Psychrotolerant Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from Sandy Lake Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Juan C.; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Le, Vang Q.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Klotz, Martin G; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Nitrosospira play vital roles in the nitrogen cycle. Nitrosospira sp. strain APG3 is a psychrotolerant betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacterium isolated from freshwater lake sediment. The draft genome revealed that it represents a new species of cluster 0 Nitrosospira, which is presently not represented by described species.

  14. Draft Genome of Shewanella frigidimarina Ag06-30, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from Potter Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeciano Di Noto, Gisela; Vázquez, Susana C; MacCormack, Walter P; Iriarte, Andrés; Quiroga, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    We present the draft genome of Shewanella frigidimarina Ag06-30, a marine bacterium from King George Island, Antarctica, which encodes the carbapenemase SFP-1. The assembly contains 4,799,218 bp (G+C content 41.24%). This strain harbors several mobile genetic elements that provide insight into lateral gene transfer and bacterial plasticity and evolution. PMID:27151790

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Dyella thiooxydans ATSB10, a Thiosulfate-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from Sunflower Fields in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwangbo, Kyeong; Um, Yurry; Chung, Hee; Yoo, Jemin; Kim, Ki Yoon; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tong Min; Lee, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Dyella thiooxydans ATSB10 (KACC 12756(T) = LMG 24673(T)) is a thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soils of sunflower plants. In this study, we completely sequenced the genome of D. thiooxydans ATSB10 and identified the genes involved in thiosulfate oxidation and the metabolism of aromatic intermediates. PMID:27340060

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Anaeromyxobacter sp. Strain PSR-1, an Arsenate-Respiring Bacterium Isolated from Arsenic-Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tonomura, Mimori; Ehara, Ayaka; Suzuki, Haruo; Amachi, Seigo

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Anaeromyxobacter sp. strain PSR-1, an arsenate-respiring bacterium isolated from arsenic-contaminated soil. It contained three distinct arsenic resistance gene clusters (ars operons), while no respiratory arsenate reductase gene (arr) was identified.

  17. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain S9, an Extracellular Arylsulfatase-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Mangrove Soil ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Mengxian; Ruan, Lingwei; Yu, Ziniu; Xu, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain S9 was originally isolated from mangrove soil in Xiamen, China. It is an aerobic bacterium which shows extracellular arylsulfatase activity. Here, we describe the 4.8-Mb draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. S9, which exhibits novel cysteine-type sulfatases.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica Strain S12, a Lignin-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from Forest Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Wenying; Zhou, Yun; Jiang, Jingwei; Xu, Zhihui; Hou, Liyuan; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica strain S12, isolated from a soil sample collected from areas bordering rotten wood and wet soil on Mt. Zijin, Nanjing. The complete genome of this bacterium may contribute toward the discovery of efficient lignin-degrading pathways.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a novel poly(vinyl alcohol)-degrading bacterium, Sphingopyxis sp. PVA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatsu, Atsushi; Matsumi, Rie; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2006-10-01

    We have isolated a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-degrading bacterium from an activated sludge sample obtained from the drainage of a dyeing factory. Enrichment cultures were performed in media containing PVA as the sole or major carbon source. After several rounds of cultivation on liquid and solid media, we were able to isolate a single colony with PVA-degrading ability (strain PVA3). The bacterium could degrade PVA in the absence of symbionts or cofactors such as pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ). Over 90% of PVA, at an initial concentration of 0.1%, was degraded within a 6-day cultivation. Degradation was confirmed by both iodometric methods and gel permeation chromatography. Examination of the PVA attached to the cells revealed a large increase in carbonyl groups, suggesting the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of the polymer on the surfaces of cells. Addition of PQQ to the culture medium did not enhance the growth and the PVA-degrading rates of strain PVA3. Furthermore, we found that cells grown on PVA generated hydrogen peroxide upon the addition of PVA. The results strongly suggest that the initial oxidation of PVA is mediated via a PVA oxidase, and not a PQQ-dependent dehydrogenase. A biochemical and phylogenetic characterization of the bacterium was performed. The sequence of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of the bacterium indicated a phylogenetic position of the strain within the genus Sphingopyxis, and the strain was therefore designated Sphingopyxis sp. PVA3. PMID:16583228

  20. The use of fluorescent probes to assess viability of the plant pathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis by flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, L.G.; Breeuwer, P.; Abee, T.; Bulk, van den R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Determination of the viability of bacteria by the conventional plating technique is a time-consuming process. Methods based on enzyme activity or membrane integrity are much faster and may be good alternatives. Assessment of the viability of suspensions of the plant pathogenic bacterium Clavibacter

  1. THE ENDOPHYTE CURTOBACTERIUM FLACCUMFACIENS REDUCES SYMPTOMS CAUSED BY XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA IN CATHARANTHUS ROSEUSAN ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIUM FROM CITRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is a disease of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.)) caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all sweet orange cultivars. Sweet orange trees are sometimes observed to be infected by Xylella fastidiosa without showing seve...

  2. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS. PMID:26826831

  3. Draft Genome of Shewanella frigidimarina Ag06-30, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from Potter Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeciano Di Noto, Gisela; Vázquez, Susana C.; MacCormack, Walter P.; Iriarte, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We present the draft genome of Shewanella frigidimarina Ag06-30, a marine bacterium from King George Island, Antarctica, which encodes the carbapenemase SFP-1. The assembly contains 4,799,218 bp (G+C content 41.24%). This strain harbors several mobile genetic elements that provide insight into lateral gene transfer and bacterial plasticity and evolution. PMID:27151790

  4. Upregulation of Intestinal Mucin Expression by the Probiotic Bacterium E. coli Nissle 1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Mohamed M

    2012-06-01

    The probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) has been reported to have various health benefits; however, very little is known about their underlying mechanisms. In this regard, the present study aimed to elucidate the effect of the bacterium on mucin production by intestinal epithelial cells. Incubation of HT-29 cells with EcN lead to a contact time-dependent rise in mRNA levels of the MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, and MUC5A. The expression was markedly higher with MUC5AC gene. In most cases, MUC genes expression was more pronounced in polarized cells compared to non-polarized ones. In contrast to MUC3, the basal stimulation of polarized cells brought about markedly higher levels of other tested mucins. Similar but milder results were observed when living EcN was replaced by inactivated bacteria. With exception of MUC3, the conditioned media showed no significant effect on the mRNA level of the tested mucins. The above-mentioned mRNA results were confirmed on protein level using enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). In contrast to other treatments, basal stimulation of polarized cells showed a growth phase-dependent MUC induction with more prominent effect by stationary-phase bacteria. In contrast to MUC 2 and MUC3, the induction of MUC5AC and MUC5B showed a bacterial count-dependent pattern. In conclusion, EcN was found to stimulate MUC gene expression in HT-29 intestinal cells. This stimulation was more distinct with polarized cells. Such observation may partially interpret some health benefits of the probiotic bacterium including antagonizing pathogen adhesion and protection of the intestinal mucosa. PMID:26781849

  5. Regulation of dissimilatory sulfur oxidation in the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChristianeDahl

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum, thiosulfate oxidation is strictly dependent on the presence of three periplasmic Sox proteins encoded by the soxBXAK and soxYZ genes. It is also well documented that proteins encoded in the dsr (dissimilatory sulfite reductase operon, dsrABEFHCMKLJOPNRS, are essential for the oxidation of sulfur that is stored intracellularly as an obligatory intermediate during the oxidation of thiosulfate and sulfide. Until recently, detailed knowledge about the regulation of the sox genes was not available. We started to fill this gap and show that these genes are expressed on a low constitutive level in A. vinosum in the absence of reduced sulfur compounds. Thiosulfate and possibly sulfide lead to an induction of sox gene transcription. Additional translational regulation was not apparent. Regulation of soxXAK is probably performed by a two-component system consisting of a multisensor histidine kinase and a regulator with proposed di-guanylate cyclase activity. Previous work already provided some information about regulation of the dsr genes encoding the second important sulfur-oxidizing enzyme system in the purple sulfur bacterium. The expression of most dsr genes was found to be at a low basal level in the absence of reduced sulfur compounds and enhanced in the presence of sulfide. In the present work, we focused on the role of DsrS, a protein encoded by the last gene of the dsr locus in A. vinosum. Transcriptional and translational gene fusion experiments suggest a participation of DsrS in the post-transcriptional control of the dsr operon. Characterization of an A. vinosum ΔdsrS mutant showed that the monomeric cytoplasmic 41.1 kDa protein DsrS is important though not essential for the oxidation of sulfur stored in the intracellular sulfur globules.

  6. Survival Strategies of the Plant-Associated Bacterium Enterobacter sp. Strain EG16 under Cadmium Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanmei; Chao, Yuanqing; Li, Yaying; Lin, Qingqi; Bai, Jun; Tang, Lu; Wang, Shizhong; Ying, Rongrong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria are of great interest because of their potential use in phytoremediation. However, their ability to survive and promote plant growth in metal-polluted soils remains unclear. In this study, a soilborne Cd-resistant bacterium was isolated and identified as Enterobacter sp. strain EG16. It tolerates high external Cd concentrations (Cd(2+) MIC, >250 mg liter(-1)) and is able to produce siderophores and the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), both of which contribute to plant growth promotion. Surface biosorption in this strain accounted for 31% of the total Cd accumulated. The potential presence of cadmium sulfide, shown by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, suggested intracellular Cd binding as a Cd response mechanism of the isolate. Cd exposure resulted in global regulation at the transcriptomic level, with the bacterium switching to an energy-conserving mode by inhibiting energy-consuming processes while increasing the production of stress-related proteins. The stress response system included increased import of sulfur and iron, which become deficient under Cd stress, and the redirection of sulfur metabolism to the maintenance of intracellular glutathione levels in response to Cd toxicity. Increased production of siderophores, responding to Cd-induced Fe deficiency, not only is involved in the Cd stress response systems of EG16 but may also play an important role in promoting plant growth as well as alleviating the Cd-induced inhibition of IAA production. The newly isolated strain EG16 may be a suitable candidate for microbially assisted phytoremediation due to its high resistance to Cd and its Cd-induced siderophore production, which is likely to contribute to plant growth promotion. PMID:26729719

  7. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate by the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum P5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinling; Wei, Ying; Zhao, Yupeng; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2012-07-01

    The effects of different NaCl concentrations, nitrogen sources, carbon sources, and carbon to nitrogen molar ratios on biomass accumulation and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production were studied in batch cultures of the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum P5 under aerobic-dark conditions. The results show that the accumulation of PHB in strain P5 is a growth-associated process. Strain P5 had maximum biomass and PHB accumulation at 2%-3% NaCl, suggesting that the bacterium can maintain growth and potentially produce PHB at natural seawater salinity. In the nitrogen source test, the maximum biomass accumulation (8.10±0.09 g/L) and PHB production (1.11±0.13 g/L and 14.62%±2.2 of the cell dry weight) were observed when peptone and ammonium chloride were used as the sole nitrogen source. NH{4/+}-N was better for PHB production than other nitrogen sources. In the carbon source test, the maximum biomass concentration (7.65±0.05 g/L) was obtained with malic acid as the sole carbon source, whereas the maximum yield of PHB (5.03±0.18 g/L and 66.93%±1.69% of the cell dry weight) was obtained with sodium pyruvate as the sole carbon source. In the carbon to nitrogen ratios test, sodium pyruvate and ammonium chloride were selected as the carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The best carbon to nitrogen molar ratio for biomass accumulation (8.77±0.58 g/L) and PHB production (6.07±0.25 g/L and 69.25%±2.05% of the cell dry weight) was 25. The results provide valuable data on the production of PHB by R. sulfidophilum P5 and further studies are on-going for best cell growth and PHB yield.

  8. Lethal Effect on Bacterium of Decay of Incorporated Radioactive Atoms (3H, 14C, 32P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effect of decay of 3H, 14C and 32P incorporated into a bacterium depends on the nature of the organic molecule labelled, on the position of the isotope within it and on the isotope itself. In sum, results obtained to date show that: The decay of 3H atoms incorporated into certain macromolecules of a bacterium causes sterilization through ionization by the ß- particle emitted; transmutation is of negligible importance. This self-irradiation is comparable in effect with X-rays and is affected in a similar manner by the same factors: temperature, presence of a radioprotector, radiosensitivity of the strain. Decay of 14C or 32P atoms incorporated into bacterial DNA is lethal because of the transmutation effect; ionizations produced by emitted ß- particles may be disregarded. Survival curves for 32P transmutations depend on the experimental conditions. Some of the results obtained with 32P are similar to those obtained with X-rays, e.g. effects of temperature, radical capture and oxygen, while others are similar to those of u.v. light, e.g., effect of growth conditions. Comparative tests made with 32P indicate that the recoil energy of transmutation is not the phenomenon responsible for the lethal effect observed. Comparison of the results obtained after X-irradiation or decay of 3H or 32P incorporated into the DNA of bacteria of the same strain of E. coli shows that the efficiency of a 32P transmutation is about four times greater than that of an ionization produced at random within the same DNA. (author)

  9. Metabolism of Kaempferia parviflora polymethoxyflavones by human intestinal bacterium Bautia sp. MRG-PMF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihyang; Kim, Nayoung; Han, Jaehong

    2014-12-24

    Poylmethoxyflavones (PMFs) are major bioactive flavonoids, which exhibit various biological activities, such as anticancer effects. The biotransformation of PMFs and characterization of a PMF-metabolizing human intestinal bacterium were studied herein for the first time. Hydrolysis of aryl methyl ether functional groups by human fecal samples was observed from the bioconversion of various PMFs. Activity-guided screening for PMF-metabolizing intestinal bacteria under anaerobic conditions resulted in the isolation of a strict anaerobic bacterium, which was identified as Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1. The isolated MRG-PMF1 was able to metabolize various PMFs to the corresponding demethylated flavones. The microbial conversion of bioactive 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) and 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (5,7,4'-TMF) was studied in detail. 5,7-DMF and 5,7,4'-TMF were completely metabolized to 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (chrysin) and 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone (apigenin), respectively. From a kinetics study, the methoxy group on the flavone C-7 position was found to be preferentially hydrolyzed. 5-Methoxychrysin, the intermediate of 5,7-DMF metabolism by Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1, was isolated and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apigenin was produced from the sequential demethylation of 5,7,4'-TMF, via 5,4'-dimethoxy-7-hydroxyflavone and 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavone (thevetiaflavone). Not only demethylation activity but also deglycosylation activity was exhibited by Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1, and various flavonoids, including isoflavones, flavones, and flavanones, were found to be metabolized to the corresponding aglycones. The unprecedented PMF demethylation activity of Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1 will expand our understanding of flavonoid metabolism in the human intestine and lead to novel bioactive compounds. PMID:25437273

  10. Co-metabolism of DDT by the newly isolated bacterium, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangli Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial degradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (DDT is the most promising way to clean up DDT residues found in the environment. In this paper, a bacterium designated as wax, which was capable of co-metabolizing DDT with other carbon sources, was isolated from a long-term DDT-contaminated soil sample by an enrichment culture technique. The new isolate was identified as a member of the Pseudoxanthomonas sp., based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical properties, as well as by 16S rRNA gene analysis. In the presence of 100 mg l-1 glucose, the wax strain could degrade over 95% of the total DDT, at a concentration of 20 mg l-1, in 72 hours, and could degrade over 60% of the total DDT, at a concentration of 100 mg l-1, in 144 hours. The wax strain had the highest degradation efficiency among all of the documented DDT-degrading bacteria. The wax strain could efficiently degrade DDT at temperatures ranging from 20 to 37ºC, and with initial pH values ranging from 7 to 9. The bacterium could also simultaneously co-metabolize 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (DDD, 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl-1,1-dichlorethylene (DDE, and other organochlorine compounds. The wax strain could also completely remove 20 mg kg-1 of DDT from both sterile and non-sterile soils in 20 days. This study demonstrates the significant potential use of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. wax for the bioremediation of DDT in the environment.

  11. Genome sequence of the pattern forming Paenibacillus vortex bacterium reveals potential for thriving in complex environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshkowitz Dena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern-forming bacterium Paenibacillus vortex is notable for its advanced social behavior, which is reflected in development of colonies with highly intricate architectures. Prior to this study, only two other Paenibacillus species (Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 and Paenibacillus larvae have been sequenced. However, no genomic data is available on the Paenibacillus species with pattern-forming and complex social motility. Here we report the de novo genome sequence of this Gram-positive, soil-dwelling, sporulating bacterium. Results The complete P. vortex genome was sequenced by a hybrid approach using 454 Life Sciences and Illumina, achieving a total of 289× coverage, with 99.8% sequence identity between the two methods. The sequencing results were validated using a custom designed Agilent microarray expression chip which represented the coding and the non-coding regions. Analysis of the P. vortex genome revealed 6,437 open reading frames (ORFs and 73 non-coding RNA genes. Comparative genomic analysis with 500 complete bacterial genomes revealed exceptionally high number of two-component system (TCS genes, transcription factors (TFs, transport and defense related genes. Additionally, we have identified genes involved in the production of antimicrobial compounds and extracellular degrading enzymes. Conclusions These findings suggest that P. vortex has advanced faculties to perceive and react to a wide range of signaling molecules and environmental conditions, which could be associated with its ability to reconfigure and replicate complex colony architectures. Additionally, P. vortex is likely to serve as a rich source of genes important for agricultural, medical and industrial applications and it has the potential to advance the study of social microbiology within Gram-positive bacteria.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a radiation resistant thermophilic bacterium from radon hot spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation resistant and thermophilic bacterium strain R4-33 was isolated from radon hot spring water samples, pretreated with 60Co γ-rays and UV irradiation. Tests on morphological, physiological and biochemical characters, fatty acid compositions, (G + C) mol% contents, and 16S rDNA sequencing were conducted. The results showed that strain R4-33 was of rod-shape, Gram-negative, atrichous, and endospore-forming. The optimum growth temperature and pH were 60 ℃ and 7.5, respectively. The strain utilized glucose, maltose and trehalose as carbon sources, and hydrolyzed casein and starch. Its catalase positive. The strain was sensitive to penicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, amikacin and ampicillin. The major cellular fatty acids were C14:1 (48.8%) and C15:1 (15.2%). The (G + C) mol% content of DNA was 58.2%. Phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA sequence showed R4-33 shared highly similarity to those of species in genus Anoxybacillus, especially to that of Anoxybacillus gonensis (99.5%). Based on the above, the strain R4-33 was proposed to the evolution branch of Anoxybacillus and designated as Anoxybacillu sp. R4-33. The UV and γ-radiation tests showed that the strain R4-33 had an ability of resistance to UV of 396 J/m2 and 60Co γ-rays irradiation of 14.0 kGy, indicating that the strain was a radiation resistant and thermophilic bacterium. (authors)

  13. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghavi, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Hoffman, A.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Walla, M. D.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.; Monchy, S.

    2010-05-13

    Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to

  14. Enhanced bactericidal potency of nanoliposomes by modification of the fusion activity between liposomes and bacterium

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    Ma YF

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Yufan Ma,1 Zhao Wang,1,2 Wen Zhao,1 Tingli Lu,1 Rutao Wang,1,2 Qibing Mei,1 Tao Chen1–3 1Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2Shaanxi Liposome Research Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 3Xi'an Libang Pharmaceuticals Co, Ltd, Xi'an, People's Republic of China Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a good model of antibiotic resistance. These organisms have an outer membrane with a low level of permeability to drugs that is often combined with multidrug efflux pumps, enzymatic inactivation of the drug, or alteration of its molecular target. The acute and growing problem of antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas to conventional antibiotics made it imperative to develop new liposome formulations to overcome these mechanisms, and investigate the fusion between liposome and bacterium. Methods: The rigidity, stability and charge properties of phospholipid vesicles were modified by varying the cholesterol, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE, and negatively charged lipids 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol sodium salt (DMPG, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phopho-L-serine sodium salt (DMPS, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate monosodium salt (DMPA, nature phosphatidylserine sodium salt from brain and nature phosphatidylinositol sodium salt from soybean concentrations in liposomes. Liposomal fusion with intact bacteria was monitored using a lipid-mixing assay. Results: It was discovered that the fluid liposomes-bacterium fusion is not dependent on liposomal size and lamellarity. A similar degree of fusion was observed for liposomes with a particle size from 100 to 800 nm. The fluidity of liposomes is an essential pre-request for liposomes fusion with bacteria. Fusion was almost completely inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol into fluid liposomes. The increase in the

  15. Computational prediction of essential genes in an unculturable endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia of Brugia malayi

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    Carlow Clotilde KS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia (wBm is an obligate endosymbiotic bacterium of Brugia malayi, a parasitic filarial nematode of humans and one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis. There is a pressing need for new drugs against filarial parasites, such as B. malayi. As wBm is required for B. malayi development and fertility, targeting wBm is a promising approach. However, the lifecycle of neither B. malayi nor wBm can be maintained in vitro. To facilitate selection of potential drug targets we computationally ranked the wBm genome based on confidence that a particular gene is essential for the survival of the bacterium. Results wBm protein sequences were aligned using BLAST to the Database of Essential Genes (DEG version 5.2, a collection of 5,260 experimentally identified essential genes in 15 bacterial strains. A confidence score, the Multiple Hit Score (MHS, was developed to predict each wBm gene's essentiality based on the top alignments to essential genes in each bacterial strain. This method was validated using a jackknife methodology to test the ability to recover known essential genes in a control genome. A second estimation of essentiality, the Gene Conservation Score (GCS, was calculated on the basis of phyletic conservation of genes across Wolbachia's parent order Rickettsiales. Clusters of orthologous genes were predicted within the 27 currently available complete genomes. Druggability of wBm proteins was predicted by alignment to a database of protein targets of known compounds. Conclusion Ranking wBm genes by either MHS or GCS predicts and prioritizes potentially essential genes. Comparison of the MHS to GCS produces quadrants representing four types of predictions: those with high confidence of essentiality by both methods (245 genes, those highly conserved across Rickettsiales (299 genes, those similar to distant essential genes (8 genes, and those with low confidence of essentiality (253 genes. These data facilitate

  16. A Novel Treatment Protects Chlorella at Commercial Scale from the Predatory Bacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganuza, Eneko; Sellers, Charles E; Bennett, Braden W; Lyons, Eric M; Carney, Laura T

    2016-01-01

    The predatory bacterium, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, can destroy a Chlorella culture in just a few days, rendering an otherwise robust algal crop into a discolored suspension of empty cell walls. Chlorella is used as a benchmark for open pond cultivation due to its fast growth. In nature, V. chlorellavorus plays an ecological role by controlling this widespread terrestrial and freshwater microalga, but it can have a devastating effect when it attacks large commercial ponds. We discovered that V. chlorellavorus was associated with the collapse of four pilot commercial-scale (130,000 L volume) open-pond reactors. Routine microscopy revealed the distinctive pattern of V. chlorellavorus attachment to the algal cells, followed by algal cell clumping, culture discoloration and ultimately, growth decline. The "crash" of the algal culture coincided with increasing proportions of 16s rRNA sequencing reads assigned to V. chlorellavorus. We designed a qPCR assay to predict an impending culture crash and developed a novel treatment to control the bacterium. We found that (1) Chlorella growth was not affected by a 15 min exposure to pH 3.5 in the presence of 0.5 g/L acetate, when titrated with hydrochloric acid and (2) this treatment had a bactericidal effect on the culture (2-log decrease in aerobic counts). Therefore, when qPCR results indicated a rise in V. chlorellavorus amplicons, we found that the pH-shock treatment prevented the culture crash and doubled the productive longevity of the culture. Furthermore, the treatment could be repeatedly applied to the same culture, at the beginning of at least two sequential batch cycles. In this case, the treatment was applied preventively, further increasing the longevity of the open pond culture. In summary, the treatment reversed the infection of V. chlorellavorus as confirmed by observations of bacterial attachment to Chlorella cells and by detection of V. chlorellavorus by 16s rRNA sequencing and qPCR assay. The p

  17. Sphaerotilus natans, a neutrophilic iron-related filamentous bacterium : mechanisms of uranium scavenging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metals and radionuclides are present in some ecosystems worldwide due to natural contaminations or anthropogenic activities. The use of microorganisms to restore those polluted ecosystems, a process known as bioremediation, is of increasing interest, especially under near-neutral pH conditions. Iron minerals encrusting neutrophilic iron-related bacteria, especially Bacterio-genic Iron Oxides (BIOS), have a poorly crystalline structure, which in addition to their large surface area and reactivity make them excellent scavengers for inorganic pollutants. In this PhD work we studied the different mechanisms of uranium scavenging by the neutrophilic bacterium Sphaerotilus natans, chosen as a model bacterium for iron-related sheath-forming filamentous microorganisms. S. natans can grow as single cells and filaments. The latter were used to investigate U(VI) bio-sorption and U(VI) sorption onto BIOS. In addition, uranium sorption onto the abiotic analogues of such iron minerals was assessed. In order to use S. natans filaments for U(VI) scavenging, it was necessary to identify factors inducing S. natans filamentation. The influence of oxygen was ascertained by using molecular biology techniques and our results revealed that while saturated oxygen conditions resulted in single cell growth, a moderate oxygen depletion to ∼ 3 mg O2.L-1 led to the desired filamentous growth of S. natans. BIOS attached to S. natans filaments as well as the abiotic analogues were analysed by XAS at Fe K-edge. Both materials were identified as amorphous iron(III) phosphates with a small component of Fe(II), with a high reactivity towards scavenging of inorganic pollutants. In addition, EXAFS at the U LIII-edge revealed a common structure for the O shells, while those for P, Fe and C were different for each sorbent. An integrated approach combining experimental techniques and speciation calculations made it possible to describe U(VI) adsorption isotherms by using a surface complexation

  18. Halomonas urumqiensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a saline-alkaline lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Pan, Jiao; Lu, Weidong; Yan, Yanchun; Wang, Haisheng; Wiegel, Jurgen; Zhao, Baisuo

    2016-05-01

    A moderately halophilic, aerobic bacterium, strain BZ-SZ-XJ27T, belonging to the genus Halomonas, was isolated from a saline-alkaline lake in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and a multilocus sequence analysis using the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD genes demonstrated that strain BZ-SZ-XJ27T represents a member of the genus Halomonas. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the closest relatives were Halomonas campaniensis 5AGT, H. fontilapidosi 5CRT, H. korlensis XK1T and H. sinaiensis ALO SharmT, with similarities of 96.2-97.2 %. DNA-DNA hybridization with H. korlensis CGMCC 1.6981T (the nearest phylogenetic neighbour) and H. campaniensis DSM 15293T (the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) showed relatedness values of 53 and 38 %, respectively, demonstrating the separateness of the three taxa. The bacterium stained Gram-negative and the cells were motile and rod-shaped. The strain formed creamy-white colonies and grew under optimal conditions of 1.42 M Na+ (range 0.22-4.32 M Na+), pH 8.0-8.5 (range pH 6.0-10.0) and 39 °C (range 4-43 °C). The dominant fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c; 36.6 %), C16 : 0 (25.9 %) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c; 21.2 %). The dominant polar lipids were two unknown phospholipids, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, and the main respiratory quinones were ubiquinone 9 (Q-9; 89 %) and ubiquinone 8 (Q-8; 10 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 61.7 ± 0.8 mol% (Tm). On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic features, strain BZ-SZ-XJ27T is proposed to represent a novel species, Halomonas urumqiensis sp. nov., within the genus Halomonas of the family Halomonadaceae. The type strain is BZ-SZ-XJ27T ( = JCM 30202T = CGMCC 1.12917T). PMID:26873696

  19. Sequencing and characterization of the xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Y; Takase, K; Yamato, I; Abe, K

    1998-07-01

    The xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila (previously called Pediococcus halophilus), was cloned and sequenced. The DNA was about 7.7 kb long and contained genes for a ribose binding protein and part of a ribose transporter, xylR (a putative regulatory gene), and the xyl operon, along with its regulatory region and transcription termination signal, in this order. The DNA was AT rich, the GC content being 35.8%, consistent with the GC content of this gram-positive bacterium. The xyl operon consisted of three genes, xylA, encoding a xylose isomerase, xylB, encoding a xylulose kinase, and xylE, encoding a xylose transporter, with predicted molecular weights of 49,400, 56,400, and 51,600, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the XylR, XylA, XylB, and XylE proteins were similar to those of the corresponding proteins in other gram-positive and -negative bacteria, the similarities being 37 to 64%. Each polypeptide of XylB and XylE was expressed functionally in Escherichia coli. XylE transported D-xylose in a sodium ion-dependent manner, suggesting that it is the first described xylose/Na+ symporter. The XylR protein contained a consensus sequence for binding catabolites of glucose, such as glucose-6-phosphate, which has been discovered in glucose and fructose kinases in bacteria. Correspondingly, the regulatory region of this operon contained a putative binding site of XylR with a palindromic structure. Furthermore, it contained a consensus sequence, CRE (catabolite-responsive element), for binding CcpA (catabolite control protein A). We speculate that the transcriptional regulation of this operon resembles the regulation of catabolite-repressible operons such as the amy, lev, xyl, and gnt operons in various gram-positive bacteria. We discuss the significance of the regulation of gene expression of this operon in T. halophila. PMID:9647823

  20. Complete genome sequence of the filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus

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    Larimer Frank W

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroflexus aurantiacus is a thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic (FAP bacterium, and can grow phototrophically under anaerobic conditions or chemotrophically under aerobic and dark conditions. According to 16S rRNA analysis, Chloroflexi species are the earliest branching bacteria capable of photosynthesis, and Cfl. aurantiacus has been long regarded as a key organism to resolve the obscurity of the origin and early evolution of photosynthesis. Cfl. aurantiacus contains a chimeric photosystem that comprises some characters of green sulfur bacteria and purple photosynthetic bacteria, and also has some unique electron transport proteins compared to other photosynthetic bacteria. Methods The complete genomic sequence of Cfl. aurantiacus has been determined, analyzed and compared to the genomes of other photosynthetic bacteria. Results Abundant genomic evidence suggests that there have been numerous gene adaptations/replacements in Cfl. aurantiacus to facilitate life under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, including duplicate genes and gene clusters for the alternative complex III (ACIII, auracyanin and NADH:quinone oxidoreductase; and several aerobic/anaerobic enzyme pairs in central carbon metabolism and tetrapyrroles and nucleic acids biosynthesis. Overall, genomic information is consistent with a high tolerance for oxygen that has been reported in the growth of Cfl. aurantiacus. Genes for the chimeric photosystem, photosynthetic electron transport chain, the 3-hydroxypropionate autotrophic carbon fixation cycle, CO2-anaplerotic pathways, glyoxylate cycle, and sulfur reduction pathway are present. The central carbon metabolism and sulfur assimilation pathways in Cfl. aurantiacus are discussed. Some features of the Cfl. aurantiacus genome are compared with those of the Roseiflexus castenholzii genome. Roseiflexus castenholzii is a recently characterized FAP bacterium and phylogenetically closely related to Cfl

  1. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus okhensis Kh10-101T, a halo-alkali tolerant bacterium from Indian saltpan

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    Pilla Sankara Krishna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the 4.86-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus okhensis strain Kh10-101T, a halo-alkali tolerant rod shaped bacterium isolated from a salt pan near port of Okha, India. This bacterium is a potential model to study the molecular response of bacteria to salt as well as alkaline stress, as it thrives under both high salt and high pH conditions. The draft genome consist of 4,865,284 bp with 38.2% G + C, 4952 predicted CDS, 157 tRNAs and 8 rRNAs. Sequence was deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the project accession JRJU00000000.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis EB-28, an endophytic bacterium strain displaying biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shutong WANG; Tongle HU; Yanling JIAO; Jianjian WEI; Keqiang CAO

