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Sample records for bacteriorhodopsin coated microcavities

  1. All-Optical Arithmetic and Combinatorial Logic Circuits with High-Q Bacteriorhodopsin Coated Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Sukhdev; Topolancik, Juraj; Vollmer, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We present designs of all-optical computing circuits, namely, half-full adder/subtractor, de-multiplexer, multiplexer, and an arithmetic unit, based on bacteriorhodopsin (BR) protein coated microcavity switch in a tree architecture. The basic all-optical switch consists of an input infrared (IR) laser beam at 1310 nm in a single mode fiber (SMF-28) switched by a control pulsed laser beam at 532 nm, which triggers the change in the resonance condition on a silica bead coated with BR between two tapered fibers. We show that fast switching of 50 us can be achieved by injecting a blue laser beam at 410 nm that helps in truncating the BR photocycle at the M intermediate state. Realization of all-optical switch with BR coated microcavity switch has been done experimentally. Based on this basic switch configuration, designs of all-optical higher computing circuits have been presented. The design requires 2n-1 switches to realize n bit computation. The proposed designs require less number of switches than terahertz o...

  2. Laterally Confined Modes in Wet-Etched,Metal-Coated,Quantum-Dot-Inserted Pillar Microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hao; ZHENG Hou-Zhi; ZHANG Ji-Dong; XU Ping; TAN Ping-Heng; YANG Fu-Hua; ZENG Yi-Ping

    2004-01-01

    @@ We report the fabrication and the measurement of microcavities whose optical eigenmodes were discrete and were well predicted by using the model of the photonic dot with perfectly reflected sidewalls. These microcavities were consisted of the semiconductor pillar fabricated by the simple wet-etched process and successive metal coating. Angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra demonstrate the characteristic emission of the corresponding eigenmodes, as its pattern revealed by varying both polar (θ) and azimuthal (φ) angles. It is shown that the metal-coated sidewalls can provide an efficient way to suppress the emission due to the leaking modes in these pillar microcavities.

  3. Enhancement of UV Excited Photoluminescence by Fabry-Perot Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxian Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A light-emitting microcavity with the structure of dielectric mirror/phosphor coating/dielectric mirror for the enhancement of PL efficiency excited under UV light was designed and fabricated. The fluorescence emission of Lumogen S0795 coating within microcavity structure is significantly enhanced compared with the coating on bare substrate. The measurement results indicate the possibility of developing front illuminated CCD based on optical resonant cavity for UV-visible imaging with higher sensitivity.

  4. Absorption characteristics of bacteriorhodopsin molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H K T Kumar; K Appaji Gowda

    2000-03-01

    The bacteriorhodopsin molecule absorbs light and undergoes a series of structural transformation following a well-defined photocycle. The complex photocycle is transformed to an equivalent level diagram by considering the lifetime of the intermediate states. Assuming that only and states are appreciably populated at any instant of time, the level diagram is further simplified to two-level system. Based on the rate equations for two-level system, an analytic expression for the absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin molecule is derived. It is applied to study the behaviour of absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin film in the visible wavelength region of 514 nm. The dependence of absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin film on the thickness of the film, total number density of active molecules and initial number density of molecules in -state is presented in the graphical form.

  5. Carbon nanotube biconvex microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Haider; Yetisen, Ali K.; Ahmed, Rajib; Yun, Seok Hyun; Dai, Qing

    2015-03-01

    Developing highly efficient microcavities with predictive narrow-band resonance frequencies using the least amount of material will allow the applications in nonlinear photonic devices. We have developed a microcavity array that comprised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) organized in a biconvex pattern. The finite element model allowed designing microcavity arrays with predictive transmission properties and assessing the effects of the microarray geometry. The microcavity array demonstrated negative index and produced high Q factors. 2-3 μm tall MWCNTs were patterned as biconvex microcavities, which were separated by 10 μm in an array. The microcavity was iridescent and had optical control over the diffracted elliptical patterns with a far-field pattern, whose properties were predicted by the model. It is anticipated that the MWCNT biconvex microcavities will have implications for the development of highly efficient lenses, metamaterial antennas, and photonic circuits.

  6. Biexcitons in semiconductor microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, P.; Langbein, W.; Woggon, U.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the present status of the experimental study of the optical properties of biexcitons in semiconductor microcavities is reviewed. In particular, a detailed investigation of a polariton-biexciton transition in a high-quality single quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs microcavity is reported...

  7. Computer-generated holograms recorded in bacteriorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessous, Fouad; Juchem, Thorsten; Hampp, Norbert A.

    2004-06-01

    Computer-generated holograms (CGH's) of phase modulation type have been designed and fabricated in the biological material Bacteriorhodopsin (BR). BR is a photochromic retinal protein which may be used in optical data storage and security applications. Using the permanent light-inducible refractive index change of BR, we demonstrate that both analog and digital optical data can be stored in this material in a write-once-read-many (WORM) mode. The calculation and the optimization of the phase function of the CGH's have been accomplished with iterative Fourier transform algorithm methods (IFTA) such as error reduction algorithms. In the fabrication procedure the optimized phase functions of the CGH's have been recorded in BR which was coated onto a glass substrate. A direct laser writing process employing the 532 nm line of a cw-Nd:YAG laser was used for recording the CGH as a modulation of the absorption coefficient as well as of the refractive index. The design and fabrication method of the CGHs with a pixel pitch of 20 μm and a total size of 10 mm x 10 mm are presented.

  8. Semiconductor microcavity polaritons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, Evgenii A [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2002-12-31

    The optical properties of wide-gap semiconductor films on metal substrates were investigated experimentally by infrared spectroscopy, Raman scattering, and femtosecond spectroscopy techniques as well as theoretically in the framework of linear crystal optics. The optical spectra of such planar structures (microresonators) were shown to bear information on electromagnetic excitations of both the surface and the volume of the structure. The optical spectra are determined by the interaction of all dipole-active excitations of the component materials with the electromagnetic modes of the microresonator, which in turn are determined by the permittivities of each component material, microcavity (microresonator) thickness, and the experimental conditions. (reviews of topical problems)

  9. Quantum well nonlinear microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudar, J. L.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Sfez, B.; Pellat, D.; Azoulay, R.

    We report on recent progress in reducing the power threshold of all-optical bistable quantum well vertical microcavities. Significant improvements are achieved through an increase of the cavity finesse, together with a reduction of the device active layer thickness. A critical intensity of 5 μW/μm 2 has been observed on a microcavity of finesse 250, with a nonlinear medium of only 18 GaAs quantum wells of 10 nm thickness. Further improvements of the Bragg mirror quality resulted in a finesse of 700 and a power-lifetime product of 15 fJ/μm 2. Microresonator pixellation allows to obtain 2-dimensional arrays. A thermally-induced alloy-mixing technique is described, which produced a 110 meV carrier confinement energy, together with a refractive index change of -.012, averaged over the 2.6 μm nonlinear medium thickness. The resulting electrical and optical confinement is shown to improve the nonlinear characteristics, by limiting lateral carrier diffusion and light diffraction.

  10. Biexciton dephasing in a semiconductor microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, P.; Langbein, W.; Woggon, U.

    2001-01-01

    The experimental observation of biexcitons in microcavities has been addressed recently. A well-resolved polariton-biexciton transition was observed in a high-quality GaAs single quantum well (QW) /spl lambda/-microcavity of 25 nm well width using a pump-probe experiment. In this microcavity the ...

  11. Kinetic vs. Thermodynamic Control of Bacteriorhodopsin Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunner, Marilyn

    2011-03-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin is a transmembrane proton pump that converts light energy to a transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Retinal, bound in the center of the protein, absorbs light and isomerizes from the all-trans to 13-cis configuration. A series of conformational changes and proton transfers then restores the structure to the all-trans ground state while pumping one proton from the high pH cell interior to the low pH exterior, saving energy in an electrochemical gradient. Poorly understood gating elements control key steps where incorrect proton transfer would return the protein to the ground state without pumping. The gate's barrier height determines how much the pump leaks. Analysis of high-resolution structures trapped in different intermediates has produced ideas for how bacteriorhodopsin ensures pumping. There are two contrasting strategies, one primarily thermodynamic and the other relying on kinetic control to ensure that protons are moved uphill. With thermodynamic control, residue protonation states always remain in quasi-equilibrium. Relatively slow conformational changes shift the energy landscape modifying site pKas. Residues then change ionization remaining in equilibrium in each metastable intermediate. The sequence of intermediates imparts the directionality to the transfers. Alternatively, the direction of transfer is determined by the accessibility of low energy pathways so is thus is under kinetic control. We will discuss which steps in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle are under thermodynamic or under kinetic control. The role of three specific conformational changes (retinal isomerization, Arg82 reorientation and Glu194 and 204 separations) on the degree of proton transfer will be described. Supported by NFS MCB 1022208. Carried out with Yifan Song now at the University of Washington Department of Biochemistry.

  12. Stokes Soliton in Optical Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Qi-Fan; Yang, Ki Youl; Vahala, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Solitons are wavepackets that resist dispersion through a self-induced potential well. They are studied in many fields, but are especially well known in optics on account of the relative ease of their formation and control in optical fiber waveguides. Besides their many interesting properties, solitons are important to optical continuum generation, in mode-locked lasers and have been considered as a natural way to convey data over great distances. Recently, solitons have been realized in microcavities thereby bringing the power of microfabrication methods to future applications. This work reports a soliton not previously observed in optical systems, the Stokes soliton. The Stokes soliton forms and regenerates by optimizing its Raman interaction in space and time within an optical-potential well shared with another soliton. The Stokes and the initial soliton belong to distinct transverse mode families and benefit from a form of soliton trapping that is new to microcavities and soliton lasers in general. The di...

  13. Fermi resonance in optical microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chang-Hwan; Yu, Hyeon-Hye; Lee, Ji-Won; Kim, Chil-Min

    2015-04-01

    Fermi resonance is a phenomenon of quantum mechanical superposition, which most often occurs between normal and overtone modes in molecular systems that are nearly coincident in energy. We find that scarred resonances in deformed dielectric microcavities are the very phenomenon of Fermi resonance, that is, a pair of quasinormal modes interact with each other due to coupling and a pair of resonances are generated through an avoided resonance crossing. Then the quantum number difference of a pair of quasinormal modes, which is a consequence of quantum mechanical superposition, equals periodic orbits, whereby the resonances are localized on the periodic orbits. We derive the relation between the quantum number difference and the periodic orbits and confirm it in an elliptic, a rectangular, and a stadium-shaped dielectric microcavity.

  14. Bound Modes in Dielectric Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, P M; Lenstra, D

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate how exactly bound cavity modes can be realized in dielectric structures other than 3d photonic crystals. For a microcavity consisting of crossed anisotropic layers, we derive the cavity resonance frequencies, and spontaneous emission rates. For a dielectric structure with dissipative loss and central layer with gain, the beta factor of direct spontaneous emission into a cavity mode and the laser threshold is calculated.

  15. Bacteriorhodopsin: Tunable Optical Nonlinear Magnetic Response

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, F A; Sibilia, C; Giardina, M; Váró, G; Gergely, C

    2011-01-01

    We report on a strong and tunable magnetic optical nonlinear response of Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) under "off resonance" femtosecond (fs) pulse excitation, by detecting the polarization map of the noncollinear second harmonic signal of an oriented BR film, as a function of the input beam power. BR is a light-driven proton pump with a unique photochemistry initiated by the all trans retinal chromophore embedded in the protein. An elegant application of this photonic molecular machine has been recently found in the new area of optogenetics, where genetic expression of BR in brain cells conferred a light responsivity to the cells enabling thus specific stimulation of neurons. The observed strong tunable magnetic nonlinear response of BR might trigger promising applications in the emerging area of pairing optogenetics and functional magnetic resonance imaging susceptible to provide an unprecedented complete functional mapping of neural circuits.

  16. Multi-exponentially Photoelectric Response of Bacteriorhodopsin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚保利; 徐大纶; 侯洵; 胡坤生; 王敖金

    2001-01-01

    A thin oriented bacteriorhodopsin (bR) film is deposited on a stainless steel slide by use of the electrophoretic sedimentation method. A junction is made with electrolyte gels having a counterelectrode to construct a bRbased photoelectric detector. The photoelectric response signal to a 10ns laser pulse is measured. A theory on the photoelectric kinetics of bR is developed based on the concept of the charge displacement current and the bR photocycle rate equations. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental results proves that the bR photoelectric response to a short laser pulse is a multi-exponential process. The decay time constants and amplitudes of each exponential component are obtained by data fitting.

  17. Solution processing of microcavity for BioMEMS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Vu Nam; Ukita, Yoshiaki; Takamura, Yuzuru; Mitani, Tadaoki; Shimoda, Tatsuya; Dung Dang, Thi My; Chien Dang, Mau

    2014-09-01

    Compared to the conventional silicon-based technology, the solution process appears to be a revolution in the field of micro/nanofabrication due to its advantages of high efficiency in material and energy consumption and the use of low cost material. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to fabricate BioMEMS devices using this novel technology to make microcavity. Zirconium oxide patterns were formed on the silicon substrate simply by spin coating its precursor and thermal imprinting technique. We used poly-propylene carbonate (PPC) for the sacrificial material due to its unique pyrolysis property. The PPC was coated on the ZrO patterns and excess film was etched by oxygen plasma but retaining PPC structure between the lines of ZrO pattern. Then another ZrO layer was coated to encapsulate the PPC. The final microcavity structures were obtained by just baking the substrate by pyrolyzing the PPC. The obtained results show the approach’s prospect of becoming an ideal alternative for the current BioMEMS micro/nanofabrication technologies

  18. Electron microscopic observation and rotational diffusion measurement of bacteriorhodopsin in lipid vesicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The morphology of bacteriorhodopsin reconstituted into dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and egg-phosphatidylcholine vesicles was observed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. The rotational diffusion of bacteriorhodopsin at different concentrations of melittin was measured by observing flash-induced transient dichroism in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles. In the presence of melittin, bacteriorhodopsin molecules in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles were aggregated into large particles or patches, and the ability of rotational diffusion of bacteriorhodop sin in vesicles was decreased. This suggests that melittin produces its effect via direct electrostatic interaction with bacteriorhodopsin. Low temperature-induced aggregation of bacteriorhodopsin was also observed in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles. Low temperature may cause phase separation. Bacteriorhodopsin was also successfully reconstituted into egg-phosphatidylcholine vesicles, but Iow temperature-induced aggregation of bacteriorhodopsin in dimyristoylphosphati dylcholine cannot appear in egg-phosphatidylcholine vesicles. This suggests that different lipids have different effects on bacteriorhodopsin in vesicles.

  19. Raman discrimination of bacterial strains using multilayered microcavity substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv K.; Dykes, Ava C.; Misra, Anupam K.; Kamemoto, Lori E.; Bates, David E.

    2011-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) utilizing colloidal silver and gold has been demonstrated to provide a rapid means of measuring the Raman spectra of microorganisms in the fingerprint region. In this study, we have introduced microcavity substrates coated with alternating layers of silver and gold thin films for measuring the Raman spectra of four strains of E. coli. These microcavitiy substrates have been prepared by placing glass microspheres between two polished aluminum substrates and pressing them together using a standard lab press. After removing the glass microspheres from the substrates, the substrates have been coated with 15 to 70 nm thick films of chromium, silver and gold in a precise order. The cavities were evaluated for SERS enhancement by measuring Raman spectra of dilute rhodamine 6G (R6G) down to 10-8 M. With these microcavities, we have investigated the SERS spectra of four chemically competent strains of E. coli (One Shot OmniMAX 2-T1, Mach1-T1, Stbl3, and TOP10). Replicate SERS spectra of all the four e-coli strains show excellent reproducibility. Visual examination of the spectra, however, reveals differences in the spectra of these strains. To confirm this observation, we have used multivariate analysis for positive identification and discrimination between the strains.

  20. Stokes solitons in optical microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi-Fan; Yi, Xu; Yang, Ki Youl; Vahala, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Solitons are wave packets that resist dispersion through a self-induced potential well. They are studied in many fields, but are especially well known in optics on account of the relative ease of their formation and control in optical fibre waveguides. Besides their many interesting properties, solitons are important to optical continuum generation, in mode-locked lasers, and have been considered as a natural way to convey data over great distances. Recently, solitons have been realized in microcavities, thereby bringing the power of microfabrication methods to future applications. This work reports a soliton not previously observed in optical systems, the Stokes soliton. The Stokes soliton forms and regenerates by optimizing its Raman interaction in space and time within an optical potential well shared with another soliton. The Stokes and the initial soliton belong to distinct transverse mode families and benefit from a form of soliton trapping that is new to microcavities and soliton lasers in general. The discovery of a new optical soliton can impact work in other areas of photonics, including nonlinear optics and spectroscopy.

  1. Reaction cycle and thermodynamics in bacteriorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    Light causes the all-trans to 13-cis isomerization of the retinal in bacteriorhodopsin; the thermal relaxation leading back to the initial state drives proton transport first via proton transfer between the retinal Schiff base and D85 and then between the Schiff base and D96. The reaction sequence and thermodynamics of this photocycle are described by measuring time-resolved absorption changes with a gated multichannel analyzer between 100 ns and 100 ms, at six temperatures between 5 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Analysis of the energetics of the chromophore reaction sequence is on the basis of a recently proposed model (Varo & Lanyi, Biochemistry 30, 5016-5022, 1991) which consists of a single cycle and many reversible reactions: BR -hv-->KLM1-->M2NO-->BR. The existence of the M1-->M2 reaction, which functions as the switch in the proton transfer, is confirmed by spectroscopic evidence. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicate that the exchange of free energy between the protein and the protons is at the switch step. Further, a large entropy decrease at this reaction suggests a protein conformation change which will conserve delta G for driving the completion of the reaction cycle. The results provide insights to mechanism and energy coupling in this system, with possible relevance to the general question of how ion pumps function.

  2. Measurements of photoinduced refractive index changes in bacteriorhodopsin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravinder Kumar Banyal; B Raghavendra Prasad

    2007-03-01

    We report the pump-probe measurements of nonlinear refractive index changes in photochromic bacteriorhodopsin films. The photoinduced absorption is caused by pump beam at 532 nm and the accompanying refractive index changes are studied using a probe beam at 633 nm. The proposed technique is based on a convenient and accurate determination of optical path difference using digital interferometry-based local fringe shift. The results are presented for the wild-type as well as genetically modified D96N variant of the bacteriorhodopsin.

  3. Charge-controlled assembling of bacteriorhodopsin and semiconductor quantum dots for fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based nanophotonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchonville, Nicolas; Molinari, Michael; Sukhanova, Alyona; Artemyev, Mikhail; Oleinikov, Vladimir A.; Troyon, Michel; Nabiev, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and photochromic protein bacteriorhodopsin within its natural purple membrane (PM) is explored to monitor their assembling. It is shown that the efficiency of FRET may be controlled by variation of the surface charge and thickness of QD organic coating. Atomic force microscopy imaging revealed correlation between the surface charge of QDs and degree of their ordering on the surface of PM. The most FRET-efficient QD-PM complexes have the highest level of QDs ordering, and their assembling design may be further optimized to engineer hybrid materials with advanced biophotonic and photovoltaic properties.

  4. Near-field optical thin microcavity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiu Hui; Hou, Jiejie

    2016-01-01

    The thin microcavity theory for near-field optics is proposed in this study. By applying the power flow theorem and the variable theorem,the bi-harmonic differential governing equation for electromagnetic field of a three-dimensional thin microcavity is derived for the first time. Then by using the Hankel transform, this governing equation is solved exactly and all the electromagnetic components inside and outside the microcavity can be obtained accurately. According to the above theory, the near-field optical diffraction from a subwavelength aperture embedded in a thin conducting film is investigated, and numerical computations are performed to illustrate the edge effect by an enhancement factor of 1.8 and the depolarization phenomenon of the near-field transmission in terms of the distance from the film surface. This thin microcavity theory is verified by the good agreement between our results and those in the previous literatures. The thin microcavity theory presented in the study should be useful in the possible applications of the thin microcavities in near-field optics and thin-film optics.

  5. Optical CDMA system using bacteriorhodopsin for optical data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae; Yang; Jin; Lee; Park

    1999-11-01

    An optical CDMA (code division multiple access) system for the optical data storage using bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is reported as an application of the BR materials. The desired signal of multiple input can be recorded and reconstructed by use of orthogonal codes. An experimental setup is proposed and demonstrated.

  6. Aspartic acid substitutions affect proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, T; Stern, L J; Marti, T; Chao, B H; Khorana, H G

    1988-01-01

    We have substituted each of the aspartic acid residues in bacteriorhodopsin to determine their possible role in proton translocation by this protein. The aspartic acid residues were replaced by asparagines; in addition, Asp-85, -96, -115, and -112 were changed to glutamic acid and Asp-212 was also replaced by alanine. The mutant bacteriorhodopsin genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and the proteins were purified. The mutant proteins all regenerated bacteriorhodopsin-like chromophores when treated with a detergent-phospholipid mixture and retinal. However, the rates of regeneration of the chromophores and their lambda max varied widely. No support was obtained for the external point charge model for the opsin shift. The Asp-85----Asn mutant showed not detectable proton pumping, the Asp-96----Asn and Asp-212----Glu mutants showed less than 10% and the Asp-115----Glu mutant showed approximately equal to 30% of the normal proton pumping. The implications of these findings for possible mechanisms of proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin are discussed. PMID:3288985

  7. Energy transfer processes in semiconductor quantum dots: bacteriorhodopsin hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovich, Aliaksandra; Sukhanova, Alyona; Bouchonville, Nicolas; Molinari, Michael; Troyon, Michel; Cohen, Jacques H. M.; Rakovich, Yury; Donegan, John F.; Nabiev, Igor

    2009-05-01

    The potential impact of nanoscience on energy transfer processes in biomolecules was investigated on the example of a complex between fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and photochromic membrane protein. The interactions between colloidal CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and bacteriorhodopsin (bR) protein were studied by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including integrated and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies, zeta potential and size measurement, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. QDs' luminescence was found to be strongly modulated by bacteriorhodopsin, but in a controllable way. Decreasing emission lifetimes and blue shifts in QDs' emission at increasing protein concentrations suggest that quenching occurs via Förster resonance energy transfer. On the other hand, concave Stern-Volmer plots and sigmoidal photoluminescence quenching curves imply that the self-assembling of NCs and bR exists, and the number of nanocrystals (NCs) per bacteriorhodopsin contributing to energy transfer can be determined from the inflection points of sigmoidal curves. This number was found to be highly dependent not only on the spectral overlap between NC emission and bR absorption bands, but also on nanocrystal surface charge. These results demonstrate the potential of how inorganic nanoscale materials can be employed to improve the generic molecular functions of biomolecules. The observed interactions between CdTe nanocrystals and bacteriorhodopsin can provide the basis for the development of novel functional materials with unique photonic properties and applications in areas such as all-optical switching, photovoltaics and data storage.

  8. Signature of Wave Chaos in Spectral Characteristics of Microcavity Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Sunada, Satoshi; Fukushima, Takehiro; Harayama, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    We report the spectral characteristics of fully chaotic and non-chaotic microcavity lasers under continuous-wave operating conditions. It is found that fully chaotic microcavity lasers operate in single mode, whereas non-chaotic microcavity lasers operate in multimode. The suppression of multimode lasing for fully chaotic microcavity lasers is explained by large spatial overlaps of the resonance wave functions that spread throughout the two-dimensional cavity due to the ergodicity of chaotic ray orbits.

  9. Brillouin Optomechanics in Coupled Silicon Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Espinel, Yovanny A V; Luiz, Gustavo O; Alegre, Thiago P M; Wiederhecker, Gustavo S

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous control of optical and mechanical waves has enabled a range of fundamental and technological breakthroughs, from the demonstration of ultra-stable frequency reference devices to the exploration of the quantum-classical boundaries in laser-cooling experiments. More recently, such an opto-mechanical interaction has been observed in integrated nano-waveguides and microcavities in the Brillouin regime, where short-wavelength mechanical modes scatters light at several GHz. Here we engineer coupled optical microcavities spectra to enable a low threshold excitation of mechanical travelling-wave modes through backward stimulated Brillouin scattering. Exploring the backward scattering we propose microcavity designs supporting super high frequency modes ($\\sim25$ GHz) an large optomechanical coupling rates ($g_0/2\\pi \\sim 50$ kHz).

  10. Exceptional points in anisotropic planar microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Steffen; Michalsky, Tom; Sturm, Chris; Rosenow, Bernd; Grundmann, Marius; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger

    2017-02-01

    Planar microcavities allow the control and manipulation of spin polarization, manifested in phenomena like the optical spin Hall effect due to the intrinsic polarization mode splitting. Here, we study a transparent microcavity with broken rotational symmetry, realized by aligning the optic axis of a uniaxial cavity material in the cavity plane, giving rise to exceptional points in the dispersion relation. These occur pairwise, are circularly polarized, and are cores of polarization vortices. The exceptional points are result of the non-Hermitian character of the system and are in close relationship to singular optic axes in absorptive biaxial systems.

  11. Exceptional points in anisotropic planar microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Steffen; Sturm, Chris; Rosenow, Bernd; Grundmann, Marius; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Planar microcavities allow the control and manipulation of spin-polarization, manifested in phenomena like the optical spin Hall effect due to the intrinsic polarization mode splitting. Here, we study a transparent microcavity with broken rotational symmetry, realized by aligning the optical axis of a uniaxial cavity material in the cavity plane. We demonstrate that the in-plane optical anisotropy gives rise to exceptional points in the dispersion relation, which occur pair-wise, are circularly polarized, and are cores of polarization vortices. These exceptional points are a result of the non-Hermitian character of the system, and are in close relationship to singular optical axes in absorptive biaxial systems.

  12. Rotating optical microcavities with broken chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Raktim; Wiersig, Jan; Cao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate in open microcavities with broken chiral symmetry, quasi-degenerate pairs of co-propagating modes in a non-rotating cavity evolve to counter-propagating modes with rotation. The emission patterns change dramatically by rotation, due to distinct output directions of CW and CCW waves. By tuning the degree of spatial chirality, we maximize the sensitivity of microcavity emission to rotation. The rotation-induced change of emission is orders of magnitude larger than the Sagnac effect, pointing to a promising direction for ultrasmall optical gyroscopes.

  13. Do Cation-π Interactions Exist in Bacteriorhodopsin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kun-Sheng; WANG Guang-Yu; HE Jin-An

    2001-01-01

    Metal ions are essential to the structure and physiological functions of bacteriorhodopsin. Experimental evidence suggests the existence of specific cation binding to the negatively charged groups of Asp85 and Asp212 via an electrostatic interaction. However, only using electrostatic force is not enough to explain the role of the metal cations because the carboxylate of Asp85 is well known to be protonated in the M intermediate. Considering the presence of some aromatic amino acid residues in the vicinity of the retinal pocket, the existence of cation-π interactions between the metal cation and aromatic amino acid residues is suggested. Obviously, introduction of this kind of interaction is conducive to understanding the effects of the metal cations and aromatic amino acid residues inside the protein on the structural stability and proton pumping of bacteriorhodopsin.

  14. Illumination-dependent changes in the intrinsic fluorescence of bacteriorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolni, R. A.; Stubbs, L.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the intrinsic UV fluorescence of bacteriorhodopsin in some detail and determines the changes during the rapid cyclic reaction following light flashes. The results suggest that several tryptophan residues are affected in the protein, among them one or more exposed to aqueous medium. The kinetics of the fluorescence changes coincide closely with events involving the retinal residue during the deprotonation and reprotonation of the Schiff base group.

  15. All-optical logic-gates based on bacteriorhodopsin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Gui-Ying; Zhang Chun-Ping; Guo Zong-Xia; Tian Jian-Guo; Zhang Guang-Yin; Song Qi-Wang

    2005-01-01

    Based on self-diffraction in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) film, we propose all-optical NOT, XOR, half adder and XNOR logic operations. Using the relation between diffraction light and the polarization states of recording beams, we demonstrate NOT and XNOR logic operations. Studying the relation of polarization states among the diffracting, recording and reading beams, we implement XOR logic and half adder operations with three inputs. The methods are simple and practicable.

  16. Silicon-based electrically driven microcavity LED

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    A silicon pn-diode was embedded into a microcavity composed of a buried metal silicide as bottom reflector and a Si/SiO2 Bragg mirror as top reflector. Spectral narrowing and an increased intensity of the Si bandgap electroluminescence was observed.

  17. Ultranarrow polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    We have achieved a record high ratio (19) of the Rabi splitting (3.6 meV) to the polariton linewidth (190 mu eV), in a semiconductor lambda microcavity with a single 25 nm GaAs quantum well at the antinode. The narrow polariton lines are obtained with a special cavity design which reduces...

  18. Biexcitons or bipolaritons in a semiconductor microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Woggon, U

    2000-01-01

    A well-resolved nonlinear optical transition associated with biexcitons is observed in a high-quality microcavity with a Rabi splitting exceeding the binding energy of biexcitons in the embedded quantum well. This transition is identified as an induced absorption from the lower polariton to the b...

  19. Stimulated secondary emission from semiconductor microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Mizeikis, V.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    2001-01-01

    We find strong influence of final-state stimulation on the time-resolved light emission dynamics from semiconductor microcavities after pulsed excitation allowing angle-resonant polariton-polariton scattering on the lower-polariton branch. The polariton dynamics can be controlled by injection...

  20. Directional Secondary Emission of a Semiconductor Microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the time-resolved secondary emission of a homogeneously broadened microcavity after resonant excitation. The sample consists of a 25nm GaAs single quantum well (QW) in the center of a wedged ¥ë cavity with AlAs/AlGaAs Bragg reflectors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. At zero detun...

  1. Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossmann, Tobias; Schleede, Simone; Hauser, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We report on lasing in rhodamine 6G-doped, conical polymeric microcavities with high quality factors fabricated on a silicon substrate. Threshold pump energies as low as 3 nJ are achieved by free-space excitation in the quasistationary pumping regime with lasing wavelengths around 600 nm. Finite...

  2. Eigenmode Splitting in all Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Nitride Coupled Microcavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-Gao; HUANG Xin-Fan; CHEN Kun-Ji; QIAN Bo; CHEN San; DING Hong-Lin; LIU Sui; WANG Xiang; XU Jun; LI Wei

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride based coupled optical microcavity is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical calculation of the transmittance spectra of optical microcavity with one cavity and coupled microcavity with two-cavity is performed.The optical eigenmode splitting for coupled microcavity is found due to the interaction between the neighbouring localized cavities.Experimentally,the coupled cavity samples are prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition and characterized by photoluminescence measurements.It is found that the photoluminescence peak wavelength agrees well with the cavity mode in the calculated transmittance spectra.This eigenmode splitting is analogous to the electron state energy splitting in diatom molecules.

  3. Antenna-coupled microcavities for terahertz emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madéo, J., E-mail: Julien.madeo@univ-paris-diderot.fr; Todorov, Y.; Sirtori, C. [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, UMR7162, 75013 Paris (France)

    2014-01-20

    We have investigated the capacitive coupling between dipolar antennas and metal-dielectric-metal wire microcavities with strong sub-wavelength confinement in the terahertz region. The coupling appears in reflectivity measurements performed on arrays of antenna-coupled elements, which display asymmetric Fano lineshapes. The experimental data are compared to a temporal coupled-mode theory and finite elements electromagnetic simulations. We show that the Fano interferences correspond to coupling between a subradiant mode (microcavity) and a superradiant mode (antennas). This phenomenon allows one to enhance and control the radiative coupling of the strongly confined mode with the vacuum. These concepts are very useful for terahertz optoelectronic devices based on deep-sub-wavelength active regions.

  4. Glass-based 1-D dielectric microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasera, Alessandro; Scotognella, Francesco; Valligatla, Sreeramulu; Varas, Stefano; Jasieniak, Jacek; Criante, Luigino; Lukowiak, Anna; Ristic, Davor; Gonçalves, Rogeria Rocha; Taccheo, Stefano; Ivanda, Mile; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Ramponi, Roberta; Martucci, Alessandro; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a reliable RF sputtering techniques allowing to fabricate glass-based one dimensional microcavities, with high quality factor. This property is strongly related to the modification of the density of states due to the confinement of the gain medium in a photonic band gap structure. In this short review we present some of the more recent results obtained by our team exploiting these 1D microcavities. In particular we present: (1) Er3+ luminescence enhancement of the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition; (2) broad band filters based on disordered 1-D photonic structures; (3) threshold defect-mode lasing action in a hybrid structure.

  5. Photon properties of light in semiconductor microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangcun SHAN; Wei HUANG

    2009-01-01

    Properties of atom-like emitters in cavities are successfully described by cavity quantum electrodynamics(cavity-QED).In this work,we focus on the issue of the steady-state and spectral properties of the light emitted by a driven microcavity containing a quantum well (QW) with the excitonic interactions using simulation of fully quantum-mechanical treatment.The system is coherently pumped with laser,and it is found that depending on the relative values of pumping rate of stimulated emission,either one or two peaks close to the excitation energy of the QW or to the natural frequency of the cavity are shown in the emission spectrum.Furthermore,the nonclassical proprieties of the emitted photon have been investigated.This excitonic system presents several dynamical and statistical similarities to the atomic system,in particular for the bad-cavity and good-cavity limits.The results show that the photon emission can be significantly amplified due to the coupling strength between a single emitter and radiation field in the microcavity,and it is concluded that the present semiconductor microcavity system may serve as a QW laser with low threshold.

  6. Light-Induced Charge Separation and Transfer in Bacteriorhodopsin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yu-Hua; LI Qing-Guo; ZHAO You-Yuan; ZHANG Zhong-Bin; OU-YANG Xiao-Ping; GONG Qin-Gan; CHEN Ling-Bing; LI Fu-Ming; LIU Jian; DING Jian-Dong

    2000-01-01

    The photo-voltage signals in bacteriorhodopsin(bR) excited by 1064nm pulse laser are different from those by 532 or 355 nm. It shows that the positive and negative photoelectric signals are produced by the motion of the positive and negative charges, respectively, and more energy is needed for producing the positive charges than the negative. The mechanism of light-induced charge generation and charge transfer in bR was studied and analyzed by measuring the photoelectric signals with different impedance of measuring circuit and different pulse-width of 532 nm laser as pump light.

  7. The behaviours of optical novelty filter based on bacteriorhodopsin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Gui-Ying; Yuan Yi-Zhe; Liang Xin; Xu Tang; Zhang Chun-Ping; Song Qi-Wang

    2006-01-01

    The quality of the novelty filter image is investigated at different intensities of the incident blue and yellow beams irradiating a bacteriorhodopsin (bR) film. The relationship between the transmitted blue beams and the incident yellow beams is established. The results show that the contrast of the novelty filter image depends on the lifetime of longest lived photochemical state (M state). These results enable one to identify the direction of a moving object and to improve the quality of the novel filter image by prolonging the lifetime of M state.

  8. Mixed Potential Energy Surfaces of the Ultrafast Isomerization of Retinal in Bacteriorhodopsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorenko Valentyn I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We observe, using electronic two-dimensional photon echo spectroscopy, that the cis and trans potential energy surfaces of the ultrafast isomerization of retinal in bacteriorhodopsin are mixed via the hydrogen out of plane (HOOP mode.

  9. On-chip asymmetric microcavity optomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Soheil; Hudnut, Alexa W; Armani, Andrea M

    2016-12-26

    High quality factor (Q) optical resonators have enabled rapid growth in the field of cavity-enhanced, radiation pressure-induced optomechanics. However, because research has focused on axisymmetric devices, the observed regenerative excited mechanical modes are similar. In the present work, a strategy for fabricating high-Q whispering gallery mode microcavities with varying degrees of asymmetry is developed and demonstrated. Due to the combination of high optical Q and asymmetric device design, two previously unobserved modes, the asymmetric cantilever and asymmetric crown mode, are demonstrated with sub-mW thresholds for onset of oscillations. The experimental results are in good agreement with computational modeling predictions.

  10. Micro-Cavity Fluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Bjarne; Kristensen, Anders; Menon, Aric Kumaran

    2003-01-01

    We have successfully designed, fabricated and characterized a micro-cavity fluidic dye laser with metallic mirrors, which can be integrated with polymer based lab-on-a-chip microsystems without further processing steps. A simple rate-equation model is used to predict the average pumping power...... threshold for lasing as function of cavity-mirror reflectance, laser dye concentration and cavity length. The laser device is characterized using the laser dye Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol. Lasing is observed, and the influence of dye concentration is investigated....

  11. Microtorus a High Finesse Microcavity with Whispering-Gallery Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ilchenko, V S; Yao, X S; Maleki, L; Ilchenko, Vladimir S.; Gorodetsky, Michael L.; Maleki, Lute

    2000-01-01

    We have demonstrated a 165 micron oblate spheroidal microcavity with free spectral range 383.7 GHz (3.06nm), resonance bandwidth 25 MHz (Q ~ 10^7) at 1550nm, and finesse F > 10^4. The highly oblate spheroidal dielectric microcavity combines very high Q-factor, typical of microspheres, with vastly reduced number of excited whispering-gallery (WG) modes (by two orders of magnitude). The very large free spectral range in the novel microcavity - few hundred instead of few GigaHertz in typical microspheres - is desirable for applications in spectral analysis, narrow-linewidth optical and RF oscillators, and cavity QED.

  12. Proton transfer and energy coupling in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    A description of the rate constants and the energetics of the elementary reaction steps of the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin has been helpful in understanding the mechanism of proton transport in this light-driven pump. The evidence suggests a single unbranched reaction sequence, BR-hv----K in equilibrium with L in equilibrium with M1----M2 in equilibrium with N in equilibrium with O----BR, where coupling to the proton-motive force is at the energetically and mechanistically important M1----M2 step. The consequences of site-specific mutations expressed homologously in Halobacterium halobium have revealed characteristics of the Schiff base deprotonation in the L----M1 reaction, the reorientation of the Schiff base from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side in the M1----M2 reaction, and the reprotonation of the Schiff base in the M2----N reaction.

  13. Resonating properties of passive spherical optical microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Li(李文); Ruopeng Wang(王若鹏)

    2004-01-01

    As an optically pumped device, the lasing characteristics of a spherical microcavity laser depend on the optical pumping processes. These characteristics can be described in term of the Q factor and the optical field distribution in a microsphere. We derived analytical expressions and carried out numerical calculation for Q factor and optical field. The Q factor is found to be oscillatory functions of the radius of a microsphere and the pumping wavelength, and the pumping efficiency for a resonating microsphere is much higher than that for an anti-resonating microsphere. Using tunable lasers as pumping sources is suggested in order to achieve a higher pumping efficiency. Numerical calculation on optical field distribution in spherical microcavities shows that a well focused Gaussian beam is a suitable incident wave for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments in which strong confinement of optical field in the center of a microsphere is requested, but higher order spherical wave should be used instead for exciting whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microsphere lasers, for the purpose of favoring optical energy transferring to WGM in optical microspheres.

  14. Vapor Sensing Theoretical Study on Optical Microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Le-xin; ZHANG Ran; LI Zhi-quan

    2007-01-01

    When the organic vapors absorbed to the surface of porous silicon(PS), capillary condensation takes place due to the porous structure of the PS layer, accordingly resulting in the effective refractive index changing. For PS multi-layer microcavities, the different resonant peaks shift in the reflectivity spectrum of porous silicon microcavities(PSMs). The optical sensing model is set up by applying Bruggeman effective medium approximation theory, capillary condensation process and transfer matrix theoretically analytical method of one-dimensional photonic crystals. At the same time, comprehensively researched on are the sensing characteristics of PSMs which are exposed to give concentration organic vapors. At last, made is the theoretical simulation for sensing model of the PSMs in case of saturation by using computer numerical calculation, and found is the linearity relation between the refractive index of organic solvent and the peak-shift. At the same time deduced is the peak-shift as a function of the concentration of ethanol vapors.

  15. Dark Vibronic Polaritons and the Spectroscopy of Organic Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Organic microcavities are photonic nanostructures that strongly confine the electromagnetic field, allowing exotic quantum regimes of light-matter interaction with disordered organic semiconductors. The unambiguous interpretation of the spectra of organic microcavities has been a long-standing challenge due to several competing effects involving electrons, vibrations and cavity photons. Here we present a theoretical framework that is able to describe the main spectroscopic features of organic microcavities consistently. We introduce a class of light-matter excitations called dark vibronic polaritons, which strongly emit but only weakly absorb light in the same frequency region of the bare electronic transition. Successful comparison with experimental data demonstrates the applicability of our theory. The proposed microscopic understanding of organic microcavities paves the way for the development of optoelectronic devices enhanced by quantum optics.

  16. Microcavity effects in the photoluminescence of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpenguzel, Ali; Aydinli, Atilla; Bek, Alpan

    1998-07-01

    Fabry-Perot microcavities are used for the alteration of photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride grown with and without ammonia. The photoluminescence is red-near-infrared for the samples grown without ammonia, and blue-green for the samples grown with ammonia. In the Fabry- Perot microcavities, the amplitude of the photoluminescence is enhanced, while its linewidth is reduced with respect to the bulk hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride. The microcavity was realized by a metallic back mirror and a hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride--air or a metallic front mirror. The transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance spectra were also measured and calculated. The calculated spectra agree well with the experimental spectra. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride microcavity has potential for becoming a versatile silicon based optoelectronic device such as a color flat panel display, a resonant cavity enhanced light emitting diode, or a laser.

  17. Photonic Crystal Microcavities for Quantum Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Jenna Nicole

    Quantum information science and technology is a broad and fascinating field, encompassing diverse research areas such as materials science, atomic physics, superconductors, solid-state physics, and photonics. A goal of this field is to demonstrate the basic functions of information initialization, manipulation, and read-out in systems that take advantage of quantum physics to greatly enhance computing performance capabilities. In a hybrid quantum information network, different systems are used to perform different functions, to best exploit the advantageous properties of each system. For example, matter quantum bits (qubits) can be used for local data storage and manipulation while photonic qubits can be used for long-distance communication between storage points of the network. Our research focuses on the following two solid-state realizations of a matter qubit for the purpose of building such a hybrid quantum network: the electronic spin of a self-assembled indium arsenide quantum dot and the electronic spin of a nitrogen-vacancy defect center in diamond. Light--matter interactions are necessary to transfer the information from the matter qubit to the photonic qubit, and this interaction can be enhanced by embedding the spin system in an optical cavity. We focus on photonic crystal microcavities for this purpose, and we study interactions between the optical cavity modes and incorporated spin systems. To improve the performance of this spin--photon interface, it is important to maximize the coupling strength between the spin and photonic systems and to increase the read-out efficiency of information stored in the cavity. In this thesis, we present our work to deterministically couple a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond to a photonic crystal microcavity in gallium phosphide. This is achieved by nanopositioning a pre-selected diamond nanocrystal in the intensity maximum of the optical cavity mode. We also present an optimized design of a photonic crystal

  18. Optical Microcavity: Sensing down to Single Molecules and Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Su

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses fundamentals of dielectric, low-loss, optical micro-resonator sensing, including figures of merit and a variety of microcavity designs, and future perspectives in microcavity-based optical sensing. Resonance frequency and quality (Q factor are altered as a means of detecting a small system perturbation, resulting in realization of optical sensing of a small amount of sample materials, down to even single molecules. Sensitivity, Q factor, minimum detectable index change, noises (in sensor system components and microcavity system including environments, microcavity size, and mode volume are essential parameters to be considered for optical sensing applications. Whispering gallery mode, photonic crystal, and slot-type microcavities typically provide compact, high-quality optical resonance modes for optical sensing applications. Surface Bloch modes induced on photonic crystals are shown to be a promising candidate thanks to large field overlap with a sample and ultra-high-Q resonances. Quantum optics effects based on microcavity quantum electrodynamics (QED would provide novel single-photo-level detection of even single atoms and molecules via detection of doublet vacuum Rabi splitting peaks in strong coupling.

  19. Exciton Polaritons in Microcavities New Frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Sanvitto, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a burst of new and fascinating physics associated to the unique properties of two-dimensional exciton polaritons, their recent demonstration of condensation under non-equilibrium conditions and all the related quantum phenomena, which have stimulated extensive research work. This monograph summarizes the current state of the art of research on exciton polaritons in microcavities: their interactions, fast dynamics, spin-dependent phenomena, temporal and spatial coherence, condensation under non-equilibrium conditions, related collective quantum phenomena and most advanced applications. The monograph is written by the most active authors who have strongly contributed to the advances in this area. It is of great interests to both physicists approaching this subject for the first time, as well as a wide audience of experts in other disciplines who want to be updated on this fast moving field.

  20. Structure and function in bacteriorhodopsin: the role of the interhelical loops in the folding and stability of bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J M; Booth, P J; Allen, S J; Khorana, H G

    2001-04-27

    Bacteriorhodopsin functions as a light-driven proton pump in Halobacterium salinarium. The functional protein consists of an apoprotein, bacterioopsin, with seven transmembrane alpha helices together with a covalently bound all-trans retinal chromophore. In order to study the role of the interhelical loop conformations in the structure and function of bacteriorhodopsin, we have constructed bacterioopsin genes where each loop is replaced, one at a time, by a peptide linker consisting of Gly-Gly-Ser- repeat sequences, which are believed to have flexible conformations. These mutant proteins have been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and reconstituted with all-trans retinal in l-alpha-1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/3-(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS)/SDS and l-alpha-1,2-dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC)/DMPC/SDS micelles. Wild-type-like chromophore formation was observed in all the mutants containing single loop replacements. In the BC and FG mutants, an additional chromophore band with an absorption band at about 480 nm was observed, which was in equilibrium with the 550 nm, wild-type band. The position of the equilibrium depended on temperature, SDS and relative DMPC concentration. The proton pumping activity of all of the mutants was comparable to that of wild-type bR except for the BC and FG mutants, which had lower activity. All of the loop mutants were more sensitive to denaturation by SDS than the wild-type protein, except the mutant where the DE loop was replaced. These results suggest that a specific conformation of all the loops of bR, except the DE loop, contributes to bR stability and is required for the correct folding and function of the protein. An increase in the relative proportion of DHPC in DHPC/DMPC micelles, which reduces the micelle rigidity and alters the micelle shape, resulted in lower folding yields of all loop mutants except the BC and DE mutants. This effect of micelle rigidity on

  1. Dynamic Behaviour of Self-Diffraction in Bacteriorhodopsin Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zong-Xia; CHEN Gui-Ying; ZHANG Chun-Ping; TIAN Jian-Guo; Q. Wang Song; SHEN Bin; FU Guang-Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ We investigate the dependences of the diffraction efficiency of the first order self-diffracted beam in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) films on the illumination time, the intensity and wavelength of the incident light. When the blue light (λ = 488 nm) and low intensity red light (λ = 632.8 nm) are incident on the bR film respectively,the diffraction efficiencies increase from zero to a stable value with the illumination time. When the green light (λ = 533 nm) and high-intensity red light illuminate the bR film respectively, the diffraction efficiencies increase from zero to the maximum and then decrease to a stable value with the illumination time. Rise and decay times are dependent on the intensity and wavelength of the incident light. The maximaldiffraction efficiency of the red light is twice as high as that of the green light. The highest diffraction efficiency of 5.4% is obtained at 633nm.The diffraction efficiency change with the time for the green light is larger than that for the blue and red light.

  2. Transient Fourier holography with bacteriorhodopsin films for breast cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Devulapalli; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekar; Wu, Pengfei; Yelleswarapu, Chandra

    X-ray mammography is the current gold standard for breast cancer screening. Microcalcifications and other features which are helpful to the radiologist for early diagnostics are often buried in the noise generated by the surrounding dense tissue. So image processing techniques are required to enhance these important features to improve the sensitivity of detection. An innovative technique is demonstrated for recording a hologram of the mammogram. It is recorded on a thin polymer film of Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) as photo induced isomerization grating containing the interference pattern between the object beam containing the Fourier spatial frequency components of the mammogram and a reference beam. The hologram contains all the enhanced features of the mammogram. A significant innovation of the technique is that the enhanced components in the processed image can be viewed by the radiologist in time scale. A technician can record the movie and when the radiologist looks at the movie at his convenience, freezing the frame as and when desired, he would see the microcalcifications as the brightest and last long in time. He would also observe lesions with intensity decreasing as their size increases. The same bR film can be used repeatedly for recording holograms with different mammograms. The technique is versatile and a different frequency band can be chosen to be optimized by changing the reference beam intensity. The experimental arrangement can be used for mammograms in screen film or digital format.

