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Sample records for bacterium bacillus licheniformis

  1. The Sponge-associated Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis SAB1: A Source of Antimicrobial Compounds

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    Prabha Devi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial cultures were isolated from sponge Halichondria sp., collected from the Gujarat coast of the Indo Pacific region. These bacterial cultures were fermented in the laboratory (100 mL and the culture filtrate was assayed for antibiotic activity against 16 strains of clinical pathogens. Bacillus sp. (SAB1, the most potent of them and antagonistic to several clinically pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus was chosen for further investigation. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA gene of Bacillus sp. SAB1 showed a strong similarity (100% with the 16S rDNA gene of Bacillus licheniformis HNL09. The bioactive compounds produced by Bacillus licheniformis SAB1 (GenBank accession number: DQ071568 were identified as indole (1, 3-phenylpropionic acid (2 and a dimer 4,4′-oxybis[3-phenylpropionic acid] (3 on the basis of their Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometer (ESI-MS data. There is a single reference on the natural occurrence of compound 3 from the leaves of a terrestrial herb Aptenia cordifolia in the literature, so to the best of our knowledge, this is a first report of its natural occurrence from a marine source. The recovery of bacterial strains with antimicrobial activity suggests that marine-invertebrates remain a rich source for the isolation of culturable isolates capable of producing novel bioactive secondary metabolites.

  2. A New Diketopiperazine, Cyclo(D-trans-Hyp-L-Leu) from a Kenyan Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis LB 8CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Beemelmanns, Christine; Tsuma, Leah M M; Clardy, Jon; Cao, Shugeng; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Bacterially-produced small molecules demonstrate a wide range of structural and functional diversity. A new diketopiperazine, cyclo(D-trans-Hyp-L-Leu) (1), and five other known diketopiperazines (2-6), were isolated and purified from the fermented broth of a Kenyan bacterium Bacillus licheniformis LB 8CT. The structure of 1 was elucidated by a combination of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR and HR-MS, and the absolute configuration was determined by a combination of NOESY analysis and Marfey's method. The known compounds were identified as cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu) (2), cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Phe) (3), cyclo(D-Pro-L-Tyr) (4), cyclo-(D-Trp-L-Leu) (5), and cyclo(L-Tyr-Gly) (6) by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with reported values. Compounds 1-6 were tested for antifungal and antimicrobial properties.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela; Junca, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors. PMID:27174263

  4. Biodegradation of malathion by Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1

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    Khan Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malathion, a well-known organophosphate pesticide, has been used in agriculture over the last two decades for controlling pests of economically important crops. In the present study, a single bacterium, ML-1, was isolated by soil-enrichment technique and identified as Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of the 16S rRNA technique. The bacterium was grown in carbon-free minimal salt medium (MSM and was found to be very efficient in utilizing malathion as the sole source of carbon. Biodegradation experiments were performed in MSM without carbon source to determine the malathion degradation by the selected strain, and the residues of malathion were determined quantitatively using HPLC techniques. Bacillus licheniformis showed very promising results and efficiently consumed malathion as the sole carbon source via malathion carboxylesterase (MCE, and about 78% malathion was degraded within 5 days. The carboxylesterase activity was determined by using crude extract while using malathion as substrate, and the residues were determined by HPLC. It has been found that the MCE hydrolyzed 87% malathion within 96 h of incubation. Characterization of crude MCE revealed that the enzyme is robust in nature in terms of organic solvents, as it was found to be stable in various concentrations of ethanol and acetonitrile. Similarly, and it can work in a wide pH and temperature range. The results of this study highlighted the potential of Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1 as a biodegrader that can be used for the bioremediation of malathion-contaminated soil.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION IN MICE WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, H.E.; Jensen, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis was assessed in normal and immunodepressed BALB/c mice. The animals were challenged intravenously with 4 x 10(7) colony forming units of B, licheniformis (ATCC 14580) and both normal and immunodepressed mice were susceptible. However, the infection was...... more severe in the immunosuppressed animals. In normal mice, lesions were restricted to the liver and kidneys, while lesions also occurred in other organs of immunodepressed mice. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that antigens of B. licheniformis are potent immunogens, and the bacteria...

  6. Stress responses of the industrial workhorse Bacillus licheniformis to osmotic challenges.

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    Rebecca Schroeter

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive endospore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis can be found widely in nature and it is exploited in industrial processes for the manufacturing of antibiotics, specialty chemicals, and enzymes. Both in its varied natural habitats and in industrial settings, B. licheniformis cells will be exposed to increases in the external osmolarity, conditions that trigger water efflux, impair turgor, cause the cessation of growth, and negatively affect the productivity of cell factories in biotechnological processes. We have taken here both systems-wide and targeted physiological approaches to unravel the core of the osmostress responses of B. licheniformis. Cells were suddenly subjected to an osmotic upshift of considerable magnitude (with 1 M NaCl, and their transcriptional profile was then recorded in a time-resolved fashion on a genome-wide scale. A bioinformatics cluster analysis was used to group the osmotically up-regulated genes into categories that are functionally associated with the synthesis and import of osmostress-relieving compounds (compatible solutes, the SigB-controlled general stress response, and genes whose functional annotation suggests that salt stress triggers secondary oxidative stress responses in B. licheniformis. The data set focusing on the transcriptional profile of B. licheniformis was enriched by proteomics aimed at identifying those proteins that were accumulated by the cells through increased biosynthesis in response to osmotic stress. Furthermore, these global approaches were augmented by a set of experiments that addressed the synthesis of the compatible solutes proline and glycine betaine and assessed the growth-enhancing effects of various osmoprotectants. Combined, our data provide a blueprint of the cellular adjustment processes of B. licheniformis to both sudden and sustained osmotic stress.

  7. Expression of alpha-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothstein, D. M.; Devlin, P E; Cate, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    In Bacillus licheniformis, alpha-amylase production varied more than 100-fold depending on the presence or absence of a catabolite-repressing carbon source in the growth medium. alpha-Amylase was produced during the growth phase and not at the onset of the stationary phase. Induction of alpha-amylase correlated with synthesis of mRNA initiating at the promoter of the alpha-amylase gene.

  8. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, H; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J. O.

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis.

  9. Plasmid-Mediated Dimethoate Degradation by Bacillus licheniformis Isolated From a Fresh Water Fish Labeo rohita

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    Manisha Deb Mandal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bacillus licheniformis strain isolated from the intestine of Labeo rohita by an enrichment technique showed capability of utilizing dimethoate as the sole source of carbon. The bacterium rapidly utilized dimethoate beyond 0.6 mg/mL and showed prolific growth in a mineral salts medium containing 0.45 mg/mL dimethoate. The isolated B licheniformis exhibited high level of tolerance of dimethoate (3.5 mg/mL in nutrient broth, while its cured mutant did not tolerate dimethoate beyond 0.45 mg/mL and it was unable to utilize dimethoate. The wild B licheniformis strain transferred dimethoate degradation property to E coli C600 (Nar, F− strain. The transconjugant harbored a plasmid of the same molecular size (approximately 54 kb as that of the donor plasmid; the cured strain was plasmid less. Thus a single plasmid of approximately 54 kb was involved in dimethoate degradation. Genes encoding resistance to antibiotic and heavy metal were also located on the plasmid.

  10. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF BOVINE ABORTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Krogh, H.V.; Jensen, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    established due to the lack of sufficient materials, or the isolation of the bacterium was considered to be a result of contamination. In four cases concomitant infections with B, licheniformis and bovine virus diarrhoea virus were present. Abortions caused by B. licheniformis were predominantly seen during...... isolations, especially from the placenta, lungs, and abomasal contents, combined with the histological findings points to B, licheniformis abortions as being of haematogenous origin with subsequent transplacental spread to the fetus....

  11. Nanoactivator mediated modifications in thermostable amylase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Rajendra S; Mahabole, Megha P; Pathak, Anupama P

    2012-12-01

    Gram-positive rod-shaped thermophilic bacteria were isolated using samples collected from terrestrial natural thermal spring located at Unkeshwar (Longitude 78.22 degree East to 78.34 degree East, Latitude 19 degree 34' North to 19 degree 40' North), District Nanded, Maharashtra State, India. The isolates were then cultivated using selective media and identified using culture-dependent techniques. One prominent isolate (UN1) exhibited high temperature stability and remarkable amylase production and was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. Amylase production was carried out in starch media and the enzyme was partially purified and characterized for optimization of pH and temperature. Amylolytic activity of the enzyme was determined. Nanoactivator-mediated modifications were carried out to enhance amylolytic activity of the partially purified amylase. Three-fold increase in catalytic efficiency of amylase was obtained after modification. PMID:23350283

  12. Microbial reduction of [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} by Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 strain isolated from a solar salt pan

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    Paraneeiswaran, Arunachalam [Departartment of Biotechnology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry (India); Shukla, Sudhir K. [Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Section, Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Prashanth, K. [Departartment of Biotechnology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry (India); Rao, T. Subba, E-mail: subbarao@igcar.gov.in [Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Section, Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 was used in the bioremediation of [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −}. • The bacterial biomass adsorbed the Co–EDTA complex after its reduction. • [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} complex showed Bacillus spore inducing property. • B. licheniformis SPB-2 showed significantly radio-tolerance (D{sub 10} = 250 Gy). - Abstract: Naturally stressed habitats are known to be repositories for novel microorganisms with potential bioremediation applications. In this study, we isolated a [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} reducing bacterium Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 from a solar salt pan that is exposed to constant cycles of hydration and desiccation in nature. [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} generated during nuclear waste management process is difficult to remove from the waste due to its high stability and solubility. It is reduced form i.e. [Co(II)–EDTA]{sup 2−} is less stable though it is toxic. This study showed that B. licheniformis SPB-2 reduced 1 mM [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} in 14 days when grown in a batch mode. However, subsequent cycles showed an increase in the reduction activity, which was observed up to four cycles. Interestingly, the present study also showed that [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} acted as an inducer for B. licheniformis SPB-2 spore germination. Vegetative cells germinated from the spores were found to be involved in [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} reduction. More detailed investigations showed that after [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} reduction, i.e. [Co(II)–EDTA]{sup 2−} complex was removed by B. licheniformis SPB-2 from the bulk liquid by adsorption phenomenon. The bacterium showed a D{sub 10} value (radiation dose required to kill 90% cells) of ∼250 Gray (Gy), which signifies the potential use of B. licheniformis SPB-2 for bioremediation of moderately active nuclear waste.

  13. IMPROVING OF THE IMPREGNABILITY OF REFRACTORY SPRUCE WOOD BY BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS PRETREATMENT

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    Sibel Yildiz,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to improve impregnability of spruce (Picea orientalis L. wood with bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis A1 pretreatment, using copper/chromium/arsenic Type C (CCA-C and copper azole Type A (CBA-A. The effects of Bacillus licheniformis A1 on weight loss, copper uptake, and compression strength of samples were determined. Weight loss was slightly changed by bacterial degradation in all test groups. The best copper uptake cases were 1466 ppm for CCA-C and 2730 ppm for CBA-A. Improvement on copper uptake with bacteria pretreatment was in a range of 18 to 103% compared to control samples. Compression strength was decreased by bacterial degradation. However strength losses might be acceptable for several construction applications. Bacillus licheniformis A1 seems to have a good potential for increasing the permeability of spruce wood.

  14. STUDY REGARDING EFFICIENCY OF INDUCED GENETIC TRANSFORMATION IN BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS WITH PLASMID DNA

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    T. VINTILĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Bacillus licheniformis was subject to genetic transformation with plasmid vectors (pLC1 and pNC61, using electroporation technique, protoplast transformation and bivalent cations (CaCl2 mediated transformation. In the case of transformation by electroporation of Bacillus licheniformis B40, the highest number of transformed colonies (3 were obtained only after a 1,79 KV electric shock, for 2,2 milliseconds. Using this transformation technique we have obtained six kanamycin resistant transformants. The frequency of Bacillus licheniformis B40 protoplasts transformation using pLC1 and pNC61 plasmid vectors is approximately 10% (TF = 10%. As a result of pLC1 plasmid integration in Bacillus licheniformis protoplasts, six kanamycin resistant transformants were obtained. The pNC61 plasmid, which confers trimethoprim resistance, does not integrate in receiver cells by protoplast transformation. The direct genetic transformation in the presence of bivalent cations (CaCl2, mediated by pLC1 and pNC61 plasmid vectors, produce a low transformation frequency. Using this technique, we have obtained three trimethoprim resistant colonies and four kanamycin resistant colonies. The chemical way of transformation is the only technique, which realizes the integration of pNC61 in B. licheniformis B40 cells.

  15. STUDY REGARDING EFFICIENCY OF INDUCED GENETIC TRANSFORMATION IN BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS WITH PLASMID DNA

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    VINTILĂ T.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Bacillus licheniformis was subject to genetic transformation with plasmidvectors (pLC1 and pNC61, using electroporation technique, protoplasttransformation and bivalent cations (CaCl2 mediated transformation. In the case oftransformation by electroporation of Bacillus licheniformis B40, the highest numberof transformed colonies (3 were obtained only after a 1,79 KV electric shock, for 2,2milliseconds. Using this transformation technique we have obtained six kanamycinresistant transformants. The frequency of Bacillus licheniformis B40 protoplaststransformation using pLC1 and pNC61 plasmid vectors is approximately 10% (TF =10%. As a result of pLC1 plasmid integration in Bacillus licheniformis protoplasts,six kanamycin resistant transformants were obtained. The pNC61 plasmid, whichconfers trimethoprim resistance, does not integrate in receiver cells by protoplasttransformation. The direct genetic transformation in the presence of bivalent cations(CaCl2, mediated by pLC1 and pNC61 plasmid vectors, produce a lowtransformation frequency. Using this technique, we have obtained three trimethoprimresistant colonies and four kanamycin resistant colonies. The chemical way oftransformation is the only technique, which realizes the integration of pNC61 in B.licheniformis B40 cells.

  16. Control of Bacillus licheniformis spores isolated from dairy materials in yogurt production.

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    Tanaka, Takashi; Ito, Akiko; Kamikado, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects of sporulation temperature and period on Bacillus licheniformis spore heat resistance, B. licheniformis strain No.25 spores were sporulated at 30, 37, 42, or 50°C for 11 d and at 50°C for 1.7, 4, 7, or 11 d. The heat resistance of B. licheniformis strain No.25 spores at 110°C increased with an increase in the sporulation temperature. Spores sporulated at 50°C were 1.4-fold more heat resistant than those sporulated at 30°C. Furthermore, the heat resistance of B. licheniformis strain No.25 spores at 110°C increased with an increase in the sporulation period. Spores sporulated for 11 d were 5.3-fold more heat resistant than those sporulated for 1.7 d. The heat resistance of B. licheniformis strain No.25 spores at 110°C increased with increases in the sporulation temperature and sporulation period. The results presented in this study can be applied to the pasteurization process to control B. licheniformis spores. Pasteurization at 110°C for about 60sec. is effective in controlling B. licheniformis spores isolated from dairy materials in yogurt production.

  17. Hydrolysis of Whey Protein Isolate with Bacillus licheniformis Protease: Fractionation and Identification of Aggregating Peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify the dominant aggregating peptides from a whey protein hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis of 6.8%) obtained with Bacillus licheniformis protease. The aggregating peptides were fractionated with preparative reversed-phase chromatography and identified with liq

  18. Enzyme-induced aggregation of whey proteins with Bacillus licheniformis protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    Whey proteins are commonly used as ingredient in food. In relation with the gelation properties of whey proteins, this thesis deals with understanding the mechanism of peptide-induced aggregation of whey protein hydrolysates made with Bacillus licheniformis protease (BLP). The results show that BLP

  19. A Bacillus licheniformis pectin acetylesterase is specific for homogalacturonans acetylated at O-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remoroza, C.A.; Wagenknecht, M.; Buchholt, H.C.; Moerschbacher, B.M.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant acetylesterase from Bacillus licheniformis DSM13, belonging to carbohydrate esterase family 12, was purified and biochemically characterized. The purified enzyme, termed BliPAE, was capable of deacetylating acetylated pectins, e.g. sugar beet pectin (SBP). Contrary to its provisional a

  20. The extracellular proteome of Bacillus licheniformis grown in different media and under different nutrient starvation conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt, B; Schweder, T; Sibbald, MJJB; Albrecht, D; Ehrenreich, A; Bernhardt, J; Feesche, J; Maurer, KH; Gottschalk, G; van Dijl, JM; Hecker, M

    2006-01-01

    The now finished genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 allows the prediction of the genes involved in protein secretion into the extracellular environment as well as the prediction of the proteins which are translocated. From the sequence 296 proteins were predicted to contain an N-termin

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF MEDIA CONSTITUENTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ALKALINE PROTEASE FROM BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS Mohideen

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    Mohideen Askar Nawas P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Production of alkaline protease by Bacillus licheniformis has been investigated under submerged fermentation. The physical and chemical parameters influencing submerged fermentation were optimized. The effect of incubation time, temperature, pH, carbon sources and nitrogen sources and additional nutrients on the production of alkaline protease was characterized. The optimum conditions for the protease production by Bacillus licheniformis were found to be at pH 9.0 and temperature at 40ºC. The outcome of carbon and inorganic nitrogen sources on protease production proved that glucose and casein were the effective medium ingredients for Bacillus licheniformis respectively. The maximum amount of protease production was recorded in medium supplemented with ammonium sulphate. Among the tested metal ions, the level of protease yield was found to be high in medium supplemented with magnesium chloride. The protease production was amplified in the presence of 1.5% sodium chloride. The extreme stability towards Triton X-100, Tween 20 and SDS was observed in Bacillus licheniformis alkaline protease.

  2. A preliminary study on the pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis bacteria in immunodepressed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, N.E.; Giese, Steen Bjørck;

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenicity of 13 strains of Bacillus licheniformis was studied in immunodepressed mice. The strains had been isolated from cases of bovine abortions (n=5), bovine feedstuffs (n=3), soil (n=l), and grain products (n=2). The origin of two strains was unknown. Groups of 10 mice were inoculated...

  3. Partial purification of a Bacillus licheniformis levansucrase producing levan with antitumor activity.

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    Dahech, Imen; Belghith, Karima Srih; Belghith, Hafedh; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2012-10-01

    The extracellular fructosyltransferase (FTase) of a novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis capable of producing fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and a polysaccharide type levan was obtained and partially purified. The purification was achieved by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE cellulose and gel filtration chromatographies. The enzyme was partially purified as determined by SDS-PAGE, and the specific activity reached was 67.5, representing a purification factor of 177 and yield of 40%. Levan was isolated from the cultures of B. licheniformis. The levan was composed mainly of fructose residues when analyzed by TLC after acid hydrolysis and NMR analysis. In a previous study, the levan produced exhibited a hypoglycemiant activity. The present paper deals with the study of the antitumor and anti-cytotoxic effect of levan produced by B. licheniformis strain. In the in vitro antitumor activity test of levan against some tumor cell lines, relatively the significantly high activity was observed against the HepG(2). PMID:22579870

  4. Regulation of the activity of the Bacillus licheniformis A5 glutamine synthetase.

    OpenAIRE

    Donohue, T J; Bernlohr, R W

    1981-01-01

    The regulation of glutamine synthetase activity by positive and negative effectors of enzyme activity singularly and in combinations was studied by using a homogeneous enzyme preparation from Bacillus licheniformis A5. Phosphorylribosyl pyrophosphate at concentrations greater than 2mM stimulated glutamine synthetase activity by approximately 70%. The concentration of phosphorylribosyl pyrophosphate required for half-maximal stimulation of enzyme activity was 0.4 mM. Results obtained from stud...

  5. Effect of oilseed cakes on alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305.

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, T.; Chandra, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of oilseed cakes on extracellular thermostable alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305 was investigated. Each oilseed cake was made of groundnut, mustard, sesame, linseed, coconut copra, madhuca, or cotton. alpha-Amylase production was considerably improved in all instances and varied with the oilseed cake concentration in basal medium containing peptone and beef extract. Maximum increases were effected by a low concentration (0.5 to 1.0%) of groundnut or coconu...

  6. [Maxillary sinus infection by Bacillus licheniformis: a case report from Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Hejl, C; Sanmartin, N; Samson, T; Soler, C; Koeck, J-L

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic, spore-forming gram-positive Bacillus spp infections are rare and reported mainly in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of acute unilateral maxillary sinusitis, caused by Bacillus licheniformis, in a 35-year-old French soldier stationed in Djibouti. It was easily identifiable due to its typical culture and resistance profile. This case is interesting for two reasons: first, it is, to our knowledge, the first case of sinusitis attributed to this microbe, and second, it has rarely been described in immunocompetent patients without altered skin or mucous membranes. PMID:26370779

  7. Fungicin M4: a narrow spectrum peptide antibiotic from Bacillus licheniformis M-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebbadi, M; Gálvez, A; Maqueda, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Valdivia, E

    1994-07-01

    The strain Bacillus licheniformis M-4 produces a 3.4 kDa hydrophilic peptide with antifungal activity, named fungicin M4. Analysis of the purified peptide shows that it contains the amino acids Glu (8), Arg (5), Pro (4), Tyr (8), Val (3), Met (2) and Orn (4). Its inhibitory spectrum is restricted to Microsporum canis CECT 2797, Mucor mucedo CECT 2653, Mucor plumbeus CCM 443, Sporothrix schenckii CECT 2799, Bacillus megaterium and Corynebacterium glutamicum CECT 78. Fungicin M4 exerts biocidal activity on liquid cultures of Sporothrix schenckii CECT 2799.

  8. Morphological and molecular based identification of pectinase producing Bacillus licheniformis from rotten vegetable

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    Haneef Ur Rehman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase catalyzed the degradation of pectin substances and has been used in various biotechnological industries. In the current study, 23 bacterial strains were isolated from rotten vegetables, soil and air. The isolated bacterial strains were qualitatively screened for pectinase production on pectin agar medium and only three strains HR 4, HR 21 and HR 23 were observed to produce extracellular pectinase. These strains were further screened quantitatively for pectinase production through submerged fermentation technology in pectin containing fermentation medium. Strain HR 4 from rotten brinjal (Solanum melongena was found to produce higher pectinase as compared to others. The maximum pectinase producing bacterial strain was identified as Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. For further confirmation of identification, 16S rDNA sequence analysis was performed. The 16S rDNA sequences were aligned and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. The phylogenetic tree confirmed that the strain was belonging to B. licheniformis. The 16S rDNA sequences of this new strain were submitted to GenBank and designated as B. licheniformis KIBGE-IB21 with the GenBank accession number JQ 411812. The newly isolated pectinase producing B. licheniformis used apple pectin as carbon and yeast extract as nitrogen source for maximum pectinase production.

  9. Size unlimited markerless deletions by a transconjugative plasmid-system in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachinger, Michael; Bauch, Melanie; Strittmatter, Axel; Bongaerts, Johannes; Evers, Stefan; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Daniel, Rolf; Liebl, Wolfgang; Liesegang, Heiko; Ehrenreich, Armin

    2013-09-20

    Conjugative shuttle vectors of the pKVM series, based on an IncP transfer origin and the pMAD vector with a temperature sensitive replication were constructed to establish a markerless gene deletion protocol for Bacilli without natural competence such as the exoenzyme producer Bacillus licheniformis. The pKVM plasmids can be conjugated to strains of B. licheniformis and B. subtilis. For chromosomal gene deletion, regions flanking the target gene are fused and cloned in a pKVM vector prior to conjugative transfer from Escherichia coli to B. licheniformis. Appropriate markers on the vector backbone allow for the identification of the integration at the target locus and thereafter the vector excision, both events taking place via homologous recombination. The functionality of the deletion system was demonstrated with B. licheniformis by a markerless 939 bp in-frame deletion of the yqfD gene and the deletion of a 31 kbp genomic segment carrying a PBSX-like prophage. PMID:23916947

  10. Effect of oilseed cakes on alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, T; Chandra, A K

    1982-08-01

    The effects of oilseed cakes on extracellular thermostable alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305 was investigated. Each oilseed cake was made of groundnut, mustard, sesame, linseed, coconut copra, madhuca, or cotton. alpha-Amylase production was considerably improved in all instances and varied with the oilseed cake concentration in basal medium containing peptone and beef extract. Maximum increases were effected by a low concentration (0.5 to 1.0%) of groundnut or coconut, a high concentration (3%) of linseed or mustard, and an Rintermediate concentration (2%) of cotton, madhuca, or sesame. The oilseed cakes made of groundnut or mustard could completely replace the conventional peptone-beef extract medium as the fermentation base for the production of alpha-amylase by B. licheniformis. The addition of corn steep liquor to cotton, linseed, sesame, or madhuca cake in the medium improved alpha-amylase production. PMID:6181738

  11. Seeking new mutation clues from Bacillus licheniformis amylase by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao

    2009-07-01

    Amylase is one of the most important industrial enzymes in the world. Researchers have been searching for a highly thermal stable mutant for many years, but most focus on point mutations of one or few nitrogenous bases. According to this molecular dynamic simulation of amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (BLA), the deletion of some nitrogenous bases would be more efficacious than point mutations. The simulation reveals strong fluctuation of the BLA structure at optimum temperature. The fluctuation of the outer domains of BLA is stronger than that of the core domain. Molecular simulation provides a clue to design thermal stable amylases through deletion mutations in the outer domain.

  12. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis: optimization of production and its properties Cyclodextrina glycosyltransferase de Bacillus licheniformis: otimização da produção e suas propriedades

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto Martins Bonilha; Vivian Menocci; Antonio José Goulart; Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli; Rubens Monti

    2006-01-01

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.19) is an enzyme that produces cyclodextrins from starch via an intramolecular transglycosylation reaction. An alkalophilic Bacillus strain, isolated from cassava peels, was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. CGTase production by this strain was better when potato starch was used as carbon source, followed by cassava starch and amylopectin. Glucose and amylose, on the other hand, acted as synthesis repressors. When the cultivation was supplemented...

  13. Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Traditional Korean Food Resources Enhances the Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans through Serotonin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Ri; Oh, Sangnam; Son, Seok Jun; Park, Dong-June; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sae Hun; Jeong, Do-Youn; Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Youngbok; Song, Minho; Kim, Younghoon

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated potentially probiotic Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from traditional Korean food sources for ability to enhance longevity using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a simple in vivo animal model. We first investigated whether B. licheniformis strains were capable of modulating the lifespan of C. elegans. Among the tested strains, preconditioning with four B. licheniformis strains significantly enhanced the longevity of C. elegans. Unexpectedly, plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that B. licheniformis strains were not more highly attached to the C. elegans intestine compared with Escherichia coli OP50 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG controls. In addition, qRT-PCR and an aging assay with mutant worms showed that the conditioning of B. licheniformis strain 141 directly influenced genes associated with serotonin signaling in nematodes, including tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase), bas-1 (serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic aromatic amino acid decarboxylase), mod-1 (serotonin-gated chloride channel), ser-1, and ser-7 (serotonin receptors) during C. elegans aging. Our findings suggest that B. licheniformis strain 141, which is isolated from traditional Korean foods, is a probiotic generally recognized as safe (GRAS) strain that enhances the lifespan of C. elegans via host serotonin signaling.

  14. Design of thermostable rhamnogalacturonan lyase mutants from Bacillus licheniformis by combination of targeted single point mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Ines Isabel Cardoso Rodrigues; Jers, Carsten; Otten, Harm;

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan I lyases (RGI lyases) (EC 4.2.2.-) catalyze cleavage of α-1,4 bonds between rhamnose and galacturonic acid in the backbone of pectins by β-elimination. In the present study, targeted improvement of the thermostability of a PL family 11 RGI lyase from Bacillus licheniformis (DSM......, were obtained due to additive stabilizing effects of single amino acid mutations (E434L, G55V, and G326E) compared to the wild type. The crystal structure of the B. licheniformis wild-type RGI lyase was also determined; the structural analysis corroborated that especially mutation of charged amino...

  15. Biochemical Characterization of An Arginine-Specific Alkaline Trypsin from Bacillus licheniformis

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    Jin-Song Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we isolated a trypsin-producing strain DMN6 from the leather waste and identified it as Bacillus licheniformis through a two-step screening strategy. The trypsin activity was increased up to 140 from 20 U/mL through culture optimization. The enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with a molecular mass of 44 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the specific activity of purified enzyme is 350 U/mg with Nα-Benzoyl-l-arginine ethylester as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH for the trypsin are 65 °C and pH 9.0, respectively. Also, the enzyme can be significantly activated by Ba2+. This enzyme is relatively stable in alkaline environment and displays excellent activity at low temperatures. It could retain over 95% of enzyme activity after 180 min of incubation at 45 °C. The distinguished activity under low temperature and prominent stability enhance its catalytic potential. In the current work, the open reading frame was obtained with a length of 1371 nucleotides that encoded a protein of 456 amino acids. These data would warrant the B. licheniformis trypsin as a promising candidate for catalytic application in collagen preparation and leather bating through further protein engineering.

  16. Kinetics and thermodynamic studies of alpha amylase from bacillus licheniformis mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation deals with the purification and characterization of enzyme a'-amylase from a mutant strain of Bacillus licheniformis EMS-6. A laboratory scale stirred fermentor of 7.5 L capacity was used for the enzyme production under optimal conditions. The enzyme was purified up to homogeneity level by Ammonium sulphate and ion-exchange chromatography using a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. The specific activity of the enzyme increased 4-5 times while the yield was found to be 40.4%. The purification fold by RESOURCE-S was recorded to be 3.58. The molecular weight was found to be 55 KDa. In the present research work, the Vmax (2778 U/mg/min) and Km (8.3mg/ml) of a'-amylase were derived from the Lineweaver Burke plot. Thermodynamic parameters for soluble starch hydrolysis, Ea, AH, AS and AG of a'-amylase from B. licheniformis EMS-6 were found to be 25.14 KJ/mol, 22.53 KJ/mole, -110.95 J/mole/K and 36968 J/mole, respectively. The enzyme was stable over a pH range of 4.5-9.0 and gave pH optimum of 7.0. The pKa1 and pKa2 of ionizable groups of active site controlling Vmax, determined by Dixon plot, were 6.0 and 7.5, respectively. (author)

  17. Regulation of the activity of the Bacillus licheniformis A5 glutamine synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, T J; Bernlohr, R W

    1981-10-01

    The regulation of glutamine synthetase activity by positive and negative effectors of enzyme activity singularly and in combinations was studied by using a homogeneous enzyme preparation from Bacillus licheniformis A5. Phosphorylribosyl pyrophosphate at concentrations greater than 2mM stimulated glutamine synthetase activity by approximately 70%. The concentration of phosphorylribosyl pyrophosphate required for half-maximal stimulation of enzyme activity was 0.4 mM. Results obtained from studies of fractional inhibition of glutamine synthetase activity were consistent with the presence of one allosteric site for glutamine binding (apparent I0.5, 2.2mM) per active enzyme unit at a glutamate concentration of 50 mM. At a glutamate concentration of 30 mM or less, the data were consistent with the enzyme containing two binding sites for glutamine (one of which was an allosteric site with an apparent I0.5 of 0.4 mM). Bases on an analysis of the response of glutamine synthetase activity to positive and negative effectors in vitro and to the intracellular concentration of these effectors in vivo, the primary modulators of glutamine synthetase activity in B. licheniformis A5 appear to be glutamine and alanine (apparent I0.5, 5.2mM). PMID:6169702

  18. Comparative study on production of α-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibu Divakaran

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alpha amylase (α-1, 4-glucan-glucanhydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1, an extracellular enzyme, degrades α, 1-4 glucosidic linkages of starch and related substrates in an endo-fashion producing oligosaccharides including maltose, glucose and alpha limit dextrin (7. The present study deals with the production and comparative study of production of α-amylase from two strains of Bacillus licheniformis, MTCC 2617 and 2618, by using four different substrates, starch, rice, wheat and ragi powder as carbon source by submerged fermentation. The effect of varying pH and incubation temperature, activator, inhibitor, and substrate concentration was investigated on the activity of α-amylase produced by MTCC strain 2618. The results shows that the production of the α-amylase by the B.licheniformis strain MTCC 2618, using four different substrates were found to be maximum (Starch 3.64 IU/ml/minutes, Rice powder 2.93 IU/ml/minutes, Wheat powder 2.67 IU/ml/minutes, Ragi powder 2.36 IU/ml/minutes on comparing the enzyme production of two strains. It was also observed that the maximum production was found on the 3rd day (i.e. 72 hr and characterization of crude enzyme revealed that optimum activity was at pH 7 and 37ºC.

  19. Two-step purification and partial characterization of an extra cellular α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis

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    Zare Mirakabadi, A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was production and partial purification of α-amylase enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis. B. Licheniformis was allowed to grow in broth culture for purpose of inducing α-amylase enzyme. Optimal conditions for amylase production by B. Licheniformis are incubation period of 120 h, temperature of 37 °C and pH 7.0. The α-amylase enzyme was purified by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-sepharose CL-6B and sephadex G-100 gel filtration with a 19.1-fold increase in specific activity as compared to the concentrated supernatant and with a specific activity of 926.47 U/mg. The α-amylase had the highest activity at pH 7.0 and 65 °C. According to the data on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 72 kDa.

  20. Study of the solubility of a modified Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase around the isoelectric point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornilius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen;

    2007-01-01

    The solubility of a modified recombinant Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase (mBLA) has been studied by batch crystallization. A semi-pure preparation was chosen containing five isoforms with pI values from 6 to 7.3 (weighted average of 6.6). Small amounts (... sodium sulfate at all pH values and increased with 0.5 mol.L-1 sodium thiocyanate at pH 7 and pH 8. The effect of anions on alpha-amylase solubility followed the Hofmeister series, and only weak evidence of reversal was seen below the isoelectric point. Cations had little effect on solubility. The sign...... and magnitude of the alpha-amylase zeta potential was determined in the presence and absence of 0.1 mol.L-1 salt. Qualitatively, zeta potential correctly predicted the different salts influence on mBLA solubility....

  1. Improving the functional expression of a Bacillus licheniformis laccase by random and site-directed mutagenesis

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    Schmid Rolf D

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laccases have huge potential for biotechnological applications due to their broad substrate spectrum and wide range of reactions they are able to catalyze. These include, for example, the formation and degradation of dimers, oligomers, polymers, and ring cleavage as well as oxidation of aromatic compounds. Potential applications of laccases include detoxification of industrial effluents, decolorization of textile dyes and the synthesis of natural products by, for instance, dimerization of phenolic acids. We have recently published a report on the cloning and characterization of a CotA Bacillus licheniformis laccase, an enzyme that catalyzes dimerization of phenolic acids. However, the broad application of this laccase is limited by its low expression level of 26 mg l-1 that was achieved in Escherichia coli. To counteract this shortcoming, random and site-directed mutagenesis have been combined in order to improve functional expression and activity of CotA. Results A CotA double mutant, K316N/D500G, was constructed by combining random and site-directed mutagenesis. It can be functionally expressed at an 11.4-fold higher level than the wild-type enzyme. In addition, it is able to convert ferulic acid much faster than the wild-type enzyme (21% vs. 14% and is far more efficient in decolorizing a range of industrial dyes. The investigation of the effects of the mutations K316N and D500G showed that amino acid at position 316 had a major influence on enzyme activity and position 500 had a major influence on the expression of the laccase. Conclusion The constructed double mutant K316N/D500G of the Bacillus licheniformis CotA laccase is an appropriate candidate for biotechnological applications due to its high expression level and high activity in dimerization of phenolic acids and decolorization of industrial dyes.

  2. Identification of a new Bacillus licheniformis strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaoqi; Yu, Zhanqiao; Xie, Jianhua; Zhang, Rijun

    2012-06-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance has spurred a great number of studies for development of new antimicrobials in the past decade. The purpose of this study was to screen environmental samples for Bacillus strains producing potent antimicrobial agents. A new strain, which showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica ser. Pullorum, was isolated from soil and designated as B116. This new isolate was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by morphological, biochemical and genetic analyses. The production of bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) started at early exponential phase and achieved highest level at early stationary phase. The BLS was precipitated by ammonium sulfate and its molecular mass was determined as ∼4 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Culture supernatant of the new isolate exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. The BLS was resistant to heat, acid and alkaline treatment. Activity of the BLS was totally lost after digestion by pronase and partially lost after digestion by papain and lipase. The new isolate and relevant BLS are potentially useful in food and feed applications. PMID:22752909

  3. Production of the novel two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin by Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13.

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    Jasmin Dischinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lantibiotics are small microbial peptide antibiotics that are characterized by the presence of the thioether amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine. Lantibiotics possess structural genes which encode inactive prepeptides. During maturation, the prepeptide undergoes posttranslational modifications including the introduction of rare amino acids as lanthionine and methyllanthione as well as the proteolytic removal of the leader. The structural gene (lanA as well as the other genes which are involved in lantibiotic modification (lanM, lanB, lanC, lanP, regulation (lanR, lanK, export (lanT(P and immunity (lanEFG are organized in biosynthetic gene clusters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequence comparisons in the NCBI database showed that Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 harbours a putative lantibiotic gene cluster which comprises two structural genes (licA1, licA2 and two modification enzymes (licM1, licM2 in addition to 10 ORFs that show sequence similarities to proteins involved in lantibiotic production. A heat labile antimicrobial activity was detected in the culture supernatant and a heat stabile activity was present in the isopropanol cell wash extract of this strain. In agar well diffusion assays both fractions exhibited slightly different activity spectra against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to demonstrate the connection between the lantibiotic gene cluster and one of the antibacterial activities, two Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 mutant strains harbouring insertions in the structural genes of the modification enzymes licM1 and licM2 were constructed. These strains were characterized by a loss of activity in the isopropanol extract and substractive MALDI-TOF predicted masses of 3020.6 Da and 3250.6 Da for the active peptides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, B. licheniformis DSM 13 produces an antimicrobial substance that represents the two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin and that shows activity against a wide

  4. Production of Levan by Bacillus licheniformis for Use as a Soil Sealant in Earthen Manure Storage Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Manure application is not permitted on frozen land in Canada and therefore, manure management and storage are the primary issues facing the agri-food industry. Low-cost, effective and environmentally safe earthen manure storage (EMS facilities will lower costs and help make the livestock industry more competitive and efficient. The goal of this study was to develop a biological sealing technology for earthen manure storages. The results showed that it is feasible to use a growing culture of Bacillus licheniformis to produce a non viscous water insoluble levan. Levan can only be produced by Bacillus licheniformis during the growth mode. No levan was produced during the death phase. About 0. 36 g of levan was produced per gram of sucrose which is 91. 1% of theoretical yield. The polymer can be used as a plugging agent to plug the pores of high permeability soils. From the biological and biochemical characteristics of the Bacillus licheniformis, it appears that the organism is capable of producing levan from sucrose under most field and soil conditions. As a soil organism, Bacillus licheniformis should be able to compete with most common soil species such as Arthrobacter and Bacillus. The bacteria could be grown either in the non-polysaccharide producing mode or in the polysaccharide producing mode. The first would permit distribution of the bacteria to the lower soil layers but would delay the production of the polysaccharide due to the lag period required to produce the enzyme (levansucrase. Upon production of levan, pore spaces would close and hence, the hydraulic conductivity would be substantially reduced.

  5. Beneficial Effect of Sugar Osmolytes on the Refolding of Guanidine Hydrochloride-Denatured Trehalose-6-phosphate Hydrolase from Bacillus licheniformis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiau-Hua Chen; Meng-Chun Chi; Min-Guan Lin; Long-Liu Lin; Tzu-Fan Wang

    2015-01-01

    The influence of three sugar osmolytes on the refolding of guanidine hydrochloride- (GdnHCl-) denatured trehalose-6-phosphate hydrolase of Bacillus licheniformis (BlTreA) was studied by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, fluorescence emission spectra, and the recovery of enzymatic activity. These experimental results clearly indicated that sorbitol, sucrose, and trehalose at a concentration of 0.75 M improved the refolding yields of GdnHCl-denatured  BlTreA, probably due to the fact that these ...

  6. Cloning and characterization of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene in Bacillus licheniformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The gdhA genes of IRC-3 GDH-strain and IRC-8 GDH+ strain were cloned,and they both successfully complemented the nutritional lesion of an E.coli glutamate auxotroph,Q100 GDH-.However,the gdhA gene from the mutant IRC-8 GDH+ strain failed to complement the glutamate deficiency of the wild type strain IRC-3.The gdhA genes of the wild type and mutant origin were sequenced separately.No nucleotide difference was detected between them.Further investigations indicated that the gdhA genes were actively expressed in both the wild type and the mutant.Additionally,no GDH inhibitor was found in the wild type strain IRC-3.It is thus proposed that the inactivity of GDH in wild type is the result of the deficiency at the post-translational level of the gdhA expression.Examination of the deduced amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis GDH revealed the presence of the motifs characteristic of the familyⅠ-type hexameric protein,while the GDH of Bacillus subtilis belongs to family II.

  7. Cloning and characterization of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene in Bacillus licheniformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱冰; 俞冠翘; 朱家璧; 沈善炯

    2000-01-01

    The gdhA genes of IRC-3 GDH strain and IRC-8 GDH+ strain were cloned, and they both successfully complemented the nutritional lesion of an E. coli glutamate auxotroph, Q100 GDH". However, the gdhA gene from the mutant IRC-8 GDH+ strain failed to complement the glutamate deficiency of the wild type strain IRC-3. The gdhA genes of the wild type and mutant origin were sequenced separately. No nucleotide difference was detected between them. Further investigations indicated that the gdhA genes were actively expressed in both the wild type and the mutant. Additionally, no GDH inhibitor was found in the wild type strain IRC-3. It is thus proposed that the inactivity of GDH in wild type is the result of the deficiency at the post-translational level of the gdhA expression. Examination of the deduced amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis GDH revealed the presence of the motifs characteristic of the family I -type hexameric protein, while the GDH of Bacillus subtilis belongs to family II.

  8. Anti-biofilm activity of an exopolysaccharide from a sponge-associated strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordone Angela

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary metabolites ranging from furanone to exo-polysaccharides have been suggested to have anti-biofilm activity in various recent studies. Among these, Escherichia coli group II capsular polysaccharides were shown to inhibit biofilm formation of a wide range of organisms and more recently marine Vibrio sp. were found to secrete complex exopolysaccharides having the potential for broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition and disruption. Results In this study we report that a newly identified ca. 1800 kDa polysaccharide having simple monomeric units of α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→2-glycerol-phosphate exerts an anti-biofilm activity against a number of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains without bactericidal effects. This polysaccharide was extracted from a Bacillus licheniformis strain associated with the marine organism Spongia officinalis. The mechanism of action of this compound is most likely independent from quorum sensing, as its structure is unrelated to any of the so far known quorum sensing molecules. In our experiments we also found that treatment of abiotic surfaces with our polysaccharide reduced the initial adhesion and biofilm development of strains such as Escherichia coli PHL628 and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Conclusion The polysaccharide isolated from sponge-associated B. licheniformis has several features that provide a tool for better exploration of novel anti-biofilm compounds. Inhibiting biofilm formation of a wide range of bacteria without affecting their growth appears to represent a special feature of the polysaccharide described in this report. Further research on such surface-active compounds might help developing new classes of anti-biofilm molecules with broad spectrum activity and more in general will allow exploring of new functions for bacterial polysaccharides in the environment.

  9. ABILITY OF BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp. and Pseudomonas putida IN BIOREMEDIATION OF WASTE WATER IN CISIRUNG WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratu SAFITRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the ability of bacterial consortium: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida in bioremediation of wastewater origin Cisirung WWTP. This study uses an experimental method completely randomized design (CRD, which consists of two treatment factors (8x8 factorial design. The first factor is a consortium of bacteria (K, consisting of 8 level factors (k1, k2, k3, k4, k5, k6, k7, and k8. The second factor is the time (T, consisting of a 7 level factors (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6, and t7. Test parameters consist of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solid, Ammonia and Population of Microbes during bioremediation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Duncan test. The results of this study showed that the consortium of Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida with inoculum concentration of 5% (k6 is a consortium of the most effective in reducing BOD 71.93%, 64.30% COD, TSS 94.85%, and 88.58% of ammonia.

  10. Isolation and physico-chemical characterization of an antifungal and antibacterial peptide produced by Bacillus licheniformis A12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, A; Maqueda, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Lebbadi, M; Valdivia, E

    1993-07-01

    An antifungal substance named peptide A12-C has been purified to homogeneity from supernatants of sporulated cultures of Bacillus licheniformis A12. It consists of a 0.77-kDa hydrophilic peptide containing two residues of Glu and one of Arg, Ala, Pro, Tyr and Orn. No fatty acids, phosphorus or carbohydrates have been detected. Peptide A12-C is active on several fungi (Microsporum canis CECT 2797, Mucor mucedo CECT 2653, M. plumbeus (CCM F 443, Sporothrix schenckii CECT 2799 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes CECT 2793) and bacteria (Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Sarcina and Mycobacterium), although the latter are less sensitive.

  11. Systematic mutagenesis method for enhanced production of bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis mutant strain UV-MN-HN-6

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    Muhammad Nauman Aftab

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was intended to obtain the enhanced production of bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis through random mutagenesis and optimization of various parameters. Several isolates of Bacillus licheniformis were isolated from local habitat and isolate designated as GP-35 produced maximum bacitracin production (14±0.72 IU ml-1. Bacitracin production of Bacillus licheniformis GP-35 was increased to 23±0.69 IU ml-1 after treatment with ultraviolet (UV radiations. Similarly, treatment of vegetative cells of GP-35 with chemicals like N-methyl N'-nitro N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG and Nitrous acid (HNO2 increased the bacitracin production to a level of 31±1.35 IU ml-1 and 27±0.89 IU ml-1 respectively. Treatment of isolate GP-35 with combined effect of UV and chemical treatment yield significantly higher titers of bacitracin with maximum bacitracin production of 41.6±0.92 IU ml-1. Production of bacitracin was further enhanced (59.1±1.35 IU ml-1 by optimization of different parameters like phosphate sources, organic acids as well as temperature and pH. An increase of 4.22 fold in the production of bacitracin after mutagenesis and optimization of various parameters was achieved in comparison to wild type. Mutant strain was highly stable and produced consistent yield of bacitracin even after 15 generations. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably Yp/s (IU/g substrate, Yp/x (IU/g cells, Yx/s (g/g, Yp/s, mutant strain B. licheniformis UV-MN-HN-6 was found to be a hyperproducer of bacitracin.

  12. Production and characterization of keratinase of a feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis PWD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S W; Hu, H M; Shen, S W; Takagi, H; Asano, M; Tsai, Y C

    1995-12-01

    The keratinase produced by Bacillus licheniformis PWD-1 was induced by feather powder. Maximal enzyme production could be achieved by culturing in a medium containing 1% hammer-milled feather powder (100 mesh) at 45 degrees C for 30 h. Maximal growth of PWD-1 was achieved at 50 degrees C, and maximal enzyme induction was at 45 degrees C. The molecular mass and isoelectric point of this enzyme were 31.4 kDa and 8.5, respectively. This enzyme was stable from pH 5 to 12. The optimal reaction pHs for feather powder and casein were 8.5 and 10.5 to 11.5, respectively. The optimal reaction temperature was 50 degrees C to 55 degrees C. The relative activity of this enzyme toward casein, feather powder, keratin, elastin, and collagen was 100:52:41:18:7, and 100:56:32:3 for Suc-AAPL-pNA, Suc-AAPF-pNA, Suc-AAPM-pNA, and Suc-AAVA-pNA (Suc, succinyl; pNA, p-nitrophenylanilide).

  13. High levan production by Bacillus licheniformis NS032 using ammonium chloride as the sole nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekez, B D; Gojgic-Cvijovic, G D; Jakovljevic, D M; Stefanovic Kojic, J R; Markovic, M D; Beskoski, V P; Vrvic, M M

    2015-03-01

    In this study, levan production by Bacillus licheniformis NS032 isolated from a petroleum sludge sample was investigated. High levan yield was obtained in a wide range of sucrose concentrations (up to 400 g/L) and, contrary to most levan-producing strains, using ammonium chloride as the sole N source. Interaction between sucrose, ammonium chloride, and initial pH of the medium in a low sucrose (60-200 g/L) and a high sucrose (300-400 g/L) system was analyzed by response surface methodology. According to the calculated model in the low sucrose system, maximum predicted levan yield was 47.8 g/L (sucrose 196.8 g/L, ammonium chloride 2.4 g/L, pH 7.0), while in the high sucrose system, levan yield was 99.2 g/L (sucrose 397.6 g/L, ammonium chloride 4.6 g/L, pH 7.4). In addition, protective effect of microbial levan against copper toxicity to Daphnia magna is observed for the first time. The acute toxicity (48 h EC50) of copper decreased from 0.14 to 0.44 mg/L by levan in concentration of 50 ppm. PMID:25592434

  14. Extracellular polysaccharide production in Bacillus licheniformis SVD1 and its immunomodulatory effect

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    J. Susan van Dyk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus licheniformis SVD1 exhibited highest production of three different polysaccharides when sucrose was used as the carbon source for polysaccharide production and yeast extract was used as the nitrogen source. Polysaccharides were characterized using size exclusion chromatography (SEC, thin layer chromatography (TLC, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GCMS, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR analysis. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to examine the topography of the cells and polysaccharides. The cell-associated polysaccharides were composed of galactose, while two different polysaccharides were present in the extracellular medium, one of 2,000 kDa (EPS1, consisting of fructose monomers and identified as a levan with (2→6-linkages and (1→2-branching linkages. The other extracellular polysaccharide (EPS2 consisted of mannose and galactose and had a range of sizes as identified through SEC. All three polysaccharides displayed an immune modulatory effect as measured using Interleukin 6 (IL6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα.

  15. Enhanced production of alkaline protease by a mutant of Bacillus licheniformis N-2 for dehairing

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    Muhammad Nadeem

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigations was to improve the yield of alkaline protease for leather dehairing by subjecting the indigenous proteolytic strain Bacillus licheniformis N-2 to various mutagenic treatments viz. UV irradiations, NTG (N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguinidine and MMS (methyl methane sulfonate. After screening on skim milk agar plates, a total of nine positive mutants were selected for shake flask experiments. Among these, the best proteolytic mutant designated as UV-9 showed 1.4 fold higher alkaline protease activity in preoptimized growth medium than the parent strain. The fermentation profile and kinetic parameters such u(h-1, Yp/s, Yp/x, Yx/s, q s, Qs, q p and Qp also indicated the superiority of the selected mutant UV-9 for alkaline protease production over the parent strain and rest of the mutants. The dehairing capability of mutant UV-9 alkaline protease was analyzed by soaking goat skin pieces for different time intervals (3-15 h at 40 º C. A complete dehairing without degradation of collagen was achieved after 12 h, indicating its commercial exploitation in leather industry.

  16. In Vitro Antibiofilm Activity of an Exopolysaccharide from the Marine Thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis T14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Antonio; Laganà, Pasqualina; Visalli, Giuseppa; Maugeri, Teresa L; Gugliandolo, Concetta

    2016-05-01

    The development of antibiofilm strategies is of major interest in contrasting bacterial pathogenic biofilms. A novel fructose and fucose rich exopolysaccharide (EPS1-T14) produced by the recently described thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis T14, isolated from a shallow hydrothermal vent of Panarea Island (Eolian Island, Italy), was evaluated for its effects on biofilm formation by multiresistant clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibiofilm activity of EPS1-T14 was assessed by microtiter plate assays and visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopic images. EPS1-T14, with molecular weight of 1000 kDa, reduced biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces without affecting bacterial vitality. The novel EPS1-T14 is a water-soluble, noncytotoxic exopolymer able to prevent biofilm formation and its use may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for combating bacterial biofilm-associated infections. EPS1-T14 as antiadhesive biomolecule could be useful for novel prospective in medical and nonmedical applications. PMID:26750122

  17. Functional characterization of a Na(+)-coupled dicarboxylate transporter from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Melodie A; Hall, Jason A; Gaiko, Olga; Pajor, Ana M

    2009-12-01

    The Na(+)-coupled dicarboxylate transporter, SdcL, from Bacillus licheniformis is a member of the divalent anion/Na(+) symporter (DASS) family that includes the bacterial Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporter SdcS (from Staphyloccocus aureus) and the mammalian Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporters, NaDC1 and NaDC3. The transport properties of SdcL produced in Escherichia coli are similar to those of its prokaryotic and eukaryotic counterparts, involving the Na(+)-dependent transport of dicarboxylates such as succinate or malate across the cytoplasmic membrane with a K(m) of approximately 6 microM. SdcL may also transport aspartate, alpha-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate with low affinity. The cotransport of Na(+) and dicarboxylate by SdcL has an apparent stoichiometry of 2:1, and a K(0.5) for Na(+) of 0.9 mM. Our findings represent the characterization of another prokaryotic protein of the DASS family with transport properties similar to its eukaryotic counterparts, but with a broader substrate specificity than other prokaryotic DASS family members. The broader range of substrates carried by SdcL may provide insight into domains of the protein that allow a more flexible or larger substrate binding pocket.

  18. Statistical Approach for Optimization of Physiochemical Requirements on Alkaline Protease Production from Bacillus licheniformis NCIM 2042

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Bhunia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of physiochemical parameters for alkaline protease production using Bacillus licheniformis NCIM 2042 were carried out by Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology (RSM. The model was validated experimentally and the maximum protease production was found 315.28 U using optimum culture conditions. The protease was purified using ammonium sulphate (60% precipitation technique. The HPLC analysis of dialyzed sample showed that the retention time is 1.84 min with 73.5% purity. This enzyme retained more than 92% of its initial activity after preincubation for 30 min at 37∘C in the presence of 25% v/v DMSO, methanol, ethanol, ACN, 2-propanol, benzene, toluene, and hexane. In addition, partially purified enzyme showed remarkable stability for 60 min at room temperature, in the presence of anionic detergent (Tween-80 and Triton X-100, surfactant (SDS, bleaching agent (sodium perborate and hydrogen peroxide, and anti-redeposition agents (Na2CMC, Na2CO3. Purified enzyme containing 10% w/v PEG 4000 showed better thermal, surfactant, and local detergent stability.

  19. Covalent Immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase on Aldehyde-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles

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    Meng-Chun Chi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the synthesis and use of surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles for the covalent immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (BlGGT. Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by an alkaline solution of divalent and trivalent iron ions, and they were subsequently treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES to obtain the aminosilane-coated nanoparticles. The functional group on the particle surface and the amino group of BlGGT was then cross-linked using glutaraldehyde as the coupling reagent. The loading capacity of the prepared nanoparticles for BlGGT was 34.2 mg/g support, corresponding to 52.4% recovery of the initial activity. Monographs of transmission electron microscopy revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles had a mean diameter of 15.1 ± 3.7 nm, and the covalent cross-linking of the enzyme did not significantly change their particle size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the immobilization of BlGGT on the magnetic nanoparticles. The chemical and kinetic behaviors of immobilized BlGGT are mostly consistent with those of the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme could be recycled ten times with 36.2% retention of the initial activity and had a comparable stability respective to free enzyme during the storage period of 30 days. Collectively, the straightforward synthesis of aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticles and the efficiency of enzyme immobilization offer wide perspectives for the practical use of surface-bound BlGGT.

  20. Characterization and Application of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket J; Geetha, S J; Desai, Anjana J

    2015-09-01

    The biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis R2 was characterized and studied for enhancing the heavy crude oil recovery at 80 °C in coreflood experiments. The strain was found to be nonpathogenic and produced biosurfactant, reducing the surface tension of medium from 70 to 28 mN/m with 1.1 g/l yield. The biosurfactant was quite stable during exposure to elevated temperatures (85 °C for 90 days), high salinity (10 % NaCl), and a wide range of pH (5-12) for 10 days. It was characterized as lipopeptide similar to lichenysin-A, with a critical micelle concentration of about 19.4 mg/l. The efficiency of crude biosurfactant for enhanced oil recovery by core flood studies revealed it to recovering additional 37.1 % oil from Berea sandstone cores at 80 °C. The results are indicative of the potential for the development of lipopeptide biosurfactant-based ex situ microbial enhanced heavy oil recovery from depleting oil fields with extreme temperatures.

  1. Cloning, Sequencing, and In Silico Analysis of β-Propeller Phytase Bacillus licheniformis Strain PB-13

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    Vinod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Propeller phytases (BPPhy are widely distributed in nature and play a major role in phytate-phosphorus cycling. In the present study, a BPPhy gene from Bacillus licheniformis strain was expressed in E. coli with a phytase activity of 1.15 U/mL and specific activity of 0.92 U/mg proteins. The expressed enzyme represented a full length ORF “PhyPB13” of 381 amino acid residues and differs by 3 residues from the closest similar existing BPPhy sequences. The PhyPB13 sequence was characterized in silico using various bioinformatic tools to better understand structural, functional, and evolutionary aspects of BPPhy class by multiple sequence alignment and homology search, phylogenetic tree construction, variation in biochemical features, and distribution of motifs and superfamilies. In all sequences, conserved sites were observed toward their N-terminus and C-terminus. Cysteine was not present in the sequence. Overall, three major clusters were observed in phylogenetic tree with variation in biophysical characteristics. A total of 10 motifs were reported with motif “1” observed in all 44 protein sequences and might be used for diversity and expression analysis of BPPhy enzymes. This study revealed important sequence features of BPPhy and pave a way for determining catalytic mechanism and selection of phytase with desirable characteristics.

  2. Efficient production of 2,3-butanediol from corn stover hydrolysate by using a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixiang; Li, Kun; Wang, Kai; Chen, Chao; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain X10 was newly isolated for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Strain X10 could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously without carbon catabolite repression. In addition, strain X10 possesses high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors including furfural, vanillin, formic acid, and acetic acid. In a fed-batch fermentation, 74.0g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from corn stover hydrolysate, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 94.6%. Thus, this thermophilic B. licheniformis strain is a candidate for the development of efficient industrial production of 2,3-BD from corn stover hydrolysate.

  3. Efficient production of 2,3-butanediol from corn stover hydrolysate by using a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixiang; Li, Kun; Wang, Kai; Chen, Chao; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain X10 was newly isolated for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Strain X10 could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously without carbon catabolite repression. In addition, strain X10 possesses high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors including furfural, vanillin, formic acid, and acetic acid. In a fed-batch fermentation, 74.0g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from corn stover hydrolysate, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 94.6%. Thus, this thermophilic B. licheniformis strain is a candidate for the development of efficient industrial production of 2,3-BD from corn stover hydrolysate. PMID:25151068

  4. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis TT42 Having Potential for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Harish; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus licheniformis TT42 produced a low-molecular weight anionic biosurfactant that reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m and the interfacial tension from 12 to 0.05 mN/m against crude oil. We have earlier reported significant enhancement in oil recovery in laboratory sand pack columns and core flood studies, by biosurfactant-TT42 compared to standard strain, Bacillus mojavensis JF2. In the context of this application of the biosurfactant-TT42, its characterization was deemed important. In the preliminary studies, the biosurfactant-TT42 was found to be functionally stable at under conditions of temperature, pH, and salinity generally prevalent in oil reservoirs. Furthermore, the purified biosurfactant-TT42 was found to have a CMC of 22 mg/l. A newly developed activity staining TLC method was used for the purification of biosurfactant-TT42. Structural characterization of biosurfactant-TT42 using TLC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), GC-MS, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF suggested that it was a mixture of lipopeptide species, all having a common hydrophilic cyclic heptapeptide head with the sequence, Gln-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu-Val-Asp-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu linked to hydrophobic tails of different lengths of 3β-OH-fatty acids bearing 1043, 1057 and 1071 Da molecular weight, where 3β-OH-C19 fatty acid was predominant. This is the longest chain length of fatty acids reported in a lipopeptide.

  5. Disruption of microbial biofilms by an extracellular protein isolated from epibiotic tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis.

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    Devendra H Dusane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marine epibiotic bacteria produce bioactive compounds effective against microbial biofilms. The study examines antibiofilm ability of a protein obtained from a tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis D1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: B. licheniformis strain D1 isolated from the surface of green mussel, Perna viridis showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Candida albicans BH, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and biofouling Bacillus pumilus TiO1 cultures. The antimicrobial activity was lost after treatment with trypsin and proteinase K. The protein was purified by ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the antimicrobial agent to be a 14 kDa protein designated as BL-DZ1. The protein was stable at 75°C for 30 min and over a pH range of 3.0 to 11.0. The sequence alignment of the MALDI-fingerprint showed homology with the NCBI entry for a hypothetical protein (BL00275 derived from B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 with the accession number gi52082584. The protein showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 1.6 µg/ml against C. albicans. Against both P. aeruginosa and B. pumilus the MIC was 3.12 µg/ml. The protein inhibited microbial growth, decreased biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed biofilms of the representative cultures in polystyrene microtiter plates and on glass surfaces. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We isolated a protein from a tropical marine strain of B. licheniformis, assigned a function to the hypothetical protein entry in the NCBI database and described its application as a potential antibiofilm agent.

  6. Comparative evaluation of Bacillus licheniformis 5A5 and Aloe variegata milk-clotting enzymes

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    S. A. Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a milk clotting enzyme (MCE produced by bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis 5A5 were investigated and compared to those of rennet extracted from a plant (Aloe variegata. Production of MCE by B. licheniformis 5A5 was better in static than in shaken cultures. Maximum activity (98.3 and 160.3 U/ml of clotting was obtained at 75ºC and 80ºC with bacterial and plant rennet, respectively. In the absence of substrate, the clotting activity of Aloe MCE was found to be less sensitive to heat inactivation up to 80ºC for 75 min, retaining 63.8% of its activity, while bacterial MCE was completely inhibited. CaCl2 stimulated milk clotting activity (MCA up to 2% and 1.5% for bacterial and plant enzymes. NaCl inhibited MCA for both enzymes, even at low concentration (1%. Plant MCE was more sensitive to NaCl at 3% concentration it retained 30.2% of its activity, whereas bacterial MCE retained 64.1%. Increasing skim milk concentration caused a significant increase in MCA up to 6% for both enzymes. Mn2+ stimulated the activity of bacterial and plant enzymes to 158.6 and 177.9%, respectively. EDTA and PMSF increased the activity of plant MCE by 34.4 and 41.1%, respectively, which is higher than those for the bacterial MCE (19.1 and 20.9%. Some natural materials activated MCE, the highest activation of bacterial MCE (128.1% was obtained in the presence of Fenugreek (with acid extraction. However Lupine Giza 1 (with neutral extraction gave the highest activation of plant MCE (137.9%. All extracts from Neem plant increased MCA at range from 105.6% to 136.4%. Plant MCE exhibited much better stability when stored at room temperature (25-30ºC for 30 days, retaining 51.2% of its activity. Bacterial MCE was highly stabile when stored under freezing (-18ºC, retaining 100% of its activity after 30 days. Moreover, bacterial MCE was highly tolerant to repeated freezing and thawing without loss of activity for 8 months.

  7. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of α-Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris

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    Jian-Rong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis, the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use.

  8. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues.

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    Jung-Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The ferric uptake regulator (Fur family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur, Zn (Zur, and peroxide (PerR. Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950 in addition to Fur (BL05249, Zur (BL03703, and PerR (BL00075 homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950 as well as PerRBL (BL00075, but not FurBL (BL05249 and ZurBL (BL03703, can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690 has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur.

  9. Optimization and partial characterization of culture conditions for the production of alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis P003

    OpenAIRE

    Sarker, Palash Kumar; Talukdar, Saimon Ahmad; Deb, Promita; Sayem, SM Abu; Mohsina, Kaniz

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes have occupied a pivotal position for their practical applications. The present study was carried out under shake flask conditions for the production of alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis P003 in basal medium containing glucose, peptone, K2HPO4, MgSO4 and Na2CO3 at pH 10. The effect of culture conditions and medium components for maximum production of alkaline protease was investigated using one factor constant at a time method along with its characterization. Ma...

  10. Supplementation of Carbohydrate to Enhance the α-amylase Production by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 in Presence of Seed Cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Vengadaramana, A.; Vasanthy, A.; Balakumar, S

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The effect of carbohydrate and amino acids on the production of a-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 was investigated. Methodology and results: To find out the influence of carbohydrate the total carbohydrate content of the medium containing different concentration (2-18 g/L) of defatted seed cake powder of sesamum and mustard containing medium was kept constant by the addition of soluble starch separately. The highest a-amylase activity obtained in the medium containing 18g/L ...

  11. High expression level of levansucrase from Bacillus licheniformis RN-01 and synthesis of levan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakapong, Santhana; Pichyangkura, Rath; Ito, Kazuo; Iizuka, Masaru; Pongsawasdi, Piamsook

    2013-03-01

    LsRN from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. From a 1793 bp genomic sequence, the lsRN gene was found to be composed of a single 1446 bp ORF with a putative promoter consensus boxes and a ribosome-binding site. This ORF was predicted to encode for 482 amino acid residues. The LsRN was constitutively expressed at a relatively high level without sucrose induction. The enzyme was highly purified and an apparent size of 52 kDa with an optimum temperature and pH of 50 °C and 6.0 were determined. The wide range of M(w) of levan (1-600 kDa) was synthesized in a controlled reaction with two variable parameters: temperature and ionic strength. At high temperature (50 °C), LsRN synthesized high M(w) levan (612 kDa) as a major product while at low temperature (30 °C), low M(w) levan (11 kDa) was mainly synthesized. When 0.5M NaCl was added into the reaction, the major products at both temperatures were of the size 11 kDa. Moreover we report for the first time, an enzymatic synthesis of levan nanoparticles (NPs) by a single step reaction. The LsRN synthesized levan NPs as agglomerate with average particle size of 50 nm. The encapsulation of O-acetyl-α-tocopherol was carried out to demonstrate the applicable use of levan NPs. PMID:23219733

  12. Combined effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide and Bacillus licheniformis on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream (Megalobrama terminalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Wei-Na; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Lu, Kang-Le; Wang, Li-Na; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) and their interaction on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream Megalobrama terminalis (average initial weight 30.5 ± 0.5 g). Nine experimental diets were formulated to contain three FOS levels (0, 0.3% and 0.6%) and three B. licheniformis levels (0, 1 × 10(7), 5 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)) according to a 3 × 3 factorial design. At the end of the 8-week feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) and survival rate was recorded for the next 7 days. The results showed that leucocyte counts, alternative complement activity as well as total serum protein and globulin contents all increased significantly (P 0.05) was observed in these parameters in terms of dietary FOS levels. Both plasma alkaline phosphatase and phenoloxidase activities were significantly (P FOS levels with the highest values observed in fish fed 0.6 and 0.3% FOS, respectively. Both immunoglobulin M content and liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were significantly affected (P > 0.05) by both FOS and B. licheniformis. Liver catalase, glutathione peroxidase as well as plasma SOD activities of fish fed 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)B. licheniformis were all significantly (P 0.05) by either FOS levels or B. licheniformis contents, whereas a significant (P FOS and 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)B. licheniformis. The results of this study indicated that dietary FOS and B. licheniformis could significantly enhance the innate immunity and antioxidant capability of triangular bream, as well as improve its disease resistance. The best combination of these two prebiotics and/or probiotics was 0.3% FOS and 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)B. licheniformis. PMID:23932988

  13. Enhanced production of elastase by Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410: optimization of cultivation conditions using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sequential methodology based on the application of three types of experimental designs was used to optimize the fermentation conditions for elastase production from mutant strain ZJUEL31410 of Bacillus licheniformis in shaking flask cultures. The optimal cultivation conditions stimulating the maximal elastase production consist of 220 r/min shaking speed, 25 h fermentation time, 5% (v/v) inoculums volume, 25 ml medium volume in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask and 18 h seed age. Under the optimized conditions, the predicted maximal elastase activity was 495 U/ml. The application of response surface methodology resulted in a significant enhancement in elastase production. The effects of other factors such as elastin and the growth factor (corn steep flour) on elastase production and cell growth were also investigated in the current study. The elastin had no significant effect on enzyme-improved production. It is still not clear whether the elastin plays a role as a nitrogen source or not. Corn steep flour was verified to be the best and required factor for elastase production and cell growth by Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410.

  14. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of allantoinase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejero-Muriel, Mayte; Martínez-Gómez, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio; Gavira, Jose A

    2014-11-01

    Allantoinase, a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily, exists in a wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants and a few animals, such as fishes and amphibians. Allantoinase catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of allantoin into allantoate by hydrolytic cleavage of the N1-C2 amide bond of the five-membered hydantoin ring. Allantoinase from Bacillus licheniformis (AllBali) presents an inverted enantioselectivity towards allantoin (R-enantioselective), which is a distinguishable feature that is not observed for other allantoinases. In this work, B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 allantoinase (AllBali) containing a C-terminal His6 tag was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of AllBali were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method using 0.1 M potassium thiocyanate, 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 as a crystallization solution. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å with an Rmerge of 29.2% from a crystal belonging to space group P12₁1, with unit-cell parameters a=54.93, b=164.74, c=106.89 Å, β=98.49°. There are four molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47% as estimated from the Matthews coefficient (VM=2.34 Å3 Da(-1)). PMID:25372819

  15. Characterization and dye decolorization ability of an alkaline resistant and organic solvents tolerant laccase from Bacillus licheniformis LS04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lei; Zhao, Min; Wang, Tian-Nv; Zhao, Li-Yan; Du, Mei-Hui; Li, Tai-Lun; Li, De-Bin

    2012-07-01

    A new bacterial strain exhibiting laccase activity was isolated from forest soil and was identified as Bacillus licheniformis LS04. The spore laccase of B. licheniformis LS04 demonstrated a broad pH range for catalyzing substrates. It was quite stable at high temperature and alkaline pH. There was no loss of laccase activity after 10 days incubation at pH 9.0, and about 16% of the initial activity was detected after 10h at 80°C. In addition, the spore laccase was tolerant towards 1M of NaCl and 30% of organic solvents. Reactive black 5, reactive blue 19 and indigo carmine were decolorized by the spore laccase in the absence of mediator. Meanwhile, the decolorization process was efficiently promoted when acetosyringone was present, with more than 80% of color removal in 1h at pH 6.6 or 9.0. The unusual properties indicated a high potential in industrial applications for this novel spore laccase. PMID:21868217

  16. Supplementation of Carbohydrate to Enhance the α-amylase Production by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 in Presence of Seed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadaramana, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of carbohydrate and amino acids on the production of a-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 was investigated. Methodology and results: To find out the influence of carbohydrate the total carbohydrate content of the medium containing different concentration (2-18 g/L of defatted seed cake powder of sesamum and mustard containing medium was kept constant by the addition of soluble starch separately. The highest a-amylase activity obtained in the medium containing 18g/L mustard (59.11+b1.48 U/mL and sesamum seed cake powder (55.23+b1.55 U/mL. The results indicated that under these conditions the carbohydrate content had no effect on the production of a-amylase. Effect of amino acids (0.2g/L of glycine, methionine, proline, lysine, leucine, threonine, serine, arginine, alanine, glutamic acid, tryptophan, glutamine, asparagine, histidine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and mixture of amino acids on the production of a-amylase in fermentation medium was investigated. Among the different amino acids supplemented, eight amino acids improved the a-amylase production but casaminoacids slightly inhibited the enzyme production. In presence of tryptophan highest enzyme activity was obtained than control. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: In these study amino acids especially tryptophan takes part in a particular role rather than carbohydrate in the production of a-amylase from B. licheniformis ATCC 6346.

  17. Purification and characterization of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis Y-1 and its application in remediation of petroleum contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boqun; Liu, Jinpeng; Ju, Meiting; Li, Xiaojing; Yu, Qilin

    2016-06-15

    In our previous research, a petroleum degrading bacteria strain Bacillus licheniformis Y-1 was obtained in Dagang Oilfield which had the capability of producing biosurfactant. This biosurfactant was isolated and purified in this work. The biosurfactant produced by strain Y-1 had the capability to decrease the surface tension of water from 74.66 to 27.26mN/m, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 40mg/L. The biosurfactant performed not only excellent stabilities against pH, temperature and salinity, but also great emulsifying activities to different kinds of oil, especially the crude oil. According to the results of FT-IR spectrum and (1)H NMR spectrum detection, the surfactant was determined to be a cyclic lipopeptide. Furthermore, through the addition of surfactant, the effect of petroleum contaminated soil remediation by fungi got a significant improvement. PMID:27114088

  18. Utjecaj sastava podloge na komercijalnu proizvodnju alkalne proteaze s pomoću soja Bacillus licheniformis N-2

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Qazi, Javed Iqbal; Baig, Shahjahan; Syed, Qurat-ul-Ain

    2008-01-01

    U radu je istražena proizvodnja proteaze s pomoću alkalofilnog soja bakterije Bacillus licheniformis N-2 u 50 mL podloge sastava (u g/L): glukoza 10,0; sojina sačma 10,0; K2HPO4 3,0; MgSO4·7H2O 0,5; NaCl 0,5 i CaCl2·2H2O 0,5; pH=10. Dodatkom raznih izvora ugljika i dušika u obliku finih praškastih organskih, anorganskih i nemasnih hranjiva, odabran je prikladan supstrat za proizvodnju alkalne proteaze. Najviše alkalne proteaze (677,64 U/mL) proizvedeno je u podlozi s glukozom, a nešto manje s...

  19. Induction of Drought Stress Resistance by Multi-Functional PGPR Bacillus licheniformis K11 in Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong-Hui; Kim, Sang-Dal

    2013-06-01

    Drought stress is one of the major yield affecting factor for pepper plant. The effects of PGPRs were analyzed in relation with drought resistance. The PGPRs inoculated pepper plants tolerate the drought stress and survived as compared to non-inoculated pepper plants that died after 15 days of drought stress. Variations in protein and RNA accumulation patterns of inoculated and non-inoculated pepper plants subjected to drought conditions for 10 days were confirmed by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and differential display PCR (DD-PCR), respectively. A total of six differentially expressed stress proteins were identified in the treated pepper plants by 2D-PAGE. Among the stress proteins, specific genes of Cadhn, VA, sHSP and CaPR-10 showed more than a 1.5-fold expressed in amount in B. licheniformis K11-treated drought pepper compared to untreated drought pepper. The changes in proteins and gene expression patterns were attributed to the B. licheniformis K11. Accordingly, auxin and ACC deaminase producing PGPR B. licheniformis K11 could reduce drought stress in drought affected regions without the need for overusing agrochemicals and chemical fertilizer. These results will contribute to the development of a microbial agent for organic farming by PGPR. PMID:25288947

  20. Induction of Drought Stress Resistance by Multi-Functional PGPR Bacillus licheniformis K11 in Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hui Lim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major yield affecting factor for pepper plant. The effects of PGPRs were analyzed in relation with drought resistance. The PGPRs inoculated pepper plants tolerate the drought stress and survived as compared to non-inoculated pepper plants that died after 15 days of drought stress. Variations in protein and RNA accumulation patterns of inoculated and non-inoculated pepper plants subjected to drought conditions for 10 days were confirmed by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE and differential display PCR (DD-PCR, respectively. A total of six differentially expressed stress proteins were identified in the treated pepper plants by 2D-PAGE. Among the stress proteins, specific genes of Cadhn, VA, sHSP and CaPR-10 showed more than a 1.5-fold expressed in amount in B. licheniformis K11-treated drought pepper compared to untreated drought pepper. The changes in proteins and gene expression patterns were attributed to the B. licheniformis K11. Accordingly, auxin and ACC deaminase producing PGPR B. licheniformis K11 could reduce drought stress in drought affected regions without the need for overusing agrochemicals and chemical fertilizer. These results will contribute to the development of a microbial agent for organic farming by PGPR.

  1. Bacillus licheniformis proteases as high value added products from fermentation of wastewater sludge: pre-treatment of sludge to increase the performance of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, M; Lai, C K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater sludge is a complex raw material that can support growth and protease production by Bacillus licheniformis. In this study, sludge was treated by different thermo-alkaline pre-treatment methods and subjected to Bacillus licheniformis fermentation in bench scale fermentors under controlled conditions. Thermo-alkaline treatment was found to be an effective pre-treatment process in order to enhance the proteolytic activity. Among the different pre-treated sludges tested, a mixture of raw and hydrolysed sludge caused an increase of 15% in the protease activity, as compared to the untreated sludge. The benefit of hydrolysis has been attributed to a better oxygen transfer due to decrease in media viscosity and to an increase in nutrient availability. Foam formation was a major concern during fermentation with hydrolysed sludge. The studies showed that addition of a chemical anti-foaming agent (polypropylene glycol) during fermentation to control foam could negatively influence the protease production by increasing the viscosity of sludge.

  2. Purification and partial characterization of bacillocin 490, a novel bacteriocin produced by a thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Felice Maurilio

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of bacteriocins as food preservatives have been so far limited, principally because of their low antimicrobial activity in foods. Nisin is the only bacteriocin of significant use, but applications are restricted principally because of its very low activity at neutral or alkaline pH. Thus the isolation of new bacteriocins active in foods is desirable. Results We isolated a Bacillus licheniformis thermophilic strain producing a bacteriocin with some novel features, named here bacillocin 490. This bacteriocin was inactivated by pronase E and proteinase K and was active against closely related Bacillus spp. both in aerobic and in anaerobic conditions. Bactericidal activity was kept during storage at 4°C and was remarkably stable in a wide pH range. The bacteriocin was partially purified by elution after adhesion to cells of the food-isolated strain Bacillus smithii and had a rather low mass (2 KDa. Antimicrobial activity against B. smithii was observed also when this organism was grown in water buffalo milk. Conclusions Bacillocin 490 is a novel candidate as a food anti-microbial agent since it displays its activity in milk, is stable to heat treatment and during storage, is active in a wide pH range and has bactericidal activity also at high temperature. These features may allow the use of bacillocin 490 during processes performed at high temperature and as a complementary antimicrobial agent of nisin against some Bacillus spp. in non-acidic foods. The small size suggests its use on solid foods.

  3. Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; El Hadj Ali, Nedra; Ktari, Naourez; Jellouli, Kemel; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Dhulster, Pascal; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using Alcalase 2.4 L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs) increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited an...

  4. Raw agro-industrial orange peel waste as a low cost effective inducer for alkaline polygalacturonase production from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10

    OpenAIRE

    Embaby, Amira M.; Masoud, Aliaa A; Marey, Heba S.; Shaban, Nadia Z; Ghonaim, Tayssir M

    2014-01-01

    The current study underlines biotechnological valorization of the accumulated and the non-efficiently utilized agro-industrial orange peel waste to produce polygalacturonase (PGase), an industrially important enzyme with augmented demands in enzymes markets, from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10. Sequential statistical optimization of PGase production was performed through one variable at a time (OVAT) approach, Plackett-Burman (PB) and response surface methodology (RSM). The impact of introducti...

  5. Expression of the Acid Pullulanase in Bacillus licheniformis%酸性普鲁兰酶基因在地衣芽孢杆菌中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢银珠; 沈微; 王正祥

    2011-01-01

    According to the sequence of pullulanase gene from Bacillus deramificans ( NCBI accession number:AX203843 ), the gene encoding mature peptide of pulluanase was synthesized and designated pulA. The puIA was amplified by the method of PCR and cloned into the expression vector pHY - WZX, yielding hybrid plasmid pHY-WZX- pulA. Subsequently, pHY- WZX -pulA was introduced into Bacillus licheniformis B60608. Active pullulanase was expressed by recombiant B. licheniformis and secreted into medium. Culture condition of recombinant B. licheniformis were optimized for production of pullulanase. The optimized medium consists of 2 % cotton seed protein and 8 % of glycerol.%根据Genbank公布的来源于Bacillus deramificans的普鲁兰酶基因突变体序列(AX203843)合成普鲁兰酶成熟肽基因.将该基因插入芽孢杆菌分泌型表达载体pHY-WZX,重组质粒转化地衣芽孢杆菌B60608,重组地衣芽孢杆菌实现普鲁兰酶分泌表达.对重组菌产普鲁兰酶的条件进行优化,以含2%药媒和8%甘油的培养基最适合普鲁兰酶表达.

  6. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis: optimization of production and its properties Cyclodextrina glycosyltransferase de Bacillus licheniformis: otimização da produção e suas propriedades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Martins Bonilha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.19 is an enzyme that produces cyclodextrins from starch via an intramolecular transglycosylation reaction. An alkalophilic Bacillus strain, isolated from cassava peels, was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. CGTase production by this strain was better when potato starch was used as carbon source, followed by cassava starch and amylopectin. Glucose and amylose, on the other hand, acted as synthesis repressors. When the cultivation was supplemented with sodium ions and had the pH adjusted between 6.0 and 9.0, the microorganism maintained the growth and enzyme production capacity. This data is interesting because it contradicts the concept that alkalophilic microorganisms do not grow in this pH range. After ultrafiltration-centrifugation, one protein of 85.2 kDa with CGTase activity was isolated. This protein was identified in plates with starch and phenolphthalein. Determination of the optimum temperature showed higher activities at 25ºC and 55ºC, indicating the possible presence of more than one CGTase in the culture filtrate. Km and Vmax values were 1.77 mg/mL and 0.0263 U/mg protein, respectively, using potato starch as substrate.Ciclodextrina glicosiltransferase (EC 2.4.1.19 é uma enzima que produz ciclodextrinas a partir de amido via transglicosilação intramolecular. Uma cepa de Bacillus alcalofílico, isolada de cascas de mandioca, foi identificada como Bacillus licheniformis. A produção de CGTase por esta cepa foi melhor quando amido de batata foi utilizado como fonte de carbono, seguido por amido de mandioca e amilopectina. Glicose e amilose, por outro lado, atuaram como repressor de síntese desta enzima. Quando o cultivo foi suplementado com íons sódio e teve o pH ajustado entre 6,0 e 9,0, o microrganismo manteve a capacidade de crescimento e de produção da enzima. Este dado é interessante pois contraria o conceito de que microrganismos alcalofílicos não apresentam crescimento

  7. Purification and characterization of an alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis UV-9 for detergent formulations

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    Muhammad Nadeem

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline protease produced by mutant strain B. licheniformis UV-9 was purified and characterized for its exploitationin detergent formulation. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by employing ammonium sulphate precipitation andsephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography with a 36.83 fold increase in specific activity and 11% recovery. The molecularweight of the protease was found to be 36.12 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The Km and Vmax values exhibited by purified proteasewere 5 mg/ml and 61.58ìM/ml/min, respectively, using casein as substrate. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at pH 11 andtemperature 60°C. Stability studies showed that the enzyme retained higher than 80% residual activity in the pH and temperature ranges of 8 to 11 and 30 to 50°C, respectively. However, in the presence of 10 mM Ca2+ ions the enzyme tained morethan 90% of its residual activity at pH 11 and temperature 60°C. Phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride (PMSF completelyinhibited the enzyme activity suggesting that it was serine protease. Among metal ions, the Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions enhancedactivity up to 128% and 145%, respectively. The purified enzyme showed extreme stability towards various surfactantssuch as Tween-20, Tween- 45, Tween-65 and Triton X-45. In addition, the enzyme also exhibited more than 100% residualactivity in the presence of oxidizing agents, H2O2 and sodium perborate. These biochemical properties indicate the potentialuse of B. licheniformis UV-9 enzyme in laundry detergents.

  8. Extracellular Ribonuclease from Bacillus licheniformis (Balifase), a New Member of the N1/T1 RNase Superfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadyrova, Alsu; Ulyanova, Vera; Ilinskaya, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The N1/T1 RNase superfamily comprises enzymes with well-established antitumor effects, such as ribotoxins secreted by fungi, primarily by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, and bacterial RNase secreted by B. pumilus (binase) and B. amyloliquefaciens (barnase). RNase is regarded as an alternative to classical chemotherapeutic agents due to its selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells. New RNase with a high degree of structural similarity with binase (73%) and barnase (74%) was isolated and purified from Bacillus licheniformis (balifase, calculated molecular weight 12421.9 Da, pI 8.91). The protein sample with enzymatic activity of 1.5 × 106 units/A280 was obtained. The physicochemical properties of balifase are similar to those of barnase. However, in terms of its gene organization and promoter activity, balifase is closer to binase. The unique feature of balifase gene organization consists in the fact that genes of RNase and its inhibitor are located in one operon. Similarly to biosynthesis of binase, balifase synthesis is induced under phosphate starvation; however, in contrast to binase, balifase does not form dimers under natural conditions. We propose that the highest stability of balifase among analyzed RNase types allows the protein to retain its structure without oligomerization. PMID:27656652

  9. Some Investigations on Protease Enzyme Production Kinetics Using Bacillus licheniformis BBRC 100053 and Effects of Inhibitors on Protease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghobadi Nejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to great commercial application of protease, it is necessary to study kinetic characterization of this enzyme in order to improve design of enzymatic reactors. In this study, mathematical modeling of protease enzyme production kinetics which is derived from Bacillus licheniformis BBRC 100053 was studied (at 37°C, pH 10 after 73 h in stationary phase, and 150 rpm. The aim of the present paper was to determine the best kinetic model and kinetic parameters for production of protease and calculating Ki (inhibition constant of different inhibitors to find the most effective one. The kinetic parameters Km (Michaelis-Menten constant and Vm (maximum rate were calculated 0.626 mM and 0.0523 mM/min. According to the experimental results, using DFP (diisopropyl fluorophosphate and PMSF (phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride as inhibitors almost 50% of the enzyme activity could be inhibited when their concentrations were 0.525 and 0.541 mM, respectively. Ki for DFP and PMSF were 0.46 and 0.56 mM, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that the Lineweaver-Burk model was the best fitting model for protease production kinetics DFP was more effective than PMSF and both of them should be covered in the group of noncompetitive inhibitors.

  10. Levan-type fructooligosaccharide production using Bacillus licheniformis RN-01 levansucrase Y246S immobilized on chitosan beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surawut Sangmanee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus licheniformis RN-01 levansucrase Y246S (LsRN-Y246S was immobilized by covalently linking onto chitosan, Sepabead EC-EP, and Sepabead EC-HFA, beads. The stability of immobilized LsRN-Y246S was found to be the highest with chitosan beads, retaining more than 70% activity after 13 weeks storage at 4 oC, and 68% activity after 12 hours incubation at 40°C. LsRN-Y246S immobilized on chitosan beads withstands sucrose concentrations up to 70% (w/v, retaining over 85% of its activity, significantly better than LsRN-Y246S immobilized on others supporting matrices. LsRN-Y246S immobilized on chitosan showed a 2.4 fold increase in activity in the presence of Mn2+, and gave slight protection against deactivation by of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe3+, SDS and EDTA. A maximum of 8.36 g and an average of 7.35 g LFOS yield at least up to DP 11 can be produced from 25 g of sucrose, during five production cycles. We have demonstrated that LFOS can be effectively produced by chitosan immobilized LsRN-Y246S and purified.

  11. Overcoming hydrolysis of raw corn starch under industrial conditions with Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Pešić, Milja; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    α-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a (BliAmy) was proven to be very efficient in hydrolysis of granular starch below the temperature of gelatinization. By applying two-stage feeding strategy to achieve high-cell-density cultivation of Escherichia coli and extracellular production of BliAmy, total of 250.5 U/mL (i.e. 0.7 g/L) of enzyme was obtained. Thermostability of amylase was exploited to simplify purification. The hydrolysis of concentrated raw starch was optimized using response surface methodology. Regardless of raw starch concentration tested (20, 25, 30 %), BliAmy was very effective, achieving the final hydrolysis degree of 91 % for the hydrolysis of 30 % starch suspension after 24 h. The major A-type crystalline structure and amorphous domains of the starch granule were degraded at the same rates, while amylose-lipid complexes were not degraded. BliAmy presents interesting performances on highly concentrated solid starch and could be of value for starch-consuming industries while response surface methodology (RSM) could be efficiently applied for the optimization of the hydrolysis.

  12. Overcoming hydrolysis of raw corn starch under industrial conditions with Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šokarda Slavić, Marinela; Pešić, Milja; Vujčić, Zoran; Božić, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    α-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a (BliAmy) was proven to be very efficient in hydrolysis of granular starch below the temperature of gelatinization. By applying two-stage feeding strategy to achieve high-cell-density cultivation of Escherichia coli and extracellular production of BliAmy, total of 250.5 U/mL (i.e. 0.7 g/L) of enzyme was obtained. Thermostability of amylase was exploited to simplify purification. The hydrolysis of concentrated raw starch was optimized using response surface methodology. Regardless of raw starch concentration tested (20, 25, 30 %), BliAmy was very effective, achieving the final hydrolysis degree of 91 % for the hydrolysis of 30 % starch suspension after 24 h. The major A-type crystalline structure and amorphous domains of the starch granule were degraded at the same rates, while amylose-lipid complexes were not degraded. BliAmy presents interesting performances on highly concentrated solid starch and could be of value for starch-consuming industries while response surface methodology (RSM) could be efficiently applied for the optimization of the hydrolysis. PMID:26545758

  13. Extracellular Ribonuclease from Bacillus licheniformis (Balifase, a New Member of the N1/T1 RNase Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Sokurenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The N1/T1 RNase superfamily comprises enzymes with well-established antitumor effects, such as ribotoxins secreted by fungi, primarily by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, and bacterial RNase secreted by B. pumilus (binase and B. amyloliquefaciens (barnase. RNase is regarded as an alternative to classical chemotherapeutic agents due to its selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells. New RNase with a high degree of structural similarity with binase (73% and barnase (74% was isolated and purified from Bacillus licheniformis (balifase, calculated molecular weight 12421.9 Da, pI 8.91. The protein sample with enzymatic activity of 1.5 × 106 units/A280 was obtained. The physicochemical properties of balifase are similar to those of barnase. However, in terms of its gene organization and promoter activity, balifase is closer to binase. The unique feature of balifase gene organization consists in the fact that genes of RNase and its inhibitor are located in one operon. Similarly to biosynthesis of binase, balifase synthesis is induced under phosphate starvation; however, in contrast to binase, balifase does not form dimers under natural conditions. We propose that the highest stability of balifase among analyzed RNase types allows the protein to retain its structure without oligomerization.

  14. Effect of synbiotics between Bacillus licheniformis and yeast extract on growth, hematological and biochemical indices of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Hassaan; M.A. Soltan; M.M.R. Ghonemy

    2014-01-01

    Twelve practical diets were formulated to contain four levels of Bacillus licheniformis (0.0, 0.24 × 106, 0.48 × 106 and 0.96 × 106 CFU g−1), respectively, with three yeast extract levels (0%, 0.5% and 1%), respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to duplicate groups of 50 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (5.99 ± 0.03 g) in 24 concrete ponds (0.5 m3 and 1.25 m depth) for 12 weeks. Increasing dietary B. licheniformis levels in O. niloticus and yeast extract levels significantly (P ...

  15. Production, Purification, and Characterization of Thermostable α-Amylase Produced by Bacillus licheniformis Isolate AI20

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    Yasser R. Abdel-Fattah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental design, is employed to enhance the production of thermostable α-amylase by a thermotolerant B. licheniformis AI20 isolate. Using one variant at time (OVAT method, starch, yeast extract, and CaCl2 were observed to influence the enzyme production significantly. Thereafter, the response surface methodology (RSM was adopted to acquire the best process conditions among the selected variables, where a three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to create a polynomial quadratic model correlating the relationship between the three variables and α-amylase activity. The optimal combination of the major constituents of media for α-amylase production was 1.0% starch, 0.75% yeast extract, and 0.02% CaCl2. The predicted optimum α-amylase activity was 384 U/mL/min, which is two folds more than the basal medium conditions. The produced α-amylase was purified through various chromatographic techniques. The estimated enzyme molecular mass was 55 kDa and the α-amylase had an optimal temperature and pH of 60–80°C and 6–7.5, respectively. Values of Vmax and Km for the purified enzyme were 454 mU/mg and 0.709 mg/mL. The α-amylase enzyme showed great stability against different solvents. Additionally, the enzyme activity was slightly inhibited by detergents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, or chelating agents such as EDTA and EGTA. On the other hand, great enzyme stability against different divalent metal ions was observed at 0.1 mM concentration, but 10 mM of Cu2+ or Zn2+ reduced the enzyme activity by 25 and 55%, respectively.

  16. Ability of a solid state fermentation technique to significantly minimize catabolic repression of. alpha. -amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis M27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, M.V.; Lonsane, B.K. (Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (India). Fermentation Technology and Bioengineering Discipline)

    1991-08-01

    The production of {alpha}-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis M27 in submerged fermentation was completely inhibited due to catabolic repression in medium containing 1% glucose. In contrast, the enzyme production in a solid state fermentation system was 19,550 units/ml extract even when the medium contained 15% glucose. The peak in enzyme titre was, however, shifted from 48 to 72 h. The ability of the solid state fermentation system to significantly overcome catabolic repression was not known earlier and is probably conferred by various physico-chemical factors and culture conditions specific to the system. (orig.).

  17. Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Xylanase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis for Use in Saccharification of Plant Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Asma; Aftab, Muhammad Nauman; Din, Zia Ud; Aftab, Saima; Iqbal, Irfana; Shahid, Anam; Tahir, Arifa; Haq, Ikram Ul

    2016-01-01

    The xylanase gene (xynA) of Bacillus licheniformis 9945A was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using pET-22b(+) as an expression vector. The recombinant xylanase enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by single-step immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography with a 57.58-fold purification having 138.2 U/mg specific activity and recovery of 70.08 %. Molecular weight of the purified xylanase, 23 kDa, was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was stable for up to 70 °C with a broad pH range of 4-9 pH units. The enzyme activity was increased in the presence of metal ions especially Ca(+2) and decreased in the presence of EDTA, indicating that the xylanase was a metalloenzyme. However, an addition of 1-4 % Tween 80, β-mercaptoethanol, and DTT resulted in the increase of enzyme activity by 51, 52, and 5 %, respectively. Organic solvents with a concentration of 10-40 % slightly decreased the enzyme activity. The xylanase enzyme possesses the ability of bioconversion of plant biomasses like wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse. Among the different tested biomasses, the highest saccharification percentage was observed with 1 % sugarcane bagasse after 72 h of incubation at 50 °C with 20 units of enzyme. The results suggest that recombinant xylanase can be used in the bioconversion of natural biomasses into simple sugars which could be further used for the production of biofuel. PMID:26438315

  18. Effects of acetic acid and arginine on pH elevation and growth of Bacillus licheniformis in an acidified cucumber juice medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenquan; Meng, Xia; Breidt, Frederick; Dean, Lisa L; Arritt, Fletcher M

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus licheniformis has been shown to cause pH elevation in tomato products having an initial pH below 4.6 and metabiotic effects that can lead to the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Because of this, the organism poses a potential risk to acidified vegetable products; however, little is known about the growth and metabolism of this organism in these products. To clarify the mechanisms of pH change and growth of B. licheniformis in vegetable broth under acidic conditions, a cucumber juice medium representative of a noninhibitory vegetable broth was used to monitor changes in pH, cell growth, and catabolism of sugars and amino acids. For initial pH values between pH 4.1 to 6.0, pH changes resulted from both fermentation of sugar (lowering pH) and ammonia production (raising pH). An initial pH elevation occurred, with starting pH values of pH 4.1 to 4.9 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and was apparently mediated by the arginine deiminase reaction of B. licheniformis. This initial pH elevation was prevented if 5 mM or greater acetic acid was present in the brine at the same pH. In laboratory media, under favorable conditions for growth, data indicated that growth of the organism was inhibited at pH 4.6 with protonated acetic acid concentrations of 10 to 20 mM, corresponding to 25 to 50 mM total acetic acid; however, growth inhibition required greater than 300 mM citric acid (10-fold excess of the amount in processed tomato products) products under similar conditions. The data indicate that growth and pH increase by B. licheniformis may be inhibited by the acetic acid present in most commercial acidified vegetable products but not by the citric acid in many tomato products.

  19. DEGRADACIÓN DEL ALDRÍN POR Bacillus licheniformis, AISLADO DEL AGUA Y SEDIMENTO DE LA CIENAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA

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    Sánchez Díaz Granados José Gregorio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de apoyar la utilización de los microorganismos como alternativa para la degradación de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes, se aisló la bacteria Bacillus licheniformis, a partir de muestras de sedimento y agua del complejo lagunar de la Ciénaga Grande de santa Marta (CGSM, Caribe colombiano; capaz de tolerar y degradar en condiciones aerobias el plaguicida organoclorado aldrín. Se realizó un bioensayo en el que se expuso al B. licheniformis a una concentración de 60ng/L de aldrín, durante un período de 30 días se evaluó la capacidad degradadora de la bacteria sobre el organoclorado. La identificación y aislamiento de B. licheniformis, se realizó a través de caracterización macroscópica y microscópica y pruebas bioquímicas (sistema BBL Crystal y la determinación de las concentraciones de aldrín con la técnica de cromatografía de gases. Los resultaron mostraron que B. licheniformis posee capacidad degradadora de un 24% del aldrín y que los factores como la exposición a la luz solar y la volatilización influyen considerablemente en la degradación del organoclorado con una reducción adicional de 31%.

  20. The sponge-associated bacterium Bacillus licheniformis SAB1: A source of antimicrobial compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wahidullah, S.; Rodrigues, C.; DeSouza, L.

    Skin infection 4. B4 Salmonella typhi Typhoid 5. B5 Shigella flexineri Gastrointestinal infection 6. B6 Klebsiella sp. Urinary tract infection 7. B7 Vibrio cholerae Cholera 8. F1 Fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus Skin infection 9. F2... Rhodotorula sp. Skin infection 10. F3 Candida albicans Candidiasis 11. F4 Cryptococcus neoformans Skin infection 12. F5 Aspergillus niger Skin infection 13. D1 Multi- drug resistant bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes Skin infection 14. D2 Acinetobacter sp...

  1. Positions of Trp codons in the leader peptide-coding region of the at operon influence anti-trap synthesis and trp operon expression in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Anastasia; Yanofsky, Charles

    2010-03-01

    Tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and several other metabolites are all synthesized from a common precursor, chorismic acid. Since tryptophan is a product of an energetically expensive biosynthetic pathway, bacteria have developed sensing mechanisms to downregulate synthesis of the enzymes of tryptophan formation when synthesis of the amino acid is not needed. In Bacillus subtilis and some other Gram-positive bacteria, trp operon expression is regulated by two proteins, TRAP (the tryptophan-activated RNA binding protein) and AT (the anti-TRAP protein). TRAP is activated by bound tryptophan, and AT synthesis is increased upon accumulation of uncharged tRNA(Trp). Tryptophan-activated TRAP binds to trp operon leader RNA, generating a terminator structure that promotes transcription termination. AT binds to tryptophan-activated TRAP, inhibiting its RNA binding ability. In B. subtilis, AT synthesis is upregulated both transcriptionally and translationally in response to the accumulation of uncharged tRNA(Trp). In this paper, we focus on explaining the differences in organization and regulatory functions of the at operon's leader peptide-coding region, rtpLP, of B. subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Our objective was to correlate the greater growth sensitivity of B. licheniformis to tryptophan starvation with the spacing of the three Trp codons in its at operon leader peptide-coding region. Our findings suggest that the Trp codon location in rtpLP of B. licheniformis is designed to allow a mild charged-tRNA(Trp) deficiency to expose the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and start codon for the AT protein, leading to increased AT synthesis. PMID:20061467

  2. Bacillus licheniformis proteases as high value added products from fermentation of wastewater sludge: pre-treatment of sludge to increase the performance of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, M; Lai, C K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater sludge is a complex raw material that can support growth and protease production by Bacillus licheniformis. In this study, sludge was treated by different thermo-alkaline pre-treatment methods and subjected to Bacillus licheniformis fermentation in bench scale fermentors under controlled conditions. Thermo-alkaline treatment was found to be an effective pre-treatment process in order to enhance the proteolytic activity. Among the different pre-treated sludges tested, a mixture of raw and hydrolysed sludge caused an increase of 15% in the protease activity, as compared to the untreated sludge. The benefit of hydrolysis has been attributed to a better oxygen transfer due to decrease in media viscosity and to an increase in nutrient availability. Foam formation was a major concern during fermentation with hydrolysed sludge. The studies showed that addition of a chemical anti-foaming agent (polypropylene glycol) during fermentation to control foam could negatively influence the protease production by increasing the viscosity of sludge. PMID:18309222

  3. Production and estimation of alkaline protease by immobilized Bacillus licheniformis isolated from poultry farm soil of 24 Parganas and its reusability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamba Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial alkaline protease has become an important industrial and commercial biotech product in the recent years and exerts major applications in food, textile, detergent, and pharmaceutical industries. By immobilization of microbes in different entrapment matrices, the enzyme produced can be more stable, pure, continuous, and can be reused which in turn modulates the enzyme production in an economical manner. There have been reports in support of calcium alginate and corn cab as excellent matrices for immobilization of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, respectively. This study has been carried out using calcium alginate, κ-carrageenan, agar-agar, polyacrylamide gel, and gelatin which emphasizes not only on enzyme activity of immobilized whole cells by different entrapment matrices but also on their efficiency with respect to their reusability as first attempt. Gelatin was found to be the best matrix among all with highest enzyme activity (517 U/ml at 24 h incubation point and also showed efficiency when reused.

  4. Optimization and partial characterization of culture conditions for the production of alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis P003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Palash Kumar; Talukdar, Saimon Ahmad; Deb, Promita; Sayem, Sm Abu; Mohsina, Kaniz

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes have occupied a pivotal position for their practical applications. The present study was carried out under shake flask conditions for the production of alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis P003 in basal medium containing glucose, peptone, K2HPO4, MgSO4 and Na2CO3 at pH 10. The effect of culture conditions and medium components for maximum production of alkaline protease was investigated using one factor constant at a time method along with its characterization. Maximum level of enzyme production was obtained after 48h of incubation with 2% inoculum size at 42°C, under continuous agitation at 150 rpm, in growth medium of pH 9. Highest enzyme production was obtained using 1% rice flour as carbon source and 0.8% beef extract as organic nitrogen source. Results indicated that single organic nitrogen source alone was more suitable than using in combinations and there was no significant positive effect of adding inorganic nitrogen sources in basal medium. After optimization of the parameters, enzyme production was increased about 20 fold than that of in basal medium. The crude enzyme was highly active at pH 10 and stable from pH 7-11. The enzyme showed highest activity (100%) at 50°C, and retained 78% relative activity at 70°C. Stability studies showed that the enzyme retained 75% of its initial activity after heating at 60°C for 1h. The enzyme retained about 66% and 46% of its initial activity after 28 days of storage at 4°C and room temperature (25°C) respectively. Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) increased the residual activity of the enzyme, whereas Fe(2+) moderately inhibited its residual activity. When pre-incubated with Tween-20, Tween-80, SDS and H2O2, each at 0.5% concentration, the enzyme showed increased residual activity. These characteristics may make the enzyme suitable for several industrial applications, especially in leather industries. PMID:24133650

  5. Sensitivity of the bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis as an insect disease agent to gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation on the viability of the entomopathogenic spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, was tested. The different gamma doses varied much in their effect on such bacterium. All irradiated Bacillus suspensions with doses below 85 krad showed different degrees of inhibitory activity. However, bacterial suspensions irradiated at a dose of 90 krad. proved to promote spore germination. Changes in the physiological, and morphological characters of the irradiated Bacillus at these levels were detected. The new observed characters were induced at a particular dose level of 90 krad. These new characters are assumed to be due to genetic changes induced at this particular gamma dose

  6. Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Strain KB1, a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Phytopathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Jo, Sung Hee; Hong, Chi Eun; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely known microbial pesticide used in agricultural applications. Herein, we report a draft genome sequence of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis strain KB1, which exhibits antagonism against phytopathogens.

  7. Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Strain KB1, a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Jo, Sung Hee; Hong, Chi Eun; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-04-21

    ITALIC! Bacillus thuringiensisis the most widely known microbial pesticide used in agricultural applications. Herein, we report a draft genome sequence of the endophytic bacterium ITALIC! Bacillus thuringiensisstrain KB1, which exhibits antagonism against phytopathogens.

  8. Effect of synbiotics between Bacillus licheniformis and yeast extract on growth, hematological and biochemical indices of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Hassaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve practical diets were formulated to contain four levels of Bacillus licheniformis (0.0, 0.24 × 106, 0.48 × 106 and 0.96 × 106 CFU g−1, respectively, with three yeast extract levels (0%, 0.5% and 1%, respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to duplicate groups of 50 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (5.99 ± 0.03 g in 24 concrete ponds (0.5 m3 and 1.25 m depth for 12 weeks. Increasing dietary B. licheniformis levels in O. niloticus and yeast extract levels significantly (P < 0.01 improved growth performance and nutrient utilization. Supplementation of the experimental diets with, 0.48 × 106 CFU/g−1 and 1.0% yeast extract showed the best nutrient utilization compared to other treatments. All probiotic levels significantly (P < 0.01 increased chemical composition (P < 0.05 compared to the control group, while increasing yeast extract did not significantly alter chemical composition. Hematological indices, total protein and albumin of O. niloticus significantly increased while aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase significantly (P < 0.01 decreased with an increase in B. licheniformis level up to 0.48 × 106 CFU g−1. Increasing levels of yeast extract had no effect on hematological parameters and the diets supplemented with 0.48 × 106 CFU g−1 and 0.5% yeast extract showed the highest hematological values.

  9. Carbonate biomineralization induced by soil bacterium Bacillus megaterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Bin; Hu, Qiaona; Chen, Jun; Ji, Junfeng; Teng, H. Henry

    2006-11-01

    Biogenic carbonates spawned from microbial activities are common occurrences in soils. Here, we investigate the carbonate biomineralization mediated by the bacterium Bacillus megaterium, a dominant strain separated from a loess profile in China. Upon completing bacterial cultivation, the ensuring products are centrifuged, and the resultant supernatant and the concentrated bacterial sludge as well as the un-separated culture are added separately into a Ca-CO 3 containing solution for crystallization experiments. Results of XRD and SEM analysis indicate that calcite is the dominant mineral phase formed when the bacteria are present. When the supernatant alone is used, however, a significant portion of vaterite is also precipitated. Experimental results further reveal that the bacteria have a strong tendency to colonize the center area of the calcite {1 0 1¯ 4} faces. Observed crystal morphology suggests that the bacterial colony may promote the growth normal to each individual {1 0 1¯ 4} face of calcite when the cell concentration is high, but may retard it or even cause dissolution of the immediate substrate surfaces when the concentration is low. SEM images taken at earlier stages of the crystallization experiments demonstrate the nucleation of calcite on the bacterial cell walls but do not show obvious morphological changes on the nanometer- to submicron-sized nuclei. δ 13C measurements unveil that the crystals grown in the presence of bacteria are further enriched in the heavy carbon isotope, implying that the bacterial metabolism may not be the carbon sources for the mineralization. Based upon these findings, we propose a mechanism for the B. megaterium mediated calcite mineralization and conclude that the whole process involves epi- and inter-cellular growth in the local microenvironments whose conditions may be controlled by cell sequestration and proton pumping during bacterial respiration.

  10. Raw agro-industrial orange peel waste as a low cost effective inducer for alkaline polygalacturonase production from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Amira M; Masoud, Aliaa A; Marey, Heba S; Shaban, Nadia Z; Ghonaim, Tayssir M

    2014-01-01

    The current study underlines biotechnological valorization of the accumulated and the non-efficiently utilized agro-industrial orange peel waste to produce polygalacturonase (PGase), an industrially important enzyme with augmented demands in enzymes markets, from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10. Sequential statistical optimization of PGase production was performed through one variable at a time (OVAT) approach, Plackett-Burman (PB) and response surface methodology (RSM). The impact of introduction of six raw agro-industrial wastes (orange, lemon, banana, pomegranate, artichoke peel wastes and wheat bran) and other synthetic carbon sources separately into the fermentation broth on PGase productivity was studied through OVAT approach. Orange peel waste as sole raw carbon source in basal medium proved to be the best PGase inducer. It promoted PGase productivity with relative specific activity of 166% comparable with the effect imposed by synthetic citrus pectin as a reference inducer. Three key determinants (orange peel waste, pH of the production medium and incubation temperature) had RSM optimal levels of 1.76% (w/v), 8.0 and 37.8°C, respectively along with maximal PGase level (2.69 μg galacturonic acid. min(-1). mg(-1)) within 48 hrs. Moreover, SHG10 PGase exhibited activity over a wide range of pH (3-11) and an optimal activity at 50°C. Data greatly encourage pilot scale PGase production from B. licheniformis SHG10. PMID:25077057

  11. Evaluación de la nisina como sustancia inactivadora de Bacillus licheniformis en el extracto líquido de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Sierra L.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la nisina en la inactivación de Bacillus licheniformis en el extracto líquido de café. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la acción de la nisina sobre Bacillus licheniformis en extractos líquidos de café variando su concentración, tiempo de incubación, concentración de solidos solubles (grados Brix y la concentración bacteriana contaminante. Resultados. Se observó que la concentración de nisina, para obtener un efecto inhibitorio del 55%, sin alterar las propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales del producto, es 500 UI/ml que corresponden a 12.5 mg/L. Además, se determinó que la concentración de nisina 1000 UI/ml puede actuar satisfactoriamente en poblaciones bacterianas menores de 5x104 UFC/ml en un período de 48 horas. Con relación al efecto de concentración de sólidos solubles en la inactivación del microorganismo, no se encontraron diferencias significativas para un rango entre 15 y 45°Brix. Conclusiones. A partir de este estudio se puede concluir que la nisina puede ser usada como preservante del extracto de líquido de café sin afectar sensorialmente el producto, teniendo en cuenta la concentración bacteriana contaminante y el tiempo de incubación.

  12. Optimization of Culture Medium and Fermentation Conditions of Bacillus licheniformis M109%地衣芽孢杆菌M109高密度发酵条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付维来; 杜建涛; 刘鹏; 王安如

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of Bacillus licheniformis M109 culture medium in this research based on the orthogonal test, carbon source, nitrogen source and carbon nitrogen ratio were determine as necessary for fermentation medium of Bacillus licheniformis M109. In order to enhance Bacillus licheniformis M109 fermentation level, growth curve of Bacillus licheniformis M109 and trend of Ph, dissolved oxygen(DO) were studied. Though studying the fermentation process of growth, the optimal Ph and inoculation amount were determined. The results found that DO was a key factor that limited the growth of Bacillus licheniformis M109. It was studied regulation rotate speed of stirring to improve dissolved oxygen and the fermentation density in culture medium. Another study found that Bacillus licheniformis M109 fermentation level could be improved by adding fresh medium. Through optimization of culture medium and conditions, the fermentation level of Bacillus licheniformis M109 incneased to 1. 2×1010 CFU/Ml from the initial 1. 0×109 CFU/Ml and the rate of bacillus arrived to 88%.%试验旨在筛选一株地衣芽孢杆菌M109(Bacillus licheniformis M109)进行培养基和发酵条件的优化.采用单因素试验方法筛选出最佳碳源和氮源的培养基,并利用正交试验方法确定其最佳的碳氮比.为了继续提高地衣芽孢杆菌M109的发酵水平,研究其在发酵过程中的生长曲线、pH和溶氧(DO)水平的变化曲线,通过对发酵过程中生长参数的测定,优化了地衣芽孢杆菌M109最佳的接种量和最适pH.结果发现,溶氧限制是地衣芽孢杆菌M109生长的关键因素;在限定通风量的条件下,通过调节搅拌转速的方法来提高培养基中的溶氧水平,提高发酵密度;通过流加培养基的方法也能提高地衣芽孢杆菌M109的发酵水平.因此,通过对培养基和发酵条件的优化,使地衣芽孢杆菌M109的发酵水平由最初的1.0×109 CFU/mL提高到1.2×1010CFU/mL,芽孢形成率为88%.

  13. Anticorrosion/antifouling properties of bacterial spore-loaded sol-gel type coating for mild steel in saline marine condition: a case of thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    OpenAIRE

    Eduok, Ubong; Suleiman, Rami; Gittens, Jeanette; Khaled, Mazen; Smith, Thomas J.; Akid, Robert; El Ali, Bassam; Khalil, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the performance of a sol-gel type coating encapsulated with biofilm of inoculums of protective thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis endospores isolated from the Gazan hot springs- Saudi Arabia for the inhibition of marine fouling and corrosion protection of S36-grade mild steel in 3.5 wt% NaCl medium. In order to improve its anticorrosion properties, the hybrid sol-gel coating is further doped with zinc molybdate (MOLY) and zinc aluminum polyphosphate (Z...

  14. 地衣芽孢杆菌1.934培养条件的优化%Optimization of Culture Condition for Bacillus licheniformis 1.934 Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淑玉; 张光明; 万甜

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis is very important as a soil microorganism to increase the availability and uptake of mineral nutrients for plants. In this study, the effect of culture condition on Bacillus licheniformis 1. 934 production was investigated. On the basis of single factor experiments, a central composite design was used to optimize the prime factors. The results were analyzed by response surface. Analysis results show that the optimal culture condition is as follows; temperature 35℃,flask shaking speed 150r/min,amount of inoculation 3. 6%,pH 7. 5. Bacillus licheniformis 1. 934 grew well under this condition, incubated for 20h,the highest amylase activity(12. 7U /mL ) can be obtained;incubated for 27h,the highest cell number can be gotten.%研究了生物肥功能菌——地衣芽胞杆菌1.934 (Bacillus licheniformis)培养条件对菌体生长量的影响.采用了单因素实验和响应曲面法(RSM)设计实验和分析数据.获得了菌体摇瓶培养的最适条件:培养温度35℃,转速为150r/min,接种量为3.6%,pH为7.5.地衣芽孢杆菌在最适条件下培养约20h,淀粉酶的酶活最高,活力可达12.7U/mL培养液.培养约27h得到最大的菌体收益.