    2009-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea Pers. causes severe rotting on tomato fruits during storage and shelf life. As a biological control agent, endophytic bacterium was regarded as an effective alternative to chemical control. Out of 238 endophytic bacterial isolates, three strains (EB-15, EB-28, and EB-122) isolated from Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Speranskia tuberculata (Bge.) Baill, and Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. respectively were found to be strongly antagonistic to the pathogen in vitro and were selected for further in vivo tests. One endophytic bacterium strain, encoded EB-28, was selected from the three in vivo tested isolates. The inhibitive rate of EB-28 reached 71.1% in vitro and 52.4% in vivo. EB-28 was identified as Bacillus subtilis according to its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  3. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacterium LRE07 from cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and its potential for remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shenglian; Wan, Yong; Xiao, Xiao; Guo, Hanjun; Chen, Liang; Xi, Qiang; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Chengbin; Chen, Jueliang

    2011-03-01

    Valuable endophytic strains facilitating plants growth and detoxification of heavy metals are required because the application of plant-endophyte symbiotic system is a promising potential technique to improve efficiency of phytoremediation. In this study, endophytic bacterium LRE07 was isolated from cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. It was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The endophytic bacterium LRE07 was resistant to the toxic effects of heavy metals, solubilized mineral phosphate, and produced indoleacetic acid and siderophore. The heavy metal detoxification was studied in growing LRE07 cells. The strain bound over 65% of cadmium and 35% of zinc in its growing cells from single metal solutions 72 h after inoculation. Besides the high removal efficiencies in single-ion system, an analogous removal phenomenon was also observed in multi-ions system, indicating that the endophyte possesses specific and remarkable heavy metal remediation abilities. PMID:20953602

  4. Interaction between the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and vermiculite: Effects on chemical, mineralogical, and mechanical properties of vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Barbara; DéFago, GenèVieve

    2006-06-01

    On an expanded and crushed vermiculite, changes in chemical, mineralogical, and rheological properties of the mineral affected by microbial activity were investigated. Determination of the water content, grain size, X-ray diffraction pattern, intercrystalline swelling with glycerol, layer charge, CEC, exchangeable cations, BET surface, and rheology provided the necessary information about the differences between pure vermiculite, vermiculite suspensions containing the nutrient medium, and vermiculite suspensions containing the nutrient medium and the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0. The aerobic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens causes a decrease in grain size, aggregation of vermiculite grains as evidenced by smaller BET surfaces, and enhanced viscosity of the bacteria containing slurries. Layer charge, intercrystalline swelling, and CEC were not affected by the microbial activity, nor did the bacteria count for the exchange of potassium and magnesium against sodium in the vermiculite. The microbes inhibited this exchange process during the first stage of the experiments; however, increasing run time favors the exchange as well.

  5. Complete genome sequence of the complex carbohydrate-degrading marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Weiner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 (Sde 2-40 is emerging as a vanguard of a recently discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycles complex polysaccharides. We report its complete genome sequence, analysis of which identifies an unusually large number of enzymes that degrade >10 complex polysaccharides. Not only is this an extraordinary range of catabolic capability, many of the enzymes exhibit unusual architecture including novel combinations of catalytic and substrate-binding modules. We hypothesize that many of these features are adaptations that facilitate depolymerization of complex polysaccharides in the marine environment. This is the first sequenced genome of a marine bacterium that can degrade plant cell walls, an important component of the carbon cycle that is not well-characterized in the marine environment.

  6. Abscesses associated with a Brucella inopinata-like bacterium in a big-eyed tree frog (Leptopelis vermiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dominik; Lorenz, Nadja; Heuser, Wenke; Kämpfer, Peter; Scholz, Holger C; Lierz, Michael

    2012-09-01

    A 4-yr-old big-eyed tree frog (Leptopelis vermiculatus) was submitted with two pea-sized (4-mm diameter), firm, and painful masses on the right side of its back. The two abscess-like masses were surgically opened, and a whitish-yellow pasty content was removed. A Brucella inopinata-like bacterium was obtained in pure culture and was resistant against ampicillin and tylosin but sensitive to the 8 other antibiotics tested. The organism was identified by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (acc. no. HE608873) and recA (acc. no. HE608874) genes after preliminary misidentification as Ochrobactrum anthropi when using a commercial identification system. To the authors' knowledge, a B. inopinata-like bacterium has not been reported previously in amphibians. The organism is a potential human pathogen and may present a risk for people handling amphibians. PMID:23082529

  7. Microbial selenite reduction with organic carbon and electrode as sole electron donor by a bacterium isolated from domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Khanh; Park, Younghyun; Yu, Jaecheul; Lee, Taeho

    2016-07-01

    Selenium is said to be multifaceted element because it is essential at a low concentration but very toxic at an elevated level. For the purpose of screening a potential microorganism for selenite bioremediation, we isolated a bacterium, named strain THL1, which could perform both heterotrophic selenite reduction, using organic carbons such as acetate, lactate, propionate, and butyrate as electron donors under microaerobic condition, and electrotrophic selenite reduction, using an electrode polarized at -0.3V (vs. standard hydrogen electrode) as the sole electron donor under anaerobic condition. This bacterium determined to be a new strain of the genus Cronobacter, could remove selenite with an efficiency of up to 100%. This study is the first demonstration on a pure culture could take up electrons from an electrode to perform selenite reduction. The selenium nanoparticles produced by microbial selenite reduction might be considered for recovery and use in the nanotechnology industry. PMID:27099943

  8. DNA cloning, characterization, and inhibition studies of an α-carbonic anhydrase from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Sonia; Isik, Semra; Vullo, Daniela; De Luca, Viviana; Carginale, Vincenzo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2012-12-13

    We have cloned, purified, and characterized an α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the human pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, VchCA. The new enzyme has significant catalytic activity, and an inhibition study with sulfonamides and sulfamates led to the detection of a large number of low nanomolar inhibitors, among which are methazolamide, acetazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, benzolamide, and indisulam (KI values in the range 0.69-8.1 nM). As bicarbonate is a virulence factor of this bacterium and since ethoxzolamide was shown to inhibit the in vivo virulence, we propose that VchCA may be a target for antibiotic development, exploiting a mechanism of action rarely considered until now. PMID:23181552

  9. Decolourization of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol by a soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis RKJ 700.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    Full Text Available A 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP decolourizing strain RKJ 700 was isolated from soil collected from a pesticide contaminated site of India and identified as Bacillus subtilis on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Bacillus subtilis RKJ 700 decolourized 4C2NP up to concentration of 1.5 mM in the presence of additional carbon source. The degradation pathway of 4C2NP was studied and 4-chloro-2-aminophenol, 4-chloro-2-acetaminophenol and 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole (5C2MBZ were identified as metabolites by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Resting cell studies showed that Bacillus subtilis RKJ 700 depleted 4C2NP completely with stoichiometric formation of 5C2MBZ. This is the first report of (i the degradation of 4C2NP at high concentration (1.5 mM and, (ii the formation of 5C2MBZ by a soil bacterium.

  10. Synergism between gamma and ultrasonic irradiation of the bacterium E. coli. B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using simple and conventional culture techniques for the bacterium E.Coli.B synergism between independently lethal doses of ultrasonic and cobalt-60 gamma irradiation is established by comparing the observed surviving fractions for sequential irradiations with the values expected from independent measurements. The effects on gamma irradiation of three different preliminary doses of ultrasonic irradiation at 13 kHz, which independently yield surviving fractions of the order of 0.5, 0.05 and 0.005, are investigated by measuring at various gamma ray surviving fractions, down to 0.001, the relative sensitivity of sonicated and non-sonicated samples. The results of these investigations indicate two things: pre-sonicated samples are relatively more sensitive than non-treated samples by a factor which increases with the magnitude of the ultrasonic dose; the relative sensitivity of samples with identical presonication doses decreases with increasing gamma ray dose, ie in simple terms a shouldered survival curve becomes less shouldered following presonication. Gamma ray dosimetry was performed by the Fricke method and ultrasonic dosimetry by measuring the initial rate of increase in temperature. This thermometric method of ultrasonic dosimetry also permitted an investigation into the temperature behavior of the samples during sonication and from these measurements the authors deduce that the observed synergism cannot be explained in terms of the heating effect reported to be of critical importance in previously observed synergism between non-lethal ultrasonic doses and X-rays

  11. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of the β-carbonic anhydrase from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Sonia; Vullo, Daniela; De Luca, Viviana; Carginale, Vincenzo; Ferraroni, Marta; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2016-03-01

    The genome of the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae encodes for three carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) belonging to the α-, β- and γ-classes. VchCA, the α-CA from this species was investigated earlier, whereas the β-class enzyme, VchCAβ was recently cloned, characterized kinetically and its X-ray crystal structure reported by this group. Here we report an inhibition study with sulfonamides and one sulfamate of this enzyme. The best VchCAβ inhibitors were deacetylated acetazolamide and methazolamide and hydrochlorothiazide, which showed inhibition constants of 68.2-87.0nM. Other compounds, with medium potency against VchCAβ, (KIs in the range of 275-463nM), were sulfanilamide, metanilamide, sulthiame and saccharin whereas the clinically used agents such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, zonisamide and celecoxib were micromolar inhibitors (KIs in the range of 4.51-8.57μM). Identification of potent and possibly selective inhibitors of VchCA and VchCAβ over the human CA isoforms, may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the physiological role(s) of this under-investigated enzymes. PMID:26850377

  12. Anion inhibition studies of the β-carbonic anhydrase from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Daniela; Del Prete, Sonia; De Luca, Viviana; Carginale, Vincenzo; Ferraroni, Marta; Dedeoglu, Nurcan; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-03-01

    The genome of the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae encodes for three carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) belonging to the α-, β- and γ-classes. Here we report and anion inhibition study of the β-CA, VchCAβ with anions and other small molecules which inhibit metalloenzymes. The best VchCAβ anion inhibitors were sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid, which showed KIs in the range of 54-86μM. Diethyldithiocarbonate was also an effective VchCAβ inhibitor, with an inhibition constant of 0.73mM. The halides, cyanate, thiocyanate, cyanide, bicarbonate, carbonate, nitrate, nitrite, stannate, selenate, tellurate, divanadate, tetraborate, perrhenate, perruthenate, peroxydisulfate, selenocyanide, trithiocarbonate, and fluorosulfonate showed affinity in the low millimolar range, with KIs of 2.3-9.5mM. Identification of selective inhibitors of VchCAβ (over the human CA isoforms) may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the physiological role(s) of this under-investigated enzyme. PMID:26853167

  13. Rhodobase, a meta-analytical tool for reconstructing gene regulatory networks in a model photosynthetic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvin, Oleg V; Bolotin, Dmitry; Wang, Andrew; Ivanov, Pavel S; Gomelsky, Mark

    2011-02-01

    We present Rhodobase, a web-based meta-analytical tool for analysis of transcriptional regulation in a model anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The gene association meta-analysis is based on the pooled data from 100 of R. sphaeroides whole-genome DNA microarrays. Gene-centric regulatory networks were visualized using the StarNet approach (Jupiter, D.C., VanBuren, V., 2008. A visual data mining tool that facilitates reconstruction of transcription regulatory networks. PLoS ONE 3, e1717) with several modifications. We developed a means to identify and visualize operons and superoperons. We designed a framework for the cross-genome search for transcription factor binding sites that takes into account high GC-content and oligonucleotide usage profile characteristic of the R. sphaeroides genome. To facilitate reconstruction of directional relationships between co-regulated genes, we screened upstream sequences (-400 to +20bp from start codons) of all genes for putative binding sites of bacterial transcription factors using a self-optimizing search method developed here. To test performance of the meta-analysis tools and transcription factor site predictions, we reconstructed selected nodes of the R. sphaeroides transcription factor-centric regulatory matrix. The test revealed regulatory relationships that correlate well with the experimentally derived data. The database of transcriptional profile correlations, the network visualization engine and the optimized search engine for transcription factor binding sites analysis are available at http://rhodobase.org. PMID:21070832

  14. Sodium-driven energy conversion for flagellar rotation of the earliest divergent hyperthermophilic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, Norihiro; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kaneseki, Tsuyoshi; Kanai, Tamotsu; Atomi, Haruyuki; Kojima, Seiji; Homma, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Aquifex aeolicus is a hyperthermophilic, hydrogen-oxidizing and carbon-fixing bacterium that can grow at temperatures up to 95 °C. A. aeolicus has an almost complete set of flagellar genes that are conserved in bacteria. Here we observed that A. aeolicus has polar flagellum and can swim with a speed of 90 μm s(-1) at 85 °C. We expressed the A. aeolicus mot genes (motA and motB), which encode the torque generating stator proteins of the flagellar motor, in a corresponding mot nonmotile mutant of Escherichia coli. Its motility was slightly recovered by expression of A. aeolicus MotA and chimeric MotB whose periplasmic region was replaced with that of E. coli. A point mutation in the A. aeolicus MotA cytoplasmic region remarkably enhanced the motility. Using this system in E. coli, we demonstrate that the A. aeolicus motor is driven by Na(+). As motor proteins from hyperthermophilic bacteria represent the earliest motor proteins in evolution, this study strongly suggests that ancient bacteria used Na(+) for energy coupling of the flagellar motor. The Na(+)-driven flagellar genes might have been laterally transferred from early-branched bacteria into late-branched bacteria and the interaction surfaces of the stator and rotor seem not to change in evolution. PMID:26244427

  15. The complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J; Glick, Bernard R

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated "housekeeping" genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup. PMID:23516524

  16. Rapid, specific and quantitative assays for the detection of the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacava, P T; Li, W B; Araújo, W L; Azevedo, J L; Hartung, J S

    2006-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis disease in sweet orange. There is evidence that X. fastidiosa interacts with endophytic bacteria present in the xylem of sweet orange, and that these interactions, particularly with Methylobacterium mesophilicum, may affect disease progress. However, these interactions cannot be evaluated in detail until efficient methods for detection and enumeration of these bacteria in planta are developed. We have previously developed standard and quantitative PCR-based assays specific for X. fastidiosa using the LightCycler system [Li, W.B., Pria Jr., L.P.M.W.D., X. Qin, and J.S. Hartung, 2003. Presence of Xylella fastidiosa in sweet orange fruit and seeds and its transmission to seedlings. Phytopathology 93:953-958.], and now report the development of both standard and quantitative PCR assays for M. mesophilicum. The assays are specific for M. mesophilicum and do not amplify DNA from other species of Methylobacterium or other bacteria commonly associated with citrus or plant tissue. Other bacteria tested included Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus sp., X. fastidiosa, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. We have demonstrated that with these methods we can quantitatively monitor the colonization of xylem by M. mesophilicum during the course of disease development in plants artificially inoculated with both bacteria. PMID:16266765

  17. Degradation of γ-irradiated cellulose by the accumulating culture of a cellulose bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility of degradation of γ-irradiated cellulose by the accumulating culture of an anaerobic cellulose bacterium has been investigated. Cellulose irradiation by γ-quanta (Co60) has been carried out using the RKh-30 device with 35.9 Gy/min dose rate. Radiation monitoring has been carried out by the standard ferrosulfate method. Samples have been irradiated in dry state or when water presenting with MGy. It is detected that the accumulating culture with the growth on the irradiated cellulose has a lag-phase, which duration reduces when the cellulose cleaning by flushing with distillation water. The culture has higher growth and substrate consumption rate when growing by cellulose irradiated in comparison with non-irradiated one. The economical coefficient is the same in using both the irradiated and non-irradiated cellulose. The quantity of forming reducing saccharides, organic acids, methane and carbon dioxide is the same both when cultivating by irradiated cellulose and by non-irradiated. pH of the culture liquid is shifted to the acid nature in the process of growth

  18. Identification a Novel Raw-Starch-Degrading-α-Amylase from a Tropical Marine Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeily Nurachman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bacteria from the surface of the tropical marine hard coral Acropora sp. were screened for producing raw-starch-degrading-á-amylase. Approach: Based on its 16s rDNA sequence, a bacterium that produced the highest amylolitic activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquifaciens ABBD. The bacterial isolate secreted a á-amylase extracellularly and then the enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by anion exchange chromatography. Results: Electrophoresis results both SDS-PAGE and native PAGE suggested that the enzyme was a heterodimeric protein (97 kDa consisting of 45 and 55 kDa subunits. The á-amylase had an optimum pH of 7.0 and temperature of 60°C. More than 80% activity of the enzyme was retained under high salt conditions (up to 20% NaCl. The enzyme remained stable at 50°C for 1 h. Starch hydrolysis by the enzyme at 70°C yielded oligosaccharides (G2-G4 and at room temperature yielded glucose/maltose (G1 and G2. Conclusion: The B. amyloliquifaciens ABBD á-amylase was capable of degrading various raw starch granules from corn, rice, cassava and sago at room temperature.

  19. A mycorrhiza helper bacterium enhances ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal symbiosis of Australian Acacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponnois, R; Plenchette, C

    2003-04-01

    The aims of this study were to test the effects of a mycorrhiza helper bacterium (MHB), Pseudomonas monteilii strain HR13 on the mycorrhization of (1) an Australian Acacia, A. holosericea, by several ectomycorrhizal fungi or one endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices, and (2) several Australian Acacia species by Pisolithus alba strain IR100 under glasshouse conditions. Bacterial inoculant HR13 significantly promoted ectomycorrhizal colonization for all the Acacia species, from 45.8% ( A. mangium) to 70.3% ( A. auriculiformis). A stimulating effect of HR13 on the ectomycorrhizal establishment was recorded with all the fungal isolates (strains of Pisolithus and Scleroderma). The same effect of bacteria on the frequency of endomycorrhizal colonization of A. holosericea seedlings by G. intraradices with vesicles and hyphae frequencies was recorded. The stimulation of saprophytic fungal growth by MHB is usually the main mechanism that could explain this bacterial effect on mycorrhizal establishment. MHB could stimulate the production of phenolic compounds such as hypaphorine and increase the aggressiveness of the fungal symbiont. However, no significant effect of MHB on fungal growth was recorded with Scleroderma isolates under axenic conditions but positive bacterial effects were observed with Pisolithus strains. From a practical viewpoint, it appears that MHB could stimulate the mycorrhizal colonization of Australian Acacia species with ectomycorrhizal or endomycorrhizal fungi, and could also facilitate controlled mycorrhization in nursery practices where Acacia species are grown for forestation purposes. PMID:12682830

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a new peptide deformylase from human pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium, which is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. It is urgent to discover novel drug targets for appropriate antimicrobial agents against this human pathogen. In bacteria, peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the removal of a formyl group from the N-termini of nascent polypeptides. Due to its essentiality and absence in mammalian cells, PDF has been considered as an attractive target for the discovery of novel antibiotics. In this work, a new PDF gene (def) from H. pylori strain SS1 was cloned, expressed, and purified in Escherichia coli system. Sequence alignment shows that H. pylori PDF (HpPDF) shares about 40% identity to E. coli PDF (EcPDF). The enzymatic properties of HpPDF demonstrate its relatively high activity toward formyl-Met-Ala-Ser, with Kcat of 3.4 s-1, Km of 1.7 mM, and Kcat/Km of 2000 M-1 s-1. HpPDF enzyme appears to be fully active at pH between 8.0 and 9.0, and temperature 50 deg. C. The enzyme activity of Co2+-containing HpPDF is apparently higher than that of Zn2+-containing HpPDF. This present work thereby supplies a potential platform that facilitates the discovery of novel HpPDF inhibitors and further of possible antimicrobial agents against H. pylori