  3. Electron microscopic observation and rotational diffusion measurement of bacteriorhodopsin in lipid vesicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Kunsheng

    2001-01-01

    [1]Stoeckenius, W.. Bacterial rhodopsins: Evolution of a mechanistic model for the ion pumps, Protein Science, 1999, 8: 447.[2]Ebrey. T. G, Light energy transduction in bacteriorhodopsin, in Thermodynamics of Membranes, Receptors and Channels (ed. Jackson. M.), New York: CRC Press, 1993. 353-387.[3]Lanyi. J. K.. Understanding structure and function in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, J. Struct. Biol., 1998,l24: 164.[4]Quay. S. C., Condie. C. C., Conformational studies of aqueous melittin: Thermodynamic parameters of the monomer-tetramer self-association reaction. Biochemistry, 1983, 22: 695.[5]Habermann. E.. Bee and wasp venoms. Science, 1972, 177: 314.[6]Tosteson. M. T., Holmes. S. J., Razin. M. et al., Melitton lysis of red cells, J. Membr. Biol., 1985, 87: 35.[7]Hu, K. S., Dufton, M. J., Morrison, I. E. G. et al., Cherry interaction of bee venom melittin with bacteriorhodopsin in lipid vesicles: Protein rotational diffusion measurement. Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 1985, 816(2): 358.[8]Shi, H., Hu, K. S., Huang, Y. et al., Effect of melittin on photocycle and photoresponse of purple membrane: sites of interaction between bacteriorhodopsin and melittin, Photochemistry and Photobiology, 1993, 58(3): 413.[9]Jiang. Q. X., Hu, K. S.. Shi. H., Interaction of both melittin and its site-specific mutants with bacteriorhodopsin of Halobacterium halobium: sites of electrostatic interaction on melittin Photochemistry and Photobiology, 1994, 60(2): 175.[10]Doebler, R., Basaran. N.. Goldston H. et al., Effect of protein aggregation into aqueous phase on the binding of membrane proteins to membranes, Biophys. J., 1999, 76: 928.[11]Rehorek, M., Heyn, M. P, Binding of all-trans-retinal to the purple membrane, Evidence for cooperativity and determination of the extinction coefficient, Biochemistry, 1979, 18: 4977.[12]Chen. P. S. Jr.. Toribara, T. Y., Warner, H., Microdetermination of phosphorous, Anal. Chem., t956, 28

  4. Interaction between dual cavity modes in a planar photonic microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Elizabeth; Nair, Rajesh V.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically study the interaction between dual cavity modes in a planar photonic microcavity structure in the optical communication wavelength range. The merging and splitting of cavity mode is analysed with realistic microcavity structures. The merging of dual cavity resonance into a single cavity resonance is achieved by changing the number of layers between the two cavities. The splitting of single cavity resonance into dual cavity resonance is obtained with an increase in the reflectivity of mirrors in the front and rear side of the microcavity structure. The threshold condition for the merging and splitting of cavity mode is established in terms of structural parameters. The physical origin of the merging of dual cavity modes into a single cavity resonance is discussed in terms of the electric field intensity distribution in the microcavity structure. The microcavity structure with dual cavity modes is useful for the generation of entangled photon pairs, for achieving the strong-coupling regime between exciton and photon and for high-resolution multi-wavelength filters in optical communication.

  5. Design of a photonic crystal microcavity for biosensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Junhua; Kan Qiang; Wang Chunxia; Su Baoqing; Xie Yiyang; Chen Hongda

    2011-01-01

    We have designed an air-bridged PhC microcavity with high sensitivity and a high quality factor.The structure parameters of the microcavity are optimized by three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method.We compare the performance of a silicon-on-insulator PhC microcavity and an air-bridged PhC microcavity,and analyze the effect of the thickness of the slab and the radius of the defect hole on the performance of the air-bridged PhC microcavity.For a thinner slab and a larger defect hole,the sensitivity is higher while the quality factor is lower.For the air-bridged photonic crystal slab,the sensitivity can reach 320-nm/RIU (refractive index unit) while the quality factor keeps a relatively high value of 120 by selecting the proper slab thickness and the defect hole radius,respectively,when the refractive index is 1.33.This is meaningful for low-detection-limit biosensing.

  6. Tuning a microcavity-coupled terahertz laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Vezio; Vitiello, Miriam S., E-mail: miriam.vitiello@sns.it [NEST, CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Li, Lianhe; Zhu, Jingxuan; Linfield, Edmund H.; Giles Davies, A. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Tredicucci, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 6, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-12-28

    Tunable oscillators are a key component of almost all electronic and photonic systems. Yet, a technology capable of operating in the terahertz (THz)-frequency range and fully suitable for widescale implementation is still lacking. This issue is significantly limiting potential THz applications in gas sensing, high-resolution spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, and optical communications. The THz quantum cascade laser is arguably the most promising solution in terms of output power and spectral purity. In order to achieve reliable, repeatable, and broad tunability, here we exploit the strong coupling between two different cavity mode concepts: a distributed feedback one-dimensional photonic resonator (providing gain) and a mechanically actuated wavelength-size microcavity (providing tuning). The result is a continuously tunable, single-mode emitter covering a 162 GHz spectral range, centered on 3.2 THz. Our source has a few tens of MHz resolution, extremely high differential efficiency, and unprecedented compact and simple design architecture. By unveiling the large potential that lies in this technique, our results provide a robust platform for radically different THz systems exploiting broadly tunable semiconductor lasers.

  7. Stroing single-photons in microcavities arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Imran M.; Enk, S. J. Van; Kimble, H. J.

    2014-03-01

    Coupling light to arrays of microcavities is one of the most promising avenues to store/delay classical light pulses [F. Krauss, Nat. Phot. 2, 448-450 (2008)]. However, from the perspective of benefiting quantum communication protocols, the same ideas in principle can be extended down to the single-photon (quantum) level as well. Particularly, for the purposes of entanglement purification and quantum repeaters a reliable storage of single photons is needed. We consider in our work [I. M. Mirza, S. Van Enk, H. Kimble JOSA B, 30,10 (2013)] cavities that are coupled through an optical fiber which is assumed to be forming a Markovian bath. For this study two powerful open quantum system techniques, Input-Output theory for cascaded quantum systems and the Quantum Trajectory approach are used in combination. For the confirmation of photon delays the Time-Dependent Spectrum of such a single photon is obtained. Interestingly this leads to a hole-burning effect showing that only certain frequency components in the single photon wavepackets are stored inside the cavities and hence are delayed in time. Since on-demand production of single photons is not an easy task we include in our description the actual generation of the single photon by assuming a single emitter in one the resonators.

  8. Quantum nonlinear optics with polar J-aggregates in microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Felipe; Pachon, Leonardo A; Saikin, Semion K; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-01-01

    We show that an ensemble of organic dye molecules with permanent electric dipole moments embedded in a microcavity can lead to strong optical nonlinearities at the single photon level. The strong long-range electrostatic interaction between chromophores due to their permanent dipoles introduces the desired nonlinearity of the light-matter coupling in the microcavity. We obtain the absorption spectra of a weak probe field under the influence of strong exciton-photon coupling with the cavity field. Using realistic parameters, we demonstrate that a single cavity photon can significantly modify the absorptive and dispersive response of the medium to a probe photon at a different frequency. Finally, we show that the system is in the regime of cavity-induced transparency with a broad transparency window for dye dimers. We illustrate our findings using pseudoisocyanine chloride (PIC) J-aggregates in currently-available optical microcavities.

  9. Flip-chip light emitting diode with resonant optical microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James M.; Bogart, Katherine H.A.; Fischer, Arthur J.

    2005-11-29

    A flip-chip light emitting diode with enhanced efficiency. The device structure employs a microcavity structure in a flip-chip configuration. The microcavity enhances the light emission in vertical modes, which are readily extracted from the device. Most of the rest of the light is emitted into waveguided lateral modes. Flip-chip configuration is advantageous for light emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on dielectric substrates (e.g., gallium nitride LEDs grown on sapphire substrates) in general due to better thermal dissipation and lower series resistance. Flip-chip configuration is advantageous for microcavity LEDs in particular because (a) one of the reflectors is a high-reflectivity metal ohmic contact that is already part of the flip-chip configuration, and (b) current conduction is only required through a single distributed Bragg reflector. Some of the waveguided lateral modes can also be extracted with angled sidewalls used for the interdigitated contacts in the flip-chip configuration.

  10. A Fabry-Perot Microcavity for Diamond-Based Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Janitz, Erika; Dimock, Mark; Bourassa, Alexandre; Sankey, Jack; Childress, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Open Fabry-Perot microcavities represent a promising route for achieving a quantum electrodynamics (cavity-QED) platform with diamond-based emitters. In particular, they offer the opportunity to introduce high purity, minimally fabricated material into a tunable, high quality factor optical resonator. Here, we demonstrate a fiber-based microcavity incorporating a thick (> 10 {\\mu}m) diamond membrane with a finesse of 17,000, corresponding to a quality factor Q ~ $10^6$. Such minimally fabricated, thick samples can contain optically stable emitters similar to those found in bulk diamond. We observe modified microcavity spectra in the presence of the membrane, and develop analytic and numerical models to describe the effect of the membrane on cavity modes, including loss and coupling to higher-order transverse modes. We estimate that a Purcell enhancement of approximately 20 should be possible for emitters within the diamond in this device, and provide evidence that better diamond surface treatments and mirror ...

  11. Toluene optical fibre sensor based on air microcavity in PDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacik, Daniel; Martincek, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    We prepared and demonstrated a compact, simple-to-fabricate, air microcavity in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) placed at the end of a single-mode optical fibre. This microcavity creates a Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor able to measure concentrations of toluene vapour in air. Operation of the sensor is provided by diffusion of the toluene vapour to the PDMS, and the consequent extension of length d of the air microcavity in PDMS. The sensor response for the presence of vapours is fast and occurs within a few seconds. By using the prepared sensor toluene vapour concentration in air can be measured in the range from about 0.833 g.m-3 to saturation, with better sensitivity than 0.15 nm/g.m-3 up to maximal sensitivity 1.4 nm/g.m-3 at around concentration 100 g.m-3 in time 5 s.

  12. Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nga Chen, Yuk; Todorov, Yanko, E-mail: yanko.todorov@univ-paris-diderot.fr; Askenazi, Benjamin; Vasanelli, Angela; Sirtori, Carlo [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS-UMR 7162, 75013 Paris (France); Biasiol, Giorgio [IOM CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Area Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Colombelli, Raffaele [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, Université Paris Sud, CNRS-UMR 8622, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2014-01-20

    We demonstrate mid-infrared detectors embedded into an array of double-metal nano-antennas. The antennas act as microcavities that squeeze the electric field into thin semiconductor layers, thus enhancing the detector responsivity. Furthermore, thanks to the ability of the antennas to gather photons from an area larger than the device's physical dimensions, the dark current is reduced without hindering the photo-generation rate. In these devices, the background-limited performance is improved with a consequent increase of the operating temperature. Our results illustrate how the antenna-coupled microcavity concept can be applied to enhance the performances of infrared opto-electronic devices.

  13. Black Phosphorus based One-dimensional Photonic Crystals and Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Kriegel, I

    2016-01-01

    The latest achievements in the fabrication of black phosphorus thin layers, towards the technological breakthrough of a phosphorene atomically thin layer, are paving the way for a their employment in electronics, optics, and optoelectronics. In this work, we have simulated the optical properties of one-dimensional photonic structures, i.e. photonic crystals and microcavities, in which few-layer black phosphorus is one of the components. The insertion of the 5 nm black phosphorous layers leads to a photonic band gap in the photonic crystals and a cavity mode in the microcavity interesting for light manipulation and emission enhancement.

  14. Coupled optical microcavities: an enhanced refractometric sensing configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yun-Feng; Gaddam, Venkat; Yang, Lan

    2008-08-18

    We theoretically investigate the application of coupled optical microcavities as refractive index sensors. Coupled microcavities support a very sharp asymmetrical Fano resonance, which gives rise to faster changes in output transmission than the changes from a single cavity. With the output transmission at a fixed wavelength that varies much faster than it does in a single-cavity resonance, the result is enhanced sensitivity of the device to the changes in refractive index. In addition, it is observed that both thermal and optical Kerr effects can be utilized to improve the sensitivity.

  15. Coherent dynamics of biexcitons in a semiconductor microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, P.; Langbein, W.; Woggon, U.

    2002-01-01

    The dephasing time of biexcitons in a semiconductor quantum well microcavity is measured at low temperature using transient four-wave mixing spectroscopy. The homogeneous linewidth corresponding to the dephasing of the transition from the crystal ground state to the biexciton is found to be appro......The dephasing time of biexcitons in a semiconductor quantum well microcavity is measured at low temperature using transient four-wave mixing spectroscopy. The homogeneous linewidth corresponding to the dephasing of the transition from the crystal ground state to the biexciton is found...

  16. Fundamentals of photoelectric effects in molecular electronic thin film devices: applications to bacteriorhodopsin-based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, F T

    1995-01-01

    This tutorial lecture focuses on the fundamental mechanistic aspects of light-induced charge movements in pigment-containing membranes. The topic is relevant to molecular electronics because many prototypes optoelectronic devices are configured as pigment-containing thin films. We use reconstituted bacteriorhodopsin membranes as an example to illustrate the underlying principle of measurements and data interpretation. Bacteriorhodopsin, a light-driven proton pump, is the only protein component in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium. It resembles the visual pigment rhodopsin chemically but performs the function of photosynthesis. Bacteriorhodopsin thus offers an unprecedented opportunity for us to compare the visual photoreceptor and the photosynthetic apparatus from a mechanistic point of view. Bacteriorhodopsin, well known for its exceptional chemical and mechanical stability, is also a popular advanced biomaterial for molecular device construction. The tutorial approaches the subject from two angles. First, the fundamental photoelectric properties are exploited for device construction. Second, basic design principles for photosensors and photon energy converters can be elucidated via 'reverse engineering'. The concept of molecular intelligence and the principle of biomimetic science are discussed.

  17. Trapping the M sub 1 and M sub 2 substrates of bacteriorhodopsin for electron diffraction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, G.A.

    1992-05-01

    Visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopies are used to observe protein conformational changes occuring during the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. Spectroscopic measurements which define the conditions under which bacteriorhodopsin can be isolated and trapped in two distinct substates of the m intermediate of the photocycle, M{sub 1}, and M{sub 2}, are described. A protocol that can be used for high-resolution electron diffraction studies is presented that will trap glucose-embedded purple membrane in the M{sub 1}and M{sub 2} substates at greater than 90% concentration. It was discovered that glucose alone does not provide a fully hydrated environment for bacteriorhodopsin. Equilibration of glucose-embedded samples at high humidity can result in a physical state that is demonstrably closer to the native, fully hydrated state. An extension of the C-T Model of bacteriorhodopsin functionality (Fodor et al., 1988; Mathies et al., 1991) is proposed based on FTIR results and guided by published spectra from resonance Raman and FTIR work. 105 refs.

  18. Optical and electric signals from dried oriented purple membrane of bacteriorhodopsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth-Boconádi, R; Dér, A; Keszthelyi, L

    2011-04-01

    All the intermediates of the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle are excitable with light of suitable wavelength. This property might regulate the activity in the cells when they are exposed in the nature to high light intensity. On the other hand this property is involved in many applications. In this study the ground state and M intermediate of dried oriented samples of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin and its mutant D96N were excited with 406 nm laser flashes. Substantial M populations were generated with quasi-continuous illumination. The decay of the absorption of M intermediate had three components: their lifetimes were very different for laser flash and quasi-continuous illuminations in cases of both bacteriorhodopsin species. The optical answer for the excitation of M intermediate had a lifetime of 2.2 ms. Electric signals for M excitation had large fast negative components and small positive components in the 100 μs time domain. The results are expected to have important implications for bioelectronic applications of bacteriorhodopsin.

  19. Investigation of biosensor built with photonic crystal microcavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling Wang; Naiguang Lü; Qiaofeng Tan; Guofan Jin

    2008-01-01

    The ultra-compact biosensor based on the two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PhC) microcavity is investigated. The performances of the sensor are analyzed theoretically using the Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity model and simulated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulation results go along with the theoretical analysis.

  20. High Q-factor micro-cavity laser: Fabrication and lasing emission properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Van Hoi; Ha Xuan Vinh; Chu Thi Thu Ha; Tran Thi Cham [Institute of Materials Science, Vietname Academy of Science and Technology 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bui Van Thien [Faculty of Natural Science, College of Medicine, Thai Nguyen (Viet Nam); Gruzintsev, A N [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPMT-RAS) (Russian Federation)], E-mail: hoipv@ims.vast.ac.vn

    2009-09-01

    In this article the fabrication method and lasing emission properties of High-Q micro-cavity lasers based on High-concentration Erbium-doped silica-alumina glasses are presented in detail. The configurations of micro-cavities were spherical and/or modified toroidal forms. The lasing threshold of micro-cavity laser pumped by laser diodes was of hundred micro-watts and Q-factor of cavity had been achieved up-to 10{sup 8} in experiment. The emission power of one whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) lasing from micro-cavity laser was of 0.05-0.5 mW that would be enough for applying in the quantum information and optical sensor techniques. The modified toroidal micro-cavity permits to decrease the polar-mode of WGMs, which help to obtain the single-mode emission from micro-cavity lasers.

  1. On-chip three-dimensional high-Q microcavities fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jintian; Yu, Shangjie; Ma, Yaoguang; Fang, Wei; Fei HE; Qiao, Lingling; Tong, Limin; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

    2011-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) high-Q whispering gallery microcavities on a fused silica chip by femtosecond laser microfabriction, enabled by the 3D nature of femtosecond laser direct writing. The processing mainly consists of formation of freestanding microdisks by femtosecond laser direct writing and subsequent wet chemical etching. CO2 laser annealing is followed to smooth the microcavity surface. Microcavities with arbitrary tilting angle, lateral and vertical pos...

  2. Quantum yields for the light adaptations in Anabaena sensory rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoichiro; Kawanabe, Akira; Furutani, Yuji; Kandori, Hideki; Ohtani, Hiroyuki

    2008-02-01

    Archael-type rhodopsin has an all- trans or a 13- cis retinal. The light-induced interconversion between these two forms has been found in Anabaena sensory rhodopsin, even though only the photoreaction from the 13- cis form to the all- trans form exists in bacteriorhodopsin. In this study, we obtained the quantum yields for the 13- cis → all- trans and all- trans → 13- cis reactions of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (0.24 ± 0.03 and 0.38 ± 0.07, respectively) and concluded that these values were independent of the wavelength of the excitation light as well as bacteriorhodopsin. In other words, no excess energy effects can be found in these reactions.

  3. Comparison of Free Spectral Range and Quality Factor for Two-Dimensional Square and Circular Microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国伟华; 黄永箴; 陆巧银; 于丽娟

    2004-01-01

    Free spectral range of whispering-gallery (WG)-like modes in a two-dimensional (2D) square microcavity is found to be twice that in a 2D circular microcavity. The quality factor of the WG-like mode with the low mode number in a 2D square microcavity, calculated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique and the Pade approximation method, is found to exceed that of the WG mode in 2D circular microcavity with the same cavity dimension and close mode wavelength.

  4. The 3rd-order nonlinearity of bacteriorhodopsin by four-wave mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The 3rd-order nonlinear optical susceptibility X(3) and the response time of the light-transducing biomolecule bacteriorhodopsin were measured with the four-wave mixing technique and a picosecond frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser(532nm).The X(3) and the response time measured are 10-9 esu and 20 ps,respectively.The possible mechanism for generating the 3rd-order nonlinear optical susceptibility X(3) and response time were discussed.

  5. Unraveling the mechanism of proton translocation in the extracellular half-channel of bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaoxia; Gunner, M R

    2016-05-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin, a light activated protein that creates a proton gradient in halobacteria, has long served as a simple model of proton pumps. Within bacteriorhodopsin, several key sites undergo protonation changes during the photocycle, moving protons from the higher pH cytoplasm to the lower pH extracellular side. The mechanism underlying the long-range proton translocation between the central (the retinal Schiff base SB216, D85, and D212) and exit clusters (E194 and E204) remains elusive. To obtain a dynamic view of the key factors controlling proton translocation, a systematic study using molecular dynamics simulation was performed for eight bacteriorhodopsin models varying in retinal isomer and protonation states of the SB216, D85, D212, and E204. The side-chain orientation of R82 is determined primarily by the protonation states of the residues in the EC. The side-chain reorientation of R82 modulates the hydrogen-bond network and consequently possible pathways of proton transfer. Quantum mechanical intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations of proton-transfer in the methyl guanidinium-hydronium-hydroxide model system show that proton transfer via a guanidinium group requires an initial geometry permitting proton donation and acceptance by the same amine. In all the bacteriorhodopsin models, R82 can form proton wires with both the CC and the EC connected by the same amine. Alternatively, rare proton wires for proton transfer from the CC to the EC without involving R82 were found in an O' state where the proton on D85 is transferred to D212.

  6. Theoretical and experimental analysis of pulse delay in bacteriorhodopsin films by a saturable absorber theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Salvador; Candela, Manuel; Acebal, Pablo; Carretero, Luis; Fimia, Antonio

    2014-05-19

    Time-delay of transmitted pulses with respect to the incident pulse in bacteriorhodopsin films has been studied without the use of a pump beam. Based on a modified saturable absorber model, analytical expressions of the transmitted pulse have been obtained. As a result, time delay, distortion and fractional delay have been analyzed for sinusoidal pulses with a low background. A good agreement between theory and experiences has been observed.

  7. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli-expressed Haloarcula marismortui bacteriorhodopsin I in the trimeric form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Shevchenko

    Full Text Available Bacteriorhodopsins are a large family of seven-helical transmembrane proteins that function as light-driven proton pumps. Here, we present the crystal structure of a new member of the family, Haloarcula marismortui bacteriorhodopsin I (HmBRI D94N mutant, at the resolution of 2.5 Å. While the HmBRI retinal-binding pocket and proton donor site are similar to those of other archaeal proton pumps, its proton release region is extended and contains additional water molecules. The protein's fold is reinforced by three novel inter-helical hydrogen bonds, two of which result from double substitutions relative to Halobacterium salinarum bacteriorhodopsin and other similar proteins. Despite the expression in Escherichia coli and consequent absence of native lipids, the protein assembles as a trimer in crystals. The unique extended loop between the helices D and E of HmBRI makes contacts with the adjacent protomer and appears to stabilize the interface. Many lipidic hydrophobic tail groups are discernible in the membrane region, and their positions are similar to those of archaeal isoprenoid lipids in the crystals of other proton pumps, isolated from native or native-like sources. All these features might explain the HmBRI properties and establish the protein as a novel model for the microbial rhodopsin proton pumping studies.

  8. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli-expressed Haloarcula marismortui bacteriorhodopsin I in the trimeric form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vitaly; Gushchin, Ivan; Polovinkin, Vitaly; Round, Ekaterina; Borshchevskiy, Valentin; Utrobin, Petr; Popov, Alexander; Balandin, Taras; Büldt, Georg; Gordeliy, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriorhodopsins are a large family of seven-helical transmembrane proteins that function as light-driven proton pumps. Here, we present the crystal structure of a new member of the family, Haloarcula marismortui bacteriorhodopsin I (HmBRI) D94N mutant, at the resolution of 2.5 Å. While the HmBRI retinal-binding pocket and proton donor site are similar to those of other archaeal proton pumps, its proton release region is extended and contains additional water molecules. The protein's fold is reinforced by three novel inter-helical hydrogen bonds, two of which result from double substitutions relative to Halobacterium salinarum bacteriorhodopsin and other similar proteins. Despite the expression in Escherichia coli and consequent absence of native lipids, the protein assembles as a trimer in crystals. The unique extended loop between the helices D and E of HmBRI makes contacts with the adjacent protomer and appears to stabilize the interface. Many lipidic hydrophobic tail groups are discernible in the membrane region, and their positions are similar to those of archaeal isoprenoid lipids in the crystals of other proton pumps, isolated from native or native-like sources. All these features might explain the HmBRI properties and establish the protein as a novel model for the microbial rhodopsin proton pumping studies.

  9. Femtosecond spectroscopic study of photochromic reactions of bacteriorhodopsin and visual rhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Tatiana B; Smitienko, Olga A; Shelaev, Ivan V; Gostev, Fedor E; Nekrasova, Oksana V; Dolgikh, Dmitriy A; Nadtochenko, Victor A; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Ostrovsky, Mikhail A

    2016-11-01

    Photochromic ultrafast reactions of bacteriorhodopsin (H. salinarum) and bovine rhodopsin were conducted with a femtosecond two-pump probe pulse setup with the time resolution of 20-25fs. The dynamics of the forward and reverse photochemical reactions for both retinal-containing proteins was compared. It is demonstrated that when retinal-containing proteins are excited by femtosecond pulses, dynamics pattern of the vibrational coherent wave packets in the course of the reaction is different for bacteriorhodopsin and visual rhodopsin. As shown in these studies, the low-frequencies that form a wave packets experimentally observed in the dynamics of primary products formation as a result of retinal photoisomerization have different intensities and are clearer for bovine rhodopsin. Photo-reversible reactions for both retinal proteins were performed from the stage of the relatively stable photointermediates that appear within 3-5ps after the light pulse impact. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the reverse phototransition K-form→bacteriorhodopsin is almost five-fold higher than that of the Batho-intermediate→visual rhodopsin phototransition. The results obtained indicate that in the course of evolution the intramolecular mechanism of the chromophore-protein interaction in visual rhodopsin becomes more perfect and specific. The decrease in the probability of the reverse chromophore photoisomerization (all-trans→11-cis retinal) in primary photo-induced rhodopsin products causes an increase in the efficiency of the photoreception process.

  10. Microcavity-array superhydrophobic surfaces: Limits of the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Oliveira, M. R. S.; Spirin, R.; Teixeira, F. S.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I. G.

    2013-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces formed of microcavities can be designed with specific desired advancing and receding contact angles using a new model described by us in prior work. Here, we discuss the limits of validity of the model, and explore the application of the model to surfaces fabricated with small cavities of radius 250 nm and with large cavities of radius 40 μm. The Wenzel model is discussed and used to calculate the advancing and receding contact angles for samples for which our model cannot be applied. We also consider the case of immersion of a sample containing microcavities in pressurized water. A consideration that then arises is that the air inside the cavities can be dissolved in the water, leading to complete water invasion into the cavities and compromising the superhydrophobic character of the surface. Here, we show that this effect does not destroy the surface hydrophobia when the surface is subsequently removed from the water.

  11. Applications of Optical Microcavity Resonators in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, James H; Bailey, Ryan C

    2016-06-12

    Optical resonator sensors are an emerging class of analytical technologies that use recirculating light confined within a microcavity to sensitively measure the surrounding environment. Bolstered by advances in microfabrication, these devices can be configured for a wide variety of chemical or biomolecular sensing applications. We begin with a brief description of optical resonator sensor operation, followed by discussions regarding sensor design, including different geometries, choices of material systems, methods of sensor interrogation, and new approaches to sensor operation. Throughout, key developments are highlighted, including advancements in biosensing and other applications of optical sensors. We discuss the potential of alternative sensing mechanisms and hybrid sensing devices for more sensitive and rapid analyses. We conclude with our perspective on the future of optical microcavity sensors and their promise as versatile detection elements within analytical chemistry.

  12. Ultimate resolution for refractometric sensing with whispering gallery mode microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, J W; McFarlane, S; Manchee, C P K; Meldrum, A

    2012-04-09

    Many proposed microfluidic biosensor designs are based on the measurement of the resonances of an optical microcavity. Fluorescence-based resonators tend to be simpler and more robust than setups that use evanescent coupling from tuneable laser to probe the cavity. In all sensor designs the detection limits depend on the wavelength resolution of the detection system, which is a limitation of fluorescence-based devices. In this work, we explore the ultimate resolution and detection limits of refractometric microcavity sensor structures. Because many periodic modes are collected simultaneously from fluorescent resonators, standard Fourier methods can be best suited for rapid and precise analysis of the resonance shifts. Simple numerical expressions to calculate the ultimate sensor resolution and detection limits were found, and the results compared to experiments in which the resonances of fluorescent-core microcapillaries responded to various sucrose concentrations in water.

  13. Patch antenna microcavity terahertz sources with enhanced emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madéo, J.; Todorov, Y.; Gilman, A.; Frucci, G.; Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H.; Sirtori, C.; Dani, K. M.

    2016-10-01

    We study the emission properties of an electroluminescent THz frequency quantum cascade structure embedded in an array of patch antenna double-metal microcavities. We show that high photon extraction efficiencies can be obtained by adjusting the active region thickness and array periodicity as well as high Purcell factors (up to 65), leading to an enhanced overall emitted power. Up to a 44-fold increase in power is experimentally observed in comparison with a reference device processed in conventional mesa geometry. Estimation of the Purcell factors using electromagnetic simulations and the theoretical extraction efficiency are in agreement with the observed power enhancement and show that, in these microcavities, the overall enhancement solely depends on the square of the total quality factor.

  14. Spectral engineering of coupled open-access microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Flatten, L C; Smith, J M

    2015-01-01

    Open-access microcavities are emerging as a new approach to confine and engineer light down to the {\\lambda}^3 regime. Indeed, they offer direct access to a highly confined electromagnetic field while maintaining tunability of the system and flexibility on the light emitter studied. In this article, we present the first development beyond the single open-access cavity design using a Focused Ion Beam fabrication method. Based on experimental and theoretical investigation, we demonstrate the engineering of the coupling between two open-access microcavities with radius of curvature of 6 {\\mu}m. We study the evolution of spectral, spatial and polarisation properties through a transition from isolated to coupled cavities. Normal mode splittings up to 20 meV are observed for total mode volumes around 10 {\\lambda}^3 . This work is of importance for future development of photonic circuits for quantum computation, optical meta-materials and lab-on-a-chip sensing.

  15. Photothermal effects in ultra-precisely stabilized tunable microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachmann, Johannes F. S.; Kaupp, Hanno; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Hunger, David

    2016-09-01

    We study the mechanical stability of a tunable high-finesse microcavity under ambient conditions and investigate light-induced effects that can both suppress and excite mechanical fluctuations. As an enabling step, we demonstrate the ultra-precise electronic stabilization of a microcavity. We then show that photothermal mirror expansion can provide high-bandwidth feedback and improve cavity stability by almost two orders of magnitude. At high intracavity power, we observe self-oscillations of mechanical resonances of the cavity. We explain the observations by a dynamic photothermal instability, leading to parametric driving of mechanical motion. For an optimized combination of electronic and photothermal stabilization, we achieve a feedback bandwidth of $500\\,$kHz and a noise level of $1.1 \\times 10^{-13}\\,$m rms.

  16. Photothermal effects in ultra-precisely stabilized tunable microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Brachmann, Johannes F S; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the mechanical stability of a tunable high-finesse microcavity under ambient conditions and investigate light-induced effects that can both suppress and excite mechanical fluctuations. As an enabling step, we demonstrate the ultra-precise electronic stabilization of a microcavity. We then show that photothermal mirror expansion can provide high-bandwidth feedback and improve cavity stability by almost two orders of magnitude. At high intracavity power, we observe self-oscillations of mechanical resonances of the cavity. We explain the observations by a dynamic photothermal instability, leading to parametric driving of mechanical motion. For an optimized combination of electronic and photothermal stabilization, we achieve a feedback bandwidth of $500\\,$kHz and a noise level of $1.1 \\times 10^{-13}\\,$m rms.

  17. Hafnia-plugged microcavities for thermal stability of selective emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Ju; Smyth, Katherine; Bathurst, Stephen; Chou, Jeffrey; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John; Saka, Nannaji; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2013-06-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of micro-cavities effectively control photon motion and selectively emit radiation tailored to the preferred bandgap of photovoltaic (PV) cells, thus enhancing the efficiency of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion. At the high operating temperatures, however, the micro- and nano-patterned structures of the selective emitters quickly lose their integrity--obliterating the tight tolerances required for precise spectral control. Even if oxidation, recrystallization, and grain growth could be avoided with single-crystal tungsten (W) selective emitters with vacuum packaging, surface diffusion, evaporation, and re-condensation are not avoidable in long-term operation at high temperatures. The concept of a planar array of plugged micro-cavities to suppress the curvature-dependent thermal degradation modes is proposed and tested. Based on scale-accelerated failure tests of silicon devices, the lifetime of W selective emitters operating at 1100 K is estimated to be at least 30 yr.

  18. Extended Macroscopic Study of Dilute Gas Flow within a Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hssikou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of monatomic and dilute gas is studied in the slip and early transition regimes using the extended macroscopic theory. The gas is confined within a two-dimensional microcavity where the longitudinal sides are in the opposite motion with constant velocity ±Uw. The microcavity walls are kept at the uniform and reference temperature T0. Thus, the gas flow is transported only by the shear stress induced by the motion of upper and lower walls. From the macroscopic point of view, the regularized 13-moment equations of Grad, R13, are solved numerically. The macroscopic gas proprieties are studied for different values of the so-called Knudsen number (Kn, which gives the gas-rarefaction degree. The results are compared with those obtained using the classical continuum theory of Navier-Stokes and Fourier (NSF.

  19. End-fire injection of guided light into optical microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Kaiyang; Xiao, Shumin; Lyu, Quan; Song, Qinghai

    2015-01-01

    Coupling light into microdisk plays a key role in a number of applications such as resonant filters and optical sensors. While several approaches have successfully coupled light into microdisk efficiently, most of them suffer from the ultrahigh sensitivity to the environmental vibration. Here we demonstrate a robust mechanism, which is termed as end-fire injection. By connecting an input waveguide to a circular microdisk directly, the mechanism shows that light can be efficiently coupled into optical microcavity. The coupling efficiency can be as high as 0.75 when the input signals are on resonances. Our numerical results reveal that the high coupling efficiency is attributed to the constructive interference between the whispering gallery modes and the input signals. We have also shown that the end-fire injection can be further extended to the long-lived resonances with low refractive index such as n = 1.45. We believe our results will shed light on the applications of optical microcavities.

  20. Design of photonic crystal microcavities for cavity QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucković, Jelena; Loncar, Marko; Mabuchi, Hideo; Scherer, Axel

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the optimization of optical microcavity designs based on two-dimensional photonic crystals for the purpose of strong coupling between the cavity field and a single neutral atom trapped within a hole. We present numerical predictions for the quality factors and mode volumes of localized defect modes as a function of geometric parameters, and discuss some experimental challenges related to the coupling of a defect cavity to gas-phase atoms.

  1. Label-Free Microcavity Biosensors: Steps towards Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Amarie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine has the potential to improve our ability to maintain health and treat disease, while ameliorating continuously rising healthcare costs. Translation of basic research findings to clinical applications within regulatory compliance is required for personalized medicine to become the new foundation for practice of medicine. Deploying even a few of the thousands of potential diagnostic biomarkers identified each year as part of personalized treatment workflows requires clinically efficient biosensor technologies to monitor multiple biomarkers in patients in real time. This paper discusses a critical component of a regulatory system, a microcavity optical biosensor for label-free monitoring of biomolecular interactions at physiologically-relevant concentrations. While most current biosensor research focuses on improving sensitivity, this paper emphasizes other characteristics a biosensor technology requires to be practical in a clinical setting, presenting robust microcavity biosensors which are easy to manufacture and integrate with microfluidics into flexible and redesignable platforms making the microcavity biosensors deployable for continuous monitoring of biomarkers in body fluids in the clinic,  in dense 2D random arrays for high-throughput applications like drug-library screening in interactomics, and of the secretory behavior of single cells in the laboratory.

  2. Photodetachment of hydrogen negative ion inside a circular microcavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang De-Hua; Liu Sheng; Li Shao-Sheng; Wang Yi-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The photodetachment of a hydrogen negative ion inside a circular microcavity is studied based on the semiclassical closed orbit theory.The closed orbit of the photo-detached electron in a circular microcavity is investigated and the photodetachment cross section of this system is calculated.The calculation result suggests that oscillating structure appears in the photodetachment cross section,which is caused by the interference effects of the returning electron waves with the outgoing waves traveling along the closed orbits.Besides,our study suggests that the photodetachment cross section of the negative ions depends on the laser polarization sensitively.In order to show the correspondence between the cross section and the closed orbits of the detached electron clearly,we calculate the Fourier transformation of the cross section and find that each peak corresponds to the length of one closed orbit.We hope that our results will be useful for understanding the photodetachment process of negative ions or the electron transport in a microcavity.

  3. Multimode laser emission from free-standing cylindrical microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Jaison, E-mail: jaisonpeter@cusat.ac.in; Radhakrishnan, P.; Nampoori, V.P.N.; Kailasnath, M.

    2014-05-01

    We report a well resolved whispering gallery mode (WGM) laser emission from a free-standing microring cavity based on a dye doped hollow polymer optical fiber (DDHPOF), which is transversely pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The microring laser is characterized by a well-defined, low threshold pump power at which the emission spectral intensity dramatically increases and collapses into several dominant microcavity laser modes with reduced mode spacing and high Q-value. Resonant modes are excited inside the gain medium which is strongly confined along the radial direction so that the spacing of lasing modes is controlled by the diameter of the cylindrical microcavity. A variation in the free spectral range of WGM spectra from 0.23 to 0.09 nm coupled with a red-shift is observed with an increase in the diameter of DDHPOFs. - Highlights: • Different diameter free-standing cylindrical microcavity lasers have been fabricated and their performances have been evaluated. • The microring laser is characterized by a well-defined, low threshold pump power, with reduced mode spacing and high Q-value. • When the diameter of DDHPOF increases, the number of lasing peaks increases along with the decrease of the FSR as observed from our studies. • It is also found that whispering gallery lasing envelope is shifted from 559 to 571 nm (Stokes shift) with the diameter.

  4. The Coupling of Zero-Dimensional Exciton and Photon States: A Quantum Dot in a Spherical Microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    the electric 179 180 Microcavity and Photonic Cristal (a) (b) _..•rQ Fig. 1. (a) A schematic diagram of a spherical microcavity with a quantum dot at...core is 2.7 while the refractive indices 182 Microcavity and Photonic Cristal of the layers forming the Bragg reflector are 1.45 and 2.7 and correspond

  5. Low-threshold indium gallium nitride quantum dot microcavity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Alexander J.

    Gallium nitride (GaN) microcavities with embedded optical emitters have long been sought after as visible light sources as well as platforms for cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) experiments. Specifically, materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots (QDs) offer an outstanding platform to study light matter interactions and realize practical devices, such as on-chip light emitting diodes and nanolasers. Inherent advantages of nitride-based microcavities include low surface recombination velocities, enhanced room-temperature performance (due to their high exciton binding energy, as high as 67 meV for InGaN QDs), and emission wavelengths in the blue region of the visible spectrum. In spite of these advantages, several challenges must be overcome in order to capitalize on the potential of this material system. Such diffculties include the processing of GaN into high-quality devices due to the chemical inertness of the material, low material quality as a result of strain-induced defects, reduced carrier recombination effciencies due to internal fields, and a lack of characterization of the InGaN QDs themselves due to the diffculty of their growth and therefore lack of development relative to other semiconductor QDs. In this thesis we seek to understand and address such issues by investigating the interaction of light coupled to InGaN QDs via a GaN microcavity resonator. Such coupling led us to the demonstration of the first InGaN QD microcavity laser, whose performance offers insights into the properties and current limitations of the nitride materials and their emitters. This work is organized into three main sections. Part I outlines the key advantages and challenges regarding indium gallium nitride (InGaN) emitters embedded within gallium nitride (GaN) optical microcavities. Previous work is also discussed which establishes context for the work presented here. Part II includes the fundamentals related to laser operation, including the

  6. Control of lasing from a highly photoexcited semiconductor microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Feng-Kuo

    Technological advances in the fabrication of optical cavities and crystal growth have enabled the studies on macroscopic quantum states and emergent nonequilibrium phenomena of light-matter hybrids in condensed matter. Optical excitations in a semiconductor microcavity can result in a coupled electron-hole-photon (e-h-gamma) system, in which various many-body physics can be studied by varying particle densities and particle-particle interactions. Recently there have been reports of phenomena analogous to Bose-Einstein condensates or superfluids for exciton-polaritons in a microcavity. An exciton-polariton is a quasiparticle resulting from strong coupling between the cavity light field and the exciton (e-h pair) transition, and typically is only stable at a low density ( 10 11 to 1012 cm-2 or less). At a higher density, it has been theoretically predicted that pairing of electrons and holes can result in a BCS-like state at cryogenic temperatures, which can produce cooperative radiation known as superradiance. In this work, we explore cooperative phenomena caused by e-h correlation and many-body effect in a highly photoexcited microcavity at room temperature. High-density e-h plasmas in a photoexcited microcavity are studied under the following conditions: (1) the sample is photoexcited GaAs-based microcavity with large detuning between the band gap Eg of quantum well and cavity resonance to prevent carriers from radiative loss, (2) the density of e-h pairs is high enough to build long-range correlation with the assistance of cavity light field. The Fermi level of electron-hole pairs is about 80 meV above Eg, and (3) the e-h correlation is stabilized through thermal management, which includes modulating the excitation pulse laser temporally and spatially to reduce the heating and carrier diffusion effect. We have observed ultrafast (sub-10 picoseconds) spin-polarized lasing with sizable energy shifts and linewidth broadenings as pump flux is increased. With

  7. Cylindrical Beam Propagation Modelling of Perturbed Whispering-Gallery Mode Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Shirazi, Mohammad Amin Cheraghi; Vincent, Serge; Lu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    We simulate light propagation in perturbed whispering-gallery mode microcavities using a two-dimensional finite-difference beam prop- agation method in a cylindrical coordinate system. Optical properties of whispering-gallery microcavities perturbed by polystyrene nanobeads are investigated through this formulation. The light perturbation as well as quality factor degradation arising from cavity ellipticity are also studied.

  8. 1.5 MU M Fabry-Perot Microcavities Based on Hydrogenated Silicon and Related Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    limited by sensitivity of InGaAs photodiode. A sharp 1.54 jtm peak corresponds to a resonant mode of the MC. 167 168 Microcavity and Photonic Cristal A C B...transmission spectra are found to be close to each other in agreement with our theoretical analysis. 170 Microcavity and Photonic Cristal 2. Conclusions In

  9. Microcavity arrays for X-ray diffraction studies of ordering phenomena in confined colloid solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, A.; David, C.; Guo, H.; Keymeulen, H.; Pfeiffer, F.; Wegdam, G.; Weitkamp, T.; van der Veen, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    We present a way to fabricate high-aspect-ratio silicon microcavity arrays which can be used for the investigation of confinement-induced ordering phenomena within colloid solutions. In these studies, the microcavity arrays serve as containers for confinement of the colloid. X-ray diffraction measur

  10. Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kippenberg, T J; Vahala, K J

    2004-01-01

    Optical microcavities confine light spatially and temporally and find application in a wide range of fundamental and applied studies. In many areas, the microcavity figure of merit is not only determined by photon lifetime (or the equivalent quality-factor, Q), but also by simultaneous achievement of small mode volume V . Here we demonstrate ultra-high Q-factor small mode volume toroid microcavities on-a-chip, which exhibit a Q/V factor of more than $10^{6}(\\lambda/n)^{-3}$. These values are the highest reported to date for any chip-based microcavity. A corresponding Purcell factor in excess of 200 000 and a cavity finesse of $2.8\\times10^{6}$ is achieved, demonstrating that toroid microcavities are promising candidates for studies of the Purcell effect, cavity QED or biochemical sensing

  11. Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenberg, T. J.; Spillane, S. M.; Vahala, K. J.

    2004-12-01

    Optical microcavities confine light spatially and temporally and find application in a wide range of fundamental and applied studies. In many areas, the microcavity figure of merit is not only determined by photon lifetime (or the equivalent quality-factor, Q), but also by simultaneous achievement of small mode volume (V). Here we demonstrate ultra-high Q-factor small mode volume toroid microcavities on-a-chip, which exhibit a Q/V factor of more than 106(λ/n)-3. These values are the highest reported to date for any chip-based microcavity. A corresponding Purcell factor in excess of 200 000 and a cavity finesse of >2.8×106 is achieved, demonstrating that toroid microcavities are promising candidates for studies of the Purcell effect, cavity QED or biochemical sensing.

  12. Particle trapping and impedance measurement using bilayer electrodes integrated with microcavity structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Ting; Liu, Chia-Feng; Jang, Ling-Sheng; Li, Shun-Lai; Wang, Min-Haw

    2017-03-01

    Traditional planar electrodes for single-particle impedance measurement have difficulty in trapping and positioning particles. This paper proposes a microfluidic device for single-particle trapping and impedance measurement with a microcavity configuration. A carbon dioxide (CO2) laser technique was used to fabricate the microcavity structure, which can capture 15 µm diameter particles without requiring additional trapping structures. The measurement electrodes on both sides of the microcavity were fabricated using electroplating and deposition techniques. The advantages of the microcavity structure and electrodes are discussed. The bottom electrode spreads into the microcavity to increase measurement sensitivity and shrink the exit aperture to around 10 µm for particle trapping. The experimental results show that the device successfully captured particles and distinguished the impedance of a particle from that of phosphate-buffered saline solution.

  13. Influence of Dielectric Loss on Quality Factors of Photonic Crystal Microcavity Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhi-Gang; LI Zhi-Yuan; ZHANG Dao-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    We numerically investigate the quMity factors of two-dimensionM (2D) photonic crystal (PC) microcavities using an auxiliary differential equations (ADE) technique in the context of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)method. The microcavities are formed by point defects in the air hole lattice hexagonedly patterned in ZnO (zinc oxide) matrix. The quality factors of these microcavities are limited primarily by the absorption of the background dielectric. We show that the ratio between the quality factors of microcavities in lossy and lossless background dielectric depends on the overlap between the field of cavity modes and the absorbing background dielectric in addition to the magnitude of absorption. These results will be helpful when designing and optimizing photonie erystal microcavities formed in lossy medium.

  14. Two-photon polarization data storage in bacteriorhodopsin films and its potential use in security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Martin; Rhinow, Daniel; Hampp, Norbert

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films allow write-once-read-many recording of polarization data by a two-photon-absorption (TPA) process. The optical changes in BR films induced by the TPA recording were measured and the Müller matrix of a BR film was determined. A potential application of BR films in security technology is shown. Polarization data can be angle-selective retrieved with high signal-to-noise ratio. The BR film does not only carry optical information but serves also as a linear polarizer. This enables that polarization features recorded in BR films may be retrieved by merely using polarized light from a mobile phone display.

  15. Controlling the pKa of the bacteriorhodopsin Schiff base by use of artificial retinal analogues.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Artificial bacteriorhodopsin pigments based on synthetic retinal analogues carrying an electron-withdrawing CF3 substituent group were prepared. The effects of CF3 on the spectra, photocycles, and Schiff base pKa values of the pigments were analyzed. A reduction of 5 units in the pKa of the Schiff base is observed when the CF3 substituent is located at the C-13 polyene position, in the vicinity of the protonated Schiff base nitrogen. The results lead to the unambiguous characterization of the...

  16. Pathways of proton transfer in the light-driven pump bacteriorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism of proton transport in the light-driven pump bacteriorhodopsin is beginning to be understood. Light causes the all-trans to 13-cis isomerization of the retinal chromophore. This sets off a sequential and directed series of transient decreases in the pKa's of a) the retinal Schiff base, b) an extracellular proton release complex which includes asp-85, and c) a cytoplasmic proton uptake complex which includes asp-96. The timing of these pKa changes during the photoreaction cycle causes sequential proton transfers which result in the net movement of a proton across the protein, from the cytoplasmic to the extracellular surface.

  17. Photoelectrochemical Properties of Bacteriorhodopsin Langmuir-Blodgett Films on ITO Conductive Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建平; 李津如; 陶培德; 李兴长; 江龙

    1994-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett films containing bacteriorhodopsin were deposited on ITO conduc-tive electrodes.A sandwiched photocell with a junction structure of ITO/bR/electrolyte/ITO has beenconstructed,in which the bR LB film was directly put into contact with an aqueous electrolyte immobi-lized in an agar gel.Under visible light irradiation,the photocell produced a transient photocurrent due tothe change of light intensity,which characterized vision imitative material.A photoalarm device based ondifferential responsivity phenomena was fabricated.

  18. Two-photon polarization data storage in bacteriorhodopsin films and its potential use in security applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, Martin; Hampp, Norbert, E-mail: hampp@staff.uni-marburg.de [Department of Chemistry, Material Sciences Center, University of Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Str., D-35032 Marburg (Germany); Rhinow, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue-Straße 3, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-02-24

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films allow write-once-read-many recording of polarization data by a two-photon-absorption (TPA) process. The optical changes in BR films induced by the TPA recording were measured and the Müller matrix of a BR film was determined. A potential application of BR films in security technology is shown. Polarization data can be angle-selective retrieved with high signal-to-noise ratio. The BR film does not only carry optical information but serves also as a linear polarizer. This enables that polarization features recorded in BR films may be retrieved by merely using polarized light from a mobile phone display.

  19. Resonance Raman kinetic spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin on the microsecond time scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campion, A.; El-Sayed, M.A.; Terner, J.

    1977-12-01

    Using a rotating disk with a slit of variable width, a continuous wave argon ion laser, and an Optical Multichanel Analyzer for detection, a new technique is reported which should, in principle, be capable of recording resonance Raman spectra with time resolution of 100 ns. The resonance Raman spectra of the intermediates of the photosynthetic cycle of bacteriorhodopsin are recorded on the microsecond time scale. Both the kinetic results and the resonance enhancement profile suggest that deprotonation results in an intermediate preceding bM/sub 412/ that has an optical absorption maximum at a wavelength longer than that of bM/sub 412/.

  20. Spatiotemporal Chaos Induces Extreme Events in an Extended Microcavity Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, F.; Coulibaly, S.; Loghmari, Z.; Sagnes, I.; Beaudoin, G.; Clerc, M. G.; Barbay, S.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme events such as rogue waves in optics and fluids are often associated with the merging dynamics of coherent structures. We present experimental and numerical results on the physics of extreme event appearance in a spatially extended semiconductor microcavity laser with an intracavity saturable absorber. This system can display deterministic irregular dynamics only, thanks to spatial coupling through diffraction of light. We have identified parameter regions where extreme events are encountered and established the origin of this dynamics in the emergence of deterministic spatiotemporal chaos, through the correspondence between the proportion of extreme events and the dimension of the strange attractor.

  1. Ultra-fast polariton dynamics in an organic microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polli D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We study an organic semiconductor microcavity operating in the strong-coupling regime using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. By probing the photo-induced absorption bands, we characterize the time-dependent population densities of states in the two polariton branches. We found evidence of a scattering process from the upper-branch cavity polaritons to the exciton reservoir having a rate of (150 fs-1. A slower process similarly populates lower-branch polaritons with a rate of around (3ps-1

  2. Coupled spatial multi-mode solitons in microcavity wires

    CERN Document Server

    Slavcheva, G; Pimenov, A

    2016-01-01

    A modal expansion approach is developed and employed to investigate and elucidate the nonlinear mechanism behind the multistability and formation of coupled multi-mode polariton solitons in microcavity wires. With pump switched on and realistic dissipation parameters, truncating the expansion up to the second-order wire mode, our model predicts two distinct coupled soliton branches: stable and ustable. Modulational stability of the homogeneous solution and soliton branches stability are studied. Our simplified 1D model is in remarkably good agreement with the full 2D mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii model, reproducing correctly the soliton existence domain upon variation of pump amplitude and the onset of multistability.

  3. Aharonov-Bohm quantum rings in high-Q microcavities

    OpenAIRE

    Alexeev, A. M.; Shelykh, I. A.; Portnoi, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    A single-mode microcavity with an embedded Aharonov-Bohm quantum ring, which is pierced by a magnetic flux and subjected to a lateral electric field, is studied theoretically. It is shown that external electric and magnetic fields provide additional means of control of the emission spectrum of the system. In particular, when the magnetic flux through the quantum ring is equal to a half-integer number of the magnetic flux quantum, a small change in the lateral electric field allows tuning of t...

  4. Faraday rotation in bilayer graphene-based integrated microcavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Hai-Xia; Yan, Xiao-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene has rich ground states with various broken symmetries, allowing the existence of magneto-optical (MO) effects even in the absence of an external magnetic field. Here we report controllable Faraday rotation (FR) of bilayer graphene induced by electrostatic gate voltage, whose value is 10 times smaller than the case of single layer graphene with a magnetic field. A proposed bilayer graphene-based microcavity configuration enables the enhanced FR angle due to the large localized electromagnetic field. Our results offer unique opportunities to apply bilayer graphene for MO devices.

  5. Enhanced photoconductivity and fine response tuning in nanostructured porous silicon microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga, R; MarIn, O; Acquaroli, L N; Schmidt, J A; Koropecki, R R [INTEC-UNL-CONICET, Guemes 3450 - 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Comedi, D, E-mail: rkoro@intec.ceride.gov.a [CONICET y LAFISO, Departamento de Fisica, FACET, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    We used light confinement in optical microcavities to achieve a strong enhancement and a precise wavelength tunability of the electrical photoconductance of nanostructured porous silicon (PS). The devices consist of a periodic array of alternating PS layers, electrochemically etched to have high and low porosities - and therefore distinct dielectric functions. A central layer having a doubled thickness breaks up the symmetry of the one-dimensional photonic structure, producing a resonance in the photonic band gap that is clearly observed in the reflectance spectrum. The devices were transferred to a glass coated with a transparent SnO{sub 2} electrode, while an Al contact was evaporated on its back side. The electrical conductance was measured as a function of the photon energy. A strong enhancement of the conductance is obtained in a narrow (17nm FWHM) band peaking at the resonance. We present experimental results of the angular dependence of this photoconductance peak energy, and propose an explanation of the conductivity behaviour supported by calculations of the internal electromagnetic field. These devices are promising candidates for finely tuned photoresistors with potential application as chemical sensors and biosensors.

  6. Temperature tunability of quantum emitter - cavity coupling in a photonic wire microcavity with shielded sidewall loss

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, M

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have allowed to implement in solid-state cavity-based devices phenomena of quantum nature such as vacuum Rabi splitting, controllable single photon emission and quantum entanglement. For a sufficiently strong coupling between a quantum emitter and a cavity, large quality factors ($Q$) along with small modal volume ($V_{eff}$) are essential. Here we show that by applying a 5nm Al coating to the sidewalls of a submicrometer-sized Fabry-P\\'{e}rot microcavity, the cavity $Q$ can be temperature-tuned from few hundreds at room temperatures to 2$\\times$10$^5$ below 30~K. This is achieved by, first, a complete shielding of the sidewall loss with ideally reflecting lateral metallic mirrors and, secondly, a dramatic decrease of the cavity's axial loss for small-sized devices due to the largely off-axis wavevector within the multilayered structure. Our findings offer a novel temperature-tunable platform to study quantum electrodynamical phenomena of emitter-cavity coupling. We demonstra...

  7. Synthesis and operation of fluorescent-core microcavities for refractometric sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Shalon; Manchee, C P K; Silverstone, Joshua W; Veinot, Jonathan; Meldrum, Al

    2013-03-13

    This paper discusses fluorescent core microcavity-based sensors that can operate in a microfluidic analysis setup. These structures are based on the formation of a fluorescent quantum-dot (QD) coating on the channel surface of a conventional microcapillary. Silicon QDs are especially attractive for this application, owing in part to their negligible toxicity compared to the II-VI and II-VI compound QDs, which are legislatively controlled substances in many countries. While the ensemble emission spectrum is broad and featureless, an Si-QD film on the channel wall of a capillary features a set of sharp, narrow peaks in the fluorescence spectrum, corresponding to the electromagnetic resonances for light trapped within the film. The peak wavelength of these resonances is sensitive to the external medium, thus permitting the device to function as a refractometric sensor in which the QDs never come into physical contact with the analyte. The experimental methods associated with the fabrication of the fluorescent-core microcapillaries are discussed in detail, as well as the analysis methods. Finally, a comparison is made between these structures and the more widely investigated liquid-core optical ring resonators, in terms of microfluidic sensing capabilities.

  8. Another model for a multiexcitonic quantum dot in an optical microcavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Guang-cun; HUANG Wei; BAO Shu-ying

    2007-01-01

    Very recently, a multiexcitonic quantum dot in an optical microcavity have been theoretically studied [Herbert Vincka, Boris A. Rodriguez, and Augusto Gonzalez, Physica E, 2006, 35: 99-102]. However, due to the inevitable damping losses through the microcavity, in this work, we will present a more precise and sound model in the Lindblad form master equation to investigate the photonic properties of a single quantum dot (QD) in an optical microcavity system, in which the QD may confine the multiexcitons and be in resonant interaction with a single photonic mode of an optical microcavity. The excitation energies, and the properties of the emission photon from the QD microcavity are computed as functions of the exciton-photon coupling strength, detuning, and pump rate. We further compare our results with their results, and find that the calculated intensity of the emitted photon and the spectra crucially depend on the exciton-photon coupling strength g, the photon detuning, and the number of excitons in the QD. Finally, we will give a physical mechanism of the dressed-state picture for the strong coupling between the single mode of an optical microcavity and the QD emitters to explain the details of the emission photon spectra. Our study establishes useful guidelines for the experimental study of such multiexcitonic quantum dot in an optical microcavity system.

  9. Composite modulation of Fano resonance in plasmonic microstructures by electric-field and microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Chenyun; Yang, Hong [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hu, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyonghu@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-11-03

    Composite modulation of Fano resonance by using electric-field and microcavity simultaneously is realized in a plasmonic microstructure, which consists of a gold nanowire grating inserted into a Fabry-Perot microcavity composited of a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between two indium tin oxide layers. The Fano resonance wavelength varies with the applied voltage and the microcavity resonance. A large shift of 48 nm in the Fano resonance wavelength is achieved when the applied voltage is 20 V. This may provide a new way for the study of multi-functional integrated photonic circuits and chips based on plasmonic microstructures.

  10. Trapping the M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} substrates of bacteriorhodopsin for electron diffraction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, G.A.

    1992-05-01

    Visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopies are used to observe protein conformational changes occuring during the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. Spectroscopic measurements which define the conditions under which bacteriorhodopsin can be isolated and trapped in two distinct substates of the m intermediate of the photocycle, M{sub 1}, and M{sub 2}, are described. A protocol that can be used for high-resolution electron diffraction studies is presented that will trap glucose-embedded purple membrane in the M{sub 1}and M{sub 2} substates at greater than 90% concentration. It was discovered that glucose alone does not provide a fully hydrated environment for bacteriorhodopsin. Equilibration of glucose-embedded samples at high humidity can result in a physical state that is demonstrably closer to the native, fully hydrated state. An extension of the C-T Model of bacteriorhodopsin functionality (Fodor et al., 1988; Mathies et al., 1991) is proposed based on FTIR results and guided by published spectra from resonance Raman and FTIR work. 105 refs.

  11. Enhancement of photoelectric response of bacteriorhodopsin by multilayered WO3 x H2O nanocrystals/PVA membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Hu, Fengping; Bao, Qiaoliang; Bao, Shujuan; Qiao, Yan; Yu, Shucong; Guo, Jun; Li, Chang Ming

    2010-02-01

    For the first time, a multilayered WO(3) x H(2)O/PVA membrane on bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is constructed to significantly enhance the photoelectric response of bR by the spillover effect of WO(3) x H(2)O nanocrystals, providing great potential in its important applications in bioelectronics and proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  12. Multiplexed refractive index-based sensing using optical fiber microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Smith, Stephen C.; André, Ricardo M.; Dellith, Jan; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Optical fibers are promising tools for performing biological and biomedical sensing due to their small cross section and potential for multiplexing. In particular, fabricating ultra-small sensing devices is of increasing interest for measuring biological material such as cells. A promising direction is the use of interferometric techniques combined with optical fiber post-processing. In this work we present recent progress in the development of Fabry-Perot micro-cavities written into optical fiber tapers using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. We first demonstrate that FIB milled optical fiber microcavities are sensitive enough to measure polyelectrolyte layer deposition. We then present new results on the fabrication and optical characterization of serially-multiplexed dual cavity micro-sensors. Two cavities were written serially along the fiber with two different cavity lengths, producing a total of four reflecting surfaces and thus six possible interferometric pairs/cavities. By using fast Fourier transform it is possible to obtain de-multiplexed measurements for each cavity. This will be particularly important for bioassays where positive and negative controls are required to be measured within close spatial proximity.

  13. New Nano- and Biotechnological Applications of Bacterial and Animal Photoreceptor Pigments  Bacteriorhodopsin, Rhodopsin and Iodopsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ignatov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper views predominately the structure and function of animal and bacterial photoreceptor pigments (rhodopsin, iodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin and new aspects of their nano- and biotechnological usage. On an example of bacteriorhodopsin was described the method of its isolation from purple membranes of photo-organotrophic halobacterium Halobacterium halobium by cellular autolysis by distilled water, processing of bacterial biomass by ultrasound at 22 KHz, alcohol extraction of low and high-weight molecular impurities, cellular RNA, carotenoids and lipids, the solubilization with 0,5 % (w/v SDS-Na and subsequent fractionation by methanol and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200 Column balanced with 0.09 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH = 6,76 with 0,1 % (w/v SDS-Na and 2,5 mM EDTA. Within the framework of the research the mechanism of color perception by the visual analyzer having the ability to analyze certain ranges of the optical spectrum, as colors was studied along with an analysis of the additive mixing of two colors. It was shown that at the mixing of electromagnetic waves with different wavelengths, the visual analyzer perceive them as separate or average wave length corresponding to mix color.

  14. Studying of Phototransformation of Light Signal by Photoreceptor Pigments - Rhodopsin, Iodopsin and Bacteriorhodopsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ignatov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article views predominately the structure and function of animal and bacterial photoreceptor pigments (rhodopsin, iodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin and their aspects of nano- and biotechnological usage. On an example of bacteriorhodopsin is described the method of its isolation from purple membranes of photo-organotrophic halobacterium Halobacterium halobium by cellular autolysis by distilled water, processing of bacterial biomass by ultrasound at 22 KHz, alcohol extraction of low and high-weight molecular impurities, cellular RNA, carotenoids and lipids, the solubilization with 0,5 % (w/v SDS-Na and subsequent fractionation by methanol and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200 Column balanced with 0.09 M Tris-borate buffer (pH = 8,35 with 0,1 % (w/v SDS-Na and 2,5 mM EDTA. Within the framework of the research the mechanism of color perception by the visual analyzer having the ability to analyze certain ranges of the optical spectrum, as colors was studied along with an analysis of the additive mixing of two colors. It was shown that at the mixing of electromagnetic waves with different wavelengths, the visual analyzer perceive them as separate or average wave length corresponding to mix color.

  15. Microcavity design for low threshold polariton condensation with ultrashort optical pulse excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Poellmann, C; Galopin, E; Lemaître, A; Amo, A; Bloch, J; Huber, R; Ménard, J -M

    2016-01-01

    We present a microcavity structure with a shifted photonic stop-band to enable efficient non-resonant injection of a polariton condensate with spectrally broad femtosecond pulses. The concept is demonstrated theoretically and confirmed experimentally for a planar GaAs/AlGaAs multilayer heterostructure pumped with ultrashort near-infrared pulses while photoluminescence is collected to monitor the optically injected polariton density. As the excitation wavelength is scanned, a regime of polariton condensation can be reached in our structure at a consistently lower fluence threshold than in a state-of-the-art conventional microcavity. Our microcavity design improves the polariton injection efficiency by a factor of 4, as compared to a conventional microcavity design, when broad excitation pulses are centered at a wavelength of 740 nm. Most remarkably, this improvement factor reaches 270 when the excitation wavelength is centered at 750 nm.

  16. Highly indistinguishable photons from a QD-microcavity with a large Purcell-factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unsleber, S.; McCutcheon, Dara; Dambach, M.;

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasi-resonantly pumped coupled quantum dot-microcavity system operating in the weak coupling regime. Furthermore we model the degree of indistinguishability with our novel microscopic theory....

  17. Raman scattering enhancement in photon-plasmon resonance mediated metal-dielectric microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddala, Sriram; Dwivedi, Vindesh K.; Vijaya Prakash, G.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2013-12-01

    Here, we report the photon-plasmon interaction scheme and enhanced field strengths resulted into the amplification of phonon in a novel microcavity. A metal-dielectric microcavity, with unified cavity photonic mode and localized surface plasmon resonances, is visualized by impregnating the gold nanoparticles into the deep see-through nano-sized pores of porous silicon microcavity. The intense optical field strengths resulting from the photon-plasmon interactions are probed by both resonant and non-resonant Raman scattering experiments. Due to photon-plasmon-phonon interaction mechanism, several orders of enhancement in the intensity of scattered Raman Stokes photon (at 500 cm-1) are observed. Our metal nanoparticle-microcavity hybrid system shows the potential to improve the sensing figure of merit as well as the applications of plasmonics for optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and related technologies.

  18. Raman scattering enhancement in photon-plasmon resonance mediated metal-dielectric microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guddala, Sriram; Narayana Rao, D., E-mail: dnr.laserlab@gmail.com, E-mail: dnrsp@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Dwivedi, Vindesh K.; Vijaya Prakash, G. [Nanophotonics Laboratory, Department of Physics, IIT Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2013-12-14

    Here, we report the photon-plasmon interaction scheme and enhanced field strengths resulted into the amplification of phonon in a novel microcavity. A metal-dielectric microcavity, with unified cavity photonic mode and localized surface plasmon resonances, is visualized by impregnating the gold nanoparticles into the deep see-through nano-sized pores of porous silicon microcavity. The intense optical field strengths resulting from the photon-plasmon interactions are probed by both resonant and non-resonant Raman scattering experiments. Due to photon-plasmon-phonon interaction mechanism, several orders of enhancement in the intensity of scattered Raman Stokes photon (at 500 cm{sup −1}) are observed. Our metal nanoparticle-microcavity hybrid system shows the potential to improve the sensing figure of merit as well as the applications of plasmonics for optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and related technologies.

  19. Electrically Injected Polariton Lasing from a GaAs-Based Microcavity under Magnetic Field

    KAUST Repository

    Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2012-01-01

    Suppression of relaxation bottleneck and subsequent polariton lasing is observed in a GaAs-based microcavity under the application of a magnetic field. The threshold injection current density is 0.32 A/cm2 at 7 Tesla.

  20. Hybrid plasmonic microcavity with an air-filled gap for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Binbin; Wu, Genzhu; Chen, Daru

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid plasmonic microcavity with air-filled regions in the low-permittivity dielectric gap is proposed for sensing applications. Compared with the conventional structure with homogeneous gap, the introduced air-filled regions could improve the key modal characteristics of the hybrid mode. Simulation results reveal that this kind of hybrid microcavity maintains low loss with high quality factor ∼3062, and high field confinement with small mode volume 0.891 μm3. Moreover, in the sensing applications, this hybrid microcavity features simultaneously large refractive index sensitivity of 100 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and relatively high quality factor of 3062. Hence, it shows that the hybrid plasmonic microcavity has potential applications in ultra-compact refractive index sensor.

  1. Highly indistinguishable photons from a QD-microcavity with a large Purcell-factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unsleber, S.; McCutcheon, Dara; Dambach, M.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasi-resonantly pumped coupled quantum dot-microcavity system operating in the weak coupling regime. Furthermore we model the degree of indistinguishability with our novel microscopic theory.......We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasi-resonantly pumped coupled quantum dot-microcavity system operating in the weak coupling regime. Furthermore we model the degree of indistinguishability with our novel microscopic theory....

  2. EXCITON ENERGY OF THE InAs/GaAs SELF-ASSEMBLED QUANTUM DOT IN A SEMICONDUCTOR MICROCAVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN LIU-XIAN; LI SHU-SHEN; XIA JlAN-BAI

    2001-01-01

    We report on the theoretical study of the interaction of the quantum dot(QD)exciton with the photon waveguide models in a semiconductor microcavity. The lnAs/GaAs self-assembled QD exciton energies are calculated in a microcavity. The calculated results reveal that the electromagnetic field reduces the exciton energies in a semiconductor microcavity. The effect of the electromagnetic field decreases as the radius of the QD increases. Our calculated results are useful for designing and fabricating photoelectron devices.

  3. Transient dual-energy lasing in a semiconductor microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Feng-Kuo; Lee, Yi-Shan; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lai, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate sequential lasing at two well-separated energies in a highly photoexcited planar microcavity at room temperature. Two spatially overlapped lasing states with distinct polarization properties appear at energies more than 5 meV apart. Under a circularly polarized nonresonant 2 ps pulse excitation, a sub-10-ps transient circularly polarized high-energy (HE) state emerges within 10 ps after the pulse excitation. This HE state is followed by a pulsed state that lasts for 20--50 ps at a low energy (LE) state. The HE state is highly circularly polarized as a result of a spin-preserving stimulated process, while the LE state shows a significantly reduced circular polarization because of a diminishing spin imbalance.

  4. Hybrid polaritons in a resonant inorganic/organic semiconductor microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höfner, M., E-mail: mhoefner@physik.hu-berlin.de; Sadofev, S.; Henneberger, F. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr.15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kobin, B.; Hecht, S. [Institut für Chemie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-02

    We demonstrated the strong coupling regime in a hybrid inorganic-organic microcavity consisting of (Zn,Mg)O quantum wells and ladder-type oligo(p-phenylene) molecules embedded in a polymer matrix. A Fabry-Pérot cavity is formed by an epitaxially grown lower ZnMgO Bragg reflector and a dielectric mirror deposited atop of the organic layer. A clear anticrossing behavior of the polariton branches related to the Wannier-Mott and Frenkel excitons, and the cavity photon mode with a Rabi-splitting reaching 50 meV, is clearly identified by angular-dependent reflectivity measurements at low temperature. By tailoring the structural design, an equal mixing with weights of about 0.3 for all three resonances is achieved for the middle polariton branch at an incidence angle of about 35°.

  5. Dual-microcavity narrow-linewidth Brillouin laser

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, William; Baynes, Frederick; Cole, Daniel; Quinlan, Franklyn; Lee, Hansuek; Vahala, Kerry; Papp, Scott; Diddams, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Ultralow noise, yet tunable lasers are a revolutionary tool in precision spectroscopy, displacement measurements at the standard quantum limit, and the development of advanced optical atomic clocks. Further applications include LIDAR, coherent communications, frequency synthesis, and precision sensors of strain, motion, and temperature. While all applications benefit from lower frequency noise, many also require a laser that is robust and compact. Here, we introduce a dual-microcavity laser that leverages one chip-integrable silica microresonator to generate tunable 1550 nm laser light via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and a second microresonator for frequency stabilization of the SBS light. This configuration reduces the fractional frequency noise to $7.8\\times10^{-14} 1/\\sqrt{Hz}$ at 10 Hz offset, which is a new regime of noise performance for a microresonator-based laser. Our system also features terahertz tunability and the potential for chip-level integration. We demonstrate the utility of our du...

  6. Highly Efficient Boundary Element Analysis of Whispering Gallery Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Leyuan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of the boundary element whispering gallery microcavity analysis can be improved by orders of magnitude with the inclusion of Fresnel approximation. Using this formulation, simulation of a microdisk with wave-number-radius product as large as $kR\\approx8,000$ was demonstrated in contrast to a previous record of $kR\\approx100$. In addition to its high accuracy on computing the modal field distribution and resonance wavelength, this method yields a relative error of $10%$ in calculating the quality factor as high as $10^{11}$ through a direct root searching method where the conventional boundary element method failed to achieve. Finally, quadrupole shaped cavities and double disks as large as $100 {\\mu}m$ in diameter were modeled by employing as few as $512$ boundary elements whilst the simulation of such large cavities using conventional boundary element method were not reported previously.

  7. Strain monitoring of bismaleimide composites using embedded microcavity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amardeep; Anandan, Sudharshan; Yuan, Lei; Watkins, Steve E.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Xiao, Hai; Phan, Nam

    2016-03-01

    A type of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) fiber optic sensor, i.e., the microcavity strain sensor, is demonstrated for embedded, high-temperature applications. The sensor is fabricated using a femtosecond (fs) laser. The fs-laser-based fabrication makes the sensor thermally stable to sustain operating temperatures as high as 800°C. The sensor has low sensitivity toward the temperature as compared to its response toward the applied strain. The performance of the EFPI sensor is tested in an embedded application. The host material is carbon fiber/bismaleimide (BMI) composite laminate that offer thermally stable characteristics at high ambient temperatures. The sensor exhibits highly linear response toward the temperature and strain. Analytical work done with embedded optical-fiber sensors using the out-of-autoclave BMI laminate was limited until now. The work presented in this paper offers an insight into the strain and temperature interactions of the embedded sensors with the BMI composites.

  8. Coherence expansion and polariton condensate formation in a semiconductor microcavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belykh, V V; Sibeldin, N N; Kulakovskii, V D; Glazov, M M; Semina, M A; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Kamp, M; Forchel, A

    2013-03-29

    The dynamics of the expansion of the first order spatial coherence g(1) for a polariton system in a high-Q GaAs microcavity was investigated on the basis of Young's double slit experiment under 3 ps pulse excitation at the conditions of polariton Bose-Einstein condensation. It was found that in the process of condensate formation the coherence expands with a constant velocity of about 10(8)  cm/s. The measured coherence is smaller than that in a thermal equilibrium system during the growth of condensate density and well exceeds it at the end of condensate decay. The onset of spatial coherence is governed by polariton relaxation while condensate amplitude and phase fluctuations are not suppressed.

  9. Higher-order photon bunching in a semiconductor microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assmann, M.; Veit, F.; Bayer, M.;

    2009-01-01

    Quantum mechanically indistinguishable particles such as photons may show collective behavior. Therefore, an appropriate description of a light field must consider the properties of an assembly of photons instead of independent particles. We have studied multiphoton correlations up to fourth order...... in the single-mode emission of a semiconductor microcavity in the weak and strong coupling regimes. The counting statistics of single photons were recorded with picosecond time resolution, allowing quantitative measurement of the few-photon bunching inside light pulses. Our results show bunching behavior...... in the strong coupling case, which vanishes in the weak coupling regime as the cavity starts lasing. In particular, we verify the n factorial prediction for the zero-delay correlation function of n thermal light photons....

  10. A porous silicon optical microcavity for sensitive bacteria detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Sha; Huang Jianfeng; Cai Lintao, E-mail: lt.cai@siat.ac.cn [CAS Key Lab of Health Informatics, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Cancer Nanotechnology, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2011-10-21

    A porous silicon microcavity (PSM) is highly sensitive to subtle interface changes due to its high surface area, capillary condensation ability and a narrow resonance peak ({approx}10 nm). Based on the well-defined optical properties of a PSM, we successfully fabricated a bacteria detection chip for molecular or subcellular analysis by surface modification using undecylenic acid (UA), and the specific recognition binding of vancomycin to the D-alanyl-D-alanine of bacteria. The red shift of the PSM resonance peak showed a good linear relationship with bacteria concentration ranging from 100 to 1000 bacteria ml{sup -1} at the level of relative standard deviation of 0.994 and detection limit of 20 bacteria ml{sup -1}. The resulting PSM sensors demonstrated high sensitivity, good reproducibility, fast response and low cost for biosensing.

  11. Dynamic Stark effect in strongly coupled microcavity exciton polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Alex; Lange, Christoph; Rozema, Lee A; Darabi, Ardavan; van Driel, Henry M; Steinberg, Aephraim M; Nelsen, Bryan; Snoke, David W; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Kenneth W

    2012-07-20

    We present experimental observations of a nonresonant dynamic Stark shift in strongly coupled microcavity quantum well exciton polaritons--a system which provides a rich variety of solid-state collective phenomena. The Stark effect is demonstrated in a GaAs/AlGaAs system at 10 K by femtosecond pump-probe measurements, with the blueshift approaching the meV scale for a pump fluence of 2  mJ cm(-2) and 50 meV red detuning, in good agreement with theory. The energy level structure of the strongly coupled polariton Rabi doublet remains unaffected by the blueshift. The demonstrated effect should allow generation of ultrafast density-independent potentials and imprinting well-defined phase profiles on polariton condensates, providing a powerful tool for manipulation of these condensates, similar to dipole potentials in cold-atom systems.

  12. Tunable polaritonic molecules in an open microcavity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufferwiel, S.; Li, Feng, E-mail: f.li@sheffield.ac.uk; Giriunas, L.; Walker, P. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Krizhanovskii, D. N., E-mail: d.krizhanovskii@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Trichet, A. A. P.; Smith, J. M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-16

    We experimentally demonstrate tunable coupled cavities based upon open access zero-dimensional hemispherical microcavities. The modes of the photonic molecules are strongly coupled with quantum well excitons forming a system of tunable polaritonic molecules. The cavity-cavity coupling strength, which is determined by the degree of modal overlap, is controlled through the fabricated centre-to-centre distance and tuned in-situ through manipulation of both the exciton-photon and cavity-cavity detunings by using nanopositioners to vary the mirror separation and angle between them. We demonstrate micron sized confinement combined with high photonic Q-factors of 31 000 and lower polariton linewidths of 150 μeV at resonance along with cavity-cavity coupling strengths between 2.5 meV and 60 μeV for the ground cavity state.

  13. Excited-state dynamics of bacteriorhodopsin probed by broadband femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B; Sobotta, C; Heinz, B; Laimgruber, S; Braun, M; Gilch, P

    2005-01-07

    The impact of varying excitation densities (approximately 0.3 to approximately 40 photons per molecule) on the ultrafast fluorescence dynamics of bacteriorhodopsin has been studied in a wide spectral range (630-900 nm). For low excitation densities, the fluorescence dynamics can be approximated biexponentially with time constants of <0.15 and approximately 0.45 ps. The spectrum associated with the fastest time constant peaks at 650 nm, while the 0.45 ps component is most prominent at 750 nm. Superimposed on these kinetics is a shift of the fluorescence maximum with time (dynamic Stokes shift). Higher excitation densities alter the time constants and their amplitudes. These changes are assigned to multi-photon absorptions.

  14. Solid-state NMR studies of bacteriorhodopsin and the purple membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, A J

    2001-01-01

    proteins. This technique may prove particularly useful when studying large proteins that are difficult to orient where the MAS lineshapes will remain relatively unaffected in comparison with current static NMR methods. Finally the MAOSS method was extended to the study of the lipid components of the purple membrane and the feasibility of determining structural constraints from phospholipid headgroups was assessed. The potential of using sup 3 sup 1 P NMR to observe qualitative protein-lipid interactions in both the purple membrane and reconstituted membranes containing bovine rhodopsin was also demonstrated. Following the demonstration of a new MAS NMR method for resolving orientational constraints in uni-axially oriented biological membranes (Glaubitz and Watts, 1998), experiments were performed to realise the potential of the new method on large, oriented membrane proteins. Using bacteriorhodopsin in the purple membrane as a paradigm for large membrane proteins, the protein was specifically labelled with de...

  15. An Approach to Heterologous Expression of Membrane Proteins. The Case of Bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratanov, Dmitry; Balandin, Taras; Round, Ekaterina; Shevchenko, Vitaly; Gushchin, Ivan; Polovinkin, Vitaly; Borshchevskiy, Valentin; Gordeliy, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Heterologous overexpression of functional membrane proteins is a major bottleneck of structural biology. Bacteriorhodopsin from Halobium salinarum (bR) is a striking example of the difficulties in membrane protein overexpression. We suggest a general approach with a finite number of steps which allows one to localize the underlying problem of poor expression of a membrane protein using bR as an example. Our approach is based on constructing chimeric proteins comprising parts of a protein of interest and complementary parts of a homologous protein demonstrating advantageous expression. This complementary protein approach allowed us to increase bR expression by two orders of magnitude through the introduction of two silent mutations into bR coding DNA. For the first time the high quality crystals of bR expressed in E. Coli were obtained using the produced protein. The crystals obtained with in meso nanovolume crystallization diffracted to 1.67 Å.

  16. An Approach to Heterologous Expression of Membrane Proteins. The Case of Bacteriorhodopsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Bratanov

    Full Text Available Heterologous overexpression of functional membrane proteins is a major bottleneck of structural biology. Bacteriorhodopsin from Halobium salinarum (bR is a striking example of the difficulties in membrane protein overexpression. We suggest a general approach with a finite number of steps which allows one to localize the underlying problem of poor expression of a membrane protein using bR as an example. Our approach is based on constructing chimeric proteins comprising parts of a protein of interest and complementary parts of a homologous protein demonstrating advantageous expression. This complementary protein approach allowed us to increase bR expression by two orders of magnitude through the introduction of two silent mutations into bR coding DNA. For the first time the high quality crystals of bR expressed in E. Coli were obtained using the produced protein. The crystals obtained with in meso nanovolume crystallization diffracted to 1.67 Å.

  17. Calibration of Membrane Viscosity of the Reconstituted Vesicles by Measurement of the Rotational Diffusion of Bacteriorhodopsin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敖金; 胡坤生

    2002-01-01

    Membrane viscosity of the reconstituted vesicles was calibrated by rotational diffusion of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles. Rotational diffusion of BR in the vesicles was measured by flash-induced absorption anisotropy decay. BR was, for the first time, reconstituted successfully into DMPC and egg PC vesicles. From the measurement of flash-induced absorption anisotropy decay of BR, the value of rotational diffusion coefficient D was obtained from each curve fitting by a global fitting procedure and, in turn, membrane viscosity η was estimated from D. The results have shown that membrane viscosity is temperature-dependent. It was decreased as temperature increased, but a transition occurred in the region of the respective phase transition of DMPC and egg PC, respectively. The decrease of η was fast near the phase transition for DMPC and egg PC. Few effects of lipid/BR ratio and glycerol or sucrose in suspension medium on membrane viscosity were found.

  18. An all-optical time-delay relay based n a bacteriorhodopsin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Gui-Ying; Xu Xu-Xu; Zhang Chun-Ping; Qi Shen-Wen; Song Qi-Wang

    2008-01-01

    Using a special property of dynamic complementary-suppression-modulated transmission (DCSMT) in the bacteriorhodopsin (bR) film,we have demonstrated an all-optical time-delay relay.To extend our work,the relationship between the delay time of the all-optical time-delay relay and parameters of a bR film is numerically studied.We show how the delay time changes with the product of concentration and thickness (PCT) of a bR film.Furthermore,the shortest and longest delay times are given for the relay of 'switch off'.The saturable delay time and maximum delaytime of 'switch on' are also given.How the wavelengths (632.8,568,533 and 412 nm) and intensities of the illuminating light influence the delay time is also discussed.The simulation results are useful for optimizing the design of all-optical time-delay relays.

  19. Spatio-temporal study of non-degenerate two-wave mixing in bacteriorhodopsin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Salvador; González, Alejandro; Acebal, Pablo; Carretero, Luis

    2016-10-31

    A spatio-temporal analysis of non-degenerate two-wave mixing in a saturable absorber, such as bacteriorhodopsin (bR) film, is performed. To do this, a theoretical model describing the temporal variation of the intensities is developed by taking into account the dielectric constant as a function of bR population. A good agreement between theory and experimental measurements is obtained. Thus, the dependence of the optical gain and the main dielectric constant parameters are studied at different intensities and frequencies. As a result, the best intensity-frequency zones where higher coupling is reached are proposed, and it is also demonstrated that non-uniform patterns, which evolve over time as a function of frequency difference, can be observed.

  20. Rigorous analysis of the propagation of sinusoidal pulses in bacteriorhodopsin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acebal, Pablo; Blaya, Salvador; Carretero, Luis; Madrigal, R F; Fimia, A

    2012-11-05

    The propagation of sinusoidal pulses in bacteriorhodopsin films has been theoretically analyzed using a complete study of the photoinduced processes that take into account all the physical parameters, the coupling of rate equations with the energy transfer equation and the temperature change during the experiment. The theoretical approach was compared to experimental data and a good concordance was observed. This theoretical treatment, can be widely applied, i.e when arbitrary pump and/or signal is used or in the case of the pump and signal beams have different wavelengths. Due to we have performed a rigorous analysis, from this treatment the corresponding two level approximation has also been analyzed for these systems.

  1. Steady-State Characterization of Bacteriorhodopsin-D85N Photocycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    An operational characterization of the photocycle of the genetic mutant D85N of bacteriorhodopsin, BR-D85N, is presented. Steady-state bleach spectra and pump-probe absorbance data are obtained with thick hydrated films containing BR-D85N embedded in a gelatin host. Simple two- and three-state models are used to analyze the photocycle dynamics and extract relevant information such as pure-state absorption spectra, photochemical-transition quantum efficiencies, and thermal lifetimes of dominant states appearing in the photocycle, the knowledge of which should aid in the analysis of optical recording and retrieval of data in films incorporating this photochromic material. The remarkable characteristics of this material and their implications from the viewpoint of optical data storage and processing are discussed.

  2. Electrically tunable, optical microcavity based on metallized and ultra-soft PDMS gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, M.; Slowik, I.; Paschew, G.; Merkel, U.; Fröb, H.; Leo, K.; Richter, A.

    2016-04-01

    Tunable, optical microcavities (MC) gain more and more importance for display, laser or other optical applications. The setup of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) enables a simple integration of an optical cavity, since reflective electrodes can confine a cavity that is filled with a transparent elastomer. Applying a voltage to the electrodes leads to squeezing of the elastomer and, due to the cavity thickness decrease, the resonator modes of interfering light changes. In this work we present an electrically tunable, optical MC based on ultra-soft poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The PDMS gel is coated on a glass substrate with a distributed Bragg reflector, an ITO bottom electrode and a flexible, highly reflective metal electrode and mirror on top. The usage of an ultra-soft PDMS gel, with a storage modulus of about 1kPa, allows to decrease the operating voltage down to a few hundred or even several ten volts. The critical step of fabrication is the metallization of the PDMS gel layer that requires a previous oxidizing surface activation to gain reflective and conductive silver based layers on top. Therefore, the effects of oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment on PDMS and the created metal layer were investigated intensively. The performance of the electrically tunable, optical MC is tremendously dependent from an adequate surface activation and structuring of the top electrodes considering the mirror displacement and activation voltage. Here we could show that tunable MCs based on oxygen plasma activated PDMS show a homogenous and high thickness decrease up to 70% at 200V.

  3. Development of bacteriorhodopsin analogues and studies of charge separated excited states in the photoprocesses of linear polyenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil K; Hota, Prasanta K

    2007-01-01

    Development of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) analogues employing chromophore substitution technique for the purpose of characterizing the binding site of bR and generating bR analogues with novel opto-electronic properties for applications as photoactive element in nanotechnical devices are described. Additionally, the photophysical and photochemical properties of variously substituted diarylpolyenes as models of photobiologically relevant linear polyenes are discussed. The role of charge separated dipolar excited states in the photoprocesses of linear polyenes is highlighted.

  4. Modulation of folding and assembly of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin by intermolecular forces within the lipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, A R; Templer, R H; Booth, P J

    1999-07-20

    Three different lipid systems have been developed to investigate the effect of physicochemical forces within the lipid bilayer on the folding of the integral membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. Each system consists of lipid vesicles containing two lipid species, one with phosphatidylcholine and the other with phosphatidylethanolamine headgroups, but the same hydrocarbon chains: either L-alpha-1, 2-dioleoyl, L-alpha-1,2-dipalmitoleoyl, or L-alpha-1,2-dimyristoyl. Increasing the mole fraction of the phosphatidylethanolamine lipid increases the desire of each monolayer leaflet in the bilayer to curve toward water. This increases the torque tension of such monolayers, when they are constrained to remain flat in the vesicle bilayer. Consequently, the lateral pressure in the hydrocarbon chain region increases, and we have used excimer fluorescence from pyrene-labeled phosphatidylcholine lipids to probe these pressure changes. We show that bacteriorhodopsin regenerates to about 95% yield in vesicles of 100% phosphatidylcholine. The regeneration yield decreases as the mole fraction of the corresponding phosphatidylethanolamine component is increased. The decrease in yield correlates with the increase in lateral pressure which the lipid chains exert on the refolding protein. We suggest that the increase in lipid chain pressure either hinders insertion of the denatured state of bacterioopsin into the bilayer or slows a folding step within the bilayer, to the extent that an intermediate involved in bacteriorhodopsin regeneration is effectively trapped.

  5. Coupling semiconductor nanocrystals to a fused-silica microsphere: a quantum-dot microcavity with extremely high Q factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X; Palinginis, P; Lacey, S; Wang, H; Lonergan, M C

    2000-11-01

    We demonstrate a quantum-dot microcavity by coupling core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals to a fused-silica microsphere. We show that the composite microcavity can feature Q factors of the order of 10(8), providing a model system for investigating cavity QED and microlasers at the level of single quantum dots.

  6. Optical microcavities based on surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Qiu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-mode optical microcavities based on two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals are studied. We demonstrate that a high-quality-factor microcavity can be easily realized in these structures. With an increasing of the cavity length, the quality factor is gr...

  7. Development of L-lactate dehydrogenase biosensor based on porous silicon resonant microcavities as fluorescence enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, S N Aisyiyah; Prieto-Simon, Beatriz; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-12-15

    The up-regulation of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an intracellular enzyme present in most of all body tissues, is indicative of several pathological conditions and cellular death. Herein, we demonstrate LDH detection using porous silicon (pSi) microcavities as a luminescence-enhancing optical biosensing platform. Non-fluorescent resazurin was covalently attached onto the pSi surface via thermal hydrocarbonisation, thermal hydrosylilation and acylation. Each surface modification step was confirmed by means of FTIR and the optical shifts of the resonance wavelength of the microcavity. Thermal hydrocarbonisation also afforded excellent surface stability, ensuring that the resazurin was not reduced on the pSi surface. Using a pSi microcavity biosensor, the fluorescence signal upon detection of LDH was amplified by 10 and 5-fold compared to that of a single layer and a detuned microcavity, respectively, giving a limit of detection of 0.08 U/ml. The biosensor showed a linear response between 0.16 and 6.5 U/ml, covering the concentration range of LDH in normal as well as damaged tissues. The biosensor was selective for LDH and did not produce a signal upon incubation with another NAD-dependant enzyme L-glutamic dehydrogenase. The use of the pSi microcavity as a sensing platform reduced reagent usage by 30% and analysis time threefold compared to the standard LDH assay in solution.

  8. Statistics of chaotic resonances in an optical microcavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Lippolis, Domenico; Li, Ze-Yang; Jiang, Xue-Feng; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Distributions of eigenmodes are widely concerned in both bounded and open systems. In the realm of chaos, counting resonances can characterize the underlying dynamics (regular vs chaotic), and is often instrumental to identify classical-to-quantum correspondence. Here, we study, both theoretically and experimentally, the statistics of chaotic resonances in an optical microcavity with a mixed phase space of both regular and chaotic dynamics. Information on the number of chaotic modes is extracted by counting regular modes, which couple to the former via dynamical tunneling. The experimental data are in agreement with a known semiclassical prediction for the dependence of the number of chaotic resonances on the number of open channels, while they deviate significantly from a purely random-matrix-theory-based treatment, in general. We ascribe this result to the ballistic decay of the rays, which occurs within Ehrenfest time, and importantly, within the time scale of transient chaos. The present approach may provide a general tool for the statistical analysis of chaotic resonances in open systems.

  9. First results with a microcavity plasma panel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Robert [University of Michigan; Ben Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University, Israel; Benhammou, Yan [Tel Aviv University, Israel; Chapman, J. Wehrley [University of Michigan; Etzion, E [Tel Aviv University, Israel; Ferretti, Claudio [University of Michigan; Friedman, Dr. Peter S. [Integrated Sensors, LLC; Levin, Daniel S. [University of Michigan; Silver, Yiftah [Tel Aviv University, Israel; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weaverdyck, Curtis [University of Michigan; Zhou, Bing [University of Michigan; Bensimon, R [Tel Aviv University School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv, Israel; Davies, Merlin [Tel Aviv University School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv, Israel

    2015-01-01

    A new type of gaseous micropattern particle detector based on a closed-cell microcavity plasma panel sensor is reported. The first device was fabricated with 1 x 1 x 2 mm cells. It has shown very clean signals of 0.6-2.5 V amplitude, fast rise time of approximately 2 ns and FWHM of about 2 ns with very uniform signal shapes across all pixels. From initial measurements with beta particles from a radioactive source, a maximum pixel efficiency greater than 95% is calculated, for operation of the detector over a 100 V wide span of high voltages (HV). Over this same HV range, the background rate per pixel was measured to be 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than the rate with which the cell was illuminated by the beta source. Pixel-to-pixel count rate uniformity is within 3% and stable within 3% for many days. The time resolution is 2.4 ns, and a very low cell-to-cell crosstalk has been measured between cells separated by 2 mm. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. First results with a microcavity plasma panel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R; Benhammou, Y; Bensimon, R; Chapman, J W; Davis, M; Etzion, E; Ferretti, C; Friedman, P S; Levin, D S; Silver, Y; Varner, R L; Weaverdyck, C; Zhou, B

    2014-01-01

    A new type of gaseous micropattern particle detector based on a closed-cell microcavity plasma panel sensor is reported. The first device was fabricated with 1 x 1 x 2 mm cells. It has shown very clean signals of 0.6 to 2.5 volt amplitude, fast rise time of approximately 2 ns and FWHM of about 2 ns with very uniform signal shapes across all pixels. From initial measurements with beta particles from a radioactive source, a maximum pixel efficiency of greater than 95% is calculated, for operation of the detector over a 100V wide span of high voltages (HV). Over this same HV range, the background rate per pixel was measured to be 3 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than the rate with the cell illuminated by the beta source. Pixel-to-pixel count rate uniformity is within 3% and stable within 3% for many days. The time resolution is 4.4 ns, and a very low cell-to-cell crosstalk has been measured between cells separated by 2 mm.

  11. Robust bound states in the continuum in Kerr microcavity embedded in photonic crystal waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N

    2014-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional photonic crystal design with a microcavity of four defect dielectric rods with eigenfrequencies residing in the propagating band of directional waveguide. In the linear case for tuning of material parameters of defect rods the nonrobust bound state in the continuum (BSC) might occur. The BSC is a result of full destructive interference of resonant monopole and quadrupole modes with the same parity. % to trap light interior of the microcavity. A robust BSC arises in a self-adaptive way without necessity to tune the parameters of the microcavity with the Kerr effect. Lack of the superposition principle in nonlinear systems gives rise to coupling of the BSC with injecting light. That forms a peculiar shape of isolated transmittance resonance around BSC frequency. We show if injecting light is switched off the BSC storages light that opens a way for light accumulation.

  12. Microtorus: a high-finesse microcavity with whispering-gallery modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilchenko, V S; Gorodetsky, M L; Yao, X S; Maleki, L

    2001-03-01

    We demonstrate a 165-mu;m oblate spheroidal microcavity with a free spectral range of 383.7 GHz (3.06 nm), a resonance bandwidth of 23 MHz (quality factor Q approximately 10(7)) at 1550 nm, and finesse F>/=10(4) . The highly oblate spheroidal dielectric microcavity combines a very high Q factor, typical of microspheres, with a vastly reduced number of excited whispering-gallery modes (by 2 orders of magnitude). The very large free spectral range in this novel microcavity-a few hundred gigahertz instead of a few gigahertz as in typical microspheres-is desirable for applications in spectral analysis, narrow-linewidth optical and rf oscillators, and cavity QED.

  13. Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hai, E-mail: hai.yan@utexas.edu; Zou, Yi; Yang, Chun-Ju [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Chakravarty, Swapnajit, E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com [Omega Optics, Inc., 8500 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States); Wang, Zheng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Tang, Naimei; Chen, Ray T., E-mail: raychen@uts.cc.utexas.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Omega Optics, Inc., 8500 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States); Fan, Donglei [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-03-23

    A method for the dense integration of high sensitivity photonic crystal (PC) waveguide based biosensors is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a silicon platform. By connecting an additional PC waveguide filter to a PC microcavity sensor in series, a transmission passband is created, containing the resonances of the PC microcavity for sensing purpose. With proper engineering of the passband, multiple high sensitivity PC microcavity sensors can be integrated into microarrays and be interrogated simultaneously between a single input and a single output port. The concept was demonstrated with a 2-channel L55 PC biosensor array containing PC waveguide filters. The experiment showed that the sensors on both channels can be monitored simultaneously from a single output spectrum. Less than 3 dB extra loss for the additional PC waveguide filter is observed.

  14. External pumping of hybrid nanostructures in microcavity with Frenkel and Wannier-Mott excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovskiy, O. A.; Agranovich, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    The exciton-exciton interaction in hybrid nanostructures with resonating Frenkel and Wannier-Mott excitons was investigated in many publications. In microcavity the hybrid nanostructures can be exposed to different types of optical pumping, the most common one being pumping through one of the microcavity side. However, not investigated and thus never been discussed the hybrid excitons generation by pumping of confined quantum wells from the side of empty microcavity without nanostructures in a wave guided configuration. Here, we consider the hybrid excitations in cavity with organic and inorganic quantum wells and with different types of pumping from external source. The frequency dependence for intensity of excitations in hybrid structure is also investigated. The results may be used for search of most effective fluorescence and relaxation processes. The same approach may be used when both quantum wells are organic or inorganic.

  15. Magneto-optical responses of microcavity-integrated graphene photonic crystals in the infrared spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi-Ghaleh, Reza; Sattari, Maryam

    2016-09-01

    The magneto-optical responses and photonic band gap properties of the microcavity-integrated graphene photonic crystals were numerically studied. The structure consists of a graphene sheet embedded between two mirror symmetric Bragg reflectors, under the influence of an external static magnetic field. The properties of the microcavity resonance mode were investigated, considering the right- and left-handed circular polarization transmission coefficients and their phases, together with the Faraday rotation angle and ellipticity of the output light. The effects of the repetition number of the Bragg reflectors, thickness of the microcavity central layer and refractive indices of the graphene adjacent layers were considered. The obtained results revealed that a pure linear polarized output light with no ellipticity and high transmittance enhanced Faraday rotation can be achieved. These results can be utilized in designing a variety of graphene based photonic devices and magneto-optical integrated elements, such as miniaturized isolators or circulators.

  16. Magneto-photonic crystal microcavities based on magnetic nanoparticles embedded in Silica matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocini, Abdesselam; Moukhtari, Riad; Khedrouche, Djamel; Kahlouche, Ahmed; Zamani, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Using the three-dimensional finite difference time domain method (3D FDTD) with perfectly matched layers (PML), optical and magneto-optical properties of two-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals micro-cavity is studied. This micro-cavity is fabricated by SiO2/ZrO2 or SiO2/TiO2 matrix doped with magnetic nanoparticles, in which the refractive index varied in the range of 1.51-1.58. We demonstrate that the Q factor for the designed cavity increases as the refractive index increases, and we find that the Q factor decreases as the volume fraction VF% due to off-diagonal elements increases. These magnetic microcavities may serve as a fundamental structure in a variety of ultra compact magneto photonic devices such as optical isolators, circulators and modulators in the future.

  17. Non-Hermitian Hamiltonian and Lamb shift in circular dielectric microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Won; Kim, Jaewan; Jeong, Kabgyun

    2016-06-01

    We study the normal modes and quasi-normal modes (QNMs) in circular dielectric microcavities through non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, which come from the modifications due to system-environment coupling. Differences between the two types of modes are studied in detail, including the existence of resonances tails. Numerical calculations of the eigenvalues reveal the Lamb shift in the microcavity due to its interaction with the environment. We also investigate relations between the Lamb shift and quantized angular momentum of the whispering gallery mode as well as the refractive index of the microcavity. For the latter, we make use of the similarity between the Helmholtz equation and the Schrödinger equation, in which the refractive index can be treated as a control parameter of effective potential. Our result can be generalized to other open quantum systems with a potential term.

  18. Fabry-Perot microcavity sensor for H2-breath-test analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; De Sario, Marco; Petruzzelli, V.; D'Orazio, Antonella; Prudenzano, Francesco; de Ceglia, Domenico; Scalora, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Leak detection of hydrogen for medical purposes, based on the monitoring of the optical response of a simple Fabry-Perot microcavity, is proposed to investigate either the occurrence of lactose intolerance, or lactose malabsorption condition. Both pathologic conditions result in bacterial overgrowth in the intestine, which causes increased spontaneous emission of H2 in the human breath. Two sensitivity figures of merit are introduced to inspect changes in the sensor response, and to relate the microcavity response to a pathologic condition, which is strictly related to a different level of exhaled hydrogen. Different sensor configurations using a metal-dielectric microcavity are reported and discussed in order to make the most of the well-known ability of palladium to spontaneously absorb hydrogen.

  19. Studying proton pumping mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin and cytochrome c oxidase with multi-conformation continuum electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yifan

    The proton gradient across the biological membrane is important for the biological systems. Bacteriorhodopsin and cytochrome c oxidase convert different energy sources into this gradient. The focus of this thesis is to understand the mechanism of these proteins using computational methods. In bacteriorhodopsin, residue ionization states were calculated in 9 crystal structures trapped in bR, early M and late M states by Multi-Conformation Continuum Electrostatics (MCC). The three groups in the central cluster are ionized in bR structures while a proton has transferred from the SB+ to Asp 85 - in the late M structures matching prior experimental results. The proton release cluster binds one proton in bR structure which is lost to water by pH 8 in late M. Modest changes in intra-protein interactions cause the charge shifts within the clusters. Motions of Arg 82 couple the proton shift in the central cluster to proton release. Changes in the total charge of the two clusters are coupled by direct long-range interactions. Cytochrome c oxidase is a transmembrane proton pump that builds an electrochemical gradient using chemical energy from the reduction of O2. Ionization states of all residues were calculated with MCCE in seven anaerobic oxidase redox states ranging from fully oxidized to fully reduced in Rb. sphaeroides cytochrome c oxidase. At pH 7, only a hydroxide coordinated to CuB shifts its pKa from below 7 to above 7, and so picks up a proton when Heme a3 and CuB are reduced. Glu I-286, Tyr I-288, His I-334 and a second hydroxide on Heme a3 all have pKas above 7. The propionic acids near the BNC are deprotonated with pKas well below 7. This suggests electroneutrality in the BNC is not maintained during the anaerobic reduction. The electrochemical midpoint potential (E m) of Heme a is calculated to shift down when the BNC is reduced, which agrees with prior experiments. If the BNC reduction is electroneutral, then the Heme a Em is independent of the BNC redox state.

  20. An All Fiber Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer Based on an Air-Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth I. Mata-Chávez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work an Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI based on an air-microcavity is presented. Here the air microcavity, with silica walls, is formed at a segment of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF, which is fusion spliced with a single mode fiber (SMF. Moreover, the spectral response of the IFPI is experimentally characterized and some results are provided. Finally, the viability to use the IFPI to implement a simple, compact size, and low cost refractive index sensor is briefly analyzed.

  1. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids in the energy range 1 keV-100 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Morteza; Lunscher, Nolan; Yeow, John T. W.

    2013-04-01

    Recently, there has been an interest in fabrication of X-ray sensors based on bacteriorhodopsin, a proton pump protein in cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. Therefore, a better understanding of interaction of X-ray photons with bacteriorhodopsin is required. We use WinXCom program to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. These amino acids include alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, Asx1, Asx2, Glx1 and Glx2. We then use that data to calculate effective atomic number and electron densities for the same range of energy. We also emphasize on two ranges of energies (10-200 keV and 1-20 MeV) in which X-ray imaging and radiotherapy machines work.

  2. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids in the energy range 1 keV–100 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Morteza; Lunscher, Nolan [Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Yeow, John T.W., E-mail: jyeow@uwaterloo.ca [Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Recently, there has been an interest in fabrication of X-ray sensors based on bacteriorhodopsin, a proton pump protein in cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. Therefore, a better understanding of interaction of X-ray photons with bacteriorhodopsin is required. We use WinXCom program to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. These amino acids include alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, Asx1, Asx2, Glx1 and Glx2. We then use that data to calculate effective atomic number and electron densities for the same range of energy. We also emphasize on two ranges of energies (10–200 keV and 1–20 MeV) in which X-ray imaging and radiotherapy machines work.

  3. Deposition of Bacteriorhodopsin Protein in a Purple Membrane Form on Nitrocellulose Membranes for Enhanced Photoelectric Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hoon Nam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriorhodopsin protein (bR-based systems are one of the simplest known biological energy converters. The robust chemical, thermal and electrochemical properties of bR have made it an attractive material for photoelectric devices. This study demonstrates the photoelectric response of a dry bR layer deposited on a nitrocellulose membrane with indium tin oxide (ITO electrodes. Light-induced electrical current as well as potential and impedance changes of dried bR film were recorded as the function of illumination. We have also tested bR in solution and found that the electrical properties are strongly dependent on light intensity changing locally proton concentration and thus pH of the solution. Experimental data support the assumption that bR protein on a positively charged nitrocellulose membrane (PNM can be used as highly sensitive photo- and pH detector. Here the bR layer facilitates proton translocation and acts as an ultrafast optoelectric signal transducer. It is therefore useful in applications related to bioelectronics, biosensors, bio-optics devices and current carrying junction devices.

  4. Nanoparticle surface-enhanced Raman scattering of bacteriorhodopsin stabilized by amphipol A8-35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovinkin, V; Balandin, T; Volkov, O; Round, E; Borshchevskiy, V; Utrobin, P; von Stetten, D; Royant, A; Willbold, D; Arzumanyan, G; Chupin, V; Popot, J-L; Gordeliy, V

    2014-10-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has developed dramatically since its discovery in the 1970s, because of its power as an analytical tool for selective sensing of molecules adsorbed onto noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures, including at the single-molecule (SM) level. Despite the high importance of membrane proteins (MPs), SERS application to MPs has not really been studied, due to the great handling difficulties resulting from the amphiphilic nature of MPs. The ability of amphipols (APols) to trap MPs and keep them soluble, stable, and functional opens up onto highly interesting applications for SERS studies, possibly at the SM level. This seems to be feasible since single APol-trapped MPs can fit into gaps between noble metal NPs, or in other gap-containing SERS substrates, whereby the enhancement of Raman scattering signal may be sufficient for SM sensitivity. The goal of the present study is to give a proof of concept of SERS with APol-stabilized MPs, using bacteriorhodopsin (BR) as a model. BR trapped by APol A8-35 remains functional even after partial drying at a low humidity. A dried mixture of silver Lee-Meisel colloid NPs and BR/A8-35 complexes give rise to SERS with an average enhancement factor in excess of 10(2). SERS spectra resemble non-SERS spectra of a dried sample of BR/APol complexes.

  5. Enhanced Photocurrent Generation from Bacteriorhodopsin Photocells Using Grating-Structured Transparent Conductive Oxide Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Takahiro; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Haruyama, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Toshiki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Tominari, Yukihiro; Ueda, Rieko; Terui, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Shukichi; Otomo, Akira

    2016-04-01

    We fabricated a grating-structured electrode made of indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) with a high refractive index (approximately 2) for a bacteriorhodopsin (bR) photocell. We investigated the photocurrent characteristics of the bR photocell and demonstrated that the photocurrent values from the bR/IZO electrode with the grating structure with a grating period of 340 nm were more than 3.5-4 times larger than those without the grating structure. The photocurrent enhancement was attributed to the resonance effect due to light coupling to the grating structure as well as the scattering effect based on the experimental results and analysis using the photonic band structure determined using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The refractive index of the bR film in electrolyte solution (1.40) used in the FDTD simulations was estimated by analyzing the extinction peak wavelength of 20-nm gold colloids in the bR film. Our results indicate that the grating- or photonic-crystal-structured transparent conductive oxide (TCO) electrodes can increase the light use efficiency of various bR devices such as artificial photosynthetic devices, solar cells, and light-sensing devices.

  6. Resonant transfer of one- and two-photon excitations in quantum dot-bacteriorhodopsin complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivenkov, V. A.; Samokhvalov, P. S.; Bilan, R. S.; Chistyakov, A. A.; Nabiev, I. R.

    2017-01-01

    Light-sensitive protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR), which is capable of electrical response upon exposure to light, is a promising material for photovoltaics and optoelectronics. However, the rather narrow absorption spectrum of BR does not allow achieving efficient conversion of the light energy in the blue and infrared spectral regions. This paper summarizes the results of studies showing the possibility of extending the spectral region of the BR function by means of the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), which have a broad spectrum of one-photon absorption and a large twophoton absorption cross section (TPACS), to BR upon one- and two-photon excitation. In particular, it is shown that, on the basis of QDs and BR-containing purple membranes, it is possible to create electrostatically associated bio-nano hybrid systems in which FRET is implemented. In addition, the large TPACS of QDs, which is two orders of magnitude larger than those of BR and organic dyes, opens up a means for selective two-photon excitation of synthesized bio-nano hybrid complexes. On the basis of the results of this work, the spectral region in which BR converts the light energy into electrical energy can be extended from the UV to near-IR region, creating new opportunities for the use of this material in photovoltaics and optoelectronics.

  7. Schiff base switch II precedes the retinal thermal isomerization in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wang

    Full Text Available In bacteriorhodopsin, the order of molecular events that control the cytoplasmic or extracellular accessibility of the Schiff bases (SB are not well understood. We use molecular dynamics simulations to study a process involved in the second accessibility switch of SB that occurs after its reprotonation in the N intermediate of the photocycle. We find that once protonated, the SB C15 = NZ bond switches from a cytoplasmic facing (13-cis, 15-anti configuration to an extracellular facing (13-cis, 15-syn configuration on the pico to nanosecond timescale. Significantly, rotation about the retinal's C13 = C14 double bond is not observed. The dynamics of the isomeric state transitions of the protonated SB are strongly influenced by the surrounding charges and dielectric effects of other buried ions, particularly D96 and D212. Our simulations indicate that the thermal isomerization of retinal from 13-cis back to all-trans likely occurs independently from and after the SB C15 = NZ rotation in the N-to-O transition.

  8. Deposition of bacteriorhodopsin protein in a purple membrane form on nitrocellulose membranes for enhanced photoelectric response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jun; Neuzil, Pavel; Nam, Chang-Hoon; Engelhard, Martin

    2012-12-27

    Bacteriorhodopsin protein (bR)-based systems are one of the simplest known biological energy converters. The robust chemical, thermal and electrochemical properties of bR have made it an attractive material for photoelectric devices. This study demonstrates the photoelectric response of a dry bR layer deposited on a nitrocellulose membrane with indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Light-induced electrical current as well as potential and impedance changes of dried bR film were recorded as the function of illumination. We have also tested bR in solution and found that the electrical properties are strongly dependent on light intensity changing locally proton concentration and thus pH of the solution. Experimental data support the assumption that bR protein on a positively charged nitrocellulose membrane (PNM) can be used as highly sensitive photo- and pH detector. Here the bR layer facilitates proton translocation and acts as an ultrafast optoelectric signal transducer. It is therefore useful in applications related to bioelectronics, biosensors, bio-optics devices and current carrying junction devices.

  9. Photosensory behaviour of a bacteriorhodopsin-deficient mutant, ET-15, of Halobacterium halobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, E.; Schimz, A. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Neurobiologie)

    1983-05-01

    Halobacterium halobium, strain ET-15, which does not contain detectable amounts of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) shows behavioral responses to UV and yellow-green light. Attractant stimuli, i.e. light-increases in the yellow-green range or light-decreases in the UV, suppress the spontaneous reversals of the swimming direction for a certain time. Repellent stimuli, i.e. light-decreases in the yellow-green range or light-increases in the UV, elicit an additional reversal response after a few seconds. Action spectra of both sensory photosystems, PS 370 and PS 565, were measured with attractant as well as with repellent stimuli. As in BR-containing cells, maximal sensitivity was always found at 370 nm for the UV-system and at 565 nm for the long-wavelength system. Fluence-response curves at 370 and 565 nm obtained with strain ET-15 and with a BR-containing strain show that the sensitivity of both photosystems is not reduced in the absence of BR. It is concluded that BR is required neither for PS 565 nor for PS 370. Instead retinal-containing pigments different from BR have to be assumed to mediate photosensory behavior.

  10. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Core/Shell Quantum Dots and Bacteriorhodopsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Griep

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An energy transfer relationship between core-shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs and the optical protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR is shown, demonstrating a distance-dependent energy transfer with 88.2% and 51.1% of the QD energy being transferred to the bR monomer at separation distances of 3.5 nm and 8.5 nm, respectively. Fluorescence lifetime measurements isolate nonradiative energy transfer, other than optical absorptive mechanisms, with the effective QD excited state lifetime reducing from 18.0 ns to 13.3 ns with bR integration, demonstrating the Förster resonance energy transfer contributes to 26.1% of the transferred QD energy at the 3.5 nm separation distance. The established direct energy transfer mechanism holds the potential to enhance the bR spectral range and sensitivity of energies that the protein can utilize, increasing its subsequent photocurrent generation, a significant potential expansion of the applicability of bR in solar cell, biosensing, biocomputing, optoelectronic, and imaging technologies.

  11. Structural analysis of bacteriorhodopsin solubilized by lipid-like phosphocholine biosurfactants with varying micelle concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Haihong; Sun, Chenghao; Huang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Surfactants that can provide a more natural substitute for lipid bilayers are important in the purification and in vitro study of membrane proteins. Here we investigate the structural response of a model membrane protein, bacteriorhodopsin (BR), to phosphocholine biosurfactants. Phosphocholine biosurfactants are a type of biomimetic amphiphile that are similar to phospholipids, in which membrane proteins are commonly embedded. Multiple spectroscopic and zeta potential measurements are employed to characterize the conformational change, secondary and tertiary structure, oligomeric status, surface charge distribution and the structural stability of BR solubilized with phosphocholine biosurfactants of varying tail length. The process of phosphocholine micelle formation is found to facilitate the solubilization of BR, and for long-chain phosphocholines, concentrations much higher than their critical micelle concentrations achieve good solubilization. Phosphocholine biosurfactants are shown to be mild compared with the ionic surfactant SDS or CTAB, and tend to preserve membrane protein structure during solubilization, especially at low micelle concentrations, by virtue of their phospholipid-like zwitterionic head groups. The increase of alkyl chain length is shown to obviously enhance the capability of phosphocholine biosurfactants to stabilize BR. The underlying mechanism for the favorable actions of phosphocholine biosurfactant is also discussed.

  12. Detecting single DNA molecule interactions with optical microcavities (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Frank

    2015-09-01

    as the detection of less than 1 kDa intercalating small molecules[1]. [1] M. D. Baaske, M. R. Foreman, and F. Vollmer, "Single molecule nucleic acid interactions monitored on a label-free microcavity biosensing platform," Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 933-939, 2014. [2] Y. Wu, D. Y. Zhang, P. Yin, and F. Vollmer, "Ultraspecific and Highly Sensitive Nucleic Acid Detection by Integrating a DNA Catalytic Network with a Label-Free Microcavity," Small, vol. 10, pp. 2067-2076, 2014. [3] M. R. Foreman, W.-L. Jin, and F. Vollmer, "Optimizing Detection Limits in Whispering Gallery Mode Biosensing," Optics Express, vol. 22, pp. 5491-5511, 2014. [4] M. A. Santiago-Cordoba, S. V. Boriskina, F. Vollmer, and M. C. Demirel, "Nanoparticle-based protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 99, Aug 2011. [5] M. R. Foreman and F. Vollmer, "Theory of resonance shifts of whispering gallery modes by arbitrary plasmonic nanoparticles," New Journal of Physics, vol. 15, p. 083006, Aug 2013. [6] M. R. Foreman and F. Vollmer "Level repulsion in hybrid photonic-plasmonic microresonators for enhanced biodetection" Phys. Rev. A 88, 023831 (2013).

  13. The combination of high Q factor and chirality in twin cavities and microcavity chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinghai; Zhang, Nan; Zhai, Huilin; Liu, Shuai; Gu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Kaiyang; Sun, Shang; Chen, Zhiwei; Li, Meng; Xiao, Shumin

    2014-09-29

    Chirality in microcavities has recently shown its bright future in optical sensing and microsized coherent light sources. The key parameters for such applications are the high quality (Q) factor and large chirality. However, the previous reported chiral resonances are either low Q modes or require very special cavity designs. Here we demonstrate a novel, robust, and general mechanism to obtain the chirality in circular cavity. By placing a circular cavity and a spiral cavity in proximity, we show that ultra-high Q factor, large chirality, and unidirectional output can be obtained simultaneously. The highest Q factors of the non-orthogonal mode pairs are almost the same as the ones in circular cavity. And the co-propagating directions of the non-orthogonal mode pairs can be reversed by tuning the mode coupling. This new mechanism for the combination of high Q factor and large chirality is found to be very robust to cavity size, refractive index, and the shape deformation, showing very nice fabrication tolerance. And it can be further extended to microcavity chain and microcavity plane. We believe that our research will shed light on the practical applications of chirality and microcavities.

  14. Finite element method analysis of surface acoustic wave devices with microcavities for detection of liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senveli, Sukru U.; Tigli, Onur

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces the use of finite element method analysis tools to investigate the use of a Rayleigh type surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor to interrogate minute amounts of liquids trapped in microcavities placed on the delay line. Launched surface waves in the ST-X quartz substrate couple to the liquid and emit compressional waves. These waves form a resonant cavity condition and interfere with the surface waves in the substrate. Simulations show that the platform operates in a different mechanism than the conventional mass loading of SAW devices. Based on the proposed detection mechanism, it is able to distinguish between variations of 40% and 90% glycerin based on phase relations while using liquid volumes smaller than 10 pl. Results from shallow microcavities show high correlation with sound velocity parameter of the liquid whereas deeper microcavities display high sensitivities with respect to glycerin concentration. Simulated devices yield a maximum sensitivity of -0.77°/(% glycerin) for 16 μm wavelength operation with 8 μm deep, 24 μm wide, and 24 μm long microcavities.

  15. Modified Spontaneous Emission from Dye Molecules inside a Photonic Crystal Microcavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-Bing; YE Yong-Hong; ZHANG Jia-Yu

    2007-01-01

    @@ We fabricate a photonic crystal microcavity containing Alq3 in a sandwiched structure by the self-assemble method. The angle-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra and the variation of the PL lifetime demonstrate the effect of the photonic band gap on the spontaneous emission of Alq3 in the photonic crystals.

  16. Purcell effect of GaAs quantum dots by photonic crystal microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuaki Sakoda; Takashi Kuroda; Naoki Ikeda; Takaaki Mano; Yoshimasa Sugimoto; Tetsuyuki Ochiai; Keiji Kuroda; Shunsuke Ohkouchi; Nobuyuki Koguchi; Kiyoshi Asakawa

    2009-01-01

    We fabricate photonic crystal slab microcavities embedded with GaAs quantum dots by electron beam lithography and droplet epitaxy.The Purcell effect of exciton emission of the quantum dots is confirmed by the micro photoluminescence measurement.The resonance wavelengths,widths,and polarization are consistent with numerical simulation results.

  17. Modified Photoluminescence by Silicon-Based One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN San; QIAN Bo; WEI Jun-Wei; CHEN Kun-Ji; XU Jun; LI Wei; HUANG Xin-Fan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Photoluminescence (PL) from one-dimensional photonic band structures is investigated. The doped photonic crystal with microcavities are fabricated by using alternating hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx :H/aSiNy:H) layers in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) chamber. It is observed that microcavities strongly modify the PL spectra from active hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNz :H) thin film.By comparison, the wide emission band width 208nm is strongly narrowed to 11 nm, and the resonant enhancement of the peak PL intensity is about two orders of magnitude with respect to the emission of the λ/2-thick layer of a-SiNz:H. A linewidth of △λ = 11 nm and a quality factor of Q = 69 are achieved in our one-dimensional a-SiNz photonic crystal microcavities. Measurements of transmittance spectra of the as-grown samples show that the transmittance resonant peak of a cavity mode at 710 nm is introduced into the band gap of one-dimensional photonic crystal distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), which further verifies the microcavity effects.

  18. Direct evidence of reduced dynamic scattering in the lower polariton of a semiconductor microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Langbein, Wolfgang;

    2000-01-01

    The temperature dependent linewidths of homogeneously broadened GaAs/AlxGa1 - xAs microcavity polaritons are investigated. The linewidths of the lower, middle, and upper polariton resonances are measured directly from reflection spectra at normal incidence (k(parallel to) = 0). The Linewidth of t...

  19. Hybridization of photon-plasmon modes in metal-coated microtubular cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Yin; Engemaier, Vivienne; Giudicatti, Silvia; Naz, Ehsan Saei Ghareh; Ma, Libo; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2016-01-01

    The coupling of resonant light and surface plasmons in metal layer coated optical microcavities results in the formation of hybrid photon-plasmon modes. Here, we comprehensively investigate the hybridization mechanism of photon-plasmon modes based on opto-plasmonic microtubular cavities. By changing the cavity structure and the metal layer thickness, weakly, moderately and strongly hybridized resonant modes are demonstrated depending on the photon-plasmon coupling strength. An effective potential approach is applied to illustrate the hybridization of photon-plasmon modes relying on the competition between light confinement by the cavity wall and the potential barrier introduced by the metal layer. Our work reveals the basic physical mechanisms for the generation of hybrid modes in metal-coated whispering-gallery-mode microcavities, and is of importance for the study of enhanced light-matter interactions and potential sensing applications.

  20. Influence of the charge at D85 on the initial steps in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotta, Constanze; Braun, Markus; Tittor, Jörg; Oesterhelt, D; Zinth, Wolfgang

    2009-07-08

    Studies have shown that trans-cis isomerization of retinal is the primary photoreaction in the photocycle of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from Halobacterium salinarum, as well as in the photocycle of the chloride pump halorhodopsin (HR). The transmembrane proteins HR and BR show extensive structural similarities, but differ in the electrostatic surroundings of the retinal chromophore near the protonated Schiff base. Point mutation of BR of the negatively charged aspartate D85 to a threonine T (D85T) in combination with variation of the pH value and anion concentration is used to study the ultrafast photoisomerization of BR and HR for well-defined electrostatic surroundings of the retinal chromophore. Variations of the pH value and salt concentration allow a switch in the isomerization dynamics of the BR mutant D85T between BR-like and HR-like behaviors. At low salt concentrations or a high pH value (pH 8), the mutant D85T shows a biexponential initial reaction similar to that of HR. The combination of high salt concentration and a low pH value (pH 6) leads to a subpopulation of 25% of the mutant D85T whose stationary and dynamic absorption properties are similar to those of native BR. In this sample, the combination of low pH and high salt concentration reestablishes the electrostatic surroundings originally present in native BR, but only a minor fraction of the D85T molecules have the charge located exactly at the position required for the BR-like fast isomerization reaction. The results suggest that the electrostatics in the native BR protein is optimized by evolution. The accurate location of the fixed charge at the aspartate D85 near the Schiff base in BR is essential for the high efficiency of the primary reaction.

  1. Water and carboxyl group environments in the dehydration blueshift of bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renthal, R; Gracia, N; Regalado, R

    2000-11-01

    The proton channels of the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) proton pump contain bound water molecules. The channels connect the purple membrane surfaces with the protonated retinal Schiff base at the membrane center. Films of purple membrane equilibrated at low relative humidity display a shift of the 570 nm retinal absorbance maximum to 528 nm, with most of the change occurring below 15% relative humidity. Purple membrane films were dehydrated to defined humidities between about 50 and 4.5% and examined by Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. In spectra of dehydrated-minus-hydrated purple membrane, troughs are observed at 3645 and 3550 cm-1, and peaks are observed at 3665 and 3500 cm-1. We attribute these changes to water dissociation from the proton uptake channel and the resulting changes in hydrogen bonding of water that remains bound. Also, in the carboxylic acid spectral region, a trough was observed at 1742 cm-1 and a peak at 1737 cm-1. The magnitude of the trough to peak difference between 1737 and 1742 cm-1 correlates linearly with the extent of the 528 nm pigment. This suggests that a carboxylic acid group or groups is undergoing a change in environment as a result of dehydration, and that this change is linked to the appearance of the 528 nm pigment. Dehydration difference spectra with BR mutants D96N and D115N show that the 1737-1742 cm-1 change is due to Asp 96 and Asp 115. A possible mechanism is suggested that links dissociation of water in the proton uptake channel to the environmental change at the Schiff base site.

  2. Volume and enthalpy changes of proton transfers in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle studied by millisecond time-resolved photopressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Edens, Gregory J; Grzymski, Joseph; Mauzerall, David

    2008-07-22

    The volume and enthalpy changes associated with proton translocation steps during the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle were determined by time-resolved photopressure measurements. The data at 25 degrees C show a prompt increase in volume followed by two further increases and one decrease to the original state to complete the cycle. These volume changes are decomposed into enthalpy and inherent volume changes. The positive enthalpy changes support the argument for inherent entropy-driven late steps in the BR photocycle [Ort, D. R., and Parson, W. M. (1979) Enthalpy changes during the photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin. Biophys. J. 25, 355-364]. The volume change data can be interpreted by the electrostriction effect as charges are canceled and formed during the proton transfers. A simple glutamic acid-glutamate ion model or a diglutamate-arginine-protonated water charge-delocalized model for the proton-release complex (PRC) fit the data. A conformational change with a large positive volume change is required in the slower rise (M --> N of the optical cycle) step and is reversed in the decay (N --> O --> BR) steps. The large variation in the published values for both the volume and enthalpy changes is greatly ameliorated if the values are presented per absorbed photon instead of per mole of BR. Thus, it is the highly differing assumptions about the quantum or reaction yields that cause the variations in the published results.

  3. A residue substitution near the beta-ionone ring of the retinal affects the M substates of bacteriorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varo, G.; Zimanyi, L.; Chang, M.; Ni, B.; Needleman, R.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    The switch in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle, which reorients access of the retinal Schiff base from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side, was suggested to be an M1----M2 reaction (Varo and Lanyi. 1991. Biochemistry. 30:5008-5015, 5016-5022). Thus, in this light-driven proton pump it is the interconversion of proposed M substates that gives direction to the transport. We find that in monomeric, although not purple membrane-lattice immobilized, D115N bacteriorhodopsin, the absorption maximum of M changes during the photocycle: in the time domain between its rise and decay it shifts 15 nm to the blue relative to the spectrum at earlier times. This large shift strongly supports the existence of two M substates. Since D115 is located near the beta-ionone ring of the retinal, the result raises questions about the possible involvement of the retinal chain or protein residues as far away as 10 A from the Schiff base in the mechanism of the switching reaction.

  4. Experimental evidence for secondary protein-chromophore interactions at the Schiff base linkage in bacteriorhodopsin: molecular mechanism for proton pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A.; Marcus, M.A.; Ehrenberg, B.; Crespi, H.

    1978-10-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy of the retinylidene chromophore in various isotopically labeled membrane environments together with spectra of isotopically labeled model compounds demonstrates that a secondary protein interaction is present at the protonated Schiff base linkage in bacteriorhodopsin. The data indicate that although the interaction is present in all protonated bacteriorhodopsin species it is absent in unprotonated intermediates. Furthermore, kinetic resonance Raman spectroscopy has been used to monitor the dynamics of Schiff base deprotonation as a function of pH. All results are consistent with lysine as the interacting group. A structure for the interaction is proposed in which the interacting protein group in an unprotonated configuration is complexed through the Schiff base proton to the Schiff base nitrogen. These data suggest a molecular mechanism for proton pumping and ion gate molecular regulation. In this mechanism, light causes electron redistribution in the retinylidene chromophore, which results in the deprotonation of an amino acid side chain with pK > 10.2 +- 0.3 (e.g., arginine). This induces subsequent retinal and protein conformational transitions which eventually lower the pK of the Schiff base complex from > 12 before light absorption to 10.2 +- 0.3 in microseconds after photon absorption. Finally, in this low pK state the complex can reprotonate the proton-deficient high pK group generated by light, and the complex is then reprotonated from the opposite side of the membrane.

  5. Studying the Mechanism of Phototransformation of Light Signal by Various Mammal and Bacterial Photoreceptor Pigments  Rhodopsin, Iodopsin and Bacteriorhodopsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ignatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article outlines the structure and function of mammal and bacterial photoreceptor pigments (rhodopsin, iodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin and their aspects of bio-nanotechnological usage. On an example of bacteriorhodopsin is described the method of its isolation from purple membranes of photo-organotrophic halobacterium Halobacterium halobium ET 1001 by cellular autolysis by distilled water, processing of bacterial biomass by ultrasound at 22 KHz, alcohol extraction of low and high-weight molecular impurities, cellular RNA, carotenoids and lipids, the solubilization with 0,5 % (w/v SDS-Na and subsequent fractionation by methanol and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200 Column balanced with 0,09 M Tris-buffer (pH = 8,35 with 0,1 % (w/v SDS-Na and 2,5 mM EDTA. Within the framework of the research the mechanism of color perception by the visual retina analyzer having the ability to analyze certain ranges of the optical spectrum as colors, was studied along with an analysis of the additive mixing of two or more colors. It was shown that at the mixing of electromagnetic waves with different wavelengths, the visual analyzer perceives them as the separate or average wave length corresponding to the mixing color.

  6. Voltage dependence of proton pumping by bacteriorhodopsin mutants with altered lifetime of the M intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Geibel

    Full Text Available The light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR from Halobacterium salinarum is tightly regulated by the [H(+] gradient and transmembrane potential. BR exhibits optoelectric properties, since spectral changes during the photocycle are kinetically controlled by voltage, which predestines BR for optical storage or processing devices. BR mutants with prolonged lifetime of the blue-shifted M intermediate would be advantageous, but the optoelectric properties of such mutants are still elusive. Using expression in Xenopus oocytes and two-electrode voltage-clamping, we analyzed photocurrents of BR mutants with kinetically destabilized (F171C, F219L or stabilized (D96N, D96G M intermediate in response to green light (to probe H(+ pumping and blue laser flashes (to probe accumulation/decay of M. These mutants have divergent M lifetimes. As for BR-WT, this strictly correlates with the voltage dependence of H(+ pumping. BR-F171C and BR-F219L showed photocurrents similar to BR-WT. Yet, BR-F171C showed a weaker voltage dependence of proton pumping. For both mutants, blue laser flashes applied during and after green-light illumination showed reduced M accumulation and shorter M lifetime. In contrast, BR-D96G and BR-D96N exhibited small photocurrents, with nonlinear current-voltage curves, which increased strongly in the presence of azide. Blue laser flashes showed heavy M accumulation and prolonged M lifetime, which accounts for the strongly reduced H(+ pumping rate. Hyperpolarizing potentials augmented these effects. The combination of M-stabilizing and -destabilizing mutations in BR-D96G/F171C/F219L (BR-tri shows that disruption of the primary proton donor Asp-96 is fatal for BR as a proton pump. Mechanistically, M destabilizing mutations cannot compensate for the disruption of Asp-96. Accordingly, BR-tri and BR-D96G photocurrents were similar. However, BR-tri showed negative blue laser flash-induced currents even without actinic green light, indicating

  7. Scalable photonic quantum computing assisted by quantum-dot spin in double-sided optical microcavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2013-07-29

    We investigate the possibility of achieving scalable photonic quantum computing by the giant optical circular birefringence induced by a quantum-dot spin in a double-sided optical microcavity as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We construct a deterministic controlled-not gate on two photonic qubits by two single-photon input-output processes and the readout on an electron-medium spin confined in an optical resonant microcavity. This idea could be applied to multi-qubit gates on photonic qubits and we give the quantum circuit for a three-photon Toffoli gate. High fidelities and high efficiencies could be achieved when the side leakage to the cavity loss rate is low. It is worth pointing out that our devices work in both the strong and the weak coupling regimes.

  8. Detection of Single Nanoparticles Using the Dissipative Interaction in a High-Q Microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Bo-Qiang; Zhi, Yanyan; Wang, Li; Kim, Donghyun; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasensitive optical detection of nanometer-scaled particles is highly desirable for applications in early-stage diagnosis of human diseases, environmental monitoring, and homeland security, but remains extremely difficult due to ultralow polarizabilities of small-sized, low-index particles. Optical whispering-gallery-mode microcavities, which can enhance significantly the light-matter interaction, have emerged as promising platforms for label-free detection of nanoscale objects. Different from the conventional whispering-gallery-mode sensing relying on the reactive (i.e., dispersive) interaction, here we propose and demonstrate to detect single lossy nanoparticles using the dissipative interaction in a high-$Q$ toroidal microcavity. In the experiment, detection of single gold nanorods in an aqueous environment is realized by monitoring simultaneously the linewidth change and shift of the cavity mode. The experimental result falls within the theoretical prediction. Remarkably, the reactive and dissipative s...

  9. Tuning the Microcavity of Organic Light Emitting Diodes by Solution Processable Polymer-Nanoparticle Composite Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preinfalk, Jan B; Schackmar, Fabian R; Lampe, Thomas; Egel, Amos; Schmidt, Tobias D; Brütting, Wolfgang; Gomard, Guillaume; Lemmer, Uli

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we present a simple method to tune and take advantage of microcavity effects for an increased fraction of outcoupled light in solution-processed organic light emitting diodes. This is achieved by incorporating nonscattering polymer-nanoparticle composite layers. These tunable layers allow the optimization of the device architecture even for high film thicknesses on a single substrate by gradually altering the film thickness using a horizontal dipping technique. Moreover, it is shown that the optoelectronic device parameters are in good agreement with transfer matrix simulations of the corresponding layer stack, which offers the possibility to numerically design devices based on such composite layers. Lastly, it could be shown that the introduction of nanoparticles leads to an improved charge injection, which combined with an optimized microcavity resulted in a maximum luminous efficacy increase of 85% compared to a nanoparticle-free reference device.

  10. Slow reflection and two-photon generation of microcavity exciton-polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Steger, Mark; Snoke, David W; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken

    2014-01-01

    We resonantly inject polaritons into a microcavity and track them in time and space as they feel a force due to the cavity gradient. This is an example of "slow reflection," as the polaritons, which can be viewed as renormalized photons, slow down to zero velocity and then move back in the opposite direction. These measurements accurately measure the lifetime of the polaritons in our samples, which is 180 $\\pm$ 10 ps, corresponding to a cavity leakage time of 135 ps and a cavity $Q$ of 320,000. Such long-lived polaritons propagate millimeters in these wedge-shaped microcavities. Additionally, we generate polaritons by two-photon excitation directly into the polariton states, allowing the possibility of modulation of the two-photon absorption by a polariton condensate.

  11. Hydatid detection using the near-infrared transmission angular spectra of porous silicon microcavity biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jia, Zhenhong; Lü, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Hydatid, which is a parasitic disease, occurs today in many regions worldwide. Because it can present a serious threat to people’s health, finding a fast, convenient, and economical means of detection is important. This paper proposes a label- and spectrophotometer-free apparatus that uses optical biological detection based on porous silicon microcavities. In this approach, the refractive index change induced by the biological reactions of a sample in a porous silicon microcavity is detected by measuring the change in the incidence angle corresponding to the maximum transmitted intensity of a near-infrared probe laser. This paper reports that the proposed method can achieve the label-free detection of 43 kDa molecular weight hydatid disease antigens with high sensitivity. PMID:28317861

  12. Exciton-photon coupling in a ZnSe based microcavity fabricated using epitaxial liftoff

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, A; Morrod, J K; Prior, K A; Warburton, R J

    2007-01-01

    We report the observation of strong exciton-photon coupling in a ZnSe based microcavity fabricated using epitaxial liftoff. Molecular beam epitaxial grown ZnSe/Zn$_{0.9}$Cd$_{0.1}$Se quantum wells with a one wavelength optical length at the exciton emission were transferred to a SiO$_2$/Ta$_2$O$_5$ mirror with a reflectance of 96% to form finesse matched microcavities. Analysis of our angle resolved transmission spectra reveals key features of the strong coupling regime: anticrossing with a normal mode splitting of $23.6 meV$ at $20 K$; composite evolution of the lower and upper polaritons; and narrowing of the lower polariton linewidth near resonance. The heavy hole exciton oscillator strength per quantum well is also deduced to be $1.78 \\times 10^{13} cm^{-2}$.

  13. From evidence of strong light-matter coupling to polariton emission in GaN microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, I.R.; Semond, F.; Leroux, M.; Massies, J. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, Parc Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zamfirescu, M. [LENS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Gurioli, M.; Vinattieri, A. [LENS, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Disseix, P.; Leymarie, J.; Reveret, F.; Malpuech, G.; Vasson, A. [LASMEA, Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont Ferrand II, Les Cezeaux, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2007-06-15

    We present both experimental and theoretical results which outline our development of the molecular beam epitaxy of GaN microcavities on (111) silicon. In particular we show that although in this material system the strong-light matter coupling regime can be observed at 300 K even with relatively low quality factor structures (Q = 60) in reflectivity measurements, it is necessary to increase the Q -factor by at least a factor of two to observe strong coupling in the emission. For an optimized microcavity structure (Q = 160), polaritonic emission is observed at 300 K, with the origin of the broadened luminescence features confirmed by co-incident reflectivity measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. High-performance Refractive Index Sensor Based on Photonic Crystal Single Mode Resonant Micro-cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengye Huang; Junfeng Shi; Dongsheng Wang; Wei Li

    2006-01-01

    An effective refractive index sensor built with square lattice photonic crystal is proposed, which can be applicable to photonic integrated circuits. Two photonic crystal waveguides rather than conventional ridge waveguides are used as entrance/exit waveguides to the micro-cavity. Three layers of photonic lattice are set between the photonic crystal waveguides and the micro-cavity to achieve both a high transmission and a high sensitivity. The plane wave method is utilized to calculate the disperse curves and the finite difference time domain scheme is employed to simulate the light propagation. At the resonant wavelength of about 1500 nm, the resonant wavelength shifts up by 0.7 nm for each increment of △n=0.001. A transmission of more than 0.75 is observed. Although the position disorder of the photonic crystal doesn't affect the sensitivity of the sensor,the transmission reduces rapidly as the disorder increases.

  15. Coexisting localized and extended optical Bloch states in a periodic deep wire array microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löchner, Franz J. F.; Mischok, Andreas; Brückner, Robert; Lyssenko, Vadim G.; Zakhidov, Alexander A.; Fröb, Hartmut; Leo, K.

    2015-09-01

    We embed periodic SiO2 wires in an organic microcavity, producing a rectangular potential by the different optical thicknesses of the active layer due to the additional SiO2 layer. By μ -photoluminescence spectroscopy, we observe the energy dispersion of the photons and obtain discrete localized below and extended Bloch states above the potential barrier, respectively, showing that electro-magnetic waves can behave like massive particles, such as electrons, in crystal lattices. We investigate the dependencies on wire width and period and use the Kronig-Penney model to describe the photon energy dispersion, including an "effective mass" of a photon propagating through a microcavity implying polarization splitting. We obtain excellent agreement between experiment, simulation and analytical calculation.

  16. Hydatid detection using the near-infrared transmission angular spectra of porous silicon microcavity biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jia, Zhenhong; Lü, Guodong

    2017-03-01

    Hydatid, which is a parasitic disease, occurs today in many regions worldwide. Because it can present a serious threat to people’s health, finding a fast, convenient, and economical means of detection is important. This paper proposes a label- and spectrophotometer-free apparatus that uses optical biological detection based on porous silicon microcavities. In this approach, the refractive index change induced by the biological reactions of a sample in a porous silicon microcavity is detected by measuring the change in the incidence angle corresponding to the maximum transmitted intensity of a near-infrared probe laser. This paper reports that the proposed method can achieve the label-free detection of 43 kDa molecular weight hydatid disease antigens with high sensitivity.

  17. Harmonic mode locking in a high-Q whispering gallery mode microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Takasumi; Kato, Takumi; Kobatake, Tomoya; Suzuki, Ryo; Chen-Jinnai, Akitoshi

    2016-03-01

    We present a numerical and experimental study of the generation of harmonic mode locking in a silica toroid microcavity. We use a generalized mean-field Lugiato-Lefever equation and solve it with the split-step Fourier method. We found that a stable harmonic mode-locking regime can be accessed when we reduce the input power after strong pumping even if we do not carefully adjust the wavelength detuning. This is due to the bistable nature of the nonlinear cavity system. The experiment agrees well with the numerical analysis, where we obtain a low-noise Kerr comb spectrum with a narrow longitudinal mode spacing by gradually reducing the input pump power after strong pumping. This finding clarifies the procedure for generating harmonic mode locking in such high-Q microcavity systems.

  18. Localized surface plasmons selectively coupled to resonant light in tubular microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Yin; Böttner, Stefan; Yuan, Feifei; Giudicatti, Silvia; Naz, Ehsan Saei Ghareh; Ma, Libo; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2016-01-01

    Vertical gold-nanogaps are created on microtubular cavities to explore the coupling between resonant light supported by the microcavities and surface plasmons localized at the nanogaps. Selective coupling of optical axial modes and localized surface plasmons critically depends on the exact location of the gold-nanogap on the microcavities which is conveniently achieved by rolling-up specially designed thin dielectric films into three dimensional microtube ring resonators. The coupling phenomenon is explained by a modified quasi-potential model based on perturbation theory. Our work reveals the coupling of surface plasmon resonances localized at the nanoscale to optical resonances confined in microtubular cavities at the microscale, implying a promising strategy for the investigation of light-matter interactions.

  19. Model microcavity laser with CdSe/CdS quantum dots as lasing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, H. B.; Popov, S.; Shafique, M.

    2016-02-01

    A model is established for a microcavity laser with cadmium selenium/cadmium sulfide (CdSe/CdS) core/shell quantum dots (QDs) as a lasing medium. The research was organised to develop and solve the rate equations for the above mentioned microcavity laser to calculate the output parameters during lasing. Using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, the radiative life time of the lasing medium was measured along with its fluorescence and absorption spectra. A model is also established on the basis of the segment contact method (SCM) to demonstrate the threshold gain profile using the absorption spectrum of CdSe/CdS core/shell type-II QDs residing in the cavity. A laser cavity of size 1 μm was pumped with an optical source (532 nm) to achieve an optimised laser peak at 470 nm.

  20. Microcavity with saturable nonlinearity under simultaneous resonant and nonresonant pumping: multistability, Hopf bifurcations and chaotic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorsh, Ivan; Alodjants, Alexander; Shelykh, Ivan A

    2016-05-30

    We studied optical response of microcavity non-equilibrium exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate with saturable nonlinearity under simultaneous resonant and non-resonant pumping. We demonstrated the emergence of multistabile behavior due to the saturation of the excitonic absorption. Stable periodic Rabi-type oscillations of the excitonic and photonic condensate components in the regime of the stationary pump and their transition to the chaotic dynamics through the cascade of Hopf bifurcations by tuning of the electrical pump are revealed.

  1. Efficient optical path folding by using multiple total internal reflections in a microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Shinohara, Susumu; Fukushima, Takehiro; Harayama, Takahisa; Arai, Kenichi; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    We propose using an asymmetric resonant microcavity for the efficient generation of an optical path that is much longer than the diameter of the cavity. The path is formed along a star polygonal periodic orbit within the cavity, which is stable and confined by total internal reflection. We fabricated a semiconductor device based on this idea with an average diameter of 0.3 mm, and achieved a path length of 2.79 mm experimentally.

  2. Raman Theory for a Molecule in a Vibrating Microcavity Oscillating in Fundamental Resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoXue; WU Ying

    2001-01-01

    We propose a model to describe the energy structure and dynamics of a system of a molecule interacting with infinite photon modes in a vibrating microcavity whose boundary oscillates in the fundamental resonance. By constructing an so(2,1) Lie algebra for the infinite photon modes, we obtain analytical expressions of the energy eigenstates, energy eigenvalues and the system's evolution operator for this Raman model under certain conditions.``

  3. Microcavity with saturable nonlinearity under simultaneous resonant and nonresonant pumping: multistability, Hopf bifurcations and chaotic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Iorsh, Ivan; Shelykh, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We studied optical response of microcavity non-equilibrium exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate with saturable nonlinearity under simultaneous resonant and non-resonant pumping. We demonstrated the emergence of multistabile behavior due to the satutration of the excitonic absorbtion. Stable periodic Rabi- type oscillations of the excitonic and photonic condensate components in the regime of the stationary pump and their transition to the chaotic dynamics through the cascade of Hopf bifurcations by tuning of the electrical pump are revealed.

  4. Strong photocurrent enhancements in highly efficient flexible organic solar cells by adopting a microcavity configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kung-Shih; Yip, Hin-Lap; Salinas, José-Francisco; Xu, Yun-Xiang; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2014-05-28

    Organic solar cells often show inefficient light harvesting due to a short absorption path length limited by the low charge mobility of organic semiconductors. We demonstrate a flexible organic solar cell in a microcavity configuration using a TeO2/Ag semitransparent electrode to confine the optical field within the device with significant performance improvements and reaching a power conversion efficiency of 8.56%.

  5. Coherent coupling of molecular resonators with a micro-cavity mode

    CERN Document Server

    Shalabney, Atef; Hutchison, James A; Pupillo, Guido; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Strong coupling is at the heart of optomechanics where it enables coherent quantum state transfer between light and micromechanical oscillators. Strongly coupled molecule-cavity systems have also revealed unique properties enabling even the control of chemical rates through the optical hybridization of the electronic states. Here we combine these notions to show that molecular vibrational modes of the electronic ground state can be coherently coupled with a micro-cavity mode at room temperature, given the low vibrational thermal occupation factors n_{\

  6. Characterization of dynamical regimes and entanglement sudden death in a microcavity quantum dot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, Carlos A; Quesada M, Nicolas; Vinck-Posada, Herbert; Rodriguez, Boris A, E-mail: nquesada@pegasus.udea.edu.c [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2009-09-30

    The relation between the dynamical regimes (weak and strong coupling) and entanglement for a dissipative quantum dot microcavity system is studied. In the framework of a phenomenological temperature model an analysis in both temporal (population dynamics) and frequency domain (photoluminescence) is carried out in order to identify the associated dynamical behavior. The Wigner function and concurrence are employed to quantify the entanglement in each regime. We find that sudden death of entanglement is a typical characteristic of the strong coupling regime.

  7. Stable integrated hyper-parametric oscillator based on coupled optical microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Armaroli, Andrea; Dumeige, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    We propose a flexible scheme based on three coupled optical microcavities which permits to achieve stable oscillations in the microwave range, the frequency of which depends only on the cavity coupling rates. We find the different dynamical regimes (soft and hard excitation) to affect the oscillation intensity but not their period. This configuration may permit to implement compact hyper-parametric sources on an integrated optical circuit, with interesting applications in communications, sensing and metrology.

  8. Tunable thermal entanglement in an effective spin-star system using coupled microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wan-Li; Wei Hua; Feng Mang; An Jun-Hong

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically explore the possibility of realizing controllable thermal entanglement of effective spins in a fourqubit anisotropic Heisenberg XXZ coupling spin-star system constructed by coupled microcavities. We analyse the dependence of thermal entanglement in this system on temperature,inhomogeneity of the magnetic field,and anisotropy,which can be readily tuned via the external laser fields. The peculiar characteristic and the full controllability of the thermal entanglement are demonstrated to be useful for quantum information processing.

  9. Electromagnetic resonant properties of metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) cylindrical microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Hang; Wang, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Optical metamaterials can concentrate light into extremely tiny volumes to enhance their interaction with quantum objects. In this paper, a cylindrical microcavity based on the Au-dielectric-Au sandwiched structure is proposed. Numerical study shows that the cylindrical microcavity has the strong ability of localizing light and confining 103- 104-fold enhancement of the electromagnetic energy density, which contains the most energy of the incoming light. The enhancement factor of energy density G inside the cavity shows the regularities as the change in the thickness of the dielectric slab, dielectric constant, and the radius of gold disk. At the normal incidence of electromagnetic radiation, the obtained reflection spectra operate in the range from 4.8 μm to 6 μm and with the absorption efficiency C (C=1-R min), which can reach 99% by optimizing the structure's geometry parameters, and the dielectric constant. Due to the symmetry of the cylindrical microcavities, this structure is insensitive to the polarization of the incident wave. The proposed optical metamaterials will have potential applications in the surface enhanced spectroscopy, new plasmonic detectors, bio-sensing, solar cells, etc.

  10. The micro-cavity of the two dimensional plasmonic photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Kai; Zhang, Zhenguo; Yang, Qing

    2015-02-01

    In this manuscript, we proposed a novel and effective two dimensional hybrid plasmonic photonic crystal micro-cavity structure to confine the surface plasmon to a sub-wavelength scale mode volume and obtain a relatively high quality factor. By introducing a single-cell defect at the two dimensional triangular lattice photonic crystal layer, the defect cavity has been established to provide sub-wavelength scale plasmonic mode localization within the hybrid plasmonic photonic crystal structure TM band gap. Comprehensive analysis methods of three-dimensional finite difference time domain method (3D-FDTD) have been used to analyze the characteristics of the micro-cavity of this hybrid structure, including the effects of the radius of the nearest neighbor air holes around the defect, the cavity length of the defect and the thickness of the gain medium on the features of the micro-cavity. By using a quantum dots (QDs)-polymer as a gain medium for the low index thin layer, a gain threshold as low as gth = 534 cm-1 can be achieved with such structures, and deep sub-wavelength mode volume of 0.00201 (λ/n)3 is also obtained.

  11. High quality factor Er-doped Fabry-Perot microcavities by sol-gel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yigang; Fortes, Luis M; Almeida, Rui M [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais/ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico/TULisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Chiappini, Andrea; Ferrari, Maurizio, E-mail: yigang.li@ist.utl.p, E-mail: rui.almeida@ist.utl.p [CNR-IFN, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CSMFO Lab., Via alla Cascata 56/C, Povo, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2009-10-21

    An optimized sol-gel process was developed to fabricate 1D photonic bandgap structures. Several erbium-doped Fabry-Perot microcavities were prepared and characterized. The thickest sample contained two Bragg mirrors, each having 12 distributed Bragg reflector periods of alternating silicate glass and titania layers. The total thickness of this sample reached {approx}12 {mu}m. The Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence spectra at 1.5 {mu}m were measured for the microcavities. A quality factor of 250 and an Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence enhancement of 96 times at 1.5 {mu}m have been reached. The sol-gel processing details, the crystallization of the titania films and the refractive index of the deposited materials are discussed in detail. The simulated optical spectra of the microcavities were found to agree well with the actually measured curves. These results demonstrate that the present sol-gel processing technique is of potential interest for low cost fabrication of 1D photonic bandgap devices.

  12. Formation and all-optical control of optical patterns in semiconductor microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, R.; Tsang, C. Y.; Tse, Y. C.; Luk, M. H.; Kwong, N. H.; Chan, Chris K. P.; Leung, P. T.; Lewandowski, P.; Schumacher, Stefan; Lafont, O.; Baudin, E.; Tignon, J.

    2016-05-01

    Semiconductor microcavities offer a unique way to combine transient all-optical manipulation of GaAs quantum wells with the benefits of structural advantages of microcavities. In these systems, exciton-polaritons have dispersion relations with very small effective masses. This has enabled prominent effects, for example polaritonic Bose condensation, but it can also be exploited for the design of all-optical communication devices. The latter involves non-equilibrium phase transitions in the spatial arrangement of exciton-polaritons. We consider the case of optical pumping with normal incidence, yielding a spatially homogeneous distribution of exciton-polaritons in optical cavities containing the quantum wells. Exciton-exciton interactions can trigger instabilities if certain threshold behavior requirements are met. Such instabilities can lead, for example, to the spontaneous formation of hexagonal polariton lattices (corresponding to six-spot patterns in the far field), or to rolls (corresponding to two-spot far field patterns). The competition among these patterns can be controlled to a certain degree by applying control beams. In this paper, we summarize the theory of pattern formation and election in microcavities and illustrate the switching between patterns via simulation results.

  13. Phase sensitive properties and coherent manipulation of a photonic crystal microcavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiring, Wadim; Jonas, Björn; Förstner, Jens; Rai, Ashish K; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D; Zrenner, Artur

    2016-09-05

    We present phase sensitive cavity field measurements on photonic crystal microcavities. The experiments have been performed as autocorrelation measurements with ps double pulse laser excitation for resonant and detuned conditions. Measured E-field autocorrelation functions reveal a very strong detuning dependence of the phase shift between laser and cavity field and of the autocorrelation amplitude of the cavity field. The fully resolved phase information allows for a precise frequency discrimination and hence for a precise measurement of the detuning between laser and cavity. The behavior of the autocorrelation amplitude and phase and their detuning dependence can be fully described by an analytic model. Furthermore, coherent control of the cavity field is demonstrated by tailored laser excitation with phase and amplitude controlled pulses. The experimental proof and verification of the above described phenomena became possible by an electric detection scheme, which employs planar photonic crystal microcavity photo diodes with metallic Schottky contacts in the defect region of the resonator. The applied photo current detection was shown to work also efficiently at room temperature, which make electrically contacted microcavities attractive for real world applications.

  14. Crystallographic structure of the K intermediate of bacteriorhodopsin: conservation of free energy after photoisomerization of the retinal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobert, Brigitte; Cupp-Vickery, Jill; Hornak, Viktor; Smith, Steven; Lanyi, Janos

    2002-08-23

    The K state, an early intermediate of the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle, contains the excess free energy used for light-driven proton transport. The energy gain must reside in or near the photoisomerized retinal, but in what form has long been an open question. We produced the K intermediate in bacteriorhodopsin crystals in a photostationary state at 100K, with 40% yield, and determined its X-ray diffraction structure to 1.43 A resolution. In independent refinements of data from four crystals, the changes are confined mainly to the photoisomerized retinal. The retinal is 13-cis,15-anti, as known from vibrational spectroscopy. The C13=C14 bond is rotated nearly fully to cis from the initial trans configuration, but the C14-C15 and C15=NZ bonds are partially counter-rotated. This strained geometry keeps the direction of the Schiff base N-H bond vector roughly in the extracellular direction, but the angle of its hydrogen bond with water 402, that connects it to the anionic Asp85 and Asp212, is not optimal. Weakening of this hydrogen bond may account for many of the reported features of the infrared spectrum of K, and for its photoelectric signal, as well as the deprotonation of the Schiff base later in the cycle. Importantly, although 13-cis, the retinal does not assume the expected bent shape of this configuration. Comparison of the calculated energy of the increased angle of C12-C13=C14, that allows this distortion, with the earlier reported calorimetric measurement of the enthalpy gain of the K state indicates that a significant part of the excess energy is conserved in the bond strain at C13.

  15. The influence of a transmembrane pH gradient on protonation probabilities of bacteriorhodopsin: the structural basis of the back-pressure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calimet, Nicolas; Ullmann, G Matthias

    2004-06-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin pumps protons across a membrane using the energy of light. The proton pumping is inhibited when the transmembrane proton gradient that the protein generates becomes larger than four pH units. This phenomenon is known as the back-pressure effect. Here, we investigate the structural basis of this effect by predicting the influence of a transmembrane pH gradient on the titration behavior of bacteriorhodopsin. For this purpose we introduce a method that accounts for a pH gradient in protonation probability calculations. The method considers that in a transmembrane protein, which is exposed to two different aqueous phases, each titratable residue is accessible for protons from one side of the membrane depending on its hydrogen-bond pattern. This method is applied to several ground-state structures of bacteriorhodopsin, which residues already present complicated titration behaviors in the absence of a proton gradient. Our calculations show that a pH gradient across the membrane influences in a non-trivial manner the protonation probabilities of six titratable residues which are known to participate in the proton transfer: D85, D96, D115, E194, E204, and the Schiff base. The residues connected to one side of the membrane are influenced by the pH on the other side because of their long-range electrostatic interactions within the protein. In particular, D115 senses the pH at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and transmits this information to D85 and the Schiff base. We propose that the strong electrostatic interactions found between D85, D115, and the Schiff base as well as the interplay of their respective protonation states under the influence of a transmembrane pH gradient are responsible for the back-pressure effect on bacteriorhodopsin.

  16. The two consecutive M substates in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin are affected specifically by the D85N and D96N residue replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimanyi, L.; Cao, Y.; Chang, M.; Ni, B.; Needleman, R.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    The photocycle of the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin contains two consecutive intermediates in which the retinal Schiff base is unprotonated; the reaction between these states, termed M1 and M2, was suggested to be the switch in the proton transport which reorients the Schiff base from D85 on the extracellular side to D96 on the cytoplasmic side (Varo and Lanyi, Biochemistry 30, 5016-5022, 1991). At pH 10 the absorption maxima of both M1 and M2 could be determined in the recombinant D96N protein. We find that M1 absorbs at 411 nm as do M1 and M2 in wild-type bacteriorhodopsin, but M2 absorbs at 404 nm. Thus, in M2 but not M1 the unprotonated Schiff base is affected by the D96N residue replacement. The connectivity of the Schiff base to D96 in the detected M2 state, but not in M1, is thereby established. On the other hand, the photostationary state which develops during illumination of D85N bacteriorhodopsin contains an M state corresponding to M1 with an absorption maximum shifted to 400 nm, suggesting that this species in turn is affected by D85. These results are consistent with the suggestion that M1 and M2 are pre-switch and post-switch states, respectively.

  17. Ultra-high Q one-dimensional hybrid PhC-SPP waveguide microcavity with large structure tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Zhang, Lingxuan; Lu, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Weiqiang; Wang, Leiran; Wang, Guoxi; Zhang, Wenfu; Zhao, Wei

    2016-07-01

    A photonic crystal - surface plasmon-polaritons hybrid transverse magnetic mode waveguide based on a one-dimensional optical microcavity is designed to work in the communication band. A Gaussian field distribution in a stepping heterojunction taper is designed by band engineering, and a silica layer compresses the mode field to the subwavelength scale. The designed microcavity possesses a resonant mode with a quality factor of 1609 and a modal volume of 0.01 cubic wavelength. The constant period and the large structure tolerance make it realizable by current processing techniques.

  18. Ultra-high-Q microcavities fabricated on fused silica chips with three-dimentional arrangement by femtosecond laser direct writing

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jintian; Ma, Yaoguang; Fang, Wei; He, Fei; Qiao, Lingling; Tong, Limin; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

    2011-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of ultra-high-Q whispering gallery microcavities on a fused silica chip by femtosecond laser microfabriction, enabled by the high spatial resolution and three-dimensional nature of femtosecond laser direct writing. The processing mainly consists of two steps: (1) formation of freestanding microdisks by femtosecond laser direct writing and subsequent chemical wet etching; and (2) transformation of microdisks to microtoroids by annealing with CO2 laser. We show that three-dimensionally arranged ultra-high Q microcavities with a Q-factor up to 1.07x10^6 can be achieved.

  19. Tricolor microcavity OLEDs based on P-nc-Si:H films as the complex anodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yang; Liu Xingyuan; Wu Chunya; Meng Zhiguo; Wang Yi; Xiong Shaozhen

    2009-01-01

    A P+-nc-Si:H film (boron-doped nc-Si:H thin film) was used as a complex anode of an OLED. As an ideal candidate for the composite anode, the P+-nc-Si:H thin film has a good conductivity with a high work function (~5.7 eV) and outstanding optical properties of high reflectivity, transmission, and a very low absorption. As a result, the combination of the relatively high reflectivity of a P+-nc-Si:H film/ITO complex anode with the very high reflectivity of an Al cathode could form a micro-cavity structure with a certain Q to improve the efficiency of the OLED fabricated on it. An RGB pixel generated by microcavity OLEDs is beneficial for both the reduction of the light loss and the improvement of the color purity and the efficiency. The small molecule Alq would be useful for the emitting light layer (EML) of the MOLED, and the P+-nc-Si film would be used as a complex anode of the MOLED, whose configuration can be constructed as Glass/LTO/P+-nc-Si:H/ITO/MoO3/NPB/Alq/LiF/Al. By adjusting the thickness of the organic layer NPB/Alq, the optical length of the microcavity and the REB colors of the device can be obtained. The peak wavelengths of an OLED are located at 486, 550, and 608 nm, respectively.The CIE coordinates are (0.21,0.45), (0.33,0.63), and (0.54,0.54), and the full widths at half maximum (FWHM)are 35, 32, and 39 nm for red, green, and blue, respectively.

  20. Acoustic black hole in a stationary hydrodynamic flow of microcavity polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H S; Gerace, D; Carusotto, I; Sanvitto, D; Galopin, E; Lemaître, A; Sagnes, I; Bloch, J; Amo, A

    2015-01-23

    We report an experimental study of superfluid hydrodynamic effects in a one-dimensional polariton fluid flowing along a laterally patterned semiconductor microcavity and hitting a micron-sized engineered defect. At high excitation power, superfluid propagation effects are observed in the polariton dynamics; in particular, a sharp acoustic horizon is formed at the defect position, separating regions of sub- and supersonic flow. Our experimental findings are quantitatively reproduced by theoretical calculations based on a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Promising perspectives to observe Hawking radiation via photon correlation measurements are illustrated.

  1. Circularly polarized lasing in chiral modulated semiconductor microcavity with GaAs quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Demenev, A A; Schneider, C; Brodbeck, S; Kamp, M; Höfling, S; Lobanov, S V; Weiss, T; Gippius, N A; Tikhodeev, S G

    2016-01-01

    We report the elliptically, close to circularly polarized lasing at $\\hbar\\omega = 1.473$ and 1.522 eV from an AlAs/AlGaAs Bragg microcavity with 12 GaAs quantum wells in the active region and chiral-etched upper distributed Bragg refractor under optical pump at room temperature. The advantage of using the chiral photonic crystal with a large contrast of dielectric permittivities is its giant optical activity, allowing to fabricate a very thin half-wave plate, with a thickness of the order of the emitted light wavelength, and to realize the monolithic control of circular polarization.

  2. Enhancing thermally induced effects on atomic force microscope cantilevers using optical microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy Vy, Nguyen; Iida, Takuya

    2016-12-01

    A theory of enhancing thermally induced effects on atomic force microscope cantilevers with respect to the input power is proposed. An optical microcavity is used to increase the absorbed power and radiation pressure on thin films. We show that the response to the input power is enhanced up to an order of magnitude for cantilevers of ∼200 µm in length and ∼0.5 µm in thickness. A decrease in the absorbed power in the presence of cantilever deflection increases system endurability with respect to the input power. The study gives methods for amplifying and tuning vibration amplitudes in amplitude modulation modes with high sensitivity and low controlling input power.

  3. Matrix metalloproteinase sensing via porous silicon microcavity devices functionalized with human antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Marta; Gergely, Csilla [GES-UMR 5650, CNRS, Universite Montpellier 2, Pl. Eugene Bataillon 34095, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Taleb Bendiab, Chakib; Massif, Laurent; Cuisinier, Frederic [EA4203, Faculte d' Odontologie, Universite Montpellier 1, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Palestino, Gabriela [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Salvador Nava 6, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Agarwal, Vivechana [CIICAP, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    Porous silicon microcavity (PSiMc) structures were used as support material for specific sensing of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). For lower concentrations of MMP-8, the structures were tested with two types of functionalization methods. Silanization of the oxidized porous silicon structures, followed by glutaraldehyde chemistry was found to give very inconsistent results. The use of biotinilated bovine serum albumin linked to the naked PSiMc was found to be an alternative method to attach the anti MMP-8 human antibody, previously modified with streptavidin, which was further used to sense MMP-8 (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Study on a vapor sensor based on the optical properties of porous silicon microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Le-xin; ZHANG Ran; LI Zhi-quan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we set up a sensing model of PSMs(porous silicon microcavities)by applying the Bruggeman effective medium approximation theory and the transfer matrix method.In addition,we explain in detail the adsorption characteristics of porous silicon.Finally,using an experimental setup to measure the reflectivity spectrum of PSMs when the sensor is exposed to different organic vapors,the experimental results prove that it is a feasible optical sensor for the detection of organic species.Resolution of the PSMs sensor is high,response time and resume time is short and repetition is good.

  5. Spontaneous Coherence Effects in Quantum Dots and Quantum Wells Placed in Microcavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaputkina N.E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bose-Einstein condensation temperature Tc for a system of coupled quantum dots in a microcavity was estimated in function of the confining potential steepness, the external magnetic field strength, and the barrier layer width for indirect excitons. The effect of the magnetic field on Tc was found to be nonmonotonic over a certain range of the control parameters. The reason is the presence of two competing mechanisms accompanying the increase of the magnetic field: (a increase of the magnetoexciton effective mass and (b increase of the effective confining potential steepness for quantum dots.

  6. Light extraction enhancement of SOI-based erbium/oxygen Co-implanted photonic crystal microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashun; Wang Yue; Wu Yuanda; Zhang Xiaoguang; Jiang Ting; An Junming; Li Jianguang; Wang Hongjie; Hu Xiongwei

    2011-01-01

    H5 photonic crystal (PC) microcavities co-implanted with erbium (Er) and oxygen (O) ions were fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers.Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were taken at room temperature and a light extraction enhancement of up to 12 was obtained at 1.54μm,as compared to an identically implanted unpatterned SOI wafer.In addition,we also explored the adjustment of cavity modes by changing the structural parameters of the PC,and the measured results showed that the cavity-resonant peaks shifted towards shorter wavelengths as the radius of the air holes increased,which is consistent with the theoretical simulation.

  7. Quantum-Memory Effects in the Emission of Quantum-Dot Microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, C.; Huttner, U.; Mootz, M.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.; Tempel, J.-S.; Aßmann, M.; Bayer, M.; Mintairov, A. M.; Merz, J. L.

    2014-08-01

    The experimentally measured input-output characteristics of optically pumped semiconductor microcavities exhibits unexpected oscillations modifying the fundamentally linear slope in the excitation power regime below lasing. A systematic microscopic analysis reproduces these oscillations, identifying them as a genuine quantum-memory effect, i.e., a photon-density correlation accumulated during the excitation. With the use of projected quantum measurements, it is shown that the input-output oscillations can be controlled and enhanced by an order of magnitude when the quantum fluctuations of the pump are adjusted.

  8. Temperature Dependence of the Polariton Linewidth in a GaAs Quantum Well Microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, P.; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Langbein, W.;

    2000-01-01

    The temperature dependent linewidths of the polariton resonances in a GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well microcavity are measured. Due to the dominant homogeneous broadening of the investigated resonances, a direct linewidth analysis of the reflectivity spectra allows us to investigate the role...... of scattering mechanisms in the lower polariton branch compared to the middle and upper polaritons. We find that the lower polariton linewidth is smaller than the middle and upper polariton linewidths at all investigated temperatures from 11 to 100 K, in agreement with expectations in literature....

  9. Emission polarization control in semiconductor quantum dots coupled to a photonic crystal microcavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, E; Martínez, L J; Nowak, A K; van der Meulen, H P; Calleja, J M; Tejedor, C; Prieto, I; Granados, D; Taboada, A G; García, J M; Postigo, P A

    2010-06-07

    We study the optical emission of single semiconductor quantum dots weakly coupled to a photonic-crystal micro-cavity. The linearly polarized emission of a selected quantum dot changes continuously its polarization angle, from nearly perpendicular to the cavity mode polarization at large detuning, to parallel at zero detuning, and reversing sign for negative detuning. The linear polarization rotation is qualitatively interpreted in terms of the detuning dependent mixing of the quantum dot and cavity states. The present result is relevant to achieve continuous control of the linear polarization in single photon emitters.

  10. A proposal for the generation of optical frequency comb in temperature insensitive microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xun; Bian, Dandan; Chen, Shaowu

    2016-11-01

    We numerically simulate the generation of an optical frequency comb (OFC) in a microring based on the traditional Si3N4 strip waveguide and a temperature compensated slot waveguide. The results show that OFCs are susceptible to temperature with strip waveguide while they can keep stable when temperature changes 10 K in either low-Q (105) or high-Q (106) microcavity with the well-designed slot waveguide, which has great superiority in practical applications where the temperature drift of the cavity due to the intense pump or surrounding change is unavoidable. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61435002, 61527823, and 61321063).

  11. Density Functional Theory Approach for Charged Hard Sphere Fluids Confined in Spherical Micro-Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Yan-Shuang; WANG Hai-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of the density functional theory for classical fluids,the equilibrium density profiles of charged hard sphere fluid confined in micro-cavity are studied by means of the modified fundamental measure theory.The dimension of micro-cavity,the charge of hard sphere and the applied electric field are found to have significant effects on the density profiles.In particular,it is shown that Coulomb interaction,excluded volume interaction and applied electric Geld play the central role in controlling the aggregated structure of the system.

  12. Static envelope patterns in composite resonances generated by level crossing in optical toroidal microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmon, Tal; Schwefel, Harald G L; Yang, Lan; Oxborrow, Mark; Stone, A Douglas; Vahala, Kerry J

    2008-03-14

    We study level crossing in the optical whispering-gallery (WG) modes by using toroidal microcavities. Experimentally, we image the stationary envelope patterns of the composite optical modes that arise when WG modes of different wavelengths coincide in frequency. Numerically, we calculate crossings of levels that correspond with the observed degenerate modes, where our method takes into account the not perfectly transverse nature of their field polarizations. In addition, we analyze anticrossing with a large avoidance gap between modes of the same azimuthal number.

  13. Angular switching of the linear polarization of the emission in InGaAs microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amo, A.; Martin, M.D.; Ballarini, D.; Vina, L. [Grupo de Semiconductores (SEMICUAM), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sanvitto, D.; Skolnick, M.S. [Dept. of Physics, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Roberts, J.S. [Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, 3JD, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    The angular dependence of the degree of linear polarization of the emission is presented for an InGaAs microcavity at several detunings. For emission angles close to the growth direction, polarizations as high as +80% for lower branch polaritons at negative detuning are found. This polarization degree abruptly switches to negative values (up to -90%) for emission angles outside a narrow cone of about {+-}2 . A similar behaviour, with smaller values of the polarization, is found at 0 and positive detunings. The relation between these effects and cavity birefringence is discussed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Phase Transition and Superfluid of Photons and Photon Pairs in a Two-Dimensional Optical Microcavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Jun; YUAN Jian-Hui; ZHANG Jun-Pei; CHENG Ze

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the ground-state properties and the excitation spectrum of Bose Einstein condensates of photons and PPs in a two-dimensional optical microcavity. First, using the variational method, we discuss the ground- state phase transition of the two-component system. We also investigate the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state. Moreover, by investigating the excitation spectrum, we also illustrate how the superfluid behavior of photons and PPs can be associated with the phase transition of the system.

  15. Protein changes associated with reprotonation of the Schiff base in the photocycle of Asp96-->Asn bacteriorhodopsin. The MN intermediate with unprotonated Schiff base but N-like protein structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, J.; Shichida, Y.; Lanyi, J. K.; Maeda, A.

    1992-01-01

    The difference Fourier transform infrared spectrum for the N intermediate in the photoreaction of the light-adapted form of bacteriorhodopsin can be recorded at pH 10 at 274 K (Pfefferle, J.-M., Maeda, A., Sasaki, J., and Yoshizawa, T. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 6548-6556). Under these conditions, Asp96-->Asn bacteriorhodopsin gives a photoproduct which shows changes in protein structure similar to those observed in N of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin. However, decreased intensity of the chromophore bands and the single absorbance maximum at about 400 nm indicate that the Schiff base is unprotonated, as in the M intermediate. This photoproduct was named MN. At pH 7, where the supply of proton is not as restricted as at pH 10, Asp96-->Asn bacteriorhodopsin yields N with a protonated Schiff base. The Asn96 residue, which cannot deprotonate as Asp96 in wild-type bacteriorhodopsin, is perturbed upon formation of both MN at pH 10 and N at pH 7. We suggest that the reprotonation of the Schiff base is preceded by a large change in the protein structure including perturbation of the residue at position 96.

  16. To the theory of hybrid organics/semiconductor nanostructures in microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovskiy, O. A.; Agranovich, V. M.

    2017-02-01

    We consider the hybrid structure in microcavity where the energy of Frenkel exciton in organic layer is equal to the energy of Wannier - Mott exciton in semiconductor quantum well (QW). The exciton located in QW of semiconductor layer can interact with molecules of organic layer and under influence of this interaction can change the position jumping and exciting one of organic molecules. The exciton located in molecule of organic layer also can change the position jumping to semiconductor QW. The number of such jumps depends on the intensity of interaction. In the paper we consider the influence of direct Coulomb dipole-dipole interaction and indirect interaction through the optical field of microcavity on the kinetics of excitation. It was shown that the dispersion of hybrid states are modified by Coulomb interaction particularly when the distance between layers is enough small. The lowest branch of dispersion curves with deep minimum at nonzero wave vector may be useful in the studies of the condensation of low energy hybrid excitations.

  17. Perturbation and coupling of microcavity plasmas through charge injected into an intervening microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Ni, J. H.; Zhong, S.; Cai, S.; Zhang, X.; Liu, C.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2016-11-01

    Coupling between two microcavity plasmas in a symmetric, microfabricated dielectric barrier structure has been observed by injecting charge from one of the plasmas into an intervening microchannel. Periodic modulation of the electric field strength in the injector (or electron "donor") cavity has the effect of deforming the acceptor microplasma which exhibits two distinct and stable spatiotemporal modes. Throughout the time interval in which the two microplasmas are coupled electrostatically, the acceptor plasma is elongated and displaced by 75-100 μm (˜30% of its diameter) in the direction of the microchannel. The depletion of charge in the microchannel results in an immediate transition of the second (acceptor) microplasma to an equilibrium state in which the plasma is azimuthally symmetric and centered within its microcavity. Switching between these two spatial modes requires a shift (in the plasma centroid) of ˜80 μm in <50 ns which corresponds to a velocity of 1.6 km/s. Precise control of this plasma phase transition through device fabrication, and modulation of the donor plasma electric field, suggest applications of this plasma coupling and charge transport mechanism to signal processing, photonics, and electromagnetics.

  18. Supersonic exciton gratings: coherent inter-polariton scattering in semiconductor microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2002-01-01

    We report on a coherent nonlinear phenomenon in a semiconductor microcavity (SMC), which has no parallel for QW excitons. When two different polariton modes of the SMC are impulsively excited they undergo normal mode oscillations (NMOs) with coherent energy exchange between the exciton and the ca......We report on a coherent nonlinear phenomenon in a semiconductor microcavity (SMC), which has no parallel for QW excitons. When two different polariton modes of the SMC are impulsively excited they undergo normal mode oscillations (NMOs) with coherent energy exchange between the exciton...... and the cavity mode. In our experiment the two polaritons are excited with slightly different angles resulting in a travelling wave exciton grating. When a test polariton mode is excited it will scatter in the travelling grating producing amplitude modulation sidebands. This phenomenon produces a transient four......-wave mixing (TFWM) signal, which is shifted in frequency from that of the test beam by the NMO frequency, in our case, in the THz range corresponding to a grating velocity = 1 /spl times/ 10/sup 7/ m/s, which is four orders of magnitude larger than the sound velocity. The sample under investigation is a Ga...

  19. Observation of a hybrid state of Tamm plasmons and microcavity exciton polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sk. Shaid-Ur; Klein, Thorsten; Klembt, Sebastian; Gutowski, Jürgen; Hommel, Detlef; Sebald, Kathrin

    2016-10-01

    We present evidence for the existence of a hybrid state of Tamm plasmons and microcavity exciton polaritons in a II-VI material based microcavity sample covered with an Ag metal layer. The bare cavity mode shows a characteristic anticrossing with the Tamm-plasmon mode, when microreflectivity measurements are performed for different detunings between the Tamm plasmon and the cavity mode. When the Tamm-plasmon mode is in resonance with the cavity polariton four hybrid eigenstates are observed due to the coupling of the cavity-photon mode, the Tamm-plasmon mode, and the heavy- and light-hole excitons. If the bare Tamm-plasmon mode is tuned, these resonances will exhibit three anticrossings. Experimental results are in good agreement with calculations based on the transfer matrix method as well as on the coupled-oscillators model. The lowest hybrid eigenstate is observed to be red shifted by about 13 meV with respect to the lower cavity polariton state when the Tamm plasmon is resonantly coupled with the cavity polariton. This spectral shift which is caused by the metal layer can be used to create a trapping potential channel for the polaritons. Such channels can guide the polariton propagation similar to one-dimensional polariton wires.

  20. GaN/AlGaN microcavities for enhancement of non linear optical effects

    CERN Document Server

    Tasco, V; Campa, A; Massaro, A; Stomeo, T; Epifani, G; Passaseo, A; Braccini, M; Larciprete, M C; Sibilia, C; Bovino, F A

    2011-01-01

    We present a study on the design, growth and optical characterization of a GaN/AlGaN microcavity for the enhancement of second order non linear effects. The proposed system exploits the high second order nonlinear optical response of GaN due to the non centrosymmetric crystalline structure of this material. It consists of a GaN cavity embedded between two GaN/AlGaN Distributed Bragg Reflectors designed for a reference mode coincident with a second harmonic field generated in the near UV region (~ 400 nm). Critical issues for this target are the crystalline quality of the material, together with sharp and abrupt interfaces among the multi-stacked layers. A detailed investigation on the growth evolution of GaN and AlGaN epilayers in such a configuration is reported, with the aim to obtain high quality factor in the desiderated spectral range. Non linear second harmonic generation experiments have been performed and the results were compared with bulk GaN sample, highlighting the effect of the microcavity on the...

  1. Photonic lattices in organic microcavities: Bloch states and control of lasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischok, Andreas; Brückner, Robert; Fröb, Hartmut; Lyssenko, Vadim G.; Leo, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Organic microcavities comprising the host:guest emitter system Alq3:DCM offer an interesting playground to experimentally study the dispersion characteristics of laterally patterned microlasers due to the broad emission spectrum and large oscillator strength of the organic dye. By structuring of metallic or dielectric sublayers directly on top of the bottom mirror, we precisely manipulate the mode structure and influence the coherent emission properties of the device. Embedding silver layers into a microcavity leads to an interaction of the optical cavity-state in the organic layer and the neighboring metal which red-shifts the cavity resonance, creating a Tamm-plasmon-polariton state. A patterning of the metal can in turn be exploited to fabricate deep photonic wells of micron-size, efficiently confining light in lateral direction. In periodic arrays of silver wires, we create a Kronig-Penney-like optical potential in the cavity and in turn observe optical Bloch states spanning over several photonic wires. We modify the Kronig-Penney theory to analytically describe the full far-field emission dispersion of our cavities and show the emergence of either zero- , π-, or 2π- phase-locking in the system. By investigating periodic SiO2 patterns, we experimentally observe stimulated emission from the ground and different excited discrete states at room temperature and are able to directly control the laser emission from both extended and confined modes of the photonic wires at room-temperature.

  2. Fabry-Perot Microcavity Modes in Single GaP/GaNP Core/Shell Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolsky, Alexander; Stehr, Jan E; Sukrittanon, Supanee; Kuang, Yanjin; Tu, Charles W; Chen, Weimin M; Buyanova, Irina A

    2015-12-16

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are attracting increasing interest as nanobuilding blocks for optoelectronics and photonics. A novel material system that is highly suitable for these applications are GaNP NWs. In this article, we show that individual GaP/GaNP core/shell nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates can act as Fabry-Perot (FP) microcavities. This conclusion is based on results of microphotoluminescence (μ-PL) measurements performed on individual NWs, which reveal periodic undulations of the PL intensity that follow an expected pattern of FP cavity modes. The cavity is concluded to be formed along the NW axis with the end facets acting as reflecting mirrors. The formation of the FP modes is shown to be facilitated by an increasing index contrast with the surrounding media. Spectral dependence of the group refractive index is also determined for the studied NWs. The observation of the FP microcavity modes in the GaP/GaNP core/shell NWs can be considered as a first step toward achieving lasing in this quasidirect bandgap semiconductor in the NW geometry.

  3. Light-matter interaction in a microcavity-controlled graphene transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias; Lombardo, Antonio; Ferrari, Andrea C; Löhneysen, Hilbert V; Avouris, Phaedon; Krupke, Ralph

    2012-06-19

    Graphene has extraordinary electronic and optical properties and holds great promise for applications in photonics and optoelectronics. Demonstrations including high-speed photodetectors, optical modulators, plasmonic devices, and ultrafast lasers have now been reported. More advanced device concepts would involve photonic elements such as cavities to control light-matter interaction in graphene. Here we report the first monolithic integration of a graphene transistor and a planar, optical microcavity. We find that the microcavity-induced optical confinement controls the efficiency and spectral selection of photocurrent generation in the integrated graphene device. A twenty-fold enhancement of photocurrent is demonstrated. The optical cavity also determines the spectral properties of the electrically excited thermal radiation of graphene. Most interestingly, we find that the cavity confinement modifies the electrical transport characteristics of the integrated graphene transistor. Our experimental approach opens up a route towards cavity-quantum electrodynamics on the nanometre scale with graphene as a current-carrying intra-cavity medium of atomic thickness.

  4. Modelling Laser Milling of Microcavities for the Manufacturing of DES with Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of designed experiments, involving the use of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser system milling 316L Stainless Steel, serve to study the laser-milling process of microcavities in the manufacture of drug-eluting stents (DES. Diameter, depth, and volume error are considered to be optimized as functions of the process parameters, which include laser intensity, pulse frequency, and scanning speed. Two different DES shapes are studied that combine semispheres and cylinders. Process inputs and outputs are defined by considering the process parameters that can be changed under industrial conditions and the industrial requirements of this manufacturing process. In total, 162 different conditions are tested in a process that is modeled with the following state-of-the-art data-mining regression techniques: Support Vector Regression, Ensembles, Artificial Neural Networks, Linear Regression, and Nearest Neighbor Regression. Ensemble regression emerged as the most suitable technique for studying this industrial problem. Specifically, Iterated Bagging ensembles with unpruned model trees outperformed the other methods in the tests. This method can predict the geometrical dimensions of the machined microcavities with relative errors related to the main average value in the range of 3 to 23%, which are considered very accurate predictions, in view of the characteristics of this innovative industrial task.

  5. SERS-active ZnO/Ag hybrid WGM microcavity for ultrasensitive dopamine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junfeng; Xu, Chunxiang; Nan, Haiyan; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Qin, Feifei; Manohari, A. Gowri; Wei, Ming; Zhu, Zhu; Shi, Zengliang; Ni, Zhenhua

    2016-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a potential neuro modulator in the brain which influences a variety of motivated behaviors and plays a key role in life science. A hybrid ZnO/Ag microcavity based on Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) effect has been developed for ultrasensitive detection of dopamine. Utilizing this effect of structural cavity mode, a Raman signal of R6G (5 × 10-3 M) detected by this designed surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-active substrate was enhanced more than 10-fold compared with that of ZnO film/Ag substrate. Also, this hybrid microcavity substrate manifests high SERS sensitivity to rhodamine 6 G and detection limit as low as 10-12 M to DA. The Localized Surface Plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and WGM-enhanced light-matter interaction mainly contribute to the high SERS sensitivity and help to achieve a lower detection limit. This designed SERS-active substrate based on the WGM effect has the potential for detecting neurotransmitters in life science.

  6. Laser-Machined Microcavities for Simultaneous Measurement of High-Temperature and High-Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengling Ran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure are demonstrated. These two cascaded microcavities are an air cavity and a composite cavity including a section of fiber and an air cavity. They are both placed into a pressure chamber inside a furnace to perform simultaneous pressure and high-temperature tests. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the short air cavity are ~0.0779 nm/°C and ~1.14 nm/MPa, respectively. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the composite cavity are ~32.3 nm/°C and ~24.4 nm/MPa, respectively. The sensor could be used to separate temperature and pressure due to their different thermal and pressure coefficients. The excellent feature of such a sensor head is that it can withstand high temperatures of up to 400 °C and achieve precise measurement of high-pressure under high temperature conditions.

  7. Two-photon interference from a quantum dot-microcavity: Persistent pure-dephasing and suppression of time-jitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unsleber, S.; McCutcheon, Dara; Dambach, M.;

    We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasiresonantly pumped coupled quantum dot–microcavity system operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Changing the sample temperature allows us to vary the quantum dot–cavity detuning, and on spectral...

  8. Ultra-compact and wide-spectrum-range thermo-optic switch based on silicon coupled photonic crystal microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Chung, Chi-Jui; Pan, Zeyu; Yan, Hai; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-11-01

    We design, fabricate, and experimentally demonstrate a compact thermo-optic gate switch comprising a 3.78 μm-long coupled L0-type photonic crystal microcavities on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A nanohole is inserted in the center of each individual L0 photonic crystal microcavity. Coupling between identical microcavities gives rise to bonding and anti-bonding states of the coupled photonic molecules. The coupled photonic crystal microcavities are numerically simulated and experimentally verified with a 6 nm-wide flat-bottom resonance in its transmission spectrum, which enables wider operational spectrum range than microring resonators. An integrated micro-heater is in direct contact with the silicon core to efficiently drive the device. The thermo-optic switch is measured with an optical extinction ratio of 20 dB, an on-off switching power of 18.2 mW, a thermo-optic tuning efficiency of 0.63 nm/mW, a rise time of 14.8 μs, and a fall time of 18.5 μs. The measured on-chip loss on the transmission band is as low as 1 dB.

  9. Microheater-integrated silicon coupled photonic crystal microcavities for low-power thermo-optic switching over a wide spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Chung, Chi-Jui; Pan, Zeyu; Yan, Hai; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    We design, fabricate and experimentally demonstrate a compact thermo-optic gate switch comprising a 3.78μm-long coupled L0-type photonic crystal microcavities on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A nanohole is inserted in the center of each individual L0 photonic crystal microcavity. Coupling between identical microcavities gives rise to bonding and antibonding states of the coupled photonic molecules. The coupled photonic crystal microcavities are numerically simulated and experimentally verified with a 6nm-wide flat-bottom resonance in its transmission spectrum, which enables wider operational spectrum range than microring resonators. An integrated micro-heater is in direct contact with the silicon core to efficiently drive the device. The thermo-optic switch is measured with an optical extinction ratio of 20dB, an on-off switching power of 18.2mW, a therm-optic tuning efficiency of 0.63nm/mW, a rise time of 14.8μsec and a fall time of 18.5μsec. The measured on-chip loss on the transmission band is as low as 1dB.

  10. The back photoreaction of the M intermediate in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin: mechanism and evidence for two M species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckmann, S.; Friedman, N.; Lanyi, J. K.; Needleman, R.; Ottolenghi, M.; Sheves, M.

    1992-01-01

    The back photoreaction of the M intermediate in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin is investigated both for the native pigment and its D96N mutant. The experimental setup is based on creating the M intermediate by a first pulse, followed by a (blue) laser pulse which drives the back photoreaction of M. Experiments are carried out varying the delay between the two pulses, as well as the temperature over the -25 degrees C-20 degrees C range. It is found that the kinetic patterns of the M back photoreaction change with time after the generation of this intermediate. The data provide independent evidence for the suggestion of a photocycle mechanism based on two distinct M intermediates. They are thus in keeping with the consecutive model of Varo and Lanyi (Biochemistry 30, 5016-5022; 1991), although they cannot exclude other models such as those based on branched or parallel cycles. More generally, we offer a "photochemical" approach to discriminating between intermediate stages in the photocycle which does not depend on spectroscopic and/or kinetic data. While markedly affecting the rate of the M --> N transition in the photocycle, the rate of the thermal step in back photoreaction of M, at both room and low temperatures, is not significantly affected by the D96N mutation. It is proposed that while Asp 96 is the Schiff-base protonating moiety in the M --> N transition, another residue (most probably Asp 85) reprotonates the Schiff base following light absorption by M.

  11. Titration kinetics of Asp-85 in bacteriorhodopsin: exclusion of the retinal pocket as the color-controlling cation binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X; Bressler, S; Ottolenghi, M; Eliash, T; Friedman, N; Sheves, M

    1997-10-20

    The spectrum (the purple blue transition) and function of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin are determined by the state of protonation of the Asp-85 residue located in the vicinity of the retinal chromophore. The titration of Asp-85 is controlled by the binding/unbinding of one or two divalent metal cations (Ca2+ or Mg2+). The location of such metal binding site(s) is approached by studying the kinetics of the cation-induced titration of Asp-85 using metal ions and large molecular cations, such as quaternary ammonium ions, R4N+ (R = Et, Pr, a divalent 'bolaform ion' [Et3N+-(CH2)4-N+Et3] and the 1:3 molecular complex formed between Fe2+ and 1,10-phenanthroline (OP). The basic multi-component kinetic features of the titration, extending from 10(-2) to 10(4) s, are unaffected by the charge and size of the cation. This indicates that cation binding to bR triggers the blue --> purple titration in a fast step, which is not rate-determining. In view of the size of the cations involved, these observations indicate that the cation binding site is in an exposed location on, or close to, the membrane surface. This excludes previous models, which placed the color-controlling Ca2+ ion in the retinal binding pocket.

  12. Role of trimer-trimer interaction of bacteriorhodopsin studied by optical spectroscopy and high-speed atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hayato; Inoue, Keiichi; Shibata, Mikihiro; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Sasaki, Jun; Kandori, Hideki; Ando, Toshio

    2013-10-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) trimers form a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice in the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarum. However, the physiological significance of forming the lattice has long been elusive. Here, we study this issue by comparing properties of assembled and non-assembled bR trimers using directed mutagenesis, high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM), optical spectroscopy, and a proton pumping assay. First, we show that the bonds formed between W12 and F135 amino acid residues are responsible for trimer-trimer association that leads to lattice assembly; the lattice is completely disrupted in both W12I and F135I mutants. HS-AFM imaging reveals that both crystallized D96N and non-crystallized D96N/W12I mutants undergo a large conformational change (i.e., outward E-F loop displacement) upon light-activation. However, lattice disruption significantly reduces the rate of conformational change under continuous light illumination. Nevertheless, the quantum yield of M-state formation, measured by low-temperature UV-visible spectroscopy, and proton pumping efficiency are unaffected by lattice disruption. From these results, we conclude that trimer-trimer association plays essential roles in providing bound retinal with an appropriate environment to maintain its full photo-reactivity and in maintaining the natural photo-reaction pathway.

  13. Recent Advances in the Field of Bionanotechnology: An Insight into Optoelectric Bacteriorhodopsin, Quantum Dots, and Noble Metal Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Knoblauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular sensors and molecular electronics are a major component of a recent research area known as bionanotechnology, which merges biology with nanotechnology. This new class of biosensors and bioelectronics has been a subject of intense research over the past decade and has found application in a wide variety of fields. The unique characteristics of these biomolecular transduction systems has been utilized in applications ranging from solar cells and single-electron transistors (SETs to fluorescent sensors capable of sensitive and selective detection of a wide variety of targets, both organic and inorganic. This review will discuss three major systems in the area of molecular sensors and electronics and their application in unique technological innovations. Firstly, the synthesis of optoelectric bacteriorhodopsin (bR and its application in the field of molecular sensors and electronics will be discussed. Next, this article will discuss recent advances in the synthesis and application of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs. Finally, this article will conclude with a review of the new and exciting field of noble metal nanoclusters and their application in the creation of a new class of fluorescent sensors.

  14. Studies on the microstructure, optical and electrical properties of organic microcavity devices based on a porous silicon reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zuhong; FAN Yongliang; ZHAN Yiqiang; ZHANG Songtao; DING Xunmin; HOU Xiaoyuan

    2005-01-01

    A novel type of microcavity organic light-emitting diode based on a porous silicon distributed Bragg reflector (PS-DBR) has first been achieved and its microstructure, optical, and electrical properties have also been investigated in detail. The microcavity is made up of the central active organic multilayer sandwiched between a top silver film and a bottom PS-DBR, formed by electrochemical etching of p++-Si substrate. The field- emission scanning electron microscopy cross-section images show the nanometer-scale layered structure and flat interfaces inside the microcavity. The reflectivity (relative to an Al mirror) of the PS-DBR is up to 99%, and the stopband is about 160 nm wide. Resonant cavity mode appears as a tip in the reflectivity spectrum of the Si-based organic multilayer films, which is a symbol that the Si-based organic multilayer structure is indeed a microcavity. The peak widths of the electroluminescence (EL) spectra from the cavities emitting green and red light are greatly reduced from 85 nm and 70 nm to 8 nm and 12 nm, respectively, as compared with those measured from non-cavity structures. Note that the EL emission from the cavity devices is single-mode, and the off-resonant optical modes are highly suppressed. Moreover, increases of a factor of about 6 and 4 of the resonant peak intensity from the cavities emitting green and red light are also observed, respectively. In addition, the current-brightness-voltage characteristics and effect parameters on the lifetime of the cavity devices are also discussed. The present technique for obtaining enhanced EL emission from Si-based organic microcavity may also be another novel effective method for realizing Si-based optoelectronics device integration.

  15. Influence of the size and protonation state of acidic residue 85 on the absorption spectrum and photoreaction of the bacteriorhodopsin chromophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.; Tittor, J.; Varo, G.; Krippahl, G.; Oesterhelt, D.

    1992-01-01

    The consequences of replacing Asp-85 with glutamate in bacteriorhodopsin, as expressed in Halobacterium sp. GRB, were investigated. Similarly to the in vitro mutated and in Escherichia coli expressed protein, the chromophore was found to exist as a mixture of blue (absorption maximum 615 nm) and red (532 nm) forms, depending on the pH. However, we found two widely separated pKa values (about 5.4 and 10.4 without added salt), arguing for two blue and two red forms in separate equilibria. Both blue and red forms of the protein are in the two-dimensional crystalline state. A single pKa, such as in the E. coli expressed protein, was observed only after solubilization with detergent. The photocycle of the blue forms was determined at pH 4.0 with 610 nm photoexcitation, and that of the red forms at pH 10.5 and with 520 nm photoexcitation, in the time-range of 100 ns to 1 s. The blue forms produced no M, but a K- and an L-like intermediate, whose spectra and kinetics resembled those of blue wild-type bacteriorhodopsin below pH 3. The red forms produced a K-like intermediate, as well as M and N. Only the red forms transported protons. Specific perturbation of the neighborhood of the Schiff base by the replacement of Asp-85 with glutamate was suggested by (1) the shift and splitting of the pKa for what is presumably the protonation of residue 85, (2) a 36 nm blue-shift in the absorption of the all-trans red chromophore and a 25 nm red-shift of the 13-cis N chromophore, as compared to wild-type bacteriorhodopsin and its N intermediate, and (3) significant acceleration of the deprotonation of the Schiff base at pH 7, but not of its reprotonation and the following steps in the photocycle.

  16. What is- and what is not- Electromagnetically-Induced-Transparency in Whispering-Gallery-Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Weijian; Nori, Franco; Yang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) and Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) are two prominent examples of coherent interactions between optical fields and multilevel atoms. They have been observed in various physical systems involving atoms, molecules, meta-structures and plasmons. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the implementations of all-optical analogues of EIT and ATS via the interacting resonant modes of one or more optical microcavities. Despite the differences in their underlying physics, both EIT and ATS are quantified by the appearance of a transparency window in the absorption or transmission spectrum, which often leads to a confusion about its origin. While in EIT the transparency window is a result of Fano interference among different transition pathways, in ATS it is the result of strong field-driven interactions leading to the splitting of energy levels. Being able to tell objectively whether a transparency window observed in the spectrum is due to EIT or ATS is cr...

  17. Ultrastrong light-matter coupling in electrically doped microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeo, M., E-mail: marco.mazzeo@unisalento.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Genco, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gambino, S. [NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); CBN, Istituto Italiano Tecnologia, Via Barsanti 1, 73010 Lecce (Italy); Ballarini, D.; Mangione, F.; Sanvitto, D. [NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Di Stefano, O.; Patanè, S.; Savasta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d' Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Gigli, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); CBN, Istituto Italiano Tecnologia, Via Barsanti 1, 73010 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-06-09

    The coupling of the electromagnetic field with an electronic transition gives rise, for strong enough light-matter interactions, to hybrid states called exciton-polaritons. When the energy exchanged between light and matter becomes a significant fraction of the material transition energy an extreme optical regime called ultrastrong coupling (USC) is achieved. We report a microcavity embedded p-i-n monolithic organic light emitting diode working in USC, employing a thin film of squaraine dye as active layer. A normalized coupling ratio of 30% has been achieved at room temperature. These USC devices exhibit a dispersion-less angle-resolved electroluminescence that can be exploited for the realization of innovative optoelectronic devices. Our results may open the way towards electrically pumped polariton lasers.

  18. Nonreciprocity light propagation in coupled microcavities system beyond weak-excitation approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, A S; Chen, H; Mei, T; Liu, J

    2016-01-01

    We propose an alternative scheme for nonreciprocal light propagation in two coupled cavities system, in which a two-level quantum emitter is coupled to one of the optical microcavities. For the case of parity-time (\\textrm{PT}) system (i.e., active-passive coupled cavities system), the cavity gain can significantly enhance the optical nonlinearity induced by the interaction between a quantum emitter and cavity field beyond weak-excitation approximation. The giant optical nonlinearity results in the non-lossy nonreciprocal light propagation with high isolation ratio in proper parameters range. In addition, our calculations show that nonreciprocal light propagation will not be affected by the unstable output field intensity caused by optical bistability and we can even switch directions of nonreciprocal light propagation by appropriately adjusting the system parameters.

  19. Simultaneous measurement of quality factor and wavelength shift by phase shift microcavity ring down spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cheema, M Imran; Hayat, Ahmad A; Peter, Yves-Alain; Armani, Andrea M; Kirk, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    Optical resonant microcavities with ultra high quality factors are widely used for biosensing. Until now, the primary method of detection has been based upon tracking the resonant wavelength shift as a function of biological events. One of the sources of noise in all resonant-wavelength shift measurements is the noise due to intensity fluctuations of the laser source. An alternative approach is to track the change in the quality factor of the optical cavity by using phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy, a technique which is insensitive to the intensity fluctuations of the laser source. Here, using biotinylated microtoroid resonant cavities, we show simultaneous measurement of the quality factor and the wavelength shift by using phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy. These measurements were performed for disassociation phase of biotin-streptavidin reaction. We found that the disassociation curves are in good agreement with the previously published results. Hence, we demonstrate not only the applicatio...

  20. Polarization dependence of nonlinear wave mixing of spinor polaritons in semiconductor microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, Przemyslaw; Baudin, Emmanuel; Chan, Chris K P; Leung, P T; Luk, Samuel M H; Galopin, Elisabeth; Lemaitre, Aristide; Bloch, Jacqueline; Tignon, Jerome; Roussignol, Philippe; Kwong, N H; Binder, Rolf; Schumacher, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The pseudo-spin dynamics of propagating exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities are known to be strongly influenced by TE-TM splitting. As a vivid consequence, in the Rayleigh scattering regime, the TE-TM splitting gives rise to the optical spin Hall effect (OSHE). Much less is known about its role in the nonlinear optical regime in which four-wave mixing for example allows the formation of spatial patterns in the polariton density, such that hexagons and two-spot patterns are observable in the far field. Here we present a detailed analysis of spin-dependent four-wave mixing processes, by combining the (linear) physics of TE-TM splitting with spin-dependent nonlinear processes, i.e., exciton-exciton interaction and fermionic phase-space filling. Our combined theoretical and experimental study elucidates the complex physics of the four-wave mixing processes that govern polarization and orientation of off-axis modes.

  1. Estimation of Purcell factor from mode-splitting spectra in an optical microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya; He, Lina; Yang, Lan

    2011-01-01

    We investigate scattering process in an ultra-high-Q optical microcavity coupled to subwavelength scatterers by introducing "splitting quality" Qsp, a dimensionless parameter defined as the ratio of the scatterer-induced mode splitting to the total loss of the coupled system. A simple relation is introduced to directly estimate the Purcell factor from single-shot measurement of transmission spectrum of scatterer-coupled cavity. Experiments with polystyrene (PS) and gold (Au) nanoparticles, Erbium ions and Influenza A virions show that Purcell-factor-enhanced preferential funneling of scattering into the cavity mode takes place regardless of the scatterer type. Experimentally determined highest Qsp for single PS and Au nanoparticles are 9.4 and 16.19 corresponding to Purcell factors with lower bounds of 353 and 1049, respectively. The highest observed Qsp was 31.2 for an ensemble of Au particles. These values are the highest Qsp and Purcell factors reported up to date.

  2. Near-infrared exciton-polaritons in strongly coupled single-walled carbon nanotube microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arko; Tropf, Laura; Zakharko, Yuriy; Zaumseil, Jana; Gather, Malte C.

    2016-10-01

    Exciton-polaritons form upon strong coupling between electronic excitations of a material and photonic states of a surrounding microcavity. In organic semiconductors the special nature of excited states leads to particularly strong coupling and facilitates condensation of exciton-polaritons at room temperature, which may lead to electrically pumped organic polariton lasers. However, charge carrier mobility and photo-stability in currently used materials is limited and exciton-polariton emission so far has been restricted to visible wavelengths. Here, we demonstrate strong light-matter coupling in the near infrared using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a polymer matrix and a planar metal-clad cavity. By exploiting the exceptional oscillator strength and sharp excitonic transition of (6,5) SWCNTs, we achieve large Rabi splitting (>110 meV), efficient polariton relaxation and narrow band emission (devices operating at telecommunication wavelengths.

  3. Distinguishing autocrine and paracrine signals in hematopoietic stem cell culture using a biofunctional microcavity platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Eike; Wang, Weijia; Qiao, Wenlian; Bornhäuser, Martin; Zandstra, Peter W.; Werner, Carsten; Pompe, Tilo

    2016-08-01

    Homeostasis of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in the mammalian bone marrow stem cell niche is regulated by signals of the local microenvironment. Besides juxtacrine, endocrine and metabolic cues, paracrine and autocrine signals are involved in controlling quiescence, proliferation and differentiation of HSC with strong implications on expansion and differentiation ex vivo as well as in vivo transplantation. Towards this aim, a cell culture analysis on a polymer microcavity carrier platform was combined with a partial least square analysis of a mechanistic model of cell proliferation. We could demonstrate the discrimination of specific autocrine and paracrine signals from soluble factors as stimulating and inhibitory effectors in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell culture. From that we hypothesize autocrine signals to be predominantly involved in maintaining the quiescent state of HSC in single-cell niches and advocate our analysis platform as an unprecedented option for untangling convoluted signaling mechanisms in complex cell systems being it of juxtacrine, paracrine or autocrine origin.

  4. Behavior of three modes of decay channels and their self-energies of elliptic dielectric microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Won; Kim, Jaewan; Jeong, Kabgyun

    2016-09-01

    The Lamb shift (self-energy) of an elliptic dielectric microcavity is studied. We show that the size of the Lamb shift, which is a small energy shift due to the system-environment coupling in the quantum regime, is dependent on the geometry of the boundary conditions. It shows a global transition depending on the eccentricity of the ellipsis. These transitions can be classified into three types of decay channels known as whispering-gallery modes, stable-bouncing-ball modes, and unstable-bouncing-ball modes. These modes are manifested through the Poincaré surface of section with the Husimi distribution function in classical phase space. It is found that the similarity (measured in Bhattacharyya distance) between the Husimi distributions below critical lines of two different modes increases as the difference of their self-energies decreases when the quality factors of the modes are on the same order of magnitude.

  5. Tuning microcavities in thermally rearranged polymer membranes for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S H; Kwon, H J; Kim, K Y; Seong, J G; Park, C H; Kim, S; Doherty, C M; Thornton, A W; Hill, A J; Lozano, A E; Berchtold, K A; Lee, Y M

    2012-04-01

    Microporous materials have a great importance in catalysis, delivery, storage and separation in terms of their performance and efficiency. Most microporous materials are comprised of inorganic frameworks, while thermally rearranged (TR) polymers are a microporous organic polymer which is tuned to optimize the cavity sizes and distribution for difficult separation applications. The sub-nano sized microcavities are controlled by in situ thermal treatment conditions which have been investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The size and relative number of cavities increased from room temperature to 230 °C resulting in improvements in both permeabilities and selectivities for H(2)/CO(2) separation due to the significant increase of gas diffusion and decrease of CO(2) solubility. The highest performance of the well-tuned TR-polymer membrane was 206 Barrer for H(2) permeability and 6.2 of H(2)/CO(2) selectivity, exceeding the polymeric upper bound for gas separation membranes.

  6. Purcell effect in an organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductor microcavity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Hu, Tao; Wu, Lin; Shen, Xuechu; Chen, Zhanghai, E-mail: lujian@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: zhanghai@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cao, Runan; Xu, Fei [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Da, Peimei; Zheng, Gengfeng [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lu, Jian, E-mail: lujian@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: zhanghai@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210 (China)

    2016-01-11

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors with the attractive physics properties, including strong photoluminescence (PL), huge oscillator strengths, and low nonradiative recombination losses, are ideal candidates for studying the light-matter interaction in nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the coupling of the exciton state and the cavity mode in the lead halide perovskite microcavity system at room temperature. The Purcell effect in the coupling system is clearly observed by using angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra. Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved PL reveals that the spontaneous emission rate of the halide perovskite semiconductor is significantly enhanced at resonance of the exciton energy and the cavity mode. Our results provide the way for developing electrically driven organic polariton lasers, optical devices, and on-chip coherent quantum light sources.

  7. Extreme events following bifurcation to spatiotemporal chaos in a spatially extended microcavity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, S.; Clerc, M. G.; Selmi, F.; Barbay, S.

    2017-02-01

    The occurrence of extreme events in a spatially extended microcavity laser has been recently reported [Selmi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 013901 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.013901] to be correlated to emergence of spatiotemporal chaos. In this dissipative system, the role of spatial coupling through diffraction is essential to observe the onset of spatiotemporal complexity. We investigate further the formation mechanism of extreme events by comparing the statistical and dynamical analyses. Experimental measurements together with numerical simulations allow us to assign the quasiperiodicity mechanism as the route to spatiotemporal chaos in this system. Moreover, by investigating the fine structure of the maximum Lyapunov exponent, of the Lyapunov spectrum, and of the Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the chaotic attractor, we are able to deduce that intermittency plays a key role in the proportion of extreme events measured. We assign the observed mechanism of generation of extreme events to quasiperiodic extended spatiotemporal intermittency.

  8. Mass and Momentum Transport in Microcavities for Diffusion-Dominant Cell Culture Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Alvin G.; Pinero, Daniel; Hsieh, Adam H.; Atencia, Javier

    2012-01-01

    For the informed design of microfluidic devices, it is important to understand transport phenomena at the microscale. This letter outlines an analytically-driven approach to the design of rectangular microcavities extending perpendicular to a perfusion microchannel for microfluidic cell culture devices. We present equations to estimate the spatial transition from advection- to diffusion-dominant transport inside cavities as a function of the geometry and flow conditions. We also estimate the time required for molecules, such as nutrients or drugs to travel from the microchannel to a given depth into the cavity. These analytical predictions can facilitate the rational design of microfluidic devices to optimize and maintain long-term, physiologically-based culture conditions with low fluid shear stress.

  9. Room temperature strong coupling effects from single ZnO nanowire microcavity

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Ayan

    2012-05-01

    Strong coupling effects in a dielectric microcavity with a single ZnO nanowire embedded in it have been investigated at room temperature. A large Rabi splitting of ?100 meV is obtained from the polariton dispersion and a non-linearity in the polariton emission characteristics is observed at room temperature with a low threshold of 1.63 ?J/cm2, which corresponds to a polariton density an order of magnitude smaller than that for the Mott transition. The momentum distribution of the lower polaritons shows evidence of dynamic condensation and the absence of a relaxation bottleneck. The polariton relaxation dynamics were investigated by timeresolved measurements, which showed a progressive decrease in the polariton relaxation time with increase in polariton density. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  10. Purcell effect in an organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductor microcavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Runan; Da, Peimei; Wang, Yafeng; Hu, Tao; Wu, Lin; Lu, Jian; Shen, Xuechu; Xu, Fei; Zheng, Gengfeng; Chen, Zhanghai

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors with the attractive physics properties, including strong photoluminescence (PL), huge oscillator strengths, and low nonradiative recombination losses, are ideal candidates for studying the light-matter interaction in nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the coupling of the exciton state and the cavity mode in the lead halide perovskite microcavity system at room temperature. The Purcell effect in the coupling system is clearly observed by using angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra. Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved PL reveals that the spontaneous emission rate of the halide perovskite semiconductor is significantly enhanced at resonance of the exciton energy and the cavity mode. Our results provide the way for developing electrically driven organic polariton lasers, optical devices, and on-chip coherent quantum light sources.

  11. Telecom wavelength emitting single quantum dots coupled to InP-based photonic crystal microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kors, A.; Fuchs, K.; Yacob, M.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Benyoucef, M.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report on the fabrication and optical characterization of InP-based L3 photonic crystal (PhC) microcavities embedded with a medium density InAs/InP quantum dots (QDs) emitting at telecom wavelengths. The QDs are grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy using a ripening technique. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) measurements of PhC samples reveal sharp cavity modes with quality factors exceeding 8500. QDs emit highly linear-polarized light at telecom wavelengths with resolution-limited spectral linewidth below 50 μeV. Enhanced PL intensity of QDs in PhC is observed in comparison to the PL intensity of QDs in bulk semiconductors. The combination of excitation power-dependent and polarization-resolved μ-PL measurements reveal the existence of an exciton-biexciton system with a small fine-structure splitting.

  12. Strong photoluminescence of the porous silicon with HfO2-filled microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ran; Wu, Zhengran; Du, Xianghao; Han, Zuyin; Sun, Weideng

    2015-06-01

    Greatly enhanced blue emission was observed at room temperature in the single-crystal silicon with HfO2 filled into its microcavities. The broad blue band light was emitted from both the HfO2 dielectric and the porous Si. The ferroelectricity of HfO2 enhances the blue emission from Si by its filling into the microcaivities. At the same time, HfO2 contributes to the light emission for the transitions of the defect levels for oxygen vacancy. The observation of greatly enhanced blue light emission of the porous Si filled with HfO2 dielectric is remarkable as both HfO2 and Si are highly compatible with Si-based electronic industry.

  13. Dissipative optomechanics of a single-layer graphene in a microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Lin-Da; Liu, Yong-Chun; Yan, Meng-Yuan; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2014-01-01

    We study the optomechanical coupling of a single-layer graphene with a high-Q Fabry-P?erot microcavity in the membrane-in-the-middle configuration. In ordinary dissipative coupling systems, mechanical oscillators modulate the loss associated with the input coupling of the cavity mode; while in our system, the graphene oscillator couples dissipatively with the cavity mode through modulating its absorption loss. By analyzing the effects of the interband transition of a graphene suspended near the node of the cavity field, we obtain strong and tunable dissipative coupling without excessively reducing the optical quality factor. Finally, it is found that the exural mode of the graphene could be cooled down to its ground state in the present coupling system. This study provides new insights for graphene optomechanics in the visible range.

  14. Highly Sensitive On-Chip Magnetometer with Saturable Absorbers in Two-Color Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Gazzano, O

    2016-01-01

    Interacting resonators can lead to strong non-linearities but the details can be complicated to predict. In this work, we study the non-linearities introduced by two nested microcavities that interact with nitrogen vacancy centers in a diamond waveguide. Each cavity has differently designed resonance; one in the green and one in the infrared. The magnetic-field dependence of the nitrogen vacancy center absorption rates on the green and the recently observed infrared transitions allows us to propose a scalable on-chip magnetometer that combines high magnetic-field sensitivity and micrometer spatial resolution. By investigating the system behaviors over several intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, we explain the main non-linearities induced by the NV centers and enhanced by the cavities. We finally show that the cavities can improve the magnetic-field sensitivity by up to two orders of magnitudes.

  15. Self-sustained photothermal oscillations in high-finesse Fabry-Perot microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konthasinghe, Kumarasiri; Velez, Juan Gomez; Hopkins, Adam J.; Peiris, Manoj; Profeta, Luisa T. M.; Nieves, Yamil; Muller, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We report the experimental investigation of a regime of microscopic Fabry-Perot resonators in which competing light-induced forces—photothermal expansion and photothermal refraction—acting oppositely and on different timescales lead to self-sustained persistent oscillations. Previously concealed as ordinary thermo-optic bistability—a common feature in low-loss resonator physics—these dynamics are visible as fast pulsations in cavity transmission or reflection measurements at sufficiently high time resolution. Their underlying mathematical description is shared by many slow-fast phenomena in chemistry, biology, and neuroscience. Our observations are relevant in particular to microcavity applications in atom optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics, even in nominally rigid structures that have not undergone lithography.

  16. Transverse-mode coupling and diffraction loss in tunable Fabry-P\\'erot microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikter, Julia; Mader, Matthias; Schlederer, Benedikt; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    We report on measurements and modeling of the mode structure of tunable Fabry-P\\'erot optical microcavities with imperfect mirrors. We find that non-spherical mirror shape and finite mirror size lead to loss, mode deformation, and shifted resonance frequencies at particular mirror separations. For small mirror diameters, the useful cavity length is limited to values significantly below the expected stability range. We explain the observations by resonant coupling between different transverse modes of the cavity and mode-dependent diffraction loss. A model based on resonant state expansion that takes into account the measured mirror profile can reproduce the measurements and identify the parameter regime where detrimental effects of mode mixing are avoided.

  17. Striking dynamics of II-VI microcavity polaritons after linearly polarized excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.D.; Ballarini, D.; Amo, A.; Klopotowsi, L.; Vina, L. [Grupo de Semiconductores (SEMICUAM), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Kavokin, A.V. [Laboratoire des Sciences et Materiaux pour l' Electronique, et d' Automatique, Universite Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Andre, R. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique (CNRS UMR5588), Universite Joseph Fourier, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2005-11-01

    We present a detailed study of the polariton spin dynamics in a II-VI microcavity after linearly polarized excitation. We have found that the vertically polarized (i.e. TE) emission is systematically larger than the horizontally polarized one (i.e. TM) for both, vertically and horizontally polarized excitation. Furthermore, a persistent difference between the two components of the emission is observed, leading to a net and constant (within the duration of the emission) linear polarization degree. Additionally, we have observed marked oscillations of the linear polarization degree once the excitation power is raised above the polariton-polariton stimulated scattering threshold. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Non-Hamiltonian dynamics in optical microcavities resulting from wave-inspired corrections to geometric optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, E. G.; DelMagno, G.; Hentschel, M.

    2008-10-01

    We introduce and investigate billiard systems with an adjusted ray dynamics that accounts for modifications of the conventional reflection of rays due to universal wave effects. We show that even small modifications of the specular reflection law have dramatic consequences on the phase space of classical billiards. These include the creation of regions of non-Hamiltonian dynamics, the breakdown of symmetries, and changes in the stability and morphology of periodic orbits. Focusing on optical microcavities, we show that our adjusted dynamics provides the missing ray counterpart to previously observed wave phenomena and we describe how to observe its signatures in experiments. Our findings also apply to acoustic and ultrasound waves and are important in all situations where wavelengths are comparable to system sizes, an increasingly likely situation considering the systematic reduction of the size of electronic and photonic devices.

  19. Non-Hamiltonian dynamics in optical microcavities resulting from wave-inspired corrections to geometric optics

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Hentschel, Martina

    2008-01-01

    We introduce and investigate billiard systems with an adjusted ray dynamics that accounts for modifications of the conventional reflection of rays due to universal wave effects. We show that even small modifications of the specular reflection law have dramatic consequences on the phase space of classical billiards. These include the creation of regions of non-Hamiltonian dynamics, the breakdown of symmetries, and changes in the stability and morphology of periodic orbits. Focusing on optical microcavities, we show that our adjusted dynamics provides the missing ray counterpart to previously observed wave phenomena and we describe how to observe its signatures in experiments. Our findings also apply to acoustic and ultrasound waves and are important in all situations where wavelengths are comparable to system sizes, an increasingly likely situation considering the systematic reduction of the size of electronic and photonic devices.

  20. Generation of Antibunched Light by Excited Molecules in a Microcavity Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, F.; DiGiuseppe, G.; Marrocco, M.

    1996-01-01

    The active microcavity is adopted as an efficient source of non-classical light. By this device, excited by a mode-locked laser at a rate of 100 MHz, single-photons are generated over a single field mode with a nonclassical sub-poissonian distribution. The process of adiabatic recycling within a multi-step Franck-Condon molecular optical-pumping mechanism, characterized in our case by a quantum efficiency very close to one, implies a pump self-regularization process leading to a striking n-squeezing effect. By a replication of the basic single-atom excitation process a beam of quantum photon (Fock states) can be created. The new process represents a significant advance in the modern fields of basic quantum-mechanical investigation, quantum communication and quantum cryptography.

  1. Strong coupling and stimulated emission in single parabolic quantum well microcavity for terahertz cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzimis, A.; Savvidis, P. G. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Trifonov, A. V.; Ignatiev, I. V. [Spin Optics Laboratory, State University of Saint-Petersburg, 1 Ulianovskaya, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Christmann, G.; Tsintzos, S. I. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hatzopoulos, Z. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Kavokin, A. V. [Spin Optics Laboratory, State University of Saint-Petersburg, 1 Ulianovskaya, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-07

    We report observation of strong light-matter coupling in an AlGaAs microcavity (MC) with an embedded single parabolic quantum well. The parabolic potential is achieved by varying aluminum concentration along the growth direction providing equally spaced energy levels, as confirmed by Brewster angle reflectivity from a reference sample without MC. It acts as an active region of the structure which potentially allows cascaded emission of terahertz (THz) light. Spectrally and time resolved pump-probe spectroscopy reveals characteristic quantum beats whose frequencies range from 0.9 to 4.5 THz, corresponding to energy separation between relevant excitonic levels. The structure exhibits strong stimulated nonlinear emission with simultaneous transition to weak coupling regime. The present study highlights the potential of such devices for creating cascaded relaxation of bosons, which could be utilized for THz emission.

  2. Mono- to few-layered graphene oxide embedded randomness assisted microcavity amplified spontaneous emission source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pratyusha; Maiti, Rishi; Barman, Prahalad K.; Ray, Samit K.; Shivakiran, Bhaktha B. N.

    2016-02-01

    The realization of optoelectronic devices using two-dimensional materials such as graphene and its intermediate product graphene oxide (GO) is extremely challenging owing to the zero band gap of the former. Here, a novel amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) system based on a GO-embedded all-dielectric one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPhC) micro-resonator is presented. The mono- to few-layered GO sheet is inserted within a microcavity formed by two 5-bilayered SiO2/SnO2 Bragg reflectors. Significantly enhanced photoluminescence (PL) emission of GO embedded in 1DPhC is explicated by studying the electric field confined within the micro-resonator using the transfer matrix method. The inherent randomness, due to fabrication limitations, in the on-average periodic 1DPhC is exploited to further enhance the PL of the optically active micro-resonator. The 1DPhC and randomness assisted field confinement reduces the ASE threshold of the mono- to few-layered weak emitter making the realization of an ASE source feasible. Consequently, ASE at the microcavity resonance and at the low-frequency band-edge of photonic stop-band is demonstrated. Variation of the detection angle from 5° to 30°, with respect to the sample surface normal allows reallocation of the defect mode ASE peak over a spectral range of 558-542 nm, making the GO-incorporated 1DPhC a novel and attractive system for integrated optic applications.

  3. Aspartic acid-96 is the internal proton donor in the reprotonation of the Schiff base of bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, H; Marti, T; Holz, M; Mogi, T; Lindau, M; Khorana, H G; Heyn, M P

    1989-01-01

    Above pH 8 the decay of the photocycle intermediate M of bacteriorhodopsin splits into two components: the usual millisecond pH-independent component and an additional slower component with a rate constant proportional to the molar concentration of H+, [H+]. In parallel, the charge translocation signal associated with the reprotonation of the Schiff base develops a similar slow component. These observations are explained by a two-step reprotonation mechanism. An internal donor first reprotonates the Schiff base in the decay of M to N and is then reprotonated from the cytoplasm in the N----O transition. The decay rate of N is proportional to [H+]. By postulating a back reaction from N to M, the M decay splits up into two components, with the slower one having the same pH dependence as the decay of N. Photocycle, photovoltage, and pH-indicator experiments with mutants in which aspartic acid-96 is replaced by asparagine or alanine, which we call D96N and D96A, suggest that Asp-96 is the internal proton donor involved in the re-uptake pathway. In both mutants the stoichiometry of proton pumping is the same as in wild type. However, the M decay is monophasic, with the logarithm of the decay time [log (tau)] linearly dependent on pH, suggesting that the internal donor is absent and that the Schiff base is directly reprotonated from the cytoplasm. Like H+, azide increases the M decay rate in D96N. The rate constant is proportional to the azide concentration and can become greater than 100 times greater than in wild type. Thus, azide functions as a mobile proton donor directly reprotonating the Schiff base in a bimolecular reaction. Both the proton and azide effects, which are absent in wild type, indicate that the internal donor is removed and that the reprotonation pathway is different from wild type in these mutants. PMID:2556706

  4. Structures of aspartic acid-96 in the L and N intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin: analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, A.; Sasaki, J.; Shichida, Y.; Yoshizawa, T.; Chang, M.; Ni, B.; Needleman, R.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    The light-induced difference Fourier transform infrared spectrum between the L or N intermediate minus light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was measured in order to examine the protonated states and the changes in the interactions of carboxylic acids of Asp-96 and Asp-115 in these intermediates. Vibrational bands due to the protonated and unprotonated carboxylic acid were identified by isotope shift and band depletion upon substitution of Asp-96 or -115 by asparagine. While the signal due to the deprotonation of Asp-96 was clearly observed in the N intermediate, this residue remained protonated in L. Asp-115 was partially deprotonated in L. The C = O stretching vibration of protonated Asp-96 of L showed almost no shift upon 2H2O substitution, in contrast to the corresponding band of Asp-96 or Asp-115 of BR, which shifted by 9-12 cm-1 under the same conditions. In the model system of acetic acid in organic solvents, such an absence of the shift of the C = O stretching vibration of the protonated carboxylic acid upon 2H2O substitution was seen only when the O-H of acetic acid is hydrogen-bonded. The non-hydrogen-bonded monomer showed the 2H2O-dependent shift. Thus, the O-H bond of Asp-96 enters into hydrogen bonding upon conversion of BR to L. Its increased hydrogen bonding in L is consistent with the observed downshift of the O-H stretching vibration of the carboxylic acid of Asp-96.

  5. pH-Sensitive photoinduced energy transfer from bacteriorhodopsin to single-walled carbon nanotubes in SWNT-bR hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadj, Karim; Bertoncini, Patricia; Chauvet, Olivier

    2013-10-22

    Energy transfer mechanisms in noncovalently bound bacteriorhodopsin/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrids are investigated using optical absorption and photoluminescence excitation measurements. The morphology of the hybrids was investigated by atomic force microscopy. In this study, proteins are immobilized onto the sidewall of the carbon nanotubes using a sodium cholate suspension-dialysis method that maintains the intrinsic optical and fluorescence properties of both molecules. The hybrids are stable in aqueous solutions for pH ranging from 4.2 to 9 and exhibit photoluminescence properties that are pH-dependent. The study reveals that energy transfer from bacteriorhodopsin to carbon nanotubes takes place. So, at pH higher than 5 and up to 9, the SWNTs absorb the photons emitted by the aromatic residues of the protein, inducing a strong increase in intensity of the E11 emissions of SWNTs through their E33 and E44 excitations. From pH = 4.2 to pH = 5, the protein fluorescence is strongly quenched whatever the emission wavelengths, while additional fluorescence features appear at excitation wavelengths ranging from 660 to 680 nm and at 330 nm. The presence of these features is attributed to a resonance energy transfer mechanism that has an efficiency of 0.94 ± 0.02. More, by increasing the pH of the dispersion, the fluorescence characteristics become those observed at higher pH values and vice versa.

  6. The Improved Method for Isolation of Photochrome Trans-membrane Protein Bacteriorhodopsin from Purple Membranes of Halobacterium Halobacterium Halobium ET 1001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It was developed the improved method for isolation of photochrome trans-membraine protein bacteriorhodopsin (output – 5 mg from 100 g of wet biomass capable to transform light energy to electrochemical energy of generated protons H+ and АТP. The protein was isolated from purple membranes of photo-organotrophic halobacterium Halobacterium halobium ET 1001 by cellular autolysis by distilled water, processing of bacterial biomass by ultrasound at 22 KHz, alcohol extraction of low and high-weight molecular impurities, cellular RNA, carotenoids and lipids, solubilization with 0.5% (w/v SDS-Na, fractionation by MeOH and column gel permeation chromatography (GPC of the final protein on Sephadex G-200 with 0.1% (w/v SDS-Na and 2.5 mM ETDA. The homogeneity of the isolated bacteriorhodopsin was proved by combination of preparative and analytical methods, including elecrtophoresis in 12.5% (w/v PAAG with 0.1% (w/v SDS-Na and regeneration of apomembranes with 13-trans-retinal.

  7. Localized surface plasmon enhanced emission of organic light emitting diode coupled to DBR-cathode microcavity by using silver nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadir, Samira; Chakaroun, Mahmoud; Belkhir, Abderrahmane; Fischer, Alexis; Lamrous, Omar; Boudrioua, Azzedine

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we aim to increase the emission of the standard guest-host organic light emitting diode (OLED) thanks to localized surface plasmon and to investigate this effect in a microcavity. As a first step, we consider thermal deposition of silver clusters within an OLED guest-host stack. We investigate both the influence of the size of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their position within the OLED heterostructure. Secondly, we study the optimized OLED within a microcavity formed by Al-cathode top mirror and a Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) bottom mirror. The experimental results show a substantial enhancement of the electroluminescence (EL) intensity as well as a reduction of the spectral width at a half maximum.

  8. Substantial enhancement of red emission intensity by embedding Eu-doped GaN into a microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Inaba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate resonantly excited photoluminescence from a Eu,O-codoped GaN layer embedded into a microcavity, consisting of an AlGaN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector and a Ag reflecting mirror. The microcavity is responsible for a 18.6-fold increase of the Eu emission intensity at ∼10K, and a 21-fold increase at room temperature. We systematically investigate the origin of this enhancement, and we conclude that it is due to the combination of several effects including, the lifetime shortening of the Eu emission, the strain-induced piezoelectric effect, and the increased extraction and excitation field efficiencies. This study paves the way for an alternative method to enhance the photoluminescence intensity in rare-earth doped semiconductor structures.

  9. Interplay between tightly focused excitation and ballistic propagation of polariton condensates in a ZnO microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahe, R.; Brimont, C.; Valvin, P.; Guillet, T.; Li, F.; Leroux, M.; Zuniga-Perez, J.; Lafosse, X.; Patriarche, G.; Bouchoule, S.

    2015-12-01

    The formation and propagation of a polariton condensate under tightly focused excitation is investigated in a ZnO microcavity both experimentally and theoretically. Two-dimensional (2D) near-field and far-field images of the condensate are measured under quasicontinuous nonresonant excitation. The corresponding spatial profiles are compared to a model based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation under cylindrical geometry. This paper allows one to connect the experiments performed with a small excitation laser spot and the previous kinetic models of condensation in a 2D infinite microcavity and to determine the relevant parameters of both the interaction and the relaxation between the reservoir and the condensate. Two main parameters are identified: The exciton-photon detuning through the polariton effective mass and the temperature, which determines the efficiency of the relaxation from the reservoir to the condensate.

  10. Nonclassical emission from single colloidal nanocrystals in a microcavity: a route towards room temperature single photon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualtieri, Antonio; Morello, Giovanni; Todaro, Maria T; Stomeo, Tiziana; Martiradonna, Luigi; De Giorgi, Milena; Cingolani, Roberto; De Vittorio, Massimo [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL) of CNR-INFM, Distretto Tecnologico ISUFI, Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Spinicelli, Piernicola; Bramati, Alberto; Hermier, Jean P [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-Universite Paris 6, Ecole Normale Superieure et CNRS, UPMC case 74, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Quelin, Xavier; Buil, Stephanie [Groupe d' etude de la Matiere Condensee, CNRS UMR8635, Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)], E-mail: antonio.qualtieri@unile.it

    2009-03-15

    Secure quantum communication systems (QCS) based on the transmission of crucial information through single photons are among the most appealing frontiers for telecommunications, though their development is still hindered by the lack of cheap and bright single photon sources (SPSs) operating at room temperature (RT). In this paper, we show the occurrence of photon antibunching at RT from single colloidal CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) inserted in a vertical microcavity. Moreover, by using high-resolution lithographic techniques, we conceived a general route for positioning single colloidal quantum dots in the microcavity. The findings and the technique presented here can be considered a first step towards the development of SPS devices operating at RT.

  11. Enhancement of the blue photoluminescence intensity for the porous silicon with HfO2 filling into microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ran; Du, Xianghao; Sun, Weideng; Han, Zuyin; Wu, Zhengran

    2015-10-01

    With HfO2 filled into the microcavities of the porous single-crystal silicon, the blue photoluminescence was greatly enhanced at room temperature. On one hand, HfO2 contributes to the light emission with the transitions of the defect levels for oxygen vacancy. On the other hand, the special filling-into-microcavities structure of HfO2 leads to the presence of ferroelectricity, which greatly enhances the blue emission from porous silicon. Since both HfO2 and Si are highly compatible with Si-based electronic industry, combined the low-cost and convenient process, the HfO2-filled porous Si shows a promising application prospect.

  12. Design of microcavities in diamond-based photonic crystals by Fourier- and real-space analysis of cavity fields

    CERN Document Server

    Riedrich-Möller, Janine; Becher, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    We present the design of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in thin diamond membranes well suited for coupling of color centers in diamond. By comparing simulated and ideal field distributions in Fourier and real space and by according modification of air hole positions and size, we optimize the cavity structure yielding high quality factors up to Q = 320000 with a modal volume of V = 0.35 (lambda/n)^3. Using the very same approach we also improve previous designs of a small modal volume microcavity in silicon, gaining a factor of 3 in cavity Q. In view of practical realization of photonic crystals in synthetic diamond films, it is necessary to investigate the influence of material absorption on the quality factor. We show that this influence can be predicted by a simple model, replacing time consuming simulations.

  13. Hysteresis behavior of Kerr frequency comb generation in a high-quality-factor whispering-gallery-mode microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takumi; Chen-Jinnai, Akitoshi; Nagano, Takuma; Kobatake, Tomoya; Suzuki, Ryo; Yoshiki, Wataru; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2016-07-01

    A numerical and experimental study of Kerr frequency comb generation in a silica toroid microcavity is presented. We use a generalized mean-field Lugiato-Lefever equation and solve it with the split-step Fourier method. We observe that a stable mode-locked regime can be accessed when we reduce the input power after strong pumping due to the bistable nature of the nonlinear cavity system used. The experimental results agree well with the results of the numerical analysis, where we obtain a low-noise Kerr comb spectrum by gradually reducing the pumping input after strong pumping. This finding complements the results obtained by a previous wavelength scanning method and clarifies the procedure for achieving mode-locked states in such high-Q microcavity systems.

  14. Strong enhancement of spontaneous emission in amorphous-silicon-nitride photonic crystal based coupled-microcavity structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayindir, M.; Tanriseven, S.; Aydinli, A.; Ozbay, E. [Bilkent Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2001-07-01

    We investigated photoluminescence (PL) from one-dimensional photonic band gap structures. The photonic crystals, a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator and a coupled-microcavity (CMC) structure, were fabricated by using alternating hydrogenated amorphous-silicon-nitride and hydrogenated amorphous-silicon-oxide layers. It was observed that these structures strongly modify the PL spectra from optically active amorphous-silicon-nitride thin films. Narrow-band and wide-band PL spectra were achieved in the FP microcavity and the CMC structure, respectively. The angle dependence of PL peak of the FP resonator was also investigated. We also observed that the spontaneous emission increased drastically at the coupled-cavity band edge of the CMC structure due to extremely low group velocity and long photon lifetime. The measurements agree well with the transfer-matrix method results and the prediction of the tight-binding approximation. (orig.)

  15. Strong enhancement of spontaneous emission in amorphous-silicon-nitride photonic crystal based coupled-microcavity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayindir, M.; Tanriseven, S.; Aydinli, A.; Ozbay, E.

    We investigated photoluminescence (PL) from one-dimensional photonic band gap structures. The photonic crystals, a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator and a coupled-microcavity (CMC) structure, were fabricated by using alternating hydrogenated amorphous-silicon-nitride and hydrogenated amorphous-silicon-oxide layers. It was observed that these structures strongly modify the PL spectra from optically active amorphous-silicon-nitride thin films. Narrow-band and wide-band PL spectra were achieved in the FP microcavity and the CMC structure, respectively. The angle dependence of PL peak of the FP resonator was also investigated. We also observed that the spontaneous emission increased drastically at the coupled-cavity band edge of the CMC structure due to extremely low group velocity and long photon lifetime. The measurements agree well with the transfer-matrix method results and the prediction of the tight-binding approximation.

  16. Multispectral Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    nanowires. 2.2 Project Objectives  This project used spin coating technology, new and commercial nanoparticle composites, and ODC’s patented...of this project. The spin coating method to deposit polymers has been widely studied and allows for simple, low cost depositions of thin films...Figure 5). Spin coating controls the layer thickness by balancing the centrifugal forces of a developing thin film to the viscous forces that increase

  17. Morbus Coats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förl, B.; Schmack, I.; Grossniklaus, H.E.; Rohrschneider, K.

    2010-01-01

    Der fortgeschrittene Morbus Coats stellt im Kleinkindalter eine der schwierigsten Differenzialdiagnosen zum Retinoblastom dar. Wir beschreiben die klinischen und histologischen Befunde zweier Jungen im Alter von 9 und 21 Monaten mit einseitiger Leukokorie. Trotz umfassender Diagnostik mittels Narkoseuntersuchung, MRT und Ultraschall konnte ein Retinoblastom nicht sicher ausgeschlossen werden, und es erfolgte eine Enukleation. Histologisch wurde die Diagnose eines Morbus Coats gesichert. Da eine differenzialdiagnostische Abgrenzung zwischen Morbus Coats und Retinoblastom schwierig sein kann, halten wir in zweifelhaften Fällen auch angesichts der eingeschränkten Visusprognose und potenzieller Sekundärkomplikationen beim fortgeschrittenen Morbus Coats eine Enukleation für indiziert. PMID:18299842

  18. Discharge light and carbonization distribution characteristics at XLPE-silicon rubber interface with micro-cavity in tracking failure test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, L.; Li, S.; Wang, S. B.; Lei, S. L.; Liu, S. X.

    2011-12-01

    Installation of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable joint possibly introduces defects into the XLPE-silicon rubber interface, such as micro-cavity and micro-wire. Those defects greatly decrease the interfacial breakdown strength and endanger the stability of power system. However, the traditional method only measures the breakdown strength, which alone is limited and can not provide detailed information to more clearly understand the dielectric performance and tracking failure mechanism. This paper investigated the effect of micro-cavity on tracking failure by analyzing the distribution characteristics of discharge light and carbonization. Interfaces with those defects were setup by pressing together a slice of XLPE and a slice of transparent silicon rubber. A 50 Hz AC voltage was applied on a pair of flat-round electrodes sandwiched at the interface with their insulation distance of 5 mm until tracking failure occurred. The evolution of both discharge light and carbonization at the interface from discharge to the failure was recorded with a video recorder and then their channel width was analyzed with image processing method. Obtained results show that micro-cavity at an XLPE-silicon rubber interface strengthens the transportation of charge and easily leads to interfacial discharge and tracking failure. The distribution of discharge light and carbonization at the interface with micro-wire proves this.

  19. High-polarization-discriminating infrared detection using a single quantum well sandwiched in plasmonic micro-cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, ZhiFeng; Li, Ning; Chen, XiaoShuang; Chen, PingPing; Shen, XueChu; Lu, Wei

    2014-09-11

    Polarimetric imaging has proved its value in medical diagnostics, bionics, remote sensing, astronomy, and in many other wide fields. Pixel-level solid monolithically integrated polarimetric imaging photo-detectors are the trend for infrared polarimetric imaging devices. For better polarimetric imaging performance the high polarization discriminating detectors are very much critical. Here we demonstrate the high infrared light polarization resolving capabilities of a quantum well (QW) detector in hybrid structure of single QW and plasmonic micro-cavity that uses QW as an active structure in the near field regime of plasmonic effect enhanced cavity, in which the photoelectric conversion in such a plasmonic micro-cavity has been realized. The detector's extinction ratio reaches 65 at the wavelength of 14.7 μm, about 6 times enhanced in such a type of pixel-level polarization long wave infrared photodetectors. The enhancement mechanism is attributed to artificial plasmonic modulation on optical propagation and distribution in the plasmonic micro-cavities.

  20. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Self-patterned aluminium interconnects and ring electrodes for arrays of microcavity plasma devices encapsulated in Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. S.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Automatic formation of Al interconnects and ring electrodes, fully encapsulated by alumina, in planar arrays of Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 microcavity plasma devices has been accomplished by electrochemical processing of Al foil. Following the fabrication of cylindrical microcavities (50-350 µm in diameter) in 127 µm thick Al foil, virtually complete anodization of the foil yields azimuthally symmetric Al electrodes surrounding each cavity and interconnects between adjacent microcavities that are produced and simultaneously buried within a transparent Al2O3 film without the need for conventional patterning techniques. The diameter and pitch of the microcavities prior to anodization, as well as the anodization process parameters, determine which of the microcavity plasma devices in a one- or two-dimensional array are connected electrically. Data presented for 200 µm diameter cavities with a pitch of 150-225 µm illustrate the patterning of the interconnects and electrode connectivity after 4-10 h of anodization in oxalic acid. Self-patterned, linear arrays comprising 25 dielectric barrier devices have been excited by a sinusoidal or bipolar pulse voltage waveform and operated in 400-700 Torr of rare gas. Owing to the electrochemical conversion of most of the Al foil into Al2O3, the self-formed arrays exhibit an areal capacitance ~82% lower than that characteristic of previous Al/Al2O3 device arrays (Park et al 2006 J. Appl. Phys. 99 026107).

  1. Simulation studies of RF excited micro-cavity discharges for micro-propulsion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, H.; Raja, L. L.

    2012-05-01

    A detailed computational modelling study of the micro-cavity discharge (MCD) thruster is presented. The MCD thruster concept incorporates a microdischarge with dielectric covered electrodes operated using alternating current (ac) excitation. The thruster geometry comprises a constant area pipe section followed by a divergent micro-nozzle. Two ring electrodes are embedded in the wall of the pipe section with the downstream electrode close to the pipe-micronozzle intersection. A microdischarge plasma is generated in argon propellant gas flowing through the thruster. A detailed plasma dynamics model coupled with the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is used to study the flow and plasma phenomenon in the thruster. Results show a highly pulsed microdischarge with plasma densities of ˜1019 m-3 and current densities ˜700 mA cm-2 for an ac excitation in the radio frequency (RF) regime of 10 and 20 MHz. The dominant gas heating mechanism in these discharges is through ion Joule heating. Higher electron densities and spatially dominant thermal source terms are observed for the 20 MHz excitation compared with 10 MHz excitation. The addition of 20% nitrogen to the flow resulted in much better performance compared with the pure argon cases. A peak gas temperature rise ˜200 K is seen for a cycle-averaged power deposition of 76 mW. For the conditions explored in this study, the overall specific impulse of the thruster operating with the microdischarge plasma is found to be about 25% higher than a corresponding cold gas case.

  2. Monolithic integration of III-V nanowire with photonic crystal microcavity for vertical light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrue, Alexandre; Wilhelm, Christophe; Vest, Gwenaelle; Combrié, Sylvain; de Rossi, Alfredo; Soci, Cesare

    2012-03-26

    A novel photonic structure formed by the monolithic integration of a vertical III-V nanowire on top of a L3 two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity is proposed to enhance light emission from the nanowire. The impact on the nanowire spontaneous emission rate is evaluated by calculating the spontaneous emission factor β, and the material gain at threshold is used as a figure of merit of this vertical emitting nanolaser. An optimal design is identified for a GaAs nanowire geometry with r = 155 nm and L~1.1 μm, where minimum gain at threshold (gth~13×10³ cm⁻¹) and large spontaneous emission factor (β~0.3) are simultaneously achieved. Modification of the directivity of the L3 photonic crystal cavity via the band-folding principle is employed to further optimize the far-field radiation pattern and to increase the directivity of the device. These results lay the foundation for a new approach toward large-scale integration of vertical emitting nanolasers and may enable applications such as intra-chip optical interconnects.

  3. Detection of MMP-8 via porous silicon microcavity devices functionalized with human antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Marta; Taleb Bendiab, Chakib; Massif, Laurent; Cuisinier, Frédéric J. G.; Gergely, Csilla

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the fabrication of functionalized PSiMc scaffolds that can be used to enhance the detection of MMP-8. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the major enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and play a key role in diverse physiological and pathological processes. We are interested in detecting the collagenase-type MMP-8 that is an inflammatory marker in gingival fluid for predicting tooth movement during orthodontic treatment. As presence of an increasing amount of MMP-8 in saliva is directly related with the tooth movement during orthodontic treatment, monitoring continuously the MMP-8 variation is primordial. Porous silicon microcavity (PSiMc) structures were prepared as multilayered stacks of low and high refractive indices and with layer thicknesses in the order of visible light wavelength. Then the PSi surface was functionalized with human antibodies. Both functionalization and MMP-8 infiltration were monitored by specular reflectometry. PSiMc is characterized by a narrow resonance peak in the optical spectrum that is very sensitive to a small change in the refractive index, such as that obtained when a molecule is attached to the large internal surface of porous silicon. The pore dimensions of the used PSiMc structures were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  4. Exciton–polaritons in van der Waals heterostructures embedded in tunable microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufferwiel, S.; Schwarz, S.; Withers, F.; Trichet, A. A. P.; Li, F.; Sich, M.; Del Pozo-Zamudio, O.; Clark, C.; Nalitov, A.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.; Novoselov, K. S.; Smith, J. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Krizhanovskii, D. N.; Tartakovskii, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    Layered materials can be assembled vertically to fabricate a new class of van der Waals heterostructures a few atomic layers thick, compatible with a wide range of substrates and optoelectronic device geometries, enabling new strategies for control of light–matter coupling. Here, we incorporate molybdenum diselenide/hexagonal boron nitride (MoSe2/hBN) quantum wells in a tunable optical microcavity. Part-light–part-matter polariton eigenstates are observed as a result of the strong coupling between MoSe2 excitons and cavity photons, evidenced from a clear anticrossing between the neutral exciton and the cavity modes with a splitting of 20 meV for a single MoSe2 monolayer, enhanced to 29 meV in MoSe2/hBN/MoSe2 double-quantum wells. The splitting at resonance provides an estimate of the exciton radiative lifetime of 0.4 ps. Our results pave the way for room-temperature polaritonic devices based on multiple-quantum-well van der Waals heterostructures, where polariton condensation and electrical polariton injection through the incorporation of graphene contacts may be realized. PMID:26446783

  5. Coherence and statistics of a one-atom laser in a photonic crystal microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaoyong; Ren, Zhongzhou [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Lue, Shuchen, E-mail: lushuchen63@yahoo.com.c [Province Key Laboratory of Nanosize Functional Materials, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2010-11-28

    Through calculating the quantum degree of second-order coherence and photon number distribution numerically, we investigate the coherence and statistics of a one-atom laser where a coherently driven two-level atom is coupled to a photonic crystal microcavity. By going beyond the previous theoretical studies, we show that in the presence of non-secular terms the cavity field displays a variable degree of second-order coherence as a function of discontinuities in the photonic density of states. The cavity field is characterized by photon antibunching and sub-Poissonian statistics for large discontinuities. In the case of a vanishing photonic density of states on the lower Mollow sideband, we can obtain only weak antibunching. If the jump in the photonic density of states is small, the bunching and super-Poissonian statistics field is generated in the cavity. Consequently, the cavity field exhibits certain non-classical features when non-secular interaction is included into the dynamics of the system. The theoretical analysis and numerical calculations presented here coincide with recent experimental observations.

  6. Near-infrared exciton-polaritons in strongly coupled single-walled carbon nanotube microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arko; Tropf, Laura; Zakharko, Yuriy; Zaumseil, Jana; Gather, Malte C.

    2016-01-01

    Exciton-polaritons form upon strong coupling between electronic excitations of a material and photonic states of a surrounding microcavity. In organic semiconductors the special nature of excited states leads to particularly strong coupling and facilitates condensation of exciton-polaritons at room temperature, which may lead to electrically pumped organic polariton lasers. However, charge carrier mobility and photo-stability in currently used materials is limited and exciton-polariton emission so far has been restricted to visible wavelengths. Here, we demonstrate strong light-matter coupling in the near infrared using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a polymer matrix and a planar metal-clad cavity. By exploiting the exceptional oscillator strength and sharp excitonic transition of (6,5) SWCNTs, we achieve large Rabi splitting (>110 meV), efficient polariton relaxation and narrow band emission (<15 meV). Given their high charge carrier mobility and excellent photostability, SWCNTs represent a promising new avenue towards practical exciton-polariton devices operating at telecommunication wavelengths. PMID:27721454

  7. Toward Multiplexing Detection of Wound Healing Biomarkers on Porous Silicon Resonant Microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krismastuti, Fransiska Sri Herwahyu; Cavallaro, Alex; Prieto‐Simon, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial wound infections can cause septicemia and lead to limb amputation or death. Therefore, early detection of bacteria is important in chronic wound management. Here, an optical biosensor based on porous silicon resonant microcavity (pSiRM) structure modified with fluorogenic peptide substrate is demonstrated to detect the presence of Sortase A (SrtA), a bacterial enzyme found in the cell membrane protein of Staphylococcus aureus. The combination of fluorescence enhancement effects of the pSiRM architecture with the incorporation of SrtA fluorogenic peptide substrate within the pSi matrix enables the sensing of SrtA with an outstanding limit of detection of 8 × 10−14 m. Modification of the pSiRM structure with microscale spots of two fluorogenic peptide substrates, one specific for SrtA and the other for matrix metalloproteinases, effectively demonstrates the feasibility to perform multiplexed biomarker analysis. The results in this study highlight the potential of the pSiRM sensing platform as a point‐of‐care diagnostic tool for biomarkers of bacterial wound infection.

  8. Microcavity Silicon Photodetectors at 1.55 μm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casalino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, the realization, and the characterization of silicon resonant cavity enhanced (RCE photodetectors, working at 1.55 μm, are reported. The photodetectors are constituted by a Fabry-Perot microcavity incorporating a Schottky diode. The working principle is based on the internal photoemission effect. We investigated two types of structures: top and back-illuminated. Concerning the top-illuminated photodetectors, a theoretical and numerical analysis has been provided and the device quantum efficiency has been calculated. Moreover, a comparison among three different photodetectors, having as Schottky metal: gold, silver, or copper, was proposed. Concerning the back-illuminated devices, two kinds of Cu/p-Si RCE photodetectors, having various bottom-mirror reflectivities, were realized and characterized. Device performances in terms of responsivity, free spectral range, and finesse were theoretically and experimentally calculated in order to prove an enhancement in efficiency due to the cavity effect. The back-illuminated device fabrication process is completely compatible with the standard silicon technology.

  9. Electrically Pumped III-N Microcavity Light Emitters Incorporating an Oxide Confinement Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Yu; Chang, Tsu-Chi; Li, Ya-Chen; Lu, Tien-Chang; Wang, Shing-Chung

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report on electrically pumped III-N microcavity (MC) light emitters incorporating oxide confinement apertures. The utilized SiO2 aperture can provide a planar ITO design with a higher index contrast ( 1) over other previously reported approaches. The fabricated MC light emitter with a 15-μm-aperture shows a turn-on voltage of 3.3 V, which is comparable to conventional light emitting diodes (LEDs), showing a good electrical property of the proposed structure. A uniform light output profile within the emission aperture suggesting the good capability of current spreading and current confinement of ITO and SiO2 aperture, respectively. Although the quality factor ( Q) of fabricated MC is not high enough to achieve lasing action ( 500), a superlinear emission can still be reached under a high current injection density (2.83 kA/cm2) at 77 K through the exciton-exciton scattering, indicating the high potential of this structure for realizing excitonic vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) action or even polariton laser after fabrication optimization.

  10. Spectrum study of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with micro-cavity structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiang; Wei Fuxiang; Liu Hui

    2009-01-01

    Blue and white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices OLEDs with cavity effect have been fabricated.TBADN:3%DSAPh and Alq3:DCJTB/TBADN:TBPe/Alq3:C545 were used as emitting materials of microcavity OLEDs.On a patterned glass substrate,silver was deposited as reflective anode,and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)layer as HIL and 4'-bis[N-(1-Naphthyl)-N-phenyl-amino]biphenyl(NPB)layer as HTL were made.Al/Ag thin films were made as semi-transparent cathode with a transmittance of about 30%.By changing the thickness of indium tin oxide ITO,deep blue with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates(CIEx,y)of(0.141,0.049)was obtained on TBADN:3%DSAPh devices,and different color(red,blue and green)was obrained on Alq3:DCJTB/TBADN:TBPe/Alq3:C545 devices,full width at half maxima(FWHM)was only 17 nm.The spectral intensity and FWHM of emission in cavity devices have also been studied.

  11. Photoluminescence characteristics of polariton condensation in a CuBr microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Masaaki, E-mail: nakayama@a-phys.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Murakami, Katsuya; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Kim, DaeGwi [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2014-07-14

    We have investigated the photoluminescence (PL) properties of a CuBr microcavity at 10 K, including the temporal profiles, from the viewpoint of cavity-polariton condensation. The excitation energy density dependence of the PL intensity (band width) of the lower polariton branch at an in-plane wave vector of k{sub //} = 0 exhibits a threshold-like increase (decrease). A large blueshift in the PL energy of ∼10 meV caused by the cavity-polariton renormalization is correlated with the excitation energy density dependence of the PL intensity. The estimated density of photogenerated electron-hole pairs at the threshold is two orders lower than the Mott transition density. These results consistently demonstrate the occurrence of cavity-polariton condensation. In addition, we found that the PL rise and decay times are shortened dramatically by the cavity-polariton condensation, which reflects the bosonic final state stimulation in the relaxation process and the intrinsic cavity-polariton lifetime in the decay process.

  12. Numerical investigation of high-contrast ultrafast all-optical switching in low-refractive-index polymeric photonic crystal nanobeam microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zi-Ming; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Chen; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2012-06-01

    With the development of micro- or nano-fabrication technologies, great interest has been aroused in exploiting photonic crystal nanobeam structures. In this article the design of high-quality-factor (Q) polymeric photonic crystal nanobeam microcavities suitable for realizing ultrafast all-optical switching is presented based on the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. Adopting the pump-probe technique, the ultrafast dynamic response of the all-optical switching in a nanobeam microcavity with a quality factor of 1000 and modal volume of 1.22 (λ/n)3 is numerically studied and a switching time as fast as 3.6 picoseconds is obtained. Our results indicate the great promise of applying photonic crystal nanobeam microcavities to construct integrated ultrafast tunable photonic devices or circuits incorporating polymer materials with large Kerr nonlinearity and ultrafast response speed.

  13. An Observation of Diamond-Shaped Particle Structure in a Soya Phosphatidylcohline and Bacteriorhodopsin Composite Langmuir Blodgett Film Fabricated by Multilayer Molecular Thin Film Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiuchi, Y.; Makino, Y.

    A composite film of soya phosphatidylcohline (soya PC) and bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was fabricated by the multilayer molecular thin film method using fatty acid and lipid on a quartz substrate. Direct Force Microscopy (DFM), UV absorption spectra and IR absorption spectra of the film were characterized on the detail of surface structure of the film. The DFM data revealed that many rhombus (diamond-shaped) particles were observed in the film. The spectroscopic data exhibited the yield of M-intermediate of BR in the film. On our modelling of molecular configuration indicate that the coexistence of the strong inter-molecular interaction and the strong inter-molecular interaction between BR trimmers attributed to form the particles.

  14. Replacement of aspartic acid-96 by asparagine in bacteriorhodopsin slows both the decay of the M intermediate and the associated proton movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, M; Drachev, L A; Mogi, T; Otto, H; Kaulen, A D; Heyn, M P; Skulachev, V P; Khorana, H G

    1989-01-01

    The photocycle, electrical charge translocation, and release and uptake of protons from the aqueous phase and release and uptake of protons from the aqueous phase were investigated for bacteriorhodopsin mutants with aspartic acid-96 replaced by asparagine or glutamic acid. At neutral pH the main effect of the Asp-96----Asn mutation is to slow by 2 orders of magnitude the decay of the M intermediate and the concomitant charge displacement associated with the reprotonation of the Schiff base from the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. The proton uptake measured with the indicator dye pyranine is likewise slowed without affecting the stoichiometry of proton pumping. The corresponding results for the Asp-96----Glu mutant, on the other hand, are very close to those for the wild-type protein. These results provide a kinetic explanation for the fact that at pH 7 and saturating light intensities the steady-state proton pumping is almost abolished in the Asp-96----Asn mutant but is close to normal in the Asp-96----Glu mutant. Thus, the pump is simply turning over much more slowly in the Asp-96----Asn mutant. The time constants of the decay of M and the associated charge translocation increase strongly with increasing pH for the Asp-96----Asn mutant but are virtually pH-independent for the Asp-96----Glu mutant and wild-type bacteriorhodopsin. At pH 5 the M decay of the Asp-96----Asn mutant is as fast as for wild type. These results suggest that Asp-96 serves as an internal proton donor in the proton-uptake pathway from the cytoplasm to the Schiff base. PMID:2648392

  15. Progress Toward Single-Photon-Level Nonlinear Optics in Crystalline Microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowligy, Abijith S.

    Over the last two decades, the emergence of quantum information science has uncovered many practical applications in areas such as communications, imaging, and sensing where harnessing quantum features of Nature provides tremendous benefits over existing methods exploiting classical physical phenomena. In this effort, one of the frontiers of research has been to identify and utilize quantum phenomena that are not susceptible to environmental and parasitic noise processes. Quantum photonics has been at the forefront of these studies because it allows room-temperature access to its inherently quantum-mechanical features, and allows leveraging the mature telecommunication industry. Accompanying the weak environmental influence, however, are also weak optical nonlinearities. Efficient nonlinear optical interactions are indispensible for many of the existing protocols for quantum optical computation and communication, e.g. high-fidelity entangling quantum logic gates rely on large nonlinear responses at the one- or few-photon-level. While this has been addressed to a great extent by interfacing photons with single quantum emitters and cold atomic gases, scalability has remained elusive. In this work, we identify the macroscopic second-order nonlinear polarization as a robust platform to address this challenge, and utilize the recent advances in the burgeoning field of optical microcavities to enhance this nonlinear response. In particular, we show theoretically that by using the quantum Zeno effect, low-noise, single-photon-level optical nonlinearities can be realized in lithium niobate whispering-gallery-mode microcavities, and present experimental progress toward this goal. Using the measured strength of the second-order nonlinear response in lithium niobate, we modeled the nonlinear system in the strong coupling regime using the Schrodinger picture framework and theoretically demonstrated that the single-photon-level operation can be observed for cavity lifetimes in

  16. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  17. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... that graphene can still be a relevant candidate for thin coatings....

  18. Very Bright and Efficient Microcavity Top-Emitting Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with Ag Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohong; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Shuming

    2016-07-01

    The microcavity effect in top-emitting quantum dot light-emitting diodes (TQLEDs) is theoretically and experimentally investigated. By carefully optimizing the cavity length, the thickness of the top Ag electrode and the thickness of the capping layer, very bright and efficient TQLEDs with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 12.5% are demonstrated. Strong dependence of luminance and efficiency on cavity length is observed, in good agreement with theoretical calculation. By setting the normal-direction resonant wavelength around the peak wavelength of the intrinsic emission, highest luminance of 112 000 cd/m(2) (at a driving voltage of 7 V) and maximum current efficiency of 27.8 cd/A are achieved, representing a 12-fold and a 2.1-fold enhancement compared to 9000 cd/m(2) and 13.2 cd/A of the conventional bottom emitting devices, respectively, whereas the highest EQE of 12.5% is obtained by setting the resonant wavelength 30 nm longer than the peak wavelength of the intrinsic emission. Benefit from the very narrow spectrum of QDs and the low absorption of silver electrodes, the potential of microcavity effect can be fully exploited in TQLEDs.

  19. Spontaneous emission of Bloch oscillation radiation under the competing influences of microcavity enhancement and inhomogeneous interface degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, V. N. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute for Semiconductor Physics, NASU, Pr. Nauki 41, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Iafrate, G. J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8617 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    A theory for the spontaneous emission (SE) of terahertz radiation for a Bloch electron traversing a single energy miniband of a superlattice (SL) in a cavity, while undergoing elastic scattering is presented. The Bloch electron is accelerated under the influence of a superimposed external constant electric field and an internal inhomogeneous electric field, while radiating into a microcavity. The analysis of the SE accounts for both the spectral structure of nonharmonic miniband components and the Bloch oscillation degradation effects arising from elastic scattering due to SL interface roughness. The interface roughness effects are decomposed into contributions arising from independent planar and cross-correlated neighboring planar interfaces; parametric numerical estimates show that the cross-correlated contribution to the SE relaxation rate is relatively small, representing less than roughly 10% of the total relaxation rate. It is shown that the degradation effects from SL interface roughness can be more than compensated for by the enhancements derived from microcavity-based tuning of the emission frequency to the cavity density of states peak. The theoretical approach developed herein has general applicability beyond its use for elastic scattering due to interface roughness. As well, the results obtained in this analysis can be useful in the development of SL-based Bloch-oscillator terahertz devices.

  20. Purcell-enhanced single-photon emission from nitrogen-vacancy centers coupled to a tunable microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Kaupp, Hanno; Mader, Matthias; Schlederer, Benedikt; Benedikter, Julia; Haeusser, Philip; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Fedder, Helmut; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

    2016-01-01

    Optical microcavities are a powerful tool to enhance spontaneous emission of individual quantum emitters. However, the broad emission spectra encountered in the solid state at room temperature limit the influence of a cavity, and call for ultra-small mode volume. We demonstrate Purcell-enhanced single photon emission from nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds coupled to a tunable fiber-based microcavity with a mode volume down to $1.0\\,\\lambda^{3}$. We record cavity-enhanced fluorescence images and study several single emitters with one cavity. The Purcell effect is evidenced by enhanced fluorescence collection, as well as tunable fluorescence lifetime modification, and we infer an effective Purcell factor of up to 2.0. With numerical simulations, we furthermore show that a novel regime for light confinement can be achieved, where a Fabry-Perot mode is combined with additional mode confinement by the nanocrystal itself. In this regime, effective Purcell factors of up to 11 for NV centers and 63 for si...

  1. Purcell-Enhanced Single-Photon Emission from Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers Coupled to a Tunable Microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, Hanno; Hümmer, Thomas; Mader, Matthias; Schlederer, Benedikt; Benedikter, Julia; Haeusser, Philip; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Fedder, Helmut; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Hunger, David

    2016-11-01

    Optical microcavities are a powerful tool for enhancing the fluorescence of individual quantum emitters. However, the broad emission spectra encountered in the solid state at room temperature limit the influence of a cavity, calling for an ultrasmall mode volume. We demonstrate Purcell-enhanced single-photon emission from nitrogen-vacancy centers in nanodiamonds coupled to a tunable fiber-based microcavity with a mode volume down to 1.0 λ3. We record cavity-enhanced fluorescence images and study several single emitters with one cavity. The Purcell effect is evidenced by enhanced fluorescence collection and tunable lifetime modification, and we infer an effective Purcell factor of up to 2. Furthermore, we show an alternative regime for light confinement, where a Fabry-Perot mode is combined with additional mode confinement by the nanocrystal itself. Simulations predict effective Purcell factors of up to 11 for nitrogen-vacancy centers and 63 for silicon-vacancy centers, holding promise for bright single-photon sources and efficient spin readout under ambient conditions.

  2. Transition from Jaynes-Cummings to Autler-Townes ladder in a quantum dot-microcavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfmann, Caspar; Carmele, Alexander; Musiał, Anna; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Knorr, Andreas; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically a coherently driven strongly coupled quantum dot-microcavity system. Our focus is on physics of the unexplored intermediate excitation regime where the resonant laser field dresses a strongly coupled single exciton-photon (polariton) system resulting in a ladder of laser-dressed Jaynes-Cummings states. In that case, both the coupling of the emitter to the confined light field of the microcavity and to the light field of the external laser are equally important, as proved by observation of injection pulling of the polariton branches by an external laser. This intermediate interaction regime is of particular interest since it connects the purely quantum mechanical Jaynes-Cummings ladder and the semiclassical Autler-Townes ladder. Exploring the driving strength dependence of the mutually coupled system we establish the maximum in the resonance fluorescence signal to be a robust fingerprint of the intermediate regime and observe signatures indicating the laser-dressed Jaynes-Cummings ladder. In order to address the underlying physics we excite the coupled system via the matter component of fermionic nature undergoing saturation—in contrast to commonly used cavity-mediated excitation.

  3. Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Drabkin, Harry A; Gemmill, Robert M; Simon, George R; Chin, Steve H; Chen, Ray T

    2013-05-15

    We experimentally demonstrate label-free photonic crystal (PC) microcavity biosensors in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to detect the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transcription factor, ZEB1, in minute volumes of sample. Multiplexed specific detection of ZEB1 in lysates from NCI-H358 lung cancer cells down to an estimated concentration of 2 cells per micro-liter is demonstrated. L13 photonic crystal microcavities, coupled to W1 photonic crystal waveguides, are employed in which resonances show high Q in the bio-ambient phosphate buffered saline (PBS). When the sensor surface is derivatized with a specific antibody, the binding of the corresponding antigen from a complex whole-cell lysate generates a change in refractive index in the vicinity of the photonic crystal microcavity, leading to a change in the resonance wavelength of the resonance modes of the photonic crystal microcavity. The shift in the resonance wavelength reveals the presence of the antigen. The sensor cavity has a surface area of ∼11μm(2). Multiplexed sensors permit simultaneous detection of many binding interactions with specific immobilized antibodies from the same bio-sample at the same instant of time. Specificity was demonstrated using a sandwich assay which further amplifies the detection sensitivity at low concentrations. The device represents a proof-of-concept demonstration of label-free, high throughput, multiplexed detection of cancer cells with specificity and sensitivity on a silicon chip platform.

  4. Magneto-optical switching in microcavities based on a TGG defect sandwiched between periodic and disordered one-dimensional photonic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Scotognella, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The employment of magneto-optical materials to fabricate photonic crystals gives the unique opportunity to achieve optical tuning with the magnetic field. In this study we have simulated the transmission spectrum of a microcavity in which the Bragg reflectors are made with silica (SiO2) and yttria (Y2O3) and the defect layer is made with TGG (Tb3Ga5O12). We show that the application of an external magnetic field results in a tuning of the defect mode of the microcavity. In the simulations we have considered the wavelength dependence of the refractive indexes and the Verdet constants of the materials. A tuning of the defect mode of about 22 nm with a magnetic field of 5 T, at low temperature (8 K), is demonstrated. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility to tune a microcavity with disordered photonic structures as reflectors. In the presence of the magnetic field such microcavity shows a shift of resonances in a broad range of wavelengths.

  5. Air-core microcavities and metal-dielectric filters - building blocks for optofluidic microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Trevor Warren

    This thesis describes a study on two optical devices intended to be building blocks for the creation of integrated optical/microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems. First, arrays of curved-mirror dome-shaped microcavities were fabricated by buckling self-assembly of a-Si/SiO2 multilayers. This novel technique employs controlled, stress-induced film delamination to form highly symmetric cavities with minimal roughness defects or geometrical imperfections. Measured cavity heights were in good agreement with predictions from elastic buckling theory. Also, the measured finesse (> 103) and quality factor (> 104 in the 1550-nm range) were close to reflectance-limited predictions, indicating low defects and roughness. Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian modes were observable, indicating a high degree of cylindrical symmetry. In the second part of the research, transmittance in periodic metal-dielectric multilayer structures was studied. Metal-dielectric stacks have many potential applications in optofluidic microsystems, including as transmission filters, superlenses, and substrates for surface plasmon sensors. In this work, we showed that potential transmittance theory provides a good method for describing the tunneling of photons through metal-dielectric stacks, for both Fabry-Perot and surface plasmon resonances. This approach explains the well-known fact that for a given thickness of metal, subdividing the metal into several thin films can increase the maximum transmittance. Conditions for admittance matching of dielectric-metal-dielectric unit cells to an external air medium were explored for Fabry-Perot based tunneling, revealing that thicker metal films require higher-index dielectrics for optimal admittance matching. It was also shown for the first time that potential transmittance theory can be used to predict the maximum possible transmittance in surface-plasmon-mediated tunneling. In a subsequent study, potential transmittance was used to derive an expression for

  6. Vibrational spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin mutants: light-driven proton transport involves protonation changes of aspartic acid residues 85, 96, and 212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braiman, M.S.; Mogi, T.; Marti, T.; Stern, L.J.; Khorana, H.G.; Rothschild, K.J.

    1988-11-15

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectra have been obtained for the bR----K, bR----L, and bR----M photoreactions in bacteriorhodopsin mutants in which Asp residues 85, 96, 115, and 212 have been replaced by Asn and by Glu. Difference peaks that had previously been attributed to Asp COOH groups on the basis of isotopic labeling were absent or shifted in these mutants. In general, each COOH peak was affected strongly by mutation at only one of the four residues. Thus, it was possible to assign each peak tentatively to a particular Asp. From these assignments, a model for the proton-pumping mechanism of bR is derived, which features proton transfers among Asp-85, -96, and -212, the chromophore Schiff base, and other ionizable groups within the protein. The model can explain the observed COOH peaks in the FTIR difference spectra of bR photointermediates and could also account for other recent results on site-directed mutants of bR.

  7. Identification of Specific Effect of Chloride on the Spectral Properties and Structural Stability of Multiple Extracellular Glutamic Acid Mutants of Bacteriorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, Tzvetana; Mlynarczyk, Krzysztof; Querol, Enric; Tenchov, Boris; Filipek, Slawomir; Padrós, Esteve

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we combine spectroscopic, DSC and computational approaches to examine the multiple extracellular Glu mutants E204Q/E194Q, E204Q/E194Q/E9Q and E204Q/E194Q/E9Q/E74Q of bacteriorhodopsin by varying solvent ionic strength and composition. Absorption spectroscopy data reveal that the absorption maxima of multiple EC Glu mutants can be tuned by the chloride concentration in the solution. Visible Circular dichroism spectra imply that the specific binding of Cl- can modulate weakened exciton chromophore coupling and reestablish wild type-like bilobe spectral features of the mutants. The DSC data display reappearance of the reversible thermal transition, higher Tm of denaturation and an increase in the enthalpy of unfolding of the mutants in 1 M KCl solutions. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate high affinity binding of Cl- to Arg82 and to Gln204 and Gln194 residues in the mutants. Analysis of the experimental data suggests that simultaneous elimination of the negatively charged side chain of Glu194 and Glu204 is the major cause for mutants’ alterations. Specific Cl- binding efficiently coordinates distorted hydrogen bonding interactions of the EC region and reconstitutes the conformation and structure stability of mutated bR in WT-like fashion. PMID:27657718

  8. Coupling of a single diamond nanocrystal to a whispering-gallery microcavity: Photon transport benefitting from Rayleigh scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yongchun; Xiao Yunfeng; Li Beibei; Jiang Xuefeng; Li Yan; Gong Qihuang [State Key Lab for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-07-15

    We study the Rayleigh scattering induced by a diamond nanocrystal in a whispering-gallery-microcavity-waveguide coupling system and find that it plays a significant role in the photon transportation. On the one hand, this study provides insight into future solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics aimed at understanding strong-coupling physics. On the other hand, benefitting from this Rayleigh scattering, effects such as dipole-induced transparency and strong photon antibunching can occur simultaneously. As a potential application, this system can function as a high-efficiency photon turnstile. In contrast to B. Dayan et al. [Science 319, 1062 (2008)], the photon turnstiles proposed here are almost immune to the nanocrystal's azimuthal position.

  9. Error-rejecting quantum computing with solid-state spins assisted by low-Q optical microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-12-01

    We present an efficient proposal for error-rejecting quantum computing with quantum dots (QDs) embedded in single-sided optical microcavities based on the interface between the circularly polarized photon and QDs. An almost unity fidelity of the quantum entangling gate (EG) can be implemented with a detectable error that leads to a recycling EG procedure, which improves further the efficiency of our proposal along with the robustness to the errors involved in imperfect input-output processes. Meanwhile, we discuss the performance of our proposal for the EG on two solid-state spins with currently achieved experiment parameters, showing that it is feasible with current experimental technology. It provides a promising building block for solid-state quantum computing and quantum networks.

  10. Scalable quantum computing based on stationary spin qubits in coupled quantum dots inside double-sided optical microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2014-12-18

    Quantum logic gates are the key elements in quantum computing. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving a scalable and compact quantum computing based on stationary electron-spin qubits, by using the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We design the compact quantum circuits for implementing universal and deterministic quantum gates for electron-spin systems, including the two-qubit CNOT gate and the three-qubit Toffoli gate. They are compact and economic, and they do not require additional electron-spin qubits. Moreover, our devices have good scalability and are attractive as they both are based on solid-state quantum systems and the qubits are stationary. They are feasible with the current experimental technology, and both high fidelity and high efficiency can be achieved when the ratio of the side leakage to the cavity decay is low.

  11. Suppression of cross-hatched polariton disorder in GaAs/AlAs microcavities by strain compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Joanna M.; Clarke, Edmund; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2012-07-01

    Zinc-blende semiconductor heterostructures grown in the [001] direction with a small lattice mismatch accommodate stress by developing a cross-hatch dislocation pattern. In GaAs based planar microcavities grown by molecular beam epitaxy, this pattern creates a potential landscape for exciton-polaritons, causing scattering and localization. We report here on suppressing the cross-hatch by introducing strain-compensating AlP layers into the center of the low index AlAs layers of the distributed Bragg reflectors. We observe a reduction of the cross-hatch dislocation density by at least one order of magnitude for 1.1 nm thick AlP layers, which correspond to an effective AlAs0.985P0.015 low index layer. These compensated structures show a remaining polariton disorder potential in the 10 μeV range.

  12. Step-by-Step Laser Crystallization of Amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H Multilayer for Active Layer in Microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Bo; CHEN San; CEN Zhan-Hong; CHEN Kun-Ji; LIU Yan-Song; XU Jun; MA Zhong-Yuan; LI Wei; HUANG Xin-Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ We report the crystallization and photoluminescence (PL) properties of amorphous Si:H/SiNx :H multilayer (ML)films treated by step-by-step laser annealing. The results of Raman measurements show that the nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) grains are formed in the a-Si:H layers under the constrained growth mechanism. The blue shift of PL peak with grain size is observed and can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect. For comparison, we also report the crystallization and PL of a-Si:H/SiNx :H ML samples by normal one-step treatment. This method of step-by-step laser treatment will be a candidate to make nc-Si quantum dots in amorphous Si:H/SiNx :H ML as an active layer in microcavities.

  13. Identifying the role of the local density of optical states in frequency conversion of light in a microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Yüce, Emre; Claudon, Julien; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Vos, Willem L

    2014-01-01

    We have reversibly switched the resonance of a GaAs-AlAs microcavity in the near-infrared near $\\lambda =1300$ nm within 300 fs by the electronic Kerr effect. We reveal by pump-probe spectroscopy a remarkable red shift or blue shift of the light confined inside the cavity for small pulse delays, depending on their temporal ordering. The color-converted light is efficiently generated in a broad frequency continuum that differs markedly from the instantaneous cavity resonance in terms of the central frequency and bandwidth. From observations on cavities with different quality factors, we identify the role of the local density of optical states (LDOS) available to the newly generated light frequencies. In particular, we distinguish the effect of the LDOS related to the cavity resonance itself, and the LDOS continuum that leaks in from the vacuum surrounding the cavity. Our new insights provide a unified picture for seemingly disparate results in traditional and nanophotonic nonlinear optics.

  14. High output efficiency in a one wavelength microcavity OLED with emitter layer positioned at an anti-node

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Mitchell C

    2015-01-01

    A novel OLED architecture is described in which a thin emitter layer is located at the anti-node of a resonant microcavity. In two realizations, the mode space is constrained by either multi-layer mirrors or by an emitter with transition dipole moments oriented normal to the vertical mode of the device. The multi-layer mirror device achieves 315 lm/W and shows linear light output versus current with a small offset. The symmetrized emitter device demonstrates a luminous efficiency of 340 lm/W. Rate equation analysis predicts the observed linear behavior with constant loss term for stimulated emission devices. For spontaneous emission devices a coefficient is obtained that is analogous to the out-coupling factor and goes to 1 for high finesse cavities. Both types of devices can approach unit efficiency, the stimulated emission device should be less susceptible to roll-off and may be easier to manufacture.

  15. Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit, E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com; Hosseini, Amir; Xu, Xiaochuan [Omega Optics, Inc., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States); Zhu, Liang; Zou, Yi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Chen, Ray T., E-mail: raychen@uts.cc.utexas.edu [Omega Optics, Inc., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-05-12

    We analyze the contributions of quality factor, fill fraction, and group index of chip-integrated resonance microcavity devices, to the detection limit for bulk chemical sensing and the minimum detectable biomolecule concentration in biosensing. We analyze the contributions from analyte absorbance, as well as from temperature and spectral noise. Slow light in two-dimensional photonic crystals provide opportunities for significant reduction of the detection limit below 1 × 10{sup −7} RIU (refractive index unit) which can enable highly sensitive sensors in diverse application areas. We demonstrate experimentally detected concentration of 1 fM (67 fg/ml) for the binding between biotin and avidin, the lowest reported till date.

  16. Low-temperature tapered-fiber probing of diamond NV ensembles coupled to GaP microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, K -M C; Santori, C; Faraon, A; Beausoleil, R G

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a platform for testing the device performance of a cavity-emitter system, using an ensemble of emitters and a tapered optical fiber. This method provides high-contrast spectra of the cavity modes, selective detection of emitters coupled to the cavity, and an estimate of the device performance in the single- emitter case. Using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond and a GaP optical microcavity, we are able to tune the cavity onto the NV resonance at 10 K, couple the cavity-coupled emission to a tapered fiber, and measure the fiber-coupled NV spontaneous emission decay. Theoretically we show that the fiber-coupled average Purcell factor is 2-3 times greater than that of free-space collection; although due to ensemble averaging it is still a factor of 3 less than the Purcell factor of a single, ideally placed center.

  17. Room temperature fabrication of dielectric Bragg reflectors composed of a CaF2/ZnS multilayered coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muallem, Merav; Palatnik, Alex; Nessim, Gilbert D; Tischler, Yaakov R

    2015-01-14

    We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of mechanically stable, reproducible, and highly reflecting distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) composed of thermally evaporated thin films of calcium fluoride (CaF2) and zinc sulfide (ZnS). CaF2 and ZnS were chosen as the low and high refractive index components of the multilayer DBR structures, with n = 1.43 and n = 2.38 respectively, because neither material requires substrate heating during the deposition process in order to produce optical quality thin films. DBRs consisting of seven pairs of CaF2 and ZnS layers, were fabricated with thicknesses of 96 and 58 nm, respectively, as characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), and exhibited a center wavelength of λc = 550 nm and peak reflectance exceeding 99%. The layers showed good adhesion to each other and to the glass substrate, resulting in mechanically stable DBR coatings. Complete optical microcavities consisting of two such DBR coatings and a CaF2 spacer layer between them could be fabricated in a single deposition run. Optically, these structures exhibited a resonator quality factor of Q > 160. When a CaF2/ZnS DBR was grown, without heating the substrate during deposition, on top of a thin film containing the fluorescent dye Rhodamine 6G, the fluorescence intensity showed no degradation compared to an uncoated film, in contrast to a MgF2/ZnS DBR coating grown with substrate heating which showed a 92% reduction in signal. The ability to fabricate optical quality CaF2/ZnS DBRs without substrate heating, as introduced here, can therefore enable formation of low-loss high-reflectivity coatings on top of more delicate heat-sensitive materials such as organics and other nanostructured emitters, and hence facilitate the development of nanoemitter-based microcavity device applications.

  18. Corrosion resistant coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Thompson, Karen G.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1997-01-01

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  19. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  20. Influence of dielectric microcavity on the spontaneous emission rate of atom: a perspective on the closed-orbit theory of photons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shubao Wang; Xueyou Xu; Hongyun Li; Zhengmao Jia; Shenglu Lin

    2008-01-01

    The formulas of the quantum electrodynamics have been applied to calculate the spontaneous emission rate of excited atom in dielectric microcavity.The results exhibit damping oscillating Patterns which depend sensitively on the scaling parameter and geometrical structure.Compared with the case that the emitting atom is immersed in dielectric,the spontaneous emission rate is depressed obviously and the center or the mean value of the oscillations is intimately related to the real refractive index of the local position where the atom is.In order to explain this phenomenon,we utilize the closed-orbit theory to deal with the classical trajectories of the emitted photon.and extract the corresponding frequencies of the oscillations by Fourier transform.It is found that the oscillations can be represented in terms of the closed-orbits of the photon motion constrained in dielectric microcavity,thus providing another perspective on the spontaneous emission of atom sandwiched by dielectric slabs.

  1. A High-Temperature Solar Selective Absorber Based upon Periodic Shallow Microstructures Coated by Multi-Layers Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Shimizu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the fabrication of solar selective absorbers, the ability to create microstructures on top of metal surfaces is a promising technology. Typically, these materials are able to possess spectrally-selective absorption properties for high-temperature usage. Solar-selective absorbers that function at temperatures up to 700 °C and possess shallow honeycomb cylindrical microcavities coated with a metal-dielectric multi-layer have been investigated. Honeycomb array cylindrical microcavities were fabricated on W substrate with interference lithography and multi-layers consisting of Pt nano-film sandwiched by Al2O3 layers were created for a uniform coating via atomic layer deposition. The absorbance spectrum of fabricated samples reveals results consistent with a simulation based on a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method. A solar absorbance value of 0.92 and a hemispherical total emittance value of 0.18 at 700 °C was determined from the fabricated solar-selective absorber. Additionally, thermal stability of up to 700 °C was confirmed in vacuum.

  2. Multi-layer coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  3. Coating of pumps; coating af pumper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Hans; Moritzen, J.; Thoegersen, Jeanette

    2005-11-15

    Coating of pumps is a quite new activity. For many years pipes and containers have been coated inside in order to avoid corrosion, but the technology has only been used inside pumps for the last ten years. The technology comes from USA and is originally developed in the space technology industry as an exceptionally durable and corrosion constant coating. The project is a further development of results found in a previous R and D project in which measurements were performed before and after coating two different installations. Both installations showed large efficiency improvements. This project supplements the theory behind losses in pumps with measurements on more pumps. (BA)

  4. Reactivity of Nanostructured MnO_2 in Alkaline Medium Studied with a Microcavity Electrode: Effect of Oxidizing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Benhaddad; L.Makhloufi; B.Messaoudi1; K.Rahmouni; H.Takenouti

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of MnO2 powders by hydrothermal method with different oxidizing agents has been successfully achieved. The characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analyses, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques confirm the synthesis of nanostructured γ-MnO2 powders. The electrochemical reactivity of these powders in 1 mol/l KOH is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) by using microcavity electrode. The results reveal that the MnO2 synthesized with Na2S2O8 shows the highest electrochemical reactivity in the test medium. This is due both to its large expanded surface area and its crystallographic variety γ-MnO2 formed in the matrix of ramsdellite, which is largely used as cathodic material for primary batteries. However, the presence of pyrolusite in the structure of γ-MnO2 synthesized with (NH4)2S2O8 decreases its electrochemical reactivity due to its narrow 1×1 size tunnel, which hinders the protons insertion.

  5. Photonic transistor and router using a single quantum-dot-confined spin in a single-sided optical microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The future Internet is very likely the mixture of all-optical Internet with low power consumption and quantum Internet with absolute security guaranteed by the laws of quantum mechanics. Photons would be used for processing, routing and com-munication of data, and photonic transistor using a weak light to control a strong light is the core component as an optical analogue to the electronic transistor that forms the basis of modern electronics. In sharp contrast to previous all-optical tran-sistors which are all based on optical nonlinearities, here I introduce a novel design for a high-gain and high-speed (up to terahertz) photonic transistor and its counterpart in the quantum limit, i.e., single-photon transistor based on a linear optical effect: giant Faraday rotation induced by a single electronic spin in a single-sided optical microcavity. A single-photon or classical optical pulse as the gate sets the spin state via projective measurement and controls the polarization of a strong light to open/block the photonic channel. Due to the duality as quantum gate for quantum information processing and transistor for optical information processing, this versatile spin-cavity quantum transistor provides a solid-state platform ideal for all-optical networks and quantum networks. PMID:28349960

  6. Photonic transistor and router using a single quantum-dot-confined spin in a single-sided optical microcavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C Y

    2017-03-28

    The future Internet is very likely the mixture of all-optical Internet with low power consumption and quantum Internet with absolute security guaranteed by the laws of quantum mechanics. Photons would be used for processing, routing and com-munication of data, and photonic transistor using a weak light to control a strong light is the core component as an optical analogue to the electronic transistor that forms the basis of modern electronics. In sharp contrast to previous all-optical tran-sistors which are all based on optical nonlinearities, here I introduce a novel design for a high-gain and high-speed (up to terahertz) photonic transistor and its counterpart in the quantum limit, i.e., single-photon transistor based on a linear optical effect: giant Faraday rotation induced by a single electronic spin in a single-sided optical microcavity. A single-photon or classical optical pulse as the gate sets the spin state via projective measurement and controls the polarization of a strong light to open/block the photonic channel. Due to the duality as quantum gate for quantum information processing and transistor for optical information processing, this versatile spin-cavity quantum transistor provides a solid-state platform ideal for all-optical networks and quantum networks.

  7. Structure and zero-dimensional polariton spectrum of natural defects in GaAs/AlAs microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Zajac, Joanna M

    2012-01-01

    We present a correlative study of structural and optical properties of natural defects in planar semiconductor microcavities grown by molecular beam epitaxy, which are showing a localized polariton spectrum as reported in Zajac et al., Phys. Rev. B 85, 165309 (2012). The three-dimensional spatial structure of the defects was studied using combined focussed ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We find that the defects originate from a local increase of a GaAs layer thickness. Modulation heights of up to 140nm for oval defects and 90nm for round defects are found, while the lateral extension is about 2um for oval and 4um for round defects. The GaAs thickness increase is attributed to Ga droplets deposited during growth due to Ga cell spitting. Following the droplet deposition, the thickness modulation expands laterally while reducing its height, yielding oval to round mounds of the interfaces and the surface. With increasing growth temperature, the ellipticity of the mounds is decreasing and t...

  8. Lasing and macroscopic coherence of periodic 2D and 3D microstructures in organic microcavities (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischok, Andreas; Wagner, Tim; Brückner, Robert; Sudzius, Markas; Fröb, Hartmut; Lyssenko, Vadim G.; Leo, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Two of the most successful microresonator concepts are the vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), comprising a vertical cavity of highly reflective DBRs sandwiching an active layer, and the distributed feedback (DFB) laser, where a periodic optical grating selects laser modes from an active waveguide (WG) layer. Here, an organic microcavity is coupled with in-plane periodic photonic wires or dots to facilitate a coherent interaction between waveguided and vertically emitting modes as well as creating an additional in-plane confinement. The vertical positioning of such patterning plays a crucial role in the observable features. While embedding metallic or dielectric wires directly in the cavity layer leads to a strong lateral confinement as well as the observation of photonic Bloch states [1,2], the deposition of the full VCSEL stack on top of a periodic grating reveals novel features. In such a device, we demonstrate the coherent coupling between parabolic VCSEL and linear WG modes in the angle-resolved far field emission. In this system, lasing occurs not only at the VCSEL parabola apex but also at points of hybridization, when the dispersion of modes cross, showing a drastically enhanced in-plane coherence [3]. The coherent coupling of two conceptually different devices with perpendicular propagation directions paired with the macroscopic coherence facilitate a multitude of new applications. [1] Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(8), 746 (2014) [2] Phys. Rev. Appl. 3, 064016 (2015). [3] Adv. Opt. Mater. under review (2016).

  9. Giant photoinduced Faraday rotation due to the spin-polarized electron gas in an n-GaAs microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, R.; Cronenberger, S.; Vladimirova, M.; Scalbert, D.; Kavokin, K. V.; Glazov, M. M.; Nawrocki, M.; Lemaître, A.; Bloch, J.

    2012-05-01

    Faraday rotation up to 19∘ in the absence of an external magnetic field is demonstrated in an n-type bulk GaAs microcavity under circularly polarized optical excitation. This strong effect is achieved because (i) the spin-polarized electron gas is an efficient Faraday rotator and (ii) the light wave makes multiple round trips in the cavity. We introduce a concept of Faraday rotation cross section as a proportionality coefficient between the rotation angle, electron spin density and optical path and calculate this cross section for our system. From independent measurements of photoinduced Faraday rotation and electron spin polarization we obtain quantitatively the cross section of the Faraday rotation induced by free electron spin polarization σFexp=-(2.5±0.6)×10-15 rad×cm2 for photon energy 18 meV below the band gap of GaAs, and electron concentration 2×1016 cm-3. It appears to exceed the theoretical value σFth=-0.7×10-15 rad×cm2, calculated without fitting parameters. We also demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a fast optically controlled Faraday rotator.

  10. Refined entanglement concentration for electron-spin entangled cluster states with quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fang-Fang; Long, Gui-Lu

    2017-01-01

    We present a refined entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for an arbitrary unknown less-entangled four-electron-spin cluster state by exploring the optical selection rules derived from the quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. In our ECP, the parties obtain not only the four-electron-spin systems in the partial entanglement with two unknown parameters, but also the less-entangled two-electron-spin systems in the first step. Utilizing the above preserved systems as the resource for the second step of our ECP, the parties can obtain a standard cluster state by keeping the robust odd-parity instances with two parity-check gates. Meanwhile, the systems in the rest three instances can be used as the resource in the next round of our ECP. The success probability of our ECP is largely increased by iteration of the ECP process. Moreover, all the coefficients of our ECP are unknown for the parties without assistance of extra single electron-spin, so our ECP maybe has good applications in quantum communication network in the future.

  11. Ultra-compact and wide-spectrum-range thermo-optic switch based on silicon coupled photonic crystal microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xingyu; Chung, Chi-Jui; Pan, Zeyu; Yan, Hai; Chen, Ray T

    2016-01-01

    We design, fabricate, and experimentally demonstrate a compact thermo-optic gate switch comprising a 3.78 um-long coupled L0-type photonic crystalmicrocavities on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A nanohole is inserted in the center of each individual L0 photonic crystalmicrocavity. Coupling between identical microcavities gives rise to bonding and anti-bonding states of the coupled photonic molecules. The coupled photonic crystalmicrocavities are numerically simulated and experimentally verified with a 6 nm-wide flat-bottom resonance in its transmission spectrum, which enables wider operational spectrum range than microring resonators. An integrated micro-heater is in direct contact with the silicon core to efficiently drive the device. The thermo-optic switch is measured with an optical extinction ratio of 20 dB, an on-off switching power of 18.2 mW, a thermo-optic tuning efficiency of 0.63 nm/mW, a rise time of 14.8 us, and a fall time of 18.5 us. The measured on-chip loss on the transmission band is as l...

  12. Emission from quantum-dot high- microcavities: transition from spontaneous emission to lasing and the effects of superradiant emitter coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinberg, S; Wolters, J; Schneider, C; Gies, C; Jahnke, F; Höfling, S; Kamp, M; Reitzenstein, S

    2016-01-01

    Measured and calculated results are presented on the emission properties of a new class of emitters operating in the cavity quantum electrodynamics regime. The structures are based on high-finesse GaAs/AlAs micropillar cavities, each with an active medium consisting of a layer of InGaAs quantum dots and distinguishing feature of having substantial fraction of spontaneous emission channeled into one cavity mode (high-beta factor). This paper shows that the usual criterion for lasing with a conventional (low-beta factor) cavity, a sharp nonlinearity in an input-output curve accompanied by noticeable linewidth narrowing, has to be reinforced by the equal-time second-order photon autocorrelation function for confirming lasing. It will also show that the equal-time second-order photon autocorrelation function is useful for recognizing superradiance, a manifestation of the correlations possible in high- microcavities operating with quantum dots. In terms of consolidating the collected data and identifying the physi...

  13. Q-factor of (In,Ga)N containing III-nitride microcavity grown by multiple deposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gačević, Ž., E-mail: gacevic@isom.upm.es; Calleja, E. [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rossbach, G.; Butté, R.; Glauser, M.; Levrat, J.; Cosendey, G.; Carlin, J.-F.; Grandjean, N. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Réveret, F. [Institut Pascal, UMR 6602 UBP/CNRS, Clermont Université, 24 Avenue des Landais, F-63177 Aubière Cedex (France)

    2013-12-21

    A 3λ/2 (In,Ga)N/GaN resonant cavity, designed for ∼415 nm operation, is grown by molecular beam epitaxy and is sandwiched between a 39.5-period (In,Al)N/GaN distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), grown on c-plane GaN-on-sapphire pseudo-substrate by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and an 8-period SiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} DBR, deposited by electron beam evaporation. Optical characterization reveals an improvement in the cavity emission spectral purity of approximately one order of magnitude due to resonance effects. The combination of spectrophotometric and micro-reflectivity measurements confirms the strong quality (Q)-factor dependence on the excitation spot size. We derive simple analytical formulas to estimate leak and residual absorption losses and propose a simple approach to model the Q-factor and to give a quantitative estimation of the weight of cavity disorder. The model is in good agreement with both transfer-matrix simulation and the experimental findings. We point out that the realization of high Q-factor (In,Ga)N containing microcavities on GaN pseudo-substrates is likely to be limited by the cavity disorder.

  14. Commercial Fastener Coatings Doerken

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Phosphating* *partly recommended Dip Spinning Dipping Spraying Spin coating Conveyor oven box oven Inductive drying Pretreatment Coating Preheating...Curing Cooling Application Techniques - Dip Spin Coating Gurtbnd Cross BarTranspo" Band beiCifteiE Vo12one Vent llated Pre .Zone Cros~ Bar T ransrt

  15. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  16. Surfaces, Coatings and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, I. F.

    1982-08-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramics, sputter ion plating, and sol-gel ceramic protective coatings for nuclear reactors are discussed. The influence of such coatings on the behavior of reactor fuel elements is noted. The investigation of such coatings by diffraction methods is described. Laser and nuclear microprobes, scanning transmission electron microscopes, neutron scattering, and image analysis are summarized.

  17. Hard and superhard nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J. [Univ. of West Bohemia, Plzen (Czech Republic). Dept. of Phys.

    2000-03-01

    This article reviews the development of hard coatings from a titanium nitride film through superlattice coatings to nanocomposite coatings. Significant attention is devoted to hard and superhard single layer nanocomposite coatings. A strong correlation between the hardness and structure of nanocomposite coatings is discussed in detail. Trends in development of hard nanocomposite coatings are also outlined. (orig.)

  18. Influence of the oxide aperture radius on the mode spectra of (Al,Ga)As vertical microcavities with electrically excited InP quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenfeld, S.; Schulz, W.-M.; Kessler, C. A.; Reischle, M.; Eichfelder, M.; Wiesner, M.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we report about mode characteristics of microcavity lasers with red-emitting InP quantum dots. The mode spectra and the quality factor of devices with different oxide aperture sizes are analyzed. The lateral mode confinement in the electrical devices is defined via oxide apertures. We found a good agreement between a simple analytical modeling of the mode structure and measurements, which allows to adjust the design of future devices. The quality factors show an analogous behavior as etched micropillars. The enhanced intensity of the higher order modes compared to the fundamental mode can be explained with the current density distribution within the device favoring higher order modes.

  19. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  20. Incorporation of the dopamine D2L receptor and bacteriorhodopsin within bicontinuous cubic lipid phases. 2. Relevance to in meso crystallization of integral membrane proteins in novel lipid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, Charlotte E.; Darmanin, Connie; Sagnella, Sharon M.; Mulet, Xavier; Greaves, Tamar L.; Varghese, Joseph N.; Drummond, Calum J.

    2014-09-24

    The dopamine D2 long (D2L) receptor and bacteriorhodopsin (bR), which are integral membraneproteins, have been incorporated within bicontinuous cubic mesophases formed by the lipids anandamide and H-farnesoyl monoethanolamide, which have been specifically investigated by us for use as in mesocrystallization media. We show that the incorporated membraneprotein affects the structure of the cubic phases with the particular effect observed dependent on the geometry of the underlying cubic phase. The results are complementary to those obtained in Part 1 of this series, where we demonstrated that the structural effects observed depend on the structure of the membraneprotein. Importantly protein concentrations commonly used for crystallization can destroy the cubic phase matrix, particularly where there is a large discrepancy between the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic spans of the membraneprotein, and the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domain sizes of the cubic phase.

  1. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this review is to describe some of the important topics related to the use of marine and protective coatings for anticorrosive purposes. In this context, "protective" refers to coatings for containers, offshore constructions, wind turbines, storage tanks, bridges, rail cars......, and petrochemical plants while "marine" refers to coatings for ballast tanks, cargo holds and cargo tanks, decks, and engine rooms on ships. The review aims at providing a thorough picture of state-of-the-art in anticorrosive coatings systems. International and national legislation aiming at reducing the emission...... of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...

  2. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  3. Silicon on-chip side-coupled high-Q micro-cavities for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal integrated sensors array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daquan; Wang, Chunhong; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Bo; Yang, Yujie; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-09-01

    A novel two-dimensional (2D) silicon (Si) photonic crystal (PC) α-H0-slot micro-cavity with high Q-factor and high sensitivity (S) is presented. Based on the proposed α-H0-Slot micro-cavities, an optimal design of photonic crystal integrated sensors array (PC-ISA) on monolithic silicon on insulator (SOI) is displayed. By using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the simulation results demonstrate that both large S of 200 nm/RIU (RIU=refractive index unit) and high Q-factor >104 at telecom wavelength range can be achieved simultaneously. And the sensor figure of merit (FOM)>7000 is featured, an order of magnitude improvement over previous 2D PC sensors array. In addition, for the proposed 2D PC-ISA device, each sensor unit is shown to independently shift its resonance wavelength in response to the changes in refractive index (RI) and does not perturb the others. Thus, it is potentially an ideal platform for realizing ultra-compact lab-on-a-chip applications with dense arrays of functionalized spots for multiplexed sensing, and also can be used as an opto-fluidic architecture for performing highly parallel detection of biochemical interactions in aqueous environments.

  4. Electrospark deposition coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely, W. F.

    1986-11-01

    Hard surfacing for wear resistant and low-friction coatings has been improved by means of advances in the computer controls in electronic circuitry of the electrospark deposition (ESD) process. coatings of nearly any electrically conductive metal alloy or cermet can be deposited on conductive materials. Thickness is usually two mils or less, but can be as high as 10 mils. ESD coatings can quadrupole cutting tool life.

  5. Oxide coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    Monolithic SiC heat exchangers and fiber-reinforced SiC-matrix composite heat exchangers and filters are susceptible to corrosion by alkali metals at elevated temperatures. Protective coatings are currently being developed to isolate the SiC materials from the corrodants. Unfortunately, these coatings typically crack and spall when applied to SiC substrates. The purpose of this task is to determine the feasibility of using a compliant material between the protective coating and the substrate. The low-modulus compliant layer could absorb stresses and eliminate cracking and spalling of the protective coatings.

  6. Superhard Nanocomposite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The recent development in the field of nanocomposite coatings with good mechanical properties is critically reviewed in this paper. The design principle and materials selection for the nanocomposite coatings are introduced. Different methods for the preparation of superhard nanocomposite coatings are described with emphasis on the magnetron sputtering. Based on recent theoretical and experimental results regarding the appearance of superhardness in nanocomposite coating, lattice parameter changes, crystallite size, microstructure and morphology are reviewed in detail. Also emphasized are the mechanical properties (especially on hardness) and the ways by which the properties are derived.

  7. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  8. Coated electroactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-08-30

    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  9. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has sign

  10. Coating of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as

  11. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically...... invisible polymer coatings....

  12. Chinese Decorative Coatings Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Growth prospects The Chinese market for decorative coatings, excluding non-architectural products such as industrial varnishes,marine paint and other industrially applied coatings, has been growing byaround 10% annually and was estimated to be worth Eurol.3 billion a year, with an annual per capita consumption of just less than 1 liter ofpaint.

  13. Nanostructured Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    stresses induce strain fatigue with subsequent formation of cracks. Cracking in coatings leads to materials failure observed physically as spallation or...elevated temperatures. In this test a hole is drilled into the substrate before coating it. This allows a fixed amount of air to be trapped at the

  14. InGaN multiple-quantum-well epifilms on GaN-sillicon substrates for microcavities and surface-emitting lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, June Key [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Park, Si Hyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Gu, Erdan; Watson, Ian; Dawson, Martin [University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    We report the processing of InGaN/GaN epifilms on GaN-silicon substrates. High-quality InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) were grown on GaN-silicon substrates, and their membranes were successfully fabricated using a selective wet etching of silicon followed by a dry etching of the AlGaN buffer layer. With atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, we investigated the physical and the optical properties of the InGaN/GaN MQWs membranes. On the InGaN/GaN MQW membranes, dielectric distributed Bragg reflector (DBRs) were successfully deposited, which give, new possibilities for use in GaN microcavity and surface-emitting laser fabrication.

  15. Optical bistability at 980 nm in a strained InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well microcavity with resonant periodic nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellat, D.; Azoulay, R.; Leroux, G.; Dugrand, L.; Raffle, Y.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Oudar, J. L.

    1993-05-01

    We report on a novel monolithic all-optical bistable device operating at 980 nm, based on the dispersive optical nonlinearity of strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells located at the antinodes of the microcavity optical field. This design maximizes the interaction with the intracavity field, and allowed the use of only twelve quantum wells of 10 nm thickness. The first observation of all-optical bistability with strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells is reported, with a contrast ratio of 7:1 and a threshold intensity of 1 kW/sq cm. The operating wavelength offers such key advantages as substrate transparency and compatibility with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers.

  16. Phenol-formaldehyde intumescent coating composition and coating prepared therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O. (Inventor); Fox, Bernard L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Intumescent coatings which form a thick, uniform, fine celled, low density foam upon exposure to a high intensity heat flux or flame are disclosed, the invention coatings comprise phenolic resin prepolymer containing a blowing agent and a nucleating agent; in the preferred embodiments the coatings also contains a silicone surfactant, the coatings are useful in thermal and fire protection systems.

  17. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  18. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, M. R.; Reardon, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of partially stabilized zirconia coatings plasma sprayed over a MCrAlY bond coat. Although these systems have excellent thermal shock properties, they have shown themselves to be deficient for a number of diesel and aircraft applications. Two ternary ceramic plasma coatings are discussed with respect to their possible use in TBC systems. Zirconia-ceria-yttria (ZCY) coatings were developed with low thermal conductivities, good thermal shock resistance and improved resistance to vanadium containing environments, when compared to the baseline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings. In addition, dense zirconia-titania-yttria (ZTY) coatings were developed with particle erosion resistance exceeding conventional stabilized zirconia coatings. Both coatings were evaluated in conjunction with a NiCr-Al-Co-Y2O3 bond coat. Also, multilayer or hybrid coatings consisting of the bond coat with subsequent coatings of zirconia-ceria-yttria and zirconia-titania-yttria were evaluated. These coatings combine the enhanced performance characteristics of ZCY with the improved erosion resistance of ZTY coatings. Improvement in the erosion resistance of the TBC system should result in a more consistent delta T gradient during service. Economically, this may also translate into increased component life simply because the coating lasts longer.

  19. Aluminum phosphate coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivan, Sankar; Steiner, Kimberly A.; Rangan, Krishnaswamy K.

    2007-12-25

    Aluminophosphate compounds and compositions as can be used for substrate or composite films and coating to provide or enhance, without limitation, planarization, anti-biofouling and/or anti-microbial properties.

  20. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  1. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  2. Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that deals with the nanostructured superhydrophobic (SH) powders developed at ORNL. This project seeks to (1) improve powder quality; (2) identify binders for plastics, fiberglass, metal (steel being the first priority), wood, and other products such as rubber and shingles; (3) test the coated product for coating quality and durability under operating conditions; and (4) application testing and production of powders in quantity.

  3. Spin coating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  4. Coated 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    alternative coatings qualified to MIL-PRE-23377 Class N and an electroplated zinc - nickel alloy passivated with a trivalent chromium solution which is...effect of a non-chromate primer and zinc - nickel plating with non-chromate passivation as alternatives to the chromate primer and cadmium plating with...NAWCADPAX/TR-2013/252 COATED 4340 STEEL by E. U. Lee C. Lei M. Stanley B. Pregger C. Matzdorf 26 August 2013

  5. Residual stresses within sprayed coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou

    2005-01-01

    Some important developments of residual stress researches for coating-based systems were studied. The following topics were included the sources of residual stresses in coatings: error analysis of Stoney's equation in the curvature method used for the measurement of coating residual stress, the modeling of residual stress and some analytical models for predicting the residual stresses in coatings. These topics should provide some important insights for the fail-safe design of the coating-based systems.

  6. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  7. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Olivares-Navarrete

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainless steel substrates and tissue culture plastic were also studied, in order to give comparative information. No toxic response was observed for any of the surfaces, indicating that the Nb coatings act as a biocompatible, bioinert material. Cell morphology was also studied by immune-fluorescence and the results confirmed the healthy state of the cells on the Nb surface. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating shows that the film is polycrystalline with a body centered cubic structure. The surface composition and corrosion resistance of both the substrate and the Nb coating were also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic tests. Water contact angle measurements showed that the Nb surface is more hydrophobic than the SS substrate.

  8. Handbook of optical microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Anthony H W

    2014-01-01

    An optical cavity confines light within its structure and constitutes an integral part of a laser device. Unlike traditional gas lasers, semiconductor lasers are invariably much smaller in dimensions, making optical confinement more critical than ever. In this book, modern methods that control and manipulate light at the micrometer and nanometer scales by using a variety of cavity geometries and demonstrate optical resonance from ultra-violet (UV) to infra-red (IR) bands across multiple material platforms are explored. The book has a comprehensive collection of chapters that cover a wide range

  9. 化学增强细菌视紫红质膜对高斯光束的自整形%Self-shaping of Gaussian Beam by Chemically Enhanced Bacteriorhodopsin Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 富光华; 等

    2002-01-01

    A CW Gaussian-beam illuminates a thin film of chemically enhanced bacteriorhodopsin (bR),and then strong self-defocusing of the Gaussian beam passing the bR film will be shown when the ilumination intensity is greater than 220 W/cm2 for the sample used.Owing to this effect,the self-shaping of Gasussian beam can be realized.The analyses show the incidentbeam intensity and the thickness and concentration of the bR film influence the transverse profile of the transmitted beam.%连续激光束照射化学增强的细菌视紫红质膜.当照射强度大于某一定值,光束产生强的自散焦效应.通过这个效应可以实现高斯光束的自整形.本文讨论了入射光以及bR膜的各项参数对透过光束强度的横向轮廓的影响.

  10. Controlled Thermal Expansion Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Aikin, Beverly J. M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A improved thermal barrier coating and method for producing and applying such is disclosed herein. The thermal barrier coating includes a high temperature substrate, a first bond coat layer applied to the substrate of MCrAlX, and a second bond coat layer of MCrAlX with particles of a particulate dispersed throughout the MCrAlX and the preferred particulate is Al2O3. The particles of the particulate dispersed throughout the second bond coat layer preferably have a diameter of less then the height of the peaks of the second bond coat layer, or a diameter of less than 5 microns. The method of producing the second bond coat layer may either include the steps of mechanical alloying of particles throughout the second bond coat layer, attrition milling the particles of the particulate throughout the second bond coat layer, or using electrophoresis to disperse the particles throughout the second bond coat layer. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the first bond coat layer is applied to the substrate, and then the second bond coat layer is thermally sprayed onto the first bond coat layer. Further, in a preferred embodiment of die invention, a ceramic insulating layer covers the second bond coat layer.

  11. Effect of Coated PHB on Properties of Abradable Seal Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xudong; XIANG Hongyu; YE Weiping; MENG Xiaoming; MIN Jie; LIU Minzhi; ZHANG Pu; LU Wei

    2014-01-01

    As pore-forming materials, the coated poly-p-hydroxybenzoate(short for PHB) and h-BN can be applied in the preparation of abradable seal coatings at high temperature. The characteristics of coating such as morphology, thermal stability and composition were studied by SEM, EDS and FTIR. The results show that the modified PHB will change the remained carbon amount, porosity and pore morphology of the coating, which can affect the properties of coatings. If the pore is small enough in uniform distribution, the coating with 5 MPa bond strength, 30-55 HR45Y superficial hardness and certain of carbon can be suitable to well abradability.

  12. Coatings for directional eutectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Coatings developed to provide oxidation protection for the directionally-solidified eutectic alloy NiTaC-B (4.4 weight percent Cr) were evaluated. Of seven Co-, Fe- and Ni-base coatings that were initially investigated, best resistance to cyclic oxidation was demonstrated by duplex coatings fabricated by depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam source followed by deposition of an Al overlayer using the pack cementation process. It was found that addition of carbon to the coating alloy substantially eliminated the problem of fiber denudation in TaC-type eutectic alloys. Burner rig cycled NiTaC-B samples coated with Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.1C-0.1Y+Al and rupture-tested at 1100 deg C performed as well as or better than uncoated, vacuum cycled and air-tested NiTaC-13; however, a slight degradation with respect to uncoated material was noted in air-stress rupture tests at 870 deg C for both cycled and uncycled samples.

  13. Based Adaptive Nanocomposite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, M.; Ashrafizadeh, F.; Mozaffarinia, R.

    2014-08-01

    A promising Ni(Al)-Cr2O3-Ag-CNT-WS2 self-lubricating wear-resistant coating was deposited via atmospheric plasma spray of Ni(Al), nano Cr2O3, nano silver and nano WS2 powders, and CNTs. Feedstock powders with various compositions prepared by spray drying were plasma sprayed onto carbon steel substrates. The tribological properties of coatings were tested by a high temperature tribometer in a dry environment from room temperature to 400 °C, and in a natural humid environment at room temperature. It was found that all nanocomposite coatings have better frictional behavior compared with pure Ni(Al) and Ni(Al)-Cr2O3 coatings; the specimen containing aproximately 7 vol.% Ag, CNT, and WS2 had the best frictional performance. The average room temperature friction coefficient of this coating was 0.36 in humid atmosphere, 0.32 in dry atmosphere, and about 0.3 at high temperature.

  14. Tribology and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The future use of fuel-efficient, low-emission, advanced transportation systems (for example, those using low-heat-rejection diesel engines or advanced gas turbines) presents new challenges to tribologists and materials scientists. High service temperatures, corrosive environments, and extreme contact pressures are among the concerns that make necessary new tribological designs, novel materials, and effective lubrication concepts. Argonne is working on methods to reduce friction, wear and corrosion, such as soft metal coatings on ceramics, layered compounds, diamond coatings, and hard surfaces.

  15. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means...... of improving the fixation of implants. Of these, hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used and most extensively investigated. HA is highly osseoconductive, and the positive effect is well documented in both basic and long-term clinical research [1–6]. This chapter describes experimental and clinical studies...... evaluating bone-implant fixation with HA coatings....

  16. Bioceramics for implant coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A Campbell

    2003-11-01

    Early research in this field focused on understanding the biomechanical properties of metal implants, but recent work has turned toward improving the biological properties of these devices. This has led to the introduction of calcium phosphate (CaP bioceramics as a bioactive interface between the bulk metal impart and the surrounding tissue. The first CaP coatings were produced via vapor phase processes, but more recently solution-based and biomimetic methods have emerged. While each approach has its own intrinsic materials and biological properties, in general CaP coatings promise to improve implant biocompatibility and ultimately implant longevity.

  17. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  18. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  19. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  20. Methods and means for coating paper by film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc; Ter Veer, Arend Berend Cornelis; Vrieling-Smit, Annet; Delnoye, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the field of paper coating, more in particular to means and methods for providing paper with at least one layer of pigment using film coating to obtain a well printable surface. Provided is a method for preparing coated paper comprising the steps of: a) providing a pigmente

  1. Optical coatings for fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Dong-mei; ZHU Zhen; YUE Wei

    2005-01-01

    Fiber laser is the future development direction for the high energy lasers. This paper describs two kinds of optical coatings for fiber laser, including long and short wave pass filters. The one characteristic of fiber laser coatings lies in that coatings should separate two closely wavelength light including laser pump wavelength (980 nm) and laser irradiation wavelength(1 050~1 100 nm). At the same time, the coatings should have high laser damage threshold.

  2. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    OpenAIRE

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-01-01

    Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic) materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1) Anti-reflection coatings, 2) Hard coatings, 3) Clean coat, 4) Mirror coatings, 5) Color tint coating (one of coloring processes), 6) Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes), and 7) Anti-fog...

  3. Tribological characterization of selected hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Hard coatings are often used for protection of tool surfaces due to coating properties like low friction and high wear resistance. Even though many of the hard coatings have been tested for wear, it is important to try new wear test setups to fully understand tribological mechanisms and the potential of hard coatings. Few experiments have been performed with dual-coated systems where the sliding contact surfaces are coated with the same, or different, hard coating. The dual-coated system coul...

  4. Chitin-based coatings

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    A chitosan starting material is combined with a dilute organic acid to produce a chitosonium ion complex. The chitosonium ion complex is then cast, sprayed, extruded, or otherwise processed to produce filaments, coatings, fibers, or the like. Heat is then used to convert the chitosonium ion complex into a N-(C.sub.1-30)acyl glucose amine polymer.

  5. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed in ...

  6. Regio-selective detection of dynamic structure of transmembrane alpha-helices as revealed from (13)C NMR spectra of [3-13C]Ala-labeled bacteriorhodopsin in the presence of Mn2+ ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzi, S; Hasegawa, J; Kawaminami, R; Naito, A; Saitô, H

    2001-07-01

    13C Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of [3-(13)C]Ala-labeled bacteriorhodopsin (bR) were edited to give rise to regio-selective signals from hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helices by using NMR relaxation reagent, Mn(2+) ion. As a result of selective suppression of (13)C NMR signals from the surfaces in the presence of Mn(2+) ions, several (13)C NMR signals of Ala residues in the transmembrane alpha-helices were identified on the basis of site-directed mutagenesis without overlaps from (13)C NMR signals of residues located near the bilayer surfaces. The upper bound of the interatomic distances between (13)C nucleus in bR and Mn(2+) ions bound to the hydrophilic surface to cause suppressed peaks by the presence of Mn(2+) ion was estimated as 8.7 A to result in the signal broadening to 100 Hz and consistent with the data based on experimental finding. The Ala C(beta) (13)C NMR peaks corresponding to Ala-51, Ala-53, Ala-81, Ala-84, and Ala-215 located around the extracellular half of the proton channel and Ala-184 located at the kink in the helix F were successfully identified on the basis of (13)C NMR spectra of bR in the presence of Mn(2+) ion and site-directed replacement of Ala by Gly or Val. Utilizing these peaks as probes to observe local structure in the transmembrane alpha-helices, dynamic conformation of the extracellular half of bR at ambient temperature was examined, and the local structures of Ala-215 and 184 were compared with those elucidated at low temperature. Conformational changes in the transmembrane alpha-helices induced in D85N and E204Q and its long-range transmission from the proton release site to the site around the Schiff base in E204Q were also examined.

  7. Near-field integration of a SiN nanobeam and a SiO$_2$ microcavity for Heisenberg-limited displacement sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Ryan; Ghadimi, Amir; Sudhir, Vivishek; Wilson, Dalziel J; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2016-01-01

    Placing a nanomechanical object in the evanescent near-field of a high-$Q$ optical microcavity gives access to strong gradient forces and quantum-noise-limited displacement readout, offering an attractive platform for precision sensing technology and basic quantum optics research. Robustly implementing this platform is challenging, however, as it requires separating optically smooth surfaces by $\\lesssim\\lambda/10$. Here we describe a fully-integrated evanescent opto-nanomechanical transducer based on a high-stress Si$_3$N$_4$ nanobeam monolithically suspended above a SiO$_2$ microdisk cavity. Employing a novel vertical integration technique based on planarized sacrificial layers, we achieve beam-disk gaps as little as 25 nm while maintaining mechanical $Q\\times f>10^{12}$ Hz and intrinsic optical $Q\\sim10^7$. The combined low loss, small gap, and parallel-plane geometry result in exceptionally efficient transduction, characterizing by radio-frequency flexural modes with vacuum optomechanical coupling rates o...

  8. Magnetic field effects on the Rabi splitting and radiative decay rates of the exciton-polariton states in a semiconductor microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenniche, H.; Jaziri, S.; Bennaceur, R.

    1998-12-01

    We study theoretically a particular type of semiconductor microcavity formed by a quantum well embedded inside it and the distributed Bragg reflectors presenting a gradual structure. We apply to this structure a static magnetic field along the growth direction. In the strong coupling regime between the confined exciton and cavity modes, we evaluate the polariton Rabi splitting corresponding to the two lowest lying exciton states: HH1-CB1 and HH2-CB2 as a function of the applied magnetic field. In high magnetic field and for distinct reflectivities, we find that the Rabi splitting magnitude of the HH2-CB2 exciton is close to the fundamental one (HH1-CB1). In the presence of the magnetic field, the polariton Rabi splitting can be obtained even in low reflectivity. The dispersion polariton radiative decay rates related to the two lowest lying exciton states: HH1-CB1 and HH2-CB2 are calculated for different magnetic field values. At k //=0 and in the weak coupling regime, the polariton radiative decay rates are evaluated for both the HH1-CB1 and HH2-CB2 excitons. We show that for the fundamental excitonic state, the magnetic field value which determines the transition from the weak to the strong coupling regime is different from the HH2-CB2 exciton state.

  9. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Drews, M. J.; Ellison, M. S.; Gantt, B. W.

    1989-01-01

    A process is being developed which evenly coats individual carbon fibers with thermoplastic polymers. In this novel, continuous coating process, the fiber tow bundle is first spread cover a series of convex rollers and then evenly coated with a fine powder of thermoplastic matrix polymer. Next, the fiber is heated internally by passing direct current through the powder coated fiber. The direct current is controlled to allow the carbon fiber temperature to slightly exceed the flow temperature of the matrix polymer. Analysis of the thermoplastic coated carbon fiber tows produced using this continuous process indicates that 30 to 70 vol pct fiber prepregs can be obtained.

  10. Coatings for improved corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1992-05-01

    Several coating approaches are being developed to resist attack in coal-fired environments and thereby minimize corrosion of underlying substrate alloys and extend the time for onset of breakaway corrosion. In general, coating systems can be classified as either diffusion or overlay type, which are distinguished principally by the method of deposition and the structure of the resultant coating-substrate bond. The coating techniques examined are pack cementation, electrospark deposition, physical and chemical vapor deposition, plasma spray, and ion implantation. In addition, ceramic coatings are used in some applications.

  11. Infrared optical coatings in SITP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ding-quan; ZHANG Feng-shan

    2005-01-01

    Infrared optical coatings in SITP (Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics) mainly cover the spectrum range from 0.7 μm to 15 μm, and visible and near-UV range are also been included. The coatings are mainly used for metal-reflectance mirrors, Anti-reflection(AR) lens and windows, filters, and dichroic beam splitters. Coatings passed some dependability tests. These optical coated devices usually consist in a remote observing instrument. Most coating materials are commercial products. And one kind of special material PbTe is made by ourselves. Some main results of our research department are reported.

  12. BIODEGRADABLE COATING FROM AGATHIS ALBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORYAWATI MULYONO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The adhesive property of copal makes it as a potential coating onto aluminum foil to replace polyethylene. This research aimed to develop copal-based coating. The coating was prepared by extracting the copal in ethyl acetate and dipping the aluminium foil in ethyl acetate soluble extract of copal. The characterization of coating included its thickness, weight, thermal and chemical resistance, and biodegradation. The results showed that the coating thickness and weight increased as the copal concentration and dipping frequency increased. Thermal resistance test showed that the coating melted after being heated at 110°C for 30 min. Copal-based coating wasresistant to acidic solution (pH 4.0, water, and coconut oil, but was deteriorated in detergent 1% (w/v and basic solution (pH 10.0. Biodegradability test using Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed weight reduction of 76.82% in 30 days.

  13. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  14. Flow accelerated organic coating degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qixin

    Applying organic coatings is a common and the most cost effective way to protect metallic objects and structures from corrosion. Water entry into coating-metal interface is usually the main cause for the deterioration of organic coatings, which leads to coating delamination and underfilm corrosion. Recently, flowing fluids over sample surface have received attention due to their capability to accelerate material degradation. A plethora of works has focused on the flow induced metal corrosion, while few studies have investigated the flow accelerated organic coating degradation. Flowing fluids above coating surface affect corrosion by enhancing the water transport and abrading the surface due to fluid shear. Hence, it is of great importance to understand the influence of flowing fluids on the degradation of corrosion protective organic coatings. In this study, a pigmented marine coating and several clear coatings were exposed to the laminar flow and stationary immersion. The laminar flow was pressure driven and confined in a flow channel. A 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution and pure water was employed as the working fluid with a variety of flow rates. The corrosion protective properties of organic coatings were monitored inline by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. Equivalent circuit models were employed to interpret the EIS spectra. The time evolution of coating resistance and capacitance obtained from the model was studied to demonstrate the coating degradation. Thickness, gloss, and other topography characterizations were conducted to facilitate the assessment of the corrosion. The working fluids were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and conductivity measurement. The influence of flow rate, fluid shear, fluid composition, and other effects in the coating degradation were investigated. We conclude that flowing fluid on the coating surface accelerates the transport of water, oxygen, and ions into the coating, as

  15. Photochromic mesoporous hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboin, L.; Matheron, M.; Gacoin, T.; Boilot, J.-P.

    2008-09-01

    Spirooxazine (SO) photochromic molecules were trapped in sol-gel matrices. In order to increase the colourability and improve mechanical properties of sol-gel photochromic films, we present an original strategy in which SO photochromic molecules were dispersed in mesoporous organized films using the impregnation technique. Well-ordered organosilicate mesoporous coatings with the 3D-hexagonal symmetry were prepared by the sol-gel technique. These robust mesoporous films, which contain high amounts of hydrophobic methyl groups at the pore surface, offer optimized environments for photochromic dyes dispersed by impregnation technique. After impregnation by a spirooxazine solution, the photochromic response is only slightly slower when compared with mesostructured or soft sol-gel matrices, showing that mesoporous organized hybrid matrix are good host for photochromic dyes. Moreover, the molecular loading in films is easily adjustable in a large range using multi-impregnation procedure and increasing the film thickness leading to coatings for optical switching devices.

  16. Permeability of edible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, B; Khatkar, B S; Garg, M K; Wilson, L A

    2010-01-01

    The permeabilities of water vapour, O2 and CO2 were determined for 18 coating formulations. Water vapour transmission rate ranged from 98.8 g/m(2).day (6% beeswax) to 758.0 g/m(2).day (1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose with glycerol). O2 permeability at 14 ± 1°C and 55 ± 5% RH ranged from 1.50 to 7.95 cm(3)cm cm(-2)s(-1)Pa(-1), with CO2 permeability 2 to 6 times as high. Permeability to noncondensable gases (O2 and CO2) was higher for hydrophobic (peanut oil followed by beeswax) coatings as compared to hydrophilic (whey protein concentrate and carboxymethyl cellulose).

  17. Permeability of edible coatings

    OpenAIRE

    B Mishra; Khatkar, B. S.; Garg, M. K.; Wilson, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    The permeabilities of water vapour, O2 and CO2 were determined for 18 coating formulations. Water vapour transmission rate ranged from 98.8 g/m2.day (6% beeswax) to 758.0 g/m2.day (1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose with glycerol). O2 permeability at 14 ± 1°C and 55 ± 5% RH ranged from 1.50 to 7.95 cm3cm cm−2s−1Pa−1, with CO2 permeability 2 to 6 times as high. Permeability to noncondensable gases (O2 and CO2) was higher for hydrophobic (peanut oil followed by beeswax) coatings as compared to hydrop...

  18. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  19. Design of optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel, Claus W.

    1990-08-01

    A highly sophisticated antireflection coating and a cut-on-filter - designed by the Leitz program "RDP" - will be pointed out. The program runs on a VAX 8530 and allows to calculate reflectance, transmittance and phase of randomly polarized light which interacts with marginal surfaces. The number of layers is not limited. Some or even all layers are allowed to be anistropic. Up to four layers may be inhomogeneous both in refractive indices and absorption constants. At a time two thicknesses, two refractive indices and absorption constants as well as the angles of incidence may be varied independently in each run. The calculated values will be compared with the results of measurements. The antireflection coating is evaporated in a Balzers high vacuum evaporation plant, controlled by the process unit BPU 420, whereas the cut-on filter is evaporated in a Leybold box coater with Leycom III and two electron-beam guns.

  20. Thermal barrier coating materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Clarke

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved thermal barrier coatings (TBCs will enable future gas turbines to operate at higher gas temperatures. Considerable effort is being invested, therefore, in identifying new materials with even better performance than the current industry standard, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ. We review recent progress and suggest that an integrated strategy of experiment, intuitive arguments based on crystallography, and simulation may lead most rapidly to the development of new TBC materials.

  1. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  2. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2016-04-19

    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  3. High-temperature protective coatings on superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培生; 梁开明; 周宏余

    2002-01-01

    Protective coatings are essential for superalloys to serve as blades of gas turb ines at high temperatures, and they primarily include aluminide coating, MCrAlY overlay coating, thermal barrier coating and microcrystalline coating. In this paper, all these high-temperature coatings are reviewed as well as their preparing techniques. Based on the most application and the main failure way, the importance is then presented for further deepgoing study on the high-temperature oxidation law of aluminide coatings.

  4. The Substitution of a Super Black Fixed Micro-Object for an Optical Microcavity in a Delayed Choice Experiment to Send Information Immediately Between 2 Paired Particles: Simplifying the Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    An experiment has been described that relies on a delayed choice for an idler photon that immediately affects the signal photon with which it is at least initially entangled and for which the idler photon provides which-way information. The delayed choice concerns whether to maintain or eliminate the entanglement before any measurements are made. In one option of the delayed choice, the entanglement can be eliminated because the relevant state of the idler photon related to its entanglement is eliminated when the idler photon enters an optical microcavity filled with photons with the same mode as the incoming idler photon. The microcavity is located at the crossroads of two possible idler photon paths. The relevant state of the idler photon characterizes the particular path taken by the photon and this information is eliminated when the particle enters the cavity. Over a number of runs with this choice, the distribution of the paired signal photons shows interference. If the entanglement is maintained, the distribution of the paired signal photons shows which-way information. This experiment can be simplified by using a super black material (e.g., Vantablack) affixed to a fixed micro-object located at the crossroads of the two possible idler photon paths instead of the optical microcavity. The photon would be absorbed by the material and there would be no way to detect from which direction it came. Objects such as fixed mirrors in a Mach Zehnder interferometer do not provide ww information. The super black fixed micro-object should not either.

  5. A New Coating Process for Production of Coated Magnesium Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-16

    TGA data for magnesium hydroxide content. TGA analysis of the as-coated powders is a reproducible and accurate method for the determination of... TGA analysis of the as-coated powder, there is approximately 3wt% magnesium hydroxide present in the material due to the process variation compared...11: Magnesium hydroxide content as measured by TGA analysis for the 1-lb batches of as-coated ground powder Figure 12: Nitrometer analysis of

  6. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  7. Dense protective coatings, methods for their preparation and coated articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulyani, Sonia; Bhatia, Tania; Smeggil, John G.

    2015-12-29

    A method for depositing a protective coating on a complex shaped substrate includes the steps of: (1) dipping a complex shaped substrate into a slurry to form a base coat thereon, the slurry comprising an aqueous solution, at least one refractory metal oxide, and at least one transient fluid additive present in an amount of about 0.1 percent to 10 percent by weight of the slurry; (2) curing the dipped substrate; (3) dipping the substrate into a precursor solution to form a top barrier coat thereon; and (4) heat treating the dipped, cured substrate to form a protective coating.

  8. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and requirements will be discussed. An experimental approach is established to monitor in real time the thermal conductivity of the coating systems subjected to high-heat-flux, steady-state and cyclic temperature gradients. Advanced low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have also been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability. The durability and erosion resistance of low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have been improved utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, in conjunction with more sophisticated modeling and design tools.

  9. Pipeline integrity : control by coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation provided background information on the history of cross-country pipelines in India. It discussed the major use of gas. The key users were described as being the power and fertilizer industries, followed by vehicles using compressed natural gas to replace liquid fuels and thereby reduce pollution. The presentation also addressed the integrity of pipelines in terms of high production, safety, and monitoring. Integrity issues of pipelines were discussed with reference to basic design, control of corrosion, and periodic health monitoring. Other topics that were outlined included integrity by corrosion control; integrity by health monitoring; coatings requirements; classification of UCC pipeline coatings; and how the pipeline integrity approach can help to achieve coatings which give design life without any failure. Surface cleanliness, coating conditions, and the relationship between temperature of Epoxy coating and the time of adhesive coating were also discussed. Last, the presentation provided the results of an audit of the HBJ pipeline conducted from 1999 to 2000. tabs., figs.

  10. Functional Coatings with Polymer Brushes

    OpenAIRE

    König, Meike

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this work is to fathom different possibilities to create functional coatings with polymer brushes. The immobilization of nanoparticles and enzymes is investigated, as well as the affection of their properties by the stimuli-responsiveness of the brushes. Another aspect is the coating of 3D-nanostructures by polymer brushes and the investigation of the resulting functional properties of the hybrid material. The polymer brush coatings are characterized by a variety of microscopic a...

  11. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  12. Protective coatings on extensible biofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Fantner, Georg E.; Hohlbauch, Sophia; Waite, J. Herbert; Zok, Frank W.

    2007-09-01

    Formulating effective coatings for use in nano- and biotechnology poses considerable technical challenges. If they are to provide abrasion resistance, coatings must be hard and adhere well to the underlying substrate. High hardness, however, comes at the expense of extensibility. This property trade-off makes the design of coatings for even moderately compliant substrates problematic, because substrate deformation easily exceeds the strain limit of the coating. Although the highest strain capacity of synthetic fibre coatings is less than 10%, deformable coatings are ubiquitous in biological systems. With an eye to heeding the lessons of nature, the cuticular coatings of byssal threads from two species of marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Perna canaliculus, have been investigated. Consistent with their function to protect collagenous fibres in the byssal-thread core, these coatings show hardness and stiffness comparable to those of engineering plastics and yet are surprisingly extensible; the tensile failure strain of P. canaliculus cuticle is about 30% and that of M. galloprovincialis is a remarkable 70%. The difference in extensibility is attributable to the presence of deformable microphase-separated granules within the cuticle of M. galloprovincialis. The results have important implications in the design of bio-inspired extensible coatings.

  13. Corrosion behavior of duplex coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raghu Ram Mohan Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The titanium alloys are used in defense, aerospace, automobile, chemical plants and biomedical applications due to their very high strength and lightweight properties. However, corrosion is a life-limiting factor when Ti alloys are exposed to different chemical environments at high temperatures. In the present paper, duplex NiCrAlY/WC–Co coating is coated onto Ti6Al4V substrate to investigate the corrosion behavior of both coated samples and the substrate. The duplex coating was performed with NiCrAlY as the intermediate coat of 200 μm thickness deposited by HVOF process and WC–Co ceramic top coat with varying thicknesses of 250 μm, 350 μm and 450 μm deposited by DS process. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were employed to investigate the corrosion performance of duplex coated samples and substrate in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C and pH value was set to 5.7. Finally the results reveal that 350 μm thick coated samples showed highest corrosion resistance compared to 250 μm thick samples as well as bare substrate. However, the 450 μm thick coated sample showed poor corrosion resistance compared to the substrate. The scale formed on the samples upon corrosion was characterized by using SEM analysis to understand the degree of corrosion behavior.

  14. Coatings Technology Integration Office (CTIO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CTIO serves as the Air Force's central resource for aircraft coating systems and their applications. CTIO's primary objectives are pollution prevention and improved...

  15. Electrochemically switchable polypyrrole coated membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, Claudia, E-mail: weidlich@dechema.d [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mangold, Klaus-Michael [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    A method for coating membranes with polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed. Different membranes, such as microfiltration as well as ion exchanger membranes have been coated with PPy to yield electrical conductivity of the membranes. The coated membranes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy and their permeability and permselectivity have been tested. The results show that PPy can be tailored as cation or anion exchanger and its porosity can be controlled to avoid any impairment of the membrane by the polymer layer. These PPy coated membranes can be applied as electrochemically switchable, functionalised membranes with controllabel and variable separation properties.

  16. Studies on Nanocomposite Conducting Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite conducting coatings can impart stable surface electrical conductivity on the substrate. In this paper, carbon nanofiber (CNF and nanographite (NG are dispersed in thermoplastic polyurethane matrix and coated on the surface of glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET film. The nanoparticles dispersion was studied under TEM. The coating thicknesses were estimated. Further, their resistance and impedance were measured. It has been observed that the 5 wt% CNF dispersed nanocomposite coatings show good conductivity. The use of NG can bring down the amount of CNF; however, NG alone has failed to show significant improvement in conductivity. The nanocomposite coating on PET film using 2.5 wt% of both CNF and NG gives frequency-independent impedance which indicates conducting network formation by the nanoparticles. The study was carried out at different test distances on nanocomposite coated PET films to observe the linearity and continuity of the conducting network, and the result shows reasonable linearity in impedance over total test length (from 0.5 cm to 4.5 cm. The impedance of nanocomposite coatings on glass is not frequency independent and also not following linear increase path with distance. This indicates that the dispersion uniformity is not maintained in the coating solution when it was coated on glass.

  17. Near-Field Integration of a SiN Nanobeam and a SiO2 Microcavity for Heisenberg-Limited Displacement Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, R.; Schütz, H.; Ghadimi, A. H.; Sudhir, V.; Wilson, D. J.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    2016-05-01

    Placing a nanomechanical object in the evanescent near field of a high-Q optical microcavity gives access to strong gradient forces and quantum-limited displacement readout, offering an attractive platform for both precision sensing technology and basic quantum optics research. Robustly implementing this platform is challenging, however, as it requires integrating optically smooth surfaces separated by ≲λ /10 . Here we describe an exceptionally high-cooperativity, single-chip optonanomechanical transducer based on a high-stress Si3N4 nanobeam monolithically integrated into the evanescent near field of SiO2 microdisk cavity. Employing a vertical integration technique based on planarized sacrificial layers, we realize beam-disk gaps as little as 25 nm while maintaining mechanical Q f >1012 Hz and intrinsic optical Q ˜107. The combination of low loss, small gap, and parallel-plane geometry results in radio-frequency flexural modes with vacuum optomechanical coupling rates of 100 kHz, single-photon cooperativities in excess of unity, and large zero-point frequency (displacement) noise amplitudes of 10 kHz (fm )/√ Hz . In conjunction with the high power-handling capacity of SiO2 and low extraneous substrate noise, the transducer performs particularly well as a sensor, with recent deployment in a 4-K cryostat realizing a displacement imprecision 40 dB below that at the standard quantum limit (SQL) and an imprecision-backaction product oscillators and suggest an alternative platform for functionally integrated "hybrid" quantum optomechanics.

  18. Mold and Crucible Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-28

    34;" -"""-"’" " " ""’’ "" "" ’"" ’ j * AD I. AT)-E 9 7 W CONTRACTOR REPORT ARCCD-CR-86007 MOLD AND CRUCIBLE COATINGS Sylvia J. Canino Arthur L. Geary Nuclear...IFnlRpr April 1984_-_December 198, .. AUTNORfo) S. CONTRACT on CRAM? # "I MWef(e)I Sylvia J. Canino and Arthur L. Geary DAAK1O-84-C-0056 PERFORMING

  19. USAF Inorganic Coating Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    in2 (Marginal Fail) 7 or more pits were seen in a total of 30 in2 (Fail) Aluminum CFCC Screening Test Results Conversion Coating Alloy OC-ALC... 6061 168+ Hours 7075 168+ Hours 2024 48 Hours 5052 48-72 Hours 72-168+ Hours (5 pits on one panel at 48 hours, but then no more ) 6061 72...Dichromate Sealer Test Results Sealer Substrate Quality Thickness Corrosion Primer Dry Tape Adhesion Wet Tape Adhesion Baseline 1 Al 2024-T3 PASS

  20. Thermal Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-31

    within 2 minutes for the No. 4. Sodiurn silicate was tested with alumnnunm hydroxide, nerlite, vermiculite and borax filler systems. None of the systems...1.27 cm) thick, 3/16 inch (0.48 cm) cell size, 5.5 lbs/ft 3 (88.1 kg/m 3 ) glass/phenolic honey - p comib set into the fire retardant maLerial. The sheets...COATING SPECIMEN PERCENT BY WEIGHT THICKNESS WEIGHT ANO. MATRIX FILLrR 1’fLS (CM) LBS/FT. (kg,’-), 26 50% Shell 828 Epoxy Resin Borax - 54 (.14) .39

  1. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  2. Dry coating, a novel coating technology for solid pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanfeng; Zhu, Jesse; Ma, Yingliang; Zhang, Hui

    2008-06-24

    Dry coating is a coating technology for solid pharmaceutical dosage forms derived from powder coating of metals. In this technology, powdered coating materials are directly coated onto solid dosage forms without using any solvent, and then heated and cured to form a coat. As a result, this technology can overcome such disadvantages caused by solvents in conventional liquid coating as serious air pollution, high time- and energy-consumption and expensive operation cost encountered by liquid coating. Several dry coating technologies, including plasticizer-dry-coating, electrostatic-dry-coating, heat-dry-coating and plasticizer-electrostatic-heat-dry-coating have been developed and extensively reported. This mini-review summarized the fundamental principles and coating processes of various dry coating technologies, and thoroughly analyzed their advantages and disadvantages as well as commercialization potentials.

  3. Alternative HTS coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaugher, R. D.; Bhattacharya, R. N.; Chen, J.; Padmanabhan, R.

    2002-10-01

    The availability of Bi-2223 high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) powder-in-tube (PIT) tape, with acceptable performance for long lengths, has provided the ability to construct a wide range of HTS electric power components. As a result, there are major worldwide projects in developing HTS electric power components for demonstration in a utility environment. Utility acceptance for superconducting power equipment will depend on several key factors: improved system performance, lower life-cycle costs, higher efficiency versus conventional technology, reliability and maintenance comparable to conventional power equipment, and a competitive installed cost. The latter is impacted by the current high cost of HTS conductors, which must be lowered to costs comparable to conventional Nb-Ti wire, i.e., $2-5/kAm. The present performance and cost of state-of-the-art Bi-2223 HTS tape, although acceptable for prototype construction, is viewed as a major deterrent that may compromise eventual commercialization for most of these electric power devices. The so-called second-generation coated conductor development, with emphasis on conductors employing HTS YBCO films, is viewed as the solution to this performance and cost issue. The potential for the Tl, Hg, and Bi-oxide superconductors for producing an HTS tape as alternatives to Bi-2223 PIT (and YBCO) will be discussed with some recent results on Bi-2212 “coated conductor” development.

  4. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  5. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  6. POWDER COATINGS: A TECHNOLOGY REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1995, surface coatings accounted for nearly 2.55 million Mg of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions nationally, which is more than 12% of VOC emissions from all sources. In recent years, powder coatings have been steadily gaining popularity as an alternative to solvent-bo...

  7. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach....

  8. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  9. Bright Prospects for Fluorine Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Fluorine coatings are a category of new coatings with fluorine-containing resins as the major film forming substances.They have excellent weather resistance,solvent resistance, acid/alkali resistance, no toxicity and no hazards,and they contribute to film stability.

  10. Intumescent coatings under fast heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere

    2012-01-01

    Intumescent coatings are widely used to delay or minimise the destructive effects of fire. They are usually tested under conditions that simulate the relatively slow build-up of heat in a normal fire. Here, the effects of damage during a fire causing sudden heating of the coating were studied....

  11. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating material

  12. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture abso

  13. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland;

    2009-01-01

    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates...... and still to realize Si-Si bonding. It has been demonstrated that ribbed silicon plates can be produced and assembled into stacks. All previously work has been done using uncoated Si plates. In this paper we describe how to coat the ribbed Si plates with an Ir coating and a top C coating through a mask so...

  14. Dynamic residual stress in thermal sprayed coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhiping; Yang Yuanyuan

    2005-01-01

    With the modified Almen method, the forming and development process of residual stress in a thermal sprayed coating has been obtained. The test results identify that the residual stress in a coating is depend on coating material properties, technique and coating thickness. The paper pays much attention to the hysteresis between the coating temperature and residual stress in the coating or between the applied stress and the strain of the coating, and confirms that the fact is resulted from the"Gas Fix" character of a thermal sprayed coating.

  15. Tribological Performance of Coated Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth Holmberg; Anssi Laukkanen

    2004-01-01

    The fundamentals of coating tribology is presented in a generalised holistic approach to friction and wear mechanisms of coated surfaces in dry sliding contacts. It is based on a classification of the tribological contact process into macromechanical, micromechanical, tribochemical contact mechanisms and material transfer. The tribological contact process is dominated by the macromechanical mechanisms, which have been systematically analysed by using four main parameters: the coating-to-substrate hardness relationship, the film thickness, the surface roughness and the debris in the contact. In this paper special attention is given to the microlevel mechanisms, and in particular new techniques for modelling the elastic, plastic and brittle behaviour of the surface by finite element (FEM) computer simulations. The contact condition with a sphere sliding over a plate coated with a very thin hard coating is analysed. A three dimensional FEM model has been developed for calculating the first principal stress distribution in the scratch tester contact of a diamond spherical tip moving with increased load on a 2 μm thick titanium nitride (TiN) coated steel surface. The model is comprehensive in that sense that it considers elastic, plastic and fracture behaviour of the contact surfaces. By identifying from a scratch experiment the location of the first crack and using this as input data can the fracture toughness of the coating be determined.

  16. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  17. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  18. Inhomogeneous interface laser mirror coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, A M

    1979-09-01

    Methods of improving the durability of thin-film laser mirror coatings for 10.6 microm using thorium fluoride, zinc selenide, and zinc sulfide materials have been investigated. The largest improvement in film durability was obtained by using inhomogeneous interface fabrication for all the dielectric-dielectric interfaces and by incorporating cerium fluoride protective overcoating material into the film design. Experimental results are given for enhanced reflectors, polarization-selective coatings, and buried-grating aperture-sharing coatings designed for high-power laser applications.

  19. Laser-based coatings removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A. [F2 Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D&D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings.

  20. A novel trilayer antireflection coating using dip-coating technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Xu; Yi Yin; Haiming Ma; Hui Ye; Xu Liu

    2011-01-01

    We report a new structure for broadband antireflection coating by dip-coating technique,which has minimal cost and is compatible with large-scale manufacturing.The coatings are prepared by depositing SiO2 sol-gel film on a glass substrate,subsequently depositing SiO2 single-layer particle coating through electrostatic attraction,and depositing a final very thin Si02 sol-gel film to improve the mechanical strength of the whole coating structure.The refractive index of the structure changes gradually from the top to the substrate.The transmittance of a glass substrate has been experimentally found to be improved in the spectral range of 400-1400 nn and in the incidence angle range from 0° to at least 45°.The mechanical strength is immensely improved because of the additional thin Si02 sol-gel layer.The surface texture can be applied to the substrates of different materials and shapes as an add-on coating.

  1. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible i

  2. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  3. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.

    1994-01-01

    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings...... of alumina and zirconia on SiC particulates by sol-gel techniques. Aqueous and organic precursors have been used. The extent of the reaction, i.e., the Si and Al4C3 content in the matrix, was determined by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The reaction rates of some coated particulates...... in liquid Al are decreased by as much as one order of magnitude during the first 15 min of immersion. Pretreatments of the SiC surface, the composition and thickness of the coating interphase and heat treatments of the coated materials have been studied, and are discussed in relation to their effect...

  4. DLC coatings for hydraulic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca NOBILI; Luca MAGAGNIN

    2009-01-01

    Replacement of lubricating oils with water or low-viscosity fluids is highly desirable in many industrial fields, on account of the environmental and economical advantages. Low lubricity of water might be insufficient for proper operation of hydraulic components, and diamond-like carbon(DLC) coatings are very attractive as solid lubricant films. A remote-plasma PACVD process was utilized to deposit hydrogenated DLC coatings (a-C:H) on different substrates. Microindentation measurements show that the coating hardness is around 35 GPa. Tribological behavior was evaluated by block-on-ring tests performed in water and water with alumina. The wear rate was calculated after measuring the wear volume by a laser profilemeter. Morphological and compositional analysis of the wear tracks reveal that coating failure may occur by abrasive wear or delamination, depending on the substrate properties. Hard and smooth substrates give the best results and dispersed alumina particles increase the wear rate.

  5. Corrosion-resistant metallic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Presuel-Moreno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe recent computational and experimental studies on the corrosion properties of metallic coatings that can be tailored (tuned to deliver up to three corrosion-inhibiting functions to an underlying substrate. Attributes are tuned by a selection of alloy compositions and nanostructures, ideally in alloy systems that offer flexibility of choice to optimize the corrosion-resisting properties. An amorphous Al-based coating is tuned for corrosion protection by on-demand release of ionic inhibitors to protect defects in the coating, by formation of an optimized barrier to local corrosion in Cl− containing environments, as well as by sacrificial cathodic prevention. Further progress in this field could lead to the design of the next generation of adaptive or tunable coatings that inhibit corrosion of underlying substrates.

  6. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  7. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  8. Low Temperature Cure Powder Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    within the JTP. These requirements included a final coating thickness range, a minimum product shelf life, and finished surface quality as measured...additional drawbacks of PC technology. Technology innovations such as Ultraviolet ( UV ) curable powders, which are not constrained by physical oven size due... Thickness Film thickness measurements were also taken from the same color measurement locations across each component’s coated surface. During field

  9. Hermetic Coating of Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    of 450A/min. A number of bulk samples were coated with a-C:H including microscope slides, NaCl plates, ZBLAN fluoride glass and sapphire blanks. IR...deposition were identified. Bulk NaCl, sapphire and glass samples coated with - 1 micron thick films were tested analytically. With the information gathered...1.0 INTRODUCTION: The surface of a freshly drawn glass fiber while seemingly smooth has many imperfections which when under stress, can grow and

  10. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  11. Corrosion-resistant metallic coatings

    OpenAIRE

    F. Presuel-Moreno; M.A. Jakab; N. Tailleart; Goldman, M.; J. R. Scully

    2008-01-01

    We describe recent computational and experimental studies on the corrosion properties of metallic coatings that can be tailored (tuned) to deliver up to three corrosion-inhibiting functions to an underlying substrate. Attributes are tuned by a selection of alloy compositions and nanostructures, ideally in alloy systems that offer flexibility of choice to optimize the corrosion-resisting properties. An amorphous Al-based coating is tuned for corrosion protection by on-demand release of ionic i...

  12. Material Science Smart Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, A. I. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Sabirianov, R. F. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the nonlocal electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics depends nonmonotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic, εC. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate εC below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO2 or Ta2O5). This is in contrast to classical (local) consideration of the solvent, which demonstrates an unfavorable electrostatic interaction of protein with typical metal oxide ceramic materials (εC>10). Thus, a solid implant coated by combining oxide ceramic with a reduced dielectric constant can be beneficial to strengthen the electrostatic binding of the protein-implant complex.

  13. Composite hydrophilic coating for conditioner aluminum fins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    To solve the so-called "white rust" and 'water bridge" problems of the aluminum fins for heat exchanger of automobile air conditioner, aimed at nationalizing the art of hydrophilic coating technology, the choice of coating forming and curing materials was investigated. By measuring the water contact angle, SEM surface scanning and ingredients analysis of the coating, optimal parameters and composition are acquired. The coating forming mechanisms of the composition was also expatiated. The coating obtained has good hydrophilic and other properties.

  14. Switchable antifouling coatings and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Michele L. Baca; Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross Stefan

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to antifouling coatings capable of being switched by using heat or ultraviolet light. Prior to switching, the coating includes an onium cation component having antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Upon switching, the coating is converted to a conjugated polymer state, and the cationic component is released with any adsorbed biofilm layer. Thus, the coatings herein have switchable and releasable properties. Methods of making and using such coatings are also described.

  15. Coating, Titanium Dioxide and Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Aohan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this bachelor’s thesis is to get basic ideas about coating and a deep understanding of properties of titanium dioxide pigments as well as their application and performance in solar electricity energy technology. This thesis consists of three main parts, eight chapters. The first part is about basic knowledge of coating and tests of coated paper. Coating pigments are generally introduced in the part. In the second part, coating additives are introduced in details from ...

  16. Graphene: corrosion-inhibiting coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Dhiraj; Tuberquia, Juan Carlos; Harl, Robert R; Jennings, G Kane; Rogers, Bridget R; Bolotin, Kirill I

    2012-02-28

    We report the use of atomically thin layers of graphene as a protective coating that inhibits corrosion of underlying metals. Here, we employ electrochemical methods to study the corrosion inhibition of copper and nickel by either growing graphene on these metals, or by mechanically transferring multilayer graphene onto them. Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that the graphene coating effectively suppresses metal oxidation and oxygen reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that while graphene itself is not damaged, the metal under it is corroded at cracks in the graphene film. Finally, we use Tafel analysis to quantify the corrosion rates of samples with and without graphene coatings. These results indicate that copper films coated with graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition are corroded 7 times slower in an aerated Na(2)SO(4) solution as compared to the corrosion rate of bare copper. Tafel analysis reveals that nickel with a multilayer graphene film grown on it corrodes 20 times slower while nickel surfaces coated with four layers of mechanically transferred graphene corrode 4 times slower than bare nickel. These findings establish graphene as the thinnest known corrosion-protecting coating.

  17. Polyester based hybrid organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiang

    Polyesters are a class of polymers widely used in organic coatings applications. In this work, four types of organic coatings based on polyester polyols were prepared: UV-curable polyester/poly(meth)acrylate coatings, thermal curable polyester polyurethane-urea coatings, thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings, and UV-curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Polyester/poly(meth)acrylate block copolymers are synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). All block copolymers are characterized by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). In the case of unsaturated-polyester-based block copolymers the main chain double bond in the polyester backbone remains almost unaffected during ATRP. The unsaturated block copolymers are crosslinkable and can form networks upon photo-irradiation in the presence of a suitable photoinitiator. These copolymers might be interesting candidates for coatings with better overall properties than those based on neat polyesters. Thermal curable polyester polyol based Polyurethane-Urea (PUU) coatings were formulated using Partially Blocked HDI isocyanurate (PBH), Isophorone Diamine (IPDA), and polyester polyol. As a comparison, the polyurethane coatings (PU) without adding IPDA were also prepared. The mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the PUU and PU coating were investigated by using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyzer (DMTA). It was found that PUU coating exhibited higher crosslink density, Tg, tensile modulus and strength than the corresponding PU coating. Thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings were prepared by using polyamine and cyclic carbonate terminated polyester. Cyclic carbonate terminated polyester was synthesized from the reaction of the carbon dioxide and epoxidized polyester which was prepared from the polyester polyol. The properties of the epoxidized and cyclic carbonate

  18. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  19. Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Duncan, Peter; Coupland, Duncan; Rigali, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist oxidation at high temperatures. The metal coats would contribute to oxidation resistance by keeping atmospheric oxygen away from fibers when cracks form in the matrices. Other processes that have been used to coat carbon fibers with metals have significant disadvantages: Metal-vapor deposition processes yield coats that are nonuniform along both the lengths and the circumferences of the fibers. The electrical resistivities of carbon fibers are too high to be compatible with electrolytic processes. Metal/organic vapor deposition entails the use of expensive starting materials, it may be necessary to use a furnace, and the starting materials and/or materials generated in the process may be hazardous. The present process does not have these disadvantages. It yields uniform, nonporous coats and is relatively inexpensive. The process can be summarized as one of pretreatment followed by electroless deposition. The process consists of the following steps: The surfaces of the fiber are activated by deposition of palladium crystallites from a solution. The surface-activated fibers are immersed in a solution that contains platinum. A reducing agent is used to supply electrons to effect a chemical reduction in situ. The chemical reduction displaces the platinum from the solution. The displaced platinum becomes deposited on the fibers. Each platinum atom that has been deposited acts as a catalytic site for the deposition of another platinum atom. Hence, the deposition process can also be characterized as autocatalytic. The thickness of the deposited metal can be tailored via the duration of immersion and the chemical activity of the solution.

  20. Kinetic regulation of coated vesicle secretion

    CERN Document Server

    Foret, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    The secretion of vesicles for intracellular transport often rely on the aggregation of specialized membrane-bound proteins into a coat able to curve cell membranes. The nucleation and growth of a protein coat is a kinetic process that competes with the energy-consuming turnover of coat components between the membrane and the cytosol. We propose a generic kinetic description of coat assembly and the formation of coated vesicles, and discuss its implication to the dynamics of COP vesicles that traffic within the Golgi and with the Endoplasmic Reticulum. We show that stationary coats of fixed area emerge from the competition between coat growth and the recycling of coat components, in a fashion resembling the treadmilling of cytoskeletal filaments. We further show that the turnover of coat components allows for a highly sensitive switching mechanism between a quiescent and a vesicle producing membrane, upon a slowing down of the exchange kinetics. We claim that the existence of this switching behaviour, also tri...