  15. Characterization of a salt-tolerant aminopeptidase from marine Bacillus licheniformis SWJS33 that improves hydrolysis and debittering efficiency for soy protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fenfen; Zhao, Qiangzhong; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2017-01-01

    An aminopeptidase was isolated from the marine Bacillus licheniformis SWJS33 (BLAP) and purified. According to the tandem mass spectrometry, the enzyme displayed 11% amino acid identity with the aminopeptidase from Bacillus (gi|496687392). BLAP exhibited maximum activity at 60°C and pH 8.0-8.5 and had a molecular mass of 100kDa. The presence of NaCl enabled 50% improvement of enzyme activity with 10-15% NaCl being the best. The observed inactivation by EDTA and bestatin and activation by Co(2+) and Ag(+) indicated that the obtained enzyme was a metalloaminopeptidase. Such an aminopeptidase could further improve the hydrolysis degree of soy protein isolate hydrolysates catalyzed by papain, Alcalase 2.4L or Flavourzyme 500MG from 8.5%, 9.5% or 14.4-18.8%, 18.7% or 20.1%, respectively, while decreasing the bitter intensity score of the SPI hydrolysates catalyzed by Alcalase 2.4L from 3.6 to 0.4. PMID:27507484

  16. Genome Sequence of Bacillus mycoides B38V, a Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; de Souza, Rocheli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Alvarenga, Samuel M; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus mycoides B38V is a bacterium isolated from the sunflower rhizosphere that is able to promote plant growth and N uptake. The genome of the isolate has approximately 5.80 Mb and presents sequence codifiers for plant growth-promoting characteristics, such as nitrate reduction and ammonification and iron-siderophore uptake. PMID:25838494

  17. Genome Sequence of Bacillus mycoides B38V, a Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant’Anna, Fernando Hayashi; de Souza, Rocheli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Alvarenga, Samuel M.; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus mycoides B38V is a bacterium isolated from the sunflower rhizosphere that is able to promote plant growth and N uptake. The genome of the isolate has approximately 5.80 Mb and presents sequence codifiers for plant growth-promoting characteristics, such as nitrate reduction and ammonification and iron-siderophore uptake.

  18. Study of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition Activity of the Hydrolyzed Product of Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) Skin Collagen with 50 kDa Collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, Agnes; Rachmawati, Heni; Riani, Catur; Retnoningrum, Debbie S

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides produced from enzymatic hydrolysis fibrous protein have been proven to have several biological activities. Previous study showed that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen with 26 kDa collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4 showed HMG-CoA (HMGR) inhibition activity. The aim of this research was to determine the ability of the hydrolysis product produced from snakehead fish skin collagen hydrolysed by 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 in inhibiting HMGR activity. Snakehead fish skin collagen was extracted using an acid method and collagenase was produced from B. licheniformis F11.4 using half-strength Luria Bertani (LB) medium containing 5% collagen. Crude collagenase was concentrated and fractionated using the DEAE Sephadex A-25 column eluted with increasing gradient concentrations of NaCl. Collagen, collagenase, and fractions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and collagenolytic activity was analyzed by the zymography method. Collagenase with 50 kDa molecular weight presented in fraction one was used to hydrolyze the collagen. The reaction was done in 18 hours at 50°C. The hydrolysis product using 3.51 μg collagen and 9 ng collagenase showed 25.8% inhibition activity against pravastatin. This work shows for the first time that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen and 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 has potential as an anticholesterol agent. PMID:27110500

  19. Study of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition Activity of the Hydrolyzed Product of Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) Skin Collagen with 50 kDa Collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, Agnes; Rachmawati, Heni; Riani, Catur; Retnoningrum, Debbie S

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides produced from enzymatic hydrolysis fibrous protein have been proven to have several biological activities. Previous study showed that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen with 26 kDa collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4 showed HMG-CoA (HMGR) inhibition activity. The aim of this research was to determine the ability of the hydrolysis product produced from snakehead fish skin collagen hydrolysed by 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 in inhibiting HMGR activity. Snakehead fish skin collagen was extracted using an acid method and collagenase was produced from B. licheniformis F11.4 using half-strength Luria Bertani (LB) medium containing 5% collagen. Crude collagenase was concentrated and fractionated using the DEAE Sephadex A-25 column eluted with increasing gradient concentrations of NaCl. Collagen, collagenase, and fractions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and collagenolytic activity was analyzed by the zymography method. Collagenase with 50 kDa molecular weight presented in fraction one was used to hydrolyze the collagen. The reaction was done in 18 hours at 50°C. The hydrolysis product using 3.51 μg collagen and 9 ng collagenase showed 25.8% inhibition activity against pravastatin. This work shows for the first time that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen and 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 has potential as an anticholesterol agent.

  20. Solid State Fermentation of a Raw Starch Digesting Alkaline Alpha-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 and Its Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Tabassum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of solids state raw starch digesting alpha amylase from newly isolated Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 strain were studied. The kinetic values Qp, Yp/s, Yp/X, and qp were proved to be best with 15% wheat bran. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was 112 kDa. The apparent Km and Vmax values for starch were 3.4 mg mL−1 and 19.5 IU mg−1 protein, respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for α-amylase were 55°C, 9.8. The half-life of enzyme at 95°C was 17h. The activation and denaturation activation energies were 45.2 and 41.2 kJ mol−1, respectively. Both enthalpies (ΔH∗ and entropies of activation (ΔS∗ for denaturation of α-amylase were lower than those reported for other thermostable α-amylases.

  1. Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Balti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis using Alcalase 2.4 L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited antioxidative activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NH1-CPHs generally showed greater antioxidative activity than Alcalase protein hydrolysates (P<0.05 as indicated by the higher 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferrous chelating activity. Both Alcalase and NH1 protein hydrolysates were able to retard lipid peroxidation and β-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation. Alcalase-CPH (DH = 12.5% and NH1-CPH (DH = 15% contained 75.36% and 80.11% protein, respectively, with histidine and arginine as the major amino acids, followed by glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, lysine, and leucine. In addition, CPHs have a high percentage of essential amino acids made up 48.85% and 50.04%. Cuttlefish muscle protein hydrolysates had a high nutritional value and could be used as supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins.

  2. Isolation, Characterization and investing the Industrial Applications of Thermostable and Solvent Tolerant Serine Protease from Hot Spring Isolated Thermophililic Bacillus licheniformis U1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Dudhagara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Protease is the largest selling enzyme in the world due to its various applications in the making of detergent, food and leather, meat tenderisation and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of the study is to isolate and identify thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis U1 strains for thermostable protease production. The partial purified enzyme was characterized under different conditions using Anson-Hagihara’s method. Casein as a substrate in the concentration of 0.6 % w/v optimum for enzyme activity and tolerant up to 2.0% casein concentration. An optimum enzyme activity was reported at pH 7 and decreased with increasing in pH, while temperature optimum was found at 50 °C. The enzyme was stable at 40 °C to 50 °C for half an hour and nearly 50% residual activity was indicated at 60 °C. NaCl was not required for catalysis. Stability of enzymes in the presence of various organic solvents and different detergents was remarkable. The enzyme was stable up to 3 days into various solvents and slowly denatured with prolonged incubation. The result of the washing performance with detergent was clearly indicated. Moreover the removal of blood stains and dehairing in goat skin suggests the crucial application in the commercial production at large scale.

  3. Five new amicoumacins isolated from a marine-derived Bacterium bacillus subtilis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongxin

    2012-02-03

    Four novel amicoumacins, namely lipoamicoumacins A-D (1-4), and one new bacilosarcin analog (5) were isolated from culture broth of a marine-derived bacterium Bacillus subtilis, together with six known amicoumacins. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (2D NNR, IR, CD and MS) analysis and in comparison with data in literature. 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  4. 根际接种芽孢杆菌对辣椒和黄瓜壮苗形成的作用%Effects of Rhizosphere Inoculation with Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus polymyxa on Pepper and Cucumber Seedling Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常冬梅; 张志刚; 尚庆茂

    2010-01-01

    将地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheniformis)、多粘芽孢杆菌(Bacillus polymyxa)悬浮液注射接种至辣椒、黄瓜幼苗根际,分析对幼苗生长发育及其相关生理指标的影响.结果表明:辣椒苗期根际接种芽孢杆菌后,显著提高了幼苗净光合速率和根系活力,促进了矿质元素的吸收积累,增产幅度29.3%~33.3%,多粘芽孢杆菌的接种效果明显优于地衣芽孢杆菌;黄瓜幼苗根际接种芽孢杆菌后,幼苗根系活力降低,进而抑制了矿质元素吸收和产量形成.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus PN-137T (DSM 8725), an Alkaliphilic Halotolerant Bacterium Isolated from Garden Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Ping; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Xiao, Rong-Feng; Zheng, Xue-Fang; Shi, Huai; Ge, Ci-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus PN-137(T) (DSM 8725) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, alkaliphilic, and halotolerant bacterium. Here, we report the 4.49-Mb genome sequence of B. pseudalcaliphilus PN-137(T), which will accelerate the application of this alkaliphile and provide useful information for genomic taxonomy and phylogenomics of Bacillus-like bacteria.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Mun Su [University of Florida, Gainesville; Moritz, Brelan E. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Patel, Milind [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ou, Mark [University of Florida, Gainesville; Harbrucker, Roberta [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ingram, Lonnie O. [University of Florida; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T. [University of Florida

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer- ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this spo- rogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attrac- tive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi- cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome se- quence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer-ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi-cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome squence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  8. Construcción de un vector para la integración cromosomal de un gen de fitasa de Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Fernández

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Las fitasas son una clase especial de fosfatasas que catalizan la hidrólisis secuencial del fitato. La incapacidad de las plantas para utilizar el fósforo a partir de los fitatos del suelo es debido a la baja actividad de fitasas en sus raíces. Los microorganismos del suelo juegan un importante papel en los procesos que afectan la trans- formación de los compuestos fosforados. Muchos de ellos pueden solubilizar el fósforo a partir de los fitatos, mediante la liberación de fitasas. Este proceso permite la movilización del fósforo hacia las plantas y un mejor aprovechamiento de este nutriente. Sin embargo, muchas bacterias carecen de los genes que codifican para estas enzimas, lo que disminuye la disponibilidad de este elemento en el suelo. Una alternativa es mejorar las rizobacterias en cuanto a su capacidad de solubilizar los fitatos del suelo, mediante la transformación genética. En este trabajo el gen phyL de Bacillus licheniformis fue clonado en el vector de liberación suicida pJMT6 (vector derivado del sistema pUT/mini Tn5. La construcción recombinante que contiene un marcador de selección no antibiótico, fue transformada en Escherichia coli CC118λpir. Un clon transformante (F16 fue seleccionado y posteriormente caracterizado. Estos resultados constituyen un primer paso para desarrollar rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento mejoradas en cuanto a la producción de actividad fitasa recombinante, como alternativa para reducir la contaminación ambiental y mejorar la productividad de los cultivos.

  9. GH53 Endo-Beta-1,4-Galactanase from a Newly Isolated Bacillus licheniformis CBMAI 1609 as an Enzymatic Cocktail Supplement for Biomass Saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Evandro Antonio; Machado, Carla Botelho; Zanphorlin, Letícia Maria; Ward, Richard John; Sato, Hélia Harumi; Ruller, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Galactanases (endo-β-1,4-galactanases-EC 3.2.1.89) catalyze the hydrolysis of β-1,4 galactosidic bonds in arabinogalactan and galactan side chains found in type I rhamnogalacturan. The aim of this work was to understand the catalytic function, biophysical properties, and use of a recombinant GH53 endo-beta-1,4-galactanase for commercial cocktail supplementation. The nucleotide sequence of the endo-β-1,4-galactanase from Bacillus licheniformis CBMAI 1609 (Bl1609Gal) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the biochemical and biophysical properties of the enzyme were characterized. The optimum pH range and temperature of Bl1609Gal activity were 6.5-8 and 40 °C, respectively. Furthermore, Bl1609Gal showed remarkable pH stability, retaining more than 75 % activity even after 24 h of incubation at pH 4-10. The enzyme was thermostable, retaining nearly 100 % activity after 1-h incubation at pH 7.0 at 25-45 °C. The enzymatic efficiency (K cat /K m ) against potato galactan under optimum conditions was 241.2 s(-1) mg(-1) mL. Capillary zone electrophoresis demonstrated that the pattern of galactan hydrolysis by Bl1609Gal was consistent with that of endogalactanases. Supplementation of the commercial cocktail ACCELLERASE(®)1500 with recombinant Bl1609Gal increased hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse by 25 %. PMID:26879978

  10. Optimization of the growth conditions for amylase production by bacillus licheniformis 208 isolated from local hotsprings of karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the optimum conditions for the production of extracellular amylase were carried out with a newly isolated strain of Bacillus 208 from the hotsprings in Karachi. The optimum temperature, initial medium pH and incubation period for amylase production were 50 degree C, 7.0 and 24 hrs respectively. Furthermore, cells when grown in the complex media showed high amylase production compared to the minimal medium. Effect of different carbon sources revealed that soluble starch (1%) increased the amylase yield significantly. Peptone (as nitrogen source) gave higher yield as compared to other nitrogen sources tested. Under optimized conditions, the organism entered the stationary phase after 12 hrs and amylase production was observed to be maximum at 24th hrs of cultivation. Enzyme production regulation is influenced by catabolite repression. Reduction in enzyme production was observed in the presence of EDTA while addition of tween 20 and CaCl/sub 2/ helped to enhance the enzyme production. (author)

  11. Genome Sequence of the Boron-Tolerant and -Requiring Bacterium Bacillus boroniphilus

    OpenAIRE

    ÇÖL, Bekir; Özkeserli, Zeynep; Kumar, Dibyendu; ÖZDAĞ, Hilal; Alakoç, Yeşim D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus boroniphilus is a highly boron-tolerant bacterium that also requires this element for its growth. The complete genome sequence of B. boroniphilus was determined by a combination of shotgun sequencing and paired-end sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. A total of 84,872,624 reads from shotgun sequencing and a total of 194,092,510 reads from paired-end sequencing were assembled using Newbler 2.3. The estimated size of the draft genome is 5.2 Mb.

  12. Whole genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TF28, a biocontrol entophytic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumei; Jiang, Wei; Li, Jing; Meng, Liqiang; Cao, Xu; Hu, Jihua; Liu, Yushuai; Chen, Jingyu; Sha, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TF28 is a biocontrol endophytic bacterium that is capable of inhibition of a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi. The strain has the potential to be developed into a biocontrol agent for use in agriculture. Here we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of the strain. The genome size of B. amyloliquefaciens TF28 is 3,987,635 bp which consists of 3754 protein-coding genes, 65 tandem repeat sequences, 47 minisatellite DNA, 2 microsatellite DNA, 63 tRNA, 7rRNA, 6 sRNA, 3 prophage and CRISPR domains. PMID:27688836

  13. Predicción de la transferencia de masa en cultivos no-newtonianos de Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Rizo-Porro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar un modelocapaz de predecir el valor del coeficiente volumétrico detransferencia de oxígeno (kLa en cultivos deBacilluslicheniformis,en los cuales se utiliza la sacarosa comosustrato limitante. El proceso se realiza en cuatro eta-pas: la selección de expresiones que correlacionen el kLacon la viscosidad del fluido; la determinación de lascaracterísticas reológicas de un cultivo de esta bacteriacon sobreexpresión de un exopolisacárido (EPS; ladeterminación experimental del kLa en diferentes con-diciones de viscosidad, velocidad de agitación y flujo deaire y por último; la selección de la correlación quemejor representa los resultados experimentales. Comoresultado del trabajo desarrollado se obtuvo que elmodelo de Oswald de Waele representa el comporta-miento pseudoplástico de un cultivo deBacillus licheni-formisen las condiciones estudiadas y se identificaronlos coeficientes de la correlación propuesta la cualrepresenta exitosamente el 99,45 % de los datos experi-mentales. Los valores de kLa experimental fueron obte-nidos entre 0,0056 y 0,981 s-1.

  14. Mutante espontâneo de Bacillus licheniformis bloqueado no estágio I da esporogênese, possuidor de metabolismo respiratório aumentado A spontaneous mutant of Bacillus licheniformis with increased respiratory metabolism, blocked in stage I of sporogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Rabinovitch

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Um mutante espontâneo de Bacillus licheniformis, derivado da amostra esporogênica 2390, foi estudado com vistas ao reconhecimento do estágio da evolução para esporo em que o mesmo se encontrava bloqueado. Eletronmicrografias sugeriram que as células desse mutante, colhidas durante a fase estacionária da curva de crescimento, não ultrapassaram o estágio I da esporogênese (i.e., permaneceram com o nucleóide disposto como filamento axial, enquanto a produção de antibiótico (bacitracina e a atividade proteolítica foram francamente detectadas. A linhagem mutante, designada Spolp-72, nas condições experimentais empregadas não biossintetizou esporos por estarvação em solução de sais inorgãnicos, mas evidenciou uma frequência de esporulação menor que 10*-7, após crescimento vegetativo em meio de cultura favorável á esporogênese. A amostra Spolp-72 externa um crescimento vegetativo inicial restringido, quando comparada com a amostra 2390, enquanto que, inversamente, sua atividade respiratória é significativamente mais elevada. Este último comportamento foi confirmado no presente trabalho, contrastando, nesse particular, com outros tipos de mutantes de esporulação já descritos, os quais se encontram bloqueados nos primeiros estágios da via esporogenética.A spontaneous mutant strain derived from the sporogenic B. licheniformis 2390 was studied with a view to determining at what developmental stage toward sporulation it was blocked. Electronmicrographs suggested that the mutant cells harvested during the stationary phase of the growth curve were unable to go beyond stage I of sporogenesis (i. e., their nucleoid remained as an axial filament. On the other hand, antibiotic production (bacitracin and proteolytic activity were easily detected. Under the present experimental conditions the mutant strain, named Spolp-72, did not synthesize spores by starvation in a solution of inorganic salts, in contrast with the parental

  15. Bacillus thermotolerans sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium capable of reducing humus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guiqin; Zhou, Xuemei; Zhou, Shungui; Yang, Dehui; Wang, Yueqiang; Wang, Dingmei

    2013-10-01

    A novel thermotolerant bacterium, designated SgZ-8(T), was isolated from a compost sample. Cells were non-motile, endospore-forming, Gram-staining positive, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. The isolate was able to grow at 20-65 °C (optimum 50 °C) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum 6.5-7.0), and tolerate up to 9.0 % NaCl (w/v) under aerobic conditions. Anaerobic growth occurred with anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonate (AQDS), fumarate and NO3(-) as electron acceptors. Phylogenetic analysis based on the16S rRNA and gyrB genes grouped strain SgZ-8(T) into the genus Bacillus, with the highest similarity to Bacillus badius JCM 12228(T) (96.2 % for 16S rRNA gene sequence and 83.5 % for gyrB gene sequence) among all recognized species in the genus Bacillus. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.3 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified phospholipid. The major cellular fatty acid was iso-C16 : 0. On the basis of its phenotypic and phylogenetic properties, chemotaxonomic analysis and the results of physiological and biochemical tests, strain SgZ-8(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2012108(T) = KACC 16706(T)) was designated the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus thermotolerans sp. nov. is proposed.

  16. Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swetha Sunkar; C Valli Nachiyar

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To synthesize the ecofriendly nanoparticles, which is viewed as an alternative to the chemical method which initiated the use of microbes like bacteria and fungi in their synthesis. Methods: The current study uses the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the Garcinia xanthochymus to synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate solution by the endophytic bacterium after incubation for 3-5 d at room temperature. The synthesis was initially observed by colour change from pale white to brown which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX and TEM analyses. Results:The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical with the size in the range of 20-40 nm which showed a slight aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectra of the nanoparticle dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against a few pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions:The endophytic bacteria identified as Bacillus cereus was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with potential antibacterial activity.

  17. Global microarray analysis of carbohydrate use in alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajian Song

    Full Text Available The alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5 has a broad substrate spectrum and exhibits the capacity to utilize complex carbohydrates such as galactomannan, xylan, and pectin. In the monosaccharide mixture, sequential utilization by Bacillus sp. N16-5 was observed. Glucose appeared to be its preferential monosaccharide, followed by fructose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, and galactose. Global transcription profiles of the strain were determined separately for growth on six monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, and xylose and four polysaccharides (galactomannan, xylan, pectin, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose using one-color microarrays. Numerous genes potentially related to polysaccharide degradation, sugar transport, and monosaccharide metabolism were found to respond to a specific substrate. Putative gene clusters for different carbohydrates were identified according to transcriptional patterns and genome annotation. Identification and analysis of these gene clusters contributed to pathway reconstruction for carbohydrate utilization in Bacillus sp. N16-5. Several genes encoding putative sugar transporters were highly expressed during growth on specific sugars, suggesting their functional roles. Two phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems were identified as candidate transporters for mannose and fructose, and a major facilitator superfamily transporter was identified as a candidate transporter for arabinose and xylose. Five carbohydrate uptake transporter 1 family ATP-binding cassette transporters were predicted to participate in the uptake of hemicellulose and pectin degradation products. Collectively, microarray data improved the pathway reconstruction involved in carbohydrate utilization of Bacillus sp. N16-5 and revealed that the organism precisely regulates gene transcription in response to fluctuations in energy resources.

  18. Towards the entire proteome of the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis by gel-based and gel-free approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Susanne; Antelmann, Haike; Albrecht, Dirk; Becher, Doerte; Bernhardt, Joerg; Bron, Sierd; Buettner, Knut; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Eymann, Christine; Otto, Andreas; Tam, Le Thi; Hecker, Michael

    2007-01-01

    With the emergence of mass spectrometry in protein science and the availability of complete genome sequences, proteomics has gone through a rapid development. The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, as one of the first DNA sequenced species, represents a model for Gram-positive bacteria and its proteo

  19. Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of D-Tagatose-1-phosphate: The Substrate of the Tagatose-1-Phosphate Kinase TagK in the PTS-mediated D-Tagatose Catabolic Pathway of Bacillus licheniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Delmarcelle, Michaël; Simon, Patricia; Counson, Melody; Galleni, Moreno; Freedberg, Darón I.; Thompson, John; Joris, Bernard; Battistel, Marcos D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first enzymatic synthesis of D-tagatose-1-phosphate (Tag-1P) by the multi-component PEP-dependent:tag-PTS present in tagatose-grown cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Physicochemical characterization by 31P and 1H NMR spectroscopy reveals that, in solution, this derivative is primarily in the pyranose form. Tag-1P was used to characterize the putative tagatose-1-phosphate kinase (TagK) of the Bacillus licheniformis PTS-mediated D-Tagatose catabolic Pathway (Bli-TagP). For this purpose, a soluble protein fusion was obtained with the 6 His-tagged trigger factor (TFHis6) of Escherichia coli. The active fusion enzyme was named TagK-TFHis6. Tag-1P and D-fructose-1-phosphate (Fru-1P) are substrates for the TagK-TFHis6 enzyme, whereas the isomeric derivatives D-tagatose-6-phosphate (Tag-6P) and D-fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6P) are inhibitors. Studies of catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) reveal that the enzyme specificity is markedly in favor of Tag-1P as substrate. Importantly, we show in vivo that the transfer of the phosphate moiety from PEP to the B. licheniformis tagatose-specific enzyme II (EIITag) in E.coli is inefficient. The capability of the PTS general cytoplasmic components of B. subtilis, HPr and EI, to restore the phosphate transfer is demonstrated. PMID:26159072

  20. DNA Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression in Antifungal Bacterium of Bacillus lenthmorbus WJ5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This simultaneous expression levels of antifungal activity related was analyzed by DNA microarray. We constructured DNA chips contained 2,000 randomly digested genome spots of the antifungal bacterium of Bacillus lentimorbus WJ5 and compared it squantitative aspect with 7 antifungal activity deficient mutants induced by gamma radiation . From the analysis of microarray hybridization by the Gene Cluster, totally 408 genes were expressed and 20 genes among them were significantly suppressed in mutants. pbuX, ywbA, ptsG,yufO, and ftsY were simultaneously down-regulated in all muatants. It suggested that they were supposed to be related to the antifungal activity of B. lentimorbus WJ5

  1. Uncoupling effect of fatty acids in halo- and alkalotolerant bacterium Bacillus pseudofirmus FTU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, I V; Bodrova, M E; Mokhova, E N; Muntyan, M S

    2004-10-01

    Natural uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, long-chain non-esterified fatty acids, cause uncoupling in the alkalo- and halotolerant bacterium Bacillus pseudofirmus FTU. The uncoupling effect in the bacterial cells was manifested as decrease of membrane potential and increase of respiratory activity. The membrane potential decrease was detected only in bacterial cells exhausted by their endogenous substrates. In proteoliposomes containing reconstituted bacterial cytochrome c oxidase, fatty acids caused a "mild" uncoupling effect by reducing membrane potential only at low rate of membrane potential generation. "Free respiration" induced by the "mild" uncouplers, the fatty acids, can be considered as possible mechanism responsible for adaptation of the bacteria to a constantly changed environment. PMID:15527418

  2. 高湿度对地衣芽胞杆菌胶囊质量的影响%Influence of High-Humidity on the Quality of the Bacillus lichenifor-mis Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨环境湿度对微生态制剂质量的影响。方法:以微生态制剂地衣芽胞杆菌胶囊为研究对象,在模拟的高湿度环境中研究了其干燥失重、活菌数和崩解时限的变化。结果:在相对湿度为80%的环境中放置48 h后,药品的活菌数、干燥失重、崩解时限均有显著变化。结论:高湿对益生菌制剂质量有很大影响,该类制剂应严格遵循药品贮存和使用的条件,并注意密闭包装。%Objective: To study the influence of environment humidity to the probiotics. Methods: Taking Bacil-lus licheniformis capsule as investigated subject, the changes of drying loss, survival number and disintegration time limit under a model high-humidity condition were observed. Results: Compared with normal conditions, the live bacteria number of the Bacillus licheniformis capsules were reduced significantly after 48 h on 80% humidity environment. Conclusion: The high humidity has significant impact on probiotic product. So probiotic product should be instrict accordance with the storage and use condition, and keep in tight packs.

  3. Bacillus nitroreducens sp. nov., a humus-reducing bacterium isolated from a compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junhui; Wang, Yue Qiang; Yang, Guiqin; Chen, Yunqi; Zhou, Shungui; Zhao, Yong; Zhuang, Li

    2016-05-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, facultative anaerobic, motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated GSS08(T), was isolated from a windrow compost pile and characterized by means of a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred with 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1 %), at pH 6.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5) and at 20-45 °C (optimum 37 °C). Anaerobic growth occurred with anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonate, fumarate and NO3 (-) as electron acceptor. The main respiratory quinone was MK-7. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids (>5 %) were iso-C15:0 (43.1 %), anteiso-C15:0 (27.4 %) and iso-C16:0 (8.3 %). The DNA G + C content was 39.6 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain GSS08(T) formed a phyletic lineage with the type strain of Bacillus humi DSM 16318(T) with a high sequence similarity of 97.5 %, but it displayed low sequence similarity with other valid species in the genus Bacillus (<96.0 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strains GSS08(T) and B. humi DSM 16318(T) was 50.8 %. The results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses clearly indicated that strain GSS08(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Bacillus nitroreducens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GSS08(T) (=KCTC 33699(T) = MCCC 1K01091(T)).

  4. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS. PMID:26826831

  5. Augmenting Iron Accumulation in Cassava by the Beneficial Soil Bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GBO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica A Freitas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta, a major staple food in the developing world, provides a basic carbohydrate diet for over half a billion people living in the tropics. Despite the iron abundance in most soils, cassava provides insufficient iron for humans as the edible roots contain 3-12 times less iron than other traditional food crops such as wheat, maize, and rice. With the recent identification that the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (strain GB03 activates iron acquisition machinery to increase metal ion assimilation in Arabidopsis, the question arises as to whether this plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR also augments iron assimilation to increase endogenous iron levels in cassava. Biochemical analyses reveal that shoot-propagated cassava with GB03-inoculation exhibit elevated iron accumulation after 140 days of plant growth as determined by X-ray microanalysis and total foliar iron analysis. Growth promotion and increased photosynthetic efficiency were also observed for greenhouse-grown plants with GB03-exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to increase iron accumulation in an important agricultural crop and is consistent with idea that microbial signaling can regulate plant photosynthesis.

  6. Antioxidant and DNA Damage Protecting Activity of Exopolysaccharides from the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus cereus SZ1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li Ping; Zou, Tin; Ma, Yan Jun; Wang, Jian Wen; Zhang, Yu Qing

    2016-01-01

    An endophytic bacterium was isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. The phylogenetic and physiological characterization indicated that the isolate, strain SZ-1, was Bacillus cereus. The endophyte could produce an exopolysaccharide (EPS) at 46 mg/L. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the EPS reached more than 50% at 3-5 mg/mL. The EPS was also effective in scavenging superoxide radical in a concentration dependent fashion with an EC50 value of 2.6 mg/mL. The corresponding EC50 for scavenging hydroxyl radical was 3.1 mg/mL. Moreover, phenanthroline-copper complex-mediated chemiluminescent emission of DNA damage was both inhibited and delayed by EPS. The EPS at 0.7-1.7 mg/mL also protected supercoiled DNA strands in plasmid pBR322 against scission induced by Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical. The preincubation of PC12 cells with the EPS prior to H₂O₂ exposure increased the cell survival and glutathione (GSH) level and catalase (CAT) activities, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a pronounced protective effect against H₂O₂-induced cytotoxicity. Our study indicated that the EPS could be useful for preventing oxidative DNA damage and cellular oxidation in pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:26861269

  7. Antioxidant and DNA Damage Protecting Activity of Exopolysaccharides from the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus cereus SZ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic bacterium was isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. The phylogenetic and physiological characterization indicated that the isolate, strain SZ-1, was Bacillus cereus. The endophyte could produce an exopolysaccharide (EPS at 46 mg/L. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of the EPS reached more than 50% at 3–5 mg/mL. The EPS was also effective in scavenging superoxide radical in a concentration dependent fashion with an EC50 value of 2.6 mg/mL. The corresponding EC50 for scavenging hydroxyl radical was 3.1 mg/mL. Moreover, phenanthroline-copper complex-mediated chemiluminescent emission of DNA damage was both inhibited and delayed by EPS. The EPS at 0.7–1.7 mg/mL also protected supercoiled DNA strands in plasmid pBR322 against scission induced by Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical. The preincubation of PC12 cells with the EPS prior to H2O2 exposure increased the cell survival and glutathione (GSH level and catalase (CAT activities, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a pronounced protective effect against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Our study indicated that the EPS could be useful for preventing oxidative DNA damage and cellular oxidation in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  8. 地衣芽孢杆菌产Levan果聚糖发酵条件的优化%Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Production of Levan by Bacillus licheniformis 8-37-0-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆娟; 肖敏; 卢丽丽

    2011-01-01

    通过单因素试验(培养基用水、碳源、氮源、培养温度和培养基初始pH值)和正交试验对地农芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheniformis)8-37-0-1发酵产生Levan果聚糖的培养基组成及培养条件进行优化,采用苯酚-硫酸法测定多糖含量.结果表明:以蔗糖100g/L、牛肉膏1.0g/L、酵母粉0.6g/L、K2HPO4 3.0g/L、KH2PO4 3.0g/L、NaCl 1.0g/L、MgSO4·7H2O 0.2g/L、FeSO4·7H2O 0.001g/L,自来水配制,培养基初始pH5.0,30℃培养8-37-0-1菌株24h,Levan果聚糖产量达到最高值41.7g/L,约是未优化时的5.0倍.

  9. In silico modeling of the type 2 IDI enzymes of Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus for virtual screening of potential inhibitors of this therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torktaz, Ibrahim; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz

    2013-02-01

    Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase is an essential enzyme in those living organisms such as pathogenic strains of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus genera which rely on the Mevalonate pathway for the production of isoprenoids. The pathogens contain type 2 IDI in contrast to human that contains type 1 IDI. Therefore, the type 2 IDI may be a potential target for the therapy of some infectious diseases. In the current study, a virtual screening by docking was performed among 2000 chemicals from CoCoCo library to find a specific inhibitor for type 2 IDIs. To this end, the structures of the type 2 IDIs of Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus were molded using comparative modeling and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based prediction. The predicted models were evaluated based on Q-mean and Prosa score. Molegro Virtual Docker with MolDock scoring function was used for measuring the binding affinity of the found inhibitor to the active site of the models. Also the inhibition effect of the compound was virtually tested on the crystallography-solved structures of the Sulfolobus shibatae and Thermus thermophilus type 2 IDIs as well as the Escherichia coli type 1 IDI. Finally, the inhibition effect of the found inhibitor was virtually tested on the human type 1 IDI. Interestingly, the results suggest that the inhibitor efficiently binds to and inhibits the bacterial IDIs especially the type 2 IDIs of pathogens while it is not inhibiting the human IDI. PMID:23280415

  10. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus okhensis Kh10-101T, a halo-alkali tolerant bacterium from Indian saltpan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilla Sankara Krishna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the 4.86-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus okhensis strain Kh10-101T, a halo-alkali tolerant rod shaped bacterium isolated from a salt pan near port of Okha, India. This bacterium is a potential model to study the molecular response of bacteria to salt as well as alkaline stress, as it thrives under both high salt and high pH conditions. The draft genome consist of 4,865,284 bp with 38.2% G + C, 4952 predicted CDS, 157 tRNAs and 8 rRNAs. Sequence was deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the project accession JRJU00000000.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis EB-28, an endophytic bacterium strain displaying biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shutong WANG; Tongle HU; Yanling JIAO; Jianjian WEI; Keqiang CAO

    2009-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea Pers. causes severe rotting on tomato fruits during storage and shelf life. As a biological control agent, endophytic bacterium was regarded as an effective alternative to chemical control. Out of 238 endophytic bacterial isolates, three strains (EB-15, EB-28, and EB-122) isolated from Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Speranskia tuberculata (Bge.) Baill, and Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. respectively were found to be strongly antagonistic to the pathogen in vitro and were selected for further in vivo tests. One endophytic bacterium strain, encoded EB-28, was selected from the three in vivo tested isolates. The inhibitive rate of EB-28 reached 71.1% in vitro and 52.4% in vivo. EB-28 was identified as Bacillus subtilis according to its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  12. Effect analysis of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules combined with Bacillus licheniformis capsule in the treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhea%枯草杆菌二联活菌肠溶胶囊联合地衣芽胞杆菌活菌胶囊治疗老年抗生素相关性腹泻的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宏伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules combined with Bacillus licheniformis capsule in the treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhea. Methods 120 patients with an-tibiotic associated diarrhea in our hospital from February 2013 to February 2014 were selected,and were divided into three groups based on random number table,Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules group,Bacillus licheni-formis capsule group,and joint application of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheni-formis capsule group.The therapeutic effects among three groups were compared. Results The cure rate of joint applica-tion of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group was higher than that of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules group and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group,the differ-ence was significant (χ2=8.26,P=0.02).The number of diarrhea in healed patients of joint application of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group was less than that of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules group and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group,the difference was significant (F=91.03, P=0.00). Conclusion Both Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheniformis capsule are classified into probiotics,and have some effect on treating senile associated diarrhea caused by antibiotics.Joint applica-tion of the two drugs displays remarkable effect on treating antibiotic associated diarrhea,and plays a certain assistant role in clinical treatment.%目的:探讨枯草杆菌二联活菌肠溶胶囊联合地衣芽胞杆菌活菌胶囊对老年抗生素相关性腹泻的临床疗效。方法收集2013年2月~2014年2月本院老年抗生素相关性腹泻患者120例,根据随机数字表法分为枯草杆菌二联活菌肠溶胶囊组、地衣芽胞杆

  13. A new 24-membered lactone and a new polyene delta-lactone from the marine bacterium Bacillus marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chunmei; Tian, Li; Xu, Minjuan; Deng, Zhiwei; Lin, Wenhan

    2008-11-01

    A new 24-membered macrolide macrolactin T (1), and a new polyene delta-lactone macrolactin U (2), along with macrolactins A, B, D, O, and S, were isolated from the cultured broth of the bacterium Bacillus marinus, which was isolated from Suaeda salsa collected in the coastline of Bohai Sea of China. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analyses. The inhibitory activity of macrolactins T, B and D against fungi Pyricularia oryzae and Alternaria solani, and bacteria Staphylococcus aureus is reported. PMID:19168981

  14. Mathematical modeling of maize starch liquefaction catalyzed by α-amylases from Bacillus licheniformis: effect of calcium, pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presečki, Ana Vrsalović; Blažević, Zvjezdana Findrik; Vasić-Rački, Ðurđa

    2013-01-01

    The first step of starch hydrolysis, i.e. liquefaction has been studied in this work. Two commercial α-amylases from Bacilllus licheniformis, known as Termamyl and Liquozyme have been used for this purpose. Using starch as the substrate, kinetics of both enzymes has been determined at optimal pH and temperature (pH 7, T = 80 °C) and at 65 °C and pH 5.5. Michaelis-Menten model with uncompetitive product inhibition was used to describe enzyme kinetics. Mathematical models were developed and validated in the repetitive batch and fed-batch reactor. Enzyme inactivation was described by the two-step inactivation model. All experiments were performed with and without calcium ions. The activities of both tested amylases are approximately one hundred times higher at 80 °C than at 65 °C. Lower inactivation rates of enzymes were noticed in the experiments performed at 65 °C without the addition of calcium than in the experiments at 80 °C. Calcium ions in the reaction medium significantly enhance amylase stability at 80 °C and pH 7. At other process conditions (65 °C and pH 5.5) a weaker calcium stabilizing effect was detected.

  15. Resistance to antimicrobials and acid and bile tolerance of Bacillus spp isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, Clarisse S.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Diawara, Brehima;

    2013-01-01

    In the aim of selecting starter cultures, thirteen species of Bacillus spp. including six Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis, four Bacillus licheniformis and three Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum isolated from traditional Bikalga were investigated. The study included, for all isolates, gen...

  16. Possible Processes for Origin of First Chemoheterotrophic Microorganisms with Modeling of Physiological Processes of Bacterium Bacillus subtilis as a Model System in 2H2O

    OpenAIRE

    Ignat Ignatov; Oleg Mosin

    2015-01-01

    We studied possible processes for origin of first chemoheterotrophic microorganisms with modeling of physiological processes of a Gram-positive chemoheterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis, producer of purine ribonucleoside inosine as a model system in heavy water. The physiological influence of deuterium on the chemoheterotrophic bacterium B. subtilis was studied on a heavy water (HW) medium with a maximal concentration of 2H2O (89–90 atom% 2H). Also various suitable samples of hot mineral...

  17. Characterization of Emetic Bacillus weihenstephanensis, a New Cereulide-Producing Bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Munk Hansen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2006-01-01

    Cereulide production has until now been restricted to the species Bacillus cereus. Here we report on two psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains, MC67 and MC118, that produce cereulide. The strains are atypical with regard to pheno- and genotypic characteristics normally used...

  18. Selective inhibition of toxic cyanobacteria by β-carboline-containing bacterium Bacillus flexus isolated from Saudi freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Saad A; Mohamed, Zakaria A

    2013-10-01

    A bacterial strain SSZ01 isolated from a eutrophic lake in Saudi Arabia dominated by cyanobacterial blooms, showed an antialgal activity against cyanobacteria species. Based on the analysis of the 16S rDNA gene sequence, the isolated strain (SSZ01) most likely belonged to the genus Bacillus with a 99% similarity to Bacillus flexus strain EMGA5. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of this bacterium revealed that this strain can produce harmine and norharmane compared to different β-carboline analog standards. Harmine and norharmane were also detected in considerable amounts in bacterial growth medium, indicating a potential excretion of these compounds into the aquatic environment. The crude extract of Bacillus flexus as well as pure materials of harmine and norharmane inhibited the growth of tested species of cyanobacteria. However, the bacterial crude extract has a higher toxicity against tested species of cyanobacteria than harmine and norharmane. In addition, harmine was more toxic to cyanobacteria than norharmane. On the other hand, neither pure compounds of harmine and norharmane nor crude bacterial extract showed any antialgal activity against tested species of green algae. The results of the present study suggest that B. flexus SSZ01 or its crude extract containing harmine and norharmane could be a candidate for the selective control of cyanobacterial blooms without affecting other algal species. PMID:24235872

  19. Evaluation of effect of oral applying of Bacillus licheniformis CH 200: DSM 5749 and Bacillus subtilis CH 201: DSM 4750 on development and composition of red-eared slider’s (Trachemys scripta elegans intestinal microflora based on water quality changes in aquaterrariums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Rawski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Frequent cases of bacterial infections caused by contact with semi-aquatic turtles and water from their thanks had been reported in US, Japan and many other countries. In Poland the topic of microbiological hazard associated with reptile keeping is very rarely discussed. Even less is mentioned about eventual impact of probiotics as factors limiting the colonization and presence of harmful Enterobacteriaceae. The aim of the study was to investigate the microbiological threat related to turtles and tortoises; evaluating the use of probiotics to reduce intestinal pathogenic microflora of red-eared sliders, which is potentially hazardous to humans. The results of the study suggest that tank water is the potential reservoir of pathogenic microorganisms. Oral application of probiotics containing the Bacillus licheniformis CH 200: DSM 5749 and Bacillus subtilis CH 201: DSM 4750 resulted in building a probiotic population in turtle gastrointestinal tract. It affected the water microflora in aquaterrariums by increasing the total number of bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria. Reduction of the presence and quantity of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 seems also to be relevant.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus PDSLzg-1, a Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Soil in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kun; Li, Hongna; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus strain PDSLzg-1, an efficient hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium, was isolated from oil-contaminated soil. Here, we present the complete sequence of its circular chromosome and circular plasmid. The genomic information is essential for the study of degradation of oil by B. pumilus PDSLzg-1.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis CBMB205, a Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizoplane of Rice in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwangbo, Kyeong; Um, Yurry; Kim, Ki Yoon; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tong Min

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus velezensis CBMB205 (= KACC 13105T = NCCB 100236T) was isolated from the rhizoplane of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. O-dae). According to previous studies, this bacterium has several genes that can promote plant growth, such as the phosphorus-solubilizing protein-coding gene. Here, we present the first complete genome of B. velezensis CBMB205. PMID:27417835

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. Strain NSP2.1, a Nonhalophilic Bacterium Isolated from the Salt Marsh of the Great Rann of Kutch, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Kamal Krishna; Sherathia, Dharmesh; Dalsania, Trupti; Savsani, Kinjal; Patel, Ilaxi; Sukhadiya, Bhoomika; Mandaliya, Mona; Thomas, Manesh; Ghorai, Sucheta; Vanpariya, Sejal; Rupapara, Rupal; Rawal, Priya; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The 5.52-Mbp draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain NSP2.1, a nonhalophilic bacterium isolated from the salt marsh of the Great Rann of Kutch, India, is reported here. An analysis of the genome of this organism will facilitate the understanding of its survival in the salt marsh. PMID:24158559

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. Strain NSP9.1, a Moderately Halophilic Bacterium Isolated from the Salt Marsh of the Great Rann of Kutch, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Kamal Krishna; Sherathia, Dharmesh; Dalsania, Trupti; Savsani, Kinjal; Patel, Ilaxi; Thomas, Manesh; Ghorai, Sucheta; Vanpariya, Sejal; Rupapara, Rupal; Rawal, Priya; Sukhadiya, Bhoomika; Mandaliya, Mona; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    We report the 4.52-Mbp draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain NSP9.1, a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from the salt marsh of the Great Rann of Kutch, India. Analysis of the genome of this organism will lead to a better understanding of the genes and metabolic pathways involved in imparting osmotolerance. PMID:24115550

  4. Bacillus lonarensis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from a soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sultanpuram Vishnuvardhan; Thirumala, Mothe; Farooq, Mohammed; Sasikala, Chintalapati; Ramana, Chintalapati Venkata

    2015-01-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, motile and endospore-forming novel bacterial strain 25nlg(T) was isolated from Lonar soda lake, in India. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it was identified as a member of Firmicutes, being most closely related to Bacillus patagoniensis PAT 05(T) (96.6 %) and other members in the genus Bacillus (APL2) and three unknown lipids (L2-4). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. iso-C15:0 (41.7 %) was the predominant fatty acid, and significant proportions of anteiso-C15:0 (20.8 %), C12:0 (5.5 %), anteiso-C17:0 (4.9 %), iso-C17:0 (4.5 %) were also detected in the strain 25nlg(T). The DNA G+C content of the strain 25nlg(T) was 40.5 mol%. The results of molecular, physiological and biochemical tests allowed a clear phenotypic differentiation of strain 25nlg(T) from all other members of the genus Bacillus. Strain 25nlg(T) represents a novel member of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus lonarensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 25nlg(T) (=KCTC 33413(T) = LMG 27974(T) = CGMCC = 1.12817(T)). PMID:25294189

  5. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens L-S60, a plant growth-promoting and antifungal bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuxuan; Han, Yuzhu; Yu, Yaqiong; Shang, Qingmao; Zhang, Bao; Li, Pinglan

    2015-10-20

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens L-S60, a gram-positive plant-associated bacterium, which could stimulate plant growth and shows strong antifungal function, was isolated from the turfy soil in Beijing, China. The genome of B. amyloliquefaciens L-S60 comprises a 3903,017bp long circular chromosome that consists of 3909 protein-coding genes and 117 RNA genes. Based on genomic analysis, we identified gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive metabolites with well-established in-vitro activity such as surfactin, iturin and fengycins. Additionally, we also found functionally related genes in the genome of L-S60, which play key roles in the process of plant growth promotion hormone secretion, biofilm formation and volatile compounds production. PMID:26297906

  6. The complete genome sequence of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, F; Ogasawara, N; Moszer, [No Value; Albertini, AM; Alloni, G; Azevedo, [No Value; Bertero, MG; Bessieres, P; Bolotin, A; Borchert, S; Borriss, R; Boursier, L; Brans, A; Brignell, SC; Bron, S; Brouillet, S; Bruschi, CV; Caldwell, B; Capuano, [No Value; Carter, NM; Choi, SK; Codani, JJ; Connerton, IF; Cummings, NJ; Daniel, RA; Denizot, F; Devine, KM; Dusterhoft, A; Ehrlich, SD; Emmerson, PT; Entian, KD; Errington, J; Fabret, C; Ferrari, E; Foulger, D; Fujita, M; Fujita, Y; Fuma, S; Galizzi, A; Galleron, N; Ghim, SY; Glaser, P; Goffeau, A; Golightly, EJ; Grandi, G; Guiseppi, G; Guy, BJ; Haga, K; Haiech, J; Harwood, CR; Henaut, A; Hilbert, H; Holsappel, S; Hosono, S; Hullo, MF; Itaya, M; Jones, L; Joris, B; Karamata, D; Kasahara, Y; KlaerrBlanchard, M; Klein, C; Kobayashi, Y; Koetter, P; Koningstein, G; Krogh, S; Kumano, M; Kurita, K; Lapidus, A; Lardinois, S; Lauber, J; Lazarevic, [No Value; Lee, SM; Levine, A; Liu, H; Masuda, S; Mauel, C; Medigue, C; Medina, N; Mellado, RP; Mizuno, M; Moestl, D; Nakai, S; Noback, M; Noone, D; OReilly, M; Ogawa, K; Ogiwara, A; Oudega, B; Park, SH; Parro, [No Value; Pohl, TM; Portetelle, D; Porwollik, S; Prescott, AM; Presecan, E; Pujic, P; Purnelle, B; Rapoport, G; Rey, M; Reynolds, S; Rieger, M; Rivolta, C; Rocha, E; Roche, B; Rose, M; Sadaie, Y; Sato, T; Scanlan, E; Schleich, S; Schroeter, R; Scoffone, F; Sekiguchi, J; Sekowska, A; Seror, SJ; Serror, P; Shin, BS; Soldo, B; Sorokin, A; Tacconi, E; Takagi, T; Takahashi, H; Takemaru, K; Takeuchi, M; Tamakoshi, A; Tanaka, T; Terpstra, P; Tognoni, A; Tosato, [No Value; Uchiyama, S; Vandenbol, M; Vannier, F; Vassarotti, A; Viari, A; Wambutt, R; Wedler, E; Wedler, H; Weitzenegger, T; Winters, P; Wipat, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamane, K; Yasumoto, K; Yata, K; Yoshida, K; Yoshikawa, HF; Zumstein, E; Yoshikawa, H; Danchin, A

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatl

  7. Characterization and Potential Applications of a Selenium Nanoparticle Producing and Nitrate Reducing Bacterium Bacillus oryziterrae sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Peng; Xiao, Ke-Qing; Wang, Hui-Jiao; Xu, Hao; Xu, Peng-Peng; Jia, Yan; Häggblom, Max M.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-09-01

    A novel nitrate- and selenite reducing bacterium strain ZYKT was isolated from a rice paddy soil in Dehong, Yunnan, China. Strain ZYKT is a facultative anaerobe and grows in up to 150, 000 ppm O2. The comparative genomics analysis of strain ZYKT implies that it shares more orthologues with B. subtilis subsp. subtilis NCIB 3610T (ANIm values, 85.4–86.7%) than with B. azotoformans NBRC 15712T (ANIm values, 84.4–84.7%), although B. azotoformans NBRC 15712T (96.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) is the closest Bacillus species according to 16S rRNA gene comparison. The major cellular fatty acids of strain ZYKT were iso-C14:0 (17.8%), iso-C15:0 (17.8%), and C16:0 (32.0%). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminophospholipid. Based on physiological, biochemical and genotypic properties, the strain was considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus oryziterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZYKT (=DSM 26460T =CGMCC 1.5179T). Strain ZYKT can reduce nitrate to nitrite and ammonium and possesses metabolic genes for nitrate reduction including nar, nap and nrf. Biogenic selenium nanoparticles of strain ZYKT show a narrow size distribution and agree with the gaussian distribution. These selenium nanoparticles show significant dose-dependent inhibition of the lung cancer cell line H157, which suggests potential for application in cancer therapy.

  8. Effects of Bacillus licheniformis on Production Performance of Pregnancy and Lactation Sows and Ammonia Concentration in Piggeries%地衣芽孢杆菌对妊娠及哺乳母猪生产性能及猪舍氨气浓度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽华; 索成; 刘海涛

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore effects of Bacillus licheniformis on production performance of pregnancy and lactation sows and the ammonia concentration in piggeries. [Method] Landrace × Lange sows before 30 d pregnancy were fed with basic feed added inocula and power of B. licheniformis, and effects of B. licheniformis on production performance of pregnancy and lactation sows and the ammonia concentration in piggeries were investigated. [Result] Compared with control,B. licheniformis could reduce the constipation ratio of sows,the mortality ratio of piglets and ammonia concentration in piggeries significantly. It could also improve the daily feed of sows and the diarrhea ratio of piglets significantly. [Conclusion] B. licheniformis can increase the production performance of sows and piglets effectively, improve the environment of piggeries and reduce environmental pollution.%[目的]探讨地衣芽孢杆菌菌剂和菌粉对妊娠及哺乳母猪生产性能和猪舍氨气浓度的影响.[方法]选用产前30 d的妊娠母猪(长×大)为试验对象,通过在基础日粮中分别添加地衣芽孢杆菌菌剂和菌粉,考察其对妊娠及哺乳母猪生产性能和猪舍氨气浓度的影响.[结果]与对照组相比,饲喂地衣芽孢杆菌后能显著降低母猪便秘率、仔猪腹泻率及猪舍氨气浓度,且对母猪采食量及仔猪死淘率等也有明显改善.[结论]在饲料中添加地衣芽孢杆菌能有效提高母猪及仔猪的生长性能,改善猪舍环境,降低污染.

  9. Directed natural product biosynthesis gene cluster capture and expression in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Zhongrui; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Weipeng; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto; Moore, Bradley S.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Bacilli are ubiquitous low G+C environmental Gram-positive bacteria that produce a wide assortment of specialized small molecules. Although their natural product biosynthetic potential is high, robust molecular tools to support the heterologous expression of large biosynthetic gene clusters in Bacillus hosts are rare. Herein we adapt transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast to design a single genomic capture and expression vector for antibiotic production in Bacillus subtilis. After validating this direct cloning ``plug-and-play'' approach with surfactin, we genetically interrogated amicoumacin biosynthetic gene cluster from the marine isolate Bacillus subtilis 1779. Its heterologous expression allowed us to explore an unusual maturation process involving the N-acyl-asparagine pro-drug intermediates preamicoumacins, which are hydrolyzed by the asparagine-specific peptidase into the active component amicoumacin A. This work represents the first direct cloning based heterologous expression of natural products in the model organism B. subtilis and paves the way to the development of future genome mining efforts in this genus.

  10. Directed natural product biosynthesis gene cluster capture and expression in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongxin

    2015-03-24

    Bacilli are ubiquitous low G+C environmental Gram-positive bacteria that produce a wide assortment of specialized small molecules. Although their natural product biosynthetic potential is high, robust molecular tools to support the heterologous expression of large biosynthetic gene clusters in Bacillus hosts are rare. Herein we adapt transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast to design a single genomic capture and expression vector for antibiotic production in Bacillus subtilis. After validating this direct cloning plug-and-playa approach with surfactin, we genetically interrogated amicoumacin biosynthetic gene cluster from the marine isolate Bacillus subtilis 1779. Its heterologous expression allowed us to explore an unusual maturation process involving the N-acyl-asparagine pro-drug intermediates preamicoumacins, which are hydrolyzed by the asparagine-specific peptidase into the active component amicoumacin A. This work represents the first direct cloning based heterologous expression of natural products in the model organism B. subtilis and paves the way to the development of future genome mining efforts in this genus.

  11. Bioemulsifier production by a halothermophilic Bacillus strain with potential applications in microbially enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgheib, S M M; Amoozegar, M A; Elahi, E; Asad, S; Banat, I M

    2008-02-01

    A halothermotolerant Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium was isolated from petroleum reservoirs in Iran and identified as Bacillus licheniformis sp. strain ACO1 by phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA analysis. It showed a high capacity for bioemulsifier production and grew up to 60 degrees C with NaCl at 180 g l(-1). The optimum NaCl concentration, pH and temperature for bioemulsifier production were 4% (w/v), 8.0, and 45 degrees C, respectively. Although ACO1 did not utilize hydrocarbons, it had a high emulsifying activity (E (24) = 65 +/- 5%) on different hydrophobic substrates. Emulsification was optimal while growing on yeast extract as the sole carbon source and NaNO(3) as the nitrogen source. The efficiency of the residual oil recovery increased by 22% after in situ growth of B. licheniformis ACO1 in a sand-pack model saturated with liquid paraffin. PMID:17876532

  12. Genotyping of B. licheniformis based on a novel multi-locus sequence typing (MLST scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madslien Elisabeth H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus licheniformis has for many years been used in the industrial production of enzymes, antibiotics and detergents. However, as a producer of dormant heat-resistant endospores B. licheniformis might contaminate semi-preserved foods. The aim of this study was to establish a robust and novel genotyping scheme for B. licheniformis in order to reveal the evolutionary history of 53 strains of this species. Furthermore, the genotyping scheme was also investigated for its use to detect food-contaminating strains. Results A multi-locus sequence typing (MLST scheme, based on the sequence of six house-keeping genes (adk, ccpA, recF, rpoB, spo0A and sucC of 53 B. licheniformis strains from different sources was established. The result of the MLST analysis supported previous findings of two different subgroups (lineages within this species, named “A” and “B” Statistical analysis of the MLST data indicated a higher rate of recombination within group “A”. Food isolates were widely dispersed in the MLST tree and could not be distinguished from the other strains. However, the food contaminating strain B. licheniformis NVH1032, represented by a unique sequence type (ST8, was distantly related to all other strains. Conclusions In this study, a novel and robust genotyping scheme for B. licheniformis was established, separating the species into two subgroups. This scheme could be used for further studies of evolution and population genetics in B. licheniformis.

  13. STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AMMONIA-NIROGEN AND RESIDUAL FEEDS DEGRADATION IN AQUATIC WATER BY BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS%地衣芽孢杆菌对养殖水体氨氮、残饵降解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆华; 封永辉; 王娟; 郭婧; 张永华; 高建忠; 宋增福

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that ammonia-nitrogen is one of the toxic factors to affect the growth performances and increase the susceptibility of the aquatic animal in the culture ponds water.With the development of aquaculture, the intensive and high-density culture aggravate the serious pollution problem of the ammonium nitrogen; however, the traditional physical and chemical methods to remove the ammonia-nitrogen will be cut down for the secondary pollution step by step.Meanwhile, the biological methods to remove ammonia-nitrogen and bioremediation have attracted much more attentions from the scientists for the characteristics of high-efficiency, low cost, no residue and environmental friendly,which become more and more popular in the practices.The present studies were focused on the Bacillus subtitles, Bacillus cereus and Sporolactobacillus.Large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is one of the traditional Chinese Four Seafood that is the offshore main economic fishes, which culture widely in the China eastern offshore.In the present experiment, a Bacillus licheniformis strain X3914 as a potential probiotics was isolated from gastrointestinal tract of healthy large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) cultured in Xiangshan, Zhejiang Province.The aim of the study is to explore the degradation rules of ammonia-nitrogen, protein and starch of residual feeds by Bacillus licheniformis strain X3914, which probably offers the guidance to the practices in aquaculture.In the present experiment, the ability to remove the ammonia-nitrogen of the Bacillus licheniformis strain X3914 was tested in the simulated waste water, the results indicated that the growth of the strain X3914 was synchronized with the degradation of ammonia-nitrogen and degradation rate of ammonia-nitrogen reached to 36.2% in 24h.Furthermore,Ammonia-nitrogen containing the ammonium ions, and ammonia molecules, as the toxicity of ammonium ions was influenced significantly by environmental factors, such as

  14. Plant-Microbe Communication Enhances Auxin Biosynthesis by a Root-Associated Bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunpeng; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Nan; Li, Zunfeng; Zhang, Guishan; Xu, Yu; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms by which beneficial rhizobacteria promote plant growth include tryptophan-dependent indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis. The abundance of tryptophan in the rhizosphere, however, may influence the level of benefit provided by IAA-producing rhizobacteria. This study examined the cucumber-Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 system and found that SQR9, a bacterium previously shown to enhance the growth of cucumber, increased root secretion of tryptophan by three- to fourfold. Using a split-root system, SQR9 colonization of roots in one chamber not only increased tryptophan secretion from the noninoculated roots but also increased the expression of the cucumber tryptophan transport gene but not the anthranilate synthesis gene in those roots. The increased tryptophan in isolated rhizosphere exudates was sufficient to support increased IAA production by SQR9. Moreover, SQR9 colonization of roots in one chamber in the split-root system resulted in sufficient tryptophan production by the other roots to upregulate SQR9 IAA biosynthesis genes, including a 27-fold increase in the indole-3-acetonitrilase gene yhcX during subsequent colonization of those roots. Deletion of yhcX eliminated SQR9-mediated increases in root surface area, likely by reducing IAA-stimulated lateral root growth. This study demonstrates a chemical dialogue between B. amyloliquefaciens and cucumber in which this communication contributes to bacteria-mediated plant-growth enhancement.

  15. The characteristics of a novel heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium, Bacillus methylotrophicus strain L7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Ling; Liu, Ying; Ai, Guo-Min; Miao, Li-Li; Zheng, Hai-Yan; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2012-03-01

    Bacillus methylotrophicus strain L7, exhibited efficient heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification ability, with maximum NH(4)(+)-N and NO(2)(-)-N removal rate of 51.58 mg/L/d and 5.81 mg/L/d, respectively. Strain L7 showed different gaseous emitting patterns from those strains ever described. When (15)NH(4)Cl, or Na(15)NO(2), or K(15)NO(3) was used, results of GC-MS indicated that N(2)O was emitted as the intermediate of heterotrophic nitrification or aerobic denitrification, while GC-IRMS results showed that N(2) was produced as end product when nitrite was used. Single factor experiments suggested that the optimal conditions for heterotrophic nitrification were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N 6, pH 7-8, 0 g/L NaCl, 37 °C and a wide range of NH(4)(+)-N from 80 to 1000 mg/L. Orthogonal tests showed that the optimal conditions for aerobic denitrification were C/N 20, pH 7-8, 10 g/L NaCl and DO 4.82 mg/L (shaking speed 50 r/min) when nitrite was served as substrate.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a furfural-degrading bacterium Bacillus cereus sp. strain DS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dan; Bao, Jianguo; Lu, Jueming; Gao, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    Furfural was found to be the main organic pollutant in the wastewater coming from the Diosgenin factory. This substance is derived from acidic pentosan in Dioscorea zingiberensis and is also found in a variety of agricultural byproducts, including corncobs, oat, wheat bran, and sawdust. It is regarded as a toxicant and an inhibitor to the growth of microorganism in both sewage disposal and biological fermentation. A furfural-degrading strain (DS1) was isolated from activated sludge of wastewater treatment plant in a diosgenin factory by continuous enrichment culture. The strain was identified as Bacillus cereus based on morphological, physiological tests, as well as on 16S rDNA sequence and Biolog analyses. The capacity of this strain to grow on a mineral salt medium, utilizing furfural as the sole carbon and energy source to degrade furfural, was investigated in this study. Under the condition of pH 9.0, temperature 35 °C, with rotating speed of 150 rpm, and an inoculum of 6 %, the strain showed that the furfural degradation capacity reaches 35 % in 7 days, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The addition of inorganic carbon sources could bring down the biodegradation efficiency of the furfural. The strain DS1 showed better furfural removal capacity, as compared to other inorganic carbon sources in the media. Furthermore, a furfural concentration of as high as 4,000 mg L(-1) was tolerated by the culture. The capacity to degrade furfural was demonstrated for the first time by using the genus B. cereus. This study suggests the possible application in biodegradation strategies.

  17. Studies on the toxicity of an aqueous suspension of C60 nanoparticles using a bacterium (gen. Bacillus) and an aquatic plant (Lemna gibba) as in vitro model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sandra M A; Dinis, Augusto M; Rodrigues, David M F; Peixoto, Francisco; Videira, Romeu A; Jurado, Amália S

    2013-10-15

    The increasing use of C60 nanoparticles and the diversity of their applications in industry and medicine has led to their production in a large scale. C60 release into wastewaters and the possible accumulation in the environment has raised concerns about their ecotoxicological impact. In the present study, an aqueous suspension of C60 nanoparticles was prepared and its potential toxicity studied in laboratory, using a bacterium (Bacillus stearothermophilus) and an aquatic plant (Lemna gibba) as model systems. C60 nanoparticles inhibited the growth of L. gibba, in contrast to that of the bacterium. Consistently, the ultrastructure and respiratory activity of bacterial cells were not affected by C60, but the contents of chlorophylls a and b and chloroplast oxygen production decreased considerably in L. gibba. Altogether, our results suggest that C60 aqueous dispersions must be viewed as an environmental pollutant, potentially endangering the equilibrium of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24084257

  18. 牛源地衣芽胞杆菌诱导小鼠临床乳房炎模型中热休克蛋白和核因子-κB表达上调%Up-regulated expression of heat shock protein 70 and NF-κB in mouse mastitis model established by artificial infection of Bacillus licheniformis from bovine mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘露; 徐君; 李姝; 程跃; 蔡亚非

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To further understand how the immune pathogenesis of cow mastitis occurs and look for better control methods to provide data for basic study. Methods: In this study the main mastitis pathogens were isolated and identified by the traditional bacterial culture methods and molecular methods. Bacillus licheniformis was selected from the main pathogens. Then mouse mammary gland was infected by Bacillus licheniformis. HE staining was done to observe the change of the mouse mammary gland after infection and immunohistochemical staining to detect the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and NF-κB in those slices. Results: Symptoms of inflammation appeared in the mouse mammary gland after infection. Histopathologic examination of mammary gland revealed that numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils were present in alveoli. The expression of HSP70 and NF-κB in the experimental group was significantly increased compared with the saline group and the blank group. Conclusion:The results showed that Bacillus licheniformis was suitable for the replica of mastitis model in mouse. An increase in the expression of HSP70 and NF-κB in the experimental group explained their participation in the pathological process after bacterial infection.%目的:为进一步认识奶牛乳腺炎发生的免疫病理机制和寻找更理想的防治方法提供基础研究数据.方法:从采集回来的奶牛奶样中用传统细菌培养方法和分子学方法分离鉴定主要病原菌,挑选其中地衣芽胞杆菌感染小鼠乳腺组织,H-E染色分析感染后小鼠乳腺组织变化,免疫组织化学方法分析热休克蛋白70(HSP70)和核因子-kB(NF-kB)在感染小鼠体内的表达.结果:感染后小鼠乳腺出现明显的炎症症状,组织病理学观察显示腺泡腔内有大量嗜中性粒细胞浸润.实验组中HSP70和NF-kB表达量比生理盐水组和空白组均有增加.结论:成功通过地衣芽胞杆菌诱发建立实验性乳房炎小

  19. The nitrate-ammonifying and nosZ-carrying bacterium Bacillus vireti is a potent source and sink for nitric and nitrous oxide under high nitrate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mania, Daniel; Heylen, Kim; van Spanning, Rob J M; Frostegård, Asa

    2014-10-01

    Several Gram-positive bacteria carry genes for anaerobic reduction of NO3(-) via NO2(-) to NH4(+) or gaseous nitrogen compounds, but the processes are understudied for these organisms. Here, we present results from a whole-genome analysis of the soil bacterium Bacillus vireti and a phenotypic characterization of intermediate and end-products, formed under anoxic conditions in the presence of NO3(-). Bacillus vireti has a versatile metabolism. It produces acetate, formate, succinate and lactate from fermentation and performs dissimilatory nitrate reduction via NO2(-) to ammonium (DNRA) using NrfA, while NirB may detoxify NO2(-) in the cytoplasm. Moreover, it produces NO from an unknown source and reduces it via N2O to N2 using two enzymes connected to denitrification: an unusual NO reductase, qCuA Nor encoded by cbaA, and a z-type N2O reductase, encoded by nosZ. In batch cultures, B. vireti reduced all NO3(-) to NO2(-) before the NO2(-) was reduced further. The quantities of all products varied with the initial NO3(-) concentration. With 5 mM NO3(-) , 90% was reduced to NH4 (+) while with ≥ 20 mM NO3(-), 50% was reduced to NO, N2O and N2. This organism is thus an aggressive NO2(-) accumulator and may act as a net source and sink of NO and N2O. PMID:24708037

  20. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain UASWS BA1, a Bacterium Antagonistic to Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Lefort, F; Calmin, G.; Pelleteret, P.; Farinelli, L.; Osteras, M; Crovadore, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain UASWS BA1, isolated from inner wood tissues of a decaying Platanus × acerifolia tree. This strain proved to be antagonistic to several plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes and can be developed as a biological control agent in agriculture.

  1. Possible Processes for Origin of First Chemoheterotrophic Microorganisms with Modeling of Physiological Processes of Bacterium Bacillus subtilis as a Model System in 2H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ignatov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied possible processes for origin of first chemoheterotrophic microorganisms with modeling of physiological processes of a Gram-positive chemoheterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis, producer of purine ribonucleoside inosine as a model system in heavy water. The physiological influence of deuterium on the chemoheterotrophic bacterium B. subtilis was studied on a heavy water (HW medium with a maximal concentration of 2H2O (89–90 atom% 2H. Also various suitable samples of hot mineral water and sea water derived from different sources of Bulgaria were investigated using IR- and DNES-spectroscopy. It was shown that hot alkaline mineral water with temperature from +65 0C to +95 0C and pH value from 9 to 11 is more suitable for the origination of first organic forms than other analyzed water samples. There were discussed the reactions of condensation and dehydration occurring in alkaline aqueous solutions at t = +65–95 0C and рН = 9–10, resulting in synthesis from separate molecules the larger organic molecules as short polipeptides and pyrines, as well as the possible mechanisms of the deuterium accumulation in form of H2HO in hot water. The metabolism of the bacterium B. subtilis and the resistance to deuterium was also analyzed on an evolutionary level taking into account the hydrological conditions of primodial hydrosphere and the presence of H2HO, as well as the qualitative and quantitative composition of the cellular protein, amino acids and carbohydrates on media with maximum deuterium content. It was demonstrated on the example of chemoheterotrophic bacteria that first microorganisms might have been originated in hot mineral water with Ca2+ (0.5-1.0 g/l at t = + 65-95 0C and pH = 9–11, that is more suitable for maintenance and origin of life than other analyzed water samples.

  2. SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING OF ESCHERICHIA-COLI TEM-BETA-LACTAMASE AND BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS ALPHA-AMYLASE IN ESCHERICHIA-COLI : THE ROLE OF SIGNAL PEPTIDASE-I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijl, J M; SMITH, H; BRON, S; VENEMA, G

    1988-01-01

    A mutant of Escherichia coli, in which signal peptidase I synthesis can be regulated, was constructed. The mutant was used to study the effects of signal peptidase I limitation on the synthesis and efficiency of processing of two proteins: the periplasmic E. coli TEM-beta-lactamase and Bacillus lich

  3. Biosynthesis of poly(g-L-glutamic acid) and comparative studies on the biodegradability of the g- and a-enantiomeric forms of the poly (glutamic acid) by Bacillus Licheniformis NCIMB 11709

    OpenAIRE

    Marqués Calvo, M. Soledad; Bou Serra, Jordi; Cerdà Cuéllar, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Poly (y-glutamic acid), a novel polyanionic and multifunctional macromolecule synthesized by Bacillus species, has attracted considerable attention because of its eco-friendly, biodegradable and biocompatible characteristics. Recently, its application in a wide range of fields such as food, agriculture, medicine, hygiene, cosmetics and the environment has been explored. This book discusses the chemistry, food sources and health benefits of glutamic acid.

  4. Assessment of Bioflocculant Production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from the Bottom Sediment of Algoa Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoh I. Anthony

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The bioflocculant-producing potentials of a marine bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay was investigated using standard methods. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% similarity to that of Bacillus sp. HXG-C1 and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Bacillus sp. Gilbert with accession number HQ537128. Bioflocculant was optimally produced when sucrose (72% flocculating activity and ammonium chloride (91% flocculating activity were used as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; an initial pH 6.2 of the production medium; and Mg2+ as cation. Chemical analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed the compound to be a polysaccharide.

  5. Studying of Biosynthetic Pathways of 2H-labeled Purine Ribonucleoside Inosine in a Chemoheterotrophic Bacterium Bacillus subtilis B-3157 by FAB Mass-Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with studying biosynthetic pathways of 2H-labeled purine ribonucleoside inosine excreted into liquid microbial culture (LC by Gram-positive chemoheterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis B-3157 while growing of this bacterium on heavy water (HW medium with 2% (v/v hydrolysate of deuterated biomass of the methylotrophic bacterium Brevibacterium methylicum B-5662 as a source of 2H-labeled growth substrates. Isolation of 2H-labeled inosine from LC was performed by adsorption/desorption on activated carbon with following extraction by 0,3 M ammonium–formate buffer (pH = 8,9, crystallization in 80% (v/v EtOH, and ion exchange chromatography (IEC on a column with AG50WX 4 cation exchange resin equilibrated with 0,3 M ammonium–formate buffer and 0,045 M NH4Cl. The investigation of deuterium incorporation into the inosine molecule by FAB method demonstrated incorporation of 5 deuterium atoms into the molecule (the total level of deuterium enrichment – 65,5 atom% 2H with 3 deuterium atoms being included into the ribose and 2 deuterium atoms – into the hypoxanthine residue of the molecule. Three non-exchangeable deuterium atoms were incorporated into the ribose residue owing to the preservation in this bacterium the minor pathways of de novo glucose biosynthesis in 2H2O-medium. These non-exchangeable deuterium atoms in the ribose residue were originated from HMP shunt reactions, while two other deuterium atoms at C2, C8-positions in the hypoxanthine residue were synthesized from [2H]amino acids, primarily glutamine and glycine, that originated from deuterated hydrolysate. A glycoside proton at -N9-glycosidic bond could be replaced with deuterium via the reaction of СО2 elimination at the stage of ribulose-5-monophosphate formation from 3-keto-6-phosphogluconic acid with subsequent proton (deuteron attachment at the С1-position of ribulose-5-monophosphate. Two other protons at C2(C3 and C4 positions in ribose residue could be

  6. 胡椒经地衣芽孢杆菌发酵脱皮过程中的主要酶系及pH值变化%Dynamic Changes in Main Enzyme Activities and pH during Pepper(Piper nigrum L.) Decortication by Bacillus licheniformis Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海波; 侯源源; 刘四新; 苗子健; 李从发

    2011-01-01

    采用地衣芽孢杆菌进行静置液态发酵对胡椒进行脱皮,与生产实践中传统水沤法脱皮对比,研究二者发酵脱皮过程中的果胶酶、木聚糖酶、纤维素酶和发酵液pH值的动态变化。结果表明:在发酵脱皮过程中,两种方法的聚半乳糖醛酸酶(PG)和果胶裂解酶(PL)变化规律相似,都出现两次酶活力高峰;而纤维素酶活力都很低,果胶酯酶(PE)酶活力都比较高;在传统水沤法中木聚糖酶活力出现两个高峰,而在发酵法中木聚糖酶活力在脱皮后期逐渐上升;pH值变化总趋势也相似,脱皮完成时pH值均在5~5.5之间。由此推知,胡椒鲜果发酵脱皮过程中果胶酶系%Static liquid-state Bacillus licheniformis fermentation was used for pepper decortication and compared with traditional water retting.Meanwhile,the dynamic changes of pectinases,xylanase,cellulase and pH during pepper decortication by the two methods were explored.The results showed that the changes of polygalacturonase(PG) and pectin lyase(PL) revealed a similar pattern with two activity peaks during both decortication processes.However,cellulase activity was low and the pectin esterase(PE) activity remained high.Similar pH changes were observed during both decortication processes pH was between 5 and 5.5 at the end of decortication.Xylanase activity showed two peaks in traditional water retting method and a gradual increase in the late stage of Bacillus licheniformis fermentation.Therefore,pectinase might play an important role during pepper decortication.In the early stage of decortication,PG and PL first acted on pectin substances and damaged the pectin complex structure,and then PE hydrolyzed pectin molecules to form pectic acid accompanied with pH decrease.Further,xylanase activity increased gradually in the late stage of decortication and as a result,hemicellulose was rapidly depolymerized.Therefore,pepper decortication was completed under the

  7. Isolation of a Halophilic Bacterium, Bacillus sp. Strain NY-6 for Organic Contaminants Removal in Saline Wastewater on Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Gao; Zhenjiang Yu; Xiaohui Zhang; Dan Zhao; Fangbo Zhao

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine if certain strains of Bacillus bacteria,could survive in dry powder products and if so,could the bacteria degrade organic contaminants in saline wastewater on a ship.As part of the study,we isolated 7 domesticated strains named NY1,NY2,…,and NY7,the strain NY6 showed to have the best performance for organic matter degradation and could survive in dry powder more than 3 months.NY6 was identified as Bacillus aerius,based on the morphological and physic-chemical properties.Its optimal growth conditions were as follows:salinity was 2%; temperature was 37℃; pH was in 6.5-7.0; best ratio of C∶ N∶ P was 100∶5∶1.The capability of its dry powder for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal was 800mg COD/g in synthesized marine wastewater with 2% salinity.The spores in the dry powder were 1.972× 108 g1.

  8. Bacillus pumilus ES4: candidate plant growth-promoting bacterium to enhance establishment of plants in mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Bashan, Luz E.; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav; Maier, Raina

    2014-01-01

    Three plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Bacillus pumilus ES4, B. pumilus RIZO1, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd) were tested for their ability to enhance plant growth and development of the native Sonoran Desert shrub quailbush (Atriplex lentiformis) and for their effect on the native bacterial community in moderately acidic, high-metal content (AHMT) and in neutral, low metal content natural tailings (NLMT) in controlled greenhouse experiments. Inoculation of quailbush with all three PGPB significantly enhanced plant growth parameters, such as germination, root length, dry weight of shoots and roots, and root/shoot ratio in both types of tailings. The effect of inoculation on the indigenous bacterial community by the most successful PGPB Bacillus pumilus ES4 was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting and root colonization was followed by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Inoculation with this strain significantly changed the bacterial community over a period of 60 days. FISH analysis showed that the preferred site of colonization was the root tips and root elongation area. This study shows that inoculation of native perennial plants with PGPB can be used for developing technologies for phytostabilizing mine tailings. PMID:25009362

  9. Characterization of a glucose-, xylose-, sucrose-, and D-galactose-stimulated β-glucosidase from the alkalophilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans C-125.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hu; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Peng, Ri-He; Chen, Jian-Min; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2011-03-01

    The gene (Bhbgl) encoding a β-glucosidase from the alkalophilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans C-125 was synthesized chemically via the PCR-based two-step DNA synthesis (PTDS) method and expressed in Escherichia coli. Bhbgl contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1359 bp encoding a 453-amino acid protein belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GHF1), and the deduced molecular mass of recombinant Bhbgl (52,488 Da) was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme exhibited a high specific activity with o-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (oNPGlu) and an apparent K (m) value of 0.32 mM. With oNPGlu as the substrate, Bhbgl displayed pH and temperature optima of ~7.0 and 50°C, respectively. The enzyme was relatively stable under alkaline conditions and >50% activity was retained after incubation at pH 9.5 for 24 h at 4°C. Recombinant Bhbgl activity was inhibited by 5 mM Zn(2+), Fe(3+), or Cd(2+), but was enhanced by 1 mM Mg(2+) and other metal ions. Enzyme activity was also stimulated by at least four sugars (sucrose, D-galactose, xylose, glucose) at concentrations ranging from 50 to 800 mM. PMID:21046402

  10. A Sequential Statistical Approach towards an Optimized Production of a Broad Spectrum Bacteriocin Substance from a Soil Bacterium Bacillus sp. YAS 1 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Embaby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, display potential applications in agriculture, medicine, and industry. The present study highlights integral statistical optimization and partial characterization of a bacteriocin substance from a soil bacterium taxonomically affiliated as Bacillus sp. YAS 1 after biochemical and molecular identifications. A sequential statistical approach (Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken was employed to optimize bacteriocin (BAC YAS 1 production. Using optimal levels of three key determinants (yeast extract (0.48% (w/v, incubation time (62 hrs, and agitation speed (207 rpm in peptone yeast beef based production medium resulted in 1.6-fold enhancement in BAC YAS 1 level (470 AU/mL arbitrary units against Erwinia amylovora. BAC YAS 1 showed activity over a wide range of pH (1–13 and temperature (45–80°C. A wide spectrum antimicrobial activity of BAC YAS 1 against the human pathogens (Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus sp., Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp., and Salmonella typhimurium, the plant pathogen (E. amylovora, and the food spoiler (Listeria innocua was demonstrated. On top and above, BAC YAS 1 showed no antimicrobial activity towards lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei, L. lactis, and L. reuteri. Promising characteristics of BAC YAS 1 prompt its commercialization for efficient utilization in several industries.

  11. A sequential statistical approach towards an optimized production of a broad spectrum bacteriocin substance from a soil bacterium Bacillus sp. YAS 1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Amira M; Heshmat, Yasmin; Hussein, Ahmed; Marey, Heba S

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, display potential applications in agriculture, medicine, and industry. The present study highlights integral statistical optimization and partial characterization of a bacteriocin substance from a soil bacterium taxonomically affiliated as Bacillus sp. YAS 1 after biochemical and molecular identifications. A sequential statistical approach (Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken) was employed to optimize bacteriocin (BAC YAS 1) production. Using optimal levels of three key determinants (yeast extract (0.48% (w/v), incubation time (62 hrs), and agitation speed (207 rpm)) in peptone yeast beef based production medium resulted in 1.6-fold enhancement in BAC YAS 1 level (470 AU/mL arbitrary units against Erwinia amylovora). BAC YAS 1 showed activity over a wide range of pH (1-13) and temperature (45-80 °C). A wide spectrum antimicrobial activity of BAC YAS 1 against the human pathogens (Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus sp., Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp., and Salmonella typhimurium), the plant pathogen (E. amylovora), and the food spoiler (Listeria innocua) was demonstrated. On top and above, BAC YAS 1 showed no antimicrobial activity towards lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei, L. lactis, and L. reuteri). Promising characteristics of BAC YAS 1 prompt its commercialization for efficient utilization in several industries.

  12. Antibacterial activity of antagonistic bacterium Bacillus subtilis DJM-51 against phytopathogenic Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganense ATCC 7429 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W J; Mabood, F; Souleimanov, A; Whyte, L G; Niederberger, T D; Smith, D L

    2014-12-01

    To investigate antibacterial activity against the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganense ATCC 7429 (Cmm ATCC 7429), Bacillus subtilis DJM-51 was isolated from rhizosphere soil. For isolation of bacteria, samples were taken from rhizosphere soil. The isolate, DJA-51, had strong antagonistic ability against Tomato pathogen Cmm ATCC 7429 on nutrient-broth yeast extract agar (NBYA) as indicated by inhibition zones around colonies. On the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a conserved segment of the 16S rRNA gene, the bacterium has been identified as B. subtilis DJM-51. The growth of Cmm ATCC 7429 on NBYA plates was inhibited by culture broth of B. subtilis DJM-51 including cells, by the supernatant of culture broth of B. subtilis DJM-51, and by the liquid material resulting from butanol extract of bacterial cultures. The OD value in co-culture mixture was lower than the control throughout the entire incubation period. Antibiotics obtained from B. subtilis DJM-51 inhibited the growth of Tomato pathogen Cmm ATCC 7429. These results provide potentially information about the protection of tomato from pathogen Cmm ATCC 7429 under greenhouse conditions in Quebec. PMID:25457795

  13. 柳珊瑚共生细菌Bacillus subtilis发酵液化学成分研究%Study on Chemical Constituents from Marine Gorgonian -associated Bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高程海; 易湘茜; 方燕; 王一兵; 何碧娟; 陈波

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the culture broth from marine gorgonian-asso-ciated bacterium Bacillus subtilis were carried out. Seven pure substances were first isolated from the culture broth by CC and HPLCand their structures were determined on the basis of physic-chemical properties and spectroscopic methods such as 1H NMR and 13C NMR. These compounds were obtained and characterized by comparison of their physical and spectral data C H NMR,13C NMR and MS) with values obtained in the literature. Antibacterial activity bioas-say indicated that compounds 1 and 2 had significant activity against pathogenic bacteria from tilapia .Compounds 1~3 showed potent antilarval activity towards Balanus amphitrite larvae. Compound 1 exhibited antilarval activity against Hydroides elegans at the concentration of 50 fig/ml.%采用多种常规柱色谱和高效液相色谱分离技术,运用理化和波谱分析方法,对柳珊瑚共生细菌Bacillus subtilis的化学成分进行分离鉴定,并对分离得到的化合物进行抑菌活性测试和抗污损生物幼虫附着活性测试.结果分离得到7个环二肽类化合物,依次为环(S-脯氨酸-甘氨酸),环(S-脯氨酸-R-亮氨酸),环(4-羟基-脯氨酸-亮氨酸),环(苯丙氨酸-甘氨酸),环(丙氨酸-苯丙氨酸),环(苯丙氨酸-缬氨酸),环(S-脯氨酸-R-苯丙氨酸).化合物1和化合物2有抑制罗非鱼病原菌生长活性,化合物1~3有抗藤壶幼虫附着活性,化合物1有抗华美盘管幼虫附着活性.7个化合物均首次从柳珊瑚共生菌Bacillus subtilis发酵液中分离得到,其抑制罗非鱼致病菌活性和抗污损生物附着活性也是首次报道.

  14. Effect of supplemental Bacillus culture on rumen fermentation and performance in dairy cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two parts were involved in this experiment. In experiment 1, 32 Chinese Holstein cows with relatively similar body condition, lactation number and days in milk were selected. The cows were assigned in a randomized complete block design trial to determine the effect of supplemental Bacillus cultures to diet on production performance in dairy cattle. Four treatments, i.e., Bacillus licheniformis (strain number 1.813) group, Bacillus subtilis (strain number 1.1086) group, Bacillus cereus var. mycoides (strain number 1.260) group and control group. Each treatment had eight replicates, each replicate had one cow, 50 g per head per day. Results showed that Bacillus licheniformis group increased the milk yield (P0.05). In experiment 2, 3 Chinese Holstein cows with permanent fistulas were used. 3×3 Latin squares were assigned to three diets: Bacillus lincheniformis culture, Bacillus subtilis culture and control. Bacillus licheniformis culture increased total rumen microorganism (P0.05), increased the rate of acetic acid to propionic acid (P>0.05). Bacillus licheniformis culture decreased the methane production (P>0.05).

  15. Aerobic biodegradation of Azo dye by Bacillus cohnii MTCC 3616; an obligately alkaliphilic bacterium and toxicity evaluation of metabolites by different bioassay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A S Arun; Rao, K V Bhaskara

    2013-08-01

    An obligate alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus cohnii MTCC 3616 aerobically decolorized a textile azo dye Direct Red-22 (5,000 mg l⁻¹) with 95 % efficiency at 37 °C and pH 9 in 4 h under static conditions. The decolorization of Direct Red-22 (DR-22) was possible through a broad pH (7-11), temperature (10-45 °C), salinity (1-7 %), and dye concentration (5-10 g l⁻¹) range. Decolorization of dye was assessed by UV-vis spectrophotometer with reduction of peak intensity at 549 nm (λ(max)). Biodegradation of dye was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The FTIR spectrum revealed that B. cohnii specifically targeted azo bond (N=N) at 1,614.42 cm⁻¹ to break down Direct Red-22. Formation of metabolites with different retention times in HPLC analysis further confirmed the degradation of dye. The phytotoxicity test with 5,000 mg l⁻¹ of untreated dye showed 80 % germination inhibition in Vigna mungo, 70 % in Sorghum bicolor and 80 % in Vigna radiata. No germination inhibition was noticed in all three plants by DR-22 metabolites at 5,000 mg l⁻¹. Biotoxicity test with Artemia salina proved the lethality of the azo dye at LC₅₀ of 4 and 8 % for degraded metabolites by causing death of its nauplii compared to its less toxic-degraded metabolites. Bioaccumulation of dye was observed in the mid-gut of A. salina. The cytogenotoxicity assay on the meristematic root tip cells of Allium cepa further confirmed the cytotoxic nature of azo dye (DR-22) with decrease in mitotic index (0.5 % at 500 ppm) and increase in aberrant index (4.56 %) over 4-h exposure period. Genotoxic damages (lagging chromosome, metaphase cluster, chromosome bridges, and dye accumulation in cytoplasm) were noticed at different stages of cell cycle. The degraded metabolites had negligible cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

  16. Role of enzymes of homologous recombination in illegitimate plasmid recombination in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meima, R; Haijema, BJ; Haan, GJ; Venema, G; Bron, S

    1997-01-01

    The structural stability of plasmid pGP1, which encodes a fusion between the penicillinase gene (penP) of Bacillus licheniformis and the Escherichia coli lacZ gene, was investigated in Bacillus subtilis strains expressing mutated subunits of the ATP-dependent nuclease, AddAB, and strains lacking the

  17. The expression of a plasmid-specified exported protein causes structural plasmid instability in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, C.; Meima, R; Twiest, B; Kazemier, B; Venema, G; vanDijl, JM; Bron, S

    1996-01-01

    The rolling-circle plasmid pGP1 was used to study the effects of the expression of a plasmid-specified exported protein on structural plasmid stability in Bacillus subtilis. pGP1 contains a fusion between the Bacillus licheniformis penP gene, encoding a C-terminally truncated penicillinase, and the

  18. Observe Effect of the Bacillus Subtilis Duplex Living Bacterium Granule in the Treatment of Infantile Anorexia%观察枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒对小儿厌食治疗效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宜海

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the bacillus subtilis duplex living bacterium effect of granule for the treatment of infantile anorexia. Methods 38 patients with infantile anorexia, adopt bacillus subtilis duplex living bacterium granule treatment, compared before and after treatment in patients with hemoglobin, red blood cells and so on many indicators of results. Results After treatment in patients with hemoglobin, red blood cells and plasma albumin results of three indicators were (119.49±12.20)g/L, (4.42±0.27) ×1012/L, (150.33±26.71) mg/L, Before and after treatment compared, it was with signiifcant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with infantile anorexia by bacillus subtilis duplex living bacterium particles after treatment, can improve patients with symptoms of bad appetite, promote the diet nutrition reasonable collocation.%目的:观察枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒对小儿厌食治疗效果。方法38例小儿厌食患者,均采用枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒治疗,对比患者治疗前后的血红蛋白、红细胞等多项指标结果。结果治疗后患者的血红蛋白、红细胞以及血浆前白蛋白三项指标结果分别是(119.49±12.20) g/L、(4.42±0.27)×1012/L以及(150.33±26.71)mg/L;治疗前后对比显著差异(P<0.05)。结论小儿厌食患者采用枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒治疗后,可以改善患者的不良食欲症状,促进其饮食搭配营养合理。

  19. Resistance to antimicrobials and acid and bile tolerance of Bacillus spp isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa

    OpenAIRE

    Compaore, Clarisse S.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Diawara, Brehima; Ouedraogo, Georges A.; Jakobsen, Mogens; Ouoba, Labia I. I.

    2013-01-01

    In the aim of selecting starter cultures, thirteen species of Bacillus spp. including six Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis, four Bacillus licheniformis and three Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum isolated from traditional Bikalga were investigated. The study included, for all isolates, genes, determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for 24 antimicrobials and detection of resistance by PCR using specific primers. The isolates were also examined for their resistance to pH ...

  20. Bacillus oryzicola sp. nov., an Endophytic Bacterium Isolated from the Roots of Rice with Antimicrobial, Plant Growth Promoting, and Systemic Resistance Inducing Activities in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu Jin Chung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of major rice diseases has been attempted in several rice-growing countries in Asia during the last few decades and its application using antagonistic bacteria has proved to be somewhat successful for controlling various fungal diseases in field trials. Two novel endophytic Bacillus species, designated strains YC7007 and YC7010T, with anti-microbial, plant growth-promoting, and systemic resistance-inducing activities were isolated from the roots of rice in paddy fields at Jinju, Korea, and their multifunctional activities were analyzed. Strain YC7007 inhibited mycelial growth of major rice fungal pathogens strongly in vitro. Bacterial blight and panicle blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (KACC 10208 and Burkholderia glumae (KACC 44022, respectively, were also suppressed effectively by drenching a bacterial suspension (10⁷ cfu/ml of strain YC7007 on the rhizosphere of rice. Additionally, strain YC7007 promoted the growth of rice seedlings with higher germination rates and more tillers than the untreated control. The taxonomic position of the strains was also investigated. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both strains belong to the genus Bacillus, with high similarity to the closely related strains, Bacillus siamensis KACC 15859T (99.67%, Bacillus methylotrophicus KACC 13105T (99.65%, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum KACC 17177T (99.60%, and Bacillus tequilensis KACC 15944T (99.45%. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain YC7010T and the most closely related strain, B. siamensis KACC 15859T was 50.4±3.5%, but it was 91.5±11.0% between two strains YC7007 and YC7010T, indicating the same species. The major fatty acids of two strains were anteiso-C15:0 and iso C15:0. Both strains contained MK-7 as a major respiratory quinone system. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of two strains were 50.5 mol% and 51.2 mol%, respectively. Based on these polyphasic studies, the

  1. 生防菌解淀粉芽孢杆菌抗菌蛋白的研究进展%Research Advances of Antifungal Proteins Produced by Biocontrol Bacterium,Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    出晓铭; 林毅雄; 张珅; 严芬; 林河通

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is a kind of biocontrol bacterium which has great ability against fungi and bacteria,thereby it has high research values and potential for development in biological control of posthar-vest diseases of fruits and vegetables.The separation and purification of antifungal proteins produced by Bacil-lus amyloliquefaciens,the disease resistant mechanisms and the application of biocontrol of antifungal proteins were summarized.The future potential application in biocontrol of postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables was also discussed.%生防解淀粉芽孢杆菌具有强烈抑制真菌和细菌的能力,在果蔬采后病害防治方面具有巨大的应用潜力。该文对解淀粉芽孢杆菌产生的抗菌蛋白、蛋白的分离纯化、抑菌机理和生防应用等方面进行了综述,并对其在果蔬采后病害防治应用前景进行了展望。

  2. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusrium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report the whole genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent....

  3. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, S. E.; Blacutt, A. A.; Meinersmann, R. J.; Bacon, C W

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent.

  4. A native plant growth promoting bacterium, Bacillus megaterium B55, rescues growth performance of an ethylene insensitive plant genotype in nature

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothea Gertrud Meldau; Hoang Hoa Long; Ian Thomas Baldwin

    2012-01-01

    Many plants have intimate relationships with soil microbes that through a variety of mechanisms improve the plant’s growth and fitness. Bacillus megaterium is a natural endophyte isolated from Nicotiana attenuata plant roots growing in native soils. A particular isolate (B55), was found to have dramatic plant growth promoting (PGP) effects on wild type (WT) and transgenic plants impaired in ethylene (ET) perception (35S-etr1), the genotype from which this bacteria was first isolated. B55 not ...

  5. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Bacillus anthracis: From Fingerprint Analysis of the Bacterium to Quantification of its Toxins in Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfitt, Adrian R.; Boyer, Anne E.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Kozel, Thomas R.; de, Barun K.; Gallegos, Maribel; Moura, Hercules; Pirkle, James L.; Barr, John R.

    A range of mass spectrometry-based techniques have been used to identify, characterize and differentiate Bacillus anthracis, both in culture for forensic applications and for diagnosis during infection. This range of techniques could usefully be considered to exist as a continuum, based on the degrees of specificity involved. We show two examples here, a whole-organism fingerprinting method and a high-specificity assay for one unique protein, anthrax lethal factor.

  6. Production of amylolytic enzymes by bacillus spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty six bacteria and twenty fungi were isolated from various sources. These varied from rotten fruites to local drinks and soil samples from different parts of Sudan. On the basis of index of amylolytic activity, forty one bacteria and twelve fungi were found to hydrolyse strach. The best ten strach hydrolysing isolates were identified all as bacilli (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K1, SUD-K2, SUD-K4, SUD-O, SUD-SRW, SUD-BRW, SUD-By, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K3, and Bacillus circulans SUD-D and SUD-K7). Their amylase productivity was studied with respect to temperature and time. Amylolytic activity was measured by spectrophotometer, the highest activity was produced in around 24 hours of growth in all; six of which gave the highest amylase activity at 50 deg C and the rest at 45C. Based on the thermal production six isolates were chosen for further investigation. These were Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K1, SUD-K2, SUD-K4, SUD-O, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K3 and Bacillus circulans SUD-K7. The inclusion of strach and Mg++ ions in the culture medium gave the highest enzyme yield. The Ph 9.0 was found to be the optimum for amylase production for all isolates except Bacillus subtilis SUD-K3 which had an optimum at pH 7.0. Three isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K1, SUD-K4 and SUD-O recorded highestamylase production in a medium supplemented with peptone while the rest (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K2, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K3 and Bacillus circulans SUD-K7) gave highest amylase productivity in a medium supplemented with malt extract. Four isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K1 and Bacillus subtilis SUD-K3 gave maximum amylase production in a medium containing 0.5% soluble strach while the rest (gave maximum amylase production at 2%. Soluble strach was found to be best substrate among the different carbon sources tested. The maximum temperature for amylase activity ranged from 60-70 deg C and 1% strach concentration was optimum for all isolates. Addition of different metal ions

  7. Generation of xylooligosaccharides from microwave irradiated agroresidues using recombinant thermo-alkali-stable endoxylanase of the polyextremophilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-03-01

    The recombinant Pichia pastoris harboring the endoxylanase gene (TSEV1xyl) of Bacillus halodurans TSEV1 yielded a high titer of extracellular xylanase (502±23 U ml(-1)) on induction with methanol. The purified recombinant xylanase (TSEV1xyl) displayed optimal activity at 80°C and pH 9.0. The glycosylated recombinant xylanase exhibited higher thermostability (T1/2 of 45 min at 80°C) than the native enzyme (T1/2 of 35 min at 80°C). The agroresidues subjected to pretreatment (soaking in alkali followed by microwave irradiation) liberated xylooligosaccharides (XOS) upon hydrolysis with the recombinant xylanase. The removal of unhydrolyzed agroresidues, xylanase and xylose from the hydrolysate by two-step ultrafiltration led to the purification of XOS as confirmed by TLC as well as HPLC analysis. PMID:25553569

  8. In vitro and in vivo antibiofilm potential of 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol from seaweed surface associated bacterium Bacillus subtilis against group A streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Prithika, Udayakumar; Deebika, Sundaresan; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2016-10-01

    Biofilm formation of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is recognized as an important virulent determinant. The present study reports the antibiofilm potential of seaweed (Gracilaria gracilis) surface associated Bacillus subtilis against GAS. Purification revealed 2,4-Di-tert-butyl-phenol (DTBP) as the active principle. DTBP exhibited a dose dependent antibiofilm activity against GAS (SF370 & six different clinical M serotypes). Microscopic analysis revealed changes in cell surface architecture and reduced thickness upon DTBP treatment. Results of extracellular polymeric substance quantification, microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon assay and fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis suggested that DTBP probably interferes with the initial adhesion stage of biofilm formation cascade. Reduction in hyaluronic acid synthesis goes in unison with blood survival assay wherein, increased susceptibility to phagocytosis was observed. In vivo studies using Caenorhabditis elegans manifested the reduction in adherence and virulence, which prompts further investigation of the potential of DTBP for the treatment of GAS infections. PMID:27524650

  9. Bacillus pumilus reveals a remarkably high resistance to hydrogen peroxide provoked oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handtke, S.; Schroeter, R.; Jurgen, B.; Methling, K.; Schluter, R.; Albrecht, D.; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Bongaerts, J.; Maurer, K.H.; Lalk, M.; Schweder, T.; Hecker, M.; Voigt, B.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus is characterized by a higher oxidative stress resistance than other comparable industrially relevant Bacilli such as B. subtilis or B. licheniformis. In this study the response of B. pumilus to oxidative stress was investigated during a treatment with high concentrations of hydrogen

  10. Halotolerant, acid-alkali stable, chelator resistant and raw starch digesting α-amylase from a marine bacterium Bacillus subtilis S8-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, Balu Jancy; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2014-08-01

    A halotolerant α-amylase having the ability of digesting the insoluble raw starches was characterized from Bacillus subtilis S8-18, a marine sediment isolate from Palk Bay region. The electrophoresis techniques unveiled that the α-amylase was indeed a monomer with a molecular weight of 57 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 60 °C and 6.0 respectively. The enzyme was highly stable for 24 h over a wide range of pH from 4.0 to 12.0 by showing 84-94% activity. Interestingly, by retaining 72% activity even after 24 h, the enzyme also showed tolerance towards 28% NaCl. The α-amylase retained a minimum of 93% residual activity in 1 mM concentration for the selected divalent metal ions. The enzyme was found to be chelator resistant as it remained unaffected by 1 mM of EDTA and exhibited 96% activity even at 5 mM concentration. Furthermore, though 1% SDS caused remarkable reduction (68%) in amylase activity, the enzyme showed tolerance towards other detergents (1% of Triton-X and Tween 80) with 85% activity. Additionally, the α-amylase enzyme is capable of hydrolyzing the insoluble raw starch substrates which was evident from the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and spectrophotometric analyses.

  11. 噻吩磺隆降解菌Bacillus subtilis LXL-7的分离与应用%Isolation and Utilization of a Thifensulfuron-methyl-degrading Bacterium,Bacillus subtilis LXL-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓楼

    2016-01-01

    A strain LXL-7 isolated from soil highly degrades thifensulfuron-methyl,and was identified asBacillus subtilis. The degradation rate by LXL-7 reached 99.6% in mineral salt medium of thifensulfuron-methyl(100 mg/L)after 72 h. The optimal pH value and temperature were 7.5 and 30-35℃. The strain tolerated well to thifensulfuron-methyl and salt,at least to 400 mg/L of thifensulfuron-methyl and 4.0% NaCl. In addition,adding strain LXL-7 in the commercial preparation for soil amendment,a new multiple-function microbial preparation was developed,and it had an additional new function of degrading thifensulfuron-methyl residue in soil except original functions. Therefore, the strain LXL-7 could be considered for bioremediation of thifensulfuron-methyl pollution and development of microbial preparation.%从土壤中分离到一株能高效降解噻吩磺隆的细菌LXL-7,经鉴定LXL-7为枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)。在含100 mg/L噻吩磺隆的培养基中,菌株LXL-7降解噻吩磺隆的72 h降解率可达99.6%以上。菌株LXL-7的最适pH为7.5,适宜温度为30-35℃,该菌还对噻吩磺隆和盐有很好的耐受性,至少能耐受400 mg/L的噻吩磺隆和4.0%的NaCl。另外,还通过在商品化的土壤微生物改良剂中添加菌株LXL-7开发了多功能微生物制剂,新制剂除原有功能外还增加了降解噻吩磺隆的新功能,故认为菌株LXL-7能够被用于噻吩磺隆污染的处理以及相关微生物制剂的开发。

  12. Novel alkalistable α-carbonic anhydrase from the polyextremophilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans: characteristics and applicability in flue gas CO2 sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, Shazia; Satyanarayana, T

    2016-08-01

    The emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere have been constantly rising due to anthropogenic activities, which have led to global warming and climate change. Among various methods proposed for mitigating CO2 levels in the atmosphere, carbonic anhydrase (CA)-mediated carbon sequestration represents a greener and safer approach to capture and convert it into stable mineral carbonates. Despite the fact that CA is an extremely efficient metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydration of CO2 (CO2 + H2O ↔ HCO3 (-) + H(+)) with a kcat of ∼10(6) s(-1), a thermostable, and alkalistable CA is desirable for the process to take place efficiently. The purified CA from alkaliphilic, moderately thermophilic, and halotolerant Bacillus halodurans TSLV1 (BhCA) is a homodimeric enzyme with a subunit molecular mass of ~37 kDa with stability in a broad pH range between 6.0 and 11.0. It has a moderate thermostability with a T1/2 of 24.0 ± 1.0 min at 60 °C. Based on the sensitivity of CA to specific inhibitors, BhCA is an α-CA; this has been confirmed by nucleotide/amino acid sequence analysis. This has a unique property of stimulation by SO4 (2-), and it remains unaffected by SO3 (2-), NOx, and most other components present in the flue gas. BhCA is highly efficient in accelerating the mineralization of CO2 as compared to commercial bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) and is also efficient in the sequestration of CO2 from the exhaust of petrol driven car, thus, a useful biocatalyst for sequestering CO2 from flue gas. PMID:27102616

  13. 一株地衣芽胞杆菌S1-1对赭曲霉毒素A的吸附和降解研究%Adsorption and Degradation of Ochratoxin A by Bacillus licheniformis S1-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师磊; 梁志宏; 徐诗涵; 郑浩; 黄昆仑

    2013-01-01

    赭曲霉毒素A(ochratoxin A,OTA)是一种由曲霉(Aspergillus spp.)和青霉(Penicillium spp.)等丝状真菌产生的次级代谢产物,主要污染谷物、葡萄(Vitisvinifera)、大豆(Glycine max)、咖啡(Coffea arabica)及其相关产品.动物实验表明,OTA具有肾毒性、肝毒性,致癌、致畸和致突变性,减少或消除食品及其原料中的OTA对国民食品安全至关重要.本研究以从动物粪便分离的芽胞杆菌(Bacillus spp.)为材料研究OTA的生物脱毒.结果显示,1株Bacillus spp.S1-1既能吸附又能降解OTA:活菌和高温灭活菌(121℃,20 min)均能吸附OTA,OTA浓度为6 μg/mL时,薄层层析(thin layer chromatography,TLC)测定24 h后高温灭活菌(121℃,20 min)的吸附量(80%)高于活菌(60%);菌液上清能降解OTA,OTA浓度为6.2 μg/mL时,高效液相色谱(high-performance liquid chromatograpy,HPLC)测定24 h降解率为98%,没有降解产物产生.S1-1在发霉玉米中OTA的降解率为35.0%.16S rRNA序列比对初步确定S1-1为地衣芽胞杆菌(B.licheniforms).本研究首次获得了1株既能吸附又能降解OTA的B.licheniforms,为OTA的生物脱毒提供了新材料.

  14. Investigation and Analysis of Bacillus in Yogurt Production Environment%酸奶生产环境中芽孢杆菌的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康博燕; 牟光庆; 陈历俊; 姜铁民

    2013-01-01

    According to the studies on the microbial community of yogurt production environment,found that the Bacillus.sp was the majority bacteria.Base on physiological and biochemical identification and molecular identification on the bacillus isolate from sampling plots,found that Bacillus subtilis account for 30%,Bacillus licheniformis account for 19%,Bacillus megaterium account for 14%,The rest of the seven kinds of the bacillus account for 37%.By traceability analysis,found that there was cross contamination in the connected workshop.%通过对某厂酸奶生产环境微生物菌群分析,发现此环境中微生物以芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus.sp)的菌种居多.对各个采样点分离、纯化的芽孢杆菌进行生理生化和分子鉴定,结果为枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)占所分离鉴定芽孢杆菌的30%,地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheniformis)占19%,巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus megaterium)占14%,其余7种菌共占37%.对它们进行溯源分析,发现有连通的车间存在交叉污染.

  15. [The flotation characteristics of Bacillus cells and spores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnikova, E V; Gregirchak, N N; Taranenko, T O

    1991-01-01

    Variations in hydrophobicity of the surface of bacillary cells and their capacity to flotation in the process of batch cultivation have been studied. It is shown that hydrophobicity of the cell surface increases in the course of batch cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis, B. licheniformis and B. megaterium. Hydrophobicity of spores of the mentioned cultures is considerably higher than that of the vegetative cells. The increase of hydrophobicity of bacillary cells positively correlated with their capacity to flotation. That is why the use of flotation for the age fractionation of bacillary cells is possible: spores are concentrated in the foam while vegetative cells remain in the culture liquid. PMID:1779906

  16. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermented food condiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H

    2008-06-10

    The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean (Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producers was also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar. Using RPLA, enterotoxin production was detected for three isolates of B. cereus in broth and all B. cereus (9) in fermented seeds. Using BDEVIA, enterotoxin production was detected in broth as well as in fermented seeds for all B. cereus isolates. None of the isolates belonging to the other Bacillus species was able to produce enterotoxins either by RPLA or BDEVIA. Nhe genes were detected in all B. cereus while Hbl and CytK genes were detected respectively in five and six B. cereus strains. A weak presence of Hbl (A, D) and CytK genes was detected in two isolates of B. subtilis and one of B. licheniformis but results were inconsistent, especially for Hbl genes. The emetic specific gene fragment EM1 was not detected in any of the isolates studied.

  17. Seleção de diferentes meios para produção de lipase a partir de Bacillis licheniformis (UCP 1014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladiel Luiz Pedrozo Tavares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of alternative culture media for microbial enzyme production have been widely exploited in recent decades. The microbial lipases are extracellular enzymes produced in fermentation processes, which favors its extraction, isolation and purification. Bacillus are Gram-positive bacteria, saprophytes, of great importance in various industrial sectors. In this study, we tested three methods of production using B. licheniformis (UCP 1014 media called A, B and C. The kinetics of enzyme production occurred in orbital shaker at 150 rpm, 37 °C, for 96 hours. The collected samples were subjected to the construction of the growth curve, determination of pH and lipolytic activity. The results indicated a better growth in the middle C showing an activity of 256 U/mL, while the means A and B had values of 170 and 153 U/mL, respectively. The results showed that the middle C presented higher enzyme production in the tests.

  18. Complete Genome of Bacillus thuringiensis Myophage Spock

    OpenAIRE

    Maroun, Justin W.; Whitcher, Kelvin J.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, sporulating soil microbe with valuable pesticide-producing properties. The study of bacteriophages of B. thuringiensis could provide new biotechnological tools for the use of this bacterium. Here, we present the complete annotated genome of Spock, a myophage of B. thuringiensis, and describe its features.

  19. Surfactin production by strains of Bacillus mojavensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus mojavensis, RRC101 is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. DNA fingerprint analysis of the rep-PCR fragments of 35 B. mojavensis and 4 B. subtilis strains using the Diversilab genotyping system revealed genotypic distinctive strains alon...

  20. UJI TOKSISITAS ISOLAT Bacillus thuringiensis dari Kabupaten Lahat, Palembang, Sumatera Selatan TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK Culex sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Welianto

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the optimal concentration of isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis to control larvae of the mosquito Culex sp. The method used is the isolation of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, then the inoculation of bacteria. Bacillus thuringiensis mud samples, as much as 25 grams, obtained in the area of Lahat, South Sumatra containing Bacillus thuringiensis which includes five districts, namely Sub Gumay Talang, Jaray, Kikim West, South Kikim, and Central Kikim. Gumay ...

  1. Genome of a mosquito-killing bacterium decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Researchers with the CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology (WHIOV) recently completed the genome sequencing of a mosquitocidal bacterium Bacillus shaericus C3-41. The feat, first of its kind in China, is expected to further promote the bio-control studies of mosquitoes.

  2. Structural properties of hydrolyzed high-amylose rice starch by α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fengling; Man, Jianmin; Xu, Bin; Hu, Maozhi; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2011-12-14

    High-amylose cereal starch has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch (RS) content. Enzyme hydrolysis of native starch is very helpful in understanding the structure of starch granules and utilizing them. In this paper, native starch granules were isolated from a transgenic rice line (TRS) enriched with amylose and RS and hydrolyzed by α-amylase. Structural properties of hydrolyzed TRS starches were studied by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and differential scanning calorimetry. The A-type polymorph of TRS C-type starch was hydrolyzed faster than the B-type polymorph, but the crystallinity did not significantly change during enzyme hydrolysis. The degree of order in the external region of starch granule increased with increasing enzyme hydrolysis time. The amylose content decreased at first and then went back up during enzyme hydrolysis. The hydrolyzed starches exhibited increased onset and peak gelatinization temperatures and decreased gelatinization enthalpy on hydrolysis. These results suggested that the B-type polymorph and high amylose that formed the double helices and amylose-lipid complex increased the resistance to BAA hydrolysis. Furthermore, the spectrum results of RS from TRS native starch digested by pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase also supported the above conclusion. PMID:22059442

  3. Cloning and characterization of a novel L-arabinose isomerase from Bacillus licheniformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhu, Ponnandy; Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Jeya, Marimuthu;

    2008-01-01

    reading frame of 1,422 bp, capable of encoding a polypeptide of 474 amino acid residues with a calculated isoelectric point of pH 4.8 and a molecular mass of 53,500 Da. The gene was overexpressed in E. coli, and the protein was purified as an active soluble form using Ni-NTA chromatography. The molecular...

  4. Anti-biofilm activity of a polysaccharide from marine sponge associated Bacillus licheniformis

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Abu, Sayem

    2011-01-01

    Secondary metabolites ranging from furanone to exo-polysaccharides have been suggested to have anti-biofilm activity in various recent studies. Among these,Escherichia coli group II capsular polysaccharides were shown to inhibit biofilm formation in a wide range of organisms and more recently marine Vibrio sp. and Kingella kingae were found to secrete complex exopolysaccharides having the potential for broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition and disruption. In this study, a ca. 1800 kDA polysacc...

  5. Anti-biofilm activity of an exopolysaccharide from a sponge-associated strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    OpenAIRE

    Cordone Angela; Tramice Annabella; Ciavatta Letizia; Manzo Emiliano; Sayem SM; Zanfardino Anna; De Felice Maurilio; Varcamonti Mario

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Secondary metabolites ranging from furanone to exo-polysaccharides have been suggested to have anti-biofilm activity in various recent studies. Among these, Escherichia coli group II capsular polysaccharides were shown to inhibit biofilm formation of a wide range of organisms and more recently marine Vibrio sp. were found to secrete complex exopolysaccharides having the potential for broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition and disruption. Results In this study we report that a n...

  6. Induction of Drought Stress Resistance by Multi-Functional PGPR Bacillus licheniformis K11 in Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jong-Hui; Kim, Sang-Dal

    2013-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major yield affecting factor for pepper plant. The effects of PGPRs were analyzed in relation with drought resistance. The PGPRs inoculated pepper plants tolerate the drought stress and survived as compared to non-inoculated pepper plants that died after 15 days of drought stress. Variations in protein and RNA accumulation patterns of inoculated and non-inoculated pepper plants subjected to drought conditions for 10 days were confirmed by two dimensional polyacryl...

  7. Paradoxical DNA repair and peroxide resistance gene conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gioia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacillus spores are notoriously resistant to unfavorable conditions such as UV radiation, gamma-radiation, H2O2, desiccation, chemical disinfection, or starvation. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 survives standard decontamination procedures of the Jet Propulsion Lab spacecraft assembly facility, and both spores and vegetative cells of this strain exhibit elevated resistance to UV radiation and H2O2 compared to other Bacillus species. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032 was sequenced and annotated. Lists of genes relevant to DNA repair and the oxidative stress response were generated and compared to B. subtilis and B. licheniformis. Differences in conservation of genes, gene order, and protein sequences are highlighted because they potentially explain the extreme resistance phenotype of B. pumilus. The B. pumilus genome includes genes not found in B. subtilis or B. licheniformis and conserved genes with sequence divergence, but paradoxically lacks several genes that function in UV or H2O2 resistance in other Bacillus species. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies several candidate genes for further research into UV and H2O2 resistance. These findings will help explain the resistance of B. pumilus and are applicable to understanding sterilization survival strategies of microbes.

  8. Contamination profiles and characterisation of Bacillus species in wheat bread and raw materials for bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkvist, H; Hansen, A

    1995-08-01

    The Bacillus counts in white and wholemeal wheat loaves produced without preservatives or sour dough were consistently 10(6) cfu/g after two days of storage at ambient summer temperatures (25-30 degree C). Identified species were B. subtilis (70%), B. licheniformis (24%), B. pumilus (2%) and B. cereus (2%). The dominance of B. subtilis in bread could be explained by the higher resistance to heat of this species as determined by inoculation studies. Among 14 species isolated from retail bread and wheat grains, B. subtilis was the only species associated with ropiness. Samples of raw materials, particularly bran, seeds and oat products, contained low levels (10(0) - 10(2) cfu/g) of Bacillus spores, surviving a heat treatment (100 degree C, 10 min) corresponding to a baking process. Even low spore levels in raw materials with the frequently isolated species, B. licheniformis (49%) and B. subtilis (10%), resulted in 10(7) Bacillus per g bread crumb in two days as determined by test bakings. The results indicate a need for controlling growth of Bacillus in bread.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis NBIN-866 with High Nematocidal Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Ronghua; Fu, Guiping; Zhang, Wei; Min, Yong; Tian, Yuxi; Huang, Daye; Wang, Kaimei; Wan, Zhongyi; Yao, Jingwu; Yang, Ziwen

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis NBIN-866, a Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from soil in China. We announce here the draft genome sequence of strain B. thuringiensis NBIN-866, which possesses highly nematocidal factors, such as proteins and small molecular peptides.

  10. 苹果采后炭疽病高效拮抗菌的筛选与应用%Screening high-efficient biocontrol bacterium of Bacillus subtilis by ion implantation and its application against postharvest anthracnose on apple fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑芳; 檀根甲; 李娜; 侯晓丹; 李增智

    2007-01-01

    利用低能氮离子对枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)进行注入诱变,获得诱变菌株.通过平板初筛,筛选出6株对苹果炭疽病菌有较高抑菌作用的菌株,经苹果果实活体测定从中筛选出对苹果炭疽病有较高拮抗作用的菌株BS 80-6和BS100-6.其中BS80-6在室温下的防治效果较好,14 d时的防效为33.28%,BS100-6在冷藏下的效果较好,14 d时的防效为100%.不同接种方式试验表明,拮抗菌对苹果炭疽病表现出较好的保护作用.

  11. Simultaneous α-amylase and protease production by the soil bacterium Bacillus sp. SMIA-2 under submerged culture using whey protein concentrate and corn steep liquor: compatibility of enzymes with commercial detergents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamy Lívia Ribeiro Corrêa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Protease and α-amylase production by a thermophilic Bacillus sp. SMIA-2 cultivated in liquid cultures containing 0.25% (w/v starch as a carbon source reached a maximum at 18 hours (47 U.mg-1 Protein and 36 hours (325 U.mg-1 Protein, respectively. Culture medium supplementation with whey protein concentrate (0.1%, w/v and corn steep liquor (0.3%, w/v not only improved the production of both enzymes but also enabled them to be produced simultaneously. Under these conditions, α-amylase and protease production reached a maximum in 18 hours with levels of 401 U.mg-1 protein and 78 U.mg-1 protein, respectively. The compatibility of the enzymes produced with commercial laundry detergent was investigated. In the presence of Campeiro® detergent, α-amylase activity increased while protease activity decreased by about 27%. These enzymes improved the cleaning power of Campeiro® detergent since they were able to remove egg yolk and tomato sauce stains when used in this detergent.

  12. Bacillus cereus as a nongastrointestinal pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Bacillus cereus to cause systemic infections is of serious concern. Apart from Gastrointestinal infections, it causes respiratory tract infections, nosocomial infections, eye infections, CNS infections, cutaneous infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis and urinary tract infections. The potential of this bacterium to cause life threatening infections has increased. Trauma is an important predisposing factor for Bacillus cereus infections. The maintenance of skin and mucous membrane integrity limits infection by this micro-organism. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 28-30

  13. Genetic analysis of petrobactin transport in Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Paul E.; Dixon, Shandee D.; Janes, Brian K.; Carr, Katherine A.; Nusca, Tyler D.; Anderson, Erica C.; Keene, Sarra E.; Sherman, David H.; Hanna, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Iron acquisition mechanisms play an important role in the pathogenesis of many infectious microbes. In Bacillus anthracis, the siderophore petrobactin is required for both growth in iron depleted conditions and for full virulence of the bacterium. Here we demonstrate the roles of two putative petrobactin binding proteins FatB and FpuA (encoded by GBAA5330 and GBAA4766, respectively) in Bacillus anthracis iron acquisition and pathogenesis. Markerless deletion mutants were created using allelic...

  14. In vivo and in vitro digestibility of plant ingredients and diets by Bacillus phytases in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rande B. Dechavez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate four Bacillus phytases for their efficacy in making plant-baseddiets bioavailable to tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus using in vivo digestibility measurement and todetermine the in vitro level of dephosphorylation. The four Bacillus strains used were B. pumilus , B. megaterium , B. coagulans, and B. licheniformis. Phytase activities varied between bacterial sources aswell as between feed ingredients. For the cassava leaf meal, Pi released was highest in B. pumilus andwas not significantly different from those of B. megaterium and B. licheniformis. For the soybean meal, Pirelease was in this decreasing order: B. megaterium > B. pumilus > B. coagulans > B. licheniformisphytase. For the corn meal, addition of B. licheniformis phytase to the reaction mixture resulted insignificantly the highest Pi released followed by B. coagulans phytase which was not significantly differentfrom that of B. megaterium phytase which released the lowest Pi. Pi released by B. pumilus phytase fromcorn meal was not significantly different from the lowest Pi release of B. megaterium phytase. Theapparent digestibility coefficient (ADC values for the feed dry matter (DM ranged from 86.3 to 88.3%and were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05.

  15. Transformation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleria protoplasts by plasmid pBC16.

    OpenAIRE

    Alikhanian, S. I.; Ryabchenko, N F; Bukanov, N O; Sakanyan, V A

    1981-01-01

    Protoplasts of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleria were transformed by plasmid pBC16. The frequency of transformation was much lower than that of Bacillus subtilis. All isolated B. thuringiensis transformants were characterized by increased sensitivity to lysozyme as compared with the original strain.

  16. Maintenance metabolism and carbon fluxes in Bacillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decasper Seraina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection of an appropriate host organism is crucial for the economic success of biotechnological processes. A generally important selection criterion is a low maintenance energy metabolism to reduce non-productive consumption of substrate. We here investigated, whether various bacilli that are closely related to Bacillus subtilis are potential riboflavin production hosts with low maintenance metabolism. Results While B. subtilis exhibited indeed the highest maintenance energy coefficient, B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens exhibited only statistically insignificantly reduced maintenance metabolism. Both B. pumilus and B. subtilis (natto exhibited irregular growth patterns under glucose limitation such that the maintenance metabolism could not be determined. The sole exception with significantly reduced maintenance energy requirements was the B. licheniformis strain T380B. The frequently used spo0A mutation significantly increased the maintenance metabolism of B. subtilis. At the level of 13C-detected intracellular fluxes, all investigated bacilli exhibited a significant flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, a prerequisite for efficient riboflavin production. Different from all other species, B. subtilis featured high respiratory tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes in batch and chemostat cultures. In particular under glucose-limited conditions, this led to significant excess formation of NADPH of B. subtilis, while anabolic consumption was rather balanced with catabolic NADPH formation in the other bacilli. Conclusion Despite its successful commercial production of riboflavin, B. subtilis does not seem to be the optimal cell factory from a bioenergetic point of view. The best choice of the investigated strains is the sporulation-deficient B. licheniformis T380B strain. Beside a low maintenance energy coefficient, this strain grows robustly under different conditions and exhibits only moderate acetate overflow, hence

  17. Pitting corrosion inhibition of aluminum 2024 by Bacillus biofilms secreting polyaspartate or gamma-polyglutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornek, D; Jayaraman, A; Syrett, B C; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    2002-04-01

    Pitting corrosion of aluminum 2024 in Luria Bertani medium was reduced by the secretion of anionic peptides by engineered and natural Bacillus biofilms and was studied in continuous reactors using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Compared to sterile controls, pitting was reduced dramatically by the presence of the biofilms. The secretion of a 20 amino acid polyaspartate peptide by an engineered Bacillus subtilis WB600/pBE92-Asp biofilm slightly reduced the corrosion rate of the passive aluminum alloy at pH 6.5; however, the secretion of gamma-polyglutamate by a Bacillus licheniformis biofilm reduced the corrosion rate by 90% (compared to the B. subtilis WB600/pBE92 biofilm which did not secrete polyaspartate or gamma-polyglutamate). The corrosion potential ( E(corr)) of aluminum 2024 was increased by about 0.15-0.44 V due to the formation of B. subtilis and B. licheniformis biofilms as compared to sterile controls. The increase of E(corr) and the observed prevention of pitting indicate that the pitting potential ( E(pit)) had increased. This result and the further decrease of corrosion rates for the passive aluminum alloy suggest that the rate of the anodic metal dissolution reaction was reduced by an inhibitor produced by the biofilms. Purified gamma-polyglutamate also decreased the corrosion rates of aluminum 2024. PMID:11956749

  18. Application of nisin and pediocin against resistance and germination of Bacillus spores in sous vide products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, M L; Torres, B; Herrera, J J R; Bernárdez, M; Pastoriza, L

    2009-03-01

    Sous vide and other mild preservation techniques are increasingly demanded by consumers. However, spores often will survive in minimally processed foods, causing both spoilage and safety problems. The main objective of the present work was to solve an industrial spoilage problem associated with two sous vide products: mushrooms and shellfish salad. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis predominated as the most heat-resistant organisms isolated from mushrooms and shellfish salad, respectively. The combined effects of nisin and pediocin against resistance and germination of both Bacillus species were described by empirical equations. Whereas nisin was more effective for decreasing thermal resistance of B. subtilis spores, pediocin was more effective against B. licheniformis. However, a significant positive interaction between both biopeptides for decreasing the proportion of vegetative cells resulting from thermoresistant spores was demonstrated in later experiments, thus indicating the increased efficacy of applying high concentrations of both bacteriocins. This efficacy was further demonstrated in additional challenge studies carried out at 15 degrees C in the two sous vide products: mushrooms and shellfish salad. Whereas no vegetative cells were detected after 90 days in the presence of bacteriocins, almost 100% of the population in nontreated samples of mushrooms and shellfish salad was in the vegetative state after 17 and 43 days of storage at 15 degrees C, respectively. PMID:19343939

  19. Control of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum musae on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. Using Antagonistic Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supuk Mahadtanapuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 400 bacterial strains, isolated from leaf surfaces of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and hot springs in the Chiang Mai province of northern Thailand, were screened in vitro for antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum musae, an anthracnose fungus. Three isolates provided greater than 75% growth inhibition of the fungus in vitro and were identified as Bacillus licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis. Using in planta tests, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis were shown to efficiently colonize the curcuma bracts, provide a statistically significant growth suppression of C. musae over that of B. licheniformis, and all three isolates could provide 100% inhibition of conidial fungal germination. When B. licheniformis was co-inoculated in combination with either of the other two bacteria, the ability of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis to suppress the fungal disease was dramatically reduced. Both B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis were found to contain an isoform of iturin A with antifungal activity against C. musae. As a preventative measure to control the spread of C. musae and reduce the severity of fungal infections, B. amyloliquefaciens could be used to inoculate curcuma flowers cost effectively and reduce the need for the toxic synthetic fungicides currently in use.

  20. Assessment of the Bacteriocinogenic Potential of Marine Bacteria Reveals Lichenicidin Production by Seaweed-Derived Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian E. Gardiner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (1 to assess the bacteriocinogenic potential of bacteria derived mainly from seaweed, but also sand and seawater, (2 to identify at least some of the bacteriocins produced, if any and (3 to determine if they are unique to the marine environment and/or novel. Fifteen Bacillus licheniformis or pumilus isolates with antimicrobial activity against at least one of the indicator bacteria used were recovered. Some, at least, of the antimicrobials produced were bacteriocins, as they were proteinaceous and the producers displayed immunity. Screening with PCR primers for known Bacillus bacteriocins revealed that three seaweed-derived Bacillus licheniformis harbored the bli04127 gene which encodes one of the peptides of the two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin. Production of both lichenicidin peptides was then confirmed by mass spectrometry. This is the first definitive proof of bacteriocin production by seaweed-derived bacteria. The authors acknowledge that the bacteriocin produced has previously been discovered and is not unique to the marine environment. However, the other marine isolates likely produce novel bacteriocins, as none harboured genes for known Bacillus bacteriocins.

  1. Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax outbreaks have shown that the West needs to be prepared for an increasing number of terrorist attacks, which may include the use of biological warfare. Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and this review will discuss the history of its use as such. It will also cover the biology of this organism and the clinical features of the three disease forms that it can produce: cutaneous, gastrointe...

  2. Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    BOSERET, GÉRALDINE; Linden, Annick; Mainil, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    The literature describes several methods for detection of Bacillus anthracis based on application of specific bacteriophages. The following methods of pahoinpitely are used to identify the causative agent of anthrax: the reaction of bacteriophage titer growth (RBTG), the reaction of phage adsorption (RPA), fagoterapii method (FTM) and fluorescentserological method (FSM). The essence of RBTG consists in the following: if there is the researchform of bacteria presents in the test material, then...

  3. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Mazzantini, Diletta; Lupetti, Antonella; Senesi, Sonia; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  4. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Celandroni

    Full Text Available The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  5. The impact of manganese on biofilm development of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mhatre, Eisha; Troszok, Agnieszka; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Lindstädt, Stefanie; Hölscher, Theresa; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kovács, Ákos T.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are dynamic and structurally complex communities, involving cell-to-cell interactions. In recent years, various environmental signals were identified that induce the complex biofilm development of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. These signaling molecules are often m

  6. Thermostable, Raw-Starch-Digesting Amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Nanmori, Takashi; Shinke, Ryu

    1989-01-01

    An endospore-forming thermophilic bacterium, which produced amylase and was identified as Bacillus stearothermophilus, was isolated from soil. The amylase had an optimum temperature of 70°C and strongly degraded wheat starch granules (93%) and potato starch granules (80%) at 60°C.

  7. Complete Genome Sequences of Nine Bacillus cereus Group Phages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    We report the sequences of nine novel Bacillus cereus group bacteriophages: DIGNKC, Juglone, Nemo, Nigalana, NotTheCreek, Phrodo, SageFayge, Vinny, and Zuko. These bacteriophages are double-stranded DNA-containing Myoviridae isolated from soil samples using B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki as the host bacterium. PMID:27417827

  8. Progress in food-related research focussing on Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Voort, van der M.; Schaik, van W.; Hornstra, L.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium that occurs ubiquitously and is frequently isolated from soil and food products. When B. cereus is present in foods, it can cause spoilage and poisoning. The work of our group is focussed on several properties of B. cereus t

  9. Free and attached cells of Bacillus subtilis as starters for production of a soup flavouring (“ogiri egusi”)

    OpenAIRE

    Peter-Ikechukwu, A. I.; Ahaotu, I.; Owuamanam, C. I.; Ogueke, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This Bacillus subtilis has been identified to be the main fermenting bacterium during indigenous production of “ogiri egusi”; a traditional soup flavouring rich in protein. Evaluation of the use of starter and broth cultures of this bacterium in the production of ‘ogiri egusi’ was therefore undertaken with the view to improve the fermentation process and quality of product. Methodology and Results: Cowpea granules in association with Bacillus subtilis cells were developed as starter cul...

  10. 降解苯并[a]芘的Bacillus pumilus strain Bap9菌株的分离、鉴定与降解特性%Isolation, Identification, and Biodegradation Characteristics of a Benzo [ a ] pyrene-degrading Bacterium Bacillus pumilus strain Bap9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婷婷; 倪晋仁

    2012-01-01

    A bacterial strain Bap9, which is able to utilize benzo [ a ] pyrene as sole carbon and energy source,was isolated from the polluted soil collected from the open-air barbecue market. The strain was identified as Bacillus pumilus according to its 16S rRNA sequence and physiological characteristic analysis. The experimental results showed that the strain could degrade 27. 3% of benzo[ a ] pyrene(40 mg/L) after a 20d incubation. The influences of pH,inoculum quantity and aeration on the cell growth and BaP degradation were examined, through the analysis of OD600 and the BaP concentrations. Strain Bap9 could grow and utilize benzo [ a ] pyrene at pH 6. 0- 9.0, and its optimal condition for the benzo [a] pyrene degradation was pH 8. 0, inoculum quantity 5% ,aeration 10ml/50ml.%从长期受烧烤影响的土壤中,分离筛选出一株能利用苯并[a]芘作为唯一碳源和能源的高效降解菌Bap9,通过16S rRNA基因序列分析和部分生理生化特征分析,鉴定为Bacillus pumilus.摇瓶试验结果表明,菌株Bap9能在20d内将40mg/L的苯并[a]芘降解27.3%.通过对OD600和苯并[a]芘残留浓度的检测分析,考察了pH值、接种量和装液量对菌株生长和降解性能的影响.结果表明,菌株在pH值为6.0-9.0的条件下均能生长并能降解苯并[a]芘,降解的最适pH值为8.0,最佳接种量为5%,最佳装液量为10ml/50ml.

  11. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Rønsbo, Mie Hvillum;

    2011-01-01

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a trad......Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed....... cereus sensu lato, 16-27% as Bacillus licheniformis, 8-32% as Bacillus subtilis and 4-20% as Bacillus sonorensis. During the second set of fermentation trials performed in 2009, the Bacillus spp. and B. cereus occurred in numbers of between 7.7-9.9 and 6.1-7.8 log(10) CFU/g, respectively, while...

  12. Phylogeny in aid of the present and novel microbial lineages: diversity in Bacillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Porwal

    Full Text Available Bacillus represents microbes of high economic, medical and biodefense importance. Bacillus strain identification based on 16S rRNA sequence analyses is invariably limited to species level. Secondly, certain discrepancies exist in the segregation of Bacillus subtilis strains. In the RDP/NCBI databases, out of a total of 2611 individual 16S rDNA sequences belonging to the 175 different species of the genus Bacillus, only 1586 have been identified up to species level. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus anthracis (153 strains, B. cereus (211 strains, B. thuringiensis (108 strains, B. subtilis (271 strains, B. licheniformis (131 strains, B. pumilus (83 strains, B. megaterium (47 strains, B. sphaericus (42 strains, B. clausii (39 strains and B. halodurans (36 strains were considered for generating species-specific framework and probes as tools for their rapid identification. Phylogenetic segregation of 1121, 16S rDNA sequences of 10 different Bacillus species in to 89 clusters enabled us to develop a phylogenetic frame work of 34 representative sequences. Using this phylogenetic framework, 305 out of 1025, 16S rDNA sequences presently classified as Bacillus sp. could be identified up to species level. This identification was supported by 20 to 30 nucleotides long signature sequences and in silico restriction enzyme analysis specific to the 10 Bacillus species. This integrated approach resulted in identifying around 30% of Bacillus sp. up to species level and revealed that B. subtilis strains can be segregated into two phylogenetically distinct groups, such that one of them may be renamed.

  13. Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing of Bacterium Odors

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Hung-Chih; King, Maria D; Kwan, Chiman

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the possibility to detect and identify bacteria by sensing their odor via fluctuation-enhanced sensing with commercial Taguchi sensors. The fluctuations of the electrical resistance during exposure to different bacterial odors, Escherichia coli and anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis, have been measured and analyzed. In the present study, the simplest method, the measurement and analysis of power density spectra was used. The sensors were run in the normal heated and the sampling-and-hold working modes, respectively. The results indicate that Taguchi sensors used in these fluctuation-enhanced modes are effective tools of bacterium detection and identification even when they are utilizing only the power density spectrum of the stochastic sensor signal.

  14. Cellular fatty acid profile and H(+)-ATPase activity to assess acid tolerance of Bacillus sp. for potential probiotic functional attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobharani, P; Halami, Prakash M

    2014-11-01

    The present study has been focused widely on comparative account of probiotic qualities of Bacillus spp. for safer usage. Initially, 170 heat resistant flora were isolated and selected for non-pathogenic cultures devoid of cytK, hblD, and nhe1 virulence genes. Subsequently, through biochemical tests along with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid profiling, the cultures were identified as Bacillus megaterium (AR-S4), Bacillus subtilis (HR-S1), Bacillus licheniformis (Csm1-1a and HN-S1), and Bacillus flexus (CDM4-3c and CDM3-1). The selected cultures showed 70-80 % survival under simulated gastrointestinal condition which was also confirmed through H(+)-ATPase production. The amount of H(+)-ATPase increased by more than 2-fold when grown at pH 2 which support for the acid tolerance ability of Bacillus isolates. The study also examined the influence of acidic pH on cellular fatty acid composition of Bacillus spp. A remarkable shift in the fatty acid profile was observed at acidic pH through an increased amount of even numbered fatty acid (C16 and C18) in comparison with odd numbered (C15 and C17). Additionally, the cultures exhibited various probiotic functional properties. Overall, the study increases our understanding of Bacillus spp. and will allow both industries and consumers to choose for well-defined probiotic with possible health benefits. PMID:25125040

  15. Determination of the Influence of Substrate Concentration on Enzyme Selectivity Using Whey Protein Isolate and Bacillus licheniformis Protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butré, C.I.; Sforza, S.; Gruppen, H.; Wierenga, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing substrate concentration during enzymatic protein hydrolysis results in a decrease in hydrolysis rate. To test if changes in the mechanism of hydrolysis also occur, the enzyme selectivity was determined. The selectivity is defined quantitatively as the relative rate of hydrolysis of each c

  16. Competition for nitrate and glucose between Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus licheniformis under continuous or fluctuating anoxic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijburg, J.W.; Gerards, S.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community in the rhizosphere of aerenchymatous plant species such as Glyceria maxima, consists of oxidative. denitrifying and fermentative nitrate-ammonifying bacteria. To study the respective ecological niches of both types of nitrate-reducing bacteria,

  17. Competition for nitrate and glucose between Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus licheniformis under continuous or fluctuating anoxic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijburg, J.W.; Gerards, S.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community in the rhizosphere of aerenchymatous plant species such as Glyceria maxima, consists of oxidative, denitrifying and fermentative nitrate-ammonifying bacteria. To study the respective ecological niches of both types of nitrate-reducing bacteria,

  18. Influence of different silica derivatives in the immobilization and stabilization of a Bacillus licheniformis protease (Subtilisin Carlsberg)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, L.; Ramos, M. A.; Dordick, J S; Gil, M. H.

    2003-01-01

    Alcalase 2T, a commercial preparation of Subtilisin Carlsberg, was covalent immobilized onto physiochemically characterized silica supports. The effect of mean pore diameter and surface chemistry on enzyme activity in the hydrolysis of casein has been examined. Two sets of chemically distinct silica supports were used presenting terminal amino (SAPTES) or hydroxyl groups (STESPM-pHEMA). The percentage of immobilized protein was smaller in SAPTES (31-39%) than in STESPM-pHEMA (62-71%), but pre...

  19. Sol–gel immobilization of Alcalase from Bacillus licheniformis for application in the synthesis of C-terminal peptide amides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corici, L.N.; Frissen, A.E.; Zoelen, van D.J.; Eggen, I.F.; Peter, F.; Davidescu, C.M.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Alcalase 2.4L FG, a commercial preparation of Subtilisin A, was physically entrapped in glass sol–gel matrices using alkoxysilanes of different types mixed with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). The materials were used for catalyzing C-terminal amidation of Z-Ala-Phe-OMe in a mixture of tert-butanol/DMF. F

  20. Effect of gelatinization and hydrolysis conditions on the selectivity of starch hydrolysis with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Bruins, M.E.; Matser, A.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch can be used to obtain various valuable hydrolyzates with different compositions. The effects of starch pretreatment, enzyme addition point, and hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolyzate composition and reaction rate during wheat starch hydrolysis with ¿-amylase from Bac

  1. Disruption of microbial biofilms by an extracellular protein isolated from epibiotic tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dusane, D.H.; Damare, S.R.; Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Ramaiah, N.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Kumar, A.R.; Zinjarde, S.S.

    incubation period, the slides were removed, rinsed twice with sterile phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.0) to remove the planktonic cells and the biofilms were stained with BacLight Live/Dead stain (Molecular Probes, Eugene). The cell viability was assessed... inhibits biofilm formation of the human pathogens Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus [35]. 4-phenylbutanoic acid obtained from a marine strain of B. pumilus is also reported to be effective in inhibiting bacterial biofilms [36]. Interestingly...

  2. Mosquitocidal properties of Bacillus species isolated from mangroves of Vellar estuary, Southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Indira, K; Srinivasan, M

    2015-09-01

    Samples collected from the mangroves of Vellar estuary yielded a mosquitocidal bacterium, whose secondary metabolites exhibited mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity. The bacterium was isolated using standard microbiological methods and identified using classical biochemical tests. The mosquitocidal bacterium was identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus cereus. Mosquitocidal metabolite(s) was separated from the culture supernatant of the bacterium and its efficacy was against the larval and pupal stages of two different species of mosquitoes and determined in terms of LC50 and LC90. Mosquito larvicidal activity in terms of LC50 against Anopheleus stephensi and Aedes aegypti was 4.374 and 7.406 μl/ml and its pupicidal activity was 4.928 and 9.865 μl/ml, respectively. The present study proved that the mosquitocidal properties of the Bacillus species isolated from mangroves of Vellar estuary was evaluated as target species of mosquito vectors. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the vector control programs.

  3. Characterization of AmiBA2446, a Novel Bacteriolytic Enzyme Active against Bacillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Krunal K.; Paskaleva, Elena E.; Azizi-Ghannad, Saba; Ley, Daniel J; Page, Martin A.; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Kane, Ravi S.

    2013-01-01

    There continues to be a need for developing efficient and environmentally friendly treatments for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. One emerging approach for inactivation of vegetative B. anthracis is the use of bacteriophage endolysins or lytic enzymes encoded by bacterial genomes (autolysins) with highly evolved specificity toward bacterium-specific peptidoglycan cell walls. In this work, we performed in silico analysis of the genome of Bacillus anthracis strain Ames, usin...

  4. Characteristics of bacillus strains with antifungal activity against phytopathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four bacterial isolates that showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and other phytopathogens were isolates from bean rhizosphere. 16S rDNA analysis and phylogenetic relationship indicated that these isolates belong to Genus Bacillus. Isolate A1 clustered with Bacillus licheniformis while other isolates A2, A3 and A4 clustered together with B.pumilus. n-Butanol extract of these isolates strongly inhibited the growth of A. alternata while, chloroform extract of isolate A2 and ethyl acetate extract of A1,A3, and A4 inhibited the test fungus partially. All the isolates except A4 produced chitinase enzyme. None of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Radiation sensitivity of isolates A1, A2, A3 and A4 were assessed and the LD99 values are determined as 0.50, 6.69, 11,60, 1.53 kGy, respectively. Mutant libraries of each isolate were prepared by exposing them to gamma radiation at their respective LD99 dose. Crude metabolite caused drastic changes on A. alternata hyphal morphology. Appearance of shrunken and collapsed hyphae could be due to the leak of cell wall or changes in membrane permeability

  5. 腾冲热海嗜热芽孢杆菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacillus from in Tengchong Rehai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏爱芬; 余丽; 林连兵

    2012-01-01

    26 Thermophilic Bacillus was obtained according to the disassociation from Tengchong hot springs. And one of the strains, NHH4 is selected to analyze its morphologic characteristics, development features, nitric and carbon sources. The cytomorphology of the bacillus is nemaline with gemma, gram-positive, oxygen-loving. And the most suitable temperature for its development is 55 ℃ , the PH value is 7. 5. It can use glucose, sucrose, D-frucose, D-marvnopyranose, but can' t use maltose, lactose, D-xylose, L- rhamnose. The analysis on the phyloge-ny of 16srRNA' s gene sequence indicates that the similarity of NHH4 and Bacillus licheniformis strain N8 is 99% , so the bacillus is identified as thermophilic lichen-bacillus.%从云南腾冲热海温泉中分离得到26株嗜热芽孢杆菌菌株,对其中一株嗜热芽孢杆菌菌株NHH4进行电镜形态、生长特征、碳源、氮源等分析.该菌株细胞形态为杆状,产芽胞,革兰氏染色阳性,严格好氧,其最适生长温度为55℃,最适为pH7.5.能利用葡萄糖、蔗糖、D-果糖、D-甘露糖,不能利用麦芽糖、乳糖、D-木糖、L-鼠季糖.通过对其16S rRNA基因序列的系统发育分析表明,NHH4与Bacillus licheniformis strain N8的序列相似性为99%,将此菌株鉴定为嗜热地衣芽胞杆菌菌株.

  6. EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION BY DROUGHT TOLERANT BACILLUS SPP. AND EFFECT ON SOIL AGGREGATION UNDER DROUGHT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Vardharajula

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPS of microbial origin with novel functionality, reproducible physico-chemical properties, are important class of polymeric materials. EPS are believed to protect bacterial cells from dessication, produce biofilms, thus enhancing the cells chances of bacterial colonizing special ecological niches. In rhizosphere, EPS are known to be useful to improve the moisture-holding capacity. Three Bacillus spp. strains identified by 16s rDNA sequence analysis as B. amyloliquefaciens strain HYD-B17; B. licheniformis strain HYTAPB18; B. subtilis strain RMPB44 were studied for the ability to tolerate matric stress and produce EPS under different water potentials. EPS production in all the three Bacillus spp strains increased with increasing water stress indicating correlation between drought stress tolerance and EPS production. Among the isolates, strain HYD-17 showed highest production of EPS. The exopolysaccharide composition of the three strains was further analyzed by HPLC. Drought stress influenced the ratio of sugars in EPS and glucose was found as major sugar in strains HYTAPB18 and RMPB44 whereas raffinose was major sugar found in strain HYD-B17. Inoculation of EPS producing Bacillus spp. strains in soil resulted in good soil aggregation under drought stress conditions at different incubation periods. This study shows that exposure to water stress conditions affects the composition and ratios of sugars in EPS produced by Bacillus spp. strains HYD-B17, HYTAPB18 and RMPB44 influencing abiotic stress tolerance of the microorganisms.

  7. Screening for Pseudomonas and Bacillus antagonistic rhizobacteria strains for the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannane Abed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the ability of several isolates belonging to Rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas and Bacillus collected from several chickpea growing areas in Algeria, to control the mycelium growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Interesting isolates were characterized for their morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical activities as potential bio-control agent. Fungal inhibition tests were performed using plate assay and each isolate were tested for the production of protease, cyanide hydrogen, indole acetic acid, antifungal volatile and extracellular compound. According to API 50 CH, we are able to identify six Bacillus species (B. subtilis, B. circulans, B. lentus, B. aneurinilyticus, B. firmus, B. licheniformis; and with API 20NE test we have identified three Pseudomonas species (P. aeruginosa, P. luteola, P. fluorescens. The ability of bacterial isolates was varied in production of Protease, Gelatinase, Amylase, Cellulase, Acid Indole acetic, Lipase, Catalase and Cyanid Hydrogen. This is traduced in different rate of inhibition growth due to various extracellular compounds, where B61 (Bacillus aneurinilyticus and P39 (Pseudomonas luteola and P70 (Pseudomonas fluorescens were the most efficient with 77 and 55.5% respectively, while B39 (Bacillus firmus and P41 (Pseudomonas luteola were the most efficient by volatile compounds with 70.5 and 77.5% respectively. Our results indicate that these bacteria isolates can be used in the biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris.

  8. Process optimization by response surface methodology for extracellular alkaline protease production from bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three microbial cultures Bacillus subtilis DSM 1970, Bacillus subtilis GCU-8 and Bacillus licheniformis DSM 1969 were screened for protease production by casein agar plate method. Among these Bacillus subtilis GCU-8 was found to be the most potent protease producer in wide pH range (5.0 to 8.0). Fermentation conditions were optimized for the production of alkaline protease using two statistical tools: Placket Burmen Model for linear regression study and Response Surface Model for interactive effects of significant factors on production. The alkaline protease was optimally produced after 48 hours of incubation at 37 degree C in fermentation media containing equal amounts of substrates (soybean meal and wheat bran, 7.5 g), MgSO/sub 4/ 7H/sub 2/O, 0.10 g and yeast extract 0.55 g. The protease was purified to homogeneity by salt precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. The homogeneity and molecular weights were checked by SDS-PAGE. The protease was 45 KDa protein, predominantly alkaline and optimally active at pH 8.0. (author)

  9. Recognition of greater diversity of Bacillus species and related bacteria in human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyles, Lesley; Honda, Harue; Logan, Niall A; Halket, Gillian; La Ragione, Roberto M; McCartney, Anne L

    2012-01-01

    In a study looking at culturable aerobic Actinobacteria associated with the human gastrointestinal tract, the vast majority of isolates obtained from dried human faeces belonged to the genus Bacillus and related bacteria. A total of 124 isolates were recovered from the faeces of 10 healthy adult donors. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed the majority belonged to the families Bacillaceae (n=81) and Paenibacillaceae (n=3), with Bacillus species isolated from all donors. Isolates tentatively identified as Bacillus clausii (n=32) and Bacillus licheniformis (n=28) were recovered most frequently, with the genera Lysinibacillus, Ureibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Ornithinibacillus and Virgibacillus represented in some donors. Phenotypic data confirmed the identities of isolates belonging to well-characterized species. Representatives of the phylum Actinobacteria were recovered in much lower numbers (n=11). Many of the bacilli exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more strains of Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, with some (n=12) found to have no detectable cytopathic effect on HEp-2 cells. This study has revealed greater diversity within gut-associated aerobic spore-formers than previous studies, and suggests that bacilli with potential as probiotics could be isolated from the human gut. PMID:22041546

  10. Carbohydrate metabolism in the mosquito pathogen Bacillus sphaericus 2362.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, B L; Jelley, S A; Yousten, A A

    1989-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus 2362 is pathogenic for mosquito larvae and is being considered for large-scale production as a larvicide. The inability of the bacteria to metabolize carbohydrates requires that they be grown on proteinaceous media. This bacterium was found to be unable to transport glucose or sucrose into the cell, and it lacked glucokinase and hexokinase activity. In addition, it lacked phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are early ...

  11. Defensive strategies of Bacillus anthracis that promote a fatal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mogridge, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes anthrax. Bacterial spores that enter the host germinate into metabolically active bacilli that disseminate throughout the body and replicate to high numbers. Two virulence factors are essential for this unrestrained growth. The first is a weakly immunogenic poly γ-D-glutamic acid capsule that surrounds the bacilli and confers resistance to phagocytosis. The second virulence factor, anthrax toxin, disrupts multiple host functions to d...

  12. Cytokine Response to Infection with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Alison K.; Osorio, Manuel; Lee, Gloria M.; Grippe, Vanessa K.; Bray, Mechelle; Merkel, Tod J.

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium. The inhalational form of anthrax is the most severe and is associated with rapid progression of the disease and the outcome is frequently fatal. Transfer from the respiratory epithelium to regional lymph nodes appears to be an essential early step in the establishment of infection. This transfer is believed to occur by means of carriage within alveolar macrophages following phagocytosis. Therefo...

  13. Biocontrol: Bacillus penetrans and Related Parasites of Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sayre, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus penetrans Mankau, 1975, previously described as Duboscqia penetrans Thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. This review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. The morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. Taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, partic...

  14. Cytolytic Toxin and Related Genes in Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Dong-lai; LI Yi-dan; GAO Ji-guo

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a ubiquitous gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that forms parasporal crystal during the stationary phase of its growth cycle. These crystal proteins, including Cry and Cyt protein, are toxic to certain insects. Lately, some problems about Cyt classification, structural characteristic, action mechanism and resistance to Cyt toxin are becoming new hotspots. We review the progress of above problems in several foreign labs.

  15. Production of recombinant antibody fragments in Bacillus megaterium

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn Dieter; Schirrmann Thomas; Biedendieck Rebekka; Roth Andreas; Hust Michael; Jordan Eva; Dübel Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Recombinant antibodies are essential reagents for research, diagnostics and therapy. The well established production host Escherichia coli relies on the secretion into the periplasmic space for antibody synthesis. Due to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, only a fraction of this material reaches the medium. Recently, the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium was shown to efficiently secrete recombinant proteins into the growth medium. Here we evaluated B. ...

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis: general characteristics and fermentation
    Bacillus thuringiensis: características gerais e fermentação

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Jorge Hernan Castro-Gómez; Gislayne Trindade Vilas-Bôas; Elisangela Andrade Angelo

    2010-01-01

    The insect control is carried out mostly by chemical products, whose cumulative effects cause serious losses to environmental and human health, highlighting rapid selection of resistant insects. Biological control by entomopathogenic bacteria is an efficient alternative, mainly due to high specificity, absence of resistance in the target insects and low environment residual effect. Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that produces a parasporal crystal protein tox...

  17. Bacillus anthracis Virulent Plasmid pX02 Genes Found in Large Plasmids of Two Other Bacillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Vicki A.; King, Debra S.; Peak, K. Kealy; Reeves, Frank; Heberlein-Larson, Lea; Veguilla, William; Heller, L.; Duncan, Kathleen E; Cannons, Andrew C.; Amuso, Philip; Cattani, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    In order to cause the disease anthrax, Bacillus anthracis requires two plasmids, pX01 and pX02, which carry toxin and capsule genes, respectively, that are used as genetic targets in the laboratory detection of the bacterium. Clinical, forensic, and environmental samples that test positive by PCR protocols established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for B. anthracis are considered to be potentially B. anthracis until confirmed by culture and a secondary battery of tests. We ...

  18. Genotyping of Bacillus cereus strains by microarray-based resequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Zwick

    Full Text Available The ability to distinguish microbial pathogens from closely related but nonpathogenic strains is key to understanding the population biology of these organisms. In this regard, Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax, is of interest because it is closely related and often difficult to distinguish from other members of the B. cereus group that can cause diverse diseases. We employed custom-designed resequencing arrays (RAs based on the genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis to generate 422 kb of genomic sequence from a panel of 41 Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains. Here we show that RAs represent a "one reaction" genotyping technology with the ability to discriminate between highly similar B. anthracis isolates and more divergent strains of the B. cereus s.l. Clade 1. Our data show that RAs can be an efficient genotyping technology for pre-screening the genetic diversity of large strain collections to selected the best candidates for whole genome sequencing.

  19. Biochemical Characterization of the C-4-Dicarboxylate Transporter DctA from Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Maarten; Weme, Ruud G. J. Detert Oude; Duurkens, Ria H.; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial secondary transporters of the DctA family mediate ion-coupled uptake of C-4-dicarboxylates. Here, we have expressed the DctA homologue from Bacillus subtilis in the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis. Transport of dicarboxylates in vitro in isolated membrane vesicles was assayed. W

  20. High-Salinity Growth Conditions Promote Tat-Independent Secretion of Tat Substrates in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Rene; Monteferrante, Carmine G.; Piersma, Sjouke; Barnett, James P.; Kouwen, Thijs R. H. M.; Robinson, Colin; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis contains two Tat translocases, which can facilitate transport of folded proteins across the plasma membrane. Previous research has shown that Tat-dependent protein secretion in B. subtilis is a highly selective process and that heterologous proteins, suc

  1. A Novel Tenebrio molitor Cadherin is a Functional Receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry3Aa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are effective biological insecticides. Cadherin-like proteins have been reported as functional Cry1A toxin receptors in Lepidoptera. We present the first report demonstrating a functional interaction between the coleopteran-specific ...

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Shellfish Larval Probiotic Bacillus pumilus RI06-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Meagan; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Nelson, David R; Rowley, David C

    2015-09-03

    Bacillus pumilus RI06-95 is a marine bacterium isolated in Narragansett, Rhode Island, which has shown probiotic activity against marine pathogens in larval shellfish. We report the genome of B. pumilus RI06-95, which provides insight into the microbe's probiotic ability and may be used in future studies of the probiotic mechanism.

  3. The caa(3) terminal oxidase of Bacillus stearothermophilus - Transient spectroscopy of electron transfer and ligand binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuffre, A; DItri, E; Giannini, S; Brunori, M; UbbinkKok, T; Konings, WN; Antonini, G

    1996-01-01

    The thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus possesses a caa(3)-type terminal oxidase, which was previously purified (De Vrij, W., Heyne, R. I. HL, and Konings, W. N. (1989) Ear. J. Biochem. 178, 763-770). We have carried out extensive kinetic experiments on the purified enzyme by stopped-

  4. Metabolic protein interactions in Bacillus subtilis studied at the single cell level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detert Oude Weme, Ruud Gerardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated protein-protein interactions in live Bacillus subtilis cells (a bacterium). B. subtilis’ natural habitat is the soil and the roots of plants, but also the human microbiota. B. subtilis is used worldwide as a model organism. Unlike eukaryotic cells, bacteria do not have organelle

  5. Diversity of bacteria of the genus Bacillus on board of international space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekhova, T A; Zakharchuk, L M; Tatarinova, N Yu; Kadnikov, V V; Mardanov, A V; Ravin, N V; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    From swabs of surfaces of equipment and air samples of the Russian segment of the International Space Station, nine strains of spore-forming bacteria of the genus Bacillus belonging to the species B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, and B. amyloliquefaciens were isolated. The last species of bacilli on the equipment of RS ISS was detected for the first time. For these species of bacilli, there are known strains that can be opportunistic to humans, and their metabolites can cause biodegradation of equipment and materials. B. pumilus found on ISS belongs to the group of bacteria that exhibits a particularly high resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as dehydration, ultraviolet and gamma radiation, and chemical disinfection.

  6. Diversity of bacteria of the genus Bacillus on board of international space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekhova, T A; Zakharchuk, L M; Tatarinova, N Yu; Kadnikov, V V; Mardanov, A V; Ravin, N V; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    From swabs of surfaces of equipment and air samples of the Russian segment of the International Space Station, nine strains of spore-forming bacteria of the genus Bacillus belonging to the species B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, and B. amyloliquefaciens were isolated. The last species of bacilli on the equipment of RS ISS was detected for the first time. For these species of bacilli, there are known strains that can be opportunistic to humans, and their metabolites can cause biodegradation of equipment and materials. B. pumilus found on ISS belongs to the group of bacteria that exhibits a particularly high resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as dehydration, ultraviolet and gamma radiation, and chemical disinfection. PMID:26728721

  7. Bacillus cereus Biofilms—Same, Only Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majed, Racha; Faille, Christine; Kallassy, Mireille; Gohar, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus displays a high diversity of lifestyles and ecological niches and include beneficial as well as pathogenic strains. These strains are widespread in the environment, are found on inert as well as on living surfaces and contaminate persistently the production lines of the food industry. Biofilms are suspected to play a key role in this ubiquitous distribution and in this persistency. Indeed, B. cereus produces a variety of biofilms which differ in their architecture and mechanism of formation, possibly reflecting an adaptation to various environments. Depending on the strain, B. cereus has the ability to grow as immersed or floating biofilms, and to secrete within the biofilm a vast array of metabolites, surfactants, bacteriocins, enzymes, and toxins, all compounds susceptible to act on the biofilm itself and/or on its environment. Within the biofilm, B. cereus exists in different physiological states and is able to generate highly resistant and adhesive spores, which themselves will increase the resistance of the bacterium to antimicrobials or to cleaning procedures. Current researches show that, despite similarities with the regulation processes and effector molecules involved in the initiation and maturation of the extensively studied Bacillus subtilis biofilm, important differences exists between the two species. The present review summarizes the up to date knowledge on biofilms produced by B. cereus and by two closely related pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. Economic issues caused by B. cereus biofilms and management strategies implemented to control these biofilms are included in this review, which also discuss the ecological and functional roles of biofilms in the lifecycle of these bacterial species and explore future developments in this important research area. PMID:27458448

  8. Purification and properties of thermostable xylanase and beta-xylosidase produced by a newly isolated Bacillus stearothermophilus strain.

    OpenAIRE

    Nanmori, T; Watanabe, T.; Shinke, R; Kohno, A; Kawamura, Y.

    1990-01-01

    We isolated a thermophilic bacterium that produces both xylanase and beta-xylosidase. Based on taxonomical research, this bacterium was identified as Bacillus stearothermophilus. Each extracellular enzyme was separated by hydrophobic chromatography by using a Toyopearl HW-65 column, followed by gel filtration with a Sephacryl S-200 column. Each enzyme in the culture was further purified to homogeneity (62-fold for xylanase and 72-fold for beta-xylosidase) by using a fast protein liquid chroma...

  9. Production and characterization of phytase from Bacillus spp. as feed additive in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rande B. Dechavez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytases are phosphohydrolases that catalyze the release of phosphate from phytate (myo inositol hexakisphosphate, the major phosphorus (P form mostly occurring in animal feeds of plant origin. These enzymes can be supplemented in animal diets to reduce inorganic phosphorus supplementation and fecal phosphorus excretion. Four species of Bacillus namely, B. pumilus , B.megaterium , B. coagulans , and B. licheniformis were used to study the biochemical characteristics of their phytases. All the strains investigated were able to hydrolyze extracellular phytate. The activity of phytase increased markedly at the late stationary phase in all the species tested. Highest enzyme activity was found in phytase from B. megaterium after the 4th day of culture. The crude phytases from the different Bacillus strains were optimally active at pH values ranging 5.5 to 7.0 at 37 0 C and retained their activity at temperatures up to 80 0 C. The enzymes exhibited thermostability, retaining ~50 %activity at 70 0 C and were fairly stable up to pH 10. These properties indicate that the Bacillus phytases appear to be suitable for animal feed supplementation in aquaculture to improve the bioavailability of phosphorus.

  10. Lactococcus lactis - a diploid bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Ole; Hansen, Flemming G.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    In contrast to higher eukaryotes, bacteria are haploid, i.e. they store their genetic information in a single chromosome, which is then duplicated during the cell cycle. If the growth rate is sufficiently low, the bacterium is born with only a single copy of the chromosome, which gets duplicated...... before the bacterium divides. Fast-growing bacteria have overlapping rounds of replication, and can contain DNA corresponding to more than four genome equivalents. However, the terminus region of the chromosome is still present in just one copy after division, and is not duplicated until right before...... the next division. Thus, the regions of the chromosome that are the last to be replicated are haploid even in fast-growing bacteria. In contrast to this general rule for bacteria, we found that Lactococcus lactis, a bacterium which has been exploited for thousands of years for the production of fermented...

  11. Single Bacterium Detection Using Sers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Baikova, T. V.; Alushin, M. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Minaeva, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of a single Staphylococcus aureus bacterium detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was shown that SERS allows increasing sensitivity of predominantly low frequency lines connected with the vibrations of Amide, Proteins and DNA. At the same time the lines of carotenoids inherent to this kind of bacterium are well-detected due to the resonance Raman scattering mechanism. The reproducibility and stability of Raman spectra strongly depend on the characteristics of nanostructured substrate, and molecular structure and size of the tested biological object.

  12. 黄酒大罐发酵醪液中原核微生物的初步研究%Research on Prokaryotic Microbes in Mash During Yellow Rice Wine Big Pot Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志明; 谢广发; 吴春; 曹钰; 陆健

    2009-01-01

    通过传统培养方法分析了黄酒大罐发酵过程中原核微生物的种类和数量.在黄酒整个发酵过程中,共检出13种原核微生物,,Bacillus subtilis ,Bacillus sp. MO15,Bacillus sp. Epbas6,Bacillus licheniformis ,Bacillus sonoren-sis ,Bacillus pumilus ,Bacillus altitudinis ,Lactobacillus plantarum,Bacillus sp. D6 (2007),Bacillus amyloliquefaciens,Bacillus velezensis ,Bacillus atrophaeus ,Bacillaceac bacterium NJ-25.除了一种植物乳杆菌外,其余12种都是芽孢杆菌,种类丰富,其中Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus pumilus为主要的原核微生物,出现在整个发酵过程中.

  13. Bacillus circulans exopolysaccharide: Production, characterization and bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhyalakshmi, R; Valli, Nachiyar C; Narendra Kumar, G; Sunkar, Swetha

    2016-06-01

    A bacterium with the ability to produce appreciable amount of exopolysaccharide was isolated from slimy layer of coconut. 16S rDNA analysis identified the organism as Bacillus circulans. EPS production was observed at all stages of culture growth and reached maximum of 0.065mg/ml by 96h, which on further incubation started to decrease. Response Surface Methodology using Box Behnken design has shown the influence of sucrose which was found to be directly proportional to exopolysaccharide production with production reaching 1.09mg/ml. HPLC analysis identified the presence of glucose, mannose, fructose and verbascose and NMR analysis confirmed the presence of glucose, mannose and galactose. Even though the extracted B. circulans EPS did not show appreciable anti-bacterial or anti-fungal activity, it exhibited appreciable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity. PMID:26902891

  14. Utilization of Sparingly Soluble Phosphate by Red Clover in Association with Glomus mosseae and Bacillus megaterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the mobilization of sparingly soluble inorganic and organic sources of phosphorus (P) by red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) whose roots were colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae and in association with the phosphate-solubilizing (PS) bacterium Bacillus megaterium ACCC10010. Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate had a synergistic effect on the colonization of plant roots by the AM fungus. There was a positive interaction between the PS bacterium and the AM fungus in mobilization of rock phosphate, leading to improved plant P nutrition. In dual inoculation with the AM fungus and the PS bacterium, the main contribution to plant P nutrition was made by the AM fungus. Application of P to the low P soil increased phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly promoted by inoculation with either the PS bacterium or the AM fungus.

  15. Characterisation of an unusual bacterium isolated from genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursi, J P; van Dyck, E; Ballard, R C; Jacob, W; Piot, P; Meheus, A Z

    1982-02-01

    The preliminary characterisation of an unusual gram-negative bacillus isolated from genital ulcers in Swaziland is reported. Like Haemophilus ducreyi, it is an oxidase positive, nitrate-reductase-positive gram-negative rod that forms streptobacillary chains in some circumstances; it was therefore called the "ducreyi-like bacterium" (DLB). Distinguishing features of DLB are production of alpha-haemolysis on horse-blood agar, stimulation of growth by a microaerophilic atmosphere and by a factor produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a strongly positive porphyrin test, and a remarkable ability to undergo autolysis. DLB had a guanine + cytosine value of c. 50 mole% but it cannot be classified, even at the genus level, until more taxonomic data are obtained.

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of 16S rDNA Sequence and PCR - RFLP of Bacillus from Fumao - flavor Daqu%福矛高温大曲中芽孢杆菌16S rDNA-RFLP及系统发育分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜林春; 张守财; 马校卫; 汤二将; 黄祖新; 陈由强

    2012-01-01

    目的:从福建建瓯黄华山酿酒有限公司高温大曲中分离出89株芽孢杆菌,通过初步筛选鉴定并进行微生物多样性研究.方法:对其16S rDNA进行PCR - RFLP分析和系统发育研究.结果:初步筛选得到的18株芽孢杆菌被HhaⅠ和MspⅠ酶切聚类分为四大组.通过系统发育分析样品中有6株Bacillus subtilis,4株Bacillus cereus,2株Bacillus sonorensis,2株Bacillus licheniformis,以及Bacillus pumilus、Bacillus oleronius、Bacillus coagulans和Bacillus thuringiensis各1株.结论:研究显示该高温大曲中可培养芽孢杆菌具有微生物多样性.

  17. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Aneurinibacillus migulanus ATCC 9999T (DSM 2895), a Gramicidin S-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Garden Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Ping; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Ge, Ci-Bin; Xiao, Rong-Feng; Zheng, Xue-Fang; Shi, Huai

    2015-01-01

    Aneurinibacillus migulanus ATCC 9999(T) (DSM 2895) is a Gram-positive, round-spore-forming, and gramicidin S-producing bacterium. Here, we report the 6.35-Mb high-quality draft genome sequence of A. migulanus ATCC 9999(T), which will provide useful information for the genomic taxonomy and phylogenomics of Bacillus-like bacteria. PMID:26494674

  18. Functional Identification of the Product of the Bacillus subtilis yvaL Gene as a SecG Homologue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wely, Karel H.M. van; Swaving, Jelto; Broekhuizen, Cees P.; Rose, Matthias; Quax, Wim J.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Protein export in Escherichia coli is mediated by translocase, a multisubunit membrane protein complex with SecA as the peripheral subunit and the SecY, SecE, and SecG proteins as the integral membrane domain. In the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, SecA, SecY, and SecE have been identifie

  19. Complete Genome Sequences of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis Laboratory Strains JH642 (AG174) and AG1839

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Janet L.; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Grossman, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is widely used for studies of cellular and molecular processes. We announce the complete genomic sequences of strain AG174, our stock of the commonly used strain JH642, and strain AG1839, a derivative that contains a mutation in the replication initiation gene dnaB and a linked Tn917.

  20. Production of Protocatechuic Acid in Bacillus Thuringiensis ATCC33679

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca L. Garner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic acid, or 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, is produced by both soil and marine bacteria in the free form and as the iron binding component of the siderophore petrobactin. The soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679, contains the asb operon, but does not produce petrobactin. Iron restriction resulted in diminished B. thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679 growth and the production of catechol(s. The gene product responsible for protocatechuic acid (asbF and its receptor (fatB were expressed during stationary phase growth. Gene expression varied with growth temperature, with optimum levels occurring well below the Bacillus anthracis virulence temperature of 37 °C. Regulation of protocatechuic acid suggests a possible role for this compound during soil growth cycles.

  1. Screening, identification and desilication of a silicate bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong-bo; ZENG Xiao-xi; LIU Fei-fei; QIU Guan-zhou; HU Yue-hua

    2006-01-01

    The strain Lv1-2 isolated from the Henan bauxite was characterized by morphological observation, biochemical and physiological identification, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The influences of temperature, initial pH value, the volume of medium, shaking speed and illite concentration on the desilicating ability of the strain Lv1-2 were investigated. The results show that the bacterium is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium with oval endspores and thick capsule, but without flagellum. The biochemical and physiological tests indicate that the strain Lv1-2 is similar to Bacillus mucilaginosus. In GenBank the 16S rDNA sequence similarity of the strain Lv1-2 and the B. mucilaginosus YNUCC0001 (AY571332) is more than 99 %. Based on the above results, the strain Lv1-2 is identified as B. mucilaginosus. The optimum conditions for the strain Lv1-2 to remove silicon from illite are as follows: temperature is 30℃ ;initial pH value is 7.5; medium volume in 200 mL bottle is 60 mL; shaking speed of rotary shaker is 220 r/m; illite concentration is 1%.

  2. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeong Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla.

  3. Mapping by interspecies transformation experiments of several ribosomal protein genes near the replication origin of Bacillus subtilis chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S; Tokui, A; Saito, H

    1978-08-17

    Bacillus subtilis 168 was transformed with DNAs from B. amyloliquefaciens K or B. licheniformis IAM 11054. These two species show a considerable difference in ribosomal proteins from B. subtilis. Analyses of the transformants indicated that the genes for 16 proteins, S3, S5, S8, S12, S17, S19, BL1, BL5, BL6, BL8, BL14, BL16, BL17, BL22, BL23 and BL25 are located in the cysA-str-spc region on B. subtilis chromosome. The genes for 10 proteins, S4, S6, S13, S16, S20, BL15, BL18, BL20, BL24 and BL28 could not be found in this region in the present experiments.

  4. Importance of srtA and srtB for Growth of Bacillus anthracis in Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Steven D.; Burns, Drusilla L.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effect of mutation of two sortase genes of Bacillus anthracis, srtA and srtB, on the ability of the bacterium to grow in J774A.1 cells, a mouse macrophage-like cell line. While disruption of either srtA or srtB had no effect on the ability of the bacteria to grow in rich culture media, mutations in each of these genes dramatically attenuated growth of the bacterium in J774A.1 cells. Complementation of the mutation restored the ability of bacteria to grow in the cells. Since th...

  5. Xanthan Lyase of Bacillus sp. Strain GL1 Liberates Pyruvylated Mannose from Xanthan Side Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Wataru; Miki, Hikaru; Tsuchiya, Noriaki; Nankai, Hirokazu; Murata, Kousaku

    1998-01-01

    When the bacterium Bacillus sp. strain GL1 was grown in a medium containing xanthan as the carbon source, the viscosity of the medium decreased in association with growth, showing that the bacterium had xanthan-depolymerizing enzymes. One of the xanthan-depolymerizing enzymes (xanthan lyase) was present in the medium and was found to be induced by xanthan. The xanthan lyase purified from the culture fluid was a monomer with a molecular mass of 75 kDa, and was most active at pH 5.5 and 50°C. T...

  6. Inactivation of Spores of Bacillus anthracis Sterne, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis by Chlorination

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, E W; Adcock, N. J.; Sivaganesan, M; Rose, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Three species of Bacillus were evaluated as potential surrogates for Bacillus anthracis for determining the sporicidal activity of chlorination as commonly used in drinking water treatment. Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were found to be an appropriate surrogate for spores of B. anthracis for use in chlorine inactivation studies.

  7. Characterization of a novel chitinase from a moderately halophilic bacterium, Virgibacillus marismortui strain M3-23

    OpenAIRE

    Essghaier, Badiaa; Hedi, Abdeljabbar; Bajji, Mohammed; Jijakli, Haissam; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Sadfi-Zouaoui, Najla

    2012-01-01

    A new chitinase produced by the moderately halophilic bacterium Virgibacillus marismortui strain M3- 23 was identified and characterized. Distinguishable characteristics of high activity and stability at different pH, temperatures and salinity of M3-23 chitinase are reported. Analysis of the catalytic domain sequence from the enzyme highlighted its relationship to glycosyl hydrolase family 18. Comparison of the deduced chitinase sequence from strain M3-23 to known chitinases from Bacillus spe...

  8. Comparison of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related, spore forming soil bacteria. B. thuringiensis produces insecticidal crystal proteins during sporulation and these toxins are the most important biopesticides in the world today. Genomes of the B. thuringiensis and B. cereus strains were analysed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis after treatment of the DNA with the restriction enzyme NotI. The NotI fingerprint patterns varied both within the B. thuringiensis and the B. cereus strains. The size of the fragments varied between 15 and 1350 kb. When physical maps of the B. thuringiensis and B. cereus strains were compared, B. thuringiensis appeared to be as closely related to B. cereus as the B. cereus strains were to each other. Nine out of 12 B. thuringiensis strains and 18 out of 25 B. cereus strains produced enterotoxins. The close relationship between B. thuringiensis and B. cereus should be taken into consideration when B. thuringiensis is used as a biopesticide. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  9. Characterization of Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Dufrenne JB; Leusden FM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitary microorganism that may cause food borne disease. Pathogenicity, however, depends on various characteristics such as the ability to form (entero)-toxin(s) that can not be detected by microbiological methods. Further characterization of pathogenic properties is not only

  10. Biodiversity in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat A; Fricker M; Nauta MJ; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have been performed by different partners to identify variability in properties of Bacillus cereus strains that contribute to the extent of their virulence as part of an EU project. To this end, 100 B. cereus strains were selected and screened for biological properties, such as toxin pro

  11. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.;

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes we...

  12. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadtanapuk, S. [Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Maeka, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Teraarusiri, W. [Central Laboratory, University of Phayao, Maeka, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Nanakorn, W. [The Crown Property Bureau, 173 Nakhonratchasrima Road, Dusit, Bangkok 10300 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S., E-mail: soanu.1@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Ion beam bombardment induced mutation in bacterial B. licheniformis. • A mutant lost antifungal activity. • DNA fingerprint of the mutant was analyzed. • The lost gene was indentified to code for TrxR gene. • TrxR gene from B. licheniformis expressed the flower antagonism to fungi. - Abstract: This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  13. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ion beam bombardment induced mutation in bacterial B. licheniformis. • A mutant lost antifungal activity. • DNA fingerprint of the mutant was analyzed. • The lost gene was indentified to code for TrxR gene. • TrxR gene from B. licheniformis expressed the flower antagonism to fungi. - Abstract: This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection

  14. Biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis: new insights into regulatory strategies and assembly mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, Lynne S; Hobley, Laura; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation is a social behaviour that generates favourable conditions for sustained survival in the natural environment. For the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis the process involves the differentiation of cell fate within an isogenic population and the production of communal goods that form the biofilm matrix. Here we review recent progress in understanding the regulatory pathways that control biofilm formation and highlight developments in understanding the composition, func...

  15. Biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis: new insights into regulatory strategies and assembly mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Lynne S; Hobley, Laura; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R

    2014-08-01

    Biofilm formation is a social behaviour that generates favourable conditions for sustained survival in the natural environment. For the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis the process involves the differentiation of cell fate within an isogenic population and the production of communal goods that form the biofilm matrix. Here we review recent progress in understanding the regulatory pathways that control biofilm formation and highlight developments in understanding the composition, function and structure of the biofilm matrix. PMID:24988880

  16. BslA is a self-assembling bacterial hydrophobin that coats the Bacillus subtilis biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Hobley, Laura; Ostrowski, Adam; Rao, Francesco V.; Bromley, Keith M.; Porter, Michael; Prescott, Alan R.; MacPhee, Cait E.; van Aalten, Daan M F; Nicola R. Stanley-Wall

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms represent the predominant mode of microbial growth in the natural environment. Bacillus subtilis is a ubiquitous Gram-positive soil bacterium that functions as an effective plant growth-promoting agent. The biofilm matrix is composed of an exopolysaccharide and an amyloid fiber-forming protein, TasA, and assembles with the aid of a small secreted protein, BslA. Here we show that natively synthesized and secreted BslA forms surface layers around the biofilm. Biophysical analysis demon...

  17. Small Regulatory RNA-Induced Growth Rate Heterogeneity of Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Mars, Ruben A. T.; Nicolas, Pierre; Ciccolini, Mariano; Reilman, Ewoud; Reder, Alexander; Schaffer, Marc; Maeder, Ulrike; Voelker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Denham, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary Bacterial cells that share the same genetic information can display very different phenotypes, even if they grow under identical conditions. Despite the relevance of this population heterogeneity for processes like drug resistance and development, the molecular players that induce heterogenic phenotypes are often not known. Here we report that in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis a small regulatory RNA (sRNA) can induce heterogeneity in growth rates by increas...

  18. Isolation of a New Mexican Strain of Bacillus subtilis with Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. L. Basurto-Cadena; M. Vázquez-Arista; García-Jiménez, J.; Salcedo-Hernández, R.; Bideshi, D. K.; Barboza-Corona, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Although several strains of B. subtilis with antifungal activity have been isolated worldwide, to date there are no published reports regarding the isolation of a native B. subtilis strain from strawberry plants in Mexico. A native bacterium (Bacillus subtilis 21) demonstrated in vitro antagonistic activity against different plant pathogenic fungi. Under greenhouse conditions, it was shown that plants infected with Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium verticillioides and treated with B. subtilis 2...

  19. Purification and Properties of a Xylan-Binding Endoxylanase from Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. Strain K-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Kyu, Khin Lay; Tanticharoen, Morakot

    1999-01-01

    An alkaliphilic bacterium, Bacillus sp. strain K-1, produces extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanases, β-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and acetyl esterase when grown in xylan medium. One of the extracellular xylanases that is stable in an alkaline state was purified to homogeneity by affinity adsorption-desorption on insoluble xylan. The enzyme bound to insoluble xylan but not to crystalline cellulose. The molecular mass of the purified xylan-binding xylanase was estimated to be...

  20. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K.; Allred, Benjamin E.; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated ...

  1. EXPRESSION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS PROTECTIVE ANTIGEN IN VACCINE STRAIN BRUCELLA ABORTUS RB51

    OpenAIRE

    Poff, Sherry Ann

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that can cause cutaneous, gastrointestinal or respiratory disease in many vertebrates, including humans. Commercially available anthrax vaccines for immunization of humans are of limited duration and do not protect against the respiratory form of the disease. Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in animals and humans. As with other intracellular pathogens, cell mediated im...

  2. Tracking cereulide producing Bacillus cereus in foods, papermaking and biowaste management

    OpenAIRE

    Hoornstra, Douwe

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous food poisoning bacterium, but only producers of the emetic toxin, cereulide can be life threatening. Therefore a fast and reliable method is needed for identifying strains that produce the toxin. In this thesis the previously developed sperm bioassay was refined into a tool for the detection of microbially produced mitochondria toxic substances. This refined tool, Sperm Combi Assay effectively detected not only cereulide, but also other mitochondrial toxic subs...

  3. Microbial System for Polysaccharide Depolymerization: Enzymatic Route for Xanthan Depolymerization by Bacillus sp. Strain GL1

    OpenAIRE

    Nankai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Wataru; Miki, Hikaru; Kawai, Shigeyuki; Murata, Kousaku

    1999-01-01

    An enzymatic route for the depolymerization of a heteropolysaccharide (xanthan) in Bacillus sp. strain GL1, which was closely related to Brevibacillus thermoruber, was determined by analyzing the structures of xanthan depolymerization products. The bacterium produces extracellular xanthan lyase catalyzing the cleavage of the glycosidic bond between pyruvylated mannosyl and glucuronyl residues in xanthan side chains (W. Hashimoto et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:3765–3768, 1998). The modif...

  4. Biodegradation of bisphenol A and other bisphenols by a gram-negative aerobic bacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Lobos, J. H.; Leib, T K; Su, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    A novel bacterium designated strain MV1 was isolated from a sludge enrichment taken from the wastewater treatment plant at a plastics manufacturing facility and shown to degrade 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol or bisphenol A). Strain MV1 is a gram-negative, aerobic bacillus that grows on bisphenol A as a sole source of carbon and energy. Total carbon analysis for bisphenol A degradation demonstrated that 60% of the carbon was mineralized to CO2, 20% was associated...

  5. Isolation and algae-lysing characteristics of the algicidal bacterium B5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Water blooms have become a worldwide environmental problem. Recently, algicidal bacteria have attracted wide attention as possible agents for inhibiting algal water blooms. In this study, one strain of algicidal bacterium B5 was isolated from activated sludge. On the basis of analysis of its physiological characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence, it was identified as Bacillus fusiformis. Its algae-lysing characteristics on Microcystis aeruginosa, Chlorella and Scenedesmus were tested. The results showed that: (1) the algicidal bacterium B5 is a Gram-negative bacterium. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence homology of strain B5 with 2 strains of B. fusiformis reached 99.86%, so B5 was identified as B. fusiformis; (2) the algal-lysing effects of the algicidal bacterium B5 on M. aeruginosa, Chlorella and Scenedesmus were pronounced. The initial bacterial and algal cell densities strongly influence the removal rates of chlorophyll-a. The greater the initial bacterial cell density, the faster the degradation of chlorophyll-a. The greater the initial algal cell density, the slower the degradation of chlorophyll-a. When the bacterial cell density was 3.6 × 107 cells/ml, nearly 90% of chlorophyll-a was removed. When the chlorophyll-a concentration was less than 550 μg/L, about 70 % was removed; (3) the strain B5 lysed algae not directly but by secreting metabolites and these metabolites could bear heat treatment.

  6. Rapid inactivation of seven Bacillus spp. under simulated Mars UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeff T.; Newcombe, David A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2006-03-01

    Seven Bacillus spp. were exposed to simulations of Mars-normal UV fluence rates in order to study the effects of UV irradiation on microbial survival. A UV illumination system was calibrated to deliver 9.78 W m -2 (35.2 kJ m -2 h -1) of UVC + UVB irradiation (200-320 nm) to microbial samples, thus creating a clear-sky simulation (0.5 optical depth) of equatorial Mars. The Bacillus spp. studied were: B. licheniformis KL-196, B. megaterium KL-197, B. nealsonii FO-092, B. pumilus FO-36B, B. pumilus SAFR-032, B. subtilis 42HS1, and B. subtilis HA101. The bacteria were prepared as thin monolayers of endospores on aluminum coupons in order to simulate contaminated spacecraft surfaces. Bacterial monolayers were exposed to Mars UV irradiation for time-steps of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, or 180 min. The surviving endospores were then assayed with a Most Probable Numbers (MPN) procedure and with a culture-based assay that utilized a bacillus spore germination medium. Results indicated that B. pumilus SAFR-032 was the most resistant, and B. subtilis 42HS-1 and B. megaterium were the most sensitive of the seven strains exposed to martian UV fluence rates. Bacillus subtilis 42HS1 and B. megaterium were inactivated after 30 min exposure to Mars UV, while B. pumilus SAFR-032 required 180 min for full inactivation in both assays. Spores of B. pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited significantly different inactivation kinetics suggesting that this wild type isolate also was more resistant than the standard dosimetric strain, B. subtilis HA101. Although the various Bacillus spp. exhibited diverse levels of UV resistance, none were immune to UV irradiation, and, thus, all species would be expected to be inactivated on Sun-exposed spacecraft surfaces within a few tens-of-minutes to a few hours on sol 1 under clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars. The inactivation kinetics of all seven Bacillus spp. support the conclusion that significant levels of bioload reductions are possible on

  7. Structure based protein engineering of Bacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase: toward a new substrate specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    licheniformis crystal structure as initial model) it seems that Bacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase binding site is more complex with and insertion of 40 residues. Therefore the three dimensional structure is crucial to understand the specificity of the substrate of this enzyme which will be used to drive the design of mutation to introduce new properties for industrial purpose. (author)

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Bacillus_subtilis_S.png Bacillus_subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus...+subtilis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=214 ...

  9. Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Karen K.; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Okinaka, Richard T.; Asay, Michelle; Blair, Heather; Bliss, Katherine A.; Laker, Mariam; Pardington, Paige E.; Richardson, Amber P.; Tonks, Melinda; Beecher, Douglas J.; Kemp, John D.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Wong, Amy C. Lee; Keim, Paul

    2004-01-01

    DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates representing 36 serovars or subspecies were from the U.S. D...

  10. BAC Library Construction and Physical Mapping of Bacillus anthracis A16R

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Da; Zhu Houchu; Huang Liuyu

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is an endospore-forming bacterium that causes severe inhalational anthrax, and bacillus anthracis A16R is an attenuated strain derived from Bacillus anthracis A16. The development of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system has allowed the construction of large insert-size DNA libraries, and the bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) have become the preferred large insert cloning system for genomic analysis because such libraries are characteristically stable, high in ifdelity and easy to handle. To facilitate genome studies of this bacterium, a bacterial artiifcial chromosome library (BAC) has been established from genome DNA of Bacillus anthracis A16R. This library consisted of 9 600 clones randomly selected from more than 15 000 recombinant clones carrying inserts in the plindigoBAC-5 vectors. The mean insert size was 56 kbp, representing an approximate 12-fold genome coverage, while end sequences were obtained from 700 randomly selected clones. Sequences were compared with Bacillus anthracis Ames and Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 Genome Project databases using the NCBI BLASTN search project. And most BLASTN results showed high identities and that the sequences’ sites could be used as STSs. To construct this physical map, Excel was used for the array of STSs and some gaps of the map were iflled up by PCR walking. Artemis-V4 was used in the construction of a genome-wide physical map with 93%genome coverage. The A16R BAC library proved to be a vital tool for the generation of a map that would not only allow the subsequent sequencing of defined areas of genome, but also provide immediate access to clones that were stable and convenient for functional genomic researches.

  11. BAC Library Construction and Physical Mapping of Bacillus anthracis A16R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is an endospore-forming bacterium that causes severe inhalational anthrax, and bacillus anthracis A16R is an attenuated strain derived from Bacillus anthracis A16. The development of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC system has allowed the construction of large insert-size DNA libraries, and the bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs have become the preferred large insert cloning system for genomic analysis because such libraries are characteristically stable, high in fidelity and easy to handle. To facilitate genome studies of this bacterium, a bacterial artificial chromosome library (BAC has been established from genome DNA of Bacillus anthracis A16R. This library consisted of 9 600 clones randomly selected from more than 15 000 recombinant clones carrying inserts in the plindigoBAC-5 vectors. The mean insert size was 56 kbp, representing an approximate 12-fold genome coverage, while end sequences were obtained from 700 randomly selected clones. Sequences were compared with Bacillus anthracis Ames and Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 Genome Project databases using the NCBI BLASTN search project. And most BLASTN results showed high identities and that the sequences’ sites could be used as STSs. To construct this physical map, Excel was used for the array of STSs and some gaps of the map were filled up by PCR walking. Artemis-V4 was used in the construction of a genome-wide physical map with 93% genome coverage. The A16R BAC library proved to be a vital tool for the generation of a map that would not only allow the subsequent sequencing of defined areas of genome, but also provide immediate access to clones that were stable and convenient for functional genomic researches.

  12. Vacuum Distillation Residue Upgrading by an Indigenous Bacillus Cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Sadat Tabatabaee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly.Results:A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332. This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR, as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively.Conclusion:Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils.

  13. Influence of multi-year Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis on the abundance of B. cereus group populations in Swedish riparian wetland soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Schneider, Salome; Tajrin, Tania;

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is a soil-born bacterium affiliated to the B. cereus group (Bcg, a group including the pathogens B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis) and used in biocontrol products against nematoceran larvae. However, knowledge is limited on how long...

  14. Functional analysis of 14 genes that constitute the purine catabolic pathway in Bacillus subtilis and evidence for a novel regulon controlled by the PucR transcription activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Nygaard, P.; Saxild, Hans Henrik

    2001-01-01

    The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis has developed a highly controlled system for the utilization of a diverse array of low molecular-weight compounds as a nitrogen source when the preferred nitrogen sources, e.g., glutamate plus ammonia, are exhausted. We have identified such a system for the ut...

  15. Bacillus halodurans Strain C125 Encodes and Synthesizes Enzymes from Both Known Pathways To Form dUMP Directly from Cytosine Deoxyribonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, Christian Berg; Løvgreen, Monika Nøhr; Reinauer, Eva;

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the genome of Bacillus halodurans strain C125 indicated that two pathways leading from a cytosine deoxyribonucleotide to dUMP, used for dTMP synthesis, were encoded by the genome of the bacterium. The genes that were responsible, the comEB gene and the dcdB gene, encoding dCMP deaminase...

  16. Characteristics of raw starch degrading alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2 associated with soft coral Sinularia sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puspasari, Fernita; Nurachman, Zeily; Noer, Achmad Saefuddin; Radjasa, Ocky Karna; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Natalia, Dessy

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2, a bacterium isolated from a soft coral Sinularia sp., Merak Kecil Island, West Java, Indonesia, showed an ability to degrade raw corn, rice, sago, cassava, and potato starches with adsorption percentage in the range of 65-93%. Corn h

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Extremely Halophilic Bacillus sp. Strain SB49, Isolated from a Salt Crystallizer Pond of the Little Rann of Kutch, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Rinku; Thomas, Manesh; Sherathia, Dharmesh; Dalsania, Trupti; Patel, Ilaxi; Savsani, Kinjal; Ghorai, Sucheta; Vanpariya, Sejal; Sukhadiya, Bhoomika; Mandaliya, Mona; Rupapara, Rupal; Rawal, Priya

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the draft whole-genome sequence (3.72 Mbp) of Bacillus sp. strain SB49, an extremely halophilic bacterium isolated from a salt crystallizer pond of the Little Rann of Kutch in India. Unraveling the genome of this organism will facilitate understanding and isolation of the genes involved in imparting extreme osmotolerance. PMID:24136852

  18. Molecular identification and safety of Bacillus species involved in the fermentation of African oil beans (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) for production of Ugba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaotu, I; Anyogu, A; Njoku, O H; Odu, N N; Sutherland, J P; Ouoba, L I I

    2013-03-01

    Molecular identification of Bacillus spp. involved in the fermentation of African oil bean seeds for production of Ugba, as well as ability of the Bacillus spp. isolated to produce toxins, were investigated. Forty-nine bacteria were isolated from Ugba produced in different areas of South Eastern Nigeria and identified by phenotyping and sequencing of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes. Genotypic diversities at interspecies and intraspecies level of the isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). The ability of the bacteria to produce toxins was also investigated by detection of genes encoding production of haemolysin BL (HblA, HblC, HblD), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC), cytotoxin K (CytK) and emetic toxin (EM1) using PCR with specific primers. Moreover, a Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) was used to screen ability of the isolates to produce haemolysin in broth and during fermentation of African oil bean seeds. The isolates were characterized as motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming, catalase positive, Gram-positive bacteria. They were identified as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (42), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (3), Bacillus clausii (1), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Bacillus subtilis (1), and Bacillus safensis (1). B. cereus was the predominant Bacillus species and was present in all samples studied. Using ITS-PCR, interspecies diversity was observed among isolates, with six clusters representing each of the pre-cited species. Rep-PCR was more discriminatory (eight clusters) and allowed further differentiation at intraspecies level for the B. cereus and L. xylanilyticus isolates with two genotypes for each species. Genes encoding production of non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and cytotoxin K (CytK) genes were detected in all B. cereus isolates, while Hbl genes (HblA, HblC, HblD) were

  19. Regulation of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes in Bacillus halodurans: common elements but different strategies than those used by Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szigeti, Reka; Milescu, Mirela; Gollnick, Paul

    2004-02-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, an RNA binding protein called TRAP regulates both transcription and translation of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes. Bacillus halodurans is an alkaliphilic Bacillus species that grows at high pHs. Previous studies of this bacterium have focused on mechanisms of adaptation for growth in alkaline environments. We have characterized the regulation of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes in B. halodurans and compared it to that in B. subtilis. B. halodurans encodes a TRAP protein with 71% sequence identity to the B. subtilis protein. Expression of anthranilate synthetase, the first enzyme in the pathway to tryptophan, is regulated significantly less in B. halodurans than in B. subtilis. Examination of the control of the B. halodurans trpEDCFBA operon both in vivo and in vitro shows that only transcription is regulated, whereas in B. subtilis both transcription of the operon and translation of trpE are controlled. The attenuation mechanism that controls transcription in B. halodurans is similar to that in B. subtilis, but there are some differences in the predicted RNA secondary structures in the B. halodurans trp leader region, including the presence of a potential anti-antiterminator structure. Translation of trpG, which is within the folate operon in both bacilli, is regulated similarly in the two species. PMID:14729709

  20. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided.

  1. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided. PMID:27030978

  2. Genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii gtP20b, isolated from the Indian ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Longjiang; Bo, Shiping; Chen, Huan; Ye, Wanzhi; Kleinschmidt, Katrin; Baumann, Heike I; Imhoff, Johannes F; Kleine, Michael; Cai, Daguang

    2011-03-01

    Bacillus subtilis is an aerobic spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium that is a model organism and of great industrial significance as the source of diverse novel functional molecules. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis strain gtP20b isolated from the marine environment. A subset of candidate genes and gene clusters were identified, which are potentially involved in production of diverse functional molecules, like novel ribosomal and nonribosomal antimicrobial peptides. The genome sequence described in this paper is due to its high strain specificity of great importance for basic as well as applied researches on marine organisms. PMID:21183663

  3. 牛栏山二锅头酒醅中芽孢杆菌分离鉴定及发酵风味分析%Identification of Bacillus from Niulanshan Erguotou fermented grain and analysis of flavor compounds in the fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春霞; 廖永红; 刘峻雄; 胡建华; 胡佳音; 窦屾

    2012-01-01

    从牛栏山二锅头酒醅中分离筛选出5株产风味物质能力较好的芽孢杆菌,通过16SrDNA序列分析和构建系统发育树,5株细菌分别为地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheniformis)、蜡样芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)、短小芽孢杆菌(Bacillus pumilus)和枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)。分别对它们进行发酵风味分析,其发酵液经固相微萃取和GC-MS分析,并除去空白培养基中物质,地衣芽孢杆菌BL-1发酵液共检测得到14种风味物质,蜡样芽孢杆菌BC-1和短小芽孢杆菌BP-1发酵都得到12种风味物质,枯草芽孢杆菌BS-1好氧发酵共得到16种风味物质,枯草芽孢杆菌BS-2厌氧发酵共得到19种风味物质。除短小芽孢杆菌外,其他4株芽孢杆菌都含有较多数量的酯类化合物,且主要代谢风味物质都是3-羟基-2-丁酮,而短小芽孢杆菌BP-1则含有数量较多的烃类化合物,其主要风味物质是苯乙醇。%Five strains of bacillus which can produce flavor were screened from Niulanshan Erguotou fermented grain.Using the sequences analysis of 16S rDNA and phylogenetic tree construction,five strains were identified as Bacillus licheniformis,Bacillus cereus,Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis.The fermentation broth of five bacillus strains were analyzed by solid phase micro-extraction and chromatography-mass spectrometry.Removing the compounds of blank,a total of 14 flavor compounds in fermentation broth of Bacillus licheniformis BL-1,12 flavor compounds in fermentation broth of Bacillus cereus BC-1 and Bacillus pumilus BP-1,16 flavor compounds in fermentation broth of Bacillus subtilis BS-1,19 flavor compounds in fermentation broth of Bacillus subtilis BS-2.Except Bacillus pumilus,the fermentation of other four Bacillus strains mainly contained esters compound,and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone was the most important flavor compound.However,the fermentation of Bacillus pumilus BP-1 mainly comprised alkynes compound and

  4. A pangenomic study of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjun Fang; Songnian Hu; Jie Zhang; Ibrahim A1-Mssallem; Jun Yu; Zhaolong Li; Jiucheng Liu; Changlong Shu; Xumin Wang; Xiaowei Zhang; Xiaoguang Yu; Duojun Zhao; Guiming Liu

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (B.thuringiensis) is a soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacterium and its plasmid-encoded toxins (Cry) are commonly used as biological alternatives to pesticides.In a pangenomic study,we sequenced seven B.thuringiensis isolates in both high coverage and base quality using the next-generation sequencing platform.The B.thuringiensis pangenome was extrapolated to have 4196 core genes and an asymptotic value of 558 unique genes when a new genome is added.Compared to the pangenomes of its closely related species of the same genus,B.thuringiensis pangenome shows an open characteristic,similar to B.cereus but not to B.anthracis; the latter has a closed pangenome.We also found extensive divergence among the seven B.thuringiensis genome assemblies,which harbor ample repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).The identities among orthologous genes are greater than 84.5% and the hotspots for the genome variations were discovered in genomic regions of 2.3-2.8 Mb and 5.0-5.6 Mb.We concluded that high-coverage sequence assemblies from multiple strains,before all the gaps are closed,are very useful for pangenomic studies.

  5. Production of Levan by Bacillus licheniformis for Use as a Soil Sealant in Earthen Manure Storage Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel E. Ghaly; F. Arab; N. S. Mahmoud; Higgins, J

    2007-01-01

    Manure application is not permitted on frozen land in Canada and therefore, manure management and storage are the primary issues facing the agri-food industry. Low-cost, effective and environmentally safe earthen manure storage (EMS) facilities will lower costs and help make the livestock industry more competitive and efficient. The goal of this study was to develop a biological sealing technology for earthen manure storages. The results showed that it is feasible to use a growing cultu...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica Strain B6, a 2,3-Butanediol-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Heum; Um, Youngsoon; Beak, Jeong Hun; Kim, Sehwan; Lee, Soojin; Oh, Min-Kyu; Kim, Young-Rok; Lee, Jinwon; Yang, Kap-Seok

    2013-06-27

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica strain B6, a Gram-negative aerobic bacillus belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. This 2,3-butanediol-producing bacterium was isolated from oil-contaminated soil on Backwoon Mountain in South Korea. Strain B6 contains 5,398,151 bp with 4,909 protein-coding genes, 104 structural RNAs, and 55.88% G+C content.

  7. Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Russell H.; Rosenzweig, William D.; Powers, Dennis W.

    2000-10-01

    Bacteria have been found associated with a variety of ancient samples, however few studies are generally accepted due to questions about sample quality and contamination. When Cano and Borucki isolated a strain of Bacillus sphaericus from an extinct bee trapped in 25-30 million-year-old amber, careful sample selection and stringent sterilization techniques were the keys to acceptance. Here we report the isolation and growth of a previously unrecognized spore-forming bacterium (Bacillus species, designated 2-9-3) from a brine inclusion within a 250million-year-old salt crystal from the Permian Salado Formation. Complete gene sequences of the 16S ribosomal DNA show that the organism is part of the lineage of Bacillus marismortui and Virgibacillus pantothenticus. Delicate crystal structures and sedimentary features indicate the salt has not recrystallized since formation. Samples were rejected if brine inclusions showed physical signs of possible contamination. Surfaces of salt crystal samples were sterilized with strong alkali and acid before extracting brines from inclusions. Sterilization procedures reduce the probability of contamination to less than 1 in 10 9.

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  9. Noncapsulated Toxinogenic Bacillus anthracis Presents a Specific Growth and Dissemination Pattern in Naive and Protective Antigen-Immune Mice▿

    OpenAIRE

    Glomski, Ian J.; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Mock, Michèle; Goossens, Pierre L

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax. B. anthracis has three major virulence factors, namely, lethal toxin, edema toxin, and a poly-γ-d-glutamic acid capsule. The toxins modulate host immune responses, and the capsule inhibits phagocytosis. With the goal of increasing safety, decreasing security concerns, and taking advantage of mammalian genetic tools and reagents, mouse models of B. anthracis infection have been developed using attenuated bacteria that produce...

  10. The membrane-induced proton motive force influences the metal binding ability of Bacillus subtilis cell walls.

    OpenAIRE

    Urrutia Mera, M; Kemper, M; Doyle, R.; Beveridge, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis 168 is a gram-positive bacterium whose cell wall contains the highly electronegative polymers peptidoglycan (chemotype A1 gamma) and glycerol-based teichoic acid to produce a surface with a net negative charge with high metal binding capacity. During metabolism, a membrane-induced proton motive force continuously pumps protons into the wall fabric. As a result, a competition between protons and metal ions for anionic wall sites occurs, and less metal is bound in living cells...

  11. Concurrent use of transgenic plants expressing a single and two Bacillus thuringiensis genes speeds insect adaptation to pyramided plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Cao, Jun; Collins, Hilda L.; Bates, Sarah L.; Roush, Richard T.; Earle, Elizabeth D.; Anthony M Shelton

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic plants expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were grown on over 13 million ha in the United States and 22.4 million ha worldwide in 2004. Preventing or slowing the evolution of resistance by insects (“resistance management”) is critical for the sustainable use of Bt crops. Plants containing two dissimilar Bt toxin genes in the same plant (“pyramided”) have the potential to delay insect resistance. However, the advantage of pyramided Bt plan...

  12. High biodegradation levels of 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol by Bacillus sp. isolated from cellulose pulp mill effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Tondo E.C.; Andretta C.W.S.; Souza C.F.V.; Monteiro A.L.; Henriques J.A.P.; Ayub M.A.Z.

    1998-01-01

    An aerobic Gram positive spore-forming bacterium was isolated from cellulose pulp mill effluent. This microorganism, identified as Bacillus sp. and named IS13, was able to rapidly degrade the organic chlorinated compound 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol (4,5,6-TCG) from a culture containing 50 mg/l, which corresponds to about 3x104 times the concentration found in the original effluent. The biodegradation of this compound, usually found in cellulose pulp mill effluents, was evaluated by spectrophotome...

  13. Ecological aspects of Bacillus thuringiensis in an Oxisol Ecologia do Bacillus thuringiensis num Latossolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandra Heck Paes Leme Ferreira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram positive, sporangial bacterium, known for its insecticidal habilities. Survival and conjugation ability of B. thuringiensis strains were investigated; vegetative cells were evaluated in non-sterile soil. Vegetative cells decreased rapidly in number, and after 48 hours the population was predominantly spores. No plasmid transfer was observed in non-sterile soil, probably because the cells died and the remaining cells sporulated quickly. Soil is not a favorable environment for B. thuringiensis multiplication and conjugation. The fate of purified B. thuringiensis toxin was analyzed by extractable toxin quantification using ELISA. The extractable toxin probably declined due to binding on surface-active particles in the soil.O comportamento de células vegetativas do Bacillus thuringiensis foi estudado em solo não esterilizado. Após o inóculo grande parte das células morrem e o restante esporula em 24 horas. Não foi observada conjugação provavelmente porque poucas células sobrevivem no solo e rapidamente esporulam, mostrando que este não é o ambiente propício para a multiplicação e conjugação desta bactéria. A toxina purificada, portanto livre de células, diminui rapidamente sua quantidade em solo não esterilizado. Provavelmente a ligação da toxina na fração argilosa do solo é a principal responsável por este fenômeno.

  14. A novel strategy for acetonitrile wastewater treatment by using a recombinant bacterium with biofilm-forming and nitrile-degrading capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Yue, Zhenlei; Feng, Fengzhao; Xi, Chuanwu; Zang, Hailian; An, Xuejiao; Liu, Keran

    2016-10-01

    There is a great need for efficient acetonitrile removal technology in wastewater treatment to reduce the discharge of this pollutant in untreated wastewater. In this study, a nitrilase gene (nit) isolated from a nitrile-degrading bacterium (Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2) was cloned and transformed into a biofilm-forming bacterium (Bacillus subtilis N4) that expressed the recombinant protein upon isopropylthio-β-galactoside (IPTG) induction. The recombinant bacterium (B. subtilis N4-pHT01-nit) formed strong biofilms and had nitrile-degrading capability. Further testing demonstrated that biofilms formed by B. subtilis N4-pHT01-nit were highly resistant to loading shock from acetonitrile and almost completely degraded the initial concentration of acetonitrile (800 mg L(-1)) within 24 h in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) after operation for 35 d. The bacterial composition of the biofilm, identified by high-throughput sequencing, in a reactor in which the B. subtilis N4-pHT01-nit bacterium was introduced indicated that the engineered bacterium was successfully immobilized in the reactor and became dominant genus. This work demonstrates that an engineered bacterium with nitrile-degrading and biofilm-forming capacity can improve the degradation of contaminants in wastewater. This approach offers a novel strategy for enhancing the biological oxidation of toxic pollutants in wastewater.

  15. Isolation and identification of bacillus species from soil samples in anthrax epidemic area%炭疽高发地区土壤样本中常见芽胞杆菌的分离及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧娟; 魏建春; 张恩民; 张建华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify bacillus species in soil samples in anthrax epidemic area and evaluate the disinfection effect and understand the distributions of common bacillus species in the area. Methods Sixty soil samples were collected from the anthrax epidemic area to isolate and identify related bacillus species with PCR assay. Results No Bacillus anthracis was identified, but 13 strains of Bacillus licheniformis, 8 strains of Bacillus subtilis, 11 strains of Bacillus pumilus and 1 strain of Bacillus cereus were identified in 33 gene fragments from 48 clones by sequencing and blast alignment. The specificities of the primers for Bacillus megatherium and Bacillus circulans were not high. Conclusion The disinfection effect in the anthrax epidemic area was good. The related bacillus species exist widely in the soil, suggesting that their identifications are needed in anthrax surveillance by specific genes amplification%目的 通过分离鉴定炭疽可疑污染土壤样本的芽胞杆菌,评价消毒效果和了解监测地区土壤中的芽胞杆菌分布情况.方法 采集炭疽监测点土壤样本60份,对炭疽芽胞杆菌和其他芽胞杆菌进行分离培养和聚合酶链反应扩增鉴定.结果 在可疑污染土壤样本中未分离到炭疽芽胞杆菌;从分离到的48个单克隆菌落中扩增到33个目的片段,经测序和blast比对,确定得到地衣芽胞杆菌13株,枯草芽胞杆菌8株,短小芽胞杆菌扩增11株,蜡样芽胞杆菌扩增到1株,巨大芽胞杆菌引物和环状芽胞杆菌引物特异性不好.结论 本研究提示该监测点炭疽疫情消毒效果可信,但需要进一步研究验证;几种芽胞杆菌在土壤中广泛存在,在炭疽监测工作中进行病原体分离时需要加以鉴别,可通过特异基因扩增来辅助检验.

  16. Biosorption of uranium on Bacillus sp. dwc-2: preliminary investigation on mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the biosorption mechanisms of uranium on an aerobic Bacillus sp. dwc-2, isolated from a potential disposal site for (ultra-) low uraniferous radioactive waste in Southwest China, was explored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and enhanced proton backscattering spectrometry (EPBS). The biosorption experiments for uranium were carried out at a low pH (pH 3.0), where the uranium solution speciation is dominated by highly mobile uranyl ions. The bioaccumulation was found to be the potential mechanism involved in uranium biosorption by Bacillus sp. dwc-2, and the bioaccumulated uranium was deposited in the cell interior as needle shaped particles at pH 3.0, as revealed by TEM analysis as well as EDX spectra. FTIR analysis further suggested that the absorbed uranium was bound to amino, phosphate and carboxyl groups of bacterial cells. Additionally, PIXE and EPBS results confirmed that ion-exchange also contributed to the adsorption process of uranium. All the results implied that the biosorption mechanism of uranium on Bacillus sp. is complicated and at least involves bioaccumulation, ion exchange and complexation process. - Highlights: • We examined U (VI) biosorption by a bacterial strain isolated from Southwest China. • We studied the involved mechanisms between uranium and this bacterium. • U (VI) was intracellularly bioaccumulated as needlelike granules by this bacterium. • The biosorption mechanisms involved ion exchange, complexation and bioccumulation

  17. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v. L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.

  18. Biosynthesis of isotopically labeled gramicidins and tyrocidins by Bacillus brevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, T.C. Bas; Schinzel, Susan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie (Germany); Bechinger, Burkhard [Universite Strasbourg, Faculte de chimie, Institut Le Bel (France)], E-mail: bechinger@chimie.u-strasbg.fr

    2003-05-15

    The three-dimensional structure of bilayer-associated gramicidin A is available from a structural data base. This and related peptides are, therefore, ideal model compounds to use during the implementation and development of new NMR techniques for the structural investigations of membrane proteins. As these methods rely on the isotopic labelling of single, selected or all sites, we have, investigated and optimised biochemical protocols using different strains of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus brevis. With newly developed schemes for isotopic labelling large amounts of gramicidin and tyrocidin enriched with stable isotopes such as {sup 15}N or {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C have been obtained at low cost. A variety of analytical and spectroscopic techniques, including HPLC, mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy are used to characterise the resulting products.

  19. Regulation of the anaerobic metabolism in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtig, Elisabeth; Jahn, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis encounters changing environmental conditions in its habitat. The access to oxygen determines the mode of energy generation. A complex regulatory network is employed to switch from oxygen respiration to nitrate respiration and various fermentative processes. During adaptation, oxygen depletion is sensed by the [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster containing Fnr and the two-component regulatory system ResDE consisting of the membrane-bound histidine kinase ResE and the cytoplasmic ResD regulator. Nitric oxide is the signal recognized by NsrR. Acetate formation and decreasing pH are measured via AlsR. Finally, Rex is responding to changes in the cellular NAD(+)/NADH ration. The fine-tuned interplay of these regulators at approximately 400 target gene promoters ensures efficient adaptation of the B. subtilis physiology. PMID:23046954

  20. Genome Differences That Distinguish Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Radnedge, Lyndsay; Agron, Peter G.; Hill, Karen K.; Jackson, Paul J.; Ticknor, Lawrence O; Keim, Paul; Andersen, Gary L.

    2003-01-01

    The three species of the group 1 bacilli, Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis, are genetically very closely related. All inhabit soil habitats but exhibit different phenotypes. B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and is phylogenetically monomorphic, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis are genetically more diverse. An amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis described here demonstrates genetic diversity among a collection of non-anthrax-causing Bacillus speci...

  1. Production of Cellulases, Xylanase, Pectinase, alpha-amylase and Protease Enzymes Cocktail by Bacillus spp. and Their Mixed Cultures with Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula glutinis under Solid State Fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of twelve locally isolated Bacillus species, B.megaterium (MAI and MA II), B.licheniformis (MLI and ML II); B. circulans, B. stearothermophilis, B.cereus, B.sphaericus, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus, B. coagulans and B. pantothenticus, were examined for the production of cellulases, xylanase, pectinase, alpha-amylase and protease enzymes cocktail on wheat bran under solid state fermentation (SSF). All species were found to be potent hydrolyzing enzymes producers and the superior producing species were B. megaterium MAI and B. licheniformis. On the other hand, both of them still produced highest enzyme titres when mixed with Candida tropicalis or Rhodotorula glutinis, yeast strains. The two superior bacterial strains produced the highest enzymatic activities when coculturing with C. tropicalis compared with coculturing with R. glutinis only or with both C. tropicalis and R. glutinis in combination. The inferior activities of cocultures (B. megaterinm MAI and R. glutinis) were enhanced in carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), filter paper cellulase (FPase), avecilase, xylanase, pectinase, -amylase and protease by gamma irradiation at dose 1.0 kGy with percent increase 8 %, 20 %, 10 %, 4 %, 31 %, 22 % and 34 %, respectively as compared with un-irradiated cocultures

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF THE BACTERIUM TOMATO STEM CANKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goner A. Shaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseased tomato samples were collected from green house was evaluated for isolation, pathogenicity and biochemical tests. The symptoms of the infected tomato plants were as sudden wilting after curled on leaves and necrotic streak regions developed at the crown and base of the stem and the cavities deepen and expand up and down, brown discoloration and necrosis occurring on xylem and phloem vasculer. All of ages of tomato plant were susceptible to bacteria when the weather condition favorable and immediately, seen collapse symptom on tomato plant at once fail and die. The bacterium was isolated from diseased plant in all regions on nutrient Agar; a yellow bacterium was isolated from infected tomato plant in green houses and fields in Abu-Ghraib, Rashiedia and Qanat Al-Geiaysh nurseries in Baghdad provinces of Iraq. The bacterium was found gram positive, rod-shaped, non-motile and capable an aerobic growth and based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics revealed that this bacterium belongs to: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. (smith pathogenicity and hypersensitivity of the bacterium Cmm showed the disease index were 18.33, 6.66, 16.66, 5, 0% for tomato seedlings were inoculated treatments as the wounding roots, without wounding roots, crown of the stem, petiole and control respectively.

  3. Transport of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki via fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuyk, Sheila; Veal, Lee Ann B; Simpson, Beverley; Omberg, Kristin M

    2011-09-01

    The intentional and controlled release of an aerosolized bacterium provides an opportunity to investigate the implications of a biological attack. Since 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory has worked with several urban areas, including Fairfax County, VA, to design experiments to evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as a slurry to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Understanding whether personnel and equipment pick up residual contamination during sampling activities and transport it to other areas is critical for the formulation of appropriate response and recovery plans. While there is a growing body of literature surrounding the transmission of viral diseases via fomites, there is limited information on the transport of Bacillus species via this route. In 2008, LANL investigated whether field sampling activities conducted near sprayed areas, post-spray, resulted in measurable cross-contamination of sampling personnel, equipment, vehicles, and hotel rooms. Viable Btk was detected in all sample types, indicating transport of the agent occurred via fomites.

  4. Systems biology of recombinant protein production using Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedendieck, Rebekka; Borgmeier, Claudia; Bunk, Boyke; Stammen, Simon; Scherling, Christian; Meinhardt, Friedhelm; Wittmann, Christoph; Jahn, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is the most widely used production host for recombinant proteins in both academia and industry. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium represents an increasingly used alternative for high yield intra- and extracellular protein synthesis. During the past two decades, multiple tools including gene expression plasmids and production strains have been developed. Introduction of free replicating and integrative plasmids into B. megaterium is possible via protoplasts transformation or transconjugation. Using His(6)- and StrepII affinity tags, the intra- or extracellular produced proteins can easily be purified in one-step procedures. Different gene expression systems based on the xylose controlled promoter P(xylA) and various phage RNA polymerase (T7, SP6, K1E) driven systems enable B. megaterium to produce up to 1.25g of recombinant protein per liter. Biomass concentrations of up to 80g/l can be achieved by high cell density cultivations in bioreactors. Gene knockouts and gene replacements in B. megaterium are possible via an optimized gene disruption system. For a safe application in industry, sporulation and protease-deficient as well as UV-sensitive mutants are available. With the help of the recently published B. megaterium genome sequence, it is possible to characterize bottle necks in the protein production process via systems biology approaches based on transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome data. The bioinformatical platform (Megabac, http://www.megabac.tu-bs.de) integrates obtained theoretical and experimental data. PMID:21943898

  5. Bacillus vanillea sp. nov., Isolated from the Cured Vanilla Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-gan; Gu, Feng-lin; Li, Ji-hua; Xu, Fei; He, Shu-zhen; Fang, Yi-ming

    2015-02-01

    A Gram-positive bacterium, designated strain XY18(T), was isolated from a cured vanilla bean in Hainan province, China. Cells were rod-shaped, endospore producing, and peritrichous flagella. Strain XY18(T) grew at salinities of 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally 1-4 %), pH 4.0-8.0 (optimally 5.0-7.0 %) and temperature range 20-45 °C (optimally 28-35 °C). The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, and iso-C17:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain XY18(T) was a member of the genus Bacillus, and closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens NBRC 15535(T) and B. siamensis PD-A10(T), with 99.1 and 99.2 % sequence similarity, respectively. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain XY18(T) and B. amyloliquefaciens NBRC 15535(T) was 35.7 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain XY18(T) was 46.4 mol%, significantly differed from B. siamensis PD-A10(T) (41.4 %), which was higher than the range of 4 % indicative of species. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic study, including phenotypic features, chemotaxonomy, and phylogenetic analyses, strain XY18(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus vanillea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XY18(T) (=CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507).

  6. Bacillus vanillea sp. nov., Isolated from the Cured Vanilla Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-gan; Gu, Feng-lin; Li, Ji-hua; Xu, Fei; He, Shu-zhen; Fang, Yi-ming

    2015-02-01

    A Gram-positive bacterium, designated strain XY18(T), was isolated from a cured vanilla bean in Hainan province, China. Cells were rod-shaped, endospore producing, and peritrichous flagella. Strain XY18(T) grew at salinities of 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally 1-4 %), pH 4.0-8.0 (optimally 5.0-7.0 %) and temperature range 20-45 °C (optimally 28-35 °C). The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, and iso-C17:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain XY18(T) was a member of the genus Bacillus, and closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens NBRC 15535(T) and B. siamensis PD-A10(T), with 99.1 and 99.2 % sequence similarity, respectively. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain XY18(T) and B. amyloliquefaciens NBRC 15535(T) was 35.7 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain XY18(T) was 46.4 mol%, significantly differed from B. siamensis PD-A10(T) (41.4 %), which was higher than the range of 4 % indicative of species. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic study, including phenotypic features, chemotaxonomy, and phylogenetic analyses, strain XY18(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus vanillea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XY18(T) (=CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507). PMID:25292250

  7. Food – bacteria interplay: Pathometabolism of emetic Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eEhling-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive endospore forming bacterium known for its wide spectrum of phenotypic traits, enabling it to occupy diverse ecological niches. Although the population structure of B. cereus is highly dynamic and rather panmictic, production of the emetic B. cereus toxin cereulide is restricted to strains with specific genotypic traits, associated with distinct environmental habitats. Cereulide is an ionophoric dodecadepsipeptide that is produced non-ribosomally by an enzyme complex with an unusual modular structure, named cereulide synthetase (Ces NRPS. The ces gene locus is encoded on a mega virulence plasmid related to the Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1. Cereulide, a highly thermo- and pH- resistant molecule, is preformed in food, evokes vomiting a few hours after ingestion and was shown to be the direct cause of gastroenteritis symptoms; occasionally it is implicated in severe clinical manifestations including acute liver failures. Control of toxin gene expression in emetic Bacillus cereus involves central transcriptional regulators, such as CodY and AbrB, thereby inextricably linking toxin gene expression to life cycle phases and specific conditions, such as the nutrient supply encountered in food matrices. While in recent years considerable progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterization of cereulide toxin synthesis, far less is known about the embedment of toxin synthesis in the life cycle of B. cereus. Information about signals acting on toxin production in the food environment is literally lacking. We summarize the data available on the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide toxin synthesis, discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors acting on toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus and stress how unraveling these processes can lead to the development of novel effective strategies to prevent toxin synthesis in the food production and processing chain.

  8. Effect of Riboflavin Operon Dosage on Riboflavin Productivity in Bacillus Subtilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tao; CHEN Xun; WANG Jingyu; ZHAO Xueming

    2005-01-01

    After deregulating the purine and riboflavin synthesis in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis,it is critical to amplify riboflavin operon with appropriate dosage in the host strain for remarkable increase of riboflavin production.Bacillus subtilis RH13, a riboflavin-producing strain, was selected as host strain in the construction of engineering strains by protoplast fusion. The integrative plasmid pRB63 and autonomous plasmid pRB49, pRB62 containing riboflavin operon of B.subtilis 24 were constructed and transformed into the host strain respectively. Increasing one operon copy in B.subtilis RH13 results in about 0.4 g/L improvement in riboflavin yield and the appropriate number of operon copies was about 7-8. Amplifying more riboflavin operons is of no use for further improvement of yield of riboflavin. Furthermore, excessive operon dosage results in metabolic unbalance and is fatal to the host cells producing riboflavin.

  9. Antifungal Activity of Selected Indigenous Pseudomonas and Bacillus from the Soybean Rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to isolate and select indigenous soil Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria capable of developing multiple mechanisms of action related to the biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi affecting soybean crops. The screening procedure consisted of antagonism tests against a panel of phytopathogenic fungi, taxonomic identification, detection by PCR of several genes related to antifungal activity, in vitro detection of the antifungal products, and root colonization assays. Two isolates, identified and designated as Pseudomonas fluorescens BNM296 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BNM340, were selected for further studies. These isolates protected plants against the damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum and were able to increase the seedling emergence rate after inoculation of soybean seeds with each bacterium. Also, the shoot nitrogen content was higher in plants when seeds were inoculated with BNM296. The polyphasic approach of this work allowed us to select two indigenous bacterial strains that promoted the early development of soybean plants.

  10. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic characterization of FlhF from Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bange, Gert; Petzold, Georg; Wild, Klemens; Sinning, Irmgard, E-mail: irmi.sinning@bzh.uni-heidelberg.de [Heidelberg University Biochemistry Centre (BZH), INF 328, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-05-01

    Preliminary crystallographic data are reported for the third SRP GTPase FlhF from Bacillus subtilis. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis contains three proteins belonging to the signal recognition particle (SRP) type GTPase family. The well characterized signal sequence-binding protein SRP54 and the SRP receptor protein FtsY are universally conserved components of the SRP system of protein transport. The third member, FlhF, has been implicated in the placement and assembly of polar flagella. This article describes the overexpression and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of an FlhF fragment that corresponds to the well characterized GTPase domains in SRP54 and FtsY. Three crystal forms are reported with either GDP or GMPPNP and diffract to a resolution of about 3 Å.

  11. Antifungal activity of selected indigenous pseudomonas and bacillus from the soybean rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, M; Yaryura, P M; Montecchia, M S; Hernández, A I; Correa, O S; Pucheu, N L; Kerber, N L; García, A F

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate and select indigenous soil Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria capable of developing multiple mechanisms of action related to the biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi affecting soybean crops. The screening procedure consisted of antagonism tests against a panel of phytopathogenic fungi, taxonomic identification, detection by PCR of several genes related to antifungal activity, in vitro detection of the antifungal products, and root colonization assays. Two isolates, identified and designated as Pseudomonas fluorescens BNM296 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BNM340, were selected for further studies. These isolates protected plants against the damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum and were able to increase the seedling emergence rate after inoculation of soybean seeds with each bacterium. Also, the shoot nitrogen content was higher in plants when seeds were inoculated with BNM296. The polyphasic approach of this work allowed us to select two indigenous bacterial strains that promoted the early development of soybean plants. PMID:20016811

  12. Are nematodes a missing link in the confounded ecology of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Lifang; Crickmore, Neil; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis, which is well known as an entomopathogen, has been accepted by the public as a safe bioinsecticide. The natural ecology of this bacterium has never been particularly clear, with views ranging from it being an obligate pathogen to an opportunist pathogen that can otherwise exist as a soil saprophyte or a plant endophyte. This confusion has recently led to it being considered as an environmental pathogen that has evolved to occupy a diverse set of environmental niches in which it can thrive without needing a host. A significant driving force behind this classification is the fact that B. thuringiensis is found in high numbers in environments that are not occupied by the insect hosts to which it is pathogenic. It is our opinion that the ubiquitous presence of this bacterium in the environment is the result of a variety of vectoring systems, particularly those that include nematodes.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Mutations Conferring Resistance to d-Amino Acids in Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Leiman, Sara A.; Richardson, Charles; Foulston, Lucy; Elsholz, Alexander K.W.; First, Eric A.; Losick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria produce d-amino acids for incorporation into the peptidoglycan and certain nonribosomally produced peptides. However, d-amino acids are toxic if mischarged on tRNAs or misincorporated into protein. Common strains of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis are particularly sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effects of d-tyrosine due to the absence of d-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase, an enzyme that prevents misincorporation of d-tyrosine and other d-amino acids into nascent proteins. ...

  14. d-Amino Acids Indirectly Inhibit Biofilm Formation in Bacillus subtilis by Interfering with Protein Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Leiman, Sara A.; May, Janine M.; Lebar, Matthew D.; Kahne, Daniel; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis forms biofilms on surfaces and at air-liquid interfaces. It was previously reported that these biofilms disassemble late in their life cycle and that conditioned medium from late-stage biofilms inhibits biofilm formation. Such medium contained a mixture of d-leucine, d-methionine, d-tryptophan, and d-tyrosine and was reported to inhibit biofilm formation via the incorporation of these d-amino acids into the cell wall. Here, we show that l-amino acids were ...

  15. Small regulatory RNA-induced growth rate heterogeneity of Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mars, Ruben A. T.; Pierre Nicolas; Mariano Ciccolini; Ewoud Reilman; Alexander Reder; Marc Schaffer; Ulrike Mäder; Uwe Völker; Jan Maarten van Dijl; Denham, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    Isogenic bacterial populations can consist of cells displaying heterogeneous physiological traits. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) could affect this heterogeneity since they act by fine-tuning mRNA or protein levels to coordinate the appropriate cellular behavior. Here we show that the sRNA RnaC/S1022 from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis can suppress exponential growth by modulation of the transcriptional regulator AbrB. Specifically, the post-transcriptional abrB-RnaC/S1022 inter...

  16. Complete genome sequence of thermophilic Bacillus smithii type strain DSM 4216T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosma, Elleke Fenna; Koehorst, Jasper J.; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.;

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus smithii is a facultatively anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium able to use a variety of sugars that can be derived from lignocellulosic feedstocks. Being genetically accessible, it is a potential new host for biotechnological production of green chemicals from renewable resources. We...... determined the complete genomic sequence of the B. smithii type strain DSM 4216T, which consists of a 3,368,778 bp chromosome (GenBank accession number CP012024.1) and a 12,514 bp plasmid (GenBank accession number CP012025.1), together encoding 3880 genes. Genome annotation via RAST was complemented...

  17. Rapid detection methods for Bacillus anthracis in environmental samples: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Irenge, Léonid; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, which causes anthrax, an often lethal disease of animals and humans. Although the disease has been well studied since the nineteenth century, it has witnessed a renewed interest during the past decade, due to its use as a bioterrorist agent in the fall of 2001 in the USA. A number of techniques aimed at rapidly detecting B. anthracis, in environmental samples as well as in point-of-care settings for humans suspected of exposure t...

  18. The complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar Hailuosis YWC2-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Qinbin; Cao, Ye; Li, Qiao; Zhu, Zizhong; Wang, Linxia; Li, Ping

    2016-02-10

    Bacillus thuringiensis, a typical aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, is an important microbial insecticide widely used in the control of agricultural pests. B. thuringiensis serovar Hailuosis YWC2-8 with high insecticidal activity against Diptera and Lepidoptera insects has three insecticidal crystal protein genes, such as cry4Cb2, cry30Ea2, and cry56Aa1. In this study, the complete genome sequence of B. thuringiensis YWC2-8 was analyzed, which contains one circular gapless chromosome and six circular plasmids.

  19. Bacillus stearothermophilus contains a plasmid-borne gene for alpha-amylase.

    OpenAIRE

    Mielenz, J R

    1983-01-01

    The gene for thermostable alpha-amylase from the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Each alpha-amylase-producing colony contained at least a 9.7-kilobase-pair (kb) chimeric plasmid composed of the vector pBR322 and a common 5.4-kb HindIII fragment of DNA. B. stearothermophilus contains four plasmids with sizes from 12 kb to over 108 kb. Restriction endonuclease analysis of these naturally occurring plasmids showed they also co...

  20. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the Bacillus subtilis lon gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Riethdorf, S.; Völker, U; Gerth, U.; Winkler, A; Engelmann, S; Hecker, M.

    1994-01-01

    The lon gene of Escherichia coli encodes the ATP-dependent serine protease La and belongs to the family of sigma 32-dependent heat shock genes. In this paper, we report the cloning and characterization of the lon gene from the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The nucleotide sequence of the lon locus, which is localized upstream of the hemAXCDBL operon, was determined. The lon gene codes for an 87-kDa protein consisting of 774 amino acid residues. A comparison of the deduced amino ac...

  1. Occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a systemic endophyte of vanilla orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Sullivan, Raymond F; Jabbour, Rabih E; Chen, Qiang; Tadych, Mariusz; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall S; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vanilla orchids (Vanilla phaeantha) and cultivated hybrid vanilla (V. planifolia × V. pompona) as a systemic bacterial endophyte. We determined with light microscopy and isolations that tissues of V. phaeantha and the cultivated hybrid were infected by a bacterial endophyte and that shoot meristems and stomatal areas of stems and leaves were densely colonized. We identified the endophyte as B. amyloliquefaciens using DNA sequence data. Since additional endophyte-free plants and seed of this orchid were not available, additional studies were performed on surrogate hosts Amaranthus caudatus, Ipomoea tricolor, and I. purpurea. Plants of A. caudatus inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens demonstrated intracellular colonization of guard cells and other epidermal cells, confirming the pattern observed in the orchids. Isolations and histological studies suggest that the bacterium may penetrate deeply into developing plant tissues in shoot meristems, forming endospores in maturing tissues. B. amyloliquefaciens produced fungal inhibitors in culture. In controlled experiments using morning glory seedlings we showed that the bacterium promoted seedling growth and reduced seedling necrosis due to pathogens. We detected the gene for phosphopantetheinyl transferase (sfp), an enzyme in the pathway for production of antifungal lipopeptides, and purified the lipopeptide "surfactin" from cultures of the bacterium. We hypothesize that B. amyloliquefaciens is a robust endophyte and defensive mutualist of vanilla orchids. Whether the symbiosis between this bacterium and its hosts can be managed to protect vanilla crops from diseases is a question that should be evaluated in future research.

  2. Occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a systemic endophyte of vanilla orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Sullivan, Raymond F; Jabbour, Rabih E; Chen, Qiang; Tadych, Mariusz; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall S; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vanilla orchids (Vanilla phaeantha) and cultivated hybrid vanilla (V. planifolia × V. pompona) as a systemic bacterial endophyte. We determined with light microscopy and isolations that tissues of V. phaeantha and the cultivated hybrid were infected by a bacterial endophyte and that shoot meristems and stomatal areas of stems and leaves were densely colonized. We identified the endophyte as B. amyloliquefaciens using DNA sequence data. Since additional endophyte-free plants and seed of this orchid were not available, additional studies were performed on surrogate hosts Amaranthus caudatus, Ipomoea tricolor, and I. purpurea. Plants of A. caudatus inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens demonstrated intracellular colonization of guard cells and other epidermal cells, confirming the pattern observed in the orchids. Isolations and histological studies suggest that the bacterium may penetrate deeply into developing plant tissues in shoot meristems, forming endospores in maturing tissues. B. amyloliquefaciens produced fungal inhibitors in culture. In controlled experiments using morning glory seedlings we showed that the bacterium promoted seedling growth and reduced seedling necrosis due to pathogens. We detected the gene for phosphopantetheinyl transferase (sfp), an enzyme in the pathway for production of antifungal lipopeptides, and purified the lipopeptide "surfactin" from cultures of the bacterium. We hypothesize that B. amyloliquefaciens is a robust endophyte and defensive mutualist of vanilla orchids. Whether the symbiosis between this bacterium and its hosts can be managed to protect vanilla crops from diseases is a question that should be evaluated in future research. PMID:25060609

  3. Microflora of urogenital tract in pregnancy with asymptomatic bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains results of research interrelationship from colonization of vagina and urinary tract diseases. E.coli one of the main factors in development asymptomatic bacterium. Presented high effects of penicillin medicaments and nitrofurans in treatment of asymptomatic bacterium

  4. Bacillamides from a hypersaline microbial mat bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Aaron M; Long, Richard A; Rowley, David C

    2007-11-01

    Chemical studies of a Bacillus endophyticus isolated from a Bahamian hypersaline microbial mat led to the isolation of bacillamides B and C, new tryptamide thiazole metabolites. Bioassay-guided fractionation using a HPLC-UV-MS bioassay technique enabled the detection of these trace fermentation products, and their total structures were elucidated by combined spectroscopic techniques.

  5. Potencial de Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner no controle de Aedes aegypti Potential of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner for controlling Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a importância da bactéria entomopatogênica Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis para o controle de Aedes aegypti. São abordados a utilização e potencial de B. thuringiensis israelensis contra o mosquito vetor da dengue. Outros aspectos são discutidos como a evolução da resistência dos insetos em relação aos inseticidas químicos e as vantagens e desvantagens do controle microbiano como estratégia de controle. É dada ênfase à importância da utilização desta bactéria no Brasil como alternativa para resolver o problema em questão sem afetar o ambiente, o homem e outros vertebrados nas áreas de risco.The importance of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in the control of Aedes aegypti is presented. The use and potential of B. thuringiensis israelensis against the mosquito vector of dengue fever is described. Other aspects such as insect's resistance development against chemicals and advantages and constraints of using microbial control are discussed. Emphasis is given to the importance of the use of this bacterium in Brazil, which could contribute significantly to solving the mosquito problem without affecting the environment, humans and others invertebrate organisms in critical regions.

  6. Zymomonas mobilis: a bacterium for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratti, J.C.; Bu' Lock, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is a facultative anaerobic gram negative bacterium first isolated in tropical countries from alcoholic beverages like the African palm wine, the Mexican pulque and also as a contaminant of cider (cider sickness) or beer in the European countries. It is one of the few facultative anaerobic bacteria degrading glucose by the Entner-Doudoroff pathway usually found in strictly aerobic microorganisms. Some work was devoted to this bacterium in the 50s and 60s and was reviewed by Swings and De Ley in their classical paper published in 1977. During the 70s there was very little work on the bacterium until 1979 and the first report by the Australian group of P.L. Rogers on the great potentialities of Z. mobilis for ethanol production. At that time the petroleum crisis had led the developed countries to search for alternative fuel from renewable resources. The Australian group clearly demonstrated the advantages of the bacterium compared to the yeasts traditionally used for the alcoholic fermentation. As a result, there was a considerable burst in the Zymomonas literature which started from nearly zero in the late 70s to attain 70 papers published in the field in 1984. In this article, papers published from 1982 to 1986 are reviewed.

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-17-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-17-0007 ref|YP_078884.1| cytochrome caa3 oxidase (subunit I) [Bacillus lichen...iformis ATCC 14580] ref|YP_091296.1| CtaD [Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580] gb|AAU23246.1| cytochrome ...caa3 oxidase (subunit I) [Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580] gb|AAU40603.1| CtaD [Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13] YP_078884.1 0.12 29% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0116 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0116 ref|YP_081361.1| gluconate permease [Bacillus licheniformis ATCC ...14580] ref|YP_093794.1| GntP [Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580] gb|AAU25723.1| gluconate permease [Bacillus lichen...iformis ATCC 14580] gb|AAU43101.1| GntP [Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13] YP_081361.1 1.8 41% ...

  9. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Gillis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteriophages (phages have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here.

  10. Phages preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here. PMID:25010767

  11. Novel Waddlia Intracellular Bacterium in Artibeus intermedius Fruit Bats, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Morales, Cirani Obregón; Martínez, Leonardo Perea; Ceballos, Nidia Aréchiga; Rivero, Juan José Pérez; Díaz, Osvaldo López; Brayton, Kelly A; Setién, Alvaro Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    An intracellular bacterium was isolated from fruit bats (Artibeus intermedius) in Cocoyoc, Mexico. The bacterium caused severe lesions in the lungs and spleens of bats and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cell cultures. Sequence analyses showed it is related to Waddlia spp. (order Chlamydiales). We propose to call this bacterium Waddlia cocoyoc.

  12. 地衣芽孢杆菌W10在苹果和柑橘果实表面的定殖%Colonization of Bacillus licheliformis Wl0 on the surface of apple and orange fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌筝; 纪兆林; 张纪兵; 徐敬友; 陈夕军; 童蕴慧

    2009-01-01

    地衣芽孢杆菌W10是一株具有防病潜力的生防细菌.研究该菌株在苹果、柑橘果实表面的定殖能力.为利用该生防菌防治水果贮藏期病害提供理论基础.用利福平标记W10菌株.在不同条件下施用,再以含利福平的培养基检测细菌数量.结果表明,W10能在苹果和柑橘果实表面定殖,时间分别达15 d和30d,高浓度(1010 cfu·mL~(-1))下更有利于细菌定殖:W10定殖能力在15 ℃时强于在10℃与5℃时;水果贮藏环境中相对湿度高(RH95%~100%)有利于W10定殖,回收的菌量最多;接种病菌对W10定殖有一定影响,特别是在接种病菌24h后再接种W10,或将病菌与W10同时接种的情况下,W10定殖能力显著下降.%Bacillus licheniformis WlO was a novel antagonistic bacterium against plant pathogens.For better understanding its role in bioeontrol mechanisms the colonizing ability of WI0 on the surface of apple and orange fruit was studied in this pa-per.W10 isolate was marked with rifampicin and the marked bacteria were inoculated to the surface of fruit of apple and or-ange.The bacteria on the surface of the inoculated fruit were isolated by the culture medium with rifampicin at stated periods.The results showed that W10 could colonize on the surface of apple and organ fruit.The persistent time of colonization reached 15 d on the apple fruit while that was 30 d on the orange. The higher bacterial concentration (10~(10) cfu· mL~(-1)) applied,the more favorably colonized W10 on those fruit surface.The colonizing ability of WlO was the strongest at 15℃ ,muchmore than that of at 5℃ and 10 ℃.Moreover,higher relative humidity (RH 95% to 100%)in preservation period of fruit was favorable for W10 colonization,and more bacteria could be reclaimed on that condition.In comparison with inoculation of WIO only, pre-inoculation of pathogen bad a negative effect on colonization of W10.Above experiment results implied that W10 colonizing ability was affected by some

  13. Discrimination of press fit candidate microorganism (Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus licheniformis) by restriction fragment length polymorphic analysis of the 16SrRNA gene; 16S rRNA idenshi no sengen danpen kchotakei kaiseki niyoru atsunyukoho biseibutsu (Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus licheni-formis) no shikibetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Otsuka, Makiko; Ichimura, Naoya; Yonebayashi, Eiji; Enomoto, Heiji

    1999-09-01

    In MeOH viewed as one of the improvement method for recovery of the petroleum with hope, the development of discrimination technique of press fit candidate microorganism and oil reservoir resident microorganism which exists in the test object oil reservoir was tried in order to monitor the survival situation of the microorganism which inserted in the oil reservoir under pressure. 16S rRNA amplified by the PCR using the universal primer The microorganism that it cut off the gene at restriction enzyme HhaI,MspI, AluI and inhabits oil reservoir water and oil reservoir rock in the object oil reservoir by ( necessarily TaqI ) and restriction fragment length polymorphic analysis was classified. As the result, the effectiveness of the this PCR-RFLP method was indicated the microorganism which showed RFLP pattern which is identical with the press fit candidate microorganism in the oil reservoir resident microorganism for the discrimination of the press fit candidate microorganism without existing. And, it was indicated that the this PCR-RFLP method was effective for the investigation of oil reservoir resident microbial community which can positively utilize source of nutrition inserted to oil reservoir with the press fit candidate microorganism under pressure, and it was possible to grasp oil reservoir resident microorganism to be especially considered in MEOR. (translated by NEDO)

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-03-0023 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-03-0023 ref|YP_080913.1| Sugar transporter YwtG [Bacillus licheniformis A...TCC 14580] ref|YP_093341.1| YwtG [Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580] gb|AAU42648.1| YwtG [Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13] YP_080913.1 3e-51 35% ...

  15. Infections Caused by Actinomyces neuii: A Case Series and Review of an Unusual Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Zelyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Actinomyces neuii is a Gram-positive bacillus rarely implicated in human infections. However, its occurrence is being increasingly recognized with the use of improved identification systems. Objective. To analyse A. neuii infections in Alberta, Canada, and review the literature regarding this unusual pathogen. Methods. Cases of A. neuii were identified in 2013-2014 in Alberta. Samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. A predominant catalase positive Gram-positive coryneform bacillus with no branching was isolated in each case. Testing was initially done with API-CORYNE® (bioMérieux and isolates were sent to the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health for further testing. Isolates’ identities were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry microbial identification system (MALDI-TOF MS MIS; bioMérieux and/or DNA sequencing. Results. Six cases of A. neuii infection were identified. All patients had soft tissue infections; typically, incision and drainage were done followed by a course of antibiotics. Agents used included cephalexin, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin. All had favourable outcomes. Conclusions. While A. neuii is infrequently recognized, it can cause a diverse array of infections. Increased use of MALDI-TOF MS MIS is leading to increased detection; thus, understanding the pathogenicity of this bacterium and its typical susceptibility profile will aid clinical decision-making.

  16. Infections Caused by Actinomyces neuii: A Case Series and Review of an Unusual Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelyas, Nathan; Gee, Susan; Nilsson, Barb; Bennett, Tracy; Rennie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Actinomyces neuii is a Gram-positive bacillus rarely implicated in human infections. However, its occurrence is being increasingly recognized with the use of improved identification systems. Objective. To analyse A. neuii infections in Alberta, Canada, and review the literature regarding this unusual pathogen. Methods. Cases of A. neuii were identified in 2013-2014 in Alberta. Samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. A predominant catalase positive Gram-positive coryneform bacillus with no branching was isolated in each case. Testing was initially done with API-CORYNE® (bioMérieux) and isolates were sent to the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health for further testing. Isolates' identities were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry microbial identification system (MALDI-TOF MS MIS; bioMérieux) and/or DNA sequencing. Results. Six cases of A. neuii infection were identified. All patients had soft tissue infections; typically, incision and drainage were done followed by a course of antibiotics. Agents used included cephalexin, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin. All had favourable outcomes. Conclusions. While A. neuii is infrequently recognized, it can cause a diverse array of infections. Increased use of MALDI-TOF MS MIS is leading to increased detection; thus, understanding the pathogenicity of this bacterium and its typical susceptibility profile will aid clinical decision-making. PMID:27366175

  17. Data supporting functional diversity of the marine bacterium Cobetia amphilecti KMM 296.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Larissa; Nedashkovskaya, Olga; Podvolotskaya, Anna; Slepchenko, Lubov; Golotin, Vasily; Belik, Alexey; Shevchenko, Ludmila; Son, Oksana; Rasskazov, Valery

    2016-09-01

    Data is presented in support of functionality of hyper-diverse protein families encoded by the Cobetia amphilecti KMM 296 (formerly Cobetia marina KMM 296) genome ("The genome of the marine bacterium Cobetia marina KMM 296 isolated from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Dunker, 1853)" [1]) providing its nutritional versatility, adaptability and biocontrol that could be the basis of the marine bacterium evolutionary and application potential. Presented data include the information of growth and biofilm-forming properties of the food-associated isolates of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Listeria, Salmonella and Staphylococcus under the conditions of their co-culturing with C. amphilecti KMM 296 to confirm its high inter-species communication and anti-microbial activity. Also included are the experiments on the crude petroleum consumption by C. amphilecti KMM 296 as the sole source of carbon in the presence of sulfate or nitrate to ensure its bioremediation capacity. The multifunctional C. amphilecti KMM 296 genome is a promising source for the beneficial psychrophilic enzymes and essential secondary metabolites. PMID:27508225

  18. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Nanakorn, W.; Yu, L. D.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2014-05-01

    This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  19. Bacillus thuringiensis: legado para el siglo XXI Bacillus thuringiensis: the legacy to the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orduz S.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Los insecticidas basados en la bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis son el principal renglón productivo del mercado mundial de biopesticidas. La investigación dedicada a esta área, promovida por la urgente necesidad de resolver problemas agrícolas y de salud pública, ha dado lugar a un conocimiento exhaustivo de su biología. La diversidad de cepas diferentes de B. thuringiensis ha permitido desarrollar productos principalmente, pero no exclusivamente, para el control de insectos. Con los nuevos desarrollos de la biología molecular, se ha logrado comprender su mecanismo de acción a nivel molecular y también se ha logrado extender sus capacidades entomopatógenas. Como producto de su amplio uso en muchos países, se han presentado casos de resistencia en poblaciones de insectos susceptibles. Con esta revisión se pretende elaborar un contexto teórico del estado actual de la investigación sobre B. thuringiensis, describiendo brevemente el conocimiento sobre esta bacteria, haciendo hincapié en los fenómenos biológicos que subyacen su actividad tóxica y la problemática que se avecina en el próximo siglo con los fenómenos de resistencia cada vez más comunes, todo esto analizado desde una perspectiva biotecnológica.

    Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticides are the main production line of the biopesticides world market. The research devoted to this area, promoted by the necessity to solve problems in agriculture and public health has resulted in an exhaustive knowledge of its biology. The diversity of the B. thuringiensis strains has permitted to develop several products mainly, but not exclusively, for insect control. With the new developments in the field of molecular biology, it has been possible to understand the molecular basis of the mode of action and to increase the range of activity as well. As a result

  20. A dye-decolorizing peroxidase from Bacillus subtilis exhibiting substrate-dependent optimum temperature for dyes and β-ether lignin dimer

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoungseon Min; Gyeongtaek Gong; Han Min Woo; Yunje Kim; Youngsoon Um

    2015-01-01

    In the biorefinery using lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock, pretreatment to breakdown or loosen lignin is important step and various approaches have been conducted. For biological pretreatment, we screened Bacillus subtilis KCTC2023 as a potential lignin-degrading bacterium based on veratryl alcohol (VA) oxidation test and the putative heme-containing dye-decolorizing peroxidase was found in the genome of B. subtilis KCTC2023. The peroxidase from B. subtilis KCTC2023 (BsDyP) was capable of...

  1. Use of next generation sequencing data to develop a qPCR method for specific detection of EU-unauthorized genetically modified Bacillus subtilis overproducing riboflavin

    OpenAIRE

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.; Delvoye, Maud; Gau, Céline; Philipp, Patrick; Roosens, Nancy H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, the presence of an unauthorized genetically modified (GM) Bacillus subtilis bacterium overproducing vitamin B2 in a feed additive was notified by the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). This has demonstrated that a contamination by a GM micro-organism (GMM) may occur in feed additives and has confronted for the first time,the enforcement laboratories with this type of RASFF. As no sequence information of this GMM nor any specific detection or identification meth...

  2. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joseph P.; Meyer, Kathryn M.; Kelly, Thomas J.; Choi, Young W.; Rogers, James V.; Riggs, Karen B.; Willenberg, Zachary J.

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially. PMID:26372011

  3. Aerobic Biodegradation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons by Bacillus circulans WZ-12 CCTCC M 207006 under Saline Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jianming; CAI Wenji; ZHAO Shiliang; WANG Yan; CHEN Jianmeng

    2013-01-01

    A novel saline-tolerant bacterium Bacillus circulans WZ-12 was evaluated for its potential to degrade four chlorinated hydrocarbons under saline conditions.CH2Cl2 was effectively degraded by Bacillus circulans WZ-12 cells in the medium containing NaC1 concentrations ranging from 5 g·L-1 to 10 g·L-1,and the maximum degradation efficiency (85%) was achieved at NaCl concentration of 10 g·L-.Similarly,Bacillus circulans WZ-12was able to degrade CH2BtCl,C2H4Cl2,and C2H2Cl2 in the presence of 10 g NaCl per liter within 24 h.Cells of Bacillus circulans WZ-12 grown in minimal salt medium contained low levels of glycine betaine (GB),but GB levels were 3-to 5-fold higher in cells grown in media with high salt.Kinetic analysis revealed that biodegradation of the four chlorinated hydrocarbons was concentration dependent and a linear inverse correlation (R2=0.85-0.94)was observed between the rate of biodegradation (Ⅴ) and salt concentration from 5 g·L-1 to 60 g·L-1.The growing cells (in minimal salt medium) degraded approximately 50% of the CH2Cl2 within 24 h,whereas the resting cells (in physiological saline) degraded only 25% of the CH2Cl2 within 24 h and were inactive after 36 h cultivation.Biodegradation could be repeatedly performed for more than 192 h with more than 50% removal efficiency.Bacillus circulans WZ-12 grows well in an aqueous/oil system,hence,it is effective for the treatment of industrial effluents that contain chlorinated hydrocarbons with high salt concentrations.

  4. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  5. Screening of Bacillus Species with Potentials of Antibiotics Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Adamu KUTA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen soil samples were collected from different refuse dump sites in Minna, the capital Niger State, and analysed for the presence of Bacillus species. Physical-chemical analysis of the soil samples revealed the followings: PH value 6.89-8.47; moisture content 1.58 – 21.21% and temperature 27-28ºC. Using both pour plate and streak method of inoculation, total bacterial count in the soil samples ranged from 3.8×104 cfu/g 16.0×104 cfu/g. The identified Bacillus species included: Bacillus cereus (30.8%, Bacillus brevis (1.9% Bacillus polymyxa (3.8%, Bacillus lichenifomis (13.5%, Bacillus spherericus (7.7%, Bacillus mycoides (13.5%, Bacillus pumilus (7.7%, Bacillus subtilis (3.8%, Bacillus alvei (1.9%, Bacillus laterosporous (1.9%, Bacillus firmus (9.6% and Bacillus circulars (3.8%. Antibiotic production tests indicated that nine Bacillus species out of twelve isolated in this study could be used to produce antibiotics that had effect on the test organisms. However, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus laterosporous had little or no effect on the tested organisms. This study suggests that some Bacillus species have potential to produce high quality antibiotics that can be use to control microbial growth in future.

  6. Expression of mosquito active toxin genes by a Colombian native strain of the gram-negative bacterium Asticcacaulis excentricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magally Romero

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito control with biological insecticides, such as Bacillus sp. toxins, has been used widely in many countries. However, rapid sedimentation away from the mosquito larvae feeding zone causes a low residual effect. In order to overcome this problem, it has been proposed to clone the Bacillus toxin genes in aquatic bacteria which are able to live in the upper part of the water column. Two strains of Asticcacaulis excentricus were chosen to introduce the B. sphaericus binary toxin gene and B. thuringiensis subsp. medellin cry11Bb gene cloned in suitable vectors. In feeding experiments with these aquatic bacteria, it was shown that Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles albimanus larvae were able to survive on a diet based on this wild bacterium. A. excentricus recombinant strains were able to express both genes, but the recombinant strain expressing the B. sphaericus binary toxin was toxic to mosquito larvae. Crude protease A. excentricus extracts did not degrade the Cry11Bb toxin. The flotability studies indicated that the recombinant A. excentricus strains remained in the upper part of the water column longer than the wild type Bacillus strains.

  7. Identification and Properties of Amylase-producing Bacillus Isolated from Songhe Distiller's Yeast%宋河酒曲中产淀粉酶芽孢菌的分离鉴定及产酶特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯小歌; 王俊英; 张杰; 李学思; 李绍亮; 胡炳义

    2012-01-01

    为了有效控制宋河酒曲的制曲过程和发酵进程,对宋河酒曲中产淀粉酶芽孢菌进行了分离鉴定并研究筛选菌株的产淀粉酶特性.结果表明:从宋河酒曲中共分离到12株产淀粉酶芽孢菌,均属革兰氏阳性杆状菌,初步鉴定归为1个属5个种,即芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、坚硬芽孢杆菌(Bacillus firmus)、枯草芽孢杆菌( Bacillus subtilis)、地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheni formis)、凝结芽孢杆菌(Bacillus coagulans)、巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus megaterium),其中,坚硬芽孢杆菌是宋河大曲产淀粉酶芽孢菌的数量优势菌群,获得1株地衣芽孢杆菌SQ2为中温型高产淀粉酶菌株,其液态发酵产酶特性为37℃培养,前24 h产酶较弱,此后,酶活力迅速上升,72 h达到最大值为89 μg/(mL·min),产酶旺盛期发生在菌体成熟期和衰亡初期,产酶过程pH值先稍偏酸性后接近中性.%Amylase-producing bacilli isolated from Songhe Distiller's yeast were identified and their properties were studied to effectively control the starter-making process and fermentation process. The results showed that 12 bacillus strains which could produce amylase were isolated and identified as Bacillus firmus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus megaterium , which belonged to genus of Bacillus. The B. firmus was the dominant amylase-producing bacillus in Songhe Daqu. Strain SQ2 was obtained as a high producing-amylase bacillus by determining transparent circle, its properties of producing amylase brothing under 37℃ were showed as follows: amylase-producing activity kept minimum in first fermenting 24 hours, gradually raised after 24 hours, reached primary stabilizing value to 72 hours, and decreased gently after fermenting 72 hours, the maximum value of amylase activity could reach 89 μg/(mL · min), the maximum amylase production occurred at the stage of strain maturity and decline growth. The pH value kept slightly acid

  8. The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid capsule surrogate of the Bacillus anthracis capsule induces nitric oxide production via the platelet activating factor receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Ri; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Ok-Kyu; Chun, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Jungchan; Rhie, Gi-Eun

    2015-12-01

    The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule, a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, confers protection of the bacillus from phagocytosis and allows its unimpeded growth in the host. PGA capsules released from B. anthracis are associated with lethal toxin in the blood of experimentally infected animals and enhance the cytotoxic effect of lethal toxin on macrophages. In addition, PGA capsule itself activates macrophages and dendritic cells to produce proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-1β, indicating multiple roles of PGA capsule in anthrax pathogenesis. Here we report that PGA capsule of Bacillus licheniformis, a surrogate of B. anthracis capsule, induces production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. NO production was induced by PGA in a dose-dependent manner and was markedly reduced by inhibitors of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), suggesting iNOS-dependent production of NO. Induction of NO production by PGA was not observed in macrophages from TLR2-deficient mice and was also substantially inhibited in RAW264.7 cells by pretreatment of TLR2 blocking antibody. Subsequently, the downstream signaling events such as ERK, JNK and p38 of MAPK pathways as well as NF-κB activation were required for PGA-induced NO production. In addition, the induced NO production was significantly suppressed by treatment with antagonists of platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR) or PAFR siRNA, and mediated through PAFR/Jak2/STAT-1 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that PGA capsule induces NO production in macrophages by triggering both TLR2 and PAFR signaling pathways which lead to activation of NF-kB and STAT-1, respectively. PMID:26350415

  9. The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid capsule surrogate of the Bacillus anthracis capsule induces nitric oxide production via the platelet activating factor receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Ri; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Ok-Kyu; Chun, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Jungchan; Rhie, Gi-Eun

    2015-12-01

    The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule, a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, confers protection of the bacillus from phagocytosis and allows its unimpeded growth in the host. PGA capsules released from B. anthracis are associated with lethal toxin in the blood of experimentally infected animals and enhance the cytotoxic effect of lethal toxin on macrophages. In addition, PGA capsule itself activates macrophages and dendritic cells to produce proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-1β, indicating multiple roles of PGA capsule in anthrax pathogenesis. Here we report that PGA capsule of Bacillus licheniformis, a surrogate of B. anthracis capsule, induces production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. NO production was induced by PGA in a dose-dependent manner and was markedly reduced by inhibitors of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), suggesting iNOS-dependent production of NO. Induction of NO production by PGA was not observed in macrophages from TLR2-deficient mice and was also substantially inhibited in RAW264.7 cells by pretreatment of TLR2 blocking antibody. Subsequently, the downstream signaling events such as ERK, JNK and p38 of MAPK pathways as well as NF-κB activation were required for PGA-induced NO production. In addition, the induced NO production was significantly suppressed by treatment with antagonists of platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR) or PAFR siRNA, and mediated through PAFR/Jak2/STAT-1 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that PGA capsule induces NO production in macrophages by triggering both TLR2 and PAFR signaling pathways which lead to activation of NF-kB and STAT-1, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of flocculating performance of a thermostable bioflocculant produced by marine Bacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okoli, Arinze S; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the bioflocculant (named MBF-W7) production potential of a bacterial isolate obtained from Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acids gene sequence analysis showed 98% sequence similarity to Bacillus licheniformis strain W7. Optimum culture conditions for MBF-W7 production include 5% (v/v) inoculum size, maltose and NH4NO3 as carbon and nitrogen sources of choice, medium pH of 6 as the initial pH of the growth medium. Under these optimal conditions, maximum flocculating activity of 94.9% was attained after 72 h of cultivation. Chemical composition analyses showed that the purified MBF-W7 was a glycoprotein which was predominantly composed of polysaccharides 73.7% (w/w) and protein 6.2% (w/w). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups as the main functional groups identified in the bioflocculant molecules. Thermogravimetric analyses showed the thermal decomposition profile of MBF-W7. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that bridging played an important role in flocculation. MBF-W7 exhibited excellent flocculating activity for kaolin clay suspension at 0.2 mg/ml over a wide pH range of 3-11; with the maximal flocculation rate of 85.8% observed at pH 3 in the presence of Mn(2+). It maintained and retained high flocculating activity of over 70% after heating at 100°C for 60 min. MBF-W7 showed good turbidity removal potential (86.9%) and chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency (75.3%) in Tyume River. The high flocculating rate of MBF-W7 makes it an attractive candidate to replace chemical flocculants utilized in water treatment. PMID:26797258

  11. A Newly Isolated Thermostable Lipase from Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Salleh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A thermophilic lipolytic bacterium identified as Bacillus sp. L2 via 16S rDNA was previously isolated from a hot spring in Perak, Malaysia. Bacillus sp. L2 was confirmed to be in Group 5 of bacterial classification, a phylogenically and phenotypically coherent group of thermophilic bacilli displaying very high similarity among their 16S rRNA sequences (98.5–99.2%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR cloning of L2 lipase gene was conducted by using five different primers. Sequence analysis of the L2 lipase gene revealed an open reading frame (ORF of 1251 bp that codes for 417 amino acids. The signal peptides consist of 28 amino acids. The mature protein is made of 388 amino acid residues. Recombinant lipase was successfully overexpressed with a 178-fold increase in activity compared to crude native L2 lipase. The recombinant L2 lipase (43.2 kDa was purified to homogeneity in a single chromatography step. The purified lipase was found to be reactive at a temperature range of 55–80 °C and at a pH of 6–10. The L2 lipase had a melting temperature (Tm of 59.04 °C when analyzed by circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy studies. The optimum activity was found to be at 70 °C and pH 9. Lipase L2 was strongly inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (100%, whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, pepstatin-A, 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol (DTT inhibited the enzyme by over 40%. The CD spectra of secondary structure analysis showed that the L2 lipase structure contained 38.6% α-helices, 2.2% ß-strands, 23.6% turns and 35.6% random conformations.

  12. Identification and characterization of a novel marine Bacillus cereus for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poopathi, Subbiah; Mani, C; Thirugnanasambantham, K; Praba, V Lakshmi; Ahangar, Niyaz Ahmad; Balagangadharan, K

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria to control mosquitoes are a promising environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides. In the present study, a novel mosquitocidal bacterium was isolated from marine soil collected from east coastal areas at Pondicherry (India). 16S rRNA gene sequence alignment depicted that this isolate belonged to Bacillus cereus VCRC-B520 (NCBI: KC-119192). Biochemical studies on bacterial growth, biomass, and toxin production have revealed that this strain could possibly be helpful in the production of a biopesticide in mosquito control. Toxicity assay with B. cereus against mosquito larvae has shown that the filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, is more susceptible than the other two species (Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti). The LC50 and LC90 values for C. quinquefasciatus were 0.30 and 2.21 mg/L, respectively. No effect of B. cereus was found on nontargeted organisms. SDS-PAGE analysis and protein purification result from the cell mass of B. cereus have shown that a well-perceptible polypeptide was the dependable factor (85 kDa) for mosquitocidal action. Protein characterization (M/S MALDI-TOF) has shown that it is an endotoxin-specific insecticidal protein, namely "Cry4Aa". Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequence from this marine isolate have revealed the presence of homology among closely related Bacillus strains. Therefore, considerable interest has been shown on the identification of a potential mosquitocidal bacterium from marine environment (B. cereus), which was not reported earlier in view of the current scenario of the rapid development of resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in mosquito vector control program.

  13. High biodegradation levels of 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol by Bacillus sp. isolated from cellulose pulp mill effluent Altos níveis de biodegradação do 4,5,6-tricloroguaiacol por Bacillus sp. isolado de efluente de indústria de polpa de celulose

    OpenAIRE

    E.C. Tondo; C.W.S. Andretta; C. F. V. SOUZA; A.L. Monteiro; Henriques, J. A. P.; M. A. Z. Ayub

    1998-01-01

    An aerobic Gram positive spore-forming bacterium was isolated from cellulose pulp mill effluent. This microorganism, identified as Bacillus sp. and named IS13, was able to rapidly degrade the organic chlorinated compound 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol (4,5,6-TCG) from a culture containing 50 mg/l, which corresponds to about 3x104 times the concentration found in the original effluent. The biodegradation of this compound, usually found in cellulose pulp mill effluents, was evaluated by spectrophotome...

  14. Isolation of a Bacterium Strain Degraded Agar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One in 58 strains of bacteria isolated from the compost showed clear colonies after a few days of growth on the plates containing medium made of only agar and water.Water suspension contained only agar (2 and 8g·L -1 ) with two controls (normal saline,LB medium) was inoculated with the bacterium BR5-1 to see whether there was an increasement of the alive bacteria concentration after 48 h of the growth.The results showed that there was a significant rising of the alive bacteria concentration in the agar susp...

  15. Swimming Efficiency of Bacterium Escherichia Coli

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, S; Wu, X L; Yeung, C; Chattopadhyay, Suddhashil; Moldovan, Radu; Yeung, Chuck

    2005-01-01

    We use in vivo measurements of swimming bacteria in an optical trap to determine fundamental properties of bacterial propulsion. In particular, we determine the propulsion matrix, which relates the angular velocity of the flagellum to the torques and forces propelling the bacterium. From the propulsion matrix dynamical properties such as forces, torques, swimming speed and power can be obtained from measurements of the angular velocity of the motor. We find significant heterogeneities among different individuals even though all bacteria started from a single colony. The propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the propulsive power output to the rotary power input provided by the motors, is found to be 0.2%.

  16. Preparation and evaluation of Bacillus megaterium-alginate microcapsules for control of rice sheath blight disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwattanapatapee, R; Chumthong, A; Pengnoo, A; Kanjanamaneesathian, M

    2013-08-01

    Bacillus megaterium encapsulated in calcium alginate microcapsules was prepared and tested for its efficacy against sheath blight disease of rice. In laboratory conditions, the aqueous suspension (1:100, v/v in potato dextrose agar) of the bacterial microcapsules (10(10) spores/ml) inhibited mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani (>99 %) after the microcapsules were produced and stored for 12 months at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C). The survival of the bacterium in the microcapsules in response to ultraviolet (u.v.) irradiation and high temperature was investigated. The survivability of the bacterium in the encapsulated form was greater than that of the fresh cells when it was subjected to u.v. (20-W General electric u.v. lamp from a 25 cm distance for 48 h) and a high temperature treatment (80 °C for 48 h). Cells of the bacterium were detected by scanning electron microscope on both the leaf sheath and the leaf blade (in pot tests in a greenhouse) after spraying encapsulated product. The number of bacteria on the surface of both rice tissues (5 Log. number/g of plant) after spraying with encapsulated product was not significantly different from that after spraying with fresh cells onto the rice seedlings. Spraying the encapsulated B. megaterium on rice plants in the greenhouse was as effective as spraying a chemical fungicide for suppressing rice sheath blight disease. PMID:23508397

  17. Antifungal activity of Bacillus subtilis 355 against wood-surface contaminant fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feio, Sonia Savluchinske; Barbosa, Ana; Cabrita, Manuela; Nunes, Lina; Esteves, Alexandra; Roseiro, José Carlos; Curto, Maria João Marcelo

    2004-06-01

    A strain of Bacillus subtilis was examined for antifungal activity against phytopathogenic and wood-surface contaminant fungi. The bacterium was grown in five culture media with different incubation times in order to study cell development, sporulation, and the production of metabolites with antifungal activity. The anti-sapstain and anti-mould activity of the bacterium grown in yeast extract glucose broth (YGB) medium in wood was also evaluated. In YGB, the bacterium inhibited the growth of several fungi and displayed a broader spectrum of activity than in the other media tested. A relationship between bacterial spore production and the formation of metabolites with antifungal activity was detected. YGB medium displayed effective control in wood block tests. YGB medium was extracted with solvents of increasing polarity and the dry residues were applied to silicagel plates, resolved with the appropriate solvent and sprayed with different solutions, detecting the presence, of amines, and higher alcohols. The bioautographic method revealed the presence of at least two active compounds against the blue-stain fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. PMID:15197600

  18. A novel intracellular nitrogen-fixing symbiosis made by Ustilago maydis and Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Herrera, José; León-Ramírez, Claudia; Vera-Nuñez, Antonio; Sánchez-Arreguín, Alejandro; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Salgado-Lugo, Holjes; Sánchez-Segura, Lino; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José

    2015-08-01

    We observed that the maize pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis grew in nitrogen (N)-free media at a rate similar to that observed in media containing ammonium nitrate, suggesting that it was able to fix atmospheric N2 . Because only prokaryotic organisms have the capacity to reduce N2 , we entertained the possibility that U. maydis was associated with an intracellular bacterium. The presence of nitrogenase in the fungus was analyzed by acetylene reduction, and capacity to fix N2 by use of (15) N2 . Presence of an intracellular N2 -fixing bacterium was analyzed by PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA and nifH genes, and by microscopic observations. Nitrogenase activity and (15) N incorporation into the cells proved that U. maydis fixed N2 . Light and electron microscopy, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments revealed the presence of intracellular bacteria related to Bacillus pumilus, as evidenced by sequencing of the PCR-amplified fragments. These observations reveal for the first time the existence of an endosymbiotic N2 -fixing association involving a fungus and a bacterium.

  19. Decolorization of dyehouse effluent and biodegradation of Congo red by Bacillus thuringiensis RUN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukanni, Olumide David; Osuntoki, Akinniyi A; Awotula, Ayodeji Olushola; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Gbenle, George Olabode; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2013-06-28

    A dye-decolorizing bacterium was isolated from a soil sample and identified as Bacillus thuringiensis using 16S rRNA sequencing. The bacterium was able to decolorize three different textile dyes, namely, Reactive blue 13, Reactive red 58, and Reactive yellow 42, and a real dyehouse effluent up to 80-95% within 6 h. Some non-textile industrially important dyes were also decolorized to different extents. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of Congo red dye and its metabolites showed that the bacterium could degrade it by the asymmetric cleavage of the azo bonds to yield sodium (4- amino-3-diazenylnaphthalene-1-sulfonate) and phenylbenzene. Sodium (4-amino-3-diazenylnaphthalene-1-sulfonate) was further oxidized by the ortho-cleavage pathway to yield 2- (1-amino-2-diazenyl-2-formylvinyl) benzoic acid. There was induction of the activities of laccase and azoreductase during the decolorization of Congo red, which suggests their probable role in the biodegradation. B. thuringiensis was found to be versatile and could be used for industrial effluent biodegradation.

  20. Characterization of Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus marisflavi Recovered from Common Dentex (Dentex dentex Larviculture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. AKAYLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, thirty yellow-pigmented Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from natural intestine microflora and from sea water around the marine cage of a rearing tank of common dentex (Dentex dentex, in the Aegean Sea on the Turkish coast and were characterized. Eighteen isolates were assigned to the species Micrococcus luteus, the other twelve to the species Bacillus marisflavi. Eight representative strains, six from B. marisflavi and two from M. luteus, were chosen for further 16S rDNA analyses. A pathogenicity assay for the isolated bacterial strains was carried out in rainbow trout and it evidenced absence of pathogenicity in the tested strains. The isolated strains were tested for in vitro antagonistic activity against Listonella anguillarum, a pathogen bacterium diffused in Mediterranean aquaculture and affecting various fish species. The isolated bacterial strains showed antagonistic activity against the pathogenic bacterium, suggesting a possible role of isolates as probiotics. In this study, for the first time, bacterial strains of the species B. marisflavi, known as an environmental species, were recovered in the gut microbiota of a healthy fish. The use of the isolates characterized in this study, mainly the yellow-pigmented bacterium, is suggested as possible probiotics to improve fish health, along with alternative methods of maintaining a healthy environment.

  1. Genome characteristics of a novel phage from Bacillus thuringiensis showing high similarity with phage from Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Yuan

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is an important entomopathogenic bacterium belongs to the Bacillus cereus group, which also includes B. anthracis and B. cereus. Several genomes of phages originating from this group had been sequenced, but no genome of Siphoviridae phage from B. thuringiensis has been reported. We recently sequenced and analyzed the genome of a novel phage, BtCS33, from a B. thuringiensis strain, subsp. kurstaki CS33, and compared the gneome of this phage to other phages of the B. cereus group. BtCS33 was the first Siphoviridae phage among the sequenced B. thuringiensis phages. It produced small, turbid plaques on bacterial plates and had a narrow host range. BtCS33 possessed a linear, double-stranded DNA genome of 41,992 bp with 57 putative open reading frames (ORFs. It had a typical genome structure consisting of three modules: the "late" region, the "lysogeny-lysis" region and the "early" region. BtCS33 exhibited high similarity with several phages, B. cereus phage Wβ and some variants of Wβ, in genome organization and the amino acid sequences of structural proteins. There were two ORFs, ORF22 and ORF35, in the genome of BtCS33 that were also found in the genomes of B. cereus phage Wβ and may be involved in regulating sporulation of the host cell. Based on these observations and analysis of phylogenetic trees, we deduced that B. thuringiensis phage BtCS33 and B. cereus phage Wβ may have a common distant ancestor.

  2. Biodegradation of heavy oils by halophilic bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixia Hao; Anhuai Lu

    2009-01-01

    A halophilic bacterial strain TM-1 was isolated from the reservoir of the Shengli oil field in East China. Strain TM-1, which was found to be able to degrade crude oils, is a gram-positive non-motile bacterium with a coccus shape that can grow at temperatures of up to 58 ℃ and in 18% NaCl solution. Depending on the culture conditions, the organism may occur in tetrads. In addition, strain TM-1 pro-duced acid from glucose without gas formation and was catalase-negative. Furthermore, strain TM-I was found to be a facultative aer-obe capable of growth under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, it produced butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid-bis ester and dibutyl phthalate and could use different organic substrates. Laboratory studies indicated that strain TM-1 affected different heavy oils by degrading various components and by changing the chemical properties of the oils. In addition, growth of the bacterium in heavy oils resulted in the loss of aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes, and enrichment with light hydrocarbons and an overall redistribution of these hydrocarbons.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Commercial Textile Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Bacillus subtilis Strain C3 Isolated in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunadia, Khushbu; Nathani, Neelam M.; Kothari, Vishal; Kotadia, Rohit J.; Kothari, Charmy R.; Joshi, Anjali; Rank, Jalpa K.; Faldu, Priti R.; Shekar, M. Chandra; Viroja, Mitkumar J.; Patel, Priyank A.; Jadeja, Divyarajsinh; Reddy, Bhaskar; Pal Singh, Ravindra; Koringa, Prakash G.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis C3, a commercial textile dye-decolorizing and -degrading bacterium, was isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CEPT) of the Jetpur textile dyeing and printing industrial sector situated in the district of Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Here, we present the annotated 4.18-Mb draft genome sequence of B. subtilis C3, providing information about the metabolic pathways involved in decolorization and degradation of several commercial textile azo dyes. Thus, we confirm B. subtilis C3 as a potential candidate for bioremediation of textile effluents. PMID:26966205

  4. One-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for rapid determination of emetic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Paulina S; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Jankowska, Dominika; Mahillon, Jacques; Nowosad, Karol; Drewicka, Ewa; Zambrzycka, Monika; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus, the Gram-positive and spore-forming ubiquitous bacterium, may cause emesis as the result of food intoxication with cereulide, a heat-stable emetic toxin. Rapid determination of cereulide-positive B. cereus isolates is of highest importance due to consequences of this intoxication for human health and life. Here we present a 1-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for emetic B. cereus isolates, which allows rapid and efficient determination of their genomic relatedness and helps determining the source of intoxication in case of outbreaks caused by these bacilli.

  5. Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) Applied to Quantitative Proteomics of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soufi, Boumediene; Kumar, C.; Gnad, F.;

    2010-01-01

    We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to large-scale quantitative proteomics analyses of the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis in two physiological conditions: growth on succinate and growth under phosphate starvation. Using a B. subtilis strain auxotrophic...... of the most comprehensive quantitative proteomics studies in bacteria, covering more than 75% of the B. subtilis genes expressed in the log phase of growth. Furthermore, we detect and quantify dynamics of 35 Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation sites under growth on succinate, and 10 phosphorylation sites under...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Commercial Textile Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Bacillus subtilis Strain C3 Isolated in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunadia, Khushbu; Nathani, Neelam M; Kothari, Vishal; Kotadia, Rohit J; Kothari, Charmy R; Joshi, Anjali; Rank, Jalpa K; Faldu, Priti R; Shekar, M Chandra; Viroja, Mitkumar J; Patel, Priyank A; Jadeja, Divyarajsinh; Reddy, Bhaskar; Pal Singh, Ravindra; Koringa, Prakash G; Joshi, Chaitanya G; Kothari, Ramesh K

    2016-03-10

    Bacillus subtilis C3, a commercial textile dye-decolorizing and -degrading bacterium, was isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CEPT) of the Jetpur textile dyeing and printing industrial sector situated in the district of Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Here, we present the annotated 4.18-Mb draft genome sequence of B. subtilis C3, providing information about the metabolic pathways involved in decolorization and degradation of several commercial textile azo dyes. Thus, we confirm B. subtilis C3 as a potential candidate for bioremediation of textile effluents.

  7. Identification and evaluation of strain B37 of Bacillus subtilis antagonistic to sapstain fungi on poplar wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XiaoHua; Zhao, GuiHua; Li, DeWei; Li, ShunPeng; Hong, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Devaluation of poplar products by sapstain accounts for huge and unpredictable losses each year in China. We had isolated four poplar sapstain fungi, Ceratocystis adiposa Hz91, Lasiodiplodia theobromae YM0737, L. theobromae Fx46, and Fusarium sp. YM05, from five poplar varieties and 13 antagonistic bacteria from nine diverse varieties. After being experimented with agar plates, wood chips, and enzyme activities, strain B37 was identified as the best poplar sapstain biocontrol bacterium. The strain B37 was identified as Bacillus subtilis using sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, physiological biochemical, and morphological characteristics. PMID:25401124

  8. Identification and Evaluation of Strain B37 of Bacillus subtilis Antagonistic to Sapstain Fungi on Poplar Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoHua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Devaluation of poplar products by sapstain accounts for huge and unpredictable losses each year in China. We had isolated four poplar sapstain fungi, Ceratocystis adiposa Hz91, Lasiodiplodia theobromae YM0737, L. theobromae Fx46, and Fusarium sp. YM05, from five poplar varieties and 13 antagonistic bacteria from nine diverse varieties. After being experimented with agar plates, wood chips, and enzyme activities, strain B37 was identified as the best poplar sapstain biocontrol bacterium. The strain B37 was identified as Bacillus subtilis using sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, physiological biochemical, and morphological characteristics.

  9. Purification and Characterization of a Maltotetraose-Forming Alkaline (alpha)-Amylase from an Alkalophilic Bacillus Strain, GM8901

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, T U; Gu, B. G.; Jeong, J Y; Byun, S. M.; Shin, Y. C.

    1995-01-01

    An alkalophilic bacterium, Bacillus sp. strain GM8901, grown at pH 10.5 and 50(deg)C, produced five alkaline amylases in culture broth. At an early stage of the bacterial growth, amylase I (Amyl I) was produced initially and then, as cultivation progressed, four alkaline amylases, Amyl II, Amyl III, Amyl IV, and Amyl V, were produced from proteolytic degradation of Amyl I. A serine protease present in the culture medium was believed to be involved in Amyl I degradation. We purified Amyl I fro...

  10. Polysaccharide Lyase: Molecular Cloning, Sequencing, and Overexpression of the Xanthan Lyase Gene of Bacillus sp. Strain GL1

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Wataru; Miki, Hikaru; Tsuchiya, Noriaki; Nankai, Hirokazu; Murata, Kousaku

    2001-01-01

    When grown on xanthan as a carbon source, the bacterium Bacillus sp. strain GL1 produces extracellular xanthan lyase (75 kDa), catalyzing the first step of xanthan depolymerization (H. Nankai, W. Hashimoto, H. Miki, S. Kawai, and K. Murata, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:2520–2526, 1999). A gene for the lyase was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene contained an open reading frame consisting of 2,793 bp coding for a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 99,308. The poly...

  11. A biochemically active MCM-like helicase in Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Martin; Gulati, Gaurav; Shin, Jae-Ho; Opara, Rejoice; McSweeney, Elizabeth; Sekedat, Matt; Long, Stephen; Kelman, Zvi; Jeruzalmi, David

    2009-01-01

    The mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins serve as the replicative helicases in archaea and eukaryotes. Interestingly, an MCM homolog was identified, by BLAST analysis, within a phage integrated in the bacterium Bacillus cereus (Bc). BcMCM is only related to the AAA region of MCM-helicases; the typical amino-terminus is missing and is replaced by a segment with weak homology to primases. We show that BcMCM displays 3′→5′ helicase and ssDNA-stimulated ATPase activity, properties that arise from its conserved AAA domain. Isolated BcMCM is a monomer in solution but likely forms the functional oligomer in vivo. We found that the BcMCM amino-terminus can bind ssDNA and harbors a zinc atom, both hallmarks of the typical MCM amino-terminus. No BcMCM-catalyzed primase activity could be detected. We propose that the divergent amino-terminus of BcMCM is a paralog of the corresponding region of MCM-helicases. A divergent amino terminus makes BcMCM a useful model for typical MCM-helicases since it accomplishes the same function using an apparently unrelated structure. PMID:19474351

  12. Metabolic engineering of Bacillus subtilis for terpenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zheng; Xue, Dan; Abdallah, Ingy I; Dijkshoorn, Linda; Setroikromo, Rita; Lv, Guiyuan; Quax, Wim J

    2015-11-01

    Terpenoids are the largest group of small-molecule natural products, with more than 60,000 compounds made from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). As the most diverse group of small-molecule natural products, terpenoids play an important role in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. For decades, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) were extensively studied to biosynthesize terpenoids, because they are both fully amenable to genetic modifications and have vast molecular resources. On the other hand, our literature survey (20 years) revealed that terpenoids are naturally more widespread in Bacillales. In the mid-1990s, an inherent methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway was discovered in Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). Since B. subtilis is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) organism and has long been used for the industrial production of proteins, attempts to biosynthesize terpenoids in this bacterium have aroused much interest in the scientific community. This review discusses metabolic engineering of B. subtilis for terpenoid production, and encountered challenges will be discussed. We will summarize some major advances and outline future directions for exploiting the potential of B. subtilis as a desired "cell factory" to produce terpenoids.

  13. Genetic analysis of petrobactin transport in Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Paul E; Dixon, Shandee D; Janes, Brian K; Carr, Katherine A; Nusca, Tyler D; Anderson, Erica C; Keene, Sarra E; Sherman, David H; Hanna, Philip C

    2010-02-01

    Iron acquisition mechanisms play an important role in the pathogenesis of many infectious microbes. In Bacillus anthracis, the siderophore petrobactin is required for both growth in iron-depleted conditions and for full virulence of the bacterium. Here we demonstrate the roles of two putative petrobactin binding proteins FatB and FpuA (encoded by GBAA5330 and GBAA4766 respectively) in B. anthracis iron acquisition and pathogenesis. Markerless deletion mutants were created using allelic exchange. The Delta fatB strain was capable of wild-type levels of growth in iron-depleted conditions, indicating that FatB does not play an essential role in petrobactin uptake. In contrast, Delta fpuA bacteria exhibited a significant decrease in growth under low-iron conditions when compared with wild-type bacteria. This mutant could not be rescued by the addition of exogenous purified petrobactin. Further examination of this strain demonstrated increased levels of petrobactin accumulation in the culture supernatants, suggesting no defect in siderophore synthesis or export but, instead, an inability of Delta fpuA to import this siderophore. Delta fpuA spores were also significantly attenuated in a murine model of inhalational anthrax. These results provide the first genetic evidence demonstrating the role of FpuA in petrobactin uptake. PMID:20487286

  14. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective. PMID:25252644

  15. Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins: An Overview of Their Biocidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Berry, Colin; Murillo, Jesús; Caballero, Primitivo

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium that synthesizes parasporal crystalline inclusions containing Cry and Cyt proteins, some of which are toxic against a wide range of insect orders, nematodes and human-cancer cells. These toxins have been successfully used as bioinsecticides against caterpillars, beetles, and flies, including mosquitoes and blackflies. Bt also synthesizes insecticidal proteins during the vegetative growth phase, which are subsequently secreted into the growth medium. These proteins are commonly known as vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) and hold insecticidal activity against lepidopteran, coleopteran and some homopteran pests. A less well characterized secretory protein with no amino acid similarity to Vip proteins has shown insecticidal activity against coleopteran pests and is termed Sip (secreted insecticidal protein). Bin-like and ETX_MTX2-family proteins (Pfam PF03318), which share amino acid similarities with mosquitocidal binary (Bin) and Mtx2 toxins, respectively, from Lysinibacillus sphaericus, are also produced by some Bt strains. In addition, vast numbers of Bt isolates naturally present in the soil and the phylloplane also synthesize crystal proteins whose biological activity is still unknown. In this review, we provide an updated overview of the known active Bt toxins to date and discuss their activities. PMID:25514092

  16. Degradation of ochratoxin A by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ASAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaojiao; Wu, Zidan; Wu, Songling; Dai, Yanshi; Sun, Changpo

    2015-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is widely found in food and feed products as a mycotoxin contaminant. It is produced by Penicillium species and several Aspergillus species. The identification OTA detoxification microorganisms is believed to be the best approach for decontamination. In this study, we isolated ASAG1, a bacterium with the ability to degrade OTA effectively, from grain depot-stored maize. A 16S rDNA sequencing approach was used to identify this strain as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ASAG1. The degradation of OTA was detected in both medium and cell-free extracts after incubation with a culture of B. amyloliquefaciens ASAG1 cells. Subsequently, a hydrolysed enzyme (carboxypeptidase) related to the enzymatic conversion of OTA was cloned from the B. amyloliquefaciens ASAG1 genome. Using the Escherichia coli Expression System, we successfully expressed and purified this carboxypeptidase. When this enzyme was incubated with the engineered recombinant E. coli cells, the concentration of OTA was dramatically degraded. Our data therefore indicate that the carboxypeptidase produced by B. amyloliquefaciens ASAG1 is likely responsible for the biodegradation of OTA.

  17. Scalable purification of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, William; Zhang, Mei; Mon, Sandii; Sampey, Darryl; Zukauskas, David; Kassebaum, Corby; Zmuda, Jonathan F; Tsai, Amos; Laird, Michael W

    2006-01-01

    The anthrax toxin consists of three proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor that are produced by the Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Current vaccines against anthrax use PA as their primary component. In this study, we developed a scalable process to produce and purify multi-gram quantities of highly pure, recombinant PA (rPA) from Escherichia coli. The rPA protein was produced in a 50-L fermentor and purified to >99% purity using anion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The final yield of purified rPA from medium cell density fermentations resulted in approximately 2.7 g of rPA per kg of cell paste (approximately 270 mg/L) of highly pure, biologically active rPA protein. The results presented here exhibit the ability to generate multi-gram quantities of rPA from E. coli that may be used for the development of new anthrax vaccines and anthrax therapeutics. PMID:15935696

  18. A part toolbox to tune genetic expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiziou, Sarah; Sauveplane, Vincent; Chang, Hung-Ju; Clerté, Caroline; Declerck, Nathalie; Jules, Matthieu; Bonnet, Jerome

    2016-09-01

    Libraries of well-characterised components regulating gene expression levels are essential to many synthetic biology applications. While widely available for the Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli, such libraries are lacking for the Gram-positive model Bacillus subtilis, a key organism for basic research and biotechnological applications. Here, we engineered a genetic toolbox comprising libraries of promoters, Ribosome Binding Sites (RBS), and protein degradation tags to precisely tune gene expression in B. subtilis We first designed a modular Expression Operating Unit (EOU) facilitating parts assembly and modifications and providing a standard genetic context for gene circuits implementation. We then selected native, constitutive promoters of B. subtilis and efficient RBS sequences from which we engineered three promoters and three RBS sequence libraries exhibiting ∼14 000-fold dynamic range in gene expression levels. We also designed a collection of SsrA proteolysis tags of variable strength. Finally, by using fluorescence fluctuation methods coupled with two-photon microscopy, we quantified the absolute concentration of GFP in a subset of strains from the library. Our complete promoters and RBS sequences library comprising over 135 constructs enables tuning of GFP concentration over five orders of magnitude, from 0.05 to 700 μM. This toolbox of regulatory components will support many research and engineering applications in B. subtilis. PMID:27402159

  19. Degradation of ochratoxin A by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ASAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaojiao; Wu, Zidan; Wu, Songling; Dai, Yanshi; Sun, Changpo

    2015-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is widely found in food and feed products as a mycotoxin contaminant. It is produced by Penicillium species and several Aspergillus species. The identification OTA detoxification microorganisms is believed to be the best approach for decontamination. In this study, we isolated ASAG1, a bacterium with the ability to degrade OTA effectively, from grain depot-stored maize. A 16S rDNA sequencing approach was used to identify this strain as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ASAG1. The degradation of OTA was detected in both medium and cell-free extracts after incubation with a culture of B. amyloliquefaciens ASAG1 cells. Subsequently, a hydrolysed enzyme (carboxypeptidase) related to the enzymatic conversion of OTA was cloned from the B. amyloliquefaciens ASAG1 genome. Using the Escherichia coli Expression System, we successfully expressed and purified this carboxypeptidase. When this enzyme was incubated with the engineered recombinant E. coli cells, the concentration of OTA was dramatically degraded. Our data therefore indicate that the carboxypeptidase produced by B. amyloliquefaciens ASAG1 is likely responsible for the biodegradation of OTA. PMID:25517039

  20. Biocontrol efficacy and plant growth promoting activity of Bacillus altitudinis isolated from Darjeeling hills, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunar, Kiran; Dey, Pannalal; Chakraborty, Usha; Chakraborty, Bishwanath

    2015-01-01

    A total of 18 bacterial isolates were obtained from the rhizosphere of Sechium edule growing in the lower foothills of Darjeeling, India. The bacterial isolates were tested for PGPR traits in vitro such as phosphate solubilization, HCN, siderophore, IAA, chitinase, protease production as well as inhibition of pthytopathogens. Of all the bacterial isolates, one bacterium designated as BRHS/S-73 was found to possess all the tested characters which was identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Bacillus altitudinis and was selected for in vivo studies. A significant improvement in growth measured in terms of increase in root length, shoot length, and increase in root and shoot biomass was observed when seeds of Vigna radiata, Cicer arietinum, and Glycine max were bacterized prior to sowing in field condition. Besides, the bacterium could also solubilize soil phosphate. Apart form growth promotion, root rot disease of Vigna radiata caused by Thanatephorus cucumeris was also significantly reduced by 74% when the bacterium was applied to the rhizosphere prior to pathogen challenge. The biocontrol efficacy of the bacterium was found to be 66.6% even after 30 days of pathogen inoculation. Activities of key defense related enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, β-1,3-glucanase, and chitinase in both roots and leaves of treated plants were also enhanced. Results clearly suggest that B. altitudinis (BRHS/S-73) is a potential PGPR which can be used as efficient microorganism for enhancement of plant growth and suppression of fungal disease. PMID:23996212

  1. Diffusion of magnetotactic bacterium in rotating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebers, A., E-mail: aceb@tesla.sal.l [Department of Physics, University of Latvia, Zellu 8, Ri-bar ga, LV-1002 (Latvia)

    2011-02-15

    Swimming trajectory of a magnetotactic bacterium in a rotating magnetic field is a circle. Random reversals of the direction of the bacterium motion induces a random walk of the curvature center of the trajectory. In assumption of the distribution of the switching events according to the Poisson process the diffusion coefficient is calculated in dependence on the frequency of the rotating field and the characteristic time between the switching events. It is confirmed by the numerical simulation of the random walk of the bacterium in the rotating magnetic field. - Research highlights: Random switching of the flagella leads to diffusion of a bacterium in the field. Mean square displacement of the curvature center is proportional to time. Diffusion coefficient depends on the period of a rotating field. At zero frequency diffusion coefficient is the same as for a tumbling bacterium.

  2. The effects of mixture commercial live bakers’ yeast and probiotic bacillus on growth and feeding performance and survival rate of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix larvae via bioencapsulated Artemia urmiana nauplii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Adineh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844 larvae is an important species forfreshwater aquaculture. This study evaluated the effects of feeding a blend of probiotic bacilli bacteria(B. polymixa, B. licheniformis, B. circulans and baker´s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth and feeding parameters and survival rate of Silver carp larvae. Artemia urmiana (Gǘnther, 1899 nauplii is an important live food that was used as a vector to carry probiotic bacillus to digestive tract of silver carp larvae. The fish larvae were fed at a level of 10 percent body weight at 4 times a day for 30 days. Fish larvae in experimental treatments were fed A. urmiana nauplii that were enriched by blend of 50 percent of Bacillus spp. with concentrations of 1×105, 2×105, 3×105 and 4×105 CFU mL-1 and 50 percent of baker´s yeast with concentrations of 1×105, 2×105, 3×105 and 4×105 cellsmL-1 (T1, T2, T3, T4, respectively and were compared to fish larvae fed control diets of unbioencapsulated A. urmiananauplii. The experiment indicated that feeding and growth parameters in fish fed experimental treatments were significantly higher than fish fed control diets (P<0.05 but survival rate did not significantly differ. Overall, the best group was fed the highest level of yeast and probiotic.

  3. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus Growth and Toxin Production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 in Fermented Soybean Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Choi, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that has been isolated from contaminated fermented soybean food products and from the environment. B. cereus produces diarrheal and emetic toxins and has caused many outbreaks of foodborne diseases. In this study, we investigated whether B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7, isolated from rice doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste), a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, shows antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and regulates its toxin gene expression. B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus and inhibited the expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM). We also found that addition of water extracts of soybean and buckwheat soksungjang (Korean fermented soybean paste made in a short time) fermented with B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 significantly reduced the growth and toxin expression of B. cereus. These results indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 could be used to control B. cereus growth and toxin production in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide a basis for the development of candidate biological control agents against B. cereus to improve the safety of fermented soybean food products.

  4. Cyclic Lipopeptide Biosynthetic Genes and Products, and Inhibitory Activity of Plant-Associated Bacillus against Phytopathogenic Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mora

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity against bacterial plant pathogens and its relationships with the presence of the cyclic lipopeptide (cLP biosynthetic genes ituC (iturin, bmyB (bacillomycin, fenD (fengycin and srfAA (surfactin, and their corresponding antimicrobial peptide products have been studied in a collection of 64 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from plant environments. The most frequent antimicrobial peptide (AMP genes were bmyB, srfAA and fenD (34-50% of isolates. Most isolates (98.4% produced surfactin isoforms, 90.6% iturins and 79.7% fengycins. The antibacterial activity was very frequent and generally intense among the collection of strains because 75% of the isolates were active against at least 6 of the 8 bacterial plant pathogens tested. Hierarchical and correspondence analysis confirmed the presence of two clearly differentiated groups. One group consisted of Bacillus strains that showed a strong antibacterial activity, presented several cLPs genes and produced several isoforms of cLPs simultaneously, mainly composed of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, although the last one was exclusive to this group. Another group was characterized by strains with very low or none antibacterial activity, that showed one or none of the cLP genes and produced a few or none of the corresponding cLPs, and was the most heterogenous group including B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, although the last two were exclusive to this group. This work demonstrated that the antagonistic capacity of plant-associated Bacillus against plant pathogenic bacteria is related to the presence of cLP genes and to the production of the corresponding cLPs, and it is mainly associated to the species B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. Our findings would help to increase the yield and efficiency of screening methods to obtain candidate strains to biocontrol agents with a mechanism of action relaying on the

  5. Cyclic Lipopeptide Biosynthetic Genes and Products, and Inhibitory Activity of Plant-Associated Bacillus against Phytopathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Isabel; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Montesinos, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity against bacterial plant pathogens and its relationships with the presence of the cyclic lipopeptide (cLP) biosynthetic genes ituC (iturin), bmyB (bacillomycin), fenD (fengycin) and srfAA (surfactin), and their corresponding antimicrobial peptide products have been studied in a collection of 64 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from plant environments. The most frequent antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes were bmyB, srfAA and fenD (34-50% of isolates). Most isolates (98.4%) produced surfactin isoforms, 90.6% iturins and 79.7% fengycins. The antibacterial activity was very frequent and generally intense among the collection of strains because 75% of the isolates were active against at least 6 of the 8 bacterial plant pathogens tested. Hierarchical and correspondence analysis confirmed the presence of two clearly differentiated groups. One group consisted of Bacillus strains that showed a strong antibacterial activity, presented several cLPs genes and produced several isoforms of cLPs simultaneously, mainly composed of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, although the last one was exclusive to this group. Another group was characterized by strains with very low or none antibacterial activity, that showed one or none of the cLP genes and produced a few or none of the corresponding cLPs, and was the most heterogenous group including B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, although the last two were exclusive to this group. This work demonstrated that the antagonistic capacity of plant-associated Bacillus against plant pathogenic bacteria is related to the presence of cLP genes and to the production of the corresponding cLPs, and it is mainly associated to the species B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. Our findings would help to increase the yield and efficiency of screening methods to obtain candidate strains to biocontrol agents with a mechanism of action relaying on the production of

  6. The chemical formula of a magnetotactic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, Mohit; Das, Sayoni; Mishra, Prashant; Mittal, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Elucidation of the chemical logic of life is one of the grand challenges in biology, and essential to the progress of the upcoming field of synthetic biology. Treatment of microbial cells explicitly as a "chemical" species in controlled reaction (growth) environments has allowed fascinating discoveries of elemental formulae of a few species that have guided the modern views on compositions of a living cell. Application of mass and energy balances on living cells has proved to be useful in modeling of bioengineering systems, particularly in deriving optimized media compositions for growing microorganisms to maximize yields of desired bio-derived products by regulating intra-cellular metabolic networks. In this work, application of elemental mass balance during growth of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in bioreactors has resulted in the discovery of the chemical formula of the magnetotactic bacterium. By developing a stoichiometric equation characterizing the formation of a magnetotactic bacterial cell, coupled with rigorous experimental measurements and robust calculations, we report the elemental formula of M. gryphiswaldense cell as CH(2.06)O(0.13)N(0.28)Fe(1.74×10(-3)). Remarkably, we find that iron metabolism during growth of this magnetotactic bacterium is much more correlated individually with carbon and nitrogen, compared to carbon and nitrogen with each other, indicating that iron serves more as a nutrient during bacterial growth rather than just a mineral. Magnetotactic bacteria have not only invoked some interest in the field of astrobiology for the last two decades, but are also prokaryotes having the unique ability of synthesizing membrane bound intracellular organelles. Our findings on these unique prokaryotes are a strong addition to the limited repertoire, of elemental compositions of living cells, aimed at exploring the chemical logic of life.

  7. The Identification on a Strain of Bacillus Megaterium%一株巨大芽孢杆菌的分类鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹建立; 周娜

    2014-01-01

    基于16S rRNA序列分析和生理生化实验,对从伽师瓜病瓜上分离的一株细菌ZP-1进行了分类鉴定.结果表明,该分离菌株ZP-1与Bacillus megaterium strain PAB1C5(EU221343.1)具有99%的相似性.因此,初步推断ZP-1菌株隶属于巨大芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus magaterium).%Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis and physiological and biochemical experiment, it isolated and i-dentified a strain of ZP-1bacterium from Jiashi muskmelon. It showed that the isolate shared the 99% similarity with Bacillus megaterium strain PAB1C5 (EU221343.1). And it was deduced that the isolate belonged to Bacillus magaterium. So, it would provide the strain resource and the theoretical data for the application of Bacillus maga-terium.

  8. Triple fixation of Bacillus subtilis dormant spores.

    OpenAIRE

    Kozuka, S; Tochikubo, K

    1983-01-01

    A triple-fixation method with a sequential application of 5% glutaraldehyde, 1% osmium tetroxide, and 2% potassium permanganate gave superior preservation of the ultrastructure of Bacillus subtilis dormant spores with a thick spore coat.

  9. Narrow terahertz attenuation signatures in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Brown, Elliott R; Viveros, Leamon; Burris, Kellie P; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-10-01

    Terahertz absorption signatures from culture-cultivated Bacillus thuringiensis were measured with a THz photomixing spectrometer operating from 400 to 1200 GHz. We observe two distinct signatures centered at ∼955 and 1015 GHz, and attribute them to the optically coupled particle vibrational resonance (surface phonon-polariton) of Bacillus spores. This demonstrates the potential of the THz attenuation signatures as "fingerprints" for label-free biomolecular detection. PMID:23821459

  10. Narrow terahertz attenuation signatures in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Brown, Elliott R; Viveros, Leamon; Burris, Kellie P; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-10-01

    Terahertz absorption signatures from culture-cultivated Bacillus thuringiensis were measured with a THz photomixing spectrometer operating from 400 to 1200 GHz. We observe two distinct signatures centered at ∼955 and 1015 GHz, and attribute them to the optically coupled particle vibrational resonance (surface phonon-polariton) of Bacillus spores. This demonstrates the potential of the THz attenuation signatures as "fingerprints" for label-free biomolecular detection.

  11. Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., a thermophilic lipolytic bacterium isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Abu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78°C and contained iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0 as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5–99.2%. Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via genetic modification. Results Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1 lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70°C and was also stable up to 60°C without significant loss of crude enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis, strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T and Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T. Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors. Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T. Conclusion Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular

  12. The pore-forming protein Cry5B elicits the pathogenicity of Bacillus sp. against Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie F Kho

    Full Text Available The soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is a pathogen of insects and nematodes and is very closely related to, if not the same species as, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis. The defining characteristic of B. thuringiensis that sets it apart from B. cereus and B. anthracis is the production of crystal (Cry proteins, which are pore-forming toxins or pore-forming proteins (PFPs. Although it is known that PFPs are important virulence factors since their elimination results in reduced virulence of many pathogenic bacteria, the functions by which PFPs promote virulence are incompletely understood. Here we study the effect of Cry proteins in B. thuringiensis pathogenesis of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that whereas B. thuringiensis on its own is not able to infect C. elegans, the addition of the PFP Cry protein, Cry5B, results in a robust lethal infection that consumes the nematode host in 1-2 days, leading to a "Bob" or bag-of-bacteria phenotype. Unlike other infections of C. elegans characterized to date, the infection by B. thuringiensis shows dose-dependency based on bacterial inoculum size and based on PFP concentration. Although the infection process takes 1-2 days, the PFP-instigated infection process is irreversibly established within 15 minutes of initial exposure. Remarkably, treatment of C. elegans with Cry5B PFP is able to instigate many other Bacillus species, including B. anthracis and even "non-pathogenic" Bacillus subtilis, to become lethal and infectious agents to C. elegans. Co-culturing of Cry5B-expressing B. thuringiensis with B. anthracis can result in lethal infection of C. elegans by B. anthracis. Our data demonstrate that one potential property of PFPs is to sensitize the host to bacterial infection and further that C. elegans and probably other roundworms can be common hosts for B. cereus-group bacteria, findings with important ecological and research implications.

  13. EFFICACY OF EXTRACTS OF SIX MEDICINAL PLANTS OF INDIA AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Bhattacharjee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of the pathogenic multi-drug resistant bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus niacini, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Paenibacillus koreensis, Paenibacillus larvae larvae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas flourescens, Pseudomonas putida and Staphylocccus aureus was tested against aqueous, acetone and ethanol extracts of mature leaves of Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae and Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae, stems of Michelia champaca Linn. (Magnoliaceae and Musa paradisiaca Linn.(Musaceae, roots of Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae and Murraya koenigii Linn. (Rutaceae by agar well diffusion method. Gatifloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against all the reference bacteria. Though all the extracts were found effective, the ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition against the test microorganisms followed by acetone and aqueous extract. Bacillus niacini is the most resistant bacteria and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most sensitive bacteria against all the extracts used. MIC values of each bacterium were also determined

  14. Lifesaving liver transplantation for multi-organ failure caused by Bacillus cereus food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiedel, Eva; Rath, Peter-Michael; Steinmann, Jörg; Becker, Heinz; Dietrich, Rudolf; Paul, Andreas; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Dohna-Schwake, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming, gram-positive bacterium that causes food poisoning presenting with either emesis or diarrhea. Diarrhea is caused by proteinaceous enterotoxin complexes, mainly hemolysin BL, non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NHE), and cytotoxin K. In contrast, emesis is caused by the ingestion of the depsipeptide toxin cereulide, which is produced in B. cereus contaminated food, particularly in pasta or rice. In general, the illness is mild and self-limiting. However, due to cereulide intoxication, nine severe cases with rhabdomyolysis and/or liver failure, five of them lethal, are reported in literature. Here we report the first case of life-threatening liver failure and severe rhabdomyolysis in this context that could not be survived without emergency hepatectomy and consecutive liver transplantation.

  15. Clostridium and Bacillus Binary Enterotoxins: Bad for the Bowels, and Eukaryotic Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley G. Stiles

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some pathogenic spore-forming bacilli employ a binary protein mechanism for intoxicating the intestinal tracts of insects, animals, and humans. These Gram-positive bacteria and their toxins include Clostridium botulinum (C2 toxin, Clostridium difficile (C. difficile toxin or CDT, Clostridium perfringens (ι-toxin and binary enterotoxin, or BEC, Clostridium spiroforme (C. spiroforme toxin or CST, as well as Bacillus cereus (vegetative insecticidal protein or VIP. These gut-acting proteins form an AB complex composed of ADP-ribosyl transferase (A and cell-binding (B components that intoxicate cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal trafficking. Once inside the cytosol, the A components inhibit normal cell functions by mono-ADP-ribosylation of globular actin, which induces cytoskeletal disarray and death. Important aspects of each bacterium and binary enterotoxin will be highlighted in this review, with particular focus upon the disease process involving the biochemistry and modes of action for each toxin.

  16. U.v.-induced and N-methyl-N'-nitrosoguanidine-induced mutagenesis in Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal and mutagenic effects of u.v. light and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on Bacillus thuringiensis were investigated. Lethality studies demonstrated that B. thuringiensis was relatively sensitive to these agents. This bacterium was mutated at the rifampicin resistance marker by u.v. light and to a lesser extent by the direct acting alkylating agent MNNG. One mutant selected for its greater sensitivity to u.v. light expressed a higher frequency of mutagenesis after u.v. light treatment and appeared to be defective in an excision repair pathway. However, this mutant was only slightly mutable by MNNG in comparison with the wild-type strain. This unusual phenotype does not yet have a parallel among the radiation sensitive mutants described in other bacterial species. (author)

  17. Produksi Enzim Amilolitik dari Bacillus megaterium Menggunakan Variasi Kadar Pati Sagu (Metroxylon sp.

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    Sandra Madonna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of enzymes as biocatalysts for the industries in Indonesia has increased. Among the enzymes that are needed in Indonesia, one of which amylolytic enzymes. Amylolytic enzymes constitute a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch into simple sugars consisting of glucose units. In this study amylolytic enzyme isolated from the bacterium Bacillus megaterium. Enzyme production was submerged fermentation method for 14 hours using sagostarch Metroxylon sp. varies. Measurement of enzyme activity was determined by the method amylolytik Somogy-Nelson. Research results showed that2 % (w/v of sago starchis the optimum consentration in media with highest amylolytic enzyme activity that is equal to 0.076 units/ml and sugar medium formed by181.254ug/ml in the fermentation medium.

  18. Structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from Bacillus anthracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from B. anthracis was solved by X-ray crystallography using molecular replacement and refined at a resolution of 2.24 Å. Protein structures from the causative agent of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) are being determined as part of a structural genomics programme. Amongst initial candidates for crystallographic analysis are enzymes involved in nucleotide biosynthesis, since these are recognized as potential targets in antibacterial therapy. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase is a key enzyme in the purine-salvage pathway. The crystal structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (DeoD) from B. anthracis has been solved by molecular replacement at 2.24 Å resolution and refined to an R factor of 18.4%. This is the first report of a DeoD structure from a Gram-positive bacterium

  19. Structure of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase from Bacillus anthracis (BA4489)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase from B. anthracis determined by X-ray crystallography at a resolution of 1.6 Å is described. Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming bacterium and the causative agent of the disease anthrax. The Oxford Protein Production Facility has been targeting proteins from B. anthracis in order to develop high-throughput technologies within the Structural Proteomics in Europe project. As part of this work, the structure of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase (BA4489) has been determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.6 Å resolution. The structure, solved in complex with magnesium-ion-bound ADP and phosphate, gives a detailed picture of the proposed catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. Chemical differences from other cyclo-ligase structures close to the active site that could be exploited to design specific inhibitors are also highlighted

  20. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth.

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    Akanksha Singh

    Full Text Available The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS, one picomolar (1 pM of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants' defensive state.

  1. U. V. -induced and N-methyl-N'-nitrosoguanidine-induced mutagenesis in Bacillus thuringiensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffray, Y.; Boutibonnes, P.

    1987-03-01

    The lethal and mutagenic effects of u.v. light and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on Bacillus thuringiensis were investigated. Lethality studies demonstrated that B. thuringiensis was relatively sensitive to these agents. This bacterium was mutated at the rifampicin resistance marker by u.v. light and to a lesser extent by the direct acting alkylating agent MNNG. One mutant selected for its greater sensitivity to u.v. light expressed a higher frequency of mutagenesis after u.v. light treatment and appeared to be defective in an excision repair pathway. However, this mutant was only slightly mutable by MNNG in comparison with the wild-type strain. This unusual phenotype does not yet have a parallel among the radiation sensitive mutants described in other bacterial species.

  2. Production and purification of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Michael W; Zukauskas, David; Johnson, Kelly; Sampey, Gavin C; Olsen, Henrik; Garcia, Andy; Karwoski, Jeffrey D; Cooksey, Bridget A; Choi, Gil H; Askins, Janine; Tsai, Amos; Pierre, Jennifer; Gwinn, William

    2004-11-01

    Anthrax is caused by the gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin consists of three proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor. Current vaccines against anthrax use PA as their primary component since it confers protective immunity. In this work, we expressed soluble, recombinant PA in relatively high amounts in the periplasm of E. coli from shake flasks and bioreactors. The PA protein was purified using Q-Sepharose-HP and hydroxyapatite chromatography, and routinely found to be 96-98% pure. Yields of purified PA varied depending on the method of production; however, medium cell density fermentations resulted in approximately 370 mg/L of highly pure biologically active PA protein. These results exhibit the ability to generate gram quantities of PA from E. coli. PMID:15477093

  3. Hexavalent chromium reduction by immobilized cells of Bacillus sphaericus AND 303

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Pal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus sphaericus AND 303, a Cr(VI-resistant and reducing bacterium reported from serpentine outcrops of Andaman was evaluated for Cr(VI reduction using immobilized cells under batch culture. Screening of inert matrices for entrapment of whole cells indicated that polyvinyl alchohol-alginate was the most effective one reducing 87.5% of 20 µM Cr(VI in 24 h. The rate of chromate reduction was dependent on initial Cr(VI and biomass concentrations. The PVA cell beads were recycled three times without cell leakage and disintegration. The reduction efficiency was improved in the presence of glucose and glycerol as electron donors leading to complete reduction. However, the presence of additional metal ions was inhibitory to Cr(VI reduction. It could be emphasized that PVA-alginate immobilized cells of B. sphaericus AND 303 could be used as a continuous bioprocess in treating Cr(VI contaminated effluents.

  4. Experimental evolution of aging in a bacterium

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    Stearns Stephen C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging refers to a decline in reproduction and survival with increasing age. According to evolutionary theory, aging evolves because selection late in life is weak and mutations exist whose deleterious effects manifest only late in life. Whether the assumptions behind this theory are fulfilled in all organisms, and whether all organisms age, has not been clear. We tested the generality of this theory by experimental evolution with Caulobacter crescentus, a bacterium whose asymmetric division allows mother and daughter to be distinguished. Results We evolved three populations for 2000 generations in the laboratory under conditions where selection was strong early in life, but very weak later in life. All populations evolved faster growth rates, mostly by decreasing the age at first division. Evolutionary changes in aging were inconsistent. The predominant response was the unexpected evolution of slower aging, revealing the limits of theoretical predictions if mutations have unanticipated phenotypic effects. However, we also observed the spread of a mutation causing earlier aging of mothers whose negative effect was reset in the daughters. Conclusion Our results confirm that late-acting deleterious mutations do occur in bacteria and that they can invade populations when selection late in life is weak. They suggest that very few organisms – perhaps none- can avoid the accumulation of such mutations over evolutionary time, and thus that aging is probably a fundamental property of all cellular organisms.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of a Mn(II-Oxidizing Bacillus Strain from the Demosponge Suberites domuncula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we demonstrate that the demosponge Suberites domuncula harbors a Mn(II-oxidizing bacterium, a Bacillus strain, termed BAC-SubDo-03. Our studies showed that Mn(II stimulates bacterial growth and induces sporulation. Moreover, we show that these bacteria immobilize manganese on their cell surface. Comparison of the 16S rDNA sequence allowed the grouping of BAC-SubDo-03 to the Mn-precipitating bacteria. Analysis of the spore cell wall revealed that it contains an Mn(II-oxidizing enzyme. Co-incubation studies of BAC-SubDo-03 with 100 µM MnCl2 and >1 µM of CuCl2 showed an increase in their Mn(II-oxidizing capacity. In order to prove that a multicopper oxidase-like enzyme(s (MCO exists in the cell wall of the S. domuncula-associated BAC‑SubDo-03 Bacillus strain, the gene encoding this enzyme was cloned (mnxG‑SubDo‑03. Sequence alignment of the deduced MCO protein (MnxG-SubDo-03 revealed that the sponge bacterium clusters together with known Mn(II-oxidizing bacteria. The expression of the mnxG-SubDo-03 gene is under strong control of extracellular Mn(II. Based on these findings, we assume that BAC-SubDo-03 might serve as a Mn reserve in the sponge providing the animal with the capacity to detoxify Mn in the environment. Applying the in vitro primmorph cell culture system we could demonstrate that sponge cells, that were co-incubated with BAC-SubDo-03 in the presence of Mn(II, show an increased proliferation potential.

  6. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, William R.; Muscarella, Mario E.; Lennon, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments.

  7. Identification a Novel Raw-Starch-Degrading-α-Amylase from a Tropical Marine Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeily Nurachman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bacteria from the surface of the tropical marine hard coral Acropora sp. were screened for producing raw-starch-degrading-á-amylase. Approach: Based on its 16s rDNA sequence, a bacterium that produced the highest amylolitic activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquifaciens ABBD. The bacterial isolate secreted a á-amylase extracellularly and then the enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by anion exchange chromatography. Results: Electrophoresis results both SDS-PAGE and native PAGE suggested that the enzyme was a heterodimeric protein (97 kDa consisting of 45 and 55 kDa subunits. The á-amylase had an optimum pH of 7.0 and temperature of 60°C. More than 80% activity of the enzyme was retained under high salt conditions (up to 20% NaCl. The enzyme remained stable at 50°C for 1 h. Starch hydrolysis by the enzyme at 70°C yielded oligosaccharides (G2-G4 and at room temperature yielded glucose/maltose (G1 and G2. Conclusion: The B. amyloliquifaciens ABBD á-amylase was capable of degrading various raw starch granules from corn, rice, cassava and sago at room temperature.

  8. Physiological traits of the symbiotic bacterium Teredinibacter turnerae isolated from the mangrove shipworm Neoteredo reynei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaro E. Trindade-Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition in the Teredinidae family of wood-boring mollusks is sustained by cellulolytic/nitrogen fixing symbiotic bacteria of the Teredinibacter clade. The mangrove Teredinidae Neoteredo reynei is popularly used in the treatment of infectious diseases in the north of Brazil. In the present work, the symbionts of N. reynei, which are strictly confined to the host's gills, were conclusively identified as Teredinibacter turnerae. Symbiont variants obtained in vitro were able to grow using casein as the sole carbon/nitrogen source and under reduced concentrations of NaCl. Furthermore, cellulose consumption in T. turnerae was clearly reduced under low salt concentrations. As a point of interest, we hereby report first hand that T. turnerae in fact exerts antibiotic activity. Furthermore, this activity was also affected by NaCl concentration. Finally, T. turnerae was able to inhibit the growth of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, this including strains of Sphingomonas sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus sciuri. Our findings introduce new points of view on the ecology of T. turnerae, and suggest new biotechnological applications for this marine bacterium.

  9. Trichloroethylene Biodegradation by a Methane-Oxidizing Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Little, C. Deane; Palumbo, Anthony V; Herbes, Stephen E.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Tyndall, Richard L.; Gilmer, Penny J.

    1988-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, is a suspected carcinogen that is highly resistant to aerobic biodegradation. An aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacterium was isolated that degrades TCE in pure culture at concentrations commonly observed in contaminated groundwater. Strain 46-1, a type I methanotrophic bacterium, degraded TCE if grown on methane or methanol, producing CO2 and water-soluble products. Gas chromatography and 14C radiotracer techniques were used to determine...

  10. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phelps, T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  11. Ocorrência de Bacillus sporothermodurans em leite UAT integral e desnatado Occurrence of Bacillus sporothermodurans in integral and skimmed UHT milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Busatta

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Por sua composição completa e balanceada, o leite é um substrato ideal para o desenvolvimento de diversos grupos de microrganismos. Bactérias, fungos, vírus e outros podem provocar significativas alterações no leite e derivados. Apesar do tratamento a Ultra Alta Temperatura a que o leite longa vida é submetido, constatou-se nos últimos anos, a presença de um novo tipo de bactéria altamente resistente ao calor, denominada Bacillus sporothermodurans, em função de sua capacidade de formação de esporos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a presença desta bactéria em leites UAT (Ultra Alta Temperatura integral e desnatado, comercializados na região do Alto Uruguai - RS e quantificar a capacidade de resistência à altas temperaturas das formas encontradas. Os resultados revelaram a presença desta bactéria em 54,5% das marcas analisadas, com 36,5% dos lotes analisados contaminados. A resistência térmica desta bactéria em relação ao teor de lipídios mostraram tendência a uma maior resistência em leite integral. Pode-se concluir que, embora esta bactéria seja descrita como não patogênica, é importante salientar a importância de novos estudos para obter maiores conhecimentos sobre suas características, uma vez que sua presença mostrou-se comum.Due to its full and balanced composition, milk comprises an ideal raw material for the development of a variety of groups of microorganisms. Bacteria, fungus, viruses and others can provoke significant alterations in milk and derivatives. Despite the UHT process, in which long-life milk is submitted, the presence of a new type, highly thermal-resistant bacterium, called Bacillus sporothermodurans, was verified in the last years, due possibly to its capacity of spores formation. This work is aimed at investigating the presence of this bacterium in both integral and skimmed UHT milk, commercialized in the north and neighbor region of Rio Grande do Sul state and to

  12. Hydrazine vapor inactivates Bacillus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Engler, Diane L.; Beaudet, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    NASA policy restricts the total number of bacterial spores that can remain on a spacecraft traveling to any planetary body which might harbor life or have evidence of past life. Hydrazine, N2H4, is commonly used as a propellant on spacecraft. Hydrazine as a liquid is known to inactivate bacterial spores. We have now verified that hydrazine vapor also inactivates bacterial spores. After Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores deposited on stainless steel coupons were exposed to saturated hydrazine vapor in closed containers, the spores were recovered from the coupons, serially diluted, pour plated and the surviving bacterial colonies were counted. The exposure times required to reduce the spore population by a factor of ten, known as the D-value, were 4.70 ± 0.50 h at 25 °C and 2.85 ± 0.13 h at 35 °C. These inactivation rates are short enough to ensure that the bioburden of the surfaces and volumes would be negligible after prolonged exposure to hydrazine vapor. Thus, all the propellant tubing and internal tank surfaces exposed to hydrazine vapor do not contribute to the total spore count.

  13. Screening of Bacterial Strains for Polygalacturonase Activity: Its Production by Bacillus sphaericus (MTCC 7542

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranveer Singh Jayani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At present almost all the pectinolytic enzymes used for industrial applications are produced by fungi. There are a few reports of pectinase production by bacterial strains. Therefore, in the present study, seventy-four bacterial strains, isolated from soil and rotten vegetable samples, were screened for polygalacturonase production. The strain PG-31, which gave maximum activity, was identified as Bacillus sphaericus (MTCC 7542. Maximal quantities of polygalacturonase were produced when a 16-hours-old inoculum was used at 7.5% (v/v in production medium and incubated in shaking conditions (160 rpm for 72 hours. The optimal temperature and pH for bacterial growth and polygalacturonase production were found to be 30∘C and 6.8, respectively. Maximum enzyme production resulted when citrus pectin was used as the carbon source at a concentration of 1.25% (w/v, whereas other carbon sources led to a decrease (30%–70% in enzyme production. Casein hydrolysate and yeast extract used together as organic nitrogen source gave best results, and ammonium chloride was found to be the most suitable inorganic nitrogen source. The supplementation of media with 0.9% (w/v D-galacturonic acid led to a 23% increase in activity. Bacillus sphaericus, a bacterium isolated from soil, produced good amount of polygalacturonase activity at neutral pH; hence, it would be potentially useful to increase the yield of banana, grape, or apple juice.

  14. Changes in intestinal microflora of Caenorhabditis elegans following Bacillus nematocida B16 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Keqin; Huang, Xiaowei; Hui, Fengli; Kan, Yunchao; Yao, Lunguang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of pathogenic bacteria on a host and its symbiotic microbiota is vital and widespread in the biotic world. The soil-dwelling opportunistic bacterium Bacillus nematocida B16 uses a "Trojan horse" mechanism to kill Caenorhabditis elegans. The alterations in the intestinal microflora that occur after B16 infection remain unknown. Here, we analyzed the intestinal bacteria presented in normal and infected worms. The gut microbial community experienced a complex change after B16 inoculation, as determined through marked differences in species diversity, structure, distribution and composition between uninfected and infected worms. Regardless of the worm's origin (i.e., from soil or rotten fruits), the diversity of the intestinal microbiome decreased after infection. Firmicutes increased sharply, whereas Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria decreased to different degrees. Fusobacteria was only present 12 h post-infection. After 24 h of infection, 1228 and 1109 bacterial species were identified in the uninfected and infected groups, respectively. The shared species reached 21.97%. The infected group had a greater number of Bacillus species but a smaller number of Pediococcus, Halomonas, Escherichia and Shewanella species (P microbiota using C. elegans as the model species. PMID:26830015

  15. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ben

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates. Results Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261 was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides. Conclusions Here we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  16. Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Bacillus thuringinesis Strain From Dump Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt is a commonly used as a pesticide. B. thuringiensis is a naturally-occurring soil bacterium, also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well as on the dark surface of plants. The xylanase producing bacterial strains were isolated from dump soil. The strains were isolated on xylan agar media and screening was carried out by xylanolysis method. To test the sensitivity of the isolates, ten different antibiotics were used. The strains were tested for resistance to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin, vancomycin, amoxycillin and neomycin. The strains showed sensitive to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin and vancomycin and also showed resistance to amoxycillin and neomycin, when tested by disc diffusion method on nutrient agar plate confirmed by antibiotic spread plate method. The inhibitory effect of B. thuringiensis strains against the test bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutca, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonus aeruginosa examined. It was found that, B. thuringiensis S1, B. thuringiensis S2 and B. thuringiensis S3 strains showed an inhibitory effect on all of the test bacteria.

  17. Rapid detection methods for Bacillus anthracis in environmental samples: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irenge, Léonid M; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2012-02-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, which causes anthrax, an often lethal disease of animals and humans. Although the disease has been well studied since the nineteenth century, it has witnessed a renewed interest during the past decade, due to its use as a bioterrorist agent in the fall of 2001 in the USA. A number of techniques aimed at rapidly detecting B. anthracis, in environmental samples as well as in point-of-care settings for humans suspected of exposure to the pathogen, are now available. These technologies range from culture-based methods to portable DNA amplification devices. Despite recent developments, specific identification of B. anthracis still remains difficult because of its phenotypic and genotypic similarities with other Bacillus species. Accordingly, many efforts are being made to improve the specificity of B. anthracis identification. This mini-review discusses the current challenges around B. anthracis identification, not only in reach-back laboratories but also in the field (in operational conditions). PMID:22262227

  18. Surfactin, Iturin, and Fengycin Biosynthesis by Endophytic Bacillus sp. from Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, B; Sreelakshmi, K S; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2016-07-01

    Endophytic microorganisms which are ubiquitously present in plants may colonize intracellularly or intercellularly without causing any diseases. By living within the unique chemical environment of a host plant, they produce a vast array of compounds with a wide range of biological activities. Because of this, natural products of endophytic origin have been exploited for antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. Also, they can be considered to function as an efficient microbial barrier to protect plants from various pathogens. In the present study, endophytic bacterium BmB 9 with antifungal and antibacterial activity isolated from the stem tissue of Bacopa monnieri was studied for the molecular and chemical basis of its activity. PCR-based genome mining for various biosynthetic gene clusters proved the presence of surfactin, iturin, and type I polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in the isolate. The LC-MS/MS based analysis of the extract further confirmed the production of surfactin derivatives (M + H(+)-1008.6602, 1022.6755), iturin (M + H(+)-1043.5697), and fengycin (M + H(+)-1491.8195, 1477.8055) by the selected bacterial isolate. The 16S rDNA sequence similarity based analysis identified the isolate BmB 9 as Bacillus sp. with 100 % identity to Bacillus sp. LCF1 (KP257289). PMID:27021396

  19. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fan, Ben

    2012-06-21

    AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  20. Crossing of the epithelial barriers by Bacillus anthracis: the Known and the Unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre L Goossens

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, is initiated by the entry of spores into the host body. There are three types of human infection: cutaneous, inhalational, and gastrointestinal. For each form, B. anthracis spores need to cross the cutaneous, respiratory or digestive epithelial barriers, respectively, as a first obligate step to establish infection. Anthrax is a toxi-infection: an association of toxemia and rapidly spreading infection progressing to septicemia. The pathogenicity of Bacillus anthracis mainly depends on two toxins and a capsule. The capsule protects bacilli from the immune system, thus promoting systemic dissemination. The toxins alter host cell signalling, thereby paralysing the immune response of the host and perturbing the endocrine and endothelial systems.In this review, we will mainly focus on the events and mechanisms leading to crossing of the respiratory epithelial barrier, as the majority of studies have addressed inhalational infection. We will discuss the critical gaps of knowledge that need to be addressed to gain a comprehensive view of the initial steps of inhalational anthrax. We will then discuss the few data available on B. anthracis crossing the cutaneous and digestive epithelia.

  1. Construction and Expression of Methionine-rich and Lysine-rich Fusion Gene inBacillus natto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shuang; Luo Chao-chao; Wu Cai-xia; Gao Xue-jun

    2015-01-01

    Methionine and lysine are restrictive essential amino acids of livestock, they are also the most attentive indexes in the feed production to carry out the quality control and quality evaluation. Their contents in feed directly affect livestock protein synthesis. Bacillus natto has excellent probiotic properties. In this experiment, we used the genetic engineering method, fusion PCR technique, to connect methionine-rich gene (zein) from maize endosperm protein with lysine-rich gene (Cflr) from the pepper anther, then the fusion gene was inserted into the expression vector pHT43, and the recombinant plasmid pHT43/zein-Cflr was constructed. The recombinant plasmid was transferred intoBacillus natto, and induced by IPTG for the expression of the fusion gene. We found an apparent band at 40 ku site for the recombinant strain by SDS-PAGE. The contents of methionine and lysine were individually detected with HPLC, the quantities of methionine and lysine in the recombinant strain increased by 18.37% and 24.68% than the wild one, respectively. We also verified the stability of the recombinant bacterium during passaging, and found the stability was 100%. This study provided research-basis for the application of the recombinedBacillus nattoas feed additive.

  2. Alkaline iron(III) reduction by a novel alkaliphilic, halotolerant, Bacillus sp. isolated from salt flat sediments of Soap Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Jarrod; Weber, Karrie A; Lack, Joe; Achenbach, Laurie A; Mormile, Melanie R; Coates, John D

    2007-12-01

    A halotolerant, alkaliphilic dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, strain SFB, was isolated from salt flat sediments collected from Soap Lake, WA. 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequence analysis identified strain SFB as a novel Bacillus sp. most similar to Bacillus agaradhaerens (96.7% similarity). Strain SFB, a fermentative, facultative anaerobe, fermented various hexoses including glucose and fructose. The fructose fermentation products were lactate, acetate, and formate. Under fructose-fermenting conditions in a medium amended with Fe(III), Fe(II) accumulated concomitant with a stoichiometric decrease in lactate and an increase in acetate and CO(2). Strain SFB was also capable of respiratory Fe(III) reduction with some unidentified component(s) of Luria broth as an electron donor. In addition to Fe(III), strain SFB could also utilize nitrate, fumarate, or O(2) as alternative electron acceptors. Optimum growth was observed at 30 degrees C and pH 9. Although the optimal salinity for growth was 0%, strain SFB could grow in a medium with up to 15% NaCl by mass. These studies describe a novel alkaliphilic, halotolerant organism capable of dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction under extreme conditions and demonstrate that Bacillus species can contribute to the microbial reduction of Fe(III) in environments at elevated pH and salinity, such as soda lakes. PMID:17943280

  3. Analysis of opportunities and challenges in patenting of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, H M Mahadeva; Asokan, R; Rajasekaran, P E; Mahmood, Riaz; Nagesha, S N; Arora, D K

    2012-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely used microbial control agent. The broad spectrum of susceptible hosts, production on artificial media and ease of application has caused the widespread use of this bacterium against several pests in agriculture, forest and vectors of human diseases. B.thuringiensis toxins are highly species specific which provide economic, environmental benefits, potential for future control and spread of the technology worldwide. This makes the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins an interesting tool for the implementation in integrated pest management programs. It has gained importance over the last 100 years for its biocontrol properties which is used in this review as a case study and analysis of the patents granted on B. thuringiensis was carried out. This study categorizes a number of patents related to B.thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins, application of B.thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins and the development of patentable technologies. The analyses were done using various criteria like patenting trends over the years, assignees playing a major role, comparison of the technology used in different patents and the patenting activity across the insect orders. Patent documents related to bacterium B.thuringiensis contain a trove of technical and commercial information and thus, patent analysis is considered as a useful tool for R management and techno economical development. Patent analysis also helps identifying and evaluating new and alternate technologies, keeping abreast with latest technologies for business interests, finding solutions to technical problems and ideas for new innovative trends.

  4. Optimization of Chitinase Production by Bacillus pumilus Using Plackett-Burman Design and Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasharrofi, Noshin; Adrangi, Sina; Fazeli, Mehdi; Rastegar, Hossein; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2011-01-01

    A soil bacterium capable of degrading chitin on chitin agar plates was isolated and identified as Bacillus pumilus isolate U5 on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis. In order to optimize culture conditions for chitinase production by this bacterium, a two step approach was employed. First, the effects of several medium components were studied using the Plackett-Burman design. Among various components tested, chitin and yeast extract showed positive effect on enzyme production while MgSO4 and FeSO4 had negative effect. However, the linear model proved to be insufficient for determining the optimum levels for these components due to a highly significant curvature effect. In the second step, Box-Behnken response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum values. It was noticed that a quadratic polynomial equation fitted he experimental data appropriately. The optimum concentrations for chitin, yeast extract, MgSO4 and FeSO4 were found to be 4.76, 0.439, 0.0055 and 0.019 g/L, respectively, with a predicted value of chitinase production of 97.67 U/100 mL. Using this statistically optimized medium, the practical chitinase production reached 96.1 U/100 mL. PMID:24250411

  5. Analysis of opportunities and challenges in patenting of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, H M Mahadeva; Asokan, R; Rajasekaran, P E; Mahmood, Riaz; Nagesha, S N; Arora, D K

    2012-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely used microbial control agent. The broad spectrum of susceptible hosts, production on artificial media and ease of application has caused the widespread use of this bacterium against several pests in agriculture, forest and vectors of human diseases. B.thuringiensis toxins are highly species specific which provide economic, environmental benefits, potential for future control and spread of the technology worldwide. This makes the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins an interesting tool for the implementation in integrated pest management programs. It has gained importance over the last 100 years for its biocontrol properties which is used in this review as a case study and analysis of the patents granted on B. thuringiensis was carried out. This study categorizes a number of patents related to B.thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins, application of B.thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins and the development of patentable technologies. The analyses were done using various criteria like patenting trends over the years, assignees playing a major role, comparison of the technology used in different patents and the patenting activity across the insect orders. Patent documents related to bacterium B.thuringiensis contain a trove of technical and commercial information and thus, patent analysis is considered as a useful tool for R management and techno economical development. Patent analysis also helps identifying and evaluating new and alternate technologies, keeping abreast with latest technologies for business interests, finding solutions to technical problems and ideas for new innovative trends. PMID:22239684

  6. Genotype Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Circulating in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Affuso, Alessia; Serrecchia, Luigina; Rondinone, Valeria; Manzulli, Viviana; Campese, Emanuele; Di Taranto, Pietro; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Fasanella, Antonio; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is considered an endemic disease affecting ruminants with sporadic zoonotic occurrences in humans. Due to the lack of knowledge about risks from an incorrect removal of infected carcasses, the disease is not properly monitored, and because of the socio-economic conditions, the situation is under-reported and under-diagnosed. For sensitive species, anthrax represents a fatal outcome with sudden death and sometimes bleeding from natural orifices. The most common source of infection for ruminants is ingestion of spores during grazing in contaminated pastures or through grass and water contaminated with anthrax spores. Domestic cattle, sheep and goats can also become infected through contaminated bone meal (used as feed) originating from anthrax-infected carcasses. The present investigation was conducted to isolate B. anthracis organisms from 169 samples (73 soil, 1 tissue, 4 bone and 91 bone meal samples) collected from 12 different districts of Bangladesh. The sampling was carried out from 2012 to 2015. Twelve samples resulted positive for B. anthracis. Biomolecular analyses were conducted starting from the Canonical Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (CanSNP) to analyze the phylogenetic origin of strains. The analysis of genotype, obtained through the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) with the analysis of 15 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR), demonstrated four different genotypes: two of them were previously identified in the district of Sirajganj. The sub-genotyping, conducted with Single Nucleotide Repeats analysis, revealed the presence of eight subgenotypes. The data of the present study concluded that there was no observed correlation between imported cattle feed and anthrax occurrence in Bangladesh and that the remarkable genetic variations of B. anthracis were found in the soil of numerous outbreaks in this country. PMID:27082248

  7. Food-bacteria interplay: pathometabolism of emetic Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Frenzel, Elrike; Gohar, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive endospore forming bacterium known for its wide spectrum of phenotypic traits, enabling it to occupy diverse ecological niches. Although the population structure of B. cereus is highly dynamic and rather panmictic, production of the emetic B. cereus toxin cereulide is restricted to strains with specific genotypic traits, associated with distinct environmental habitats. Cereulide is an ionophoric dodecadepsipeptide that is produced non-ribosomally by an enzyme complex with an unusual modular structure, named cereulide synthetase (Ces non-ribosomal peptide synthetase). The ces gene locus is encoded on a mega virulence plasmid related to the B. anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1. Cereulide, a highly thermo- and pH- resistant molecule, is preformed in food, evokes vomiting a few hours after ingestion, and was shown to be the direct cause of gastroenteritis symptoms; occasionally it is implicated in severe clinical manifestations including acute liver failures. Control of toxin gene expression in emetic B. cereus involves central transcriptional regulators, such as CodY and AbrB, thereby inextricably linking toxin gene expression to life cycle phases and specific conditions, such as the nutrient supply encountered in food matrices. While in recent years considerable progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterization of cereulide toxin synthesis, far less is known about the embedment of toxin synthesis in the life cycle of B. cereus. Information about signals acting on toxin production in the food environment is lacking. We summarize the data available on the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide toxin synthesis, discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors acting on toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus and stress how unraveling these processes can lead to the development of novel effective strategies to prevent toxin synthesis in the food production and processing chain.

  8. Tracking the Elusive Function of Bacillus subtilis Hfq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tatiana; Delumeau, Olivier; Figueroa-Bossi, Nara; Noirot, Philippe; Bossi, Lionello; Dervyn, Etienne; Bouloc, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding protein Hfq is a key component of the adaptive responses of many proteobacterial species including Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Vibrio cholera. In these organisms, the importance of Hfq largely stems from its participation to regulatory mechanisms involving small non-coding RNAs. In contrast, the function of Hfq in Gram-positive bacteria has remained elusive and somewhat controversial. In the present study, we have further addressed this point by comparing growth phenotypes and transcription profiles between wild-type and an hfq deletion mutant of the model Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. The absence of Hfq had no significant consequences on growth rates under nearly two thousand metabolic conditions and chemical treatments. The only phenotypic difference was a survival defect of B. subtilis hfq mutant in rich medium in stationary phase. Transcriptomic analysis correlated this phenotype with a change in the levels of nearly one hundred transcripts. Albeit a significant fraction of these RNAs (36%) encoded sporulation-related functions, analyses in a strain unable to sporulate ruled out sporulation per se as the basis of the hfq mutant's stationary phase fitness defect. When expressed in Salmonella, B. subtilis hfq complemented the sharp loss of viability of a degP hfq double mutant, attenuating the chronic σE-activated phenotype of this strain. However, B. subtilis hfq did not complement other regulatory deficiencies resulting from loss of Hfq-dependent small RNA activity in Salmonella indicating a limited functional overlap between Salmonella and B. subtilis Hfqs. Overall, this study confirmed that, despite structural similarities with other Hfq proteins, B. subtilis Hfq does not play a central role in post-transcriptional regulation but might have a more specialized function connected with stationary phase physiology. This would account for the high degree of conservation of Hfq proteins in all 17 B. subtilis strains whose

  9. Kinetics of Molybdenum Reduction to Molybdenum Blue by Bacillus sp. Strain A.rzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Othman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum is very toxic to agricultural animals. Mo-reducing bacterium can be used to immobilize soluble molybdenum to insoluble forms, reducing its toxicity in the process. In this work the isolation of a novel molybdate-reducing Gram positive bacterium tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. strain A.rzi from a metal-contaminated soil is reported. The cellular reduction of molybdate to molybdenum blue occurred optimally at 4 mM phosphate, using 1% (w/v glucose, 50 mM molybdate, between 28 and 30°C and at pH 7.3. The spectrum of the Mo-blue product showed a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. Inhibitors of bacterial electron transport system (ETS such as rotenone, sodium azide, antimycin A, and potassium cyanide could not inhibit the molybdenum-reducing activity. At 0.1 mM, mercury, copper, cadmium, arsenic, lead, chromium, cobalt, and zinc showed strong inhibition on molybdate reduction by crude enzyme. The best model that fitted the experimental data well was Luong followed by Haldane and Monod. The calculated value for Luong’s constants pmax, Ks, Sm, and n was 5.88 μmole Mo-blue hr−1, 70.36 mM, 108.22 mM, and 0.74, respectively. The characteristics of this bacterium make it an ideal tool for bioremediation of molybdenum pollution.

  10. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  11. Bacillus subtilis Pro-sigmaE fusion protein localizes to the forespore septum and fails to be processed when synthesized in the forespore.

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, J; Luo, T.; Haldenwang, W G

    1997-01-01

    Endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis begins with an asymmetric cell division that partitions the bacterium into mother cell and forespore compartments. Mother cell-specific gene expression is initiated by sigmaE, a transcription factor that is active only in the mother cell but which existed as an inactive precursor (pro-sigmaE) in the predivisional cell. Activation of pro-sigmaE involves the removal of 27 amino acids from its amino terminus. A chimera of pro-sigmaE and the green fluoresc...

  12. Functional analysis of the secretory precursor processing machinery of Bacillus subtilis: identification of a eubacterial homolog of archaeal and eukaryotic signal peptidases

    OpenAIRE

    Tjalsma, Harold; Bolhuis, Albert; Roosmalen, Maarten L. Van; Wiegert, Thomas; Schumann, Wolfgang; Broekhuizen, Cees P.; Quax, Wim J.; Venema, Gerard; Bron, Sierd; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 47% of the genes of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis belong to paralogous gene families. The present studies were aimed at the functional analysis of the sip gene family of B. subtilis, consisting of five chromosomal genes, denoted sipS, sipT, sipU, sipV, and sipW. All five sip genes specify type I signal peptidases (SPases), which are actively involved in the processing of secretory preproteins. Interestingly, strains lacking as many as four of these SPases could b...

  13. MAPK Signaling Pathway Alters Expression of Midgut ALP and ABCC Genes and Causes Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin in Diamondback Moth

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaojiang Guo; Shi Kang; Defeng Chen; Qingjun Wu; Shaoli Wang; Wen Xie; Xun Zhu; Baxter, Simon W.; Xuguo Zhou; Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes; Youjun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resis...

  14. The Eukaryotic-Like Ser/Thr Kinase PrkC Regulates the Essential WalRK Two-Component System in Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Libby, Elizabeth A.; Goss, Lindsie A.; Jonathan Dworkin

    2015-01-01

    Most bacteria contain both eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr kinases (eSTKs) and eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr phosphatases (eSTPs). Their role in bacterial physiology is not currently well understood in large part because the conditions where the eSTKs are active are generally not known. However, all sequenced Gram-positive bacteria have a highly conserved eSTK with extracellular PASTA repeats that bind cell wall derived muropeptides. Here, we report that in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, th...

  15. A novel multiplex PCR discriminates Bacillus anthracis and its genetically related strains from other Bacillus cereus group species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Ogawa

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an important zoonotic disease worldwide that is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming pathogenic bacterium. A rapid and sensitive method to detect B. anthracis is important for anthrax risk management and control in animal cases to address public health issues. However, it has recently become difficult to identify B. anthracis by using previously reported molecular-based methods because of the emergence of B. cereus, which causes severe extra-intestinal infection, as well as the human pathogenic B. thuringiensis, both of which are genetically related to B. anthracis. The close genetic relation of chromosomal backgrounds has led to complexity of molecular-based diagnosis. In this study, we established a B. anthracis multiplex PCR that can screen for the presence of B. anthracis virulent plasmids and differentiate B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group species. Six sets of primers targeting a chromosome of B. anthracis and B. anthracis-like strains, two virulent plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, a bacterial gene, 16S rRNA gene, and a mammalian gene, actin-beta gene, were designed. The multiplex PCR detected approximately 3.0 CFU of B. anthracis DNA per PCR reaction and was sensitive to B. anthracis. The internal control primers also detected all bacterial and mammalian DNAs examined, indicating the practical applicability of this assay as it enables monitoring of appropriate amplification. The assay was also applied for detection of clinical strains genetically related to B. anthracis, which were B. cereus strains isolated from outbreaks of hospital infections in Japan, and field strains isolated in Zambia, and the assay differentiated B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group strains. Taken together, the results indicate that the newly developed multiplex PCR is a sensitive and practical method for detecting B. anthracis.

  16. 地衣芽孢杆菌总蛋白双向电泳方法的建立和优化%Establishment and optimization of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of total proteins from Bacillus lincheniformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江慎华; 陈惠; 陈静; 汪涛; 姚中平; 周英棠

    2013-01-01

    探索建立有效的地衣芽孢杆菌蛋白质组双向电泳体系,为进一步揭示地衣芽孢杆菌促进氧化葡萄糖酸杆菌产酸的作用机制奠定基础.以地衣芽孢杆菌为材料,比较蛋白质制备超声破壁时间、新型细胞裂解液、pH梯度和不同上样量对地衣芽孢杆菌蛋白双向电泳结果的影响.结果显示:采用15min超声破壁提取地衣芽孢杆菌总蛋白,选用新型蛋白质裂解,用长24cm、pH4~7的IPG胶条,在上样量为80μg进行等电聚焦,于60V 15min、120V 6h条件下进行SDS-PAGE垂直电泳,可以获得背景清晰、重复性好的双向电泳图谱.在探索出一种新型可行的新型细胞裂解液的同时,建立一套用于地衣芽孢杆菌蛋白质组分析的双向电泳方法.%A two dimensional gel electrophoresis protocol proteomic study of Bacillus lincheniformis and offer further information how Bacillus cereus stimulate the growth of Gluconobacter oxydans to produce 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KLG) after entering into stationary phase was established.Different parameters,including protein preparation by different ultrasonic broken time,new type lysis,pH gradient and different sample of Bacillus lincheniformis protein,were used to evaluate the effect of two-dimensional electrophoresis of Bacillus lincheniformis proteins.Results showed that the clear background and reproducibility of two dimensional gel electrophoresis were established on the condition of using 15min of ultrasonic broken extraction,selection of protein cleavage I,pH4~7 24cm IPG strips,80 μg loading volume,isoelectric focus at 60V 15min,120V 6h.The aim of this study was not only to explore a novel cell lysate in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,but also to establish a method of proteome analysis for two-dimensional electrophoresis of Bacillus licheniformis.

  17. Bacillus sp.处理锑矿选矿废水的优化试验%Experimental study of optimization of antimony ore-processed wastewater treatment by Bacillus sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成应向; 李小娇; 向仁军; 龚道新; 王强强; 肖亚琼

    2012-01-01

    Antimony ore-processed wastewater was treated with the optimized bacterium Bacillus sp. The effects of the evaluation indices, including the amount of inoculation, pH value, processing time, and temperature, on the treatment of antimony ore-processed wastewater were studied through orthogonal experiments. The results show that the degrees of effects of the indices on the removal of antimony from wastewater by Bacillus sp . Are in the following descending order: the amount of inoculation, pH value, processing time, and temperature. The optimal treatment conditions were attained when the amount of inoculation was 5 % , the PH value was 2.5, the processing time was three days, and the temperature was 30^1.%用某芽孢杆菌属微生物(Bacillus sp.)处理锑矿选矿废水.通过正交实验,研究该微生物在处理锑矿选矿废水过程中微生物接种量、pH值、处理时间、温度对去除效果的影响.结果表明:Bacillus sp.对废水中锑的去除效果影响程度由大到小的顺序为:微生物接种量、pH值、处理时间、温度;最优实验条件:微生物接种量为5%、pH值为2.5、处理时间为3d,处理温度为30℃.

  18. Comparative analysis of two-component signal transduction systems of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, M.W.H.J. de; Francke, C.; Moezelaar, R.; Abee, T.; Siezen, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Members of the Bacillus cereus group are ubiquitously present in the environment and can adapt to a wide range of environmental fluctuations. In bacteria, these adaptive responses are generally mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), which consist of a histidine kinase (HK) and

  19. BOOK REVIEW – BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  20. 白蚁肠道木质素及纤维素分解菌的分离鉴定及产酶条件优化%Isolation, Identification and Enzyme-producing Conditions Optimization of Lignin-Utilizing and Cellulose-Utilizing Bacterium from the Gut of Termite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云航; 王巍; 李秋菊; 马红霞; 娄玉杰

    2013-01-01

    Five strains of bacteria with decomposed function for lignin and cellulose were isolated from gut of termite with a congo red and Azure-B plate method. MX5 strain with the strongest decomposed function was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by morphological observation, physiological and biochemical identification and 16S rRNA identification. Optimization test of producing lignin and cellulose show MX5 strain has the highest production activity with 0. 5% of straw as carbon source, mixture of 0. 5% yeast extract and ammonium sulfate as the nitrogen source and cultrue in shake flask at 37 ℃ for 96 h with 1% noculation amount and initial pH 8. 0. Selecting excellent strains which produced ligninase and cellulase has far-reaching significance for improving the utilization of wood fiber feed, reducing environmental pollution and so on..%利用刚果红法、Azure-B平板法从白蚁肠道中分离出5株同时具有木质素降解和纤维素分解功能的菌株,选取其中分解功能最强的菌株MX5经形态观察、生化鉴定和16S rRNA鉴定为芽孢杆菌属的地衣芽孢杆菌Bacillus licheniformis.产酶条件优化试验结果表明,菌株MX5以w=0.5%秸秆为碳源,w=0.5%酵母粉和硫酸铵混合物为氮源,初始pH8.0,37℃摇瓶培养96 h,接种量为1%时,产酶活性最高.筛选出产酶活性优良的菌株,对提高木质纤维素的利用率、降低环境污染等方面意义深远.