WorldWideScience

Sample records for bacteriology

  1. Bacteriology of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van H.W.

    1964-01-01

    The bacteriology and biochemistry of activated sludge grown in domestic waste water or fed with synthetic media were studied. The nature of the flocs was investigated by determining morphological and physiological characteristics of many strains isolated.

    Predominant bacteria were

  2. Bacteriological studies off Mangalore coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Bacteriological studies of sediment and water in the near shore region off Mangalore showed that both limnotolerant and halotolerant bacteria were present. Significant inter-correlation (quantitative and qualitative) could be noted between various...

  3. Bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozere, I.; Sele, A.; Ozolina, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis in children and adults is a growing problem with important public health implications. In Latvia the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in children up to age 14 has increased from 7,1 per 100000 in 1992 to 28,8 per 100000 in 2003. The diagnosis of TB is confirmed by isolation and identification of M. tuberculosis (MT) from clinical specimen. Confirmation of the disease, however, is difficult in children due to poor bacilli excretion and even under the best circumstances only about 30-40% of pediatric TB cases are proved bacteriologically. Of the 370 pediatric TB cases diagnosed between January 1, 2001 and December 1, 2003 in Latvia, 53 (14,3%) were confirmed bacteriologically. The clinical, radiological, immunological and anamnestic features of confirmed TB can serve as cornerstones for diagnosing of TB, when culture is not available. Objective To evaluate the sensitivity of diagnostic criteria of TB, clinical and radiological manifestation of TB and drug susceptibility of MT isolated also. Methods All consecutive children (53 in total) up to age 14 diagnosed with bacteriologically confirmed TB during 01.01.2001. -01.12.2003. were prospectively evaluated for reasons mentioned above. Results Of the 53 children identified all but one had respiratory tract TB. 17(32,1 %) children were under 4 years of age, 9 (17%) children were 5-9 years old, but 27 (50,9%) patients were 10-14 years old. During evaluation data on TB source case were found in addition in 13 children and total TB contact history was positive in 37 (69,8%) patients. All clinical and radiographical forms of respiratory tract TB were diagnosed. The most common encountered forms were intrathoracic adenopathy in 10 (18,9%) cases and TB pneumonia in 6 (11,3%) cases in children aged 10-14 years. lnthrathoracic adenopathy associated with segmental parenchymal lesion was the most common form in children under 4 years of age -7 (13,2%) cases respectively. Conclusions 1. The clinical and radiological

  4. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandi C

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical grading and bacteriological study of 107 patients with diabetic foot lesions revealed polymicrobial aetiology in 69 (64.4% and single aetiology in 21 (19.6%. Among 107 patients 62 had ulcer. Of these 31 had mixed aerobes. Twenty six patients with cellulitis and 12 with gangrene had more than 5 types of aerobes and anaerobes such as E.coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Enterobactor spp., Enterococci spp., Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. It was noted that 50 out of 62 patients with ulcer, and all the patients with cellulitis and gangrene were given surgical management and treated with appropriate antibiotics based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

  5. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Rainwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    This study investigated the physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics of rainwater harvested from three different rooftop sheets in Esan West Local Government Area, Edo State. Parameters investigated include pH, TSS, TDS, Turbidity, Acidity, Ca2+, Fe, Pb, Cr, TBC, TCC and E-coli. The results showed that mean ...

  6. Bacteriological Quality and antimicrobial susceptibility of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, the well water samples analyzed in this study were found in unacceptable condition in terms of bacteriological quality. Moreover, the identification of Escherichia coli in some of the wells indicates the safety problem of the water for human consumption. Therefore, it calls for proper disinfection and monitoring of the ...

  7. Water Treatment Technology - Chemistry/Bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chemistry/bacteriology provides instructional materials for twelve competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: waterborne diseases, water sampling…

  8. Bacteriological quality of some pharmaceutical products marketed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological quality of some pharmaceutical products purchased from open markets, buses and drug stores in Uyo metropolis was studied in order to determine the level of contamination of the drugs. The drug samples examined were Tetracycline capsules, Paracetamol tablets, Ampicillin capsules, Chloroquine tablets, ...

  9. Bacteriologic quality of cellophane - packaged (pure) water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriological (Coliform) quality of six (6) brands of cellophane - packaged drinking water was determined using the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique as described by APHA (1992). Sixty (60) samples were analyzed over a ten week period, with a sample of the six brands analyzed per week. Tap water and Eva ...

  10. Bacteriological and physicochemical evaluation of syrups produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological and physicochemical evaluation of syrups produced from local starch sources. ... The syrups were produced, using acid hydrolysis, from starches obtained from Colocasia esculenta, Zea mays and Manihot palmata. The viable bacterial count gave low counts of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus subtills ...

  11. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Properties of Wastewaters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical, chemical and bacteriological properties of wastewater from four industries located in rural communities of Imo State, Nigeria were determined using standard methods for the examination of water and wastewaters. The results showed that the wastewaters contained high levels of calcium, magnesium and iron.

  12. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Profiles of Borehole Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, the concentrations of sodium, nitrates, bicarbonates, sulphates and chlorides were within the desirable WHO limits, while those of calcium, magnesium and phosphate are highly against the WHO desirable limit. The bacteriological analyses however indicated the highest bacterial count in Gangire village with ...

  13. Organ bacteriological dynamics in Heterobranchus bidorsalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary intake of Lactobacillus fermentum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their combination on selected tissue bacteriology of Heterobranchus bidorsalis juveniles was investigated. Ten experimental diets at 41.0% crude protein were prepared to include Lf1 (basal diet + 10¹cfu/mL Lactobacillus fermentum), Lf2 ...

  14. Bronchiectasis: a bacteriological profile | Bopaka | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of bronchiectasis can involve a combination of many environmental factors, including infection. The aim of our work is to determine the bacteriological profile of bronchiectasis. This is a retrospective study of 100 patients hospitalized in between January 2010 and July 2013. The average age was 48 years ...

  15. Bacteriological Evaluation of Kwale General Hospital Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Pharmacy (40.7%) and Theatre (18.5%). This study showed that Kwale General Hospital environment is heavily contaminated and therefore underlies the necessity for regular evaluation of the hospital environment. Keywords: Bacteriological evaluation, hospital, environment. Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences Vol.

  16. [Dialysate bacteriological quality in a health district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, J M; Alonso, M; Sastre, F; Saavedra, J A; García-Trío, G; Palomares, L

    2007-01-01

    There is a serious lack of data in literature on the quality of dialysate used in haemodialysis units throughout Spain and there also exist discrepancies between clinical guides on criteria related to dialysate bacteriological quality. Ascertain bacteriological quality of dialysate used in our area. Descriptive observational studies were carried out monthly and over a period of one year, at two haemodialysis units (unit A: third level public hospital using Monitral-Hospal monitors and unit B: state subsidised non-profit organisation using AK90-Gambro monitors. Tests were performed to determine cultures and endotoxins in water treated with reverse osmosis and in the dialysate. Results are expressed as means (range) and as percentage samples that comply with or deviate from the 2004 recommendations of the Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. Cultures showed 7 (0-53), 100%UE/ml in water treated with reverse osmosis and 725,72 (1,83-2.645), 90%>2 and 16 (0,05-60,87), 70%>2, UE/ml in dialysate from units A and B, respectively. Water treated with reverse osmosis at both units shows good compliance of bacteriological criteria and an acceptable level of endotoxins. The dialysate shows good compliance of bacteriological criteria at unit B and inadequate compliance for unit A. Poor compliance of endotoxins criteria was observed especially in the case of unit A. It would be interesting to have published data on endotoxins levels in dialysate from other dialysis units in Spain, to know if it is possible to achieve the bacteriological quality recommended by the guides using the actual HD monitors without filters for the dialysate and to evaluate from the clinical point of view the utility and efficiency of these filters in conventional HD.

  17. Impacts of cage culture on physico-chemical and bacteriological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cage fish farming on physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality in Lake Volta, Ghana, were investigated in 2013–2014. Farmed ... The bacteriological analysis, however, revealed contamination of the lake water by fish farming. ... Keywords: aquaculture, contamination, fish farming, large lake, pollution ...

  18. Bacteriological and Physicochemical Qualities of Ebutte River in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The bacteriological and physicochemical qualities of Ebutte River in Ebutte Community were carried out to ascertain the variation in the quality of the river between August, 2010 and January, 2011.The bacteriological and physicochemical assessments were studied using the basic microbiological techniques.

  19. Bacteriological Quality of Dried Sliced Beef (Kilishi) Sold In Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The bacteriological quality of dried sliced beef (kilishi) obtained from three selling points in. Ilorin metropolis was determined in order to ascertain its safety. The total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Staphylococcus aureus count and E.coli counts were used as index of bacteriological quality. Samples.

  20. Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Noyyal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to findout the physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of Noyyal River and ground water quality of Perur, India. The river water and ground water (bore well and open well) samples were collected in and around Perur and analyzed for various physico-chemical and bacteriological ...

  1. Bacteriology laboratories and musculoskeletal tissue banks in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2012-11-01

    In Australia, there are six Therapeutic Goods Administration-licensed clinical bacteriology laboratories providing bacterial and fungal bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal samples sent from 10 tissue banks. Musculoskeletal swab and/or tissue biopsy samples are collected at the time of allograft retrieval and sent to bacteriology laboratories for bioburden testing, in some cases requiring interstate transport. Bacteria and fungi may be present within the allograft at the time of retrieval or contaminated from an external source. The type of organism recovered will determine if the allograft is rejected for transplant, which may include all allografts from the same donor. Bacteriology staff also provides unpaid support of tissue banks through meeting involvement, consultations, licence-related activities, validations and research funded by their organisation and not part of any contractual agreement. Bacteriology laboratories and tissue banks must be compliant to the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice - Human Blood and Tissues and regulated by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. Clinical bacteriology laboratories also require mandatory accreditation to Standards Australia International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) 15189:2009 medical laboratories - particular requirements for quality and competence, and may also attain Standards Australia/New Zealand Standard ISO 9001:2000 quality management systems certification. Bacteriology laboratories and musculoskeletal tissue banks are integral partners in providing safe allograft musculoskeletal tissue for transplant. © 2012 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. Impetigo—Bacteriologic Features and Renal Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Stanton E.

    1966-01-01

    One hundred children with impetigo were studied with particular emphasis upon the organism causing the infection and associated renal complications. In 50 per cent of cases, Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus grew on cultures of material from the lesions, and evidence of recent infection with this organism as shown by an elevation of antistreptolysin O titer was present in an additional 17 per cent of cases. Acute glomerulonephritis developed in three of the 66 children with bacteriologic or serologic evidence of streptococcal infection. Four other children in this group and nine children with staphylococcal impetigo had unexplained microscopic hematuria. All children with nephritis already had evidence of the disease when first seen. In most of those with unexplained hematuria, this condition was detected at the first visit. Hematuria developed in others while they were receiving systemic antibiotics. The significance of isolated microscopic hematuria is uncertain, but is seen often in association with cutaneous infection with both staphylococcus and streptococcus. Microscopic hematuria as defined is apparently not prevented by antibiotic therapy. If acute glomerulonephritis that follows streptococcal cutaneous infection is to be prevented, streptococcal impetigo will have to be treated promptly after onset. PMID:5946549

  3. effect of abattoir waste on the physicochemical and bacteriological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    urbanization and the inadequate construction, operation and maintenance of ... EFFECT OF ABATTOIR WASTE ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITIES OF NEW-ARTISAN, … C. N. Eze & P. C. Eze. Nigerian ... liquid waste is usually composed of dissolved solids, blood, gut contents, urine and ...

  4. Bacteriologic and Histopathologic Studies in Pneumonic Lambs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortality in lambs is known to be caused by pneumonia and other bacterial agents. Lamb pneumonia is an infectious disease of young lambs caused primarily by the bacterial organism Pasterella haemolytica. Lung samples recovered from dead lambs were tested bacteriologically and histopathologically to determine the ...

  5. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of rainwater in Egbema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of rainwater in Egbema was determined with samples harvested directly, from zinc roof, thatched roof and asbestos roof, at different periods of the rainy season namely, Early, peak and late rains. The values of the physico-chemical parameters were on the higher side at the early ...

  6. Bacteriological examination of drinking water with reference to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that the number of coliforms was very high ( 1500) in water samples collected from mobile vendors. The bacteria were identified as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriological examination of water samples collected from different sources showed that the ...

  7. Bacteriological examination of drinking water in Burdwan, India with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... Bacteriological examination of water samples collected from different sources showed that the water of mobile vendors and sweet shops of Burdwan market area was not potable while the municipal tap water was found to be safe for drinking. Key words: Drinking water, coliform, MPN test. INTRODUCTION.

  8. Constructing COMSOL Models of a Bacteriological Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Robert; Mansell, James

    2012-01-01

    We show very initial work on a specific bioelectrochemical system (BES), a bacteriologically driven 'fuel cell' (BFS), that is intended to process waste products, such as CO2 and brine. (1) Processing is the priority, not power generation (2) Really a Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC)

  9. bacteriological analysis of well water samples in sagamu.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    diseases that affect human and animals cannot be underestimated. This is the most important concern about the quality of water. Guideline for bacteriological water ..... serious problem which calls for vigilance on the part of the authorities as it signals possible future outbreak of water borne diseases. Such disease outbreak ...

  10. Bacteriological quality of water samples in Osogbo Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriological qualities of samples of some sachet water, tap water and well water were examined. Some physicochemical parameters (pH and suspended solids) indicative of water quality as well as the total bacterial and total coliform counts were examined. The pH of the samples range between 6.5 and 7.2.

  11. Bacteriology of Urine Specimens Obtained from Men with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    empiric use of antibiotics in this group of patients. KEYWORDS: Bacteriuria, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary tract infection. How to cite this article: Agbugui JO, Obarisiagbon EO, Osaigbovo II. Bacteriology of Urine Specimens Obtained from Men with Symptomatic. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Niger J Surg 0;0:0.

  12. Bacteriology of the Anterior Genitalia of the Domestic House Cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriology of the anterior genitalia of the domestic house cat was determined using vaginal swabs collected from sixty apparently healthy female domestic cats (20 kittens, 20 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant adults). The swabs were streaked on blood agar, Mac Conkey agar and eosin methylene blue agar plates ...

  13. Effect of Boscia Albitrunca (Omukunzi) Root on the Bacteriology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of Omukunzi root (Boscia albitrunca) in the viscosity or consistency, sensory and bacteriological profile of Omashikwa, traditional fermented buttermilk from Namibia. Omashikwa is a popular traditional fermented buttermilk product made with Omukunzi root among the ...

  14. physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses of drinking water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... into an ice cube cooler and transported to the labora- tory for analysis of bacteriological and physicochem- ical parameters. In the laboratory, the samples were preserved by refrigeration and were analyzed within the confines of their respective “holding time”. 2.4. Method of data analysis. The underlisted ...

  15. Study of the bacteriological and physicochemical indicators of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the pollution level of surface waters in Zaria, Nigeria. The bacteriological and physicochemical analyses performed were in accordance with standard procedures. Out of 228 samples from different sites, 128 (56.1%) had counts higher than the standards. Samaru stream was the most polluted.

  16. Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Analyses of Water Used for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel Olaleye

    Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were carried out on well water, stream water and river water used for drinking and swimming purposes in. Abeokuta, Nigeria. The results obtained were compared with WHO and EPA standards for drinking and recreational water. With the exception of Sokori stream and a well ...

  17. Bacteriological and Physicochemical Quality of Drinking Water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Lack of safe drinking water, basic sanitation, and hygienic practices are associated with high morbidity and mortality from excreta related diseases. The aims of this study were to determine the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of drinking water and investigate the hygiene and sanitation practices ...

  18. Bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Accesses to safe water is a universal need however, many of the world's population lack access to adequate and safe water. Consumption of water contaminated causes health risk to the public and the situation is serous in rural areas. Objectives: To assess the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of ...

  19. Bacteriology of urinary tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the serious bacterial infections in febrile young children, which may cause chronic morbidities. Studies from different parts of Nigeria have shown varying pattern in its bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivities. Antimicrobial resistance rate among uropathogens is an increasing ...

  20. Comparative study on the level of bacteriological contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on the level of bacteriological contamination of automatic teller machines, public toilets and public transport commercial motorcycle crash ... Conclusion: This study has revealed the ability of these public devices to serve as vehicle of transmission of microorganisms with serious health implications.

  1. Bacteriological And Physico-Chemical Qualities Of Waste Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste water in the accumulation pond and final discharge point of Nigerian Bottling Company PLC in Owerri, Nigeria was analyzed to determine their bacteriological and physico-chemical characteristics. Species of organisms isolated included Staphyloccus, Bacillus, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus. Others include ...

  2. Bacteriological and physicochemical analysis of waste water from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the bacteriological and physicochemical characteristics of ten freshwater fish ponds stocked with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was conducted within Ilorin metropolis. The results of physicochemical properties of the water samples showed that the pH, total hardness, salinity, and suspended solid ranged ...

  3. Assessment of physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality is a critical factor affecting human health and welfare. This study aimed at examining the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water in Adama town. A total of 107 triplicate water samples were examined; 1 from inlet point (raw water), 1 from outlet (the water after treatment, 1 from reservoir ...

  4. Assessment of bacteriologic profile of reservoir water in Ekpoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therefore, assesses the bacteriologic profile of water samples in Ekpoma, Edo, Nigeria, considering the vulnerability of the inhabitants to water-borne diseases often associated with unhygienic environment and lack of safe drinking water. The simple random sampling technique was adopted and water samples were ...

  5. Bacteriological Quality and Antibiogram of Isolates from Potable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT:This study sought to determine the bacteriological quality of some boreholes and storage tanks used for drinking and other domestic purposes in Ekosodin community and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the groundwater resources isolates. A total of 48 samples were collected from three ...

  6. Observations on the Current Bacteriological Profile of Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a disease well‑known for its recurrence and persistence despite treatment. The situation is compounded by the increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents by bacteria these days. Aim: This study was carried out to examine the current local bacteriological profile of ...

  7. Pattern and bacteriology of acute suppurative otitis media in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To describe the pattern of distribution, causative bacterial organisms, and management of acute suppurative otitis media in Sokoto, Nigeria. Method: A retrospective study of the bacteriology, clinical features and management of acute suppurative otitis media (ASOM) seen in a 2-year period. Results: Out of the ...

  8. Bacteriological analysis of spent engine oil contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriological analysis of soil contaminated with spent engine oil (SEO) planted with cowpea was investigated. The aim of this study was to detect the microbial degradation of SEO in soil and how it affects the microbial activity and the effects of SEO on the growth of cowpea. SEO collected from a mechanic workshop in ...

  9. Bacteriological Quality and Possible Health Effects of Gravity-Piped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten years after the establishment of the GPWS, there were complains about the incidence of diarrhoea diseases, colouration of water and sediment in some of the systems put in place to provide potable water. The paper reports on bacteriological quality and health implications of water at various points (source, reservoir, ...

  10. Assessing the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from Sources to Household Water Samples of the Rural Communities of Dire Dawa Administrative Council, Eastern Ethiopia. ... This is due to lack of good water treatment, improper water handling practices and lack of the protection of the water sources. Consequently ...

  11. Bacteriology of post–operative wound infections in the surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 248 swab specimens from post-operative wounds suspected to be infected were bacteriologically evaluated. Of these, bacterial growth was recorded in 204 specimens (82.3%) while 44 specimens (17.7%) yielded no growth. The bacteria isolated from the samples in decreasing order of prevalence were: ...

  12. Bacteriological pollution indicators in Ogun River flowing through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water resources are significant part of integrated community development policy and good health. Hence, the need to reduce the impact of natural and anthropogenic pollution causes so as to enhance water quality. The bacteriological quality of the Ogun River was investigated to determine the sanitary conditions of the ...

  13. The effect of storage on Physical, Chemical and Bacteriological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the changes in physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water stored for a period of three months. Ten (10) different companies' water samples each of bottled water (B) and sachet water (S) were randomly selected for the study around Ibadan Metropolis. Experimental method was used ...

  14. Bacteriology of urine specimens obtained from men with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacteriuria and urinary tract infections are common sequelae of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Thus, the knowledge of urine bacteriology in men with symptomatic BPH in our environment may play a complementary role in management. Objectives: To determine the incidence of bacteriuria and the ...

  15. Bacteriological profile in neonatal sepsis at the University teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections are the biggest cause of neonatal deaths in developing countries and most of them can be preventable. Predominant causative bacterial agents kept changing overtime as such, this retrospective cross sectional study was designed to determine the bacteriological profile in neonatal sepsis and their susceptibilty to ...

  16. [Method and procedures in bacteriological study of necrotic teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ponce, A; López Campos, A; López Paz, J; Pazos Sierra, R

    1991-01-01

    Research was conducted of 160 radicular canals with necrotic pulp. Results of different bacteriological analyses are presented. Culture analyses in aerobic and anaerobic media, resulted in the isolation of Staphylococcus Epidermidis, Streptococcus Viridans and Corynebacterium sp in the group studied, as the most frequent bacteria. There was no evidence of a specific germ linked with the pulp necrosis.

  17. Bacteriological and Physcio – Chemical Evaluation of Water Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological and physico-chemical evaluation of water coagulated with Moringa oleifera seed powder preparations on Challawa river water intake station was conducted for a period of ... The implications of the results are discussed in relation to water sanitation and human health and some recommendations presented.

  18. Observations on the Current Bacteriological Profile of Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a disease well‑known for its recurrence and persistence despite ... Orji and Dike: Anerobic bacteriological profile of chronic suppurative otitis media. Annals of Medical and Health ... Fifty-two percent were children aged 5 months to 15 years. Those aged <5 years ...

  19. physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses of drinking water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... Physicochemical, heavy metals and bacteriological analysis of drinking water samples from ten. (10) geo-referenced points in five ... Analysis of Drinking Water in Ibeno LGA Akwa Ibom State. 117 ment Area is one of the coastal .... using mercury-in-glass broth thermometer. Water pH was taken in-situ using ...

  20. Physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses of water used for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were carried out on well water, stream water and river water used for drinking and swimming purposes in. Abeokuta, Nigeria. The results obtained were compared with WHO and EPA standards for drinking and recreational water. With the exception of Sokori stream and a well ...

  1. Bacteriological Survey of the Frozen Prepared Foods Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkiewicz, Bernard F.; Groomes, Ralph J.; Padron, Adriano P.

    1967-01-01

    During sanitation-inspections of 29 potato-processing firms, 2,544 finished product units and 1,654 samples were collected and analyzed bacteriologically. The results of the bacteriological examination of finished French fries, fried potato cylinders, and dehydrated potatoes usually did not reveal the conditions of cleanliness under which they were produced. This was most likely due to the lethal effect of the terminal fry to which the French fries and potato cylinders are subjected, and because of the lethal effect of the dehydration temperatures used in processing the dehydrated potato products. However, as in most food-processing firms, line samples collected at each processing step reflect sanitary conditions and provide bacteriological support of inspectional evidence of plant insanitation. Most of the frozen stuffed baked potatoes examined were produced under poor sanitary conditions. But because this product is usually processed while hot, bacteriological examination of the finished product did not usually reveal the conditions of cleanliness under which they were produced. Again, inspectional observations were necessary for a full evaluation of the conditions of production. In contrast, frozen potato patties and frozen hash brown potatoes were more likely to reveal the conditions of sanitation under which they were produced as evidenced by the varying bacterial counts. PMID:16349740

  2. [Verification of bacteriological safety of PCM 40 air conditioner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, J L; Ducel, G; Rouge, J C

    1991-01-01

    This study assessed the bacteriological safety of the bedside air conditioner PCM 40 (Howorth Airtech), used for prevention of intraoperative hypothermia, by blowing filtered warm air through a special mattress. The 3 microns bacterial filter of the device released 2,968 +/- 5,618 particles of diameter less than 3 microns per m3 of room air, containing 78,798 +/- 37,243 of such particles per m3. The amount of bacteries in the air pulsed from the mattress was 30 +/- 41 cfu/m3 vs 120 cfu/m3 in the ambient air and in the hot air supply tubing it reached 6 +/- 5 cfu/m3 vs 175 +/- 77 cfu/m3. It is concluded that bacteriological data do not contra-indicate the use of this air conditioner in the operating theater. The only limitations for use are the position (prone or lateral position) and type of surgery (neurosurgery).

  3. [Perinatal mortality in dogs. Clinical, bacteriological and pathological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, M; Remmers, C

    1990-08-01

    1. In intensively operated dog breeding kennels bacterial infections are very significant in perinatal mortality. 2. Staph. aureus, Streptococci (type G) and also beta-haemolytic E. coli were transmitted intra-uterine or by the infected genital tract to the puppies. In many cases they are the cause of septicaemic death of the puppies. 3. A second important cause of infection is subclinical mastitis of the bitch, leading to septicaemic death of newborn puppies. 4. Prophylactic hygienic measures make possible a prognosis concerning the risk of perinatal death. This includes examinations of the dog and the bitch ante coitum, bacteriological examination of the genital tract of the bitch, and a bacteriological examination of the milk before the date of birth. 5. Prophylactic hygienic measures in combination with antibiotic treatment of the bitch or the puppies could reduce the losses of puppies to less than 10%.

  4. Bacteriological analysis of borehole water in Uli, Nigeria | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from four different boreholes within Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria, were collected for five consecutive weeks for bacteriological analysis to assess the potability.The range of the means was from 1.5x102 to 5.9x104 cfu ml-1 for total aerobic bacterial load, 9 to 136 MPN per 100ml for total coliforms and 4 to 74 ...

  5. Tercer Simposio Internacional de Bacteriología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elvira Farfán-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este suplemento reúne 24 resúmenes de proyectos de investigación básica y aplicada que fueron presentados en el marco del Tercer Simposio Internacional de Bacteriología, organizado por el programa de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Santander UDES, sede Bucaramanga entre el 27 al 29 de abril de 2016 en el marco de la celebración de los 20 años de funcionamiento del programa. En este evento se reunieron investigadores nacionales, internacionales, profesores, estudiantes de pregrado y posgrado, quienes compartieron experiencias y avances de investigación en torno a las ciencias biomédicas. Dentro de los objetivos del tercer simposio estaba divulgar los resultados de investigación de investigadores y estudiantes de diferentes instituciones regionales y nacionales así como establecer alianzas y acercamientos con científicos e investigadores de las instituciones participantes para el fortalecimiento de las líneas de investigación del Grupo de Investigación en Manejo Clínico –CliniUDES-. Entre los temas que fueron tratados en el simposio se destacan: enfermedades emergentes y cambio climático, enfermedades virales tropicales, hematología clínica, síndrome metabólico, actualización en diagnóstico de diabetes, cáncer y marcadores tumorales, gestión del riesgo y genética forense. Los organizadores del evento fueron la Dra. Juanita Trejos Suárez y el Dr. Sergio Yebrail Gómez Rangel acompañados por un comité científico y académico y por estudiantes del programa de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico.

  6. Bacteriological and mycological surveys along Otranto coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagna, M.T.; De Donno, A.; Bagordo, F.; Carrozzini, F.

    2000-01-01

    Bacteriological and mycological surveys were carried out on water samples collected from 6 seaside resorts and 2 affluent along Otranto coastal areas. The following parameters were tested: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, Salmonella, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, Vibrio species and yeasts. Results show fecal pollution in three seaside resorts and in one drain, whereas Salmonella research always resulted negative. P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were isolated from both affluents. V. alginolyticus was the most isolated vibrio specie (90%). Among isolated yeasts Torulopsis inconspicua (70%) was the most frequent one [it

  7. Improvement of bacteriological quality of frozen chicken by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, K.; Prachasitthisak, Y.; Charoen, S.; Kanarat, S.; Kanignunta, K.; Tangwongsupang, S.

    1986-12-01

    The possible use of gamma irradiation at doses of 1.6 to 4.0 kGy to improve bacteriological quality of frozen chicken was investigated. The effects of gamma irradiation on salmonella viability in frozen chicken and on sensory quality of frozen chicken were also evaluated. D 10 -values for different isolated strains of salmonella in frozen chicken varied from 0.41 to 0.57 kGy. A dose of 4 kGy is required for a seven log cycle reduction of salmonella contamination in frozen chicken. Approximately 21 per cent of frozen chicken examined were contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium, salmonella virchow, and salmonella java were predominant. Irradiation of frozen chicken at a minimum dose of 3.2 kGy eliminated salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and, in addition, reduced baterial load by 2 log cycles. Faecal streptococci was still present in a 3.2 kGy samples but in a very small percentage and the count was not over 100 colonies per g. Discoloring of chicken meat was noted after a 2 kGy treatment. The sensory quality of frozen chicken irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy tended to decrease during frozen storage but was within the acceptable range on a nine point hedonic scale even after eight months of frozen storage. Dosage at 3.2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality of frozen chicken

  8. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. 9 CFR 147.11 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of salmonella. 147.11 Section 147.11 Animals and Animal Products... procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of salmonella. (a) For egg- and meat-type chickens... 25 birds, and birds from Salmonella enteritidis (SE) positive environments should be cultured in...

  10. Invisible enemies: bacteriology and the language of politics in imperial Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradmann, C

    2000-01-01

    The text analyzes the related semantics of bacteriology and politics in imperial Germany. The rapid success of bacteriology in the 1880s and 1890s was due not least to the fact that scientific concepts of bacteria as "the smallest but most dangerous enemies of mankind" (R. Koch) resonated with contemporary ideas about political enemies. Bacteriological hygiene was expected to provide answers to social and political problems. At the same time metaphors borrowed from bacteriological terminology were incorporated into the political language of the time. While the "high command of our doctors" (F.J. Cohn) fought diseases, some contemporaries were identified with members of the evil species of "bacillus communis odii." Both imperialistic politics and bacteriological science relied on images of inferior and invisible but potent enemies. Both were able to increase their prestige via a mutual interchange of their vocabularies.

  11. Changing bacteriological profile and mortality trends in community acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Khadanga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are very few and conflicting Indian data regarding the bacteriological etiology of community acquired pneumonia (CAP. Adding to this agony, there is no credible data from the eastern part of India. This is a cross-sectional study and descriptive in nature over a period of 1-year. Of the 464 cases of the study population, we could isolate aerobic bacteria in 149 patients (32.1%. Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified as the most common organism causing CAP (68/149. Gram-negative bacilli (GNB as a group exceeded marginally over S. pneumoniae (69/149. Among GNB, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism (31/69, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (29/69. Staphylococcus aureus was identified in (12/149 cases. Co-amoxyclav is still the most sensitive drug for S. pneumoniae. P. aeruginosa was most sensitive to imipenam followed by piperacillin-tazobactam.

  12. [Value of bacteriologic studies within the scope of forensic autopsies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, V

    1985-01-01

    The various questions regarding bacteriological investigations within the scope of forensic autopsies are discussed in the light of our own cases and with regard to the relevant literature: estimate of the age of the corpse on the basis of decomposition changes caused by bacteria; determination of so-called bacteriograms from the point of view of criminalistics; supplementary investigations of the cause of death. Iatrogenic infections (e.g., gangrene) are gone into in more detail, as is so-called infantile botulism within the scope of the "sudden infant death syndrome". Finally, it is pointed out that when doing forensic autopsies, thought should also be given to illnesses that have only been known for a few years, examples being legionnaires' disease and the toxic shock syndrome ("tampon sickness").

  13. Radiometric determination of the bacteriological quality of raw milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogan, T.M.; O'Connor, F.

    1977-01-01

    The usefulness of 14 CO 2 production from (U- 14 C) glucose, (U- 14 C) glutamate and ( 14 C) formate as an index of raw milk quality was investigated. Development work showed that the volume of milk sample influenced the detection of radioactivity. The regression coefficient between Log 10 of the inital bacterial count and the detection time (the time to reach 2000 cpm) in the presence of 0.13 μCi (U- 14 C) glucose/ml was -0.55 (n=119 samples) and the relationship was y=-0.11x+-0.46. The addition of 0.5 μCi (U- 14 C) glutamate and 0.5 μCi of ( 14 C) formate decreased the detection times but did not result in greater predictability. Further study is required before the method could be used to determine the bacteriological quality of milk

  14. AERO-BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VEGETABLES MARKET AT JABALPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Pathak ، K. S. Verma

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban and rural vegetable markets of India characterized by mass activity with a little sanitary measure are responsible for generation of higher quantity of aerosols containing biotic and abiotic components. The aerosols generated in due course of mechanical disturbance, contain many organic compounds enable to sensitize vital respiratory organs of local inhabitants. Inhalation of airborne microorganisms can expose workers to risks from infection, toxicosis and allergy. The presence of non-spore forming gram-negative bacteria in air due to the mechanical areosolization indicates higher rate of dissemination of pollutants in these occupation associated areas. The present aero-bacteriological investigation included enumeration, identification and numerical analysis of different types of culturable airborne bacteria with inhalable fraction of gram-negative bacteria in the vegetable market of the city of Jabalpur, in order to measure the degree of aerobiopollution for this environment. The aero-bacteriological sampling has been done fortnightly for a period of one year. Samples were cultured based on standard methods. The survey revealed that in this type of atmosphere, environmental factors were responsible for the persistence of airborne bacteria with variable effects. The major contributors for aerosol generation were other mechanical activities, since this site is classified under human activity-enriched and highly trafficked site. The bioload of this atmosphere was recorded as high as 2.9 x 103 bacterial carrying particles per cubic meter during winter, dominated by both inhalable and non inhalable fractions of gram-negative bacteria. In summer, soil-borne bacteria were reported dominant in the air. High humidity and low temperature were the major factors for dissemination and distribution of gram-negative bacilli. A regression model with upto 43% variance was prepared in order to predict the bioload for this atmosphere in relation to

  15. The bacteriology of diabetic foot ulcers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unachukwu, C N; Obunge, O K; Odia, O J

    2005-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer and/or gangrene is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. The lesions are usually infected and early treatment of the infection will reduce the associated problems. The study was carried out to determine the common bacteriological flora of diabetic foot ulcers in Port Harcourt. The antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of the isolates was determined to enhance possible empirical treatment. Deep wound swabs were collected from 60 consecutive diabetic patients admitted with foot ulcers and/or gangrene into the medical wards of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital from January 2001 to April 2002. The bacteriological isolation and antimicrobial sensitivity tests of the isolates was carried out by standard microbiological methods. Aerobes and anaerobes constituted 95.4% and 4.6% of the total bacterial isolates respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest bacterial isolate; it was cultured from 32 (56.1%) of infected patients and constituted 24.4% of the total isolate. The mean bacterial isolate per patient infected was 2.3. The aerobic isolates showed significant sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (78.4%), pefloxacine (71.2%), ceftazidime (73.6%) and cefuroxime (69.6%). All the anaerobic isolates were sensitive to metronidazole and clindamycin. Infections of diabetic foot ulcers are usually polymicrobial. From the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates, diabetic patients presenting with foot ulcers and/or gangrene could be commenced empirically on a combination of clindamycin or metronidazole and either a fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin or pefloxacine) or a second or third generation cephalosporin (e.g. cefuroxime or ceftazidime).

  16. The environmental influences on the bacteriological quality of red and chicken meat stored in fridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Masoumbeigi

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The results implied that the bacteriological quality of red and chicken meat fluctuates with environmental status (especially temperature, sanitary status and personal hygiene. Regular control, improving of sanitary health, and staff training are necessary for elimination of bacterial contamination.

  17. Water quality and bacteriology in an aquaculture facility equipped with a new aeration system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Karekar, S.V.; PraveenKumar, R.; Sreepada, R.A.; Vogelsang, C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    The HOBAS aeration system was tested to compare changes in environmental and bacteriological parameters in ponds growing Penaeus monodon during a single production cycle. The stocking density in the aerated pond was doubled to 12 post-larvae (PL) m...

  18. Page 1 Bacteriological Analysis of Protected Springs Worku L, et al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % water supply system, and a bacteriological coverage (5) indicating that the decade's .... Gray NF. Drinking water quality each spring for potential contamination has problems and solutions. John Wiley & shown almost all springs sampled lack.

  19. Bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in patients with Urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    N Subedi; S Pudasaini

    2017-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the common bacterial infections seeking treatment in clinical practice. A variety of organisms are associated with UTI and the most common organisms are Escherichia coli and other coliforms. Bacteriological investigations of UTI are not complete without antibiotic sensitivity test of the isolate. The aim of this study is to determine the bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity patterns and their disease association.Materials and methods...

  20. Bacteriological research for the contamination of digital portable radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Dong A University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Yeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dong Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The study was performed to investigate the bacteriological contamination of portable digital radiography system and their detectors in a university hospital. CNS and VRE were detected in the samples collected from vinyl cover on detectors used for the infection control patients. On the other hand, no bacteria was detected in the samples collected from detectors with vinyl cover removed. In the series of imaging of patients from general wards, no bacteria was detected from the patient 1. However, CNS was detected from the patients 2 and 3, CNS and Enterococcus faecalis detected from the patient 4, CNS and Enterococcus casseliflavus detected from the patient 5, and CNS, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae all detected from the patient 6. CNS and Enterococcus faecium were detected in the controller handle of collimator. Also, CNS was detected from the handle of detector and exposure switch. In the treatment gloves of the radiological technologist after the imaging, CNS, Enterococcus gallinarum, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were detected. Therefore, it is recommended for DR portable to take images after sterilizing the detector after taking each image and to use disposable vinyl covers on detectors to remove after imaging. And treatment gloves must be changed after each imaging. Also, hospital infection via portables must be prevented by complete sterilization of the controller handles of collimator which are in frequent contact during imaging and infection education of employees.

  1. Bacteriological quality of icecream marketed in Thrissur town, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ambily

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the bacteriological quality of ice creams marketed in Thrissur town, Kerala. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven ice cream samples randomly collected from selected retail outlets and street vendors in the town over a period of two months were analyzed for total viable count and for the presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results: Total Viable Count ranged from 1.2 x 10 2 to 8.2 x 10 3 CFU/g in industrial brands whereas in street vendor samples it was high in the range of 5.2 x 10 5 to 6.6 x 10 6 CFU/g. Coliform counts were high in 30 % of the samples. 27 % of the samples had high Staphylococcal count. E coli were isolated from two samples from street vendors and Salmonella spp. from one of the samples. Listeria spp. was not isolated from any of the samples. Conclusion: The presence of potential pathogens in the ice cream samples reveals the significance of implementation of quality control measures in marketing ice creams thus reducing the public health hazards. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 738-741

  2. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  3. Bacteriology of drinking water distribution systems: an integral and multidimensional review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Verberk, J Q J C; Van Dijk, J C

    2013-11-01

    A drinking water distribution system (DWDS) is the final and essential step to supply safe and high-quality drinking water to customers. Biological processes, such as biofilm formation and detachment, microbial growth in bulk water, and the formation of loose deposits, may occur. These processes will lead to deterioration of the water quality during distribution. In extreme conditions, pathogens and opportunistic pathogens may proliferate and pose a health risk to consumers. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the bacteriology of DWDSs to develop effective strategies that can ensure the water quality at consumers' taps. The bacteriology of DWDSs, both the quantitative growth and the qualitative bacterial community, has attracted considerable research attention. However, the researchers have focused mainly on the pipe wall biofilm. In this review, DWDS bacteriology has been reviewed multidimensionally, including both the bacterial quantification and identification. For the first time, the available literature was reviewed with an emphasis on the subdivision of DWDS into four phases: bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm. Special concentration has been given to potential contribution of particulate matter: suspended particles and loose deposits. Two highlighted questions were reviewed and discussed: (1) where does most of the growth occur? And (2) what is the contribution of particle-associated bacteria to DWDS bacteriology and ecology? At the end of this review, recommendations were given based on the conclusion of this review to better understand the integral DWDS bacteriology.

  4. [Bacteriological aspects of preparation, storage and transport of milk formulas (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irle, U; Gängel, G

    1976-07-01

    1. It was shown that special apparatus for cleaning milkbottles makes additional desinfection unnecessary with regard to bacteriological and hygienic aspects. -- 2. Milk-bottles should be processed centrally for safety reasons. Special basket-containers facilitate a more economic washing process, transport and storage of the bottles. -- 3. Physiologically optimal milk formulas, as available today, should be prepared and filled into bottles in the ward where they are needed, immediately before use, to guarantee bacteriologically optimal conditions. -- 4. With appropriate organization within a clinic it should be possible to store special dietary formulas which have been prepared centrally, not in the wards, over the required time without the risk of bacterial contamination. The need for regular and systemic bacteriological checks is emphasized.

  5. [Current status of bacteriological studies at prefectural and municipal public health institutes in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Hiroto; Seto, Kazuko; Kawase, Jun; Arikawa, Kentaro; Funatogawa, Keiji; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kubota, Hiroaki; Shirabe, Komei

    2015-01-01

    Prefectural and municipal public health institutes are located in prefectures and ordinance-designated cities in Japan, and play a vital role in the regional surveillance of infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses. These institutes, in close cooperation with national institutes such as the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and the National Institute of Health Sciences, construct the national surveillance network for infectious diseases and their causative agents. Bacteriological examinations and studies on a variety of infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses are core activities of prefectural and municipal public health institutes, through which novel and important bacteriological findings have been acquired. In this article, we report the latest findings regarding bacteriological examinations/studies and interesting cases at these institutes, especially concerning foodborne illnesses, tuberculosis, and antimicrobial resistances.

  6. Monitoring of transmission of Salmonella enterica serovars in pigs using bacteriological and serological detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsen, van R.L.; Nes, van A.; Keuzenkamp, D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Biesterveld, S.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    The standard method to detect Salmonella positive pigs is bacteriological examination of the faeces, but in recent years the use of Salmonella-ELISA’s have become available to screen pigs for serological evidence of infection. This study was conducted to monitor the transmission of five different

  7. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under...

  8. Bacteriological Evaluation Of Pre-Cut Fruits Sold In Kano Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty (150) pre-cut fruit samples comprising of Pineapples (50), Paw-paw (50) and Watermelon (50) at the point of stand retail outlets were tested by standard bacteriological methods to determine bacterial contamination of the fruits. Out of these 150 examined 136 (90.67%) were contaminated with bacteria.

  9. Bacteriological qualities of indoor and out-door drinking water in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To compare the bacteriological quality of out-house (tank or standpipe) water and in-house drinking water (storage containers) and determine the risk factors influencing it. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was carried out in Kibera slums located 7 km southwest from the Nairobi City centre.

  10. Bacteriological evaluation for one-and two-piece implant design supporting mandibular overdenture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahed, Ahmed; Mahrous, Ahmed I; Abadallah, Mohamed Farouk; Asfour, Hani; Aldawash, Hussien A; Alagha, Ebaa I

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated and compared the bacteriological effect of two-piece implants and one-piece implants in complete overdenture cases on supporting structures. Ten male completely edentulous patients were selected and randomly divided into two equal groups according to the implant design and surgical technique for this study; Group 1: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by two-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch following two-stage surgical technique and Group 2: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side. Evaluation was made at the time of insertion, 6, 12, and 18 months after overdenture insertion, by measuring bacteriological changes around implants abutments. Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants showed better effect on the bacteriological changes as compared to that supported by two-piece implants. Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch showed better effect on the bacteriological changes than using the same prosthesis supported by two-piece implants.

  11. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY OF THE TEPALCINGO-AXOCHIAPAN AQUIFER, MORELOS, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza S. Robles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The water quality of the Tepalcingo-Axochiapan aquifer, Mexico was determined. Six samplings were carried out, taking samples from eight wells before chlorine and one spring. Two bacteriological and 11 physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Most of the wells and spring presented hard water. The wells showed higher concentrations of dissolved solids at lower altitudes, exception of the spring. Discriminate analysis and the Mahalanobis distances showed that the spring had the biggest differences with respect to the other wells. Bacteriologically the spring and a well are not suitable for amusement activities and physicochemically three wells are not suitable as a source of drinking water. The lack of sanitation and drainage in some areas may be causing deterioration of water quality in the aquifer in such areas.

  12. Bacteriological Monitoring and Sustainable Management of Beach Water Quality in Malaysia: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Asmat, Ahmad; Gires, Usup; Heng, Lee Yook; Deborah, Bandele Oluwaseun

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia. PMID:22980239

  13. Bacteriological monitoring and sustainable management of beach water quality in Malaysia: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Asmat, Ahmad; Gires, Usup; Heng, Lee Yook; Deborah, Bandele Oluwaseun

    2012-04-28

    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia.

  14. [Bacteriological profile of infectious endocarditis in the area of Sfax (Tunisia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, N; Mezghani, S; Znazen, A; Rhimi, F; Kassis, M; Hakim, H; Dammak, J; Kamoun, S; Hammami, A

    2006-01-01

    We performed a study to analyze epidemiological characteristics and bacteriological profile of infectious endocarditis (I.E) in the area of Sfax (Tunisia). We analyzed, retrospectively, all cases of I.E, according to Duke Criteria, hospitalized in the CHU Hédi Chaker of Sfax between January 1997 and December 2000. Bacteriological investigation included blood culture, cardiac valve culture and serology. Seventy-two cases of I.E were diagnosed. The average of age was 32.3 years. 47.3% of the patients did not have cardiac disease, 25% had a valvular prosthesis, 20.8% a native valvulopathy and 6.9% a congenital cardiopathy. Antecedent of acute rheumatic fever was noted in 66% of I.E on native valvulopathy and in 55.5% of I.E on prosthesis. The mitral valve was involved in 39%, the aortic in 27.5% and the two in 26% of the cases. The origin of bacteremia was found or supposed in 55.5% of the cases and was commonly dental (33 % of EI). The bacteriological diagnosis was positive in 51 cases (70.8%). Staphylococci were isolated in 17 cases (23.6%), Streptococci in 17 cases (23.6%) and dominated by oral streptococci (12 cases). Chlamydial serology was positive in 8 cases (11.1%). Diagnosis of infectious endocarditis due to Chlamydia pneumoniae was confirmed in a case by genomic amplification (PCR) and in situ hybridization on the valve. Endocarditis in Tunisia remains frequent. It reaches with predilection the young person in particular with rheumatic heart diseases. The bacteriological profile remains dominated by Streptococci and the Staphylococci.

  15. Hematology, blood chemistry, and bacteriology of the free-ranging Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Avilés, David; Salomón-Soto, Víctor Manuel; Morales-Martínez, Socorro

    2008-03-01

    Blood samples from 16 adult, wild Mexican beaded lizards were obtained for complete blood count and serum biochemical analysis. In addition, both oral and cloacal swab samples were collected and submitted for bacteriologic culture. This is the first report of hematologic and bacterial data from free-living beaded lizards. This information will serve as baseline reference values for future health assessment studies in conservation, captive breeding, and research programs.

  16. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF MICROFILTERED DRINKING WATER DISPENSERS IN CATERING ESTABLISHMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Marzano; C.M. Balzaretti

    2011-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of microfiltered drinking water dispensers was evaluated, through enumeration of heterotrophic plate count at 22 and 37 °C, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this research was to control the hygiene of the microfiltered water and to evaluate the effectiveness of the microfiltration procedure on the survival of bacteria. In total, 54 water samples were analyzed. The results indicated a high contamination ...

  17. [An approach to bacteriological taxonomy by application of Immanuel Kant's transcendental dialectics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, H

    1981-01-01

    After having altered the name of International Committee for Bacteriological Nomenclature in International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology in 1970, the latter will also have to reflect upon the objects of taxonomy. An approach thereto is recognizable in the revision of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria in 1975. Considerations are being made whether a classification of bacteria does justice to the laws of homogenicity, specification and continuity as laid down by Kant in his transcendental dialectic. Most important of all are definition and determination of the taxon species. As far as contents go the latter is not possible from the biological point of view but applicable to its range in application of the regulations of the code. Within the priorities of taxa the species adopts a preferential position because conceptions of applied bacteriology are contained therein. The variety of infra-subspecific subdivisions is taken into consideration; as far as the formae speciales are concerned considerations as made with regard to species apply.

  18. Culture methods of allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples in Australian bacteriology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue are cultured by bacteriology laboratories to determine the presence of bacteria and fungi. In Australia, this testing is performed by 6 TGA-licensed clinical bacteriology laboratories with samples received from 10 tissue banks. Culture methods of swab and tissue samples employ a combination of solid agar and/or broth media to enhance micro-organism growth and maximise recovery. All six Australian laboratories receive Amies transport swabs and, except for one laboratory, a corresponding biopsy sample for testing. Three of the 6 laboratories culture at least one allograft sample directly onto solid agar. Only one laboratory did not use a broth culture for any sample received. An international literature review found that a similar combination of musculoskeletal tissue samples were cultured onto solid agar and/or broth media. Although variations of allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples, culture media and methods are used in Australian and international bacteriology laboratories, validation studies and method evaluations have challenged and supported their use in recovering fungi and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

  19. A proposal for further integration of the cyanobacteria under the Bacteriological Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon

    2004-09-01

    This taxonomic note reviews the present status of the nomenclature of the cyanobacteria under the Bacteriological Code. No more than 13 names of cyanobacterial species have been proposed so far in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IJSEM)/International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology (IJSB), and of these only five are validly published. The cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta, blue-green algae) are also named under the Botanical Code, and the dual nomenclature system causes considerable confusion. This note calls for a more intense involvement of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP), its Judicial Commission and its Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Photosynthetic Prokaryotes in the nomenclature of the cyanobacteria under the Bacteriological Code. The establishment of minimal standards for the description of new species and genera should be encouraged in a way that will be acceptable to the botanical authorities as well. This should be followed by the publication of an 'Approved List of Names of Cyanobacteria' in IJSEM. The ultimate goal is to achieve a consensus nomenclature that is acceptable both to bacteriologists and to botanists, anticipating the future implementation of a universal 'Biocode' that would regulate the nomenclature of all organisms living on Earth.

  20. Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water. These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml. The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. Conclusion Water derived from traditional sources (wells showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that

  1. Physiochemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Selected Sachet Water in Jere and Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Modu Aji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  The study involved the determination of some physiochemical and bacteriological properties in sachet-water samples taken within selected geopolitical wards in Jere and Maiduguri Metropolis. The purpose was to ascertain the quality of sachet water sold for consumption within the area. Ten samples were drawn, five from each study area. The samples were analysed for temperature, colour, turbidity, pH, conductivity, iron, total alkalinity and total dissolved solid. Bacteriological analysis was also carried out using multiple tube (most probable number technique for enumeration of both total coli form count and differential Escherichia coli count. Other physical examination like volume, National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC registration number, batch number, production date and expiry date were also examined. The results obtained were compared with World Health Organization (WHO, NAFDAC and Nigeria Standard of Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ. Variations were observed among the entire samples in comparison with the standard. Some of the parameters conform to the standard like the Tempreture, pH, colour, odour, iron content and NAFDAC registration number while others like TDS, total alkalinity and volumetric quantity fell below the standard. The bacteriological analysis also showed that 80% of the samples studied revealed the presence of coliforms. Hence, there is need for regulatory agencies like NAFDAC and Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON to intensify effort in the routine monitoring of quality of sachet water marketed for consumption.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12177 International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 48-57  

  2. Clinical and bacteriological study of the effect of Nd:YAG laser in gingivitis therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colojoara, Carmen; Mavrantoni, Androniki; Miron, Mariana I.

    2000-06-01

    The relationship between dental plaque and gingivitis was verified. Nonspecific gingivitis is an inflammatory process, frequently caused by enzymes and toxins liberate by bacteria form dental plaque. Loose plaque has come under a great deal of investigation because of its role in attachment loss. The current methods used in the treatment of non specific gingivitis encompass the use of antibiotics and conventional surgical techniques. Treating gingivitis with laser energy may further reduce the gingival inflammation and decrease the wound healing time. The lack of correlation between the quantity of dental plaque and the intensity of gingivitis determined us to study the effect of Nd:YAG pulsed laser in reduction of gingival inflammation and wound healing. The aim of this work is to evaluate clinically the anti- inflammatory and wound healing effect of pulsed Nd:YAG laser and to compare the appearance and the levels of the bacteria in the supergingival and subgingival plaque in adolescents with tooth crowding after Nd:YAG laser. The experimental procedure consisted of a clinical and bacteriological study which was undertaken in 20 patients presenting moderate gingivitis. A group of 10 patients was the subject of a bacteriological study and the other group of 10 was used for clinical and histological examination. For each group the clinical criteria of evaluation were: the gingival index, papillary bleeding index, spontaneous aches. Each patient was tested before and after laser exposure or conventional therapy for bacteriological analyses. The results prove that early gingivitis exposure to laser registers a decrease of bacterial colony number and absence of loss of attachment as compared to the application of the conventional treatment. Clinical study has shown that the combination of scaling and root planning with laser therapy is enough to provide improvement in clinical indices and reduction in the number of bacterial colonies.

  3. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF MICROFILTERED DRINKING WATER DISPENSERS IN CATERING ESTABLISHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Marzano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriological quality of microfiltered drinking water dispensers was evaluated, through enumeration of heterotrophic plate count at 22 and 37 °C, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this research was to control the hygiene of the microfiltered water and to evaluate the effectiveness of the microfiltration procedure on the survival of bacteria. In total, 54 water samples were analyzed. The results indicated a high contamination frequency with P. aeruginosa (25 and 20% in room temperature and chilled water samples, respectively and therefore the need to improve the efficacy and the frequency of the dispenser sanitation procedures.

  4. A Clinico-bacteriological study of primary pyodermas of children in Pondicherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Mariette

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty children selected at random and diagnosed as having Primary Pyoderma lesions were studied for clinical patterns and bacteriological profile. Sixty percent of the cases were girls. The commonest clinical type was impetigo contagiosa (45% followed by folliculities of the scalp (44.2%. Staphylococcus aureus was the etiological agent in 47.5% while 26.7% of the cases were due to mixed infection along with Streptococcus pyogenes. Almost all strains were sensitive to Erythromycin and Gentamycin. The highest resistance was to Penicillin (79.3% followed by Ampicillin (73.9% and Tetracycline (42.3%.

  5. Bacteriological status of beef carcasses at a commercial abattoir before and after slaughterline improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. R.; Roberts, T. A.; Whelehan, O. P.

    1987-01-01

    The bacteriological status of beef carcasses was monitored at a commercial abattoir before and after two stages of modernization to the beef slaughterline which included changing from cradle dressing to dressing on an overhead rail, and the introduction of hot water spray cleaning of carcasses. Although small significant (P less than 0.05) differences in bacterial count occurred among carcass sites within modernization stages, significant visit within stage variation and stage X site interactions prevented any significant change in overall count being observed among stages and carcass sites. Principal components analysis revealed small changes in the distribution of bacterial numbers on the sites sampled. PMID:3556439

  6. Clinical, Bacteriologic, and Geographic Stratification of Melioidosis Emerges from the Sri Lankan National Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathkumara, Harindra D; Merritt, Adam J; Corea, Enoka M; Krishnananthasivam, Shivankari; Natesan, Mohan; Inglis, Timothy J J; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan

    2018-02-01

    Melioidosis, a potentially fatal tropical infection, is said to be underdiagnosed in low-income countries. An increase in melioidosis cases in Sri Lanka allowed us to analyze the relationship among clinical outcome, bacteriology, epidemiology, and geography in the first 108 laboratory-confirmed cases of melioidosis from a nationwide surveillance program. The additional 76 cases of laboratory-confirmed melioidosis confirmed further associations between Burkholderia pseudomallei multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and infection phenotype; ST1137/unifocal bacteremic infection (χ 2 = 3.86, P national genotyping-supported melioidosis registry will improve melioidosis diagnosis, treatment, and prevention where underdiagnosis and mortality rates remain high.

  7. Problems of Bacteriological Pollution in Water Wells in Wadi Hadramout Water Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem M. Bin Qadhi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an existing problem of drinking water pollution for a small project and one of the model projects of drinking water in Yemen, designed to save and preserve good quality water for the present and future generations in the area. The paper gives the details of the project and explains the problem of bacteriological pollution and the steps undertaken to solve the problem. Some of the results for short-term solutions and recommendation for the long-term solutions are also given.

  8. Bacteriological quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ), Enterobacter cloacae(1), Serratia liqueofaciens(1), Enterobacter sakazaki(1), Serratia marcesense(1), Klebsella orithinolytica(4), and Escherichia coli(1) were identified to species level. All isolates were sensitive to Amikacin (AK), Norfloxacin.

  9. Bacteriological evaluation of refrigerated vacuum and air-packed chicken fillets treated with irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantilla, Samira P.S.; Santos, Erica B.; Mano, Sergio B.; Franco, Robson M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: samiramantilla@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: ericaebs@hotmail.com, e-mail: mtasbm@vm.uff.br, e-mail: robsonmf@vm.uff.br; Conte Junior, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: carlosconte@hotmail.com; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear (DDQBN)], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Chicken meat is a nutritious food, rich in essential aminoacids and much appreciated by a large fraction of the population. However, it is also highly perishable, typically having a shelf life of 5 to 7 days in refrigeration, depending on the initial microbiological load. Irradiation has been efficiently used to improve safety and extend the shelf lives of many meat products. Its use in combination with refrigeration and exclusion of oxygen is known to greatly enhance the sanitary quality of meat. This work investigated the bacteriological effects of radiation doses of 0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy on vacuum- and air-packed chicken fillets kept at 1 deg C for up to 18 days. Bacteriological analyses that included enumerating and counting indicated that both the lag phase of the bacterial growth and the shelf life of the samples increased with dose. It was observed that exposure to 3.0 kGy extended the initial 5-day shelf life of the air-packed fillets to 10 days while prolonging to 12 days the shelf life of the vacuum-packed ones. Among the species of bacteria monitored, the lactic bacteria were found to be the most resistant to gamma radiation while coliforms were the most sensitive. (author)

  10. Clinical, bacteriologic, serologic, and pathologic features of infections with atypical Taylorella equigenitalis in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J B; Evans, L E; Hutto, D L; Schroeder-Tucker, L C; Carew, A M; Donahue, J M; Hirsh, D C

    2000-06-15

    To characterize clinical, serologic, bacteriologic, cytologic, and pathologic endometrial responses of mares to 2 donkey-origin atypical bacterial isolates resembling Taylorella equigenitalis. Prospective in vivo study. 10 healthy mares. Mares in estrus (2/group) were inoculated by intrauterine infusion with 2 isolates of classic T equigenitalis or 2 isolates of atypical Taylorella sp or were sham-inoculated. Bacteriologic, serologic, clinical, uterine, cytologic, and pathologic endometrial responses were assessed 4, 11, 21, 35, and 63 days after inoculation and on day 111 in mares with positive culture results on day 63. One atypical isolate failed to cause infection. The second atypical isolate and both classic T equigenitalis isolates induced similar transient metritis and cervicitis. Both classic isolates and 1 atypical isolate induced anti-T equigenitalis complement-fixing antibodies detectable at day 11. Classic isolates and an atypical isolate provoked intense neutrophilic endometritis followed by a resolving, subacute, neutrophilic-mononuclear endometrial response. The atypical isolate and classic isolates were recovered from the uterus, clitoral fossa, or clitoral sinus of one or both exposed mares for as long as 111 days. Atypical Taylorella sp infections should be considered as a differential diagnosis of equine infertility in US-origin mares, even those not exposed to stallions from countries where contagious equine metritis occurs. The origins and prevalence of atypical Taylorella sp infection in US horses and donkeys are undetermined.

  11. Bacteriological diagnosis and molecular strain typing of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, E; Corner, L A L; Costello, E; Rodriguez-Campos, S

    2014-10-01

    The primary isolation of a Mycobacterium sp. of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from an infected animal provides a definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, as Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae are difficult to isolate, particularly for animals in the early stages of disease, success is dependent on the optimal performance of all aspects of the bacteriological process, from the initial choice of tissue samples at post-mortem examination or clinical samples, to the type of media and conditions used to cultivate the microorganism. Each step has its own performance characteristics, which can contribute to sensitivity and specificity of the procedure, and may need to be optimized in order to achieve the gold standard diagnosis. Having isolated the slow-growing mycobacteria, species identification and fine resolution strain typing are keys to understanding the epidemiology of the disease and to devise strategies to limit transmission of infection. New technologies have emerged that can now even discriminate different isolates from the same animal. In this review we highlight the key factors that contribute to the accuracy of bacteriological diagnosis of M. bovis and M. caprae, and describe the development of advanced genotyping techniques that are increasingly used in diagnostic laboratories for the purpose of supporting detailed epidemiological investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacteriological Study of the Marine Water in the Coastal of the North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Indah Sutiknowati

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the marine bacteriology of the coast of North Sulawesi. The study was accomplished by calculating the abundance of coliform, heterotrophic, and pathogenic bacteria, and analyzing the coexistence relationship between bacteria and phytoplanktons. This research, which included the sampling and laboratory works, has been carried out on 25 - 28 October, 2000. The results suggested that the abundance of each bacteria was as follows: coliform bacteria range between 227-5940 cfu/100 ml with averages 1814.1 cfu/100 ml, found in all stations; heterotrophic bacteria range between (1-82 x 103 cfu/ml with averages 12.1 x 103 cfu/ml, it was high density and has association with phytoplankton Trichodesmium thieubautii. It was also found 6 species of pathogen bacteria e.g. Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Yersinia and Shigella. The presence of coliform and pathogen bacteria was indicator of low quality of the seawater in the sampling area. Based on bacteriological study, the North Sulawesi Coastal is not suitable for aquaculture and need treatment and controlled for further coastal exploitation.

  13. Histopathological and Bacteriological Analysis of Thrombus Material Extracted During Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Fernández, Francisco; Rojas-Bartolomé, Laura; García-García, Jorge; Ayo-Martín, Óscar; Molina-Nuevo, Juan David; Barbella-Aponte, Rosa Angélica; Serrano-Heras, Gemma; Juliá-Molla, Enrique; Pedrosa-Jiménez, María José; Segura, Tomás

    2017-12-01

    Management of stroke secondary to septic emboli (SE) remains challenging, due to both the lack of specific recommendations and the gravity of the underlying pathology.The aim of this study is to describe the presence of SE in a series of mechanical thrombectomies (MT), analyzing technical complexity and outcomes with respect to the patients by means of histological analysis and microbiological study of the clot. All the retrieved clots were studied under an established protocol, including histopathological and bacteriological study with hematoxylin-eosin, Gram and Gomori trichrome staining.Technical complexity in SE with respect to the series was evaluated by analyzing time of the procedures, number of passes and use of intracranial definitive stents. Over a 24-month period, bacteria were detected in the retrieved clot of four out of 65 patients (incidence 6.2%). Two cases were eventually diagnosed with infective endocarditis, while the remaining two were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and respiratory septicemia, respectively. Three of the four patients (75%) required an intracranial definitive stent in order to achieve successful recanalization.These procedures were significantly longer (137.7 vs. 59.8 min, p vs. 2.2, p vs. 1.6%, p = 0.008), with respect to the rest of the series. In our series, systematic histopathological and bacteriological study of the MT samples allowed a higher proportion of SE diagnosis in comparison with previous reports.

  14. Bacteriological profile of neonatal septicemia in a tertiary care hospital from Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrishali Avinash Muley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal septicemia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The present study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of prevalent pathogens isolated from the blood of septicemic neonates from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. A total of 180 blood samples of septicemic neonates were studied bacteriologically. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method in accordance to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institutes (CLSI guidelines. 26.6% (48 out of 180 cases of septicemia could be confirmed by blood culture. Of these, 66.7% cases were of early onset septicemia (EOS and 33.3% were of late onset septicemia (LOS. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen (35.4% among the Gram-negative pathogens and Staphylococcus aureus (22.9% was the predominant Gram-positive pathogen. 28% of K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producers. 18.1% of the Staphylococcus isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Multi-drug-resistance pattern was observed with all the isolates. Ciprofloxacin and aminoglycosides were the most effective drugs against Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. This study highlights the predominance of Gram-negative organisms in causing neonatal sepsis and emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains in our set up.

  15. Evaluation of the Bacteriological Quality of Dental Unit’s Waterlines, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Masoumbeigi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral and dentistry (O&D services processes may lead to exposing of personnel and patients with several microorganisms and arising of health problems. This cross-sectional study was investigated the bacteriological quality of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs in one of the O&D center in Tehran, Iran. One hundred ninety two samples were collected and examined based on standard microbiological procedures for determining and enumeration of heterotrophic plate count (HPC, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and LSD tests with SPSS software (Ver.16. The results revealed that 70% of water samples (126 samples had a high density of contaminations that higher than recommended values for DUWLs quality. The mean of bacterial density on Saturday was more than Wednesday and was 1838 CFU/ml, 739 CFU/ml and 11 CFU/ml for HPC, P. aeruginosa, and S.aureuse respectively. The LSD test implied that the mean of bacterial density of inlet and outlet waters had significant statistical difference in various wards of the O&D center (p < 0.05. In addition, the results demonstrated that bacteriological quality in discharging water of various wards was higher than the recommended values. This research revealed that microbial water quality assessment in O&D services centers should be considered for providing of an appropriate disinfection procedure from point of infection control in dental operation services.

  16. Bacteriological evaluation of refrigerated vacuum and air-packed chicken fillets treated with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantilla, Samira P.S.; Santos, Erica B.; Mano, Sergio B.; Franco, Robson M.; Vital, Helio C.

    2009-01-01

    Chicken meat is a nutritious food, rich in essential aminoacids and much appreciated by a large fraction of the population. However, it is also highly perishable, typically having a shelf life of 5 to 7 days in refrigeration, depending on the initial microbiological load. Irradiation has been efficiently used to improve safety and extend the shelf lives of many meat products. Its use in combination with refrigeration and exclusion of oxygen is known to greatly enhance the sanitary quality of meat. This work investigated the bacteriological effects of radiation doses of 0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy on vacuum- and air-packed chicken fillets kept at 1 deg C for up to 18 days. Bacteriological analyses that included enumerating and counting indicated that both the lag phase of the bacterial growth and the shelf life of the samples increased with dose. It was observed that exposure to 3.0 kGy extended the initial 5-day shelf life of the air-packed fillets to 10 days while prolonging to 12 days the shelf life of the vacuum-packed ones. Among the species of bacteria monitored, the lactic bacteria were found to be the most resistant to gamma radiation while coliforms were the most sensitive. (author)

  17. Fabrication of autoclavable bacteriologic loops for handling Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from recycled materials in a resource poor setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochang, Ernest Afu

    2013-01-01

    In resource limited settings, the appropriation of scarce resources during research efforts can be daunting. Sourcing for disposable plastic bacteriological loops for manipulating M. tuberculosis had been eating into the research budget. In an attempt to reduce cost, an alternative and more cost effective way of obtaining autoclavable bacteriologic inoculation loops from used materials in the laboratory was employed. Autoclave resistant loops were prepared from polypropylene automatic pipette tips and platinum wires from electric stoves. The loop volume, when desired, was calculated using a simple mathematical equation after several passes in weighted water. Laboratories in resource poor settings could also save on inoculating loops by adopting such pragmatic approaches using recycled materials.

  18. Breast Abscessed Cancer in Nonlactating Women in Tropical Environment: Radiological, Bacteriological, and Anatomopathological Features about 3 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazamaesso Tchaou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of breast cancer and abscess is rare in daily practice. The authors report a short series of 3 cases of cancer of the breast in nonlactating women presented as breast abscess, reviewing aspects in radiology (ultrasound and mammography, correlating them with the histopathology findings and the bacteriological profile of the isolated germs.

  19. Comparative Bacteriological Study of Two Wild Boar Populations in Sierra Morena (Ja�n, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio NOTARIO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of various bacterial species in the wild boar populations of Lugar Nuevo and Selladores-Contadero woodlands from Sierra Morena (Spain. Bacteriological analyses were carried out on a total of 229 wild boar individuals hunted in the period 2000-2003 in eleven experimental plots which are representative for the different biotopes of the area. The following species were detected: Brucella ovis, Clostridium sp., Corynebacterium sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Chlamydophila psittaci, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus sp. and the bacterial prevalence was estimated for each of them. The results provide useful indications of the health status of wild boar in both locations and highlight the potential of the wild boar populations to act as biological reservoirs of certain microorganisms that can be passed onto other vertebrate wild animals and humans.

  20. Bacteriological findings in patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, 1985-1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonitzki, C; Hoffmann, F A

    1989-01-01

    The results of the bacteriological surveillance cultures for 26 patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, G.D.R., 1985-1987) are presented. 5.9% of all surveillance cultures contained facultatively pathogenic germs (with Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the most frequent representative, which was the reason of a sepsis in two patients). Coagulasenegative Staphylococci and other germs with an obscure pathogenicity were isolated upon a large scale, especially from the mucous membrane regions. There are hints, that above all special strains of coagulasenegative Staphylococci "colonize" the patient's body (also for longer periods) and turn into the blood too. During the total decontamination intestinal anaerobic flora is absent. After closing of total decontamination Clostridium perfringens is the first detectable anaerobic species. During the selective decontamination systemic applications of antibiotics are able to obliterate anaerobic findings for certain periods. Recommendations for an effective arrangement of the surveillance cultures of bone marrow transplantation patients are given.

  1. Bacteriological quality of freshly processed broiler chickens as affected by carcass pretreatment and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamuka, P.O.; Sunki, G.R.; Chawan, C.B.; Rao, D.R.; Shackelford, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Chicken carcasses dipped in whey fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus, lactic acid solution or water and irradiated at 2.5 kGy by 60Co were evaluated for bacteriological quality on day 1, day-3 and at 3-day intervals for an 18-day storage (4 degrees C) period. Unirradiated carcasses treated similarly were used as control. Gram negative bacteria, Yersinia and Campylobacter counts were significantly (p0.01) lower in irradiated samples, but no significant (p0.05) differences were observed ammong the dipping solutions. Salmonellae were completely eliminated in irradiated samples. Whey fermented by S. thermophilus reduced the proportion of Salmonella contaminated carcasses from 67% to 20%. As evidenced by the bacterial counts the shelf-life was found to be 15 days for irradiated carcasses compared to about 6 days for the unirradiated samples

  2. Bacteriological quality and solid wastes at five coastal marine environments of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Vera; Acuna Gonzalez, Jenaro; Vargas Zamora, Jose A.; Garcia Cespedes, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    Anthropogenic waste and water bacteriological quality were surveyed twice a year in 2000 and in 2002 at five coastal marine environments in Costa Rica, one in the Caribbean (Bahia de Moin) and four in the Pacific (Bahia de Culebra, Golfo de Nicoya, Estero de Puntarenas, Bahia de Golfito). The most probable number (MPN)/100 mL of coliform bacteria was calculated after incubation series of five test tubes. A total of 14 coastal and two river water samples were collected in the Caribbean, and 32 coastal, nine estuarine and one tap water samples in the Pacific, plus 25 samples investigated for Escherichia coli in 2002. The means of 2 MPN/100 mL in June 2000 and 17 MPN/100 mL in May 2002, and faecal coliforms [es

  3. Pharmacokinetics and bacteriological efficacy of mezlocillin in experimental Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, C; Thomas, M L; McCracken, G H

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and bacteriological effect of mezlocillin in experimental meningitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes and two Escherichia coli strains. The half-life of mezlocillin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was approximately twice that in serum of experimentally infected animals, and the penetration of drug into CSF was 5 to 15% after a single dose and 5 to 20% after continuous-infusion experiments. The bactericidal titer in CSF for both susceptible E. coli and L. monocytogenes was 1:8, whereas for the resistant E. coli strain, titers were less than 1:2 after single doses of 50 or 100 mg of mezlocillin per kg and 1:4 with continuous infusion. After single-dose and continuous-infusion experiments, the bacteriological effect of mezlocillin in experimental L. monocytogenes infections was similar to that of ampicillin. Mezlocillin reduced the colony counts of of susceptible E. coli in CSF by 90% or more after a single dose or continuous infusion but had no appreciable effect on resistant E. coli after a single dose of 50 mg/kg. In contrast, a single dose of 100 mg of mezlocillin per kg eradicated the resistant strain from CSF, despite a bactericidal titer in CSF of less than 1:2. This unexpected finding prompted us to evaluate the effect of serum on the in vitro susceptibilities of selected coliforms to mezlocillin. The activity of mezlocillin against one susceptible and four resistant strains of gram-negative, enteric bacilli was enhanced manyfold by the addition of fresh rabbit serum; this effect was abolished by heating the serum at 56 degrees C for 30 min. This interaction of mezlocillin and serum against coliform bacteria should be examined in a larger number of experimentally infected animals and in specimens obtained from mezlocillin-treated infants.

  4. The bacteriological composition of biomass recovered by flushing an operational drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, I; Husband, S; Boxall, J B

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the influence of pipe characteristics on the bacteriological composition of material mobilised from a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) and the impact of biofilm removal on water quality. Hydrants in a single UK Distribution Management Area (DMA) with both polyethylene and cast iron pipe sections were subjected to incremental increases in flow to mobilise material from the pipe walls. Turbidity was monitored during these operations and water samples were collected for physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. DNA was extracted from the material mobilised into the bulk water before and during flushing. Bacterial tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing was then used to characterize the bacterial communities present in this material. Turbidity values were high in the samples from cast iron pipes. Iron, aluminium, manganese and phosphate concentrations were found to correlate to observed turbidity. The bacterial community composition of the material mobilised from the pipes was significantly different between plastic and cast iron pipe sections (p < 0.5). High relative abundances of Alphaproteobacteria (23.3%), Clostridia (10.3%) and Actinobacteria (10.3%) were detected in the material removed from plastic pipes. Sequences related to Alphaproteobacteria (22.8%), Bacilli (16.6%), and Gammaproteobacteria (1.4%) were predominant in the samples obtained from cast iron pipes. The highest species richness and diversity were found in the samples from material mobilised from plastic pipes. Spirochaeta spp., Methylobacterium spp. Clostridium spp. and Desulfobacterium spp., were the most represented genera in the material obtained prior to and during the flushing of the plastic pipes. In cast iron pipes a high relative abundance of bacteria able to utilise different iron and manganese compounds were found such as Lysinibacillus spp., Geobacillus spp. and Magnetobacterium spp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Entero-hepatic pathobiology: histopathology and semi-quantitative bacteriology of the duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NMK Ito

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Duodenum swabs were harvested from 80 broilers in 15 flocks of 8 broiler farms and were submitted to bacteriological evaluation. Five broiler breeders were sampled to obtain comparative data. Macro and microscopic lesions in the gut and the liver were evaluated in all birds submitted to swab harvesting and also broilers of two slaughter plants. Semiquantitative bacterial examination in duodenum swabs demonstrated higher microorganism growth in blood agar than in MacConkey medium. Staphylococcus sp, Enterococcus sp and Escherichia coli were found in some broiler flocks. An increased cellularity of the muscular mucosae of duodenum villi and/or the presence of some gametocytes or schizonts of coccidia were found in the lesioned gut in addition to high bacterial growth in blood agar. In some flocks, enlarged yellowish livers with vacuolated hepatocytes and/or increased reticuloendothelial response were seen in some birds. Liver and gut samples were collected in two slaughter plants in order to establish a pattern of response in broilers after withdrawal of growth promoters. Livers with macroscopic lesions presented microscopic lesions in the parenchyma such as increased leukocyte response in the sinusoidal space, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes or focal necrosis in the perilobular region, increased size or number of lymphoid nests in the perilobular region, the perivascular space and surrounding the biliary duct and increased extramedular granulocytopoiesis. Duodenum with hyperemic patches showed increased cellular response in the muscular mucosa of villi. These observations support the concept that semi-quantitative bacteriology and liver lesion evaluation could be used as a model to study gut bacterial imbalance in chickens.

  6. Geografía médica, bacteriología y el caso de las fiebres en Colombia en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relation between bacteriology and medical geography in the 19th century in Colombia, following the case of fevers. Through this, it explains how historiography has approached the relation between bacteriology and medical geography, and analyzes said relation in the medical research pertaining to yellow fever, fevers of the Magdalena River, and malaria in the 1880s. Finally, it shows that, instead of passively incorporating bacteriology, the physicians fought to combine it with medical geography, incorporating elements of both approaches, keeping them in tense separation, or rejecting one in favor of the other.

  7. Inner ear and facial nerve complications of acute otitis media with focus on bacteriology and virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydén, Dag; Akerlind, Britt; Peebo, Markus

    2006-05-01

    Among 20 patients with inner ear complications and/or peripheral facial palsy secondary to acute otitis media (AOM) a proven or probable bacteriological cause was found in 13 (65%). In seven patients (35%), a proven or probable viral cause was found. Only two of the patients (10%), with a proven bacterial AOM and a clinical picture of a purulent labyrinthitis in both, together with a facial palsy in one, had a substantial degree of dysfunction. Although the number of patients in this study is relatively low our findings show that inner ear complications and facial palsy due to AOM can be of both bacterial and viral origin. Severe sequelae were found only where a bacterial origin was proven. Inner ear complications and/or peripheral facial palsy secondary to AOM are rare. The general understanding is that they are due to bacterial infections. However, in some of these patients there are no clinical or laboratory signs of bacterial infections and they have negative bacterial cultures. During recent years different viruses have been isolated from the middle ear or serologically proven in AOM patients and are thought to play a pathogenetic role. We suggest that in some cases of AOM complications from the inner ear and the facial nerve can be caused by viruses. The purpose of our study was to analyze infectious agents present in patients with inner ear complications and/or facial palsy arising from AOM. The medical records of 20 patients who had inner ear complications and/or facial palsy following AOM ( unilateral in 18, bilateral in 2) between January 1989 and March 2003 were evaluated. Bacterial cultures were carried out for all patients. Sera from 12 of the patients were stored and tested for a battery of specific viral antibodies. In three patients, investigated between November 2002 and March 2003, viral cultures were also performed on samples from the middle ear and nasopharynx. Nineteen patients had inner ear symptoms. Eight of them had a unilateral

  8. Bacteriological finding in the urethra in men with and without non-gonococcal urethritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiodorović Jelica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU is a very common sexually transmitted disease. The etiology of the disease is complex and not completely solved. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological finding in the urethra in men with and without non-gonococcal utethritis. Methods. The study group comprised 200 men with symptoms of urethritis. The control group consisted of 60 men without symptoms of urethritis. The diagnosis of nongonococcal infection was made by finding of an increased number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (≥ 5 under the microscope in a sample of Gram-stain of urethral smear (× 1 000 and without evidence of Neisseria. gonorrhoeae in specimens (negative direct microscopy and cell culture. Bacteriological examination included: direct microscopy with the Gramstained and methylblue-stained smears of urethral discharges, and cultivation of specimens under the aerobic/unaerobic conditions. In addition to standard bacterial examination and performinig direct imunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis (bioMerieux, France, urethral smears were also examined for the presence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. The finding of mycoplasmas ≥ 104 CCU/ml was positive. The data were statistically analyzed using Pearson χ2 and Student t test. Results. C. trachomatis was predominant bacterial species found in urethra in men with nongonococcal urethritis. It was isolated alone and/or mixed with mycoplasmas and/or other bacteria in 86 (43.0% of examinees. There was statistically significant difference in finding of C. trachomatis between the study group and the control group (p < 0.001. U. urealyticum was found in men with NGU: 30.2% were with C. trachomatis and 36.0% were without C. trachomatis (p > 0.05. In 16 (8.0% men with NGU, C. trachomatis was isolated alone, while in 13.0% examinees it occurred with U

  9. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds- a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

    ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Between 5% and 10% of cancer patients develop malignant wounds. In vitro and some clinical studies suggest that silver- or honey-coated dressings may have an antibacterial effect in nonmalignant wounds, but their possible antibacterial effect in malignant wounds remains unknown...... antibacterial effect of the honey or silver dressing could not be confirmed in these malignant wounds. Routine wound swabbing of malignant wounds is of little value and should be restricted to cases where signs of infection requiring antibiotic intervention are observed or where resistant organisms require....... A prospective, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed...

  10. Analysis of mammary gland according to results of CMT (California Mastitis Test and bacteriological findings in secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varatanović Nazif

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Health control of the mammary gland was conducted comparing results of CMT (California Mastitis Test and bacteriological findings of milk samples during one year. A total of 3863 secretion samples of mammary glands were collected. There were 85.3% matches for CMT and bacteriological findings. The most frequently isolated causative agents were: staphylococci (52.4%, streptococcus bacteria (23.5%, mixed infections (13.1%, and enterobacteria (10.3%. Secretions disorder and inflammations of mammary gland are most common for the warm period of the year, and very rare for the winter period. With permanent use of these two methods it is possible to obtain satisfactory results in order to get better milk production and health condition of the mammary gland. .

  11. Bacteriological methods for distinguishing between human and animal faecal pollution of water: results of fieldwork in Nigeria and Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mara, D. Duncan; Oragui, John

    1985-01-01

    Bacteriological techniques have traditionally been used to detect faecal pollution of drinking water supplies. Recently, methods have been developed to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution in temperate climates. The present study assessed the applicability and practicality of these methods in tropical countries. Fieldwork in Nigeria and Zimbabwe has shown that animal faecal pollution can reliably be identified by the detection and enumeration of Rhodococcus coprophilus using ...

  12. [Study of the bacteriological quality of water used in the agro-food industry in the North of Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haijoubi, El Houcine; Benyahya, Fatiha; Bendahou, Abdrezzak; Essadqui, Faima Zahra; Behhari, Mohammed El; El Mamoune, Ahmed Fouad; Ghailani, Naima Nourouti; Mechita, Mohcine Bennani; Barakat, Amina

    2017-01-01

    Water is used predominantly in food manufacturing process. Northern morocco agro-food industries use different sources of water, but public water and wells water are the main sources of water used. This water can be the main source of possible food contaminations and alterations. This study aims is to assess the bacteriological quality of water used in the agro-food industries in the Northern region of Morocco, to identify the different types of germs responsible for the pollution of these waters and to establish the main causes of this pollution. Water samples taken from taps or wells were analyzed to detect pollution indicator germs (total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), intestinal enterococci (E), revivable microorganisms (RM), sulphite-reducing anaerobes) and pathogens (Salmonella, Staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The enumeration of the bacteria was performed by filtration technique and incorporation obtained through supercooled solid state. The results showed that public-supply waters were of satisfactory bacteriological quality while 40% of the wells water was non-compliant with water quality standards due to the presence of TC, FC, E and RM pollution indicators. In contrast, pathogens, particularly Salmonellae, were absent in all the wells water analyzed. Well water pollution was generally due to failure to meet hygienic requirements for water pumping. Bacteriological quality of these wells water could be improved by adequate protection.

  13. [Bacteriology of community acquired meningitis in Sfax, Tunisia (1993-2001)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, S Mezghani; Kassis, M; Rhimi, F Mahjoubi; Damak, J; Hammami, A

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of bacteria responsible for community-acquired meningitis and the pattern of resistance of common species. All bacteriologically confirmed cases of community-acquired meningitis were recorded between 1993 and 2001. Two hundred twenty-four cases of bacterial meningitis were recorded. The most frequent species were Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae followed by Neisseria meningitidis with respectively 37.1%, 32.1%, and 10.7% of cases. The yearly distribution of these bacteria did not show any epidemic peak. Enterobacteria and group B Streptococcus were the most frequently identified pathogens in neonatal meningitis. H. influenzae was the predominant microorganism in children between one month and five years of age, (66.4%) followed by S. pneumoniae (23.5%). S. pneumoniae was the predominant bacteria responsible fore more than half of the cases over five years of age. 28.8% of H. influenzae strains produced beta-lactamase. 27.2% of S. pneumoniae strains were less susceptible to penicillin. Resistance rates for amoxicillin and cefotaxime were respectively 10.6% and 7.5%. Only one strain of N. meningitidis (4.2%) presented with a decreased susceptibility to penicillin. In our study, H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were the main microorganisms responsible for community-acquired meningitis. High resistance rates were found for these bacteria: 28.8% of H. influenzae to ampicillin and 27.2% of S. pneumoniae to penicillin.

  14. Prevalence of Taylorella equigenitalis infection in stallions in Slovenia: bacteriology compared with PCR examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdovc, I; Ocepek, M; Gruntar, I; Pate, M; Klobucar, I; Krt, B

    2005-05-01

    The prevalence of Taylorella equigenitalis infection in Slovenia is unknown and methods used to refine identification in these stallions are required. In diagnosis of T. equigenitalis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) would have advantages over culture methods, especially in cases where small numbers of causal agent or intensive contamination of genital swabs are involved. Culture method and PCR were used to examine a total of 980 genital swabs from the urethra and fossa urethralis of 245 stallions for the presence of the contagious equine metritis organism. Among 245 examined stallions, 225 (91.8%) were negative to T. equigenitalis by both methods. From the swabs of 17 stallions (6.9%) T. equigenitalis was isolated at first and/or second sampling. Swabs of 3 (13%) stallions were PCR positive but the isolation of T. equigenitalis failed. The rate of T. equigenitalis detection was higher with PCR than with the classic bacteriological examination. PCR protocol used in this study provided a specific, sensitive, and simple tool for rapid detection of T. equigenitalis. PCR is especially valuable in cases of intensive bacterial and fungal contamination of swabs where the isolation of T. equigenitalis usually fails.

  15. Travel grant program for the IX International Congresses of Mycology and Bacteriology -- Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granigan, Marion

    2000-05-25

    In 1999, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and the National Academy of Sciences' U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Microbiological Sciences (IUMS) jointly organized a competitive travel grant program to support the participation of U.S. scientists in the 9th International Congresses of the Bacteriological and Applied Microbiology, Mycology and Virology Divisions of the IUMS in Sydney, Australia, August 16-20, 1999. Funding was solicited for the program, and the ASM Minority and International Activities department administered the $40,000 raised. Travel grants in the amount of $2,000 were offered to U.S. investigators (citizens, including federal employees, and permanent residents working in the United States) in the early stages of their careers who planned to attend and present their research at the Congress. Teams of established and new investigators who applied jointly were eligible to received a combined $3,000 award. IUMS developed a questionnaire th at each applicant were required to complete and return, which asked each award recipient about their experience at the Congresses. Questionnaire results are included.

  16. Bacteriological Profile of Blood Culture Positive Sepsis in Newborn at BPKIHS, Dharan Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piush Kanodia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Neonatal infections currently cause about 1.6 million deaths annually in developing countries. Sepsis and meningitis is responsible for most of these deaths. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profiles and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolates from blood cultures of neonates admitted in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Nepal.Materials & Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at pediatric department from January, 2014 to December 2014. Total 1009 newborns blood sample with suspected and clinical sepsis were cultured by using standard microbiological technique and antibiotic sensitivity patterns were studied. Results: The positive blood culture was 32.4% (327/1009. Gram positive bacteria were more common 231(71% than gram negative bacteria 96(29%. Staphylococcus aureus 174 (53.2% and acinetobacter 46(14.1% were the commonest isolates in blood culture. Most of the organisms showed sensitivity with aminoglycosides (gentamicin and amikacin and third generation cephalosporins.Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella species remain the principal organisms causing neonatal sepsis and antibiotics like amino glycosides should be first choice of drugs.

  17. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MARINE WATER IN ADRIATIC FISH FARMS: ENUMERATION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Teskeredžić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food production sectors in the world. Increase in nutrients and organic wastes lead to general deterioration of water quality. The problem of water quality is associated with both physical and chemical factors, as well as microbiological water quality. Heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in the process of decomposition of organic matter in water environment and indicate eutrophication process. Here we present our experience and knowledge on bacterial properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms with European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758, with an emphasis on enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water. We applied two temperatures of incubation, as well as two methods for enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria: substrate SimPlate® test and spread plate method on conventional artificial media (Marine agar and Tryptic Soy agar with added NaCl. The results of analysis of bacteriological properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms showed that enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water depends on the applied incubation temperature and media for enumeration. At the same time, the incubation temperature of 22C favours more intense growth of marine heterotrophic bacteria, whereas a SimPlate test gives higher values of heterotrophic bacteria. Volatile values of heterotrophic bacteria during this research indicate a possible deterioration of microbiological water quality in the Adriatic fish farms and a need for regular monitoring of marine water quality.

  18. Bacteriological assessment of the hospital environment in two referral hospitals in Yaoundé-Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsu, Kamga Hortense; Guenou, Etienne; Toukam, Michel; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Mbakop, Calixte Didier; Tankeu, Dongmo Norbert; Mbopi-Keou, Francois Xavier; Takongmo, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Many studies still show significant numbers of surgical patients contracting nosocomial infections each year globally with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify potential bacteria reservoirs that may be responsible for nosocomial infection in surgical services in the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (YUTH) and the Central Hospital Yaoundé (CHY). A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to August 2012. Air, water, and surface samples were collected from two surgical services and subjected to standard bacteriological analysis. A total of 143 surface samples were collected. Bacteria were isolated in all surfaces except from one trolley sample and a surgical cabinet sample. The predominant species in all services was coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS). The average number of colonies was 132. 82 CFU/25 cm(2). The bacteria isolated in the air were similar to those isolated from surfaces. From the 16 water samples cultured, an average of 50.93 CFU/100ml bacteria were isolated. The distribution of isolated species showed a predominance of Burkholderia cepacia. These results showed the importance of the hospital environment as a potential reservoir and source of nosocomial infections amongst surgical patient at YUTH and CHY, thus we suggest that Public health policy makers in Cameroon must define, publish guidelines and recommendations for monitoring environmental microbiota in health facilities.

  19. [Bacteriological evaluation of a procedure for disinfecting the Olympus GIF-D2 panendoscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ramos, A; Domínguez, N; Makino, R; Barrera, C

    1980-01-01

    We have performed a total of 107 cultures from three critical areas of an Olympus Panendoscope Model GIF-D2 in order to evaluate bacteriologically cur system of desinfection of this endoscope. Samples were taken from the distal end, external surface and biopsy canal before and after an endoscopic examination was performed. The procedure of desinfection employed was as follows: washing of the distal end, external surface and biopsy canal with Hexaclorophel (Phisohex) diluted 50% with water and a second washing with tap water. In the middle of the study, we added a second washing of the biopsy canal with ten ml. of ether alcohol to allow for better drying. As a result of the present study we observed that in the distal end in 50% of the samples we encountered bacteria. Cultures of the external surface were positive in 20% of samples. The biopsy canal should be washed with ether alcohol to allow for complete drying, because when we did not use this method, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa was isolated. After this modification we did not isolate bacteria. The most frequent types of isolated bacteria were from the normal oropharyngeal flora. From the present study we can conclude that desinfection of the Panendespe with Hexaclorophen gives satisfactory results on the external surface of the endoscope. Biopsy canal requires additional washing with ether alcohol. However, both procedures do not assure a satisfactory desinfection of the distal end.

  20. Bacteraemia in Intensive Care Unit: Clinical, Bacteriological, and Prognostic Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Lachhab

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We conducted a one-year observational study from December 2012 to November 2013 to describe the epidemiology of bacteraemia in intensive care units (ICU of Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital of Rabat (Morocco. Methods. The study consisted of monitoring all blood cultures coming from intensive care units and studying the bacteriological profile of positive blood cultures as well as their clinical significance. Results. During this period, a total of 46 episodes of bacteraemia occurred, which corresponds to a rate of 15,4/1000 patients. The rate of nosocomial infections was 97% versus 3% for community infections. The most common source of bacteraemia was the lungs in 33%, but no source was identified in 52% of the episodes. Gram negative organisms were isolated in 83,6% of the cases with Acinetobacter baumannii being the most frequent. Antibiotic resistance was very high with 42,5% of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae and 100% of carbapenemase in Acinetobacter baumannii. The antibiotherapy introduced in the first 24 hours was adequate in 72% of the cases. Conclusions. Bloodstream infections in ICU occur most often in patients over 55 years, with hypertension and diabetes. The bacteria involved are mainly Gram negative bacteria multiresistant to antibiotics. Early administration of antibiotics significantly reduces patients mortality.

  1. Evaluation of bacteriology of middle ear in early quiescent stage of chronic otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Bhandari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine whether any organism does exist in middle ear cavity during the early quiescent stage of chronic otitis media and to isolate their types. Materials and methods Forty-seven patients of age 13 years and above with diagnosis of chronic otitis media mucosal type in early quiescent stage were included. Swab was collected from middle ear cavity for culture and sensitivity in operation theatre prior to middle ear surgery and brought to microbiology laboratory within half an hour to inoculate in Blood agar, Chocolate agar and Mac Conkey agar. The isolates were identified with the use of standard bacteriological technique. Results Aerobic bacteria were isolated from 15 cases (31.9%. Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 12(80%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2(13.3% and E. coli in 1(6.7%. Conclusion Aerobic bacteria were isolated from middle ear cavity in quiescent stage of chronic otitis media in 15(32% cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2012, Vol-8, No-4, 22-26 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i4.8696

  2. Analysis of physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water in Mafikeng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulamattathil, Suma George; Bezuidenhout, Carlos; Mbewe, Moses

    2015-12-01

    Mafikeng, the capital of the North West Province, receives water from two sources, namely the Molopo eye and the Modimola dam. Once treated, the potable water is mixed and supplied to the city via distribution systems. This study was designed to assess the quality of drinking water in Mafikeng and also to determine whether the water from the two sources has an impact on the mixed water quality. Physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological quality (faecal coliforms (FCs), total coliforms (TCs), heterotrophic bacteria and Peudomonas spp.) was monitored at three drinking water sites weekly for 4 months. The results revealed that the physico-chemical quality of the water was generally acceptable. The pH ranged from 5.7 ± 0.18 to 8.6 ± 0.14, the temperature ranged from 18.3 ± 0.69 to 25.1 ± 0.69 °C and the total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 159.9 ± 22.44 to 364.4 ± 12.44 mg/l. These values are within the target water quality range for drinking water as prescribed by WHO, Department of Water Affairs and SANS 241. What is of concern was the microbial quality of the water. FCs, TCs, heterotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were present in some of the treated water samples. The most significant finding of this study is that all drinking water samples were positive for Pseudomonas spp. (>100/100 ml).

  3. Bacteriological and parasitological assessment of food handlers in the Omdurman area of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Humodi Ahmed; Hamid, Hatim Hassan

    2010-02-01

    Pathogenic organisms are thought to be widely distributed among food handlers. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of carriers of some pathogenic bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the city of Omdurman, Sudan. A total of 518 nasal swabs and stool specimens were collected. Nasal swabs were cultured on bacteriological culture media. Stool specimens were examined microscopically for intestinal parasites. Of the total subjects examined, 30.1% were found to be carriers of pathogenic organisms. The pathogens isolated and identified were the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Shigella boydii, and the intestinal parasites, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar. Bacteria and intestinal parasites were most prevalent among storekeepers (41%), followed by restaurant workers (24.4%), bakers (24.4%), butchers (5.1%), milk distributors (2.6%), and fruits/vegetables sellers (2.6%). S. aureus, the most abundant pathogen, was most prevalent in storekeepers (44.6%), followed by restaurant workers (25%), bakers (17.9%), butchers (5.4%), milk distributors (3.6%), and fruit/vegetable sellers (3.6%). The findings from this study indicate a key role for food handlers in the spread and transmission of food communicable diseases and reveal the need for protective measures.

  4. Bacteriological and mycological surveys along Otranto coastal areas; La situazione igienica del litorale salentino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagna, M.T. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Ist. di Igiene; De Donno, A.; Bagordo, F. [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia, Lab. di Igiene; Carrozzini, F. [ASL LE/2, Lecce (Italy). Direzione Sanitaria

    2000-01-01

    Bacteriological and mycological surveys were carried out on water samples collected from 6 seaside resorts and 2 affluent along Otranto coastal areas. The following parameters were tested: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, Salmonella, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, Vibrio species and yeasts. Results show fecal pollution in three seaside resorts and in one drain, whereas Salmonella research always resulted negative. P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were isolated from both affluents. V. alginolyticus was the most isolated vibrio specie (90%). Among isolated yeasts Torulopsis inconspicua (70%) was the most frequent one. [Italian] E' stata condotta una indagine batteriologica e micologica su campioni di acqua provenienti da 6 stabilimenti balneari e da 2 affluenti che sfociano nel litorale di Otranto. Sono stati esaminati i seguenti parametri: coliformi totali, coliformi fecali, streptococchi fecali, salmonelle, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, vibrioni e miceti. Dall'indagine e' emerso che indici di contaminazione fecale sono stati evidenziati in tre stazioni balneari e in un affluente mentre la ricerca delle salmonelle e' risultata sempre negativa. P. aeruginosa e S. aureus sono stati isolati in entrambi gli affluenti. Per quanto riguarda la ricerca dei vibrioni, V. alginolyticus e' apparsa la specie piu' frequente (90%). Tra i lieviti isolati, quello piu' frequente e' risultato Torulopsis inconspicua (70%).

  5. Fusobacterium nucleatum infections: clinical spectrum and bacteriological features of 78 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, E; Barraud, O

    2016-08-01

    Few series describe the clinical spectrum of Fusobacterium spp. infections. Among them, fewer discuss F. nucleatum, even though there are many clinical cases. We performed a retrospective study over 8 years (from 2007 to 2014) in Limoges University Hospital, France, to assess clinical and bacteriological aspects of infections due to F. nucleatum. Eighty-one patients with F. nucleatum positive cultures were included in this study, irrespective of sample origin. Abscesses (n = 43), bacteraemia (n = 18) and bone infections (n = 8) were the most common types of infections, Abscesses were found in various organs (mostly skin, brain, pleura, liver). Co-morbidities were found in 38 patients (47 %) with neoplasia, diabetes, and alcoholism and history of smoking. There were more neoplasms in patients with bacteraemia than in patients with abscesses (p = 0.007). In 51 cases (65.4 %), infection was polymicrobial, either during bacteraemia or abscesses. Main associations were with Streptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus spp. and/or Prevotella spp. The sources of infection, when found, were either dental or gastrointestinal. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, clindamycin and metronidazole. Infections involving F. nucleatum are uncommon and potentially severe, with many abscesses requiring surgery. Bacteraemia was mainly associated with co-morbidities such as cancer. Polymicrobial infections were very common and there is probably interaction and/or synergy between F. nucleatum and some other commensal bacteria to cause infections and abscesses.

  6. Experimental staphylococcal mastitis in bitches: clinical, bacteriological, cytological, haematological and pathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververidis, H N; Mavrogianni, V S; Fragkou, I A; Orfanou, D C; Gougoulis, D A; Tzivara, A; Gouletsou, P G; Athanasiou, L; Boscos, C M; Fthenakis, G C

    2007-09-20

    The objectives of the work were to study the features of experimentally induced canine mastitis and to present hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. The right caudal abdominal mammary gland of six bitches was inoculated on day 8 after whelping with Staphylococcus intermedius to induce mastitis; adjacent mammary glands were used as controls. Clinical examination, bacteriological and cytological (whiteside test, Giemsa) examination of mammary secretion, as well as haematological tests were performed from 5 days before until 34 days after challenge. Mastectomy was sequentially performed 1, 2, 4, 18, 26 and 34 days after challenge in each of the bitches, in order to carry out a pathological examination of mammary glands. All animals developed clinical mastitis: challenged glands became painful, hot, enlarged and oedematous; secretion was brownish, purulent, with flakes or clots, subsequently becoming yellowish and thick. Staphylococci were isolated from all inoculated glands (up to 22 days). WST was positive in 41/46 samples from inoculated glands and 66/138 samples from control glands; neutrophils predominated during the acute stage. Blood leukocyte counts increased, whilst platelet counts decreased. Gross pathological findings initially included congestion, purulent discharge and subcutaneous oedema; then abscesses, brownish areas and size decrease were seen. Salient histopathological features were initially neutrophilic infiltration, haemorrhages, destruction of mammary epithelial cells and alveoli, and then infiltration by lymphocytes, shrunken alveoli, loss of glandular architecture and fibrous tissue proliferation. We conclude that in bitches, intrammamary inoculation of Staphylococcus intermedius can induce clinical mastitis, followed by subclinical disease. The disorder is characterized by bacterial isolation and leukocyte influx in challenged glands, by leukocyte presence in adjacent mammary glands, by increased blood leukocyte counts and by

  7. Bacteriological features of infectious spondylodiscitis at Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital of Rabat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zohoun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To review the bacteriological features of infectious spondylodiscitis and provide recommendations for the initial therapy which remains empirical in our context. Retrospective study including patients diagnosed with spondylodiscitis over a period of 4 years (2006-2009 at the Rabat Military Teaching Hospital. During the study period, we analysed 30 cases: the mean age was 49.9 years and 21 cases (70% were male. The patients were predominantly hospitalized in neurosurgery department (15/30 followed by rheumatology department (10/30. The site of infection was lumbar in 21 cases (21/30, dorsal in 7 cases (7/30. 26 cultures were positive of which 19 (19/26 were monomicrobial. Tuberculosis (TB was implicated in 10 cases (10/30 including 4 cases in association with common organisms (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium species. Brucella melitensis was isolated in 1 case. Infections caused by pyogenic bacteria were isolated in 15 cases of which 12 (12/15 revealed simple organisms including Gram-positive cocci in 9 cases (9/12 with 3 cases of S. aureus and Gram-negative bacilli in 3 cases (3/12 with 2 cases of P. aeruginosa. Blood cultures carried out for 16 patients were positive in 7 cases. The anatomopathologic exams carried out for 20 patients found in 6 cases epithelioid granulomata and giants cells with caseous necrosis in total concordance with TB culture. TB is the most frequent cause of spondylodiscitis in Morocco. Our study found the same frequency for non-specific and specific germs. Empirical treatment must take into account S. aureus and M. tuberculosis.

  8. BACTERIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS OF BACTERIAL KERATITIS IN JIMMA, SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Tewelde Tesfaye

    2015-10-01

    In East Africa, particularly in Ethiopia, bacterial keratitis is a major cause of blindness. The aims of this study were to identify risk factors of bacterial keratitis and the spectrum of bacterial etiologies, and to assess the in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of these bacterial isolates at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. A prospective study was employed from January 2012 to June 2012 from which a total of 24 patients with bacterial keratitis were included in the study. Corneal scrapings were collected, transported and microbiologically processed using standard operating procedures. Four different predisposing factors for bacterial keratitis were identified: corneal trauma 9 (37.5%), blepharitis 7 (29.2%), herpetic keratitis, and use of contaminated medications 4. Bilateral corneal infection was found in 5 (20.8%) of the cases. A total of 24 corneal scrapings were collected for microbiological evaluation, of which 20 (83%) had bacterial growth. The isolated bacterial pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10 (41.7%), Staphyloccus aureus 5 (20.8%), Serratia marcescens 3 (12.5%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae 2 (8.3%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 85% of Gram-negative bacilli were susceptible to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, while 86% of Gram-positive cocci were susceptible to vancomycin and Ciprofloxacin. Corneal trauma was the most common risk factor for bacterial keratitis followed by blepharitis. Bacteriological analysis of corneal scrapings also revealed that P. aeruginosa was the most common isolate followed by S. aureus; the antibiotic with the highest susceptibility was ciprofloxacin. As drug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an evolving process, routine surveillance and monitoring studies should be conducted to provide an update and most effective empirical treatment for bacterial keratitis.

  9. Assessment of the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of Nono – a fermented cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius Abimbola Okiki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nono is a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like milk product consumed is a staple food commodity in parts of the Sub-Saharan West Africa. Nono is usually consumed along with 'Fura' as 'Fura da Nono' in Nigeria. Studies on physicochemical and bacteriological qualities were carried out on samples of Nono obtained from 5 different sources in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The Nono samples were found to be nutritious, containing moderate levels of ash, crude fat, crude protein and carbohydrate. The pH of the Nono samples was relatively low (4.04 ±0.04, while the density and specific density were close to that of distilled water at room temperature. Total aerobic plate count of Nono samples was 1.8 ±0.02 × 106 CFU.mL-1. A total of 15 bacteria species namely Eubacterium nodatum, Bacillus subtilis, Chromobacterium violaceum, Propionibacterium acnes, Amycolatopsis benzotilytica, Tropheryma whipplei, Moraxella catarrhalis, Campylobacter gracilis, Neisseria sicca, Vibrio natiensis, Photobacterium damselae, Corynebacterium kutsceri, Corynebacterium xerosis, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus casei were isolated from the Nono samples. The gram-positive bacterial isolates were resistant to all antibiotics tested with the exception of Erythromycin where 40% susceptibility was obtained, while the gram-negative bacteria showed high resistance to the tested antibiotics, but with 80% susceptibility to Ofloxacin. The nono samples were observed to exhibit antibacterial activity against cultures of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 29929 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29293. Most of the bacteria isolated were of less public health importance, but the high prevalence of multi-drug resistance is of great concern.

  10. Clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Ontario: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, J M; Scott, H M; Leslie, K E; Ireland, M J; Bashiri, A

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Ontario. The study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinical mastitis. Lactational incidence risks of 9.8% for abnormal milk only, 8.2% for abnormal milk with a hard or swollen udder, and 4.4% for abnormal milk plus systemic signs of illness related to mastitis were calculated for 2840 cows and heifers. Overall, 19.8% of cows experienced one or more cases of clinical mastitis during location. Teat injuries occurred in 2.1% of lactations. Standard bacteriology was performed on pretreatment milk samples from 834 cows with clinical mastitis. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (6.7%), Streptococcus agalactiae (0.7%), other Streptococcus spp. (14.1%), coliforms (17.2%), gram-positive bacilli (5.5%), Corynebacterium bovis (1.7%), and other Staphylococcus spp. (28.7%). There was no growth in 17.7% of samples, and 8.3% of samples were contaminated. Clinical mastitis is a common disease in dairy cows in Ontario; approximately 1 in 5 cow lactations have at lease one episode of clinical mastitis. There is, however, considerable variation in the incidence of clinical mastitis among farms. The majority of 1st cases of clinical mastitis occur early in lactation, and the risk of clinical mastitis increases with increasing parity. Environmental, contagious, and minor pathogens were all associated with cases of clinical mastitis.

  11. CHRONIC OSTEOMYELITIS: A BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Chakravarty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of infections and early diagnosis of Osteomyelitis have led to the improved management of Osteomyelitis. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile of Osteomyelitis and the antibiotic resistance pattern of various isolates obtained as it is an important cause of morbidity. A total of 50 patients of Osteomyelitis either attending the outpatient department or admitted in the wards of a teaching and tertiary care hospita l in Sikkim from October 2013 to October, 2014 were included in the study. All those patients who were clinically and/ or radiologically suspected of having Osteomyelitis were enrolled as cases. Pus/ pus swabs or sequestrum samples taken aseptically were c ultured aerobically at 37 0 C for 18 - 24 hours in Blood and Mac Conkey agar plates. Culture isolates were identified by a series of standard biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested on Mueller Hinton agar by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion met hod. Betalactamase production of S. aureus strains were verified by iodometric filter paper and acidometric agar plate methods. S. aureus strains were screened for methicillin resistance by using conventional microbiological methods. S. aureus turned out t o be the most common organism isolated. Other organism isolated were P. Aeruginosa, Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., E. coli, Enterobacter spp., S. epidermitis, Streptococcus pyogens and Enterococcus spp. Beta - lactamase production and methicillin resistance was seen in S. aureus strains respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed in other strains. Infection caused by Methicillin resistant S. aureus and multidrug resistant organisms are posing a major challenge in the treatment of Osteomyelitis. So, appropriate drug selected by antibiotic sensitivity testing should be used to treat Osteomyelitis

  12. BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND PUBLIC PERCEPTION ABOUT DRINKING WATER OF BOREHOLES IN ARIB (AIN DEFLA, ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Hamaidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water from boreholes in Arib (Ain Defla, south-west of Algeria was investigated to ascertain its quality status and suitability for drinking and domestic uses. Fifty six water samples were collected from four boreholes. The analyses of the Coliform counts obtained from various boreholes samples ranged between 0 and 200 CFU/ 100 ml with regard to total Coliforms and between 0 and 8 CFU/ 100 ml with regard to fecal Coliforms. Three of the boreholes samples showed contamination by Streptococcus sp. Pathogens like Salmonella were not identified but some low levels of sulfite-reducing bacteria was found. The interviews were done to assess perceptions on water taste problems, odour, colour, and turbidity and health problems. The respondents were taken from people in the community using random sampling technique. Sixty people were sampled at each area surrounding the boreholes. It was found out that 43.3% of the respondents rated their drinking water safe for consumption as well as absence of illness after drinking as indicators for judging the quality of the water. The others respondents (56.7% reported having at least some concerns with safety of their water.  More  than 20% of the households reported at least one household member having suffered some water related illness in the past two years. Respondents were asked to judge the quality of the water, based on four sensory characteristics of drinking water. Many respondents rated the smell (33.3%, taste (20%, colour (23.3% and turbidity (23.3%. These results showed that all the samples did not satisfy the WHO requirements for bacteriological characteristics in human consumption.

  13. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE PYOGENIC MENINGITIS - A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pyogenic meningitis is one of the most common infectious disease emergencies involving the central nervous system with higher incidence in developing countries than developed nations. Despite the large number of pathogens that have been reported to cause acute pyogenic meningitis, certain microorganisms are isolated with higher frequency depending on patient’s age, immune status and geography. Present study was aimed to determine the trends in aetiology and spectrum of the bacteriological profile in adult patients with suspected pyogenic meningitis in North-East India. MATERIALS 50 CSF samples from as many patients of Acute Bacterial Meningitis over a period of one year were processed for cell counts, biochemical analysis, gram staining, culture, antigen detection by latex agglutination test and antibiotic susceptibility tests, as per standard techniques. OBSERVATION CSF cell counts showed neutrophilic predominance in all cases along with high protein and low sugar levels. 44% of the cases were culture positive and latex agglutination test was positive in 46.4% of the cases where culture was negative. S. pneumonia was the predominant pathogen identified in the present study in 12(24% cases, followed by Pseudomonas and E. coli in 5(10% cases each. Gram stain indicated the causative organisms in 68.2% of the culture positive cases. Among the culture negative patients gram stain indicated the causative organism in 3(10.7% cases and these three cases were positive by LAT also. CONCLUSION Simple, rapid, inexpensive tests like gram staining remain significant means for diagnosis of acute pyogenic meningitis in developing countries. LAT goes a long way in identifying the organisms where the cultures are negative. This study thus paves the way for larger studies in this region for better recognition of the predominant organisms and the empirical antibiotic regimens.

  14. Assessment of the relationship between bacteriological quality of dug-wells, hygiene behaviour and well characteristics in two cholera endemic localities in Douala, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla; Omam, Lundi-Anne; Massalla, Thomas Njinuwo

    2013-07-29

    Access to potable water is grossly inadequate in Douala-Cameroon. The situation is worse in slum areas, compelling inhabitants to obtain water from sources of doubtful quality. This has contributed to frequent outbreaks of water-borne diseases particularly cholera, which results in severe morbidity and mortality. Shallow wells are a major source of water in these areas. We analyzed the influence of some factors on the bacteriological quality of well water in Bepanda and New Bell, cholera endemic localities in Douala to generate data that would serve as basis for strengthening of water and health policies. Questionnaires were administered to inhabitants of study sites to appraise their hygiene and sanitation practices, and level of awareness of waterborne diseases. The bacteriological quality of water was determined by investigating bacterial indicators of water quality. Relationship between well characteristics and bacteriological quality of water was determined using χ² test. The Kendall tau_b nonparametric correlation was used to measure the strength of association between well characteristics and bacteriological parameters. Statistics were discussed at 95% confidence level. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was investigated by the Kirby-Bauer and broth dilution techniques. Multidrug resistant species were tested for extended β-lactamase production potential. Inhabitants demonstrated adequate knowledge of waterborne diseases but employed inappropriate method (table salt) for well disinfection. Well construction and location violated guidelines. Indicator bacterial counts greatly exceeded the WHO guidelines. Variation in bacteriologic parameters between sites was not significant (P > 0.05) since well characteristics and hygiene and sanitary practices were similar. Differences in bacteriologic quality with respect to state of well, and presence of molded casing and lid, and height of casing were not significant (P > 0.05). Well distance from sanitary

  15. Changing values of lake ecosystem services as a result of bacteriological contamination on Lake Trzesiecko and Lake Wielimie, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cichoń Małgorzata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake ecosystems, on the one hand, are affected by tourism, and on the other by development for tourism. Lake ecosystem services include: water with its self-cleaning processes, air with climate control processes, as well as flora and fauna. Utilisation of services leads to interventions in the structure of ecosystems and their processes. Only to a certain extent, this is specific to each type of environmental interference, remains within the limits of ecosystem resilience and does not lead to its degradation. One of the threats is bacteriological contamination, for which the most reliable sanitation indicator is Escherichia coli. In lake water quality studies it is assumed that the lakeshore cannot be a source of bacteria. It has been hypothesised that the problem of bacterial contamination can be serious for the places that do not have any infrastructure, especially sanitation. Consequently, the purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which lakeshore sanitation, in particular the level of bacteriological contamination, has an impact on the value of services provided by the selected lake ecosystems (Lake Trzesiecko and Lake Wielimie – Szczecinek Lake District. Five selected services related to lake ecosystems are: water, control over the spread of contagious diseases, aesthetic values, tourism and recreation, as well as the hydrological cycle with its self-cleaning function. Services, as well as the criteria adopted for evaluation, allow us to conclude that the services provided by the lake ecosystems are suitable to fulfill a recreation function. However, the inclusion of quality criteria for sanitary status has shown that the value of system services has dropped by as much as 50%. Value changes are visible primarily for water and aesthetic qualities. Such a significant decrease in the value of services clearly indicates the importance of the sanitary conditions of lakes and their appropriate infrastructure. In view of the

  16. Open Defaecation and Its Effects on the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water Sources in Isiolo County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joab Odhiambo Okullo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background information: The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals for sanitation call for universal access to adequate and equitable sanitation and an end to open defaecation by 2030. In Isiolo County, a semi-arid region lying in the northern part of Kenya, poor sanitation and water shortage remain a major problem facing the rural communities. Objective: The overall aim of the study was to assess the relationship between sanitation practices and the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources. The study also assessed the risk factors contributing to open defaecation in the rural environments of the study area. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 150 households was conducted to assess the faecal disposal practices in open defaecation free (ODF and open defaecation not free (ODNF areas. Sanitary surveys and bacteriological analyses were conducted for selected community water sources to identify faecal pollution sources, contamination pathways, and contributory factors. Analysis of data was performed using SPSS (descriptive and inferential statistics at α = .05 level of significance. Results: Open defaecation habit was reported in 51% of the study households in ODNF villages and in 17% households in ODF villages. Higher mean colony counts were recorded for water samples from ODNF areas 2.0, 7.8, 5.3, and 7.0 (×10 3 colony-forming units (CFUs/100 mL compared with those of ODF 1.8, 6.4, 3.5, and 6.1 (×10 3 areas for Escherichia coli , faecal streptococci, Salmonella typhi , and total coliform, respectively. Correlation tests revealed a significant relationship between sanitary surveys and contamination of water sources ( P  = .002. Conclusions: The water sources exhibited high levels of contamination with microbial pathogens attributed to poor sanitation. Practising safe faecal disposal in particular is recommended as this will considerably reverse the situation and thus lead to improved human health.

  17. The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Lamikanra, Adebayo

    2014-11-28

    The upsurge in the demand for bottled water has prompted the interest of many manufacturers in the production of bottled water and very many water bottling companies are therefore involved in its production. These range from large scale multinational companies to medium scale business enterprises, institutional and government business investment companies as well as small scale entrepreneurs. There is however little information on the comparative quality of bottled water brands produced by different classes of water bottling companies in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological quality of brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife. Forty-three samples of bottled water comprising of three batches each of thirteen bottled water brands and two batches of two brands were purchased and analyzed for total bacterial count, presence of coliform and the presence of other bacterial indicators of drinking water quality. Only 67.4% of the water samples representing the products of 10 companies or 66.7% of the brands had heterotrophic counts within the acceptable limits. Coliforms present in 100 ml of water were detected in 26.7% of the bottled water brands. Other indicator organisms detected included Staphylococci isolated from 27.9% of the samples (33.3% of the brands) and specifically Staphylococcus aureus found in four brands constituting 14% of the samples. Pseudomonas strains were consistently detected in consecutive batches of three brands of the water samples. Bottled water samples produced by the large scale multinational producers were of acceptable bacteriological quality unlike those produced by most small companies. There is need for a greater control of water bottling processes carried out by commercial bottled water producers in Nigeria.

  18. Potential sources of bacteriological pollution for two bays with marinas in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ann Bullock

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Welcome Bay and Chaguaramas Bay in the northwest peninsula of Trinidad contain large marinas and smaller sections of bathing beaches.Bacteriological surveys were conducted at both bays to assess water quality and to determine potential sources of pollution.These surveys were conducted during the wet season of 1996 and the dry season of 1997.Eleven sample stations were established at Welcome Bay and 12 at Chaguaramas Bay.Freshwater samples were collected from rivers and drains within the survey area.Marine water samples were collected from marinas,bathing beaches and inshore and outer areas at both bays.Five water samples were collected from each sampling station during the wet season of 1996 and six during the dry season of 1997.The membrane filter technique was used to determine faecal coliform and Escherichia coli levels in all samples. There was a seasonal effect on water quality,with significantly higher faecal coliform levels in the wet season, when water quality was not in compliance with international standards.This represents a potential health risk in bathing areas.Water quality was better at the outer area of both bays.Water quality at the inner bay areas was most likely adversely affected by land-based sources of pollution identified in this study.These sources include three drains and two rivers,which discharged into the bays.Yachts were apparently not a source of sewage pollution:there was no significant relationship between yacht number and faecal coliform levels.Las bahías Welcome y Chaguaramas en la península noroeste de Trinidad tienen grandes marinas y secciones pequeñas de playas para bañistas.Se realizaron sondeos bacteriológicos en ambas bahías para determinar la calidad del agua y para señalar fuentes potenciales de contaminación.Estos sondeos fueron realizados durante la época lluviosa de 1996 y la seca de 1997.Once estaciones de muestreo se establecieron en Bahía Welcome y doce en Bahía Chaguaramas.Muestras de

  19. Bacteriology data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS-Mid Atlantic Ocean) project, 1976-11-05 to 1977-08-16 (NODC Accession 7800207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 5, 1976 to August 16, 1977....

  20. Bacteriology, wind wave spectra, and benthic organism data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-02-01 to 1979-05-03 (NODC Accession 7900247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology, wind wave spectra, and benthic organism data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from February 1, 1978...

  1. UK and European Union public and charitable funding from 2008 to 2013 for bacteriology and antibiotic research in the UK: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragginton, Eilis C; Piddock, Laura J V

    2014-09-01

    Since the 1990s, the number of new antibacterial drugs has plummeted and the number of antibiotic-resistant infections has risen, which has decreased the effective treatment of many disorders, including sepsis. We aimed to assess whether funding for bacteriology and antibiotic research to UK researchers had increased in response to this global crisis. We systematically searched websites and databases of agencies that fund research in the UK to identify publicly and charitably funded projects from financial years 2008 to 2013 within the specialties of bacteriology and antibiotic research. We created a database to identify the projects funded. Grants awarded in euros were converted to pounds sterling (€1=£0·86). We identified 609 projects within the specialty of bacteriology, 196 (32·2%) of which were on antibiotics. Of £13 846·1 million of available research funding, £269·2 million (1·9%) was awarded to bacteriology projects and £95·0 million (0·7%) was awarded for research on antibiotics. Additionally, £181·4 million in European Union (EU) funding was awarded to antibiotic research consortia including researchers based within the UK, including two EU Innovative Medicines Initiative awards, totalling £85·2 million. To increase awareness of who funds antibiotic research and to facilitate priority setting and funding decisions, funding organisations need to be aware of the breadth and depth of present funding as a baseline by which funding from 2014 onwards can be measured and so that informed decisions about the future level of funding can be made. To resolve the crisis of antibiotic resistance, present levels of funding are inadequate and should be increased substantially. British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A contribution to the bacteriological and hygienic risk assessment of raw milk and raw milk products from farm marketing with emphasis on pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Coenen, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    During the last years farm marketing has significantly increased. The present study deals with the bacteriological-hygienic quality, particularly with pathogenic microorganisms of raw milk and raw milk products from farm marketing. 709 samples of raw milk and raw milk products were collected nationwide. Certified milk (a kind of raw certified grade A milk), ex-farm milk, raw milk cheeses (soft cheese, semihard and hard cheese) and other products made of raw milk underwent quality checks for L...

  3. [Bacteriological control of blood preservation, production of infusion solutions and dry human plasma under conditions of aseptic work and possible sources of their contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, S; Lucić, N; Aganović, N; Grbić, E

    1975-01-01

    In premises for blood conservation, production of dry human plasma and infusion solutions "notwithstanding the permanent measures for desinfection, new bacterial contamination occurs from time to time and whose source are the casings and material originating from non-sterile environment. Bacteriological control, which has primarily a preventive character, enables a due forecast for measures to be undertaken by the appropriate desinfection of the working surfaces and air, satisfactory conditions of aseptic work can be maintained. General hygiene should be paid attention to as well as mechanical cleansing of premises, avoidance of groups for lunch-time etc., since the treatment by desinfectors would not be sufficient for maintenance of aseptic working conditions. In order to prevent the transmission of bacterial contamination, premises for blood conservation should be strictly separated from other operations and also prevent the unnecessary movements of personnel through corridors. The results of the bacteriological control of the personnel show that greater attention should be paid to their health care since the workers there work in closed aseptic systems and thus avoid them as a bacteria transmittors in respect to danger of blood and dry human plasma contamination. It is also necessary to efficiently educate the personnel for work in aseptic conditions and also increase their elementary knowledge from bacteriology and hygiene. The bacterial skin-flora on the spot of donor's venepuncture also presents a certain danger for blood contamination. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the most optimal manner of skin desinfecate together with the most appropriate means having a fast bactericidal and fungicidal action. It would also be useful, on the basis of further test, to suggest certain standard for an allowed number of conditionally pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms which would be used by the instutions performing the blood transfusion and production of

  4. Bacteriological quality of the wastewater used for irrigation at the vegetable farms in Korle-bu Teaching Hospital, Accra Metropolis, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesewu, George A; Bentum, Daniel; Olu-Taiwo, Michael A; Glover, Kathreen K; Yirenya-Tawiah, Dzidzo R

    2017-01-01

    Many developing countries, including Ghana, are water stressed. As such, farmers, particularly those in urban areas, have adopted the use of wastewater for irrigation. This study evaluated the bacteriological water quality of the wastewater used for irrigation in the vegetable farms at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), Accra Metropolis, Ghana. In all, 40 wastewater samples were collected and analysed bacteriologically using the total aerobic plate count method. The isolated bacteria were identified biochemically using Bergey's manual for determinative bacteriology. Mean total bacterial colony count values in the range of 2.75-4.44 × 10 5 CFU/100 mL were isolated which far exceeds values of 1 × 10 3 /100 mL recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for unrestricted irrigation of crops likely to be eaten raw. Enterobacter cloacae (51.4%), Klebsiella sp. (24.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.3%), Salmonella typhi (10.6%), Escherichia coli (2.2%) and Proteus sp. (0.4%) were the predominant bacteria isolated. Growers should use treated wastewater for farming while processors and consumers should minimize contamination risks of produce from the vegetable farms/garden to the plate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Evaluation of methods to prepare samples of leafy green vegetables for preenrichment with the Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Andrew Patrick; Gill, Vikas Singh; Irvin, Kari Anne; Wang, Hua; Hammack, Thomas Seyliard

    2012-02-01

    Three sample preparation procedures, soak, stomach, and blend, were evaluated using the Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method with eight types of leafy green produce. In the soak method, test portions were added to lactose broth without homogenization; in the stomach method, test portions were stomached with lactose broth; and in the blend method, test portions were blended with lactose broth. Twenty artificially contaminated test portions were analyzed with each procedure in individual experimental trials. The number of test portions identified as positive were compared among the procedures. Statistically significant differences were identified with Fisher's exact two-tailed F test (P < 0.05). Where differences did occur (P < 0.05), the soak procedure was the most effective or was at least as effective as homogenization by either blending or stomaching. Statistically significant differences most frequently occurred with romaine lettuce and cabbage; for these items, blending was significantly less effective than the soak procedure. Overall, for all of the produce types examined, results showed that the soak procedure was more effective than either of the homogenization procedures in recovering Salmonella from leafy green produce. Of the 540 test portions examined by each sample preparation method, 344 were positive for the presence of Salmonella by soaking, 293 by stomaching, and 232 by blending. We recommend that the soak procedure replace homogenization for the analysis of leafy green produce because the soak procedure is more productive than homogenization by either blending or stomaching of the leafy green produce types as reported herein.

  6. Molecular and bacteriological investigation of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in domestic bovids from Ismailia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohey; Selim, Abdelfattah

    2015-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in smallholder dairy farms in Ismailia, Egypt. A total of 340 milking cows and buffaloes were sampled from 60 farms, and 50 nasal swabs were collected from consenting farm workers. Milk samples were subjected to California mastitis test (CMT) and the positive samples were examined by bacterial culture and PCR to identify etiological agents. Based on CMT, the prevalence of SCM was 71.6 % in cattle and 43.5 % in buffaloes while the prevalence was 25.2 % at cow-quarter level and 21.7 % at buffaloes-quarter level. Bacteriological analysis showed that the most frequently identified bacteria were Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (38.3 %) and Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae (20 %). The diagnostic sensitivity of PCR compared to bacterial culture was superior with S. aureus and Str. agalactiae detection being 41 and 22.6 %, respectively. Furthermore, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains occurred in 52.2 and 45 % of isolates of animals and workers, respectively. Subclinical mastitis due to S. aureus and Str. agalactiae is endemic in smallholder dairy herds in Ismailia. The occurrence of MRSA in animals and workers highlights a need for wide epidemiological studies of MRSA and adopting control strategies.

  7. [Clinical and bacteriological profiles of the urinary infections associated the VIH/AIDS in hospital area of Bamako, Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, S; Oumar, A A; Dembele, J P; Noutache, J L; Fongoro, S; Maiga, I; Bougoudogo, F

    2007-01-01

    The syndrome of immunodepression is the bed of multiple infections of which urinary infections. The goal of this study was to determine the aspects clinical and bacteriological urinary infections during the AIDS with the service of the infectious diseases of the hospital of the Point G of February 1, 2003 to June 30 2005. The diagnosis of the urinary infection was retained on the basis of bacteria number > or =10(4) bacteriury and or leucocytes count > or =10(5)/mm3. The prevalence of the urinary infection was estimated at 8.85%. The principal clinical aspects were a symptomatic pyelonephritis 73.5%, the leucocytiury 11.8%, the cystitis 8.8%, and acute prostatitis 5.9%. Escherichia coli was the most frequent bacterium (46.7%). The sensitivity of the germs was 91.7% with the aminosides, 90.9% with the fluoroquinolones, from 63.6 to 80% respectively with the cephalosporines of first and second generation. Resistance to ampicilline, chloramphenicol and sulfamides was about 72 and 80%. The systematic research of the urinary infection is necessary during the AIDS and the antibiotherapy of choice in first intention in absence of etiologic possibility of diagnosis should be the aminosides and or the fluoroquinolones.

  8. Serological and bacteriological responses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) vaccinated with two doses of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnanan, Anil; Diptee, Michael; Asgarali, Zinora; Campbell, Mervyn; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

    2012-10-01

    Thirty-two water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves aged 6–10 months were used to evaluate serological responses to Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccination in a dose-response study and to compare the use of two selective media for the isolation of RB51. The animals were randomly divided into three treatment groups. Groups I-III received the recommended vaccine dose (RD) twice 4 weeks apart, RD twice 18 weeks apart and saline once, respectively. Lymph nodes were excised from the three groups and subjected to bacteriological examination to determine the frequency of detection of RB51. Pre- and post-vaccination blood samples were collected and tested for B. abortus antibodies using the buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and dot-blot assay. Sera taken at all post-inoculation weeks (PIW) were negative for field strain B. abortus using the BPAT. Antibody responses to RB51 were demonstrated in all vaccinates but not in controls by CFT and dot-blot assay from 1 PIW up to 16 weeks following booster vaccination. The agreement for both assays was 80.7% and there was a linear interdependence with a Pearson's correlation coefficient value of 0.578. The frequency of isolation of RB51 from the two selective media used was not significantly different (P > 0.05).

  9. Bacteriological And Nutritional Analysis Of Groundnut Cake Sold In An Open Market In Samaru Zaria-Kaduna State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteriological and nutritional analysis of groundnut cake powder sold in open market at Samaru-Zaria was studied. The samples collected from four zones of the study area were analysed for possible microbiological contamination and its nutritional quality. The results indicated a microbial load of 1.93 x 105 cfug and 1.94 x 105 cfug for zones A and B respectively 1.01 x 105 cfug for zone C and 2.37 x 105 cfug for zone D. The bacterial isolates found to be associated with the groundnut cake powder in this study included Klebsiella oxytoca Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus E. coli P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus feacalis. The nutrients content of the sample included carbohydrates 55.15 moisture 12.65 lipid 15.40 protein 12.60 ash 3.95 and crude fibre 0.25. Groundnut cake sold in the study area is highly contaminated with bacteria except for samples from zone C which is within the Food and Drugs Agency FDA recommendation of 1.0 x 105cfuml as allowable microbial contamination for food. The high level of microbial contamination is a serious cause for concern as it may trigger epidemics. However the product is highly nutritious.

  10. Bacteriological Study of 100 Cases of Pyodermas with Special Reference to Staphylococci, Their Antibiotic Sensitivity and Phage Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Ramani

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred new cases of pyodenna attending King George Hospital, Vishakhapatnam were investigated bacteriologically with antibiotic sensitivity of all the strains isolated and phage typing of coagulm positive staphylocci. Among these 50 had impetigo and 15 each ahd furunculosis and fouiculitis. The remaining included various other clinical entities. Children under 10 years were observed to have high incidence of pyoderma. A total of 88 strains of staphylococci (77 coagulase positive and 11 coagulase negative strains 25 strains of beta haemolytic streptococci and 3 strains of Klebsiella were isolated. Staphylococci were found to be the commonest aetiological agents either single or in association with other organisms. Of the 76 strains of coagulase positive staphylococci 32 strains were not phage typable and among the 44 typable strains 17 (38% belonged to group III and 15 (36.5% to mixed group. Coagulase positive staphylococci showed high sensitivity to garamycin, kanamycin and erythromycin and high resistance to penicillin and streptomycin. Multiple drug resistance was also high among these strains. Coagulase negative staphylococci were found to be more sensitive with less incidence of multiple drug resistance. Most of multiple drug resistant strains belonged to group III phage types. Beta haemolytic streptococci were found to be highly sensitive to all the antibiotics tested.

  11. COMPARISON THE NUMBER OF BACTERIA BETWEEN WASHING HANDS USING SOAP AND HAND SANITIZER AS A BACTERIOLOGY LEARNING RESOURCE FOR STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Darmayani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hands are the principal carriers of bacterial diseases, therefore very important to know that washing hands with soap or hand sanitizer is highly effective healthy behaviors to reduce bacteria in the palm. This study aimed to determine the total number of bacteria between washing hands with soap and hand sanitizer, also applying the results of these studies as a learning resource in bacteriology. The research design was the true experiment with pretest-posttest control group research design and laboratory examination. Analysis of data using paired t-test and independent sample t-test with α = 0.05. The result using paired t-test obtained t count= 2.48921> t 0.05 (14 = 2.14479 (with liquid soap, obtained t count= 2.32937> t 0.05 (14 = 2.14479 (with hand sanitizer. As for the comparison of the total number of bacteria include washing hands with soap and hand sanitizer using independent samples t-test obtained results there were differences in the total number of bacteria include washing hands with liquid soap and hand sanitizer with t count= 2.23755> t 0.05 ( 13 = 2.16037. That results showed hand sanitizer more effective to reduce the number of bacteria than the liquid soap, that was hand sanitizer 96% and liquid soap by 95%.

  12. The prevalence and bacteriology of asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal patients in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi; South Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oli, A N; Okafor, C I; Ibezim, E C; Akujiobi, C N; Onwunzo, M C

    2010-12-01

    Urinary tract infection in pregnancy leads to poor pregnancy outcome. Diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria markedly improves pregnancy outcome as well as reduce the incidence of acute pyelonephritis. To determine the prevalence and bacteriology of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Antenatal patients in our centre, and to know if routine screening will be justifiable. This was a prospective study carried out between April and August 2008. Sample size was statistically determined. Women who consented were interviewed and mid stream urine samples were collected and processed in the microbiology laboratory, using standard microbiological methods. Out of 357 women studied, 65(18.21%) had significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the commonest isolate (25.6%), while proteus mirabilis was the least frequent isolate (3.66%). Women in third trimester had the highest prevalence (25.68%) while those in the first trimester had the least (15.79%). Women that had only primary education had the highest prevalence (27.50%) while those that had tertiary education had the least prevalence (21.10%). The prevalence of significant asymptomatic bacteriuria among the women studied was high. Screening of all the pregnant women and treatment will reduce the incidence and complications of overt urinary tract infection in pregnancy among these women.

  13. [Bacteriological study of oral cavity of people of Mexican origin to determine etiology agents of human infections in hand bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañedo-Guzmán, Cristhyan Baruch; Espinosa-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Guzmán-Murillo, María Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Hand infections secondary to human bites often leave serious consequences on the functioning of the hand. Such infections are caused by different bacteria. Most bacteriological studies have been made to people of Anglo-Saxon origin or descent, and based on these findings; provide treatment to patients of different origins which may not always be as effective. Descriptive, internal stratified 17 patients were isolated samples of oral cavity and dental plaque bacterial species to identify and define the possible treatment according to the species identified. Microorganisms were isolated Gram (+) and Gram (-) belonging to the normal flora of the oral cavity and dental plaque in all the cases studied, presenting a variable number of microorganisms according to age but not by sex. The group of Gram-positive bacteria isolated showed sensitivity to: erythromycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. In the group of Gram negative: kanamycin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, E. Corrodens sensitive to the group of quinolones as ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin as well as ceftriaxone and cefoperazone sulbactam. The bacterial species that are commonly found in normal flora of the oral cavity and dental plaque may be potential pathogens in a hand injury where to find the appropriate conditions for their development.

  14. Implementation of Geographical Information System for Bacteriological Contamination Analysis on Refill Drinking Water Depot (Study in Tembalang District)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmitha, Amelia; Utami, Endang Sri; Sitohang, Marya Yenita

    2018-02-01

    People used refilled-drinking-water for household and food stall because its efficient and low cost. Based on Indonesian Health Ministry regulation, it should not have any coliform bacteria. This study aimed to describe the bacteriological contamination of refilled drinking water using geographical information system (GIS). In this research, it was used an analytic observational method. The samples were from all available (37) depots in Tembalang district, one form each depot took used a sterile bottle. Contamination of bacteria was identified by Most Probable Number (MPN) method lactose broth media, Mac Conkey media, and IMVIC media. The depot samples were then plotted on (GIS). This study showed 95% samples were not feasible to consume since they contamined coliform. All sub-district had one that contaminated by coliform, 75% sub-districts had depots that contaminated Escherichia coli, while 55% sub-districts had depots that contaminated with other bacteria. The internal risk factors of the contamination were the absence of hygiene-sanitation worthy certificate (95%), depots location near to pollution sources (5%), and the misused of UV light. The external risk factor was lack of quality control that was not as the sterilization from office health Semarang city. Policy reinforcement should be done to all of the depots.

  15. [Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (second edition) Volume 5 and the study of Actinomycetes systematic in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jisheng

    2013-06-04

    Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (hereinafter referred to as "Bergey's Manual") is the collection of academic views accepted by taxonomists in many countries. It has scientificity, unitarity and practicality. "Bergey's Manual" (special issue of Actinomycetes) divided into two parts (part A and part B) was published in May, 2012. Under the guidance and the organization of Michael Goodfellow et al., the great work has been completed successfully in May 2012. "Bergey's Manual" made a great modification on the systematic of Actinomycetes and formally set up the phylum of Actinobacteria, which encompasses 6 classes, 23 orders (include one order incertae sides), 53 families, 222 genera and about 3000 species. The taxonomic catalogue is Bacteria, phylum of Actinobacteria, under the phylum there are class, order, family, genera and species. "Bergey's Manual" collected a great deal of new taxa, which were published in IJSEM (International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology) by Chinese scientists. We need to indicate that due to its too rigorous, conservative writing purpose and long publication periods, "Bergey's Manual" fails to collect new research results using the molecular approaches of multilocus sequence analysis "MLSA", gene chip technology and genome technologies, which however will profoundly change the taxonomy of prokaryotes in the near future.

  16. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D.G.; Applegate, L.J.; Murray, A.L.; Purcell, M.K.; McKibben, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

  17. [Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Vázquez, M; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Radice, M; Galas, M; Pasterán, F; Bantar, C; Casellas, J M; Kovensky Pupko, J; Couto, E; Goldberg, M; Lopardo, H; Gutkind, G; Soloaga, R

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account previous recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), the Antimicrobial Committee, Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (SADEBAC), Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (AAM), and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  18. The dogma of bacteriology and other events as spearheads of virology Dogma de la bacteriología y otros eventos como puntas de lanza de la virología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Volcy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    This review analyzes some of the main events during the twentieth century that led to the birth of virology. In the literature of the time, a relationship of causality was established between virus and disease, and within this pathological context, the notions of fixed virus, volatile virus, contagium vivum fluidum and contagium fixum were formed. The transformation of the virus concept as a technoscientific object took place based on the criterion of filterability and on the methodology devised for the bacteriology dogma. Studies on tobacco mosaic virus are highlighted, as well as those on viral diseases of human beings and animals, which led to the discovery of these submicroscopic agents through the appropriation of technologies and the impulse triggered by political and economic factors.

    Esta investigación analiza algunos de los eventos principales del siglo XIX que condujeron hacia la cristalización de la virología. En los documentos de esta investigación analiza algunos de los eventos principales del siglo XIX que condujeron hacia la cristalización de la virología. En los documentos de aquella época, se plasmó una relación de causalidad entre virus y enfermedad o contagio, y en este contexto patológico, se elaboraron las nociones de virus fijo, virus volátil, contagium vivum fluidum y contagium fixum. De otro lado, la transformación conceptual hacia el virus como objeto tecnocientífico tuvo lugar con base en el criterio de filtrabilidad y en la metodología trazada por la bacteriología convertida en dogma. Asimismo, se

  19. Bacteriological quality of drinking water in the Atebubu-Amantin District of the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekpor, M.; Akrong, M. O.; Asmah, M. H.; Banu, R. A.; Ansa, E. D. O.

    2017-09-01

    The study was carried out to determine the bacteriological safety of water in hand-dug wells in the Atebubu-Amantin District of the Brong-Ahafo Region in Ghana. A total of 60 samples were collected from ten hand dug wells and analysed for total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC), E. coli (EC), Salmonella spp. (SP) and Enterococcus spp. (ES). Data was collected in both the rainy and the dry seasons. The results obtained showed that water from all the wells in the study area did not meet the World Health Organisation guideline and Ghana standard for drinking water of zero (0) coliform forming unit (cfu) per 100 ml for TC, FC, EC, SP and ES, respectively. Contamination was found to be high in the wells during the wet season as compared to the dry season. Wells (A1 to A5) which were close to septic tanks had high bacteria counts in both seasons. The total coliform counts ranged from 2.98 to 5.93 log cfu/100 ml in the wet season and 3.10-5.03 log cfu/100 ml in the dry season. There was drastic reduction of faecal coliform count from a range of 2.78-4.55 log cfu/100 ml in the wet season to 1.70-3.51 log cfu/100 ml in the dry season. The high bacteria count in wells A1 to A5 could be attributed to the closeness of the wells to the septic tank, and contaminant transport through the saturated underground zones. It is recommended that the water should be treated properly before drinking.

  20. Bacteriology of deep carious lesions underneath amalgam restorations with different pulp-capping materials - an in vivo analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Neelakantan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms remaining in dentin following cavity preparation may induce pulp damage, requiring the use of pulp-capping agents with antimicrobial activity underneath permanent restorations. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the bacteriological status of carious dentin and to assess the efficacy of different base underneath silver amalgam restorations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 50 patients aged 13 to 30 years. Sterile swabs were used to take samples after cavity preparation, which was assessed by microbiological culture to identify the microorganisms present. Following this, cavities were restored with silver amalgam, using one of the materials being investigated, as the base: calcium hydroxide (Group II, polyantibiotic paste (Group III, a novel light-cured fluoride-releasing hydroxyapatite-based liner (Group IV and mineral trioxide aggregate - MTA (Group V. In Group I, the cavities were restored with silver amalgam, without any base. After 3 months, the amalgam was removed and samples taken again and analyzed for the microbial flora. RESULTS: Lactobacilli were the most commonly isolated microorganisms in the samples of carious dentin. Groups IV and V showed negative culture in the 3-month samples. There was no statistically significant difference between Groups I, II and III. There was no significant difference between Groups IV and V (p>0.05. Both Groups IV and V showed significantly better results when compared to Groups I, II and III (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The hydroxyapatite-based liner and MTA performed significantly better in terms of antibacterial activity than the other materials.

  1. Risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island dairy herds. Part 1: overall risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoslemany, A M; Keefe, G P; Dohoo, I R; Jayarao, B M

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine on-farm risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank raw milk quality was evaluated on all Prince Edward Island dairy herds (n = 235) over a 2-yr period (March 2005 to March 2007). Biweekly total bacterial, preliminary incubation, laboratory pasteurization, and coliform counts were conducted using a Petrifilm culture system. For the assessment of risk factors, a case-control study was conducted from January 2006 to May 2007. Case and control herds were defined based on the last 6 analyses of bulk tank bacterial counts before on-farm evaluation. Cases were herds that had multiple elevated counts for any of the parameters measured. A total of 69 herds (39 cases and 30 control herds) were evaluated. Data collection included 1) observation and questionnaire on basic hygiene and farm management practices; 2) complete wash analysis of the milking equipment, monitoring the presence of bacterial films on equipment and evaluation of cooling system function; and 3) environmental and cow hygiene scoring. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The results of the final model indicated that high alkalinity in the wash water and poor teat-end cleanliness were associated with high bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 12 and 5.3, respectively). It was also observed that high water temperature of detergent wash and the use of a water softener were associated with low bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 0.87 and 0.11, respectively). A significant association between udder hair clipping and teat-end cleanliness was also observed. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of udder hygiene and milking system washing factors on hygienic quality of bulk tank milk.

  2. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of water from shallow wells in two rural communities in Benue state, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terngu, A.J.; Hyacinth, O.A.; Rufus, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground water abstraction from shallow wells is widely practiced in the Obi and in Oju rural areas of Benue State, Central Nigeria, as a means of fighting guinea worm infestation associated with the surface water sources (streams) in these areas. To ascertain the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the water used by the population, water samples from 27 shallow wells in Obi and 19 Oju were taken and examined for key health -related quality parameters using routine methods. In Obi, the ground water colour ranged from 4.0-80.0 TCU, conductivity 55.2- 1600.0 ILS/cm, pH 6.1-8.6, TDS 38.6-1286 mg/L, turbidity 1.0 - 55.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001- 0.210 mg/L, copper 0.01-2.53 mg/L, fluoride 0.08-1.82 mg/L and nitrate 10.8-63.0 mg/L; while in Oju, colour varied from 2.0-87.0 TCU, conductivity 1 07.4-1375 LS/cmp, H 6.4-8.53, TDS 75.2- 1150 mg/L, turbidity 3.0-48.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.023 mg/L, copper 0.01-2.10 mg/L, fluoride 0.01-1.54 mg/L and nitrate 10.2-59.7 mg/L. Some of these values in some instances exceed the WHO standard for drinking water. Alongside with the presence significant total coliform count in most of the wells (0-47/100 mL in Oju and 0-53/100 mL in Obi), the available water is considered largely unsafe for human consumption as obtained. (author)

  3. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN IN ACUTE EXACERBATION OF ADVANCED CASES OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbations are significant and frequent events in the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Majority of these exacerbations are of infectious aetiology, bacteria being responsible for 30-50% of these cases. With not many studies of similar type being conducted in the Indian context, this study was undertaken with the purpose of determining the bacteriology of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in hospitalized patients with advanced disease and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern to formulate a cost effective algorithm for antibiotic usage while at the same time reducing the chances of emergence of drug resistance. Sputum sample from a total of 338 patients were send for Gram’s stain and culture sensitivity testing using an array of the commonly used antibiotics. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 203 (60.1% samples. Gram negative bacteria were isolated from 79.8 percent (162/203 cases while the rest were Gram positive. Klebsiella species were the commonest (49.2%; 100/203 Gram negative isolates from the sputum samples. Among the gram negative organisms, Carbapenem had the highest sensitivity (90.2% followed by Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin and Piperacillin-Tazobactam. Linezolid was found to be 100 percent sensitive amongst the Gram positive organisms while both Amoxicillin Clavulanate and Azithromycin showed a rather low sensitivity profile overall. 5.0 percent of the Klebsiella infections were multi drug resistant. It was thereby concluded that either Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin or Piperacillin-Tazobactam for be considered for Gram negative organisms and Linezolid be considered for Gram positive organisms as first line antibiotics in empirical therapy while Carbapenems may be kept as reserve drugs should the first line drugs fail.

  4. Bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicaemia in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is not much published literature on neonatal septicemia available for the Sub-Himalayan region of North India. Hence, we undertook this study to find out the bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicemia in the neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Material and Methods: Blood cultures were performed for all clinically suspected neonatal septicemia cases for 1-year. Identification of all pathogenic isolates was followed by antibiotic sensitivity testing. Results: We did blood cultures for 450 neonates and 42% were culture positive. Early onset sepsis were 92 (49% and 96 (51% were late onset sepsis. Gram-positive isolates were 60% and 40% were Gram-negative. Staphylococcus aureus (40%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (16%, non-fermenter group of organisms (NFGOs (15%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10% were the main isolates. Nasal cannula 101 (54%, birth asphyxia 91 (48%, and prematurity 73 (38% were the prominent risk factors associated with septicemia. Gram-positive organisms were highly resistant to penicillin (87% whereas Gram-negative isolates showed high resistance to third generation cephalosporins (53–89% and aminoglycosides (50–67%. The S. aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant in 41% whereas extended spectrum beta lactamase production was seen in 48% Gram-negative isolates.Conclusion: Our study highlights the recent emergence of Gram-positive organisms as predominant cause of neonatal septicemia in this part of Sub-Himalayan region, along with the review of literature which shows similar results from North India and rest of the world too. Though Gram-negative bacteria still remain the main cause of mortality in neonatal septicemia, we want to dispel the common notion among practitioners that they are the predominant isolates in neonatal septicemia.

  5. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Bacteriologic Detection and Antibiogram of Bacteria Isolated from Otitis Media with Effusion in Children, Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Shishegar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Otitis media with effusion is one of the leading causes of hearing loss in children. Effective treatment of effusion in the middle ear requires appropriate empirical treatment and characterization of responsible pathogens. Objective of the present study was to detect pathogens in clinical samples from patients with otitis media with effusion in our area and to determine the sensitivity profile of isolated organisms to commonly used antibiotics. Methods: Sixty three samples of middle ear effusion were aseptically obtained from 36 children, who had been treated up to at least two weeks before sampling. They were analyzed using standard bacteriological and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were also performed. Results: PCR analysis showed that DNA of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were present in 60 (95.2% of the samples. The culture-positive effusion for Streptococcus Pneumoniae, HaemophilusInfluenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was 34.9%. Almost all isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniaee were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, and none of them was sensitive to co-trimoxazole. None of H. Influenzae isolates was sensitive to erythromycin, cefixim, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin and amoxicillin. None of M. Catarrhalis isolates was sensitive to ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusion: Compared with other studies using PCR method, the number of H. influenza isolates was in higher in the present study (95.2%. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles of pathogens isolated in this study were different from others. Thus, we can determine empirical antibiotic therapy based on sensi-tivity profile in our geographic area.

  6. A STUDY TO FIND OUT THE BACTERIOLOGY OF TONSILLAR SURFACE AND CORE, AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING TONSILLECTOMY AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The study was aimed at finding out the bacteriology of the tonsillar surface and core, in those patients undergoing tonsillectomy at a tertiary care hospital. The study was also planned to look for the antibiotic resistance pattern among organisms identified and to see whether a tonsillar surface swab can be used as a surrogate for finding out the aetiopathogenesis of tonsillar infections. METHODS This is a 2-year cross-sectional study of 100 patients undergoing who consented for the study, after taking a smear from the surface of the tonsil. Tonsillectomy was done by dissection and snare method. The core of the tonsil is then biopsied and microbiological culture and sensitivity is done. The bacteria were identified by morphology and staining characteristics and cultured using standard laboratory procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The data was digitalised using a data entry platform using Epidata and analysed using SPSS 16. Relativity between organism identified as the surface and core was tested using Chi-square tests and Kappa statistics. RESULTS There were significant differences between the organisms identified from the tonsillar surface and the core; out of the 200 specimens, only 48 showed a similar bacteriology. The viability between the surface and the core specimens were measured using Kappa statistics and was found to be 0.04, which shows a very poor agreement between them. Assessment of antibiotic sensitivity shows that Staph aureus was resistant to most of the commonly used antibiotics. H. influenza isolated showed 70% susceptibility to erythromycin and cotrimoxazole. While group A β haemolytic streptococci showed 95% susceptibility to ampicillin and 100% to erythromycin. CONCLUSION Staph. aureus, H. influenza, Streptococci pneumonia were the major pathogenesis identified from the tonsil of the patients undergoing tonsillectomy, and bacteriology was different between

  7. Comparison of conventional PCR, quantitative PCR, bacteriological culture and the Warthin Starry technique to detect Leptospira spp. in kidney and liver samples from naturally infected sheep from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornazari, Felipe; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Beserra, Hugo Enrique Orsini; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui; Langoni, Helio

    2012-09-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of worldwide importance. The development of diagnostic techniques allows sick animals to be identified, reservoirs to be eliminated and the disease prevented and controlled. The present study aimed to compare different techniques for diagnosing leptospirosis in sheep. Samples of kidney, liver and blood were collected from 465 animals that originated from a slaughterhouse. The sera were analyzed by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and kidney and liver samples of seropositive animals were analyzed using four techniques: bacteriological culture, the Warthin Starry (WS) technique, conventional PCR (cPCR), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). With the MAT, 21 animals were positive (4.5%) to serovars Hardjo (n=12), Hebdomadis (n=5), Sentot (n=2), Wolfii (n=1) and Shermani (n=1). Titers were 100 (n=10), 200 (n=2), 400 (n=6) and 1600 (n=3). No animal was positive by bacteriological culture; four animals were positive by the WS technique in kidney samples; six animals were positive by cPCR in kidney samples; and 11 animals were positive by qPCR, eight of which in kidney samples and three in liver. The bacterial quantification revealed a median of 4.3 bacteria/μL in liver samples and 36.6 bacteria/μL in kidney samples. qPCR presented the highest sensitivity among the techniques, followed by cPCR, the WS technique and bacteriological culture. These results indicate that sheep can carry leptospires of the Sejroe serogroup, and demonstrate the efficiency of quantitative PCR to detect Leptospira spp. in tissue samples. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Latent class analysis of the diagnostic characteristics of PCR and conventional bacteriological culture in diagnosing intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cows at dry off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederlöf, Sara Ellinor; Toft, Nils; Aalbæk, Bent

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of intramammary infections in dairy cows at dry off. Reliable identification is important for disease management on herd level and for antimicrobial treatment of infected animals. Our objective was to evaluate the test...... characteristics of PathoProof TM Mastitis PCR Assay and bacteriological culture (BC) in diagnosing bovine intramammary infections caused by S. aureus at dry off at different PCR cycle threshold (Ct)-value cut-offs. METHODS: Sterile quarter samples and non-sterile composite samples from 140 animals in seven herds...

  9. Clinical and bacteriological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Regis Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during the post-implementation period. Eighty-two cases were eligible. Mean age was 31 years (interquartile range, 3–42; 17.1% and 30.5% were under 2 years and 5 years, respectively. Pneumococcal meningitis (n = 64, 78.1%, bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (n = 12, 14.6% and bacteraemia (n = 6, 7.3% were the clinical syndromes identified. Thirty-three different serotypes were found. Of these, serotype 14 (n = 12, 14.6% was the most common, followed by 23F (n = 10, 12.2%, 12F (n = 8, 9.8%, 18 C (n = 5, 6.1% and 6B (n = 5, 6.1%. Investigations conducted in Salvador in the pre-vaccine period did not identify serotype 12F as one of the most prevalent serotypes. Increase of serotype 12F was observed in different regions of Brazil, in the post-vaccine period. Among children under two years of age, the target group for 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 11 (78.6% of the 14 isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae belonged to vaccine serotypes; at least 50% of these children were not vaccinated. The relatively recent implementation of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil reinforces the need to maintain an active surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease cases, considering the possible increase of invasive pneumococcal disease cases related to non-vaccine serotypes and the changes on the clinical presentation of the disease.

  10. Physico-chemical and Bacteriological Quality of Water from Shallow Wells in Two Rural Communities in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaahan, Terngu J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground water abstraction from shallow wells is widely practiced in the Obi and in Oju rural areas of Benue State, Central Nigeria, as a means of fighting guinea worm infestation associated with the surface water sources (streams in these areas. To ascertain the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the water used by the population, water samples from 27 shallow wells in Obi and 19 Oju were taken and examined for key health-related quality parameters using routine methods. In Obi, the ground water colour ranged from 4.0-80.0 TCU, conductivity 55.2-1600.0 µS/cm, pH 6.1-8.6, TDS 38.6-1286 mg/L, turbidity 1.0-55.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.210mg/L, copper 0.01-2.53mg/L, fluoride 0.08-1.82mg/L and nitrate 10.8-63.0mg/L, while in Oju, colour varied from 2.0-87.0 TCU, conductivity 107.4-1375 µS/cm, pH 6.4-8.53, TDS 75.2-1150 mg/L, turbidity 3.0-48.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.023 mg/L, copper 0.01-2.10 mg/L, fluoride 0.01-1.54 mg/L and nitrate 10.2-59.7 mg/L. Some of these values in some instances exceed the WHO standard for drinking water. Alongside with the presence significant total coliform count in most of the wells (0-47/100 mL in Oju and 0-53/100 mL in Obi, the available water is considered largely unsafe for human consumption as obtained. It is concluded that, while ground water abstraction may be a safety measure against guinea worm infestation it, nevertheless presents other health challenges to the rural population in the area, as the quality of the ground water is generally low.

  11. The serologic response to Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally infected chickens, followed by an indirect lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bacteriologic examinations through a one-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Feld, Niels Christian; Carstensen, B.

    2002-01-01

    uninfected as controls. The groups were monitored bacteriologically by examination of cloacal swabs and organs and serologically by examination of serum and egg yolk by a lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay throughout the period. Within the first week, 100% of birds in both infected groups...... at the onset of egg production. For both S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, positive bacteriologic cultures were obtained by sampling from internal organs at the end of the experiment, more than 1 yr from the time of infection. At the age of 6-7 wk, 50% of the chickens in the two infected groups showed...... a measurable serologic response in serum samples. The response persisted throughout the study in both serum and egg yell, samples. The inclusion of serologic methods is a valuable additional tool in the detection of salmonella in poultry, but serology should be used in conjunction with bacteriologic methods...

  12. Methods in aquatic bacteriology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, B

    1988-01-01

    .... Within these sections detailed chapters consider sampling methods, determination of biomass, isolation methods, identification, the bacterial microflora of fish, invertebrates, plants and the deep...

  13. Bacteriological Study of Pyoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Bhaskaran

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and twenty cases of pyoderma were investigated to study the bacterial aetiology. Folliculitis formed the largest-clinical group followed by infectious eczematoid dermatitis, secondary infection, impetigo, miscellaneous, furuncles and acne in descending order of frequency. A total of 172 micro-organisms were isolated from the infected specimens examined. A single infecting organism was isolated from 65.5% and more than one type of organism from 6.3% of cases. No organism was isolated from 62 (29.2% cases, Coagulase positive staphylococcus was isolated from 107 (48.6% beta haemolytic streptococcus from 18 (8.2% and both these organisms from 11 (5% cases. Coagulase positive staphylococcus (69.8% was the predominant species followed by beta haemolytic streptococcus (17.4%, coaplm negative staphylococcus (8.1% and alpha haemolytic streptococcus (4.7%. The antibiotic resistance pattern showed maximum resistance to ampicillin, penicillin and polymyxin. None of the strains was found to be resistant to cephaloridine, neomycin and kanamycin. Low percentage of strains were found to be resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, nitrofurazone, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and gentamycin. Of the strains of Staph. aureusphage typed, 35 (43.7% were not typable, 15 (18.7% belonged tophage group 111, followed by phage group II, group I and mixed group. The most prevalent phage type in group III was 42E,in group II type 3 C and in the group I type 52A. Multiple antibiotic resistant strains of staph aureus were found mostly in phage groups III and I and not in group 11.

  14. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF COAGULASE-POSITIVE AND COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI IN RELATION TO METHICILLIN SENSITIVITY TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabham Yalangi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognised as an important pathogen in human disease. Staphylococci infection occurs regularly in hospitalised patients and has serious consequences despite antibiotic therapy. Shortly after introduction of methicillin after clinical use Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA were identified in many countries and become one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of the study is to know the methicillin sensitivity of both coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from various samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 strains of staphylococci both coagulase positive and coagulase negative were isolated in the Department of Microbiology from various clinical samples. They were confirmed by morphology, staining methods and by using standard bacteriological procedures and biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test. RESULTS Predominant species from pus were S. epidermidis (42.42% and from sputum S. haemolyticus (31.81% from blood S. haemolyticus (53.33%. 53% of strains produced beta-lactamase. Majority 47.22% by S. epidermidis from pus followed by S. haemolyticus 23.33% from pus. Beta-lactamase production was least from throat swab (5.55%. Out of 32 coagulase-positive staphylococci tested to methicillin 15 (46.87% were found to be sensitive, 17 (53.13% were found to be resistant. Out of 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci tested, 13 (19.11% were found to sensitive and 55 (80.88% were found to be resistant. 72% of strains were sensitive to novobiocin and 28% resistant to novobiocin. 43% showed drug resistance to 2 drugs. 14% to 3 drugs and 5 drugs. 6% of staphylococci sensitive to all the 10 drugs. CONCLUSION MRSA is a type of bacteria that is resistant to a number of widely used antibiotics. This means MRSA infections can be more difficult to treat than other bacterial infections. In recent years

  15. Incorporation of galactomannans in the diet of newly weaned piglets: effect on bacteriological and some morphological characteristics of the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nevel, Christian J; Decuypere, Jaak A; Dierick, Noel A; Molly, Koen

    2005-04-01

    In search of substances replacing antibiotics as growth promoters for farm animals, non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) have been proposed as possible alternatives. In this context, the influence of galactomannans on bacteriological and morphological aspects of the gastrointestinal tract in weanling pigs was investigated. Four groups of five newly weaned piglets received one of the following diets: control feed (C), C supplemented with guar gum (1%), C supplemented with locust bean gum (1%) and C supplemented with 10% of carob tree seeds meal as source of locust bean gum. The animals were euthanized after 11-12 days and digesta were sampled in stomach, jejunum (proximal and distal) and caecum, while mucosal scrapings and ring shaped tissue samples were taken of proximal and distal jejunum. On these samples bacteriological, biochemical and morphological determinations were carried out. Total count of bacteria in digesta and mucosal scrapings was not influenced by the different diets, with the exception of the proximal jejunum where a small decrease (0.5 log10 CFU) was noted with the guar gum and carob tree seeds diet. The number of E. coli increased by feeding both gums and carob tree seeds. With the latter diet, higher counts of streptococci were observed. In agreement with the lower concentration of lactic acid in jejunal contents, guar gum decreased the number of lactobacilli. Locust bean gum decreased the molar proportion of acetate in caecal contents while butyrate and valerate were augmented. Feeding the carob tree seeds resulted in shorter villi and a lower villus height/crypt depth ratio in the jejunum mucosa, which was an indication for a faster renewal rate of the epithelium. Both locust bean gum feeds significantly lowered the mitotic index in the crypts of the small intestine. Only with the carob tree seeds diet, viscosity of jejunal contents was increased. In conclusion, the effects of the addition of 1% of pure

  16. Bacteriological, histological and functional examination of rat kidneys during 5-days gentamycin therapy of experimental E. coli pyelonephritis as compared to 9-days therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, I.; Briedigkeit, H.; Strangfeld, D.; Ditscherlein, G.; Schuerer, M.; Pietsch, R.; Kruse, L.; Camu, A.; Blank, W.

    1985-01-01

    Short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended in infections of the lower urinary tract but its effectiveness is questioned in upper urinary tract infections. 5 and 9-days treatment of experimental E. coli 022 pyelonephritis after unilateral nephrectomy in 127 male Wistar rats were compared. 9 mg gentamycin per kg b.w. twice daily were applied. 131 I-hippurate excretion was not decreased during the 5 day treatment but was temporarily diminished during 9-days treatment. Histologically the severe acute pyelonephritis was decreased after 9-days treatment but not after 5 days of treatment. Bacteriologically almost all the kidneys were sterile after 9-days treatment but the majority of the kidneys showed the injected strain of E. coli after 5-days treatment. The results indicated that the shortened treatment was much less effective in acute experimental pyelonephritis. (author)

  17. Identification of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes isolated from the uterus of dairy cows using routine bacteriological testing and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguiberry, María; Madoz, Laura Vanina; Giuliodori, Mauricio Javier; Wagener, Karen; Prunner, Isabella; Grunert, Tom; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Drillich, Marc; de la Sota, Rodolfo Luzbel

    2016-11-28

    Uterine disorders are common postpartum diseases in dairy cows. In practice, uterine treatment is often based on systemic or locally applied antimicrobials with no previous identification of pathogens. Accurate on-farm diagnostics are not available, and routine testing is time-consuming and cost intensive. An accurate method that could simplify the identification of uterine pathogenic bacteria and improve pathogen-specific treatments could be an important advance to practitioners. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a database built with uterine bacteria from European dairy cows could be used to identify bacteria from Argentinean cows by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Uterine samples from 64 multiparous dairy cows with different types of vaginal discharge (VD) were collected between 5 and 60 days postpartum, analyzed by routine bacteriological testing methods and then re-evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy (n = 27). FTIR spectroscopy identified Escherichia coli in 12 out of 14 samples and Trueperella pyogenes in 8 out of 10 samples. The agreement between the two methods was good with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73. In addition, the likelihood for bacterial growth of common uterine pathogens such as E. coli and T. pyogenes tended to increase with VD score. The odds for a positive result to E. coli or T. pyogenes was 1.88 times higher in cows with fetid VD than in herdmates with clear normal VD. We conclude that the presence of E. coli and T. pyogenes in uterine samples from Argentinean dairy cows can be detected with FTIR with the use of a database built with uterine bacteria from European dairy cows. Future studies are needed to determine if FTIR can be used as an alternative to routine bacteriological testing methods.

  18. Evaluation of serology, bacteriological isolation and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of pigs carrying Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract after experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiers, Koen; Donné, Eef; Van Overbeke, Ingrid; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2002-09-24

    Pigs, asymptomatically infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in their upper respiratory tract, can transmit the infection. Detection of such animals is indispensable to prevent the intake of the disease in a herd. This study was conducted to evaluate bacteriology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology for the detection of subclinically infected pigs. Pigs were inoculated onto the tonsils with an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 strain (n=12, group 1) or phosphate buffered saline solution (PBSS) (n=5, group 2). To prevent infection of the lungs, pigs of group 1 were treated three times with sodium ceftiofur as an aerosol. A third group (n=5) was inoculated intranasally with the same strain. All animals were euthanized 30 days post-inoculation (dpi). In pigs of group 1, clinical signs were not observed. A small lung lesion was found in only one pig and A. pleuropneumoniae was isolated from this lesion. The bacterium was not isolated from the lungs of animals that did not develop lung lesions. A. pleuropneumoniae was demonstrated in tonsils of 9/12 animals using bacteriological isolation, whereas it was demonstrated in mixed bacterial cultures from tonsils of all 12 animals by PCR. In non-infected animals (group 2), clinical signs were not observed and A. pleuropneumoniae was not demonstrated in any sample. All intranasally infected animals (group 3) developed disease signs and lung lesions. High antibody titers against ApxI, ApxII and heat-stable antigens were detected in animals that developed lung lesions. Antibody titers against these antigens were low or absent in all other pigs. It was concluded that pigs carrying A. pleuropneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract generally do not show measurable antibodies in serum. Therefore, sensitive methods for the detection of the etiological agent such as PCR are required to identify carrier animals, while serological methods are not suitable.

  19. O grupo pullorum-gallinarum em provas bacteriologicas comparativas The pullorum-gallinarum group in comparative bacteriological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesio Pacheco

    1936-01-01

    acção de substancias antidiastasicas. h A analyse sôrologica das amostras estudadas não permittiu differenciar os typos entre si.Thirty eight strains of microorganisms of the pullorum-gallinarum group, of European, American or Brazilian origin were investigated bacteriologically in order to ascertain as to the fixity of their properties and the possibility of transforming a strain in another. a Five types could be distinguished in our strains: 1 - gasogenic pullorum; 2 - non-gasogenic pullorum; 3 - intermedius; 4 - gasogenic gallinarum?; 5 - non-gasogenic gallinarum. The first, two and fifth types are well known and recognized by specialists; the fourth group has been recognized by Beck & Eber, in 1920; the third group was recognized by ourselves, in 1935. b The table found in this paper summarizes the most important characteristics of these five types. The changes produced on neutral red, H²S production, fermentation of glycerol, isodulcitol, xylose, dulcite, sorbitol and maltose, the activity upon Seignette salt, gas production and appearance of the colonies, are among the characteristics on which the distinction of these five types is founded. c The gasogenic gallinarum type, on account of its action on sorbitol and xylose, and also on Jordan's medium, must be rather considered as a gasogenic intermedius type. d Other biological characteristics, such as activity upon milk, milk-whey, dextrin, etc., accepted by several specialists, appeared as of no practical value to the distinction of the different types of our strains. e The strains kept their properties invariable during all the time of our investigations. The hypothesis of a possible transformation of one type into another has not been confirmed in any of the studied strains and this justifies the idea of independence of each one of the accepted types. f Some discrepances in fermentation of maltose as found by several authors in microorganisms of this group, have been not confirmed in this paper. g In

  20. Bacteriological incidence in pneumonia patients with pulmonary emphysema: a bacterial floral analysis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naito K

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Keisuke Naito,1 Kei Yamasaki,1 Kazuhiro Yatera,1 Kentaro Akata,1 Shingo Noguchi,1 Toshinori Kawanami,1 Kazumasa Fukuda,2 Takashi Kido,1 Hiroshi Ishimoto,3 Hiroshi Mukae3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2Department of Microbiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, 3Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki City, Nagasaki, Japan Abstract: Pulmonary emphysema is an important radiological finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, but bacteriological differences in pneumonia patients according to the severity of emphysematous changes have not been reported. Therefore, we evaluated the bacteriological incidence in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of pneumonia patients using cultivation and a culture-independent molecular method. Japanese patients with community-acquired pneumonia (83 and healthcare-associated pneumonia (94 between April 2010 and February 2014 were evaluated. The BALF obtained from pneumonia lesions was evaluated by both cultivation and a molecular method. In the molecular method, ~600 base pairs of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes in the BALF were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and clone libraries were constructed. The nucleotide sequences of 96 randomly selected colonies were determined, and a homology search was performed to identify the bacterial species. A qualitative radiological evaluation of pulmonary emphysema based on chest computed tomography (CT images was performed using the Goddard classification. The severity of pulmonary emphysema based on the Goddard classification was none in 47.4% (84/177, mild in 36.2% (64/177, moderate in 10.2% (18/177, and severe in 6.2% (11/177. Using the culture-independent molecular method, Moraxella catarrhalis was significantly more frequently detected in moderate or severe emphysema patients than in patients with no or mild emphysematous changes. The

  1. Clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected children with leprosy: A population based study in a defined rural and urban area of Maharashtra, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanaja P Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy has been a major public-health problem in many developing countries for centuries. According to the National Leprosy Elimination Programme report of March 2012, there were a total of about 0.13 million cases of leprosy in India, 9.7% of which were children. Numerous studies have investigated child leprosy amongst reported cases however, studies pertaining to proportion and characteristics of undetected childhood cases in the community are very few. Aim: To examine the clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected child leprosy cases in the community. Methods: The population survey conducted from June to September 2007 and the defined rural areas, which included five primary health centers of Panvel Taluka, in Raigad district and urban areas, which included M-east ward of the municipal corporation of greater Mumbai of western Maharashtra, India. Results: House-to-house survey yielded 32 and 37 so far, undetected child cases of leprosy in the rural and urban region, and the prevalence rate was 10.5 and 1.5 per 10,000, respectively. The age of child leprosy cases detected, ranged from 3 to 14 years with a mean of 10.06 ± 3.35 years in the rural and 9.97 ± 3.12 years in the urban area. Most of the cases were paucibacillary (62%. A large proportion of children (49% had single skin lesion (SSL. Of the 19 SSL cases examined histopathologically, 15 (99% showed features of borderline tuberculoid, 1 (5% borderline lepromatous and 3 (16% had indeterminate type of leprosy. Tuberculoid leprosy was not seen in any, indicating less likelihood of self-healing. Overall, three cases had deformity (grade 1 = 1 and grade 2 = 2 and 31% of multibacillary cases were smear positive. Conclusion: The clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected child cases in the community evidently indicate the grave nature of the problem of undetected child leprosy, recent active

  2. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds--a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

     Between 5% and 10% of cancer patients develop malignant wounds. In vitro and some clinical studies suggest that silver- or honey-coated dressings may have an antibacterial effect in nonmalignant wounds, but their possible antibacterial effect in malignant wounds remains unknown...... antibacterial effect of the honey or silver dressing could not be confirmed in these malignant wounds. Routine wound swabbing of malignant wounds is of little value and should be restricted to cases where signs of infection requiring antibiotic intervention are observed or where resistant organisms require....... A prospective, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed...

  3. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds--a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Between 5% and 10% of cancer patients develop malignant wounds. In vitro and some clinical studies suggest that silver- or honey-coated dressings may have an antibacterial effect in nonmalignant wounds, but their possible antibacterial effect in malignant wounds remains unknown. A prospective......, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed by the same...... antibacterial effect of the honey or silver dressing could not be confirmed in these malignant wounds. Routine wound swabbing of malignant wounds is of little value and should be restricted to cases where signs of infection requiring antibiotic intervention are observed or where resistant organisms require...

  4. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds--a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

    . A prospective, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed...... Between 5% and 10% of cancer patients develop malignant wounds. In vitro and some clinical studies suggest that silver- or honey-coated dressings may have an antibacterial effect in nonmalignant wounds, but their possible antibacterial effect in malignant wounds remains unknown...... years, range 47-92) consented to participate and completed the 4-week study. The majority were women (88%) with breast cancer (79%). No statistically significant differences were found between the type and number of different wound pathogens in the wounds during the course of the study or between Group...

  5. [The Austrian Red Cross and Austrian bacteriologists in the Balkan wars 1912/13 - Centenary of the first application of the bacteriology in theatres of war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Heinz

    2012-04-01

    When Austria joined the Geneva Convention the "Patriotischer Hilfsverein" (Patriotic Aid Society) which was founded for the concerns of wounded soldiers, was named "Austrian Society of the Red Cross". It had to stand its first big test in 1912 in the first Balkan war; military surgeons and bacteriologists were deployed to all warring states. The cholera dominated under the infectious diseases among the various forces and the civilian populations. Upon request of the Bulgarian king renowned bacteriologists of the University of Vienna were dispatched. Their work presented the first action of bacteriology for disease control on theatres of war. The great success of the surgical and hygienic measures initiated in 1912 a reform of the Austrian Red Cross. In 1913 Austria made a detailed application to the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to extend the Geneva Convention to war epidemics. The Committee forwarded and recommended this application to all member states, however, the outbreak of the First World War then prevented its resolution.

  6. [Evaluation of the methodological quality of the Rémic (microbiology guidelines - bacteriology and mycology) of the Société française de microbiologie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonfrède, Michèle; Couaillac, Jean Paul; Augereau, Christine; De Moüy, Danny; Lepargneur, Jean Pierre; Szymanowicz, Anton; Watine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated the methodological quality of the Rémic (microbiology guidelines - bacteriology and mycology) of the Société française de microbiologie (edition2007), using to AGREE criteria, which are consensual at an international level, in particular at the the World Health Organisation (WHO) and at the European Union. The methodological quality of the Rémic appears to be sub-optimal. These shortcomings in quality are mainly observed in AGREE domain n° 5 (applicability), in AGREE item n° 5 (patients' opinions were not considered), and in AGREE item n° 23 (conflicts of interest were not declared). The users of the Rémic must be aware of these few methodological shortcomings in order for them to be careful before they put its recommendation in practice. In conclusion, we advise the editors of the Rémic to insert at least a methodological chapter in their next edition.

  7. Bacteriological quality of weaning food and drinking water given to children of market women in Nigeria: implications for control of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroegbu, C U; Ene-Obong, H N; Uwaegbute, A C; Amazigo, U V

    2000-12-01

    Bacteriological quality of weaning food and drinking water given to 2 groups of children aged leftover foods also had significantly higher bacterial load than the freshly-cooked food. Coliform count varied significantly with source of drinking water. Poor hygiene standard (inferred from bacterial contamination) was generally observed among mothers weaning < or = 2-year-old children, while they were engaged in trading activities in the market, thus exposing their children to high risk of diarrhoea. Hygiene was significantly poorer in weaning of children left at home in the care of older siblings or house-helps. This implies that, in spite of their trading activities in the market, mothers still take better care of their babies than the older siblings or house-helps who may be inexperienced. These mothers may need education on childcare and food hygiene to suit to their trading activities, for example, during their monthly meetings. There is also a need to establish ORT (oral rehydration therapy) corners in the markets as part of the municipal services. This can be used not only for efficient and quick management of diarrhoea in the market but also for reinforcing hygiene education.

  8. Post-exposure serological and bacteriological responses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Brucella abortus biovar 1 following vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diptee, M D; Asgarali, Z; Campbell, M; Fosgate, G; Adesiyun, A A

    2007-12-01

    Serological and bacteriological responses to Brucella abortus biovar 1 following vaccination with B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51) were evaluated in thirty domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) randomly divided into five treatment groups. Groups I to V received, respectively, the recommended dose (RD) of RB51 vaccine once, RD twice 4 weeks apart, double RD once, double RD twice 4 weeks apart, and saline once (control). Vaccination did not result in a serological response. Experimental animals released 27 weeks post initial inoculation (27 PIIW) into a brucellosis-positive herd failed to seroconvert after 29 weeks. Experimental challenge commenced at 57 PIIW. All animals received B. abortus biovar 1 intraconjunctivally at 0, 5 and 9 weeks post experimental exposure (PEEW). Serum samples collected at 4, 8 and 13 PEEW were negative. At 16 PEEW all animals received B. abortus biovar 1 subcutaneously (SC), and all seroconverted by 20 PEEW. Five of twenty-six animals were positive for Brucella infection on bacterial culture. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from three animals; B. abortus RB51 was isolated from two. Treatment group, age and sex had no effect on the isolation of Brucellae (P>0.05).

  9. Cervicovaginal Bacteriology and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns among Women with Premature Rupture of Membranes in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton W. Musaba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A 2013 Cochrane review concluded that the choice of antibiotics for prophylaxis in PROM is not clear. In Uganda, a combination of oral erythromycin and amoxicillin is the 1st line for prophylaxis against ascending infection. Our aim was to establish the current cervicovaginal bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Methods. Liquor was collected aseptically from the endocervical canal and pool in the posterior fornix of the vagina using a pipette. Aerobic cultures were performed on blood, chocolate, and MacConkey agar and incubated at 35–37°C for 24–48 hrs. Enrichment media were utilized to culture for GBS and facultative anaerobes. Isolates were identified using colonial morphology, gram staining, and biochemical analysis. Sensitivity testing was performed via Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and dilution method. Pearson’s chi-squared (χ2 test and the paired t-test were applied, at a P value of 0.05. Results. Thirty percent of the cultures were positive and over 90% were aerobic microorganisms. Resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and ceftriaxone was 44%, 95%, 96%, and 24%, respectively. Rupture of membranes (>12 hrs, late preterm, and term PROM were associated with more positive cultures. Conclusion. The spectrum of bacteria associated with PROM has not changed, but resistance to erythromycin and ampicillin has increased.

  10. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-07-01

    light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  11. Liver function and bacteriology of organs in broiler inoculated with nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and treated with organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane M. Rocha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbAns etxrpaecritment was carried out with 630 one-day-old chicks to evaluate the effects of organic acids when birds were experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium. Liver damage and the persistence of the bacterium in the organs were evaluated as well. Broilers were distributed in a completely randomised experimental design in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of six treatments with seven replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were inoculated with saline solution or the bacterium via gavage at 1 day of age, or were offered a feed containing or not the organic acid blend for the period of 7 to 14 days of age. A dose of 5.0x102 colony-forming units (CFU/0.5 mL of Salmonella Typhimurium was used for inoculation both via gavage and feed. The parameters evaluated are weight, liver histopathology, liver and serum biochemistry, and bacteriological analyses of the caeca, crop, spleen, and liver and heart pool. At 21 and 28 days of age, the liver of the non-inoculated groups was significantly lighter as compared to the other treatments. Birds fed organic acids presented lower bacterial isolation rates in all organs tested. Birds inoculated in the crop and treated with organic acids presented lower E. coli CFU counts (P<0.05. Birds inoculated with Salmonella presented significant changes (P<0.05 in liver enzymes, as detected by serum biochemistry, and in liver histopathology. It was concluded that organic acids effectively controlled Salmonella Typhimurium and did not cause any liver damage.

  12. Bacteriological profile of diabetic foot ulcer with special reference to drug-resistant strains in a tertiary care center in North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir K Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to determine the bacteriological profile of infected diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs and the antibiotic resistance pattern from the isolates. An attempt was made to suggest an empiric antibiotic regimen to treat such patients. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples were collected from 150 patients between February 2015 and January 2016 with DFUs under aseptic precautions and they were processed as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: A total of 185 bacterial isolates were obtained from 150 persons with diabetic and with foot ulcers. The age group of these persons ranged from 35 to 80 years and the maximum number of persons with DFUs was in the age group of 60–65 years. Among the isolates, Gram-negative bacilli were isolated in 112/185 (61% and Gram-positive cocci in 73/185 (39% cases. The most common isolate was Staphylococcus spp. 46 (25%, followed by Escherichia coli (20% and Enterococcus spp. (15%. The antibiotic sensitivity profile of the bacteria was also studied. Among the isolates, 59/112 (53% of the Gram-negative bacilli were extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers, 19/46 (41% were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 5/27 (19% were vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Conclusions: This study showed a preponderance of multidrug-resistant strains among the isolates from the DFUs. Knowledge on the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates will be helpful in determining the drugs for the empirical treatment of diabetic ulcers. Thus, indiscriminate use of antibiotics and chances of subsequent development of antibiotic resistance can also be reduced.

  13. [Analysis of a proposal for changing the educational paradigm in bacteriology and virology. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, E; González, S; López, T; Giayetto, V; Littvik, A; Cannistraci, R; Pavan, J

    2000-01-01

    The productive character of the scientific thought points out a methodological means that include the demand of the students' job about the information and not his mere reception and reproduction. It is essential to give the students the opportunity of discovering the cognitive processes used in the production of the scientific knowledge. In this work, we present the result of the starting of a workshop dynamic in a basic subject, the students' answers, and the analysis of the subject. In the Chair of Medical Bacteriology and Virology of the School of Medical Sciences, the National University of Córdoba, 1700 students attended classes in 1997. The subject was developed with the activities that worked the same contents from two different learning conceptions: (I) workshop activity, non obligatory, constructive, and (II) theorico-practical activity, obligatory and traditional. Two voluntary and anonymous interviews were done about the valuation that the student gave to these two activities and their basis, one in the middle and the other at the end of the course. 90.55% classified the traditional activity as positive, and 9.45% as negative. Regarding the workshop activity, the 60.5% classified it as positive and the 39.5% as negative. The same developed content with two activities made possible the analysis of the impact that the two different methodologies produced on the students. The student's answer to the traditional activity was better than the workshop activity (p < 0.001). The differences in the student's acceptance between the two option revealed the major difficulty of an alternative methodological strategy in the current educational model.

  14. Latent class analysis of the diagnostic characteristics of PCR and conventional bacteriological culture in diagnosing intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cows at dry off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cederlöf Sara Ellinor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of intramammary infections in dairy cows at dry off. Reliable identification is important for disease management on herd level and for antimicrobial treatment of infected animals. Our objective was to evaluate the test characteristics of PathoProof ™ Mastitis PCR Assay and bacteriological culture (BC in diagnosing bovine intramammary infections caused by S. aureus at dry off at different PCR cycle threshold (Ct-value cut-offs. Methods Sterile quarter samples and non-sterile composite samples from 140 animals in seven herds were collected in connection with the dairy herd improvement (DHI milk recording. All quarter samples were analyzed using BC whereas all composite samples were analyzed with PathoProof ™ Mastitis PCR Assay. Latent class analysis was used to estimate test properties for PCR and BC in the absence of a perfect reference test. The population was divided into two geographically divided subpopulations and the Hui-Walter 2-test 2-populations model applied to estimate Se, Sp for the two tests, and prevalence for the two subpopulations. Results The Se for PCR increased with increasing Ct-value cut-off, accompanied by a small decrease in Sp. For BC the Se decreased and Sp increased with increasing Ct-value cut-off. Most optimal test estimates for the real-time PCR assay were at a Ct-value cut-off of 37; 0.93 [95% posterior probability interval (PPI 0.60-0.99] for Se and 0.95 [95% PPI 0.95-0.99] for Sp. At the same Ct-value cut-off, Se and Sp for BC were 0.83 [95% PPI 0.66-0.99] and 0.97 [95% PPI 0.91-0.99] respectively. Depending on the chosen PCR Ct-value cut-off, the prevalence in the subpopulations varied; the prevalence increased with increasing PCR Ct-value cut-offs. Conclusion Neither BC nor real-time PCR is a perfect test in detecting IMI in dairy cows at dry off. The changes in sensitivity and prevalence at different Ct-value cut-offs for both PCR and

  15. Clinical and bacteriological efficacy of twice daily topical retapamulin ointment 1% in the management of impetigo and other uncomplicated superficial skin infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohaty, Benjamin R; Choi, Sangbum; Cai, Chunyan; Hebert, Adelaide A

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous bacterial infections are common in children and adults and frequently are caused by Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ). Treatment failures with topical agents are not uncommon and have been shown to be secondary to bacterial resistance. To determine clinical and bacteriological efficacy of retapamulin ointment 1% in treatment of patients with cutaneous bacterial infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and other bacteria. Prospective, nonrandomized, uncontrolled, open label, single center trial conducted between April 2008 and November 2012 that evaluated efficacy of retapamulin ointment 1% in the treatment of impetigo, folliculitis, and other minor soft tissue infections in children and adults. Fifty patients, who presented to a dermatology outpatient clinic and were clinically diagnosed with impetigo, folliculitis, or minor soft tissue infection suitable for treatment with a topical antibiotic, were screened. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled and received treatment: topical retapamulin ointment 1% twice daily for 5 days. Seven patients were MRSA positive and qualified for the primary efficacy population. One patient withdrew due to an adverse event. Clinical and microbiological exams were performed at baseline and follow-up 5 to 7 days later to assess clinical, microbiological, and therapeutic responses. Primary outcome was clinical response at follow-up in primary efficacy population with MRSA isolated as the baseline pathogen. Secondary outcomes included clinical, microbiologic, and therapeutic responses in patients who were culture positive for any species of bacteria. Clinical response at follow-up in the primary efficacy population (MRSA-positive patients) was not sufficiently powered to demonstrate significance; however, outcomes were excellent, with 7 of 7 patients demonstrating clinical success (5 of 7) or clinical improvement (2 of 7) at follow-up. Barring lack of significance due to small total sample size for patients

  16. Análise bacteriológica da água de equipos odontológicos Bacteriological analysis of water in dental units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Bronharo Tognim

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, grande esforço tem sido feito para conscientizar os profissionais da saúde sobre a importância dos processos de esterilização e anti-sepsia. Entretanto, pouca atenção tem sido dispensada pelos cirurgiões-dentistas à qualidade da água utilizada na prática odontológica. Neste trabalho, realizamos 72 análises bacteriológicas em amostras de água de 68 equipos odontológicos e de 4 torneiras, para verificar a qualidade microbiológica da água, através da contagem de bactérias heterotróficas e pesquisa de coliformes. As amostras coletadas das torneiras apresentaram valores compatíveis com os padrões de potabilidade. Das 68 amostras obtidas dos equipos 63 (92,7% estavam contaminadas e 5 (7,3% estavam dentro dos padrões de potabilidade. Observou-se que 42 equipos (61,8% continham água acentuadamente contaminada, 14 (20,6% apresentaram índice moderado de contaminação e 7 (10,3% estavam com a água levemente contaminada. Estes resultados apontam a necessidade de cuidados especiais, tais como a descontaminação e a desinfecção periódica dos sistemas de água dos equiposAlthough, in recent years, great efforts have been made to inform and make health professionals aware of the importance of sterilization, disinfection and antisepsis, little considerations have been shown in relation to the quality of the water of dental unit systems. In the present work 72 samples of water from 68 dental equipments and 4 faucets were submitted to bacteriological analysis, with the objective of detecting heterothrophic bacteria and coliform group. The samples collected from the faucets were compatible with the water potability patterns. In contrast, 63 (92.7% of the 68 samples obtained from the dental unit water systems were considered contaminated and only 5 (7.3% were in agreement with the potability patterns. It was observed that 42 water samples (61.8% were heavily contaminated, 14 (20.6% presented moderate index of

  17. Alternative anaerobic enrichments to the bacteriological analytical manual culture method for isolation of Shigella sonnei from selected types of fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Andrew P; Thunberg, Richard L; Johnson, Mildred L; Hammack, Thomas S; Andrews, Wallace H

    2004-01-01

    Alternative methods of reducing oxygen during anaerobic enrichment in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Shigella culture method were evaluated and compared to the current and less practical GasPak method. The alternative anaerobic methods included the use of reducing agents in Shigella broth and reducing culture container headspace volume to minimize atmospheric effects on oxygen concentration in Shigella broth during enrichment. The reducing agents evaluated were sodium thioglycollate, L-cystine, L-cysteine, titanium(III) citrate, and dithiothreitol, each at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01%. The use of Oxyrase for Broth with the enrichment medium (Shigella broth) was evaluated at concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 microL/mL. Recoveries of chill- and freeze-stressed S. sonnei strains 357 and 20143 were determined with each anaerobic method, including the GasPak method, using inoculation levels ranging from 10(0)to 10(3) cells. For each anaerobic method, strain, inoculation level, and stress type, 5 replicate enrichments were evaluated by streaking to MacConkey agar for isolation. The numbers of cultures with each method from which S. sonnei was isolated were used to compare the alternative anaerobic methods to the GasPak method. The alternative anaerobic method with which chill- and freeze-stressed S. sonnei strains 357 and 20143 were isolated most consistently was the use of Oxyrase for Broth in Shigella broth at a concentration of 20 microL/mL. This method was compared to the GasPak anaerobic method in evaluations on the recovery of S. sonnei strains 357 and 20143 from artificially contaminated test portions of parsley, cilantro, green onions, strawberries, carrots, and celery. A third anaerobic method included the use of 0.5 cm mineral oil overlay on cultures containing Oxyrase for Broth at concentrations of 20 microL/mL. Recovery rates of strain 357 were significantly greater (p cultures. The use of mineral oil overlay with Oxyrase for Broth also

  18. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TAP WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Zamorska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most sensitive method of detecting contamination in water supply networks is microbiological testing. Microbiological water safety is evaluated mainly based on the results of traditional tests that rely on bacteria culturing on the so called bacterial growth mediums. Flow cytometry is a modern technology that has been used in microbiology only recently. The diagnostic method based on flow cytometry is much faster and more versatile. Microbiological quality testing was conducted in rzeszowski district, in the area of water network supplied by surface waters, and in the area of water network supplied by underground waters. The scope of the analysis of the microbiological quality of tap water was based on the determination of selected indicators of the sanitary condition of water ie; the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria on nutrient agar (reference called Agar A and additionally called agar supplemented with R, the number of coliforms and faecal streptococci. Determination of the total number of microorganisms by flow cytometry was performed using two dyes SYBR Green and iodide pyridine. Water from underground water intakes, not under the permanent control of microbial had worse microbiological parameters. Used new methods of microbiological assays showed greater amounts of microbiological contamination.

  19. the bacteriological safety and antimicrobial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis and. Infantis from human infections, food stuffs and farm animals in Italy. Epidemiol Infec,. 2004; 132: 245-251. 34. Centinkaya F, Cibik G, Soyuteniz E, Ozkin C,. Kayali R, Levent B. Shigella and Salmonella contamination in various foodstuffs in Turkey. Food Control, 2008 ...

  20. BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND PUBLIC PERCEPTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hamaidi-Chergui F, Brahim Errahmani M, Debib A, Hamaidi M.S

    2016-05-01

    . These results ... be free from organisms and chemical substances in concentration large enough to affect health. [8]. In Algeria, the two ... Location of Arib area in Ain Defla (Algeria) (Agence nationale de Développement de.

  1. BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples were collected from subject in lithotomy position using sterile cuscos bivalve speculum. Samples were ... Since vaginitis could be asymptomatic most time, the screening of all pregnant women with risk factors for preterm labour and premature rupture of membranes must be undertaken. Prompt treatment of cases is ...

  2. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoga, R; Khairul, A; Sunita, K; Suresh, C

    2006-02-01

    Infection plays a pivotal role in enhancing a diabetic foot at risk toward amputation. Effective antibiotic therapy against the offending pathogens is an important component of treatment of diabetic foot infections. Recognition of the pathogen is always difficult as the representative deep tissue sample for culture is surrounded by ulcer surface harbouring colonies of organisms frequently labelled as skin commensals. The emergent of resistant strains represents a compounding problem standing against efforts to prevent amputation. This study was undertaken to identify the pathogens associated with diabetic foot infection in terms of their frequency and sensitivity against certain commonly used antibiotics. Forty-four consecutive patients with open diabetic foot infections had wound swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing. Cultures positive were observed in 89% of the cases with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa encountered in 20%, 14% and 14% of cases respectively. Mixed growths were isolated in 6% of cultures. All Staphylcoccus aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin but 80% were sensitive to Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to Methicillin and Gentamycin in 80% and 60% of cases respectively, and resistant to Ampicillin and Ceftazidime in 83% and 50% respectively. All Pseudomonas aeroginosa isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin but 50% were resistant to Gentamycin. There was no single antibiotic possessing good coverage for all common organisms isolated from diabetic foot lesions. Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant cause of diabetic foot infections followed by Klebsiela pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most infections are monomicrobial. The emergence of multiresistant organisms is a worrying feature in diabetic foot infections.

  3. Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…

  4. Bacteriological studies on Limburger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Erian, A.F.M.

    1969-01-01

    A study has been made of the ripening process of Limburger cheese, including microbiological investigations of the surface flora and chemical analyses of the cheese during the different stages of ripening. The microbial flora was studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition to the

  5. bacteriological examination of chronic osteomyelitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approximately 2 ml of venous blood was obtained from each ... Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC considerable proportion of. 13042 were run as control' infections. Decubitus ulcers organisms. contributed 5 cases. This was followed by diabetic foot with 4. RESULTS cases. Leg ulcer, pin—tract infection,. A total of 82 patients ...

  6. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cornerstone

    pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand. (BOD) were 5.98, 22.8μs/cm, 18.1NTU, ... beneath the earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock .... Vol. 17, 2012. Table 1: Physical and chemical parameters of well water samples. SAMPLES. Parameter. 1. 2.

  7. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TAP WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Zamorska; Monika Zdeb; Dorota Papciak

    2016-01-01

    The most sensitive method of detecting contamination in water supply networks is microbiological testing. Microbiological water safety is evaluated mainly based on the results of traditional tests that rely on bacteria culturing on the so called bacterial growth mediums. Flow cytometry is a modern technology that has been used in microbiology only recently. The diagnostic method based on flow cytometry is much faster and more versatile. Microbiological quality testing was conducted in rzes...

  8. Determination of the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of water from hand dug wells in the Ga-West Municipality, Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatawu, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Ga-West Municipality is noted for high reported cases of Buruli Ulcer and other water-borne diseases. A large section of the population of the municipality depends on boreholes and hand-dug wells to meet their basic daily water requirement. The hand-dug wells and boreholes, unlike treated piped water and Water Kiosk Programmes in the communities of the study area are not frequently monitored for their bacteriological, physic-chemical parameters and trace elements content; to ascertain their suitability for drinking and other important domestic chores. The study assessed the quality (bacteriological, physico-chemical and trace elements) of water from hand-dug wells and boreholes in communities within the Ga West Municipality. Groundwater samples were collected in November and December 2014 from hand-dug wells and boreholes in twenty-three (19) communities within the Ga-West Municipality for the study. pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Electric Conductivity and Temperature were determined onsite with the portable Multifunctional HACH-Conductivity meter. HCO 3 - Alkalinity, Calcium and Total Hardness were determined by Titrimetry. Trace metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn) and Mg were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. For bacterial indicators, Aerobic Colony Count Technique was employed. Fecal Coliform and E-coli were determined using Violet Red Bile-salt Agar Media, and Indole Test used to confirm Ecoli. Plate Count Agar Media was used in the determination of Total Coliform. pH was acidic to weakly alkaline (4.5 - 8.5) for hand-dug wells and weakly acidic to near-neutral (6.4 - 7.5) in the boreholes. Total Dissolved Solids were generally high with about 35.7 % of the samples exceeding WHO recommended Guideline of 1000 mg/L in both hand-dug wells and boreholes. According to TDS classification by Freeze and Cherry, 74.3 % of the groundwater samples were classified as fresh, (TDS ‹100 mg/L) and 35.7 % as brackish (TDS › 100 mg/L). Total Hardness values

  9. Controle bacteriológico de carne caprina para elaboração de hambúrguer caprino defumado Bacteriological control of goat meat to elaboration of smoked goat hamburger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Metri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se avaliações bacteriológicas da matéria-prima utilizada na elaboração de um produto cárneo caprino tipo hambúrguer defumado, antes e após sanitização. A carne foi tratada por aspersão, com uma solução de ácidos orgânicos contendo 2% de ácido acético, 1% de ácido lático, 0,25% de ácido cítrico e 0,1% de ácido ascórbico, e armazenada sob refrigeração. As análises bacteriológicas foram realizadas no dia 0 e aos 7 e 14 dias após defumação. Na carne, no dia 0, a contagem de coliformes fecais estava acima do limite permitido pela legislação vigente, mas sete dias após a sanitização, esse parâmetro estava dentro dos limites permitidos. No produto final todos os parâmetros bacteriológicos encontraram-se dentro dos padrões higiênico-sanitários.In order to obtain a safe goat smoked hamburger, bacteriological analysis of the raw material was performed before and after sanitation. Meat was sprayed with a solution of organic acids containing 2% acetic acid, 1% lactic acid, 0.25% citric acid and 0.1% ascorbic acid and, after that, stored under refrigeration. Bacteriological analysis was carried out on days 0, 7 and 14 after goat smoked hamburger processing. In meat, on day 0, the fecal coliform count was above legal limits, but on day 7 after sanitation this parameter was these limits. In the final product, all the results of the bacteriological parameters were according to the sanitary-hygienic standards.

  10. Use of real-time PCR on faecal samples for detection of sub-clinical Salmonella infection in cattle did not improve the detection sensitivity compared to conventional bacteriology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nielsen, L.R.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2013-01-01

    bacteriological culture-reference method (BCRM) on cattle faecal samples for detection of sub-clinical Salmonella infections in cattle. Thirty faecal samples were artificially contaminated with either 10 or 50CFU of one of five strains of S. Dublin (SD) and S. Typhimurium (ST). The overall detection sensitivity...... of both rt-PCR and BCRM was 100% for ST and 78% for SD. Furthermore, 163 faecal samples from cattle herds with suspected Salmonella infection were tested to compare the relative performance of rt-PCR to BCRM on samples from naturally infected herds. The relative sensitivity of rt-PCR was 20% (3/15 BCRM...... positive samples) while the relative specificity and accuracy was 99% and 92%, respectively. Both methods had limitations for detecting low levels of SD (...

  11. Estudos bacteriológicos e sorológicos de um surto de peste no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Bacteriological and serological studies of a plague outbreak in the Paraíba state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Maria Paiva Almeida

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados estudos bacteriológicos e/ou sorológicos para diagnóstico da infecção pestosa, em material obtido de 452 pacientes (48 positivos, 1.938 roedores e outros pequenos mamíferos (75 positivos, 4.756 cães (141 positivos e 3.047 gatos (57 positivos, oriundos de 41 municípios localizados em toda a extensão da área paraibana do Planalto da Borborema. A infecção foi encontrada em 21 municípios. Foram isoladas 20 cepas de Yersinia pestis de amostras coletadas de três pacientes e 17 roedores. Estas cepas apresentam características bioquímicas, fatores de virulência, sensibilidade aos antibióticos e poder patogênico experimental semelhantes ao de cepas isoladas anteriormente. Pelos estudos realizados não foram observados, no surto de peste que eclodiu em setembro de 1986 na Paraíba, fatores diferentes dos observados nos outros focos do nordeste do Brasil.During a plague outbreak in the Borborema Plateu focus (Paraíba, bacteriological and serological studies were carryed out in material from 452 patients (48 positives, 1,938 rodents and other small mammals (75 positives, 4,756 dogs (141 positives and 2,047 cats (57 positives obtained from 41 counties (out of which, 21 produced positive samples. Twenty Yersinia pestis strains isolated from material from 3 patients ans 17 rodents, displayed biochemical reactions, virulence factors, antibiotic susceptibility and animal experimental pathogenicity similar to those observed in strains previously isolated. According to our findings this recent plague outbreak did not exhibite different factors from those observed during prior outbreaks in other plague foci in the northeast of Brazil.

  12. BACTERIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WASHED AND UNWASHED LAYING HEN’S EGGS CARACTERÍSTICAS BACTERIOLÓGICAS DE OVOS LAVADOS E NÃO LAVADOS DE GRANJAS DE PRODUÇÃO COMERCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Ferreira Stringhini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the bacteriological quality of washed and unwashed eggs obtained in four commercial poultry farms located in the metropolitan area of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil was the purpose of this study. Farms 1 and 2 were considered as medium and small production capacity, respectively, and washed mechanically the eggs with heated water containing sanitizing while farms 3 and 4 produced unwashed eggs. The sample universe was made up of 576 eggs from farms 1 and 2, 288 obtained from the poultry facilities and other 288 collected in the classification hall, and 132 obtained in farms 3 and 4, half of this collected in the facilities and the other half in the classification hall. It was considered commercial eggs classified as large eggs from 30 to 40 weeks of age Dekalb White hens. The experimental design was a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (washing procedure x collection place with three replicates and the experimental unit consisted of pool of six eggs. Counts of mesophilic and positive Staphylococcus coagulase and Most Probable Number (MPN of total and fecal coliforms in shells and internal content of eggs and Salmonella spp. research in eggshells were made. Results of the counts were expressed as log CFU/g and “t” Student test (5% adopted. Descriptive and frequency analysis was used to analyse MPN of total and faecal coliforms. Counts of mesophilic and positive Staphylococcus coagulase in eggshells of washed eggs in the classification hall of the farm 1 were lower (p <0.05 than that eggs collected in hen’s facilities which showed the efficiency of sanitization and good bacteriological quality of eggshell. The eggshells obtained in the classification hall of the farm 3 showed a higher (p <0.05 counts of mesophilic than in the facilities. Despite the high counting for positive Staphylococcus coagulase in the classification halls of farms 3 and 4, these values are lower than those needed to form toxin capable of

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of a standardized scheme for identification of Streptococcus uberis in quarter milk samples: A comparison between conventional bacteriological examination, modified Rambach agar medium culturing, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Regina; Baumgartner, Martina; Urbantke, Verena; Stessl, Beatrix; Wittek, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Bacteriological examination of milk samples is a prerequisite for pathogen-specific therapy and aids in limiting antimicrobial resistance. The aims of this study were to establish a standardized scheme for reliable Streptococcus uberis identification in routine diagnosis and to evaluate the accuracy of conventional tests and growing patterns of Strep. uberis on a selective medium (modified Rambach agar medium, MRAM) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis as a reference method. We obtained isolates of presumptive Strep. uberis (n = 336) from quarter milk samples of dairy cows with intramammary infections and classified the isolates into 2 clusters using biochemical characterization. In cluster 1 (n = 280), cocci grew as non-hemolytic colonies, hydrolyzing esculin, carrying no Lancefield antigen (A/B/C/D/G) or Christie Atkins Munch-Petersen factor, and their growth was inhibited on an Enterococcus agar. Production of β-d-galactosidase on MRAM was shown by 257 of the cluster 1 isolates (91.79%), and 16S rRNA gene sequencing verified 271 (96.79%) of the isolates to be Strep. uberis. In 264 isolates (94.29%), MRAM agreed with the sequencing results. In cluster 2 (n = 56), isolates showed different characteristics: 37 (66.07%) were β-d-galactosidase-positive, and based on 16S sequencing results, 36 (64.29%) were identified correctly as Strep. uberis using biochemical methods. Identification success in this group differed significantly between routine diagnosis and MRAM application: MRAM agreed with sequencing results in 47 isolates (83.93%). To identify Strep. uberis and differentiate it from other lactic acid bacteria in routine diagnosis, we suggest using catalase reaction, hemolysis, esculin hydrolysis, and growth on enterococci agar. Isolates that show a typical biochemical profile can be identified satisfactorily with these tests. For Strep. uberis isolates with divergent patterns, application of MRAM as a follow-up test increased the diagnostic accuracy to 94

  14. A serological and bacteriological survey of dogs to detect Brucella infection in Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province Estudio serológico y bacteriológico de brucelosis en perros de Lomas de Zamora, provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. López

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a disease of the reproductive tract that may cause miscarriage in females, infection of the sexual organs in males and infertility in both sexes. The prevalence of brucellosis in dogs is unknown and little has been done to control the disease, except in certain breeds and some commercial dog kennels. In the course of a free neuter program in Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province, prevalence of antibodies to Brucella sp., bacteriological isolation and clinical observations were performed. Of 224 dogs studied, 33 (14.7% were found positive for the rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT, 24 (10.7% of which were confirmed by IELISA. Of the 33 RSAT positive, 17 (51.5% blood cultures were done, and B. canis were isolated from 2 cases. Since infected dogs have been shown to remain bacteremic for prolonged periods, our results also suggest a risk of human infections in this area.La brucelosis canina causada por Brucella canis es una infección que afecta el tracto reproductivo de los perros y que puede provocar abortos en las hembras, infección de los órganos sexuales en los machos e infertilidad en ambos sexos. Se desconoce la prevalencia de esta enfermedad y las medidas de control se aplican sólo en algunos criaderos comerciales. Durante un programa de castración gratuita de perros llevado a cabo en el Partido de Lomas de Zamora (Gran Buenos Aires se realizaron estudios clínicos, serológicos y bacteriológicos en 224 animales. En la población estudiada, la prueba de microaglutinación rápida en portaobjetos (RSAT resultó positiva en suero de 33 (14,7% perros y fueron confirmadas por IELISA en 24 (10,7% de ellos. A 17 de los 33 perros positivos mediante RSAT (51,5% se les practicaron hemocultivos y en 2 casos se aisló B. canis. Debido a que los perros infectados permanecen bacteriémicos durante períodos prolongados, constituyen un riesgo para la salud pública.

  15. Physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics of rainwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TSS and TDS were highest in samples collected from Asbestos rooftop, followed by Aluminum rooftop while samples from galvanized Iron had the least irrespective of the rainfall event. Rainwater samples collected at the onset of rain had higher Ca2+ concentration than those collected at the peak of rain for all roof type with ...

  16. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Assessment of Tannery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The tanning process generates wastes that are of serious environmental impact particularly in countries where environmental regulations are not sufficiently strict. The used and non-useable hides and skins along with the excess process chemicals and water constitute solid and liquid wastes in the tannery (Mingshu et al.,.

  17. Bacteriological analysis of Periplaneta americana L. (Dictyoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-05

    Sep 5, 2007 ... Center of Mediterranean and Environmental Studies, Laboratory of Applied Biology and Environment Sciences,. Department of Life sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tangier, BP 416,. Morocco. Accepted 23 April, 2007. In this study, Periplaneta americana and ...

  18. original article bacteriological and physicochemical quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-01

    Mar 1, 2011 ... used without treatment, it presents a sanitary risk (4). Inadequate ... water supply, and unhygienic waste management ..... home. A similar drinking water quality assessment study in Ethiopia showed that the majority of household water containers met the recommended limit of WHO and ES and classified as ...

  19. Physicochemical, bacteriological and metal analysis of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was investigates the physicochemical, microbial and metal contents of water samples obtained from three different surface waters (Ala river, Onyearugbulem stream and FUTA stream).The samples were collected in the early the early morning during the late rainy season of August 2010. The streams are all ...

  20. 42 CFR 493.911 - Bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... anaerobic bacteria from any source. (b) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for... sensitivity or resistance to the common antimicrobial agents. (c) Evaluation of a laboratory's performance...

  1. Bacteriological Screening of Water in Mangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanya V. C.; Anitha J.; Dhanashree B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Diarrhoea caused by contaminated water is among the most prevalent waterborne diseases in the developing countries like India. In the interest of public health, water supplies should be tested regularly to confirm their freedom from contamination. Objective: The objectives of the study were to screen different water sources for bacterial contamination, to know the antibiotic susceptibility of the common bacterial isolates and typing of the bacterial isolates by ra...

  2. Bacteriological analysis of Periplaneta americana L. (Dictyoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that the amounts of bacteria were different between the districts. Moreover, the bacteria isolated from body of American cockroaches differed from those of the houseflies. These findings show that American cockroaches and houseflies may carry pathogenic bacteria in the urban areas of Tangier.

  3. bacteriological quality of water samples in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    met by water obtained from rainfall, streams, means of preventing pollution of the water well, boreholes or tap depending on the ... Most organized consumption of bottled and sachet water in a society depends on piped treated water to ... bottles containing 3% sodium thiosulphate solution (6). The pH and suspended solid.

  4. Physicochemical and bacteriological quality assessment of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALAKEH

    measured using argentometric method (silver nitrate titration). Total nitrogen exists in three forms, namely: Nitrate-Nitrogen (. -N),. Ammonium-Nitrogen (NH4 ..... may have resulted from lead acid batteries usage, use of electronic equipment or plumbing activities. Lead is damaging to the nervous system. This equally leads ...

  5. Bacteriology of humans: an ecological perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Michael, 1947 Apr. 12

    2008-01-01

    ..., Staphylococcus aureus, etc. What is now a-changing is that interest is shifting towards the vast majority of our microbial partners that do not cause disease and, indeed, are essential to our well being. The indigenous microbiota of healthy humans is now the subject of intense scrutiny, and its enormous diversity and the crucial roles that it pl...

  6. Physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Shigella, and Proteus species, which are known to be pathogens, causing serious injuries to human health and may result to deaths in some cases, especially among children. Public health implications were advocated to reduce the increasing cases water borne diseases in the area. Keywords: contamination; pathogens ...

  7. Programa de Bacteriología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés del Socorro Bedoya Ortiz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de la investigación cualitativadescriptiva “Comprensión de las inteligencias develadas en el aula”. Su propósito fue comprender las inteligencias develadas en los estudiantes en el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la asignatura de Hematología. Se hace referencia a los contextos que convalidan la investigación, se describe paso a paso la manera cómo fue pensado y desarrollado el proyecto, señalando la población participante, las etapas del proceso, las técnicas e instrumentos de recolección de información y el tipo de investigación; se presenta el acercamiento teórico que demandó el trabajo y que se fue construyendo y reconstruyendo acorde con los hallazgos encontrados en el proceso de interacción entre estudiantes, docente e investigadora. Finalmente, se plantea una reflexión educativa a manera de recomendación, en la que se invita a los docentes a repensar, a reorientar la práctica educativa y al reto de proponer nuevos paradigmas de interpretación y de acción frente a la ciencia y a la vida misma.

  8. Bacteriological physicochemical quality of recreational water bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinsae

    Key words: Swimming pools, microbiological indicators, microbial water quality, recreational water quality. INTRODUCTION. Recreational waters ... exposure, the type of water, geographical location and local conditions. Perhaps, the ... from two natural lakes and six different outdoor swimming pools that are located at Addis ...

  9. Physicochemical and bacteriological quality assessment of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, physical and chemical parameters, together with faecal forms of bacteria were evaluated in the drinking water resources of the Bambui community in the North West region of Cameroon. This study was necessitated by the occasional presence of suspended ...

  10. Bacteriological, physicochemical and mineral studies on Awedele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    physicochemical quality of the water samples was also assessed. The mineral content of the adjacent soil samples was also determined. Antibiotic resistance among isolated Enterococcus species was highest to penicillin as all isolates demonstrated complete resistance to the antibiotics. Prevalence of gentamycin-.

  11. Bacteriological physicochemical quality of recreational water bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinsae

    Key words: Swimming pools, microbiological indicators, microbial water quality, recreational water quality. INTRODUCTION. Recreational ... quality of the selected recreational waters bodies in Addis. Ababa and Oromiya Region in ..... Le Chevallier MW, Evans TM, Seidler RJ (1981). Effect of Turbidity on. Chlorination ...

  12. Basic laboratory procedures in clinical bacteriology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vandepitte, J

    2003-01-01

    ... of laboratory resources Collection and transport of stool specimens Visual examination of stool specimens Enrichment and inoculation of stool specimens Media for enteric pathogens Primary isolation Prelimin...

  13. Bacteriological and parasitological evidence of soil contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic environmental pollution resulting from human's cohabitation with domestic and farm animals were investigated in. Makurdi using multiple tubes fermentation for identification of faecal indicator bacteria and test tube floatation techniques for the parasitological analysis of soil samples respectively. Of the 150 soil ...

  14. Aerobic bacteriology of burn wound infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Otta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burn wound infections are important cause of mortality, morbidity and prolonged hospitalization in burn patients as the causative agent is generally a multidrug resistant organism. The pattern of microbial flora infecting burn wound varies according to geographical pattern as well as with duration of hospital stay. Objective: The present study aims to identify the causative agents of burn wound infections in our hospital, to assess the change in pattern of flora in accordance to duration of wound as well as to determine the sensitivity pattern of isolates. Materials and Methods: Wound swabs from 52 patients admitted in Burn unit of IMS and SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar were collected every 5th day during their hospital stays and were cultured. The results were interpreted according to the standard methods and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was noted. Results: The most common organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus, that is, 20 (47.6% while Klebsiella spp. 12 (28.6% was the most common Gram-negative isolate. The commonest organism isolated in the 1st week of hospital stay was S. aureus (15.4%, but it was Acinetobacter spp. (22.2% in 2nd week and coagulase negative Staphylococcus in 3rd week of hospital stay S. aureus was mostly sensitive to levofloxacin (77.8% and netilmycin (98%. Conclusion: The pattern of bacterial flora changes according to duration of hospital stay. Effective strict isolation techniques and infection control are thus needed to decrease the occurrence of burn wound infection.

  15. Bronchiectasis: a bacteriological profile | Bopaka | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pan African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  16. Bacteriological water quality changes and substratespecificity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification test revealed the presence of Pseudomonas, Proteus, Micrococcus, Escherichia, Chromobacterium, Serratia, Klebsiella, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Norcadia, Vibro, Salmonella, Aeromonas, Cytophaga, Corynebacterium, Campylobacter and unidentified gram-positive cocci. About 50 ...

  17. Macroscopia, histopatologia e bacteriologia de fígados de frangos (Gallus gallus condenados no abate Gross, microscopic and bacteriologic evaluations of broiler chicken livers (Gallus gallus condemned at slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleverson da Silva Barcelos

    2006-04-01

    infecção bacteriana nos fígados condenados.Gross, microscopic, and bacteriologic evaluations of broiler chicken livers condemned at slaughter were performed. One hundred broiler livers were sampled. Ninety of them had gross lesions and were condemned by the meat inspection service. Ten of them were grossly normal. The sampling was done in two processing plants located in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For the gross evaluation, the following parameters were considered: shape, color, size, texture, odor, and the presence of other visible lesions. Livers with changes in color, shape, size and/or texture were 47/90; brown-pale livers with other associated macroscopic lesions were 19/90; yellow or yellowish livers with other associated gross lesions were 5/90; and green or greenish livers with other associated lesions were 19/90. The main microscopic diagnoses consisted of multifocal heterophilic colangio-hepatitis, degeneration and/or centrilobular to bridging hepatocellular necrosis, random necrotizing hepatitis and multifocal heterophylic pericolangitis. The bacteriological evaluation was oriented to finding of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus sp. It was carried out by direct culture of the liver samples in selective culture media. E. coli was isolated in 26/100 samples and Staphylococcus sp. in 24/100 samples. For culturing of Salmonella spp., the conventional method indicated for this bacteria was utilized. However, there was no isolation of any species of the Salmonella genus. In all the three evaluations, a high incidence of lesions suggestive of bacterial infections was observed in the condemned livers.

  18. Qualidade bacteriológica de queijos artesanais comercializados em estradas do litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Bacteriological quality of homemade cheeses commercialised in roads of the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bergman Zaffari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de queijo artesanal, vendido em estabelecimentos de beira de estrada, é comum no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Geralmente estes produtos não são fabricados em acordo com as boas normas de fabricação e podem constituir perigo à saúde do consumidor. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, verificar a qualidade bacteriológica de queijos artesanais comercializados em estradas litorâneas por meio da contagem de coliformes e pesquisa de Listeria spp. e Brucella spp. Foram analisados 80 queijos, sendo 62 do tipo Colonial, dez do tipo Provolone, seis do tipo Ricota e dois do tipo Caccio Cavallo. No momento da coleta, 71% das amostras não estavam sob refrigeração. Todas as amostras apresentaram contagens de coliformes totais e, destas, 62 foram testadas para a presença de coliformes fecais. Um total de 84% das amostras apresentou contagens de coliformes fecais acima de 2,73- 3,7 log.UFC g- 1 (de 500 a 5000UFC mL-1, previsto como limite máximo a ser encontrado em queijos. Dos 29 estabelecimentos, 27 tinham produtos fora destes limites. Das 80 amostras, 16% continham Listeria spp., sendo 3,7% identificadas como Listeria monocytogenes. As estações do ano influenciaram no isolamento de Listeria spp., sendo a primavera considerada a estação do ano com maior número de isolados. Brucella spp. não foram isoladas nas 80 amostras de queijos analisadas. A alta freqüência de coliformes fecais e a presença de L. monocytogenes revelam que o consumo destes queijos constitui perigo de infecção à população em geral e especialmente àquelas pessoas imunocomprometidas.The consumption of homemade cheese, which is sold in little shops along the road, is very common in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Generally, these products are not manufactured according to the good hygiene guidelines; and may be a risk to the consumers’ health. The aim of this research was the assessment of the bacteriological quality of homemade cheese sold in

  19. Calidad bacteriológica del agua para consumo humano en zonas de alta marginación de Chiapas Bacteriological quality of drinking water in areas of high levels of poverty in Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Javier Sánchez-Pérez

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la calidad bacteriológica del agua (CBA para consumo humano y su relación con diarreas y enteroparasitosis en niños de 1 a 14 años en comunidades de alta marginación socioeconómica de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En una muestra aleatoria de 99 viviendas de la Región Fronteriza de Chiapas, de marzo a septiembre de 1998, se recolectaron muestras de agua para consumo humano, se indagó sobre diarreas en los últimos 15 días y se recolectaron muestras de heces de 322 niños de 1 a 14 años. La CBA se determinó mediante la técnica de filtración por membranas y las enteroparasitosis por el método de Faust. Se utilizó el estadístico ji² para el análisis de la CBA con relación a los diversos factores analizados. RESULTADOS: Sólo 31% de las muestras de agua fueron aptas para consumo humano. La CBA y la presencia de diarreas referida por las madres de los menores no mostraron asociación. Los niños con mala CBA en sus viviendas mostraron mayor prevalencia de Entamoeba histolytica y mayor tendencia a estar parasitados. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario desarrollar medidas que mejoren la CBA y campañas de educación que incrementen el uso de agua hervida, su manejo adecuado y el cuidado de las fuentes de abastecimiento comunitarias.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the bacteriological quality of drinking water (BQDW and its association with diarrhoea and intestinal parasites in children 1 to 14 years old, in areas of high levels of poverty in Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March to September 1998, drinking water was collected from a random sample of 99 households in the Border Region of Chiapas, Mexico; data on diarrhoeal disease (in the past 15 days were collected and stool testing for intestinal parasites was performed in children 1 to 14 years old (n= 322. The BQDW was determined by the filtration membrane technique. Intestinal parasitic infections were determined by the Faust Method. The chi² statistic was

  20. Diagnóstico bacteriológico de la tuberculosis en Argentina: resultados de una encuesta nacional Bacteriological diagnosis of tuberculosis in Argentina: results of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Susana Imaz

    2007-04-01

    patient was low (1.6. The use of inadequate personal respiratory protection was identified in 25% of culture laboratories. Jurisdictions that cultured a higher proportion of their smear-tested sputa identified a higher proportion of smear-negative cases. The percentage of smear negatives among all bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary cases was 18.9%, while most extrapulmonary cases were confirmed by culture (71.3%. In conclusion, increasing the number of sputa studied by microscopy and culture (while expanding the coverage of the quality assessment program is a priority; adequate respiratory protection and regular medical evaluation of laboratory staff is still needed in some laboratories.

  1. Environmental impact on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies in Lagos, Nigeria Impacto ambiental sobre a qualidade bacteriológica do abastecimento domiciliar de água em Lagos, Nigéria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Egwari

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of town planning, infrastructure, sanitation and rainfall on the bacteriological quality of domestic water supplies. METHODS: Water samples obtained from deep and shallow wells, boreholes and public taps were cultured to determine the most probable number of Escherichia coli and total coliform using the multiple tube technique. Presence of enteric pathogens was detected using selective and differential media. Samples were collected during both periods of heavy and low rainfall and from municipalities that are unique with respect to infrastructure planning, town planning and sanitation. RESULTS: Contamination of treated and pipe distributed water was related with distance of the collection point from a utility station. Faults in pipelines increased the rate of contamination (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto do planejamento urbano, da infra-estrutura, do saneamento e dos índices pluviométricos sobre a qualidade bacteriológica do abastecimento domiciliar de água. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada cultura de amostras de água obtida de poços superficiais e profundos, fossos e água corrente de bicas públicas para determinar o número mais provável de Escherichia coli e coliformes totais por meio da técnica de múltiplos tubos. Patógenos entéricos foram detectados pelo uso de meios diferenciais e seletivos. Amostras foram coletadas durante os períodos de seca e de chuvas intensas em municípios com características singulares de infra-estrutura, planejamento urbano e saneamento. RESULTADOS: A contaminação de água tratada ou encanada esteve relacionada à distância do ponto de coleta com relação à estação de tratamento. Defeitos na canalização aumentaram o índice de contaminação (p<0,5, principalmente em áreas densamente povoadas com infra-estrutura arruinada. Os despejos de bueiros representaram a principal fonte de contaminação da água encanada. Houve maior contaminação em poços superficiais do que

  2. Tuberculose pulmonar: achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax em pacientes com doença em atividade comprovada bacteriologicamente Pulmonary tuberculosis: findings on high resolution computerized tomography of active disease on patients with bacteriological confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANE ALÓ CAMPOS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever os achados em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar em atividade na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução e o padrão de distribuição das lesões pelo parênquima pulmonar. Casuística e método: Foram analisadas retrospectivamente as tomografias de alta resolução de 42 pacientes com diagnóstico bacteriológico de tuberculose pulmonar ou forte suspeita clínica, com posterior confirmação bacteriológica. Resultados: Os principais sinais sugestivos de atividade encontrados foram nódulos do espaço aéreo (83%, nódulos centrolobulares (74%, aspecto de árvore em brotamento (67%, cavitações (67%, espessamento das paredes brônquicas (55%, consolidações (48%, opacidade em vidro fosco (21%, e espessamento do interstício pulmonar (9%. Conclusão: A tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax pode sugerir fortemente atividade da doença, sendo particularmente útil nos pacientes com baciloscopias negativas e/ou radiografias indeterminadas, permitindo a instituição de tratamento adequado, antes mesmo do crescimento da micobactéria em meio de cultura.Background: The aim of this study was to describe the signs of active tuberculosis in patients submitted to high resolution computerized tomography and the distribution of lesions along the pulmonary parenchyma. Material and methods: The high resolution CTs performed on 42 patients with tuberculosis either bacteriologically diagnosed or clinical suspected and later confirmed by bacteriological tests were studied. Results: The signs of disease activity observed were airspace nodule (83%, centrilobular nodule (74%, tree-in-bud pattern (67%, cavitations (67%, bronchial thickening (55%, parenchymal consolidations (48%, ground glass opacity (21% and thickening of the inter and intralobular septa (9%. Conclusion: High resolution computed tomography can be strongly suggestive of disease activity, is particularly helpful in patients with negative smear and

  3. Bacteriological quality of bovine milk produced by smallholder dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude a été réalisée dansles petites exploitations laitières de Debre Zeit en Ethiopie, pour déterminer les nombre total de germes aerobiques (TAPC) et de coliformes dans 178 échantillons de lait cru et 100 échantillons de lait pasteurisé et le nombre le plus probable (NPP) de coliformes dans 77 échantillons de les ...

  4. Bacteriological Evaluation of Water Bottles Used by Nursery School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the eleven genera were isolated in the water bottle samples collected from Amazing Grace Nursery School, Mary Sumner Nursery School, FUTO Nursery School, IMSU Nursery School and St. Paul's International Nursery School. Absent from FSP and Alvan Nursery Schools were two genera namely Salmonella and ...

  5. Bacteriology of sachet water sold in Lagos, Nigeria | Egwari | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the health risks associated with methods of hawking of sachet water in the streets of Lagos. Design: Eight brands of sachet water were collected from four different receptacles; unopen packs from factory, pail and wheelbarrow containing ice-blocks as coolants, and domestic refrigerators. Bacterial ...

  6. Assessment of physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1Environmental Science Program, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Wollega University, P.O. Box 395,. Nekemte, Ethiopia. 2College ... of the inadequacy of treatment plant, direct discharge of untreated sewage into ... Therefore, a stratified random sampling was used for the selection of fifty two water samples ...

  7. Volume 9 No. 6 2009 September 2009 1378 BACTERIOLOGICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portugal, during the cholera epidemic of 1974, bottled mineral water was identified as one of the vehicles of transmission of Vibrio cholerae [9]. In Ghana, the past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the consumption of bottled water, and more especially plastic-bagged drinking water [10]. The increase in demand for ...

  8. Bacteriological And Clinical Evaluation Of Twelve Cases Of Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that complied (p<0.001). Infections were polybacterial with aerobes accounting for 77.4% (α-haemolytic streptococci 29.0%, Streptococcus pyogenes 16.1%, Staphylococcus aureus 16.1%, diphtheroids 9.7%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6.5%) and anaerobes 22.6% (Porphyromonas gingivalis 9.7%, Peptostreptococcus spp.

  9. Aetiology, risk factors and immediate outcome of bacteriologically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood was placed in Brain Heart Infusion media and incubated within 30 minutes. Subcultures were plated daily up to 7 days on blood, chocolate and MacConkey agar and incubated in aerobic and 5% carbon dioxide conditions. Pure colonies were identified by Gram stain and biochemical tests and antibiotic sensitivities ...

  10. Bacteriology of Osteomyelitis at Jos University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inoculated onto blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar plates, while blood cultures were set up using Brain heart infusion and Thioglycollate broths. Direct Gram-stained smears were examined microscopically. The bacterial isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests using the disc diffusion method.

  11. Bacteriological Contamination of Soya Bean Flour Sold in Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soya bean (Glycine max) is a leguminous crop that is used as a staple food worldwide. The raw harvest is processed into various food forms like soya bean flour and processing methods increase the chances of bacterial contamination. This research work assessed the bacteria contamination of soya bean flour sold in and ...

  12. Evaluation of chemical and bacteriological quality of raw milk from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the farm has no proper records of the quality of its milk for dairy herd management. The Department of Food Science and Technology of the University of Namibia, Neudamm campus took an initiative to identify the cause of the problems and the consumers' health concerns in order to come up with some remedial ...

  13. An investigation of the bacteriological quality of retail vanilla slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinegar, J. A.; Buxton, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred and thiry-three vanilla slices, purchased from shops in the West Yorkshire Metropolitan County, were examined to determine the numbers and types of bacteria present at the time of purchase. The surface colony count at 37 degrees C was greater than 10(3)/g in 67/133 (50%) of the samples examined, Bacillus cereus being found at that concentration in 21.8%, coliform bacilli including E. coli in 5.3%, Staphylococcus aureus in 3-0% and Streptococcus faecalis in 0-8%. Thirty-four strains of B. cereus were serotyped and 11 (32%) of these were typable with the sera available. Preparation of custard mixed in the laboratory suggests that the milk or milk powder used in the mix may be the major source of B. cereus in the final product. Many of the present methods of manufacture, distribution and storage allow organisms present in the custard at manufacture the opportunity to multiply and possibly reach numbers which present a risk of food poisoning. PMID:405420

  14. Bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    to TC and TTC (p < 0.05) and there was a statistically significant positive correlation between coliform counts and sanitary risk scores (p < 0.01). Most water sources ... 2 km away from their homes. Even though certain households have ... liquid waste are disposed in the surrounding field as well. These situations may lead to ...

  15. Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from Different Locations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some selective media were used which include Pseudomonas Agar (PSA) for detection of Pseudomonas aueroginosa, Salmonnella Shigella Agar (SSA) for detection of Salmonella typhii and Shigella. Biochemical tests were used to identify the following bacteria: Pseudomonas aueroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, ...

  16. Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Javed, T.; Khan, M.S.; Chaudhary, M.Z.; Khalid, F.

    2010-01-01

    The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

  17. Bacteriological quality of freshwater fish caught from two natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 24 fish samples consisting of 12 samples from each Lake were sampled for four months. The fish samples were transported to the laboratory, processed and compared. Using a sterile scapel and a pair of sterile scissors, section of fish scales, gills, gut, skin, liver, intestine and gonads were removed and subjected ...

  18. Bacteriology Quality of Zobo Drinks Consumed in Some Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    sold in these markets are potential vehicles for transmitting food borne illness, thus the need to develop Good Manufacturing Process ... source of vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin, calcium and iron (Qi et al 2005), and is low in sugar content. ... microorganisms which can cause food spoilage. Omemu et al (2006). At present, the ...

  19. Bacteriological profile of burn patients at Yekatit 12 Hospital Burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Quality Control: The reliability of the study findings were guaranteed by implementing quality assurance (QA) measures throughout the whole laboratory work. Proper specimen collection was done by experienced nurses. Staining reagents, culture media and antibiotic discs were checked for their normal shelf life before use ...

  20. The bacteriology of asymptomatic urinary tract infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The commonest organisms causing ASB among contraceptive users were mainly E.coli, Staph saprophyticus, Proteus spp and Kleb spp. The most effective antibiotics were nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, sparfloxacin and cefuroxime. Sensitivity to tetracycline, cotrimoxazole and streptomycin was poor. Similar to ...

  1. BACTERIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON Fasciola hepatica AND CATTLE BILIARY DUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panebianco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of bacteria in Fasciola hepatica and into cattle biliary ducts containing the parasite. A total of 24 liver and 58 F. hepatica samples were analysed. In all biliary ducts and in 62,06% of parasite Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. The bacterial specie more frequently isolated from parasite were Citrobacter freundii (34%, Proteus mirabilis (18%, Providencia rettgeri (12%, Staphylococcus spp. (18%, Enterobacter spp. (12%. There doesn’t appear to be a correlation between bacterial specie from parasite and ducts. The Authors conclude with some related inspective consideration.

  2. Bacteriological quality of public water sources in Shuni, Tambuwal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 131 water-borne bacterial pathogens including faecal coliforms comprising 45 numbers of E. coli, 30 Salmonella spp, 32 Shigella spp and 24 Vibrio cholerae were isolated. Generally, all the sampled waters in this study not only contained high levels of bacteria and coliforms, they also contained pathogens and ...

  3. Bacteriological studies of tuberculosis in Sidamo Regional Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemma, E; Niemi, M; Lindtjorn, B; Dubrie, G

    1989-07-01

    All of the 104 strains isolated from tuberculosis patients in Sidamo Regional Hospital were identified as M. tuberculosis. Primary single drug resistance to isoniazid and streptomycin was represented by two strains in each case. Four strains showed double drug resistance to the same drugs. None were resistant to thiacetazone, rifampicin and ethambutol.

  4. Oxidative stability and bacteriological assessment of meat from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... were studied as uncooked and steam-cooked, and refrigerated for up to 9 days. Oxidative stability of muscle was measured using the thiobarbituric acid test and bacteria isolates were identified and quantified. Moisture and lipid contents of muscle were not affected (P>0.05) by dietary treatments. Oxidation ...

  5. Bacteriological Quality and Essential Elements in Bottled Water in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall ranking of the microbiological quality for the different water samples was S2 > ( S1, S5, S6, S9, S8) > (S3, S4, S10,S11) > S7. Furthermore, the levels of the essential minerals and organic acids were within the acceptable range as approved by National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control ...

  6. The effect of storage on Physical, Chemical and Bacteriological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Water Quality in Erbil City Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Environmental Science Department College of. Science, University of Salahaddin Erbil Iraq: International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research (IASIR) An association Unifying the. Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research). ISSN (Print): 22790063 ISSN ...

  7. The Bacteriological Quality assessment of some bottled water sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety-nine (99) isolates were obtained and the completed test revealed the presence of Escherichia coli (3%) and Enterobacter species (97%). All the bottled water brands did not meet up with the standard stipulated by the Nigerian Industrial Standard for drinking water quality and the World Health Organization standard.

  8. Bacteriological water quality of Elechi creek in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with pathogenic bacteria; hence the water is of low quality and should not be used for human consumption. The low counts of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria confirmed absence of a possible source of contamination of the creek by crude oil and its products. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol.

  9. Bacteriology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Otitis Media at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Abstract. Background: Otitis media is a major health problem of children in low income countries. Objectives: This study was done to determine the bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility of otitis media from children and adults. Methods: A retrospective record was analyzed on culture results of discharging ears at ...

  10. Bacteriological investigation of sheep and goats milk for brucellosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 418 sheep and goats milk samples were examined culturally. Investigation revealed a 34.75 per cent and 15.88 per cent rate of infection in goats and sheep by milk ring test. Of 277 sheep and 141 goats milk samples examined culturally, brucellae were isolated from four sheep and six goats giving a total of ten ...

  11. Bacteriological Investigation of Poultry Feeds Sold Within Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of some pathogenic microorganisms in poultry feeds lucidly reveals the level of contamination. Therefore, the commercial poultry feeds should be periodically examined for biosafety, so as to reduce or probably prevent the risk of cross contamination of poultry and poultry products. Keywords: Poultry feeds ...

  12. Bacteriology and antibiogram of pathogens from wound infections at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amoxicillin had the highest resistance rate 78.9%, followed by tetracycline 76.1% and erythromycin (63.9%). The sensitivity rates of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were 95.1%, 91.8% and 85%, respectively. The overall multiple antimicrobial resistances rate was 65.2% and only 13% of the isolates were sensitive ...

  13. Bacteriology of Dried Meat (Kilishi) Hawked in Some Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Bacillus species and Staphylococcus aureus had prevalence rates of 44.9% and 40% respectively. ... in the study, kilishi has been identified as possible source of food borne disease outbreaks in. Nigeria. Keywords: Bacterial pathogens ... Campylobacter species, entero-toxigenic. Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes,.

  14. The bacteriological quality of goat and ovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on information concerning the microbiological hazards that can be present in raw milk from animal species other than cows. A total of 54 (23 of ovine and 31 of goat bulk tank milk samples from 10 farms in the Czech Republic were collected in years 2013 - 2014. The sampling was done at regular time intervals during the whole year, with five to eight samples collected from each of the 10 dairy farms involved in the study. All milk samples were collected into sterile sampling bottles and transported in a cooler sampling case to the laboratory for immediate examination. Farms were randomly selected to cover the whole area of the Czech Republic. The prevalence and characteristic of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Raw cow's milk can be contaminated by E. coli intramammarily during clinical or subclinical mastitis and either directly through animal feces or indirectly during milk collection through farm employees or the milking equipment. E. coli was detected in 90.3% of the goat milk and 95.7% of the ovine milk samples. The genes encoding Shiga toxins 1 and 2- (stx1, stx2 were not detected and no STEC was identified. The Eae was the detected in 3 (4.6% isolates. S. aureus was detected in 9 (29.0% samples of goat milk and 8 (34.8% samples of ovine milk. A total 12 (57.1% enterotoxin positive S. aureus were obtained; 6 (28.6% were positive for the production of sec encoding enterotoxin SEC; in 4 (19.0% isolates the gene seh was detected; 2 (9.5% isolates were proven positive for seg (4.8% and combination seg and sei (4.8%. The presence of MRSA was not detected in the tested samples in our study. L. monocytogenes was detected in 1 (3.2% samples of goat milk and 1 (4.3% samples of ovine milk. The serotype (1/2a, 1/2b was detected in our study. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. These results form the basis for determining the microbiological quality standards for goat and ovine milk.

  15. Bacteriological and clinical evaluation of twelve cases of post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-01

    Jun 1, 2008 ... drug-resistant gram-positive bacteria. Amer. J. Med. 1998; 104: 11s-16s. 9. cowan, s.t. cowan and steel Manual for the. Identification of Medical Bacteria. 2nd edn., cambridge: cambridge university press, 1974. 10. Holdeman, l.v., cato, E.p. and Moore, W.E.c. anaerobe laboratory Manual, virginia polytechnic.

  16. Bacteriological pattern of wound swab isolates in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PURPOSE: To determine the pattern of bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity profile in patients with infected chronic leg ulceration. METHODS: Sixty swab specimens obtained from chronic leg ulcer (CLU) patients were cultured aerobically and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the recovered organisms ...

  17. Effect of abattoir waste on the physicochemical and bacteriological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of abattoir wastewater pollution at New Artisan River in New Artisan, Enugu East, Enugu State of Nigeria were investigated. The study involved the collection of water samples at the designated points from the New Artisan River where the abattoir waste waters are discharged. The physical, chemical and ...

  18. Bacteriological quality of raw cow milk in Shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid Fadaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of contamination with Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk from Shahrekord city, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 raw milk samples were collected randomly from five regions, namely northeast, east, southeast, south, and southwest regions of Shahrekord city according to stratified random sampling design. Samples were analyzed for Total plate count (TPC, Staphylococcus aureus, coliform, and E. coli. Results: Out of 300 samples of raw milk, contamination with coliforms, E. coli, and S. aureus was observed in 237 (79%, 207 (69% and 125 (41.66% samples, respectively. The highest rate of contamination was in the samples from southwest region with coliforms, E. coli, and S. aureus were present in 30 (100%, 29 (96.66%, and19 (63.33% samples, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusions: Considering the high rate of raw milk contamination with S. aureus, E. Coli, and coliforms, sanitary practice during collecting, transporting, and storage especially in the summer season is recommended.

  19. Bacteriological quality of raw cow milk in Shahrekord, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolmajid Fadaei

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of contamination with Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk from Shahrekord city, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 raw milk samples were collected randomly from five regions, namely northeast, east, southeast, south, and southwest regions of Shahrekord city according to stratified random sampling design. Samples were analyzed for Total plate count (TPC), Staphylococcus aureus, coliform, and E. c...

  20. Physicochemical and bacteriological quality of water from lotic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Dissolved oxygen (DO) (1.20 – 14.80 mgL-1 ) and Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (0.00 – 8.20 mgL-1 ) had their values within the FMEnv set limits 0f 7.5 mgL-1 and 30 mgL-1 respectively. The study revealed varying levels of culturable coliform counts in the examined surface waters with values not exceeding 13 ...

  1. Bacteriology of Post Caesarean Wound Infection in a Specialist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study is to establish the spectrum of microbes causing post caesarean wound infection and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in our locality. ... used antibiotics such as cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, cefuroxime and cloxacillin, while cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones were highly effective against the isolates.

  2. Bacteriological Quality and Possible Health Effects of Gravity-Piped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical methods, employing API 20E identification kit and serological tests, were used to confirm the presence of bacteria species and diarrhoeagenic agents, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain medical information. With the exception of the source at one of the communities, Nyagbo Israel, ...

  3. Bacteriological and chemical properties of soil amended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total heterotrophic counts of colonies were enumerated from the soil samples. Isolates were characterized based on morphological and series of biochemical tests. Soil chemical analysis for pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium was also carried out. The heterotrophic bacteria count of the treated soil had ...

  4. Bacteriological Investigation of Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis in Norwegian Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofshagen M

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Contagious keratoconjunctivitis is a rather common disease in Norwegian sheep. Since the knowledge of its aetiology is limited, the present study was performed to determine the microorganisms involved. Local veterinarians throughout the country collected conjunctival swabs from both sick (n = 43 and healthy (n = 42 sheep on 15 farms with outbreaks of ovine keratoconjunctivitis, and further from healthy sheep (n = 50 on 17 farms not showing any signs of conjunctival disease. All samples were cultivated for bacteria and mycoplasma. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 3 cases (1% in one single herd. Staphylococcus aureus (5%, Corynebacterium spp. (2% and Escherichia coli (4% were isolated only in herds with keratoconjunctivitis, but from both sick and healthy animals. Moraxella (Branhamella ovis was isolated from 28% of sampled animals in affected herds and from 10% of sampled animals in healthy herds. The corresponding numbers for Moraxella spp. were 9%/12%, for Pseudomonas spp. 7%/8%, for Staphylococcus spp. 22%/22%, for Bacillus spp. 12%/14%, for Micrococcus spp. 6%/2% and for Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp. 2%/2%. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was isolated from 16 animals with keratoconjunctivitis (37% and from 3 animals without clinical signs (7% in farms with keratoconjunctivitis. In farms without clinical signs of keratoconjunctivitis, M. conjunctivae was isolated in 4 animals (8%. To our knowledge, this is the first time M. conjunctivae has been isolated in Norway. Other predisposing agents found were Moraxella (Branhamella ovis and Listeria monocytogenes. The etiological importance of different microorganisms in ovine keratoconjunctivitis seems to vary; some are probably only present as secondary invaders. Other possible causes of ovine keratoconjunctivitis in Norway, such as Chlamydia psittaci, remain to be investigated.

  5. Bacteriological Investigation of Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis in Norwegian Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerstedt, J; Hofshagen, M

    2004-01-01

    Contagious keratoconjunctivitis is a rather common disease in Norwegian sheep. Since the knowledge of its aetiology is limited, the present study was performed to determine the microorganisms involved. Local veterinarians throughout the country collected conjunctival swabs from both sick (n = 43) and healthy (n = 42) sheep on 15 farms with outbreaks of ovine keratoconjunctivitis, and further from healthy sheep (n = 50) on 17 farms not showing any signs of conjunctival disease. All samples we...

  6. Bacteriological investigation of infectious keratoconjunctivitis in Norwegian sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstedt, J; Hofshagen, M

    2004-01-01

    Contagious keratoconjunctivitis is a rather common disease in Norwegian sheep. Since the knowledge of its aetiology is limited, the present study was performed to determine the microorganisms involved. Local veterinarians throughout the country collected conjunctival swabs from both sick (n = 43) and healthy (n = 42) sheep on 15 farms with outbreaks of ovine keratoconjunctivitis, and further from healthy sheep (n = 50) on 17 farms not showing any signs of conjunctival disease. All samples were cultivated for bacteria and mycoplasma. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 3 cases (1%) in one single herd. Staphylococcus aureus (5%), Corynebacterium spp. (2%) and Escherichia coli (4%) were isolated only in herds with keratoconjunctivitis, but from both sick and healthy animals. Moraxella (Branhamella) ovis was isolated from 28% of sampled animals in affected herds and from 10% of sampled animals in healthy herds. The corresponding numbers for Moraxella spp. were 9%/12%, for Pseudomonas spp. 7%/8%, for Staphylococcus spp. 22//22%, for Bacillus spp. 12%/14%, for Micrococcus spp. 6%/2% and for Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp. 2%/2%. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was isolated from 16 animals with keratoconjunctivitis (37%) and from 3 animals without clinical signs (7%) in farms with keratoconjunctivitis. In farms without clinical signs of keratoconjunctivitis, M. conjunctivae was isolated in 4 animals (8%). To our knowledge, this is the first time M. conjunctivae has been isolated in Norway. Other predisposing agents found were Moraxella (Branhamella) ovis and Listeria monocytogenes. The etiological importance of different microorganisms in ovine keratoconjunctivitis seems to vary; some are probably only present as secondary invaders. Other possible causes of ovine keratoconjunctivitis in Norway, such as Chlamydia psittaci, remain to be investigated.

  7. assessment of bacteriological quality of well water around dogon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    Beakers, Measuring cylinder, Petrish dish, Wire loop, Hand gloves, Masking tape, Cotton wool, Aluminum foil paper,. Autoclave, incubator, Nutrient agar, Eosin .... lead to high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), and this is evident in all the samples, especially in Rafin Gora which had dissolved oxygen value of 1.52mg/l.

  8. Bacteriological quality of retail pap prepared from maizeand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These included Acetobacter, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, E. coli, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, Neisseriae, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. The isolated genera that contaminated 24 pap samples prepared from guinea corn and their percentage ...

  9. Bacteriology of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pre-school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecalis) while the remaining 3 specimens yielded Proteus species (6%), staphylococcus pyogenes (6%) and Micrococcus (6%) respectively. There was 100% resistance of the E. Coli, staphylococcus pyogenes (staph. Pyogenes) and proteus species to Ampicillin, while there was 100% sensitivity of all the organisms to ...

  10. Bacteriology of chronic discharging ears in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ear swabs of discharging ears aseptically collected from 102 patients of various age groups attending Ear, Nose, and Throat out-patient clinic at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital were cultured for bacterial agents using blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar. Culture plates were incubated ...

  11. Pure water syndrome: Bacteriological quality of Sachet- packed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is one of the indispensable resources for the continued existence of all living things including man. Government has failed to adequately provide safe, pipe-borne water for the increasing population in Nigeria and this has encouraged the sale of drinking water by private enterprises that have little knowledge about ...

  12. 6. Bacteriology of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media among Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    ABSTRACT. Objectives: The study aimed to determine the bacteria that cause CSOM and their sensitivity to drugs used in children attending at the Ear Nose and. Throat (ENT) clinic at Arthur Davidson Children's. Hospital(ADCH) in Ndola. Methodology: It was a retrospective descriptive hospital based cross sectional study ...

  13. Comparison study between bacteriological aetiology and outcome of VAT & VAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr H. Kahlil

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: From the study we concluded that VAT infection is as severe as VAP and it needs more attention to prevent its presence as, once present, it usually progress to VAP increasing mortality rate in ICU.

  14. Evaluation of Bacteriological Stability of Minced Canned Meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal inactivation of spoilage microorganisms is one of the widely used commercial food preservation techniques. However, its application may be too costly in terms of energy expenditure or inappropriate in terms of product quality. In this study, an attempt was made to produce tropical storage stable canned meat using ...

  15. Bacteriological profile of burn patients at Yekatit 12 Hospital Burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Burn is one of the most common devastating and a very painful form of trauma. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immune-suppression that predisposes burn patients to infection complications. Materials and methods: A prospective hospital based study was carried out from December 2010 to ...

  16. Bacteriological quality of drinking water in Nyala, South Darfur, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Amira Ahmed; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial contaminations in drinking water in Nyala city, South Darfur, Sudan with special reference to the internally displaced people camps (IDPs). Two hundred and forty water samples from different sites and sources including bore holes, hand pumps, dug wells, water points, water reservoir and household storage containers were collected in 2009. The most probable number method was used to detect and count the total coliform, faecal coliform and faecal enterococci. Results revealed that the three indicators bacteria were abundant in all sources except water points. Percentages of the three indicators bacteria count above the permissible limits for drinking water in all samples were 46.4% total coliform, 45.2% faecal coliform and 25.4% faecal enterococci whereas the highest count of the indicators bacteria observed was 1,600 U/100 ml water. Enteric bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (22.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (20.42%), Klebsiella (15.00%), Citrobacter (2.1%) and Enterobacter (3.33%). The highest contamination of water sources was observed in household storage containers (20%) followed by boreholes (11.25%), reservoirs (6.24%), hand pumps (5.42%) and dug wells (2.49%). Contamination varied from season to season with the highest level in autumn (18.33%) followed by winter (13.75%) and summer (13.32%), respectively. All sources of water in IDP camps except water points were contaminated. Data suggested the importance of greater attention for household contamination, environmental sanitation control and the raise of awareness about water contamination.

  17. Bacteriological examination of drinking water in Burdwan, India with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most probable number (MPN) test was done to detect the coliform in water samples collected from mobile vendors, sweet shops and tap water supplied from Burdwan municipality. The study revealed that the number of coliforms was very high (1600) in water samples collected from mobile vendors. The bacteria were ...

  18. Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Analyses of Drinking Water in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also ten (10) bacterial species isolated were identified as Bacillus subtilis, micrococcus varians, Esherichia coli, streptococcus, faecalis, enterococus faecalis, salmonella typhi, staphylococcus aureus, clostridium perfringens, proteus vulgaris and pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total coliform count of the water samples ...

  19. bacteriological quality of sobo drinks retailed within ilorin metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six bacterial species; Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, and Escherichia coli were isolated. Consideration of the distribution pattern showed that samples from Unilorin Main Campus and General Post Office contained all the isolates, while three of the isolates; ...

  20. Studies on the longitudinal profile of the bacteriological quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    April) of the investigation. Ten bacterial genera were isolated and the most prevalent in all the stations included Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli and Micrococcus sp. Klebsiella sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Salmonella sp., ...

  1. Assessment of Bacteriological and Physico-chemical Qualities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All samples analyzed in this study had a residual chlorine level of 0.5 mg/l. The mean total bacterial count (TBC) for stand-pipe samples was 46 per ml, while that from stored water was 615 per ml. The mean coliform count was 7 and 64 per 100 ml for stand-pipes and stored water respectively. Faecal streptococci had mean ...

  2. Bacteriological examination of drinking water with reference to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Most probable number (MPN) test was done to detect the coliform in water samples collected from mobile vendors, protected well and municipal tap water supplied from Jeedimetla municipality. The study revealed that the number of coliforms was very high (≥ 1500) in water samples collected from.

  3. Bacteriological investigation of ground water sources in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cml

    2012-06-16

    Jun 16, 2012 ... Microbial contamination of ground water sources is a common problem in all the big cities, which ... To assess this, 39 water samples were collected from ... World health organization (WHO) recommends zero coliforms per 100 ml of water sample (Kahlown, 2006; Pakistan. Standards, 2002; WHO, 1996).

  4. [The perfusate culture--bacteriologic monitoring of kidney grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B; Zastrow, F; Lison, A E; Ritzerfeld, W

    1985-01-01

    Since the kidney recipient's immune system is entirely suppressed, any bacterial contamination from a graft might be hazardous. Major statistics [1,3,4,5] reveal a mortality as high as 10% due to infectious and gastrointestinal complications. From July 1979 to December 1983 114 kidney grafts have been done in our center. After transplantation none of the patients died as a result of complications due to infection. Microbiologic examination of the perfusate is obligatory to detect contamination. It was used in 145 donor nephrectomies; 28% of the perfusate culture samples were positive: In 4 of 5 cases (81%) the bacteria isolated were of the non-pathogenic type seen in the normal flora of the skin (Staphylococcus epidermidis). Introduction of cover drapes lowered the positive culture rate to 8%. Isolation of S. epidermidis after desinfection of the skin (6x) with 70% spore-free alcohol is proof of the extraordinary sensitivity of the method used. The outstanding clinical importance of this method is the rapid information obtained on any contamination and the early suggestion concerning the first choice of antibiotic. Though E.coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found in the culture, no clinical infection was seen under adequate antimicrobial therapy. Among 114 kidney transplantations in our center no patient died of bacterial infection. Our experience points out that the effect of general antibiotic prophylaxis is negligible. Instead, the effect of early application of antibiotics in accordance with the results of the perfusate culture is superior.

  5. An Evaluation of the Bacteriological Quality of Water Consumed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , especially among the poorer urban and rural households because of the uneven distribution of potable water supply. Communities without potable water supply depend on traditional sources which have often been reported to be ...

  6. Bacteriological research for the contamination of equipment in chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Gu; Song, Woon Heung; Kweon, Dae Cheol [Shinhan University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose is to determine the degree of contamination of the equipment for infection control in chest radiography of the radiology department. We confirmed by chemical and bacterial identification of bacteria of the equipment and established a preventive maintenance plan. Chest X-ray radiography contact area on the instrument patients shoulder, hand, chin, chest lateral radiography patient contact areas with a 70% isopropyl alcohol cotton swab were compared to identify the bacteria before and after sterilization on the patient contact area in the chest radiography equipment of the department. The gram positive Staphylococcus was isolated from side shoots handle before disinfection in the chest radiography equipment. For the final identification of antibiotic tested that it was determined by performing the nobobiocin to the sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chest radiography equipment before disinfecting the handle side of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria were detected using a disinfectant should be to prevent hospital infections.

  7. Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries especially among the middle and high income earners as it is generally perceived to be pure, clean and of good quality. This has led to the sale of different brands of bottled water on the Ghanaian market. Although disease outbreaks due to ...

  8. Broad-range PCR: past, present, or future of bacteriology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvoisé, A; Brossier, F; Sougakoff, W; Jarlier, V; Aubry, A

    2013-08-01

    PCR targeting the gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA (commonly named broad-range PCR or 16S PCR) has been used for 20 years as a polyvalent tool to study prokaryotes. Broad-range PCR was first used as a taxonomic tool, then in clinical microbiology. We will describe the use of broad-range PCR in clinical microbiology. The first application was identification of bacterial strains obtained by culture but whose phenotypic or proteomic identification remained difficult or impossible. This changed bacterial taxonomy and allowed discovering many new species. The second application of broad-range PCR in clinical microbiology is the detection of bacterial DNA from clinical samples; we will review the clinical settings in which the technique proved useful (such as endocarditis) and those in which it did not (such as characterization of bacteria in ascites, in cirrhotic patients). This technique allowed identifying the etiological agents for several diseases, such as Whipple disease. This review is a synthesis of data concerning the applications, assets, and drawbacks of broad-range PCR in clinical microbiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. aerobic bacteriological profile and antibiotic resistance of surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-06

    Jul 6, 2015 ... Inspite of advances in surgical techniques, better operating room environment, antibiotic prophylaxis, Surgical Site Infections still occurs in significant number of patients. Surgical site infections (SSIs) infections occur within thirty days after the operative procedure (except in case of added implants, when the ...

  10. Study of Bacteriology of Post-Operative Wound Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Abdulrauf Bagwan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: While many patients are admitted to hospital for treatment of infections, some acquire infection during their stay in the hospital. These infections are called as nosocomial infections. Surgical site infection or post operative wound infection is one of them. It is defined as infection of previously sterile tissue incised to gain exposure for operating deeper spaces operatively exposed or organs manipulated by a surgeon. It is one of the feared complications of surgery as it increases morbidity as well as cost of medical care. Aims and Objectives: Study was conducted to find out incidence of surgical site infection rate in surgical ward, evaluate various factors contributing to infection and to identify causative pathogens and their antibiogram patterns. Material and Methods: All clean and clean contaminated operative cases admitted in surgery ward in study period of 18 months were included. Preoperative, operative and postoperative management protocols of the cases were recorded in detail. Results: A total of 1082 operated cases were studied among which 59 infected cases were found. Surgical Site Infection (SSI rate was 5.45%. E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the commonest pathogen isolated from the infected wound. 50 % were Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA among them and 50% of rd Enterobacteriaceae group were resistant to 3 generation Cephalosporins. Conclusion: Surgical site infection rate of a hospital can be reduced easily by following proper pre-operative protocol for the patients. Those patients with surgical site infection can be treated effectively by following the antibiotic policy as provided by the Department of Microbiology.

  11. Bacteriology of ferromanganese nodules from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    , Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Arthrobacter@@, and coryneforms were encountered in the present study. Most of the isolates were able to grow on a wide range of sodium chloride concentrations (0 to 10%).The isolates elaborated a number of hydrolytic enzymes...

  12. Bacteriological analysis of well water samples in Sagamu | Idowu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the population in semi-urban and urban areas of Nigeria depend on wells as their source of water supply. Due to increasing cases of water-borne diseases in recent times, this study was carried out to examine the microbial quality of well water in Sagamu, Nigeria as a way of safeguarding public health against ...

  13. Bacteriological quality of sachet water produced and sold in Teshie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to good quality drinking water is a challenge in most towns and cities in Ghana and households have for years depended on other sources of water to supplement their activities. The introduction of sachet water to consumers was to provide safe, hygienic and affordable instant drinking water to the public. Although ...

  14. Bacteriology of Dried Meat ( Kilishi ) Hawked in Some Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial aetiological agents have been implicated in roughly one-third of the food-borne disease outbreaks worldwide. This study is aimed at detecting the presence of bacterial pathogens in dried meat (kilishi) in northern Nigeria. A total of two hundred (200) samples of kilishi from 12 locations were examined ...

  15. Bacteriology of Dried Meat ( Kilishi ) Hawked in Some Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Effect of storage on bacteriological quality of borehole water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total coliform count decreased by 99.18%, 82.35% and 91.36% in purple, blue and transparent buckets respectively from an initial 1100 MPN/100ml during the period of storage. The significance of storage as a means of enhancing water purification was discussed and suggestion provided on proper storage of water ...

  17. Assessment of bacteriological quality of well water around Dogon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inadequate supply of clean drinkable water and the frequent pollution of existing supplies have created very serious health problems for people living in developing countries like Nigeria. Water serves as a vehicle for the transmission of diseases like typhoid fever, botulism, diarrhea, dysentery, Schistosomiasis, ...

  18. Pertussis: clinical and bacteriological diagnosis of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arellano Penagos Mario

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ertussis is an endemic disease in our population. Every 3 to 4 years, pertussis has an epidemic pattern even in countries with good health conditions. Antipertussis vaccine first dose is adminis- tered at the age of 2 months; a second and third dose are given at 4 and 6 months of age. This vaccine has an 8 to 10 year protective effect, for which reason it is suggested that pregnant women in the third trimester should be vaccinated in order to prevent pertussis in newborns. It should also be administered to older people to avoid turning them into asymptomatic carriers. Clinic manifestations are easily identifiable due to respiratory symptoms, especially to the particular characteristics of the cough. The diagnosis is supported by the presence of leukocytosis (predominantly lymphocytes and by certain thoracic radiologic findings. The diagnosis is confirmed with a positive culture for Bordetella pertussis or with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In a non complicated clinic course macrolides are still the best therapeutic choice. Nonetheless clinic observation is highly recom- mended in order to avoid complications. Redefinition of vaccine programs against Bordetella pertussis in Mexican population is recommended and also to notify the presence of the disease to the corresponding health authorities.

  19. The bacteriological safety and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In developing countries the major sources of food-borne illnesses are street vended foods. The aim of this study was thus to assess the prevalence and antibiogram of bacteria from white lupin in Bahir Dar Town. METHODS: A total of 40 samples were processed for detection of indicator bacteria and pathogens from ...

  20. Assessment of the efficacies, potencies and bacteriological qualities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacies, potencies and qualities of these antibiotics were tested against some clinical isolates which include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes in vitro. The overall mean zones of inhibition for the test organisms ranged from 33.0 ...

  1. [Epidemiology and bacteriological diagnosis of paediatric acute osteoarticular infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroni, A

    2007-10-01

    Acute paediatric osteo-articular infections require a fast and sensitive diagnosis allowing a treatment directed to the causative pathogen. Many micro-organisms can be incriminated, but Staphylococcus aureus and Kingella kingae markedly prevail. K. kingae became the first bacterial species responsible for septic arthritis in children osteo-articular infections is still low in France. The microbiological diagnosis of septic arthritis relies upon analysis of articular fluid, which requires systematic inoculation of a blood culture vial to increase the recovery rate of K. kingae. If the culture is negative, it is recommended to carry out a universal PCR or a PCR targeted to the main germs responsible for septic arthritis. Indeed, PCR represents an undeniable benefice for the diagnosis of paediatric septic arthritis, particularly for the DNA detection of K. kingae. The diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis relies primarily upon blood cultures, since the bone puncture is not a systematic procedure in this setting. Their efficiency is low, and there is still a need to look for other arguments of diagnosis such as search of possible portals of entry or specific serologies.

  2. Bacteriology of chronic discharging ears in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the most common reason for out-patient antibiotic therapy in children."2 There also is great concern with regards to the social burden and indirect cost due to time lost from school work.3 Knowledge of which micro organisms are the most common pathogens in acute otitis media (AOM) and/0r chronic suppurative otitis media ...

  3. bacteriological quality of some ready to eat vegetables as retailed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Some ready to eat leafy vegetables on sale at Sabon-gari market, Zaria were analysed for their bacterial flora and counts. Lettuce had aerobic plate count range of 2.0 x 107 to 5.7 x 108 cfu/g, cabbage had a count range of 1.3 x 107 – 5.6 x 108 cfu/g and cucumber had a range of count of 3.0 x 105 to 1.9 x 106.

  4. Incidence and bacteriological pattern of puerperal infections within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About three quarters of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli infections are resistant to ceftriaxone, while more than half these infections are resistant to gentamicin. Conclusion: The incidence of puerperal infection in Redemption Hospital, Liberia, within the first 120 hours after Caesarean section is 21%.

  5. Childhood Acute Bacterial Meningitis: Clinical Spectrum, Bacteriological Profile and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Attia; Zeeshan, Fatima; Zafar, Aiza; Ejaz, Hassan; Iftikhar, Aisha; Rathore, Ahsan Waheed

    2016-10-01

    To determine the disease pattern, etiological agents and outcome of childhood acute bacterial meningitis. Adescriptive study. Department of Paediatric Medicine, The Children's Hospital, Lahore, from January to December 2012. Atotal of 199 children between the ages of 1 month and 5 years, admitted with the diagnosis of meningitis on the basis of clinical findings and positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), were included. In all patients, complete blood count (CBC), CSF culture sensitivity, and blood culture sensitivity were performed. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. Out of 199 children, 127 (63.8%) were males with M:F ratio of 1.7:1. Mean age was 11.33 ±12 months. Maximum numbers of children were bacterial meningitis mostly affected children under the age of 1 year. CSF culture revealed both Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria. The most common pathogen in children who died was streptococcus pneumoniae.

  6. Bacteriology of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media among Children at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The common organisms isolated included; Staphylococcus species (36%), Proteus vulgaris species (35%), Pseudomonas species (15%), Streptococcus species (7%), E. coli species (3%), Enterobacter species (2%) and Serratia marcens species (2%). Antimicrobial sensitivity tests showed that Ciprofloxacin was more ...

  7. Bacteriological and elemental quality of Clarias gariepinus (cat fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Three live cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) were obtained from River Lavun monthly for six months for analyses. Using standard methods, microbial load was determined, while susceptibility profiles of the identified isolates was obtained using disc diffusion technique. Elemental contents of the fish were determined ...

  8. Bacteriological study of urinary tract infection in antenatal care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Ritu, Singh Brij N, Begum Rehana, Yadav Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objective: To isolate and diagnose the Uropathogens and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern in anti-natal care patient suffering from Urinary tract Infections. Material and Methods: 150 samples were collected by consent pregnant women between the age group of 18 to 40 years. A midstream clean catch is adequate, provided by all pregnant women’s through given careful instructions. For enumeration of bacteria we perform standard loop techniques method. The number of colonies counted or estimated, and this number used to calculate the number of viable bacteria per ml of urine. The bacterial strains were identified by colonies character stick, gram staining, morphological and biochemical character. The bacterial strains identification was done up to genus and species level. The antibiotics sensitivity test of bacterial strains was done as per CLSI guidelines by Kirby-Baure Disc Diffusion Methods. Results: The significant bactiurea was found in 50 patients among 150 patients used. The most commonly isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli 23(40% Klebsiellaaerogens 11 (22% Staphylococcus aureus 10 (20% Pseudomonas aerugenosa 4(8%.The incidence of bacteriuria among in their first pregnancy was 22.2%.The higher incidence of UTI in 2nd and 3rd trimester was found to have 31.4% & 40%. These studies were showing high level of resistance to first line antibiotics such as Cotrimaxozole. Conclusion: To minimizing the complication of the pregnant women should be educated about the physiology of pregnancy clinical presentation includes asymptomatic bacteria, acute cystitis & pyelonephritis. Pregnant women should be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria by urine culture and treated with appropriate antibiotics. After the post treatment pregnant women should be examine again to confirm post treatment urine sterility.

  9. Clinical mastitis in ewes; bacteriology, epidemiology and clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvitle Bjørg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical mastitis is an important disease in sheep. The objective of this work was to identify causal bacteria and study certain epidemiological and clinical features of clinical mastitis in ewes kept for meat and wool production. Methods The study included 509 ewes with clinical mastitis from 353 flocks located in 14 of the 19 counties in Norway. Clinical examination and collection of udder secretions were carried out by veterinarians. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was performed on 92 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 64 ewes. Results and conclusion S. aureus was recovered from 65.3% of 547 clinically affected mammary glands, coagulase-negative staphylococci from 2.9%, enterobacteria, mainly Escherichia coli, from 7.3%, Streptococcus spp. from 4.6%, Mannheimia haemolytica from 1.8% and various other bacteria from 4.9%, while no bacteria were cultured from 13.2% of the samples. Forty percent of the ewes with unilateral clinical S. aureus mastitis also had a subclinical S. aureus infection in the other mammary gland. Twenty-four of 28 (86% pairs of S. aureus isolates obtained from clinically and subclinically affected mammary glands of the same ewe were indistinguishable by PFGE. The number of identical pairs was significantly greater than expected, based on the distribution of different S. aureus types within the flocks. One-third of the cases occurred during the first week after lambing, while a second peak was observed in the third week of lactation. Gangrene was present in 8.8% of the clinically affected glands; S. aureus was recovered from 72.9%, Clostridium perfringens from 6.3% and E. coli from 6.3% of the secretions from such glands. This study shows that S. aureus predominates as a cause of clinical ovine mastitis in Norway, also in very severe cases. Results also indicate that S. aureus is frequently spread between udder halves of infected ewes.

  10. Virological and bacteriological quality of drinking water in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedada, Tesfaye Legesse; Mezemir, Walelign Dessie; Dera, Firehiwot Abera; Sima, Waktole Gobena; Gebre, Samson Girma; Edicho, Redwan Muzeyin; Biegna, Almaz Gonfa; Teklu, Dejenie Shiferaw; Tullu, Kassu Desta

    2018-05-01

    Since unsafe water is responsible for many illness, deaths, and economic failure, water quality monitoring is essential. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 218 drinking waters samples collected between February and June 2016 to assess water quality using phages by the help of CB390 E. coli host, plaque assay; multiple tube fermentation for coliforms and pour plate for heterotrophic bacteria at Ethiopian Public Health Institute. Heterotrophic plate count greater than 100 cfu/ml was noted in 41 samples and detections of total and thermotolerant coliforms and E. coli in 38, 24, and 10 samples, respectively, and no phages detection in chlorinated waters. While heterotrophic plate count greater than 100 cfu/ml was observed in 100 samples and detections of total and thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, and phages in 75, 60, 42, and 5 samples, respectively, for untreated waters. The majority of the waters contained indicators above standard limits. This indicates that the sources are contaminated and they are potential threats for health. Hence, regular water monitoring should be a priority agenda.

  11. Bacteriology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Otitis Media at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Otitis media is a major health problem of children in low income countries. Objectives: This study was done to determine the bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility of otitis media from children and adults. Methods: A retrospective record was analyzed on culture results of discharging ears at Dessie ...

  12. Childhood acute bacterial meningitis: clinical spectrum, bacteriological profile and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.; Zeeshan, S.; Rathore, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the disease pattern, etiological agents and outcome of childhood acute bacterial meningitis. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatric Medicine, The Children's Hospital, Lahore, from January to December 2012. Methodology: A total of 199 children between the ages of 1 month and 5 years, admitted with the diagnosis of meningitis on the basis of clinical findings and positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), were included. In all patients, complete blood count (CBC), CSF culture sensitivity, and blood culture sensitivity were performed. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 199 children, 127 (63.8%) were males with M:F ratio of 1.7:1. Mean age was 11.33 ± 12 months. Maximum numbers of children were < 1 year of age, 136 (68.3%). Only 90 (45.2%) children were fully vaccinated according to Expanded Program of Immunisation (EPI) schedule. Presentations with refusal to take feed (p=0.008) and with impaired conscious state were independent predictors of death (p=0.002). Complications were noted in 34 (17%) and were significantly associated with severe malnutrition (p=0.006) and altered conscious level at presentation (p < 0.001). The common pathogens identified on CSF culture were coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) in 11 (5.5%) and streptococcus pneumoniae in 5 (2.5%). Overall mortality was 10.1%. The commonest pathogen isolated from children who died was streptococcus pneumoniae (p=0.039). Conclusion: Acute bacterial meningitis mostly affected children under the age of 1 year. CSF culture revealed both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The most common pathogen in children who died was streptococcus pneumoniae. (author)

  13. Effect of storage on bacteriological quality of borehole water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 3 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Bacteriological analysis of well water samples in Sagamu | Idowu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Bacteriological Typing of C. Diphtheriae Strains Recently Isolated in Teheran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Esterabady

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available From a total of 600 nose and throat introduction swabs examined for diphtherie, 200 or 33% were positive. Cultures were carfully classified on the basis of morphological appearance and biochemical characteristics into Gravis, Mitis and Intermedius groups.  A special tellurite serum agar was used for colonial appearance. Neill's broth culture was employed for haemolytic tests. The virulence of each culture was examined in laboratory animals by the agar gel precipitation method of Elek. From 200 cultures tested, 138 or 69% were gravis, 5 or 2.5% were intermedius, and 57 or 28% were mitis. 'I'hre.e strains of gravis type and one strain of mitis type were avirulent

  16. Chemical and bacteriological assessment of irrigation water used in the Agricultural Community Nova Esperança, Manaus - AM = Análise química e bacteriológica da água de irrigação utilizada na Comunidade Agrícola Nova Esperança, Manaus - AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia dos Santos de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the quality of the water used for irrigation in agriculture is of great importance for the environmentand human health. The continuous use of contaminated water causes pollution to soil and cultivated crops, causing variousdiseases associated with consumption of contaminated vegetables. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the qualityof irrigation water of three water bodies: artesian wells, cacimbas (kind of graves that collect water from swampy lands andstreams, used in the Nova Esperança Agricultural Community, located between a peripheral urban area and a native forestin Manaus - AM. Potentially toxic metals (PTM: Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Ni, Mn and Zn were evaluated using atomic absorptionspectrometry by flame and bacteriological analyses (total and faecal coliforms by filter membrane method. The results showedhigh levels of total and faecal coliforms, 89,3% in water samples collected in the three water bodies, as well as high levels of TPM, especially Cd and Pb extremely toxic. Statistical tests showed the influence of the seasonal period on the average concentrations of the PTM and there is not meaning difference of these contaminants on the different water bodies during the period of this study. = A avaliação da qualidade da água utilizada para a irrigação no meio agrícola é relevante tanto para o meio ambiente, quanto para a saúde humana. O uso contínuo de água contaminada acarreta poluição ao solo e às culturas cultivadas, transmitindo doenças por meio do consumo de hortaliças contaminadas. Desse modo, objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a qualidade da água de irrigação de três corpos hídricos: poço, cacimba e igarapé, utilizada na Comunidade Agrícola Nova Esperança, localizada entre uma área urbana periférica e uma floresta nativa na cidade de Manaus – AM. Foram avaliados os metaispotencialmente tóxicos (MPT: Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn, utilizando espectrometria de absor

  17. Salmonella sp. bacteriology monitoring in laying hens at different growing and laying periods from poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza Monitoramento bacteriológico para Salmonella sp. em poedeira comercial em diferentes fases de recria e produção de empresas avícolas da Região Metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuella Evangelista da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to verify Salmonella occurrence in laying hen flocks from eight poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza city. Swab collections were performed in transport boxes of day-old-chicks, totaling 40 feces samples (5 samples/flock, which presented no Salmonella contamination. Bacterial analyses from a pool of feces were performed in the same flocks at 10, 20, 30 and 40 weeks of age. Salmonella enterica rough strain and Salmonella Newport were found in two flocks at 20 and 40 weeks of age, respectively. These results suggest that the birds were infected with Salmonella after their arrival in the poultry farms. It was verified that 25% of the poultry farms presented positive feces samples for Salmonella contamination, indicating the need for a more efficacious preventive program in the poultry farms for egg production. This work suggests that day old birds were of Salmonella contamination which indicates no vertical Salmonella transmission, however the rearing phase present failures regarding bacterial control.

     

    KEY WORDS: Bacteriology, chickens, eggs, feces, Salmonella.

    O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a presença de Salmonella em lotes de poedeiras comerciais de oito empresas da região metropolitana de Fortaleza,CE, Brasil. Realizaram-se suabes em cinco caixas de transporte por lote das oito empresas analisadas, totalizando quarenta amostras de mecônio, sendo todas negativas para Salmonella. Os mesmos lotes (oito foram monitorados na décima, vigésima, trigésima e quadragésima semanas de idade com exame bacteriológico de pool de cem fezes frescas. Foram isoladas Salmonella enterica subsepécie enterica cepa rugosa e Salmonella Newport das amostras de fezes nas empresas 2 e 6 na

  18. Validade comercial de sardinhas inteiras e refrigeradas avaliada por análises físico-químicas, bacteriológicas e sensorial Shelf life of chilled and whole sardines evaluated by physical-chemical, bacteriological and sensory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina da Costa Silva Andrade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A validade comercial de sardinhas das espécies Sardinella brasiliensis e Cetengraulis edentulus mantidas sob refrigeração em gelo (0+2°C foi determinada por parâmetros analíticos físico-químicos, bacteriológicos e sensorial. Nas duas amostras, os teores de Bases Voláteis Totais (BVT e Trimetilamina (TMA atingiram o limite máximo recomendado na legislação (30mg N100g-1 para BVT e 4mg N100g-1 para TMA após 14 e 8 dias de estocagem, respectivamente. O conteúdo de histamina, putrescina e cadaverina se manteve em níveis inferiores a 2.0µg g-1 nas duas amostras durante o período de estocagem. A produção de hipoxantina variou de 0,65 a 2,62µmol g-1 nas amostras de S. brasiliensis e de 1,40 a 2,09µmol g-1 nas amostras de C. edentulus. A contagem inicial de Enterobacteriaceae foi de 3,81log UFC g-1 e 3,82log UFC g-1 atingindo, ao final de 18 dias de estocagem, 6,57log UFC g-1 e 6,87log UFC g-1, nas amostras de S. brasiliensis e C. edentulus, respectivamente. Para as contagens de bactérias heterotróficas aeróbias mesófilas e psicrotróficas, o limite de 7log UFC g-1 preconizado na legislação internacional foi alcançado após o 12° e 8° dias de estocagem nas amostras de S. brasiliensis e após o 12° e 6° dias de estocagem nas amostras de C. edentulus, respectivamente. O método de índice de qualidade sugeriu, para as amostras de S. brasiliensis, um limite de consumo aceitável inferior a 11 e, para as amostras de C. edentulus, um limite de aceitabilidade inferior a 14. Foi proposta a validade comercial de dez dias para a S. brasiliensis e nove dias para o C. edentulus.Theshelf life of sardines of Sardinella brasiliensis and Cetengraulis edentulus species kept on ice at +2°Cwas determined by physical-chemical, bacteriological and sensory parameters. In both samples, the levels of Total Volatile Bases (TVB and Trimethylamine (TMA reached the limits recommended by law (30mg N 100g-1 for TVB and 4mgN100g-1 for TMA after 14

  19. Evaluation of a new automated cell analyzer (Sysmex UF-1000i for bacteriological screening of urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Levi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sysmex UF-1000 is a new flow cytometry for the analysis of urine based on a laser diode technology using specific compounds for the staining nucleic acids, characterized by a threshold of detection of bacteria equal to 1000 CFU/ml.The purpose of this study was to compare the positivity or negativity of the urine samples using standard procedures and with the response obtained from the instrument UF-1000i. Methods. During the period May and July 2011, 1024 urine samples obtained from the laboratory of the hospital in Genoa-Voltri were analyzed with the instrument Sysmex UF-1000i.The samples were stored at a temperature of 5°C during transport.The instrument after loading of the sample is able to assess the bacterial load in about 1 minute per sample. Results. 1024 samples were analyzed with Sysmex UF-1000 analyzed in parallel by the hospital laboratory in Genoa Voltri. 228 are positive results for Sysmex UF-1000 (bacterial loads in excess of 1000 CFU/ml.The data obtained were consistent with those recorded with traditional analysis. 18 samples were positive only for our instrument, but not with the traditional system used in the laboratory for comparison. Conclusion. The advantage of Sysmex UF-1000 is certainly due to obtain immediate results after the reading of each individual sample that is higher than any other instrument or method of analysis used. The slight discrepancy of the results obtained may be due to the extremely low calibration of UF-1000. This allows in a very short time to discard all negative samples with enormous saving of time and material. For positive samples and applies the criterion of the routine ie, the bacterial load has a meaning according to the type of patient considered, as in the case of pediatric or catheterized patients

  20. Bacteriologic profile and antibiogram of blood culture isolates from a children's hospital in Kabul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Tariq Mahmud

    2014-06-01

    To identify the bacterial pathogens causing paediatric septicaemia in Kabul and to determine their antibiogram to improve empirical antibiotic therapy. Cross-sectional study. Microbiology Laboratory of FMIC, Kabul, Afghanistan, from January 2010 to June 2012. Blood cultures from suspected cases of sepsis were processed in BD (Becton Dickinson, USA) for culture BACTEC™ 9240 Blood Culture System. Positive growths were examined and isolates were identified by conventional biochemical tests. Bacteria were identified to the species level using various Analytical Profile Index (API) identification strips. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Drug resistant strains were studied for extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production by combination disk method and for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by Cefoxitin disk diffusion method. Out of a total 3360 blood cultures received from in-patients, 410 yielded monomicrobial growth; hence the frequency of positive blood culture was 12.2%. Out of a total 410 isolates, 212 (51.71%) were gram-negative bacilli and 184 (44.88%) were gram-positive cocci. In addition, 14 (3.41%) Candida species were also isolated. The frequently isolated species of gram-negative bacteria belonged to Enterobacteriaceae and included 66 Klebsiella (16.1%), 42 Enterobacter (10.2%), 35 Escherichia (E.) coli (8.5%) and 16 Serratia (3.9%) species. In addition, 21 (5.12%) Pseudomonas species were also isolated. Correspondingly, amongst gram-positive cocci, the most frequently isolated species were 108 coagulase-negative Staphylococci (26.34%) followed by 49 Staphylococcus aureus (11.95%) and 21 Streptococcus species (5.12%). Among gram-negative isolates, those that produced ESBL i.e., 110 out of 212 (51.9%) were found to be multidrug-resistant and showed high resistance to commonly used antibiotics namely Ampicillin, Gentamicin, 3rd generation Cephalosporins, Fluoroquinolones and Co-trimoxazole. Most of the isolates were susceptible to Imipenem (200/212, 94.3%), Amikacin (172/212, 81.1%) and Fosfomycin (166/212, 78.3%). Amongst gram-positive cocci, majority were resistant to Penicillin, Gentamicin, 3rd generation Cephalosporins, Fluoroquinolones and Cotrimoxazole. However, most were sensitive to Vancomycin (183/184) Pristinamycin (161/184, 87.5%) and Fosfomycin (134/184, 72.8%). All Staphylococci were resistant to Penicillin and 80/157 (51%) were MRSA. Klebsiella, E. coli, Enterobacter and Staphylococci remain the principal organisms responsible for blood stream infection in a paediatrics tertiary care setting in Kabul. The most sensitive among the tested antibiotics for gram-negative organisms were Imipenem, Amikacin, and Fosfomycin and for gram-positive organisms were Vancomycin, Pristinamycin and Fosfomycin.

  1. EU Interlaboratory comparison study veterinary XII . Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in chicken faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2009-01-01

    In 2009 heeft een vergelijkende studie onder 34 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) uitgewezen dat alle NRL's in staat waren hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella in kippenmest aan te tonen. Van deze laboratoria lieten er 33 direct zien dat zij het onderzoek met succes en volgens de

  2. Bacteriological examination of the middle ear of school-aged children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Out of 47 chlidren (24 boys and 23 girls), there were 30 whom bacteria responsible for otitis media were found. The commonest bacterium isolated was streptococcus pneumonia (50.0%) followed by Haemophilus influenza (16.7%). Others were Moraxella catarrhalis (10%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa(10%) Proteus ...

  3. Between bacteriology and virology: the development of typhus vaccines between the First and Second World Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, P

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of typhus vaccines between the first and second world wars. It is shown that there was a shift in the classification of the causal Rickettsiae from being classed as bacteria to being conceptualised as a type of virus. This 'paradigm switch' stimulated interest in the possibility of producing an effective medicine.

  4. Spatial variation of physicochemical and bacteriological parameters elucidation with GIS in Rangat Bay, Middle Andaman, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheenan, P. S.; Jha, Dilip Kumar; Vinithkumar, N. V.; Ponmalar, A. Angelin; Venkateshwaran, P.; Kirubagaran, R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration, distribution of bacteria and physicochemical property of surface seawater in Rangat Bay, Middle Andaman, Andaman Islands (India). The bay experiences tidal variations. Perhaps physicochemical properties of seawater in Rangat Bay were found not to vary significantly. The concentration of faecal streptococci was high (2.2 × 103 CFU/100 mL) at creek and harbour area, whereas total coliforms were high (7.0 × 102 CFU/100 mL) at mangrove area. Similarly, total heterotrophic bacterial concentration was high (5.92 × 104 CFU/100 mL) in mangrove and harbour area. The Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentration was high (4.2 × 104 CFU/100 mL and 9 × 103 CFU/100 mL) at open sea. Cluster analysis showed grouping of stations in different tidal periods. The spatial maps clearly depicted the bacterial concentration pattern in the bay. The combined approach of multivariate analysis and spatial mapping techniques was proved to be useful in the current study.

  5. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Alsawaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1% was significantly more affective (P<0.05 as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3% respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05 in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% were observed in treated soft white cheese.

  6. Planarian regeneration in space: Persistent anatomical, behavioral, and bacteriological changes induced by space travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokuma, Junji; Durant, Fallon; Williams, Katherine B; Finkelstein, Joshua M; Blackiston, Douglas J; Clements, Twyman; Reed, David W; Roberts, Michael; Jain, Mahendra; Kimel, Kris; Trauger, Sunia A; Wolfe, Benjamin E; Levin, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Regeneration is regulated not only by chemical signals but also by physical processes, such as bioelectric gradients. How these may change in the absence of the normal gravitational and geomagnetic fields is largely unknown. Planarian flatworms were moved to the International Space Station for 5 weeks, immediately after removing their heads and tails. A control group in spring water remained on Earth. No manipulation of the planaria occurred while they were in orbit, and space-exposed worms were returned to our laboratory for analysis. One animal out of 15 regenerated into a double-headed phenotype-normally an extremely rare event. Remarkably, amputating this double-headed worm again, in plain water, resulted again in the double-headed phenotype. Moreover, even when tested 20 months after return to Earth, the space-exposed worms displayed significant quantitative differences in behavior and microbiome composition. These observations may have implications for human and animal space travelers, but could also elucidate how microgravity and hypomagnetic environments could be used to trigger desired morphological, neurological, physiological, and bacteriomic changes for various regenerative and bioengineering applications.

  7. [Vaginal bacteriology in women with use of sanitary towels and tampons during menstruation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzeitig, V; Bucek, R; Al Awad, H

    2007-12-01

    Clinical study of peri-menstrual changes of vaginal environment in healthy fertile women after long-term use of sanitary towels (group A) or vaginal tampons (group B). Prospective study. SEAT OF SITE: Centre of Outpatient Gynaecology Brno, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Masaryk Univesrity Brno. The group consisted of 100 females with regular menstrual cycle without clinical and microbiological signs of vaginal inflammation or dysmicrobia for three months. In the perimenstrual period samples were taken three times from the ventral vaginal arch and sent for culture examination. A selected group of the females was also subject to culture examination of samples taken from the vulva 0.5 cm under the posterior comisure. Occurrence of ten most common bacteria and yeasts before beginning of menstruation was comparable in both groups. In the course of menstrual bleeding reproduction of bacteria in group B was lower and the vaginal environment return to normal after menstruation end was quicker in the same group. Significant differences between the two groups also included a higher occurrence of peptostreptococci, E. coli and enterococci during and after menstruation in group A women. Regular use of vaginal tampons during menstruation does not represent increased risk of disruption of the vaginal environment, effusions or recurring sexually transmitted infections.

  8. Dynamics of postpartum endometrial cytology and bacteriology and their relationship to fertility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Robert O; Santos, Natalia R

    2016-05-01

    Endometrial samples were obtained from 56 consecutively calving dairy cows examined for endometrial cytology and for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth. Changes over time, correlations between different cell types and between cell and bacterial populations and with fertility measures were calculated. The proportion of neutrophils in cytologic preparations decreased with time postpartum. Other cell types did not change significantly with time. The proportion of neutrophils early (Day 0 and 7) postpartum was negatively correlated with neutrophil proportion at 5 or 7 weeks postpartum and positively correlated with fertility. Cows with high proportion of neutrophils at 7 days postpartum (>40%) were significantly more likely to become pregnant than those with lower proportions of neutrophils. Escherichia coli were the bacteria most frequently isolated at 0 or 7 days postpartum but were uncommon after that. Trueperella pyogenes were most prevalent at 3 weeks postpartum and were more likely to infect cows that had previously been infected with E coli. The presence of T pyogenes at 3 weeks postpartum increased the risk of concomitant or later infection with gram-negative anaerobes. The presence of T pyogenes at 3 weeks postpartum significantly reduced the risk of pregnancy at 150 days in milk. The presence of alpha-hemolytic Streptoccus spp. at 7 days postpartum was associated with improved reproductive performance. The proportion of neutrophils at 5 and 7 weeks postpartum was related to concomitant bacterial infection. These findings suggest that rapid mobilization of neutrophils to the postpartum uterus is a beneficial response for uterine health in dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Histologic and bacteriologic findings in valvular endocarditis of slaughter-age pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik E.; Gyllensten, Johanna; Hofman, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    10 cases of endocarditis due to S. suis and E. rhusiopathiae were disclosed. Within lesions, streptococci predominated (53%) followed by E. rhusiopathiae (30%). Distinct features of both the lesions and the shape and localization of bacterial colonies were related to streptococci and E. rhusiopathiae......Endocarditis lesions from 117 slaughter pigs were examined pathologically and etiologically in addition to 90 control hearts with cardiac valves. Lesions were located on the valves; however, the lesions had extended to the walls in 21 cases (18%). Lesions predominated on the mitral valve (59......%). A total of 28 cases, from which no growth was obtained or a contamination flora was grown, were screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for bacteria (general bacterial probe) and probes specific for Streptococcus suis and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, respectively. Using FISH, an additional...

  10. Assessment of the Bacteriological Quality of Food Samples May Offer Clues the Antibiotic Resistance Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Kalantar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foodborne illnesses continue to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to culture-confirmed the bacterial profile and their antibiotic resistant pattern in Food and Drug Laboratory, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran. Patients and Methods: A total of 22 bacteria including of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp and E. coli were presumptive isolated from the traditional ice cream, cream pastries, sausage, and salami by the Official Food Microbiology Laboratory, Deputy of Food and Drug Administration, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran, and sent to the Research Center Laboratory, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, to confirm the bacterial spp by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. These isolates were also checked for their antimicrobial resistance pattern according to CLSI guideline. Results: The highest rate of contamination was with Klebsiella spp 09 (40.9%, followed by S. aureus 07 (31.8%, E. coli 06 (27.27%, as reported by the Official Food Microbiology Laboratory of Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Gel electrophoresis of the isolates shows the 600bp bp and 80 bp gene among S. aureus and E. coli respectively. The antibiotic resistant pattern in case of Klensiella spp showed that 6 (66.6% Klensiella spp were resistant to Penicillin and Cotrimoxazole. Similarly, penicillin and amoxicillin were found the highest resistant antibiotic against 83.3% E. coli, however, ceftriaxone showed the highest sensitivity against 100% E. coli isolates. Conclusions: In conclusion, Klebsiella spp, S. aureus and E. coli are contaminants of food specimens obtained from food industries in Karaj, Iran; they constitute a serious health risk for human population. Moreover, the principal purpose of this study is to increase awareness of the antibiotic resistance of these bacteria poses threat.

  11. Bacteriological and virulence study of a Mycobacterium chimaera isolate from a patient in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan; Chen, Su-Ting; Yu, Xia; Li, Yu-Xun; Ling, Ying; Dong, Ling-Ling; Zheng, Su-Hua; Huang, Hai-Rong

    2015-04-01

    A clinical isolate from a patient was identified as Mycobacterium chimaera, a recently identified species of nontuberculous Mycobacteria. The biochemical and molecular identity, drug sensitivity and virulence of this isolated strain were investigated. 16S rRNA, the 16S-23S ITS, hsp65 and rpoB were amplified, and their sequence similarities with other mycobacteria were analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 22 anti-microbial agents against this isolate were established, and the virulence of the isolate was evaluated by intravenous injection into C57BL/6 mice using Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv as a control strain. Growth and morphological characteristics and mycolic acid profile analysis revealed that this isolated strain was a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex. BLAST analysis of the amplified sequences showed that the isolated strain was closely related to M. chimaera. Susceptibility testing showed that the isolate was sensitive to rifabutin, rifapentine, clarithromycin, azithromycin, imipenem and cefoxitin. Bacterial load determination and tissue histopathology of the infected mice indicated that the isolate was highly virulent. The first case of M. chimaera infection in China was evaluated. The information derived from this case may offer valuable guidance for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Chromatographic analysis in bacteriologic diagnostics of blood cultures, exudates, and bronchoalveolar lavages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julák, J

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes our previously achieved and published results. The method for the determination of bacterial volatile fatty acid patterns (VFA) in clinical samples was elaborated. It employs gas chromatography (GC), solvent extraction or head-space solid phase microextraction (SPME). This method was validated by analyses of reference bacterial strains. After cultivation in defined media, aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria provided profiles with a low or none acid content, while anaerobic bacteria provided characteristic but medium-dependent profiles with a higher acid content. This method was used for the analyses of clinical samples of total 375 blood cultures, 205 suppurative and apyogenous exudates, and 210 bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs). These analyses enabled within 30 minutes the detection of microbes, probably non-sporulating anaerobes not found by false-negative cultivation, in 11.2% of blood cultures, in 20.0% of exudates, and in 9.0 to 20.0% of BALs. Using the mass spectrometry (MS) methods, a number of other components with unclear diagnostic importance were found in BAL samples, in particular hydrogen cyanide, methanol, ethanol, hexanol, acetone, cyclohexanone, acetonitrile, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, and other esters. Cyclohexanone, occurring mainly in BALs of patients with pneumonia, undergoing intensive care, may originate as a residual solvent from the plastic parts of the ventilation apparatus.

  13. Bacteriological quality of raw human milk: effect of storage in a refrigerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowe, S A; Ahmed, I; Lawal, S F; Ransome-Kuti, S

    1987-12-01

    Eighty-seven breast milk samples were obtained from 63 mothers of infants on the neonatal intensive care unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. The samples were cultured for bacteria immediately after collection (0 h) and then stored in a domestic refrigerator from where cultures were repeated at 6-hourly intervals for 24 h. At 0 h, three (3.4%) of the samples were sterile; 56 (64%) grew coagulase negative staphylococci, and one (1.1%) Streptococcus viridans. Thus, 60 (69%) of the samples were either sterile or contained only skin commensals. Twenty-nine (31%) grew potential pathogens--coagulase positive staphylococci in two (2.3%) and mixed growth of staphylococci, coliforms and klebsiella in 25 (28.3%). During the 24 h storage in the refrigerator, bacteria multiplied in 50 and their growth was inhibited in 32 of the samples. But the mean bacterial count at any time during the 24 h was not significantly different from that at the beginning of the storage in the refrigerator. It is proposed that expressed breast milk stored in a domestic refrigerator can be given safely to infants within 24 h of collection if heavy contamination is prevented at the time of collection.

  14. Bacteriological study of food in the Pakistan's peri-urban areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study highlighted the poor hygienic conditions for the food quality standards in the area of investigation. It was concluded that the food related endemic health concerns can be checked by taking appropriate preventive measures to forestall the outbreaks of gastroenteritis and food poisoning in the future as a serious ...

  15. Hospital hydrotherapy pools treated with ultra violet light: bad bacteriological quality and presence of thermophilic Naegleria.

    OpenAIRE

    De Jonckheere, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of eight halogenated and two u.v.-treated hydrotherapy pools in hospitals was investigated. The microbiological quality of halogenated hydrotherapy pools was comparable to halogenated public swimming pools, although in some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and faecal pollution indicators were more frequent due to bad management. On the other hand u.v.-treated hydrotherapy pools had very bad microbiological quality. Apart from faecal pollution indicators, P. aeruginosa was pr...

  16. Hospital hydrotherapy pools treated with ultra violet light: bad bacteriological quality and presence of thermophilic Naegleria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonckheere, J F

    1982-04-01

    The microbiological quality of eight halogenated and two u.v.-treated hydrotherapy pools in hospitals was investigated. The microbiological quality of halogenated hydrotherapy pools was comparable to halogenated public swimming pools, although in some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and faecal pollution indicators were more frequent due to bad management. On the other hand u.v.-treated hydrotherapy pools had very bad microbiological quality. Apart from faecal pollution indicators, P. aeruginosa was present in very high numbers. Halogenated hydrotherapy pools were not highly contaminated with amoebae, and Naegleria spp. were never detected. On the other hand u.v.-treated pools contained very high numbers of thermophilic Naegleria. The Naegleria isolated were identified as N. lovaniensis, a species commonly found in association with N. fowleri. Isoenzyme analysis showed a different type of N. lovaniensis was present in each of two u.v.-treated pools.

  17. Pleuritis in slaughter pigs: Relations between lung lesions and bacteriology in 10 herds with high pleuritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jirawattanapong, P.; Stockhofe, N.; Leengoed, van L.A.M.G.; Wisselink, H.J.; Raymakers, R.; Cruijsen, T.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Nielen, M.; Nes, van A.

    2010-01-01

    Pleuritis in slaughter pigs has increased in recent years in the Netherlands. The aim of the present study was to determine what respiratory pathogens were involved in pleuritis. In total, lungs of 968 slaughter pigs from 10 herds with high prevalence of pleuritis were morphologically examined for

  18. Bacteriological, biochemical, and immunological modifications in human colostrum after Holder pasteurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Martos, I; Montilla, A; de Segura, A Gómez; Escuder, D; Bustos, G; Pallás, C; Rodríguez, J M; Corzo, N; Fernández, L

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Holder pasteurisation of human colostrum on a variety of microbiological, biochemical, and immunological parameters. Colostrum samples from 10 donors, and 8 samples of mature milk used as controls, were heated at 62.5°C for 30 minutes. Bacterial counts and the concentration of furosine, lactose, myoinositol, glucose, lactulose, cytokines, and immunoglobulins were determined before and after the heat treatment. Mean bacterial counts in nonpasteurised colostrum samples oscillated between 2.72 and 4.13 log10 colony-forming units per millilitre in the agar media tested. Holder pasteurisation led to the destruction of the bacteria originally present in the samples. Furosine was detected in all samples before pasteurisation and increased significantly after the heat treatment (from 6.60 to 20.59 mg/100 g protein). Lactulose content was below the detection limit in nonpasteurised colostrum, but it was detected in all samples and quantified in 7 of them (from 10.68 to 38.02 mg/L) after Holder pasteurisation. Lactose, glucose, and myoinositol concentrations did not change after Holder pasteurisation. The concentrations of most cytokines and immunoglobulins were significantly higher in colostrum than in mature milk samples. Immunoglobulin content, both in colostrum and in milk samples, was reduced during pasteurisation, whereas, among cytokines, only macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, interleukin-7, and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor concentrations were affected by this heat treatment. Lactulose and furosine content could be used as heat treatment indicators in colostrum samples. Holder pasteurisation modified the immunological profile of both colostrum and mature milk.

  19. The aerobic bacteriology of infected skin lesions in children of the Eastern Highlands Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J

    1985-06-01

    Of 480 children studied, the relative frequency of skin infections divided into three categories were: score 266 (55%), infected scabies 164 (34%) and tropical ulcers 50 (10%). Infected scabies was more prevalent in the less than 2 year age group and tropical ulcers were commonest in the 9-12 year age group and these differences were significant. The majority of lesions occurred on the lower extremities with the trunk the least commonly affected area. No significant differences were found in different age groups between males and females. Beta haemolytic streptococci (95%), Staphylococcus aureus (83%), Corynebacterium diphtheriae (72%) and Corynebacterium haemolyticum (35%) were the major bacteria isolated. Beta haemolytic streptococci were the most prevalent in infected scabies and least in tropical ulcers and these differences were significant. Three major Lancefield groups were isolated: group A (61%), group C (19%) and group G (19%). The distribution of these groups were unequal with group A most common in infected scabies but rarely seen in tropical ulcers. Groups C and G were found more commonly in tropical ulcers than the other two groups of lesions and these differences were significant. Multiple populations of beta haemolytic streptococci in a single lesion were seen in 19% of children. Less than one third of Streptococcus pyogenes were M typable and of these 18% were known nephritogenic serotypes. Staphylococcus aureus was significantly more common in infected scabies and least common in tropical ulcers. The prevalence of Vincent's organisms in tropical ulcers (74%) was significantly higher than scores (9%) and infected scabies (1%). The isolation rate of Corynebacterium diphtheriae was significantly higher in infected scabies than the other two groups. The most common biotype isolated was var mitis (72%). Only 2% of isolates were toxigenic. Corynebacterium haemolyticum was isolated significantly more frequently in tropical ulcers than the other lesions. All major bacteria, excluding betalactamase-producing Straphylococcus aureus, were uniformly sensitive to penicillin. Methicillin resistance was found in 1% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates and is reported here for the first time in this country. These isolates were also multiply resistant to erythromycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline.

  20. Bacteriological study of pyoderma with special reference to antibiotic susceptibility to newer antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadage D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and forty-two cases of pyoderma were investigated to study bacterial aetiology and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Of these 65.87% cases were of primary pyoderma and the rest were of secondary pyoderma. Maximum cases were of impetigo (38.78% followed by folliculitis (12.92%, furunculosis (2.95%, ecthyma (3.5%, carbuncle (1.5% and sycosis barbae (0.4%. Secondary pyoderma constituted infected trophic ulcer (18.82%, infected pemphigus (7.2%, infected contact dermatitis (6.27%, and infected scabies (1.8%. Single organism was isolated from 46.9% cases and more than one type of organisms in 65.46% of cases. No organism was isolated in 5% of cases. Staphylococcus (67.34% was the predominant species isolated followed by beta-haemolytic streptococcus (21.77%. Maximum strains of Staph. aureus were susceptible to amikacin (75%, co-trimoxazole (72%, cefotaxime (65%, chloramphenicol (62%, ciprofloxacin (61% and clindamycin (61%. There was low susceptibility to cephaloridin (11%, gentamicin (12% and penicillin (21%. Streptococcus betahaemolyticus was highly sensitive to most of the antibiotics and less sensitive to cefotaxime (7%, co-trimoxazole (11% and penicillin (27%. Most of the strains were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics.

  1. Bacteriological study of pyoderma with special reference to antibiotic susceptibility to newer antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadage, D P; Sali, Y A

    1999-01-01

    Five hundred and forty-two cases of pyoderma were investigated to study bacterial aetiology and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Of these 65.87% cases were of primary pyoderma and the rest were of secondary pyoderma. Maximum cases were of impetigo (38.78%) followed by folliculitis (12.92%), furunculosis (2.95%), ecthyma (3.5%), carbuncle (1.5%) and sycosis barbae (0.4%). Secondary pyoderma constituted infected trophic ulcer (18.82%), infected pemphigus (7.2%), infected contact dermatitis (6.27%), and infected scabies (1.8%). Single organism was isolated from 46.9% cases and more than one type of organisms in 65.46% of cases. No organism was isolated in 5% of cases. Staphylococcus (67.34%) was the predominant species isolated followed by beta-haemolytic streptococcus (21.77%). Maximum strains of Staph. aureus were susceptible to amikacin (75%), co-trimoxazole (72%), cefotaxime (65%), chloramphenicol (62%), ciprofloxacin (61%) and clindamycin (61%). There was low susceptibility to cephaloridin (11%), gentamicin (12%) and penicillin (21%). Streptococcus betahaemolyticus was highly sensitive to most of the antibiotics and less sensitive to cefotaxime (7%), co-trimoxazole (11%) and penicillin (27%). Most of the strains were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics.

  2. Sanitation and its Impact on the Bacteriological Quality of Water: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water constitutes about 70% of the earth's total mass and all life is dependent on water. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease worldwide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. Water and sanitation are closely related and ...

  3. Identification of bacteriology and risk factor analysis of asymptomatic bacterial colonization in pacemaker replacement patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ming Chu

    Full Text Available Recent researches revealed that asymptomatic bacterial colonization on PMs might be ubiquitous and increase the risk of clinical PM infection. Early diagnosis of patients with asymptomatic bacterial colonization could provide opportunity for targeted preventive measures.The present study explores the incidence of bacterial colonization of generator pockets in pacemaker replacement patients without signs of infection, and to analyze risk factors for asymptomatic bacterial colonization.From June 2011 to December 2013, 118 patients underwent pacemaker replacement or upgrade. Identification of bacteria was carried out by bacterial culture and 16S rRNA sequencing. Clinical risk characteristics were analyzed.The total bacterial positive rate was 37.3% (44 cases, and the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus detection rate was the highest. Twenty two (18.6% patients had positive bacterial culture results, of which 50% had coagulase-negative staphylococcus. The bacterial DNA detection rate was 36.4 % (43 cases. Positive bacterial DNA results from pocket tissues and the surface of the devices were 22.0% and 29.7%, respectively. During follow-up (median, 27.0 months, three patients (6.8%, 3/44 became symptomatic with the same genus of microorganism, S. aureus (n=2 and S. epidermidis (n=1. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that history of bacterial infection, use of antibiotics, application of antiplatelet drugs, replacement frequency were independent risk factors for asymptomatic bacterial colonization.There was a high incidence of asymptomatic bacterial colonization in pacemaker patients with independent risk factors. Bacterial culture combined genetic testing could improve the detection rate.

  4. Host adaptation of bovine Staphylococcus aureus seems associated with bacteriological cure after lactational antimicrobial treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Nielen, M.; Schaik, van G.; Melchior, M.B.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of diseases in multiple species. Some sequence types (ST) are observed in a variety of hosts, whereas other strains are mainly associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting host adaptation. We propose that host adaptation of Staph. aureus may influence

  5. Sensory, biochemical and bacteriological properties of octopus (Cistopus indicus) stored in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Shalini, R.; Shakila, R. Jeya; Jeyasekaran, G.; Jeevithan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Octopus (Cistopus indicus) were examined for the changes in autolytic activity, ammoniacal nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen (NPN), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), free fatty acid (FFA) content, aerobic plate count (APC) and sensory quality based on Quality Index Method (QIM) during ice storage. They were sensorily acceptable up to 7 days when QIM score was 10.97 out of 16.00. Autolytic activity increased from the initial value of 174 to 619 nmoles Tyr/g/h within day 3 and later decreased. ...

  6. Sensory, biochemical and bacteriological properties of octopus (Cistopus indicus) stored in ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, R; Shakila, R Jeya; Jeyasekaran, G; Jeevithan, E

    2015-10-01

    Octopus (Cistopus indicus) were examined for the changes in autolytic activity, ammoniacal nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen (NPN), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), free fatty acid (FFA) content, aerobic plate count (APC) and sensory quality based on Quality Index Method (QIM) during ice storage. They were sensorily acceptable up to 7 days when QIM score was 10.97 out of 16.00. Autolytic activity increased from the initial value of 174 to 619 nmoles Tyr/g/h within day 3 and later decreased. There was also an increase in NPN (34.88 to 76.16 mg %), ammoniacal nitrogen (0 to 7.30 ppm) and free fatty acid content (0.35 to 1.69 % of oleic acid) during storage. TVBN values did not correlate with the spoilage, as it increased from 28 to 145 mg% within day 5, exceeding the limit of acceptability; although total QIM score was 7.47. Aerobic plate count did not show significant change suggesting that the spoilage in octopus was not microbial. The rapid spoilage in octopus was mainly due to the release of NPN compounds following autolytic activity leading to the formation of ammoniacal nitrogen, rather than microbial spoilage. Hence, ammoniacal nitrogen can be taken as an index for spoilage of ice stored octopus.

  7. Impact of applying hygienic practices at farm on bacteriological quality of raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pandey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to explore the potential source of contamination and the efficacy of different washing practices towards quality milk production. Materials and Methods: Probable sources of contamination viz. stored water, potable water, milker’s hands, milking pail, udder of individual buffalo and milk cans were subjected to different types of bacterial counts before the actual experiment to start. Twenty milch buffaloes thereafter were divided randomly into four treatment groups where washing was performed in each step viz. milker hands, udder of individual buffalo, milking pail and milk cans before milking either with water (T0: stored water, T1: potable water or sanitizers (T2: 200 ppm chlorine solution, T3: 50 ppm iodophore solution for 60 days. Bacterial counts again were performed for last 5 alternate days for all the sources involved along with the microbial load of raw milk. Data obtained were subjected to standard statistical analysis. Results: It was found that for all bacterial count stored water contributed significantly higher as compared to the potable water. Among the other potential sources of contamination (log/6 cm2, standard plate count (SPC and coliform count were significantly highest for milking pail (6.73±0.02 and udder of milch buffaloes (3.77±0.12, respectively, while for Staphylococci count both milking pail (3.24±0.02 and milking can (3.22±0.04 were contributed maximally (p0.05 for most of the parameters, even for the raw milk quality. Conclusion: Study revealed that milker hands, milking pails, udder of animals, milk cans and stored water used for washing of equipment are the potential source of contamination in raw milk. These were counted as critical point which needs attention for the production of high-quality milk. Potable water was found to be better than stored water. The use of either chlorine 200 ppm and iodophor 50 ppm is highly effective in reducing the bacterial population for quality milk production.

  8. Bacteriological aspects of hand washing: A key for health promotion and infections control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramezan Ali Ataee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. Data were descriptively analyzed. The insistence on hand washing has a history of 1400 years. The research results indicate that the bacteria released from the female washed hands in wet and dry condition was lower than from the male′s hands with a significance level (3 CFU vs. 8 CFU; confidence interval 95%, P ≤ 0.001. The valuable results of the study indicated that released amount of bacterial flora from wet hands is more than 10 times in compared to dry hands. In addition, established monitoring systems for washing hands before and after patient′s manipulation as well as after toilet were dominant indices to prevent the transfer of infectious agents to the patients. Increasing awareness and belief of the healthcare workers have shown an important role by about 30% reduction in the transfection. Hand washing could reduce the episodes of transmission of infectious agents in both community and healthcare settings. However, hand washing is an important key factor to prevent transmission of infectious agents to patients. There is no standard method for measuring compliance. Thus, permanent monitoring of hand washing to reduce the transmission of infections is crucial. Finally, the personnel must believe that hand washing is an inevitable approach to infection control.

  9. Serological, bacteriological and clinical observations on an outbreak of canine infectious tracheobronchitis in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, K

    1990-05-12

    During the autumn of 1988 an outbreak of canine infectious tracheobronchitis, which seemed to be more infectious than usual, occurred throughout Scandinavia. Paired serum samples and bacterial swabs were collected from 52 dogs with clinical signs of infectious tracheobronchitis in three districts of Norway. The results revealed a fourfold or greater rise in the titre of antibodies against canine parainfluenza virus in 79 per cent of the cases, strongly suggesting that the virus was of aetiological importance in the outbreak. Bordetella bronchiseptica was not isolated from the diseased dogs, and they showed no rise in the titres of antibodies against influenza virus, reovirus or adenovirus.

  10. [Bacteriologic and clinical analysis of nosocomial infections in patients from the intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodemski, T

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate what pathogens are mainly responsible for infection among all hospitalised at our ITU patients, to define the influence of antibiotic use on the aetiology of nosocomial infection. The research was conducted on a six-bedded surgical ITU in a 700-bed teaching hospital from January 1995 till June 1996. In August 1995 we changed infection control protocols (more stress on: handwashing with antiseptic soaps and routine microbiological culture for early prediction of infection) and antibiotic guidelines on our ITU (third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and Vancomycin were used only as the last option and never in prevention). 1276 samples for microbiological culture were obtained in routine manner. From 60% positive cultures 1216 strains were isolated (Tab. 1) and resistance to antibiotics were defined (Tab. 3). Monthly antibiotic consumption was expressed in defined daily dose (DDD) for 1000 hospitalisation-days. DDD = (X/Y)/Z x x 1000, were: X-cumulative antibiotic consumption during analysed period (g), Y-standard daily dose (g/24 h), Z-number of hospitalisation-days during analysed period (Tab. 2). Values were expressed as the mean +/- standard error (SE). Relationships between variables were analysed using linear correlation. All data were categorised for the frequency table. Statistically significant differences were considered to exist when calculated p values were less than 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of treated patients, length of stay and mortality rate on our ITU in 18 months. 58% of isolated strains were Gram-negative bacteria especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%) and Acinetobacter spp. (16%) and Proteus spp. (9%). The commonly isolated Gram-positive bacteria were Enterococcus faecalis (14%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%)--of which 90% were MRSA. In 8% of cases we have isolated Candida spp. Monthly antibiotic consumption was displayed in table 2. Trend analysis confirmed reduction in Ofloxacin, fluoroquinolones and Colistin consumption over 18 months period (Fig. 2). We observed statistically significant decrease in amount of isolated Proteus spp. strains from 70 in I'95 to 31 in II'95 (p generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones (Tab. 3). We have analysed the influence of antibiotic use on the aetiology of nosocomial infection. Table 4 shows statistically significant correlation between Acinetobacter spp., MRSA, MRSE isolates and antibiotics consumption. Crosstabulated variables analyses confirm MRSE outbreaks in periods when excessive amount of Amikacin (p < 0.05 for chi 2 test, D Somer rate 0.59, V Cramer rate 0.67), aminoglicosides (p < 0.05 for chi 2 test, D Somer rate 0.57, V Cramer rate 0.59), imipenem (p < 0.05 for chi 2 test, D Somer rate 0.44, V Cramer rate 0.60) and total antibiotics consumption were high (p < 0.005 for chi 2 test, D Somer rate 0.67, V Cramer rate 0.81) (Fig. 3). This study illustrates the influence of antimicrobial therapy on the species and the resistance of strains isolated in nosocomial infection. Restrictive antibiotics policy does not affect ITU outcome. Better strategies for antibiotic administration in the ITU setting may improve their efficacy and control the spread of nosocomial infection caused by multi-resistant organisms. Therefore, restrictive antibiotic policy would be mandatory in each hospital and department.

  11. Hospital hydrotherapy pools treated with ultra violet light: bad bacteriological quality and presence of thermophilic Naegleria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonckheere, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of eight halogenated and two u.v.-treated hydrotherapy pools in hospitals was investigated. The microbiological quality of halogenated hydrotherapy pools was comparable to halogenated public swimming pools, although in some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and faecal pollution indicators were more frequent due to bad management. On the other hand u.v.-treated hydrotherapy pools had very bad microbiological quality. Apart from faecal pollution indicators, P. aeruginosa was present in very high numbers. Halogenated hydrotherapy pools were not highly contaminated with amoebae, and Naegleria spp. were never detected. On the other hand u.v.-treated pools contained very high numbers of thermophilic Naegleria. The Naegleria isolated were identified as N. lovaniensis, a species commonly found in association with N. fowleri. Isoenzyme analysis showed a different type of N. lovaniensis was present in each of two u.v.-treated pools. Images Plate 1 PMID:7061835

  12. Bacteriological quality of some fishes and crab from rivers within Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromonas sp. Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris Vibrio sp. and Myxococcus sp. were isolated from diseased fishes while Streptococcus faecalis, coagulase – negative Staphylococcus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Gram – negative species: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, ...

  13. Bacteriological Assessment of “Pure Water” Samples in Ogun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of 'pure water' examined yielded bacteria growths. This study has shown clearly that a greater percentage of the so-called 'pure water' are variably contaminated with bacterial agents. Keywords: Pure Water, Coliforms, Most Probable Number, Membrane Filtration. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol.

  14. A STUDY OF BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL SPECTRUM OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar G. C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There are various pathophysiological factors, which along with hyperglycaemic state is responsible for diabetic foot ulcer. Out of these, there are three important components, which play important role that is vascular changes, neuropathy and immune changes. Glycosylation of nerve proteins, endothelial dysfunction and increased lymphocyte apoptosis is the major pathology that leads to above dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 60 cases were included in this study. For collection of sample, transport culture and sensitivity, we have followed standard operative procedure, samples collected were plated on blood agar, nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. Conventional method was followed for identification of organism isolated from agar plate like Gram staining, motility testing, oxidase testing and catalase testing. RESULTS In our study, out of 60 culture positive patient, we have found that Escherichia coli was 12 in number that is 20%. Klebsiella was found in 18 samples that is 30%. Pseudomonas was isolated in 12 specimen that is 20% and 10% of the wound having staphylococcus aureus infection. Proteus was found in nine specimens. Rest like CONSA, citrobacter and candida was present in one sample each. CONCLUSION The most common organism isolated out of 60 culture positive specimen was Klebsiella that is 30% of the isolate followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli that is 20% each. We have come to conclusion that chloramphenicol, piperacillintazobactam, amikacin and imipenem adequately covered such infection.

  15. Bacteriological Spectrum of Post Operative Orthopedic Implant Infections and Their Antibiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Chandrika V

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection is a major problem in orthopedics leading to implant failure and in severe cases, amputation and even mortality. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to isolate and identify organisms from postoperative Orthopaedic implant infections and determine their antibiogram. Method and Materials: This prospective study was conducted on 50 cases of infected implants from Orthopaedics ward, Government General Hospital, st st Kakinda from 1 June 2014 to 1 November 2014 after obtaining clearance from Institutional Ethics Committee. Pus samples were collected using two sterile swabs. One is used for Gram's stain and the other for inoculation on MacConkey and Blood agar. Isolates were identied according to the standard protocols and antibiotic sensitivity was done by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion technique. Results: Out of 50 samples, 45(90% were culture positive and 5(10% were sterile for aerobic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus (30% is common isolate followed by Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CONS (20%, Escherichia coli (16%, Klebsiella sps (10% , Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%, Acinetobacter species (4%, Proteus species (4%. Most of Gram positive cocci are resistant to Methicillin (64% followed by Ciprooxin (36% and Cotrimoxazole (28%. They were mostly sensitive to Vancomycin, Linezolid, Amoxycillin Clavulanic acid and Cefotaxime. Gram negative bacilli are resistant to Cotrimoxazole (65% followed by Ciprooxacin (60% and Ceftriaxone (60% and sensitive to Carbapenems (80%, Piperacillin Tazobactam (60% and Amoxycillin Clavulanic acid (60%. Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL production is seen in 60% of Gram negative bacilli. Conclusions: The incidence of multidrug resistance pathogens as a cause of implant infections is rising. Adequate preventive measures should be enforced to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistant organisms

  16. Bacteria are small but not stupid: cognition, natural genetic engineering and socio-bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, J A

    2007-12-01

    Forty years' experience as a bacterial geneticist has taught me that bacteria possess many cognitive, computational and evolutionary capabilities unimaginable in the first six decades of the twentieth century. Analysis of cellular processes such as metabolism, regulation of protein synthesis, and DNA repair established that bacteria continually monitor their external and internal environments and compute functional outputs based on information provided by their sensory apparatus. Studies of genetic recombination, lysogeny, antibiotic resistance and my own work on transposable elements revealed multiple widespread bacterial systems for mobilizing and engineering DNA molecules. Examination of colony development and organization led me to appreciate how extensive multicellular collaboration is among the majority of bacterial species. Contemporary research in many laboratories on cell-cell signaling, symbiosis and pathogenesis show that bacteria utilise sophisticated mechanisms for intercellular communication and even have the ability to commandeer the basic cell biology of 'higher' plants and animals to meet their own needs. This remarkable series of observations requires us to revise basic ideas about biological information processing and recognise that even the smallest cells are sentient beings.

  17. Bacteriology of urinary tract infection associated with indwelling J ureteral stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, Elijah O; Rotimi, Vincent O; Al-Hunayan, Adel; Abdul-Halim, Hamdy; Boland, Fareeda; Al-Awadi, Khaleel A

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the microorganisms responsible for urinary tract infection (UTI) and stent colonization in patients with indwelling J ureteral stents and to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates from urine and J stents in order to establish the etiologic agents of bacteriuria and colonized stents in such patients and provide baseline data on an antibiotic policy for the urology unit. Midstream urine from 250 patients requiring J stent insertion was investigated microbiologically prior to stent insertion and on the day of stent removal. After stent removal, 3 to 5 cm of the tip located in the bladder was also sent for culture. Patients' bio-data and underlying diseases were documented. Those with no known systemic diseases ("normal patients") were also studied as controls. Of the 250 patients studied, 152 (61%) were normal, while 27 (11%), 53 (21%), and 18 (7%) had diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic renal failure (CRF), and diabetic nephropathy (DN), respectively. The mean duration of stent retention was 27 days. All microbial isolates were tested for their susceptibility to a panel of 10 antibiotics. Twelve patients (5%) before stent insertion and 42 patients (17%; P removal had positive urine cultures. One hundred four stents (42%) were culture positive. Of the 104 patients with positive stent cultures, in 62 patients (60%), urine culture was sterile. The commonest isolates were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas, and Candida spp. On the day of stent removal, urine culture was positive in 28% of the normal patients compared with 57% (P = 0.11), 78% (P Norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin is recommended as prophylaxis prior to stent insertion, and an aminoglycoside can be added to treat symptomatic patients with severe infections.

  18. Problems of Anti-Bacteriological Defense: According to Data from Foreign Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-10-01

    some patients the disease nay change to the next stage. Cholerine (or, more precisely, cholera gastroenter- tis) has a distinctive syndrome : vomiting...pharacterized by intermittent fever, hemorrhagic and liver 1 kidney syndromes . Pathogenicity of the agent. The agent of the dis- ease apparently has... vestibule ; 5) inside vestibule ; 6) contaminated cloth-inF; 7) sanitary treatment area; 8) dressing area; 9) first ad; 10) sheltert 11) extin; utshers t e

  19. Salmonella infection in healthy pet reptiles: Bacteriological isolation and study of some pathogenic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Chemaly, Marianne; Cerri, Domenico; Gall, Françoise Le; Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2016-06-01

    The fecal samples from 213 captive reptiles were examined, and 29 (13.61%) Salmonella enterica isolates were detected: 14/62 (22.58%) from chelonians, 14/135 (10.37%) from saurians, and 1/16 (6.25%) from ophidians. The isolates were distributed among 14 different serotypes: Miami, Ebrie, Hermannsweder, Tiergarten, Tornov, Pomona, Poona, Goteborg, Abaetetube, Nyanza, Kumasi, Typhimurium, 50:b:z6, 9,12:z29:1,5, and a non-motile serotype with antigenic formula 1,4,[5],12:-:-. Salmonella typhimurium and 50:b:z6 isolates showed the spv plasmid virulence genes, responsible of the capability to induce extra-intestinal infections. In some cases, pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed different profiles for the strains of the same serotypes, showing different origins, whereas a common source of infection was supposed when one pulsotype had been observed for isolates of a serovar. Twenty-seven (93.10%) isolates showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. Ceftazidime was active to all the tested isolates, whereas the highest percentages of strains were no susceptible to tigecycline (93.10%), streptomycin (89.66%), and sulfonamide (86.21%).

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF COMPOST FROM A YARD WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citizen concern over possible pathogenic microorganism contamination in compost and in a runoff collection pond prompted a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigation. One out of eight samples collected from the distribution pile at a yard waste compost processing f...

  1. A survey of bacteriological quality of drinking water in North Gondar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The high prevalence of diarrheal disease among children and infants can be traced to the use of unsafe water and unhygienic practices. The over all concept adopted for microbiological quality is that no water intended for human consumption shall contain E. coli in 100 ml sample. But, a 1-10 E.coli count per ...

  2. Sinus bacteriology in patients with cystic fibrosis or primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Maria E.; Alanin, Mikkel C.; Grønhøj, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background: A correlation exists between the microbial flora of the upper and lower airways in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) or with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The sinuses can function as a bacterial reservoir where gram-negative bacteria adapt to the airways and repeatedly are aspira......Background: A correlation exists between the microbial flora of the upper and lower airways in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) or with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The sinuses can function as a bacterial reservoir where gram-negative bacteria adapt to the airways and repeatedly...... flora in the sinuses and nasal cavities of patients with CF or PCD.  Methods: A number of medical literature data bases were systematically searched between January 1960 and July 2016. We applied the following inclusion criteria: a minimum of one case of PCD (or Kartagener syndrome) or CF......, and microbiology analyses from the nose or paranasal sinuses.  Results: We included 46 studies (1823 patients) from 16 countries. Staphylococcus aureus was found in 30% of the noses and sinuses of patients with CF. Other common bacteria found included Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase negative staphylococci...

  3. Bacteriological quality of vegetables from organic and conventional production in different areas of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Choi, Na-Jung; Chung, Myung-Sub; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Foods grown in organic production systems have been described as representing an increased risk to public health compared with foods from conventional production. Leafy vegetables (spinach, romaine lettuce, and green sesame leaves) grown in organic and conventional systems were collected from various areas in Korea and examined using standard culture methods to compare the microbiological quality of the produce grown in the two agricultural systems. The 354 samples of these leafy vegetables were analyzed for levels of indicator bacteria (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the prevalence of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. Aerobic bacteria and coliforms were detected in all vegetable types, but nonpathogenic E. coli was below the limit of detection in all samples. B. cereus was the most prevalent pathogen, found on 7 (11.1%) of the 63 organic spinach samples. The prevalence of S. aureus was highest in organic sesame leaves; it was found on 5 (8.0%) of the 63 samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was highest on organic romaine lettuce and spinach; it was found in 4 (6.4%) of 63 samples of each type of vegetable. E. coli O157:H7 found on only 1 (1.58%) of 55 conventional spinach samples. These results suggest that farming type at most only slightly affects the hygienic quality of leafy vegetables, and no effect was found for sample collection area. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the conventional or organic leafy vegetables. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic produce poses a substantially greater risk of pathogen contamination than does conventional produce.

  4. Bacteriological and sensory properties of smoke-dried fish stored at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory scores for smoke-dried fish were generally good for colour, smell, dryness, and general appearance. All the sensory parameters remained acceptable during the entire storage period although the range of scores for smell and dryness were of a higher magnitude than for colour and general appearance. Based on ...

  5. Bacteriological quality of street-vended um-jingir : A traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Um-Jingir marketing conditions indicated that consumption of street vended Um-Jingir might have negative effects on public health. Therefore, vending this type of food requires more attention from health authorities, better educational programmes for vendors and improvements of preparation and handling environment.

  6. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RAW MILK SUPPLIED TO FAISALABAD CITY DURING SUMMER MONTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashifa Khaliq, M. Ashfaque, Iftikhar Hussain and Masood Akhtar1

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Standard plate count of 100 milk samples collected from Faisalabad city during tile months of June- August, 2000, ranged from 6.9 x 103 to 1.12 x 107. Time required for the reduction of methylene blue dye in milk samples was half hour in 26% samples, one hour in 25%, one & half hour in 27%, two hour in 9% and two & half hours in 13% milk samples. Microscopic count ranged from 1.3 x 106 to 9x 108. Presumptive test for presence of coliform organisms was positive in all tile 100 milk samples. The electrical conductivity was recorded as low as 2200 mcromho/cm and as high as 4500 micromho/cm. The values of coefficient of correlation of viable count with electrical conductivity was 0.805 (P<0.05; methylene blue reduction test with electrical conductivity was -0.758 (P<0.05. 24% of tile samples fulfilled the International Standard of grade “A” raw milk (<100,000 bacteria per ml of milk, but their methylene blue reduction test gave fair quality milk. An overall hygienic quality of milk supplied to Faisalabad city was very poor.

  7. EU Interlaboratory comparison study veterinary XII . Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in chicken faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2009-01-01

    In 2009 heeft een vergelijkende studie onder 34 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) uitgewezen dat alle NRL's in staat waren hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella in kippenmest aan te tonen. Van deze laboratoria lieten er 33 direct zien dat zij het onderzoek met succes en volgens de

  8. EU Interlaboratory comparison study Food-I Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in minced beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; van de Kassteele J; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2007-01-01

    De Europese Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella hebben in een ringonderzoek hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella aangetoond in rundergehakt. Hiermee hebben ze laten zien dat ze voldoen aan de gestelde eisen. De Modified Semi-solid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV), een

  9. EU Interlaboratory comparison study veterinary XI : Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in chicken faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2009-01-01

    Alle 32 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) waren in 2008 in staat hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella in kippenmest aan te tonen. Hiervan behaalden 28 laboratoria direct het gewenste niveau. Twee laboratoria hadden een herkansing nodig. Bij een NRL was het CRL-Salmonella aanwezig tijdens

  10. EU Interlaboratory comparison study Food-II Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in minced beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; van de Kassteele J; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2008-01-01

    Van de 30 Europese Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) waren er 29 in staat hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella in rundergehakt aan te tonen. Vijf laboratoria hadden hiervoor een herkansing nodig. Een laboratorium kon ook tijdens deze herkansing niet voldoende presteren. Momenteel wordt

  11. Bacteriological Quality of Tilapia Fish from Treated Wastewater in Peri-Urban Areas, Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, OJ; Mdegela, RH; Kusiluka, LJM

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess faecal bacterial contamination in tilapia fish from wastewater treatment ponds at Mzumbe and in pristine water in Mindu dam. Tilapia fish (fish flesh and fish intestines) and water samples were analysed for Escherichia coli and total plate count...... the inlet to outlet of Mzumbe wastewater treatment pond, there was a significant reduction (ptilapia fish from the two study sites were of good quality for human consumption based...

  12. Bacteriological lixiviation of low-grade uranium ores at low temperatures, by phiobacillus ferrooxidaus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobato Filho, A.N.S.

    1976-12-01

    Laboratory experiments are described that, using selective and mutagenic agents, allowed the isolation of a strain of thiobacillus ferrooxidams capable of developing at 8 0 C, and keeping its oxidesing characteristics tests showed that the isoled sample is capable of solubilizing 95% of the uranium content in samples with U 3 O 8 content below 1000ppm [pt

  13. The bacteriology of chronic venous leg ulcer examined by culture-independent molecular methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Trine R; Aasholm, Martin S; Rudkjøbing, Vibeke B

    2010-01-01

    The bacterial microbiota plays an important role in the prolonged healing of chronic venous leg ulcers. The present study compared the bacterial diversity within ulcer material from 14 skin graft operations of chronic venous leg ulcers using culture-based methods and molecular biological methods...... was different. All the wounds contained Staphylococcus aureus, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa was in six out of 14 wounds. Molecular methods detected anaerobic pathogens in four ulcers that were not detected with anaerobic culture methods. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to compare the abundance...... of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa at different locations in the ulcers and their numbers varied greatly between samples taken at different locations in the same ulcer. This should be considered when ulcers are investigated in routine clinical care. The differences between the results obtained with culture...

  14. Bacteriologic Profile and Antibiogram of Blood Culture Isolates from a Children's Hospital in Kabul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, O. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the bacterial pathogens causing paediatric septicaemia in Kabul and to determine their antibiogram to improve empirical antibiotic therapy. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Laboratory of FMIC, Kabul, Afghanistan, from January 2010 to June 2012. Methodology: Blood cultures from suspected cases of sepsis were processed in BD (Becton Dickinson, USA) for culture BACTEC 9240 Blood Culture System. Positive growths were examined and isolates were identified by conventional biochemical tests. Bacteria were identified to the species level using various Analytical Profile Index (API) identification strips. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Drug resistant strains were studied for extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production by combination disk method and for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by Cefoxitin disk diffusion method. Results: Out of a total 3360 blood cultures received from in-patients, 410 yielded monomicrobial growth; hence the frequency of positive blood culture was 12.2%. Out of a total 410 isolates, 212 (51.71%) were gram-negative bacilli and 184 (44.88%) were gram-positive cocci. In addition, 14 (3.41%) Candida species were also isolated. The frequently isolated species of gram-negative bacteria belonged to Enterobacteriaceae and included 66 Klebsiella (16.1%), 42 Enterobacter (10.2%), 35 Escherichia (E.) coli (8.5%) and 16 Serratia (3.9%) species. In addition, 21 (5.12%) Pseudomonas species were also isolated. Correspondingly, amongst gram-positive cocci, the most frequently isolated species were 108 coagulase-negative Staphylococci (26.34%) followed by 49 Staphylococcus aureus (11.95%) and 21 Streptococcus species (5.12%). Among gram-negative isolates, those that produced ESBL i.e., 110 out of 212 (51.9%) were found to be multidrug-resistant and showed high resistance to commonly used antibiotics namely Ampicillin, Gentamicin, 3rd generation Cephalosporins, Fluoroquinolones and Co-trimoxazole. Most of the isolates were susceptible to Imipenem (200/212, 94.3%), Amikacin (172/212, 81.1%) and Fosfomycin (166/212, 78.3%). Amongst gram-positive cocci, majority were resistant to Penicillin, Gentamicin, 3rd generation Cephalosporins, Fluoroquinolones and Cotrimoxazole. However, most were sensitive to Vancomycin (183/184) Pristinamycin (161/184, 87.5%) and Fosfomycin (134/184, 72.8%). All Staphylococci were resistant to Penicillin and 80/157 (51%) were MRSA. Conclusion: Klebsiella, E. coli, Enterobacter and Staphylococci remain the principal organisms responsible for blood stream infection in a paediatrics tertiary care setting in Kabul. The most sensitive among the tested antibiotics for gram negative organisms were Imipenem, Amikacin, and Fosfomycin and for gram-positive organisms were Vancomycin, Pristinamycin and Fosfomycin. (author)

  15. Bacteriology of diabetic foot in tertiary care hospital; frequency, antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, S.S.; Shams, N.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic foot being one of the frequent and disabling complications of diabetes. In view of widespread regional variation in causative organisms and antimicrobial susceptibility, the current study aimed to determine frequency of causative organisms, their antimicrobial susceptibility and associated risk factors. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 months' duration at dept. of Medicine; PIMS Hospital Islamabad. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic foot ulcer were enrolled after informed consent. Patients already receiving antibiotics, having no growth on culture and >3 weeks' duration of ulcer were excluded. Sample from wound was sent for culture and sensitivity. Antibiotic susceptibility testing identified the susceptible and resistant strains of organisms. Results: Among 114 patients (66.67% males and 33.33% females); mean age was 55.11+-11.96 years. Staphylococcus aureus was identified in 46%, E. coli in 28%, Pseudomonas in 6%, Klebsiella in 3.5% and other organisms in 17%. 92% of S. aureus was sensitive to Vancomycin and 67% to Clindamycin. Amongst E. coli, 81% showed sensitivity to Imipenem, 69% to Aminoglycosides and 31% to Quinolones. Glycaemic control was unsatisfactory in 65.8%. Peripheral vascular disease was found in 46% patients and sensory neuropathy in 94%. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent isolate amongst gram positive organisms while E. coli amongst gram-negatives. Vancomycin is suggested to be the drug of choice for gram positive and Imipenem for gram negative organisms. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy according to susceptibility patterns would reduce the morbidity and emergence of multidrug resistant organisms in diabetic foot infections. (author)

  16. Bacteriological Quality of Water Cooler Dispensers of Educational Settings in Zanjan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hassanzadazar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safe drinking water is one of the main factors in improving health status of the population. The aim of this study was assessment of the microbiological quality, determination of pH and residual chlorine in water coolers’ drinking water in educational centers of Zanjan University of medical Sciences in 2015 and comparing the results with the Iranian national standards. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, water samples of all used water cooler apparatuses were sampled and transferred rapidly to the laboratory. pH and residual free chlorine were measured by pH meter and Chlorine Residual Testing kit, respectively. Total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Mold and yeasts count were enumerated according to the Iranian national standards No. 1011, 3759, 5271 and 10899-1, respectively. Data were analyzed through the statistical soft wares. Results: The obtained results indicated that 44.44% of the samples were non-standard because of low residual chlorine. 44.44% and 27.8% of the taken water samples of water cooler dispensers were contaminated with mold or yeast and Escherichia coli, respectively. Conclusion: According to some microbial contamination in water samples of water cooler devices to ensure availability clean water to consumers (students and hospital’s visitors continuous monitoring, proper maintenance and regular inspection of the water cooler dispensers seems necessary.

  17. 9 CFR 147.15 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of mycoplasma reactors. 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plates 3-5 days at 37 °C in a high humidity chamber. If preferred, 5 percent CO2 may be added or a candle... accomplished by two methods: (i) Filtration sterilization through a 0.20 micron filter is the recommended...

  18. EU Interlaboratory comparison study veterinary-X Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in pig faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2007-01-01

    The European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for Salmonella were able to detect high and low levels of Salmonella in pig faeces. This is shown in the 10th interlaboratory comparison study, in which 27 laboratories participated. The goal of the study, organised by the Community Reference

  19. Bacteriological profiling of diphenylureas as a novel class of antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Haroon; Younis, Waleed; Ezzat, Hany G; Peters, Christine E; AbdelKhalek, Ahmed; Cooper, Bruce; Pogliano, Kit; Pogliano, Joe; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics remains an imposing global public health challenge. Of the most serious pathogens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is problematic given strains have emerged that exhibit resistance to several antibiotic classes including β-lactams and agents of last resort such as vancomycin. New antibacterial agents composed of unique chemical scaffolds are needed to counter this public health challenge. The present study examines two synthetic diphenylurea compounds 1 and 2 that inhibit growth of clinically-relevant isolates of MRSA at concentrations as low as 4 µg/mL and are non-toxic to human colorectal cells at concentrations up to 128 μg/mL. Both compounds exhibit rapid bactericidal activity, completely eliminating a high inoculum of MRSA within four hours. MRSA mutants exhibiting resistance to 1 and 2 could not be isolated, indicating a low likelihood of rapid resistance emerging to these compounds. Bacterial cytological profiling revealed the diphenylureas exert their antibacterial activity by targeting bacterial cell wall synthesis. Both compounds demonstrate the ability to resensitize vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to the effect of vancomycin. The present study lays the foundation for further investigation and development of diphenylurea compounds as a new class of antibacterial agents.

  20. Physico-chemical and bacteriological screening of Hussain Sagar lake: An urban wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Jyothi Kora

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hussain Sagar is a man-made lake originally designed for drinking water purpose that receives domestic sewage and industrial effluents through drainage canals due to rapid residential and industrial growth. Also, every year thousands of idols are immersed into the lake during festivals. In this context, a comprehensive study was initiated for monitoring the lake water quality. Various physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, EC, TDS, COD and chlorophyll a were analyzed using APHA standard methods Water was also monitored for heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and antibiotic resistant bacteria. The average values for heterotrophs were found to be 8.6 × 104 and 2.8 × 104 CFU/mL before and after idol immersion, respectively. While the average values for total coliforms and E. coli were 5 × 104 and 5 × 102; 1.2 × 104 and 7.2 × 101 CFU/mL, for the respective sampling periods. The mean values for ampicillin and gentamicin resistant bacteria were 5.9 × 103 and 6.9 × 102; and 2.2 × 103 and 5.4 × 102 CFU/mL, respectively. It was found that TDS, COD and chlorophyll a values were decreased after idol immersion due to extensive cleaning. The statistical results showed no correlation between faecal bacteria and physico-chemical parameters and one way-ANOVA indicated statistically significant differences between the mean values of different sampling locations, with respect to COD and E. coli at 95% confidence. However, enormous load of coliforms and E. coli indicated severe contamination of the lake with domestic sewage and human excreta. Thus, the water is not suitable for human consumption/drinking purpose. Notably, incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in lake water is a potential threat to both public health and the environment. Thus, regular monitoring and applying appropriate corrective actions are needed to improve the water quality.

  1. Assessment of the Bacteriological Quality of Milk at Dairy Farms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Food-borne diseases are major public health concern worldwide. Many people around the world acquire food poisoning due to consumption of raw, contaminated milk which are spread either from infected cows, by handling or during milk processing. The aim of this study was to assess the sanitary ...

  2. A slaughterhouse and bacteriologic study on hepatic abscesses of slaughtered sheep in Urmia abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Araghi – Sooreh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic abscesses have a major economic impact on the stock-breeding industry because of liver condemnation and reduced animal performance and carcass yield. This research was aimed to determine occurrence and bacterial causes of hepatic abscesses of sheep slaughtered at Urmia abattoir.Post-mortem examination of 3260 sheep showed that 48 (1.47% exhibited hepatic abscesses. Twenty six (1.99% abscesses were found in females and 22(1.12% abscesses were found in males. Most of the abscesses were found in the right lobes (45.8% and in diaphragmatic surfaces (47.9% of livers. According to presence of abscesses, there was significant difference between different liver surfaces (p

  3. Iron crosslinked alginate as novel nanosorbents for removal of arsenic ions and bacteriological contamination from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fixed-bed column studies were conducted to evaluate performance of Fe (III crosslinked alginate nanoparticles for the removal of pentavalent arsenic ions [As (V] from aqueous environments. The study involved observing the influences of column bed depth, influent As (V concentration and influent flow rates on the removal of arsenic ions. The total adsorbed quantity, equilibrium uptake and total percentage removal of arsenic were determined from the breakthrough curves obtained at different flow rates, initial metal ion concentration and bed heights. The results showed that column demonstrate fairly well performance at the lowest flow rate. Also, column bed capacity and exhaustion time were found to increase with increasing bed height. When initial metal ion concentration was increased from 0.5 mg/L to 1.5 mg/L, the corresponding adsorption bed capacity decreases from 0.066 to 0.022 mg/g. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST model was used to analyze the experimental data and the model parameters were evaluated. Good agreement of the experimental breakthrough curves with the model predictions was observed.

  4. Clinical manifestations and bacteriological features of culture-proven Gram-negative bacterial arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Lin

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Approximately 25% of cases of septic arthritis were due to GNB and resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents was common. Liver cirrhosis and concomitant bacteremia were significant risk factors for death.

  5. Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality of Ready-to-eat Chicken Products by Total Viable Count Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiz Raja; Asif Iqbal; Yasir Hafiz; Mehboob Willayet; Shakoor Bhat; Mudasir Rather

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation describes the total viable count of ready-to-eat chicken products (chicken patties and chicken rolls) in Srinagar city during two seasons viz. autumn and winter. A total of 120 ready-to-eat chicken products comprising of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls were tested. The mean bacterial count of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls was 5.1281 and 4.9395 log10 cfu/g. Bacillus cereus strains were isolated from 25 of chicken patties and 22 of the chicken rolls r...

  6. Chemical characterization and bacteriological quality of Lebanese traditional dairy goats products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajj Semaan, E.; Dib, H.; Abi Ramia, R.; Chedid, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine the nutritional value and hygienic quality of Lebanese traditional dairy products, a survey was conducted amongst 43 goat keepers. Chemical (pH, acidity, DM, protein and fat) and microbiological (pathogenic bacteria) analyses were carried out on samples from goat milk products in different regions of Lebanon (8 different products). The main products were labneh darfieh from the South, ambarise from Bekaa, serdalli from Chouf and darfieh cheese from the North. The fermented products (laban, labneh, ambarise, serdalli, darfieh cheese and labneh darfieh) had an average pH of 4.02±1.4 and an average lactic acidity of 2.01% ±1.5. As for the non-fermented products (milk and baladi cheese), the average pH was 6.86±0.26, and the average lactic acidity 0.11%±0.04. The dry matter (DM) rate varied from 9.55% to 42.53% (milk and darfieh cheese respectively) while the rate of protein, calculated on DM basis, showed values between 17.82% (laban from the South) and 34.76% (milk). As for the fat, also calculated on DM basis, a minimum value of 6.57% (serdalli) and a maximum of 52.35% (milk) were recorded. All samples were tested and found free of Salmonella and Listeria. Only baladi cheese showed S. aureus counts (47x10 3 CFU.mL-1) exceeding the standard values. Twenty five percent of the samples were found to be contaminated by fecal coliforms and E. coli, with counts of the latter ranging from 102CFU.mL-1 to 33.88 x 10 3 CFU.mL-1 thus making these products inappropriate for consumption. Fifty eight percent of the samples were contaminated with fecal streptococcus with values exceeding 50 CFU.mL-1. (author)

  7. 199 bacteriological quality of water used for ice making in some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2010-06-01

    Jun 1, 2010 ... from water related diseases like typhoid and para typhoid fevers, cholera bacillary dysentery and gastroenteritis. Water borne or related pathogens including bacteria are spread in water either through human ingestion of contaminated water or because water provides the habitat for intermediate host.

  8. Strain, clone and species : comments on three basic concepts of bacteriology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursing, BM; Ursing, JB

    Different aspects of the terms strain, clone and species are discussed. The term strain is commonly used to denote a pure culture - here called 'the strain in the taxonomic sense' - but does also refer to a natural concept closely related to the clone. The term clone on the other hand is used both

  9. Physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters in a hypereutrophic lagoon (Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, R; Amaro, C; Garay, E; Alcaide, E

    1991-01-01

    Several physico-chemical parameters related to water quality, as well as saprophytic and public health-related heterotrophic bacterial groups were studied in a hypereutrophic lake (Albufera, Valencia) at different seasons. Total microscopic and viable counts were compared, and, together with faecal indicators, were determined in water samples from different sites. Heterotrophic bacteria grown on nonselective medium were identified to genus level and a diversity index was calculated. Pseudomonas-Alcaligenes was the most frequently isolated group from all sampling sites along the study, following by Moraxella, Acinetobacter, Vibrio and Aeromonas. The relationships between all parameters were searched by Principal Components Analysis (PCA).

  10. INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIOLOGICAL INFECTIONS OF THE AMERICAN COCKROACHES IN PAVEH CITY, KERMANSHAH PROVINCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyad, Sirvan; Vahabi, Ahmad; Vahabi, Boshra; Sayyadi, Mahnaz; Sahne, Shahnaz Haji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, are the most important pests in hospitals and dwelling environments. They are mechanical vectors of some bacterial pathogens. Goal: The present investigation was carried out in Ghods hospital and 5 dwelling localities of Paveh city to evaluate bacterial infestations of American cockroaches in this region of Iran. Methods: The samples were randomly collected from hospital environments and toilets and kitchens of the dwelling localities from December-March 2012 and July-September 2013. The samples were captured using sterile test tubes and sterile hand gloves. Results: Totally, 98 cockroaches were collected from hospital (45.9%) and dwelling (54.1%) environments. Eight groups of bacteria including: Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Serratia spp., Entrobacter spp. and Escherichia coli were extracted. Conclusions: The findings of the present study revealed that the American cockroaches are very important in transmission of some bacterial pathogens, so health education and using the effective control methods to elimination and reduction of cockroaches are necessary. PMID:27047261

  11. Bacteriological profile of neonatal sepsis in a secondary care hospital in rural Tamil Nadu, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doniparthi Venkata Pavan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world. The objective of the current study was to detect the common causative microorganisms of neonatal sepsis and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in a rural secondary hospital in Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Neonates (0–28 days admitted to this newborn care unit from October 2013 to September 2015, with a diagnosis of probable sepsis were studied. All the enrolled babies had blood cultures taken and were followed up till final outcome, which was discharge or death, irrespective of culture result. Univariate analysis was performed for factors associated with culture positivity, generating odds ratios, and confidence intervals. Results: Among the 107 babies with a diagnosis of probable sepsis, 28 (26.2% had shown bacteria in culture. The majority (94.4% were of early-onset sepsis. The predominant organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (10/28 and Klebsiella (6/28. 100% of Gram-negative bacilli and 90% of Staphylococcus were resistant to Ampicillin. Gentamicin resistance among Gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus was 52.9% and 20%, respectively, while third-generation cephalosporin resistance was 31.2% and 20%, respectively. Among the neonates diagnosed as probable sepsis, idiopathic prematurity (P = 0.007 was found to have a statistically significant association with culture-positive sepsis. Conclusion: The culture positivity rate among the neonates with probable sepsis in the current study was 26%. An alarmingly high degree of antibiotic resistance observed calls for robust infection control practices and an urgent evaluation and development of individual and national antibiotic policies for neonatal sepsis.

  12. Sensory, chemical and bacteriological changes during storage of iced squid ( Todaropsis eblanae )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paarup, T.; Sanchez, J.A.; Moral, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To relate sensory shelf-life of iced whole and gutted squid to bacterial growth and chemical changes. Methods and Results: Cooked mantles from whole and gutted individuals were rejected after 10 and 12 days of storage, respectively, due to ammoniacal off-odours. Rate of production of both...

  13. Bacteriological profiling of diphenylureas as a novel class of antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Mohammad

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to antibiotics remains an imposing global public health challenge. Of the most serious pathogens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is problematic given strains have emerged that exhibit resistance to several antibiotic classes including β-lactams and agents of last resort such as vancomycin. New antibacterial agents composed of unique chemical scaffolds are needed to counter this public health challenge. The present study examines two synthetic diphenylurea compounds 1 and 2 that inhibit growth of clinically-relevant isolates of MRSA at concentrations as low as 4 µg/mL and are non-toxic to human colorectal cells at concentrations up to 128 μg/mL. Both compounds exhibit rapid bactericidal activity, completely eliminating a high inoculum of MRSA within four hours. MRSA mutants exhibiting resistance to 1 and 2 could not be isolated, indicating a low likelihood of rapid resistance emerging to these compounds. Bacterial cytological profiling revealed the diphenylureas exert their antibacterial activity by targeting bacterial cell wall synthesis. Both compounds demonstrate the ability to resensitize vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to the effect of vancomycin. The present study lays the foundation for further investigation and development of diphenylurea compounds as a new class of antibacterial agents.

  14. Bacteriological study and structural composition of staghorn stones removed by the anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Shafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the composition of staghorn stones and to assess the proportion of infected stones as well as the correlation between infection in the stones and bacteria grown in urine. Samples of 45 consecutive stones removed through anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedures were taken from the operation site and samples of urine were obtained by simultaneous bladder catheterization. The frequency of infection in the stones and correlation between infection of stone and urine samples were determined with respect to the composition of the stones. Twenty-two males and 23 females, with respective mean ages of 48.3 ± 15.6 years and 51 ± 7.4 years, were studied. The stone and urine cultures yielded positive results in ten and 16 patients, respectively, of a total of 45 patients (22.2% and 35.5%, respectively. Calcium oxalate was the main constituent of staghorn stones, seen in 31 patients (68.8%, uric acid in 12 patients (26.6% and struvite and/or calcium phosphate in 11 patients (24.4%. In seven of ten stones with bacterial growth, bacteria were isolated from urine cultures as well, which accounted for a concordance rate of 70%. The bacteria grown in the stone were the cause of urinary tract infection (UTI in 43.5% of the cases. Stone infection was significantly associated with UTI (OR = 6.47; 95% CI 1.43-31.7, P = 0.021 and presence of phosphate in the stones (OR = 18, 95% CI 3.28-99.6, P = 0.0006. E. coli was the most common bacteria grown from the stones, and was isolated in 50% of the cases; Ureaplasma urealyticum was the most common organism causing UTI, grown in 62.5% of the urine samples. There was a high concordance rate between bacteria in the stones and urine. These findings indicate that the urine culture can provide information for selection of an appropriate anti-microbial agent for stone sterilization. In addition, preventing re-growth or recurrence of stones and treatment of post-surgical infections would be facilitated based on the results of the urine culture.

  15. Monozygotic twins are discordant for chronic periodontitis: clinical and bacteriological findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres de Heens, G.L.; Loos, B.G.; van der Velden, U.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess, in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs in whom the proband of the twin pair was suffering from moderate to severe chronic periodontitis, the contribution of genetics, periodontal pathogens and lifestyle factors towards the clinical

  16. Mycoplasma hominis: an incidental but significant finding by routine bacteriological culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Jan Berg; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: M. hominis is part of the normal mucosal flora and is primarily associated with infections in the genitourinary tract. Most infections occur following delivery or genitourinary instrumentation, but are also seen in immunocompromised patients. We present 4 cases diagnosed by routine ba...... Serum Institut, Copenhagen (by courtesy to Jørgen Skov). Results: The four patients were immunocompetent women (23-56 years of age) without significant comorbidity (Table). In all patients M. hominis were obtained in pure culture. At the time of diagnosis three patients had abscesses...

  17. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Subclinical Infection in Pigs: Bacteriological and Genotypic Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moredo, Fabiana A; Piñeyro, Pablo E; Márquez, Gabriela C; Sanz, Marcelo; Colello, Rocío; Etcheverría, Analía; Padola, Nora L; Quiroga, María A; Perfumo, Carlos J; Galli, Lucía; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2015-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the major pathogen responsible for neonatal diarrhea, postweaning diarrhea, and edema disease in pigs. Although it can be harmless, ETEC is also present in the intestines of other animal species and humans, causing occasional diarrhea outbreaks. The evaluation of this pathogen's presence in food sources is becoming an increasingly important issue in human health. In order to determine the prevalence of ETEC in nondiarrheic pigs, 990 animals from 11 pig farms were sampled. Using end-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), eltA, estI genes, or both, were detected in 150 (15.2%) animals. From the positive samples, 40 (26.6%) ETEC strains were isolated, showing 19 antibiotic-resistance patterns; 52.5% of these strains had multiple antibiotic resistances, and 17.5% carried the intI2 gene. The most prevalent genotypes were rfb(O157)/estII/aidA (32.5%) and estI/estII (25.0%). The estII gene was identified most frequently (97.5%), followed by estI (37.5%), astA (20.0%), and eltA (12.5%). The genes coding the fimbriae F5, F6, and F18 were detected in three single isolates. The aidA gene was detected in 20 ETEC strains associated with the estII gene. Among the isolated ETEC strains, stx(2e)/estI, stx(2e)/estI/estII, and stx(2e)/estI/estII/intI2 genotypes were identified. The ETEC belonged to 12 different serogroups; 37.5% of them belonged to serotype O157:H19. Isolates were grouped by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR into 5 clusters with 100.0% similarity. In this study, we demonstrated that numerous ETEC genotypes cohabit and circulate in swine populations without clinical manifestation of neonatal diarrhea, postweaning diarrhea, or edema disease in different production stages. The information generated is important not only for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes, but also for understanding the dynamics and ecology of ETEC in pigs in different production stages that can be potentially transmitted to humans from food animals.

  18. Investigating of the bacteriological contamination in traditionally manufactured ice creams in Urmia city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hassanzadazar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a popular dairy product especially in warm seasons. Due to its lengthy shelf life, it is considered as one of the potentially high-risk foods in transmission of food-borne pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination of ice cream in Urmia city. To achieve this goal, Urmia city was divided into four regions based on scattering of the ice cream retailers. Afterwards, 144 samples were purchased from traditional retails using cluster sampling method. Bacterial contamination of the samples was analyzed according to the procedures of the Iranian National Standards. Based on the results, 78% of the samples contained the load of contamination higher than 4.2 × 107 CFU/g. Moreover, 82.9% of the samples were contaminated with more than 10 CFU of Enterobacteriaceae per gram. Results also revealed that 52.2% and 2.8% of the samples were contaminated with E. coli and coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples. High microbial contaminations in traditional ice creams represent non-hygienic practices at different stages of production.

  19. The Implementation of a New Method of Student Assessment in a Pathogenic Bacteriology Laboratory Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frances Hite

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new case study method of assessment was developed to challenge advanced undergraduate biology majors interested in medical careers and allied health professions. This method is an alternative to traditional "unknown" identifications used in many microbiology laboratories. Students used various biochemical tests and selective media throughout the course to identify organisms cultured from their own bodies. In preparing a final assessment for the course, an assignment was developed to challenge the students to apply what they had learned in a medically relevant setting. Also of importance was the elimination of further biochemical testing by these students and prevention of contact with strict pathogens in this lab, due to budget and safety constraints, respectively. Each student was provided with a clinical specimen data record sheet and additional information about their "diseased patient". Students used analytical skills and critical thinking, as well as knowledge gained throughout the semester, to logically deduce the causative agent of disease in the mock patients. Students were required to: (i describe the steps in this logical deduction, (ii provide a brief overview of the characteristics and virulence factors of the organism(s, (iii investigate all disease(s caused by the organism, (iv describe symptomology of the patient in detail, and (v investigate disease treatment and prevention methods. The final assignment involved library and Internet research and culminated in a written report, which further developed writing and communication skills. Detailed descriptions of and materials for this assignment are provided along with an overall evaluation of this method after implementation.

  20. Bacteriological evaluation of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for pulpotomy of primary teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the pulp tissue of the pulpotomized teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children were selected for this study. All children had a pair of non-vital primary molars. A sterile paper point was dipped in the root canals prior to the mortal pulpotomy. These paper points were collected in transfer media and immediately transported to the microbiological lab to be investigated microbiologically (for Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus). Then the procedure of mortal pulpotomy was performed. After 2 weeks, the cotton pellets were removed and sterile paper points were dipped in the root canals for microbiological examination. Then comparison between the count of bacteria before and after treatment was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. Results: After application of both medicaments, there was a marked decrease in S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts. The difference between the mean of log values of the count before and after the application was highly significant for both medicaments (P formocresol on the bacteria of the infected root canals. PMID:25992338

  1. Bacteriological quality of fresh and smoke-dried oysters sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial isolates found in fresh oyster were Klebsiella sp. Escherichia sp., Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Staphylococccus sp. and Serratia sp. while E. coli, Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and B. cereus predominated in dried oysters. The oyster meats did not meet the standards of ...

  2. Bacteriology in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted to hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette V; Janner, Julie H; Nielsen, Susanne D

    2009-01-01

    patients admitted to Hvidovre hospital with the diagnosis AECOPD during 2004. A total of 118 patients were included. Microscopy, culture and sensitivity testing investigated their sputums. Clinical and paraclinical features were collected from the patients' files. Among the 118 patients, 59 (50%) had....... pneumonia, mostly H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Patients with low FEV(1)sensitivity patterns of the bacteria showed that the majority were resistant to penicillin. If antibiotics are initiated empirically......We investigated the bacterial flora and antimicrobial sensitivity in sputum from patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in order to recommend the best empirical treatment for these patients. The survey was a retrospective study of all...

  3. Effect of new aeration technology on the bacteriology of shrimp ponds growing Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karekar, S.V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, P.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Bergheim, A.; Vogelsang, C.

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a HOBAS aeration technology developed by HOBAS Water Engineering in Norway on shrimp ponds in India. Two ponds (P1 and P2) having an area of approx. 0.6 ha located at Alvekodi, coastal...

  4. When ice cream was poisonous: adulteration, ptomaines, and bacteriology in the United States, 1850-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Edward

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of ice cream in the nineteenth century, the incidence of foodborne illness attributed to this dessert exploded. Struggling to understand the causes of the mysterious and sometimes lethal ailment called "ice cream poisoning," Victorian doctors and scientists advanced theories including toxic vanilla, galvanism in ice cream freezers, and extreme indigestion. In the late 1880s Victor C. Vaughan's argument that ice cream poisoning could be attributed to the ptomaine "tyrotoxicon" received widespread acceptance. To date historians have neglected the role played by the ptomaine theory of food poisoning in shaping the evolution of both scientific thinking and public health in the late nineteenth century. The case of ice cream poisoning illustrates the emergence, impact, and decline of the ptomaine idea.

  5. Comparison of ELISA and histopathologic and bacteriologic findings in diagnosis of helicobacter pylori in gastro-intestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsalehian A

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H.Pylori is the most common human infection in the world. This agent has a strong role in pathogenesis of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer. Therefore introducing of simple and cost effective tests are important for diagnosis of H.Pylori infections. ELISA has been considered as an alternative test compare with biopsy, histological staining, culture and urease test in diagnosis of H.Pylori infection. In this investigation, 111 patients referred to GI endoscopy department of Imam Khomeini Hospitals for U.G.I problems which were evaluated for H.Pylori infection. Culture and histological staining (GIMSA and H & E were used as a gold standard test compare with ELISA-IgG and urease test. Sensitivity and specificity for ELISA were 90%, 93% respectively. This report suggests that ELISA is a cost effect and valid test in diagnosis of H.Pylori infection

  6. Bacteriological Assessment of Pneumonia Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria in Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, A; Korzeniewski, K; Tomaszewski, D; Rybicki, Z; Zwolińska, E

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results of 11-year study (2005-2015) of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for pneumonia in 2033 mechanically ventilated patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit. Of 8796 biological samples, consisting mainly of bronchial aspirate (97.9 %), 2056 bacterial strains were isolated and subjected to identification. VITEK 2 was used to determine drug susceptibility (classified according to the EUCAST criteria). ESBL, MBL and KPC-producing strains were identified by means of phenotypic methods using appropriate discs. The findings were that the predominant bacteria responsible for infections consisted of Enterobacteriaceae (42.0 %), Acinetobacter baumannii (37.2 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.1 %), and Stenotrophomonas maltophila (4.7 %). We observed a rise in the number of bacteria causing pneumonia throughout the study period, especially in S. maltophila and Enterobacteriaceae ESBL (+). Gram-negative bacilli were 100 % susceptible to colistin, apart from naturally resistant strains such as Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, whereas Enterobacteriaceae ESBL (+) were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. Acinetobacter baumannii strains exhibited the lowest drug susceptibility. In conclusion, we report an increase in the prevalence of pneumonia associated with Gram-negative bacteria in mechanically ventilated intensive care patients. Colistin remains the most effective drug against the majority of Gram-negative bacteria. Therapeutic problems are common in the course of treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii infections.

  7. Bacteriological quality of homemade cheeses commercialised in roads of the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Grecellé, Cristina Bergman Zaffari; Mello, Jozi Fagundes de; Costa, Marisa da

    2007-01-01

    O consumo de queijo artesanal, vendido em estabelecimentos de beira de estrada, é comum no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Geralmente estes produtos não são fabricados em acordo com as boas normas de fabricação e podem constituir perigo à saúde do consumidor. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, verificar a qualidade bacteriológica de queijos artesanais comercializados em estradas litorâneas por meio da contagem de coliformes e pesquisa de Listeria spp. e Brucella spp. Foram analisados 80 quei...

  8. Qualitative Bacteriology in Malignant Wounds - A Prospective, Randomized, Clinical Study to Compare the Effect of Honey and Silver Dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

    A and Group B. Neither anti-neoplastic nor antibiotic treatment influenced the presence of wound pathogens. Staphylococci were found in 42%, enteric bacteria in 34%, anaerobic bacteria in 16%, Pseudomonas in 10%, and hemolytic streptococci in 6% of wounds at baseline; in total, 25 different bacterial species...

  9. Ultra-violet treatment of contaminated irrigation water and its effect on the bacteriological quality of celery at harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.; Adams, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    Two crops of celery were irrigated with (a) river water, (b) river water irradiated with ultraviolet light, or (c) mains water. Ultraviolet radiation was effective in reducing the number of coliforms but not pectate-degrading bacteria in the river water. At harvest, larger numbers of coliforms were found on the celery which had been irrigated with the untreated water even when the last irrigation had been six days previously. Total colony counts and numbers of fluorescent pseudomonads and pectate-degrading bacteria on the crop were not affected by the different water sources. (author)

  10. Towards automated detection, semi-quantification and identification of microbial growth in clinical bacteriology: A proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, Antony; Marcelpoil, Raphaël; Orny, Cédrick; Morel, Didier; Prod'hom, Guy; Greub, Gilbert

    2017-12-01

    Automation in microbiology laboratories impacts management, workflow, productivity and quality. Further improvements will be driven by the development of intelligent image analysis allowing automated detection of microbial growth, release of sterile samples, identification and quantification of bacterial colonies and reading of AST disk diffusion assays. We investigated the potential benefit of intelligent imaging analysis by developing algorithms allowing automated detection, semi-quantification and identification of bacterial colonies. Defined monomicrobial and clinical urine samples were inoculated by the BD Kiestra™ InoqulA™ BT module. Image acquisition of plates was performed with the BD Kiestra™ ImagA BT digital imaging module using the BD Kiestra™ Optis™ imaging software. The algorithms were developed and trained using defined data sets and their performance evaluated on both defined and clinical samples. The detection algorithms exhibited 97.1% sensitivity and 93.6% specificity for microbial growth detection. Moreover, quantification accuracy of 80.2% and of 98.6% when accepting a 1 log tolerance was obtained with both defined monomicrobial and clinical urine samples, despite the presence of multiple species in the clinical samples. Automated identification accuracy of microbial colonies growing on chromogenic agar from defined isolates or clinical urine samples ranged from 98.3% to 99.7%, depending on the bacterial species tested. The development of intelligent algorithm represents a major innovation that has the potential to significantly increase laboratory quality and productivity while reducing turn-around-times. Further development and validation with larger numbers of defined and clinical samples should be performed before transferring intelligent imaging analysis into diagnostic laboratories. Copyright © 2017 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacteriological Profile of Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery and Evaluation of a Bacterial Filter using Protected Broncho-Alveolar Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempe, D K; Mehta, N; Mishra, B; Tondon, M S; Tomar, A S; Budharaja, P; Nigam, M

    1998-01-01

    Twenty seven patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were included in this prospective study. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group C (n = 12) constituted the control group in whom no breathing filter was used in the anaesthesia circuit in the operating room or in the ICU. Humidification of breathing gases was achieved with the help of conventional heated humidifier. In group F (n = 15), heat and moisture exahanging bacterial / viral filter was incorporated in the breathing circuit at the patient end between the catheter mount and Y connection of the breathing circuit. In both the groups, samples of throat swab, protected broncho-alveolar lavage with double catheter and Ryles tube aspirate were collected preoperatively (in the operation theatre) and postoperatively (in the Intensive Care Unit on day 1). All the samples were sent to the laboratory immediately after the collection for Gram staining and culture and sensitivity. Pathogenic organisms were isolated from a total of 9 patients (33%) preoperatively. Exogenous spread of the organisms to the lungs was considered to have occurred if new pathogenic organisms were isolated from the postoperative bronchoalveolar lavage and the simultaneous samples of the throat swab and Ryles tube did not contain the same organism. By this definition, the exogenous spread of the organisms occurred in one patient in group C and in no patient in group F (P = 0.46, Fishers test). The commonest organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. We conclude that colonization of the pathogenic organisms is common (33%) in orophrynx and gastrointestinal tract in hospitalized patients. There was no difference in the exogenous spread of the organisms between the two groups. The unity of the filter, therefore, appears to be limited to prevent contamination of anaesthesia machines or ventilators as has been shown by earlier studies.

  12. [Bacteriological evaluation of goat milk and cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Viviana; Gallo, Leslie; Quesada, Carlos; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2008-06-01

    In the last years, there has been an increase in the production, industrialization and consumption of goat's milk and derivate products, including cheese, worldwide. Nevertheless, in Costa Rica there is no study of these products, reason why the objective of this work was to determine the microbiological characteristics of goat's milk and fresh cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, in order to evaluate its impact in the economical field and as a potential risk for Public Health. A total of 25 raw goat's milk samples, obtained by manual milking from 5 different producers tested in five different dates and 15 cheese samples, elaborated with pasteurized milk, commercially available and coming from three different producers were analyzed. The study included the analysis of spoilage bacteria (total aeobic count and lactic bacteria count), indicators of hygiene (total coliforms), fecal contamination (fecal coliforms), manipulation (Staphylococcus aureus) and pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp). High results were obtained for the total aerobic count and lactic bacteria count of the milk and cheese samples, showing a reduced shelf life. Total coliforms, in limits beyond the established ones by the Costa Rican legislation for human consumption raw milk, were found in 100% of milk samples, as well as for fecal coliforms in 76% of them. All cheese samples, except one, were negative for these indicators, suggesting good manufacturing practices. S. aureus counts were low and both Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from samples analyzed.

  13. Comparison of bacteriological conversion and treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients with and without diabetes in Mexico: Preliminary data

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Torrico, M.; Caminero Luna, J.; Migliori, G.B.; D’Ambrosio, L.; Carrillo-Alduenda, J.L.; Villareal-Velarde, H.; Torres-Cruz, A.; Flores-Ergara, H.; Martínez-Mendoza, D.; García-Sancho, C.; Centis, R.; Salazar-Lezama, M.Á.; Pérez-Padilla, R.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). However, it is not known to what extent DM affects the outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) treated with second-line anti-TB drugs.The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological evolution (sputum smear and culture conversion) and final outcomes of MDR/XDR-TB patients with and without DM, managed at the national TB reference centre in Mexico City...

  14. Blood culture bottles are superior to lysis-centrifugation tubes for bacteriological diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Siersema, P D; de Marie, S; van Zeijl, J H; Bac, D J; Wilson, J H

    1992-01-01

    The conventional method of ascitic fluid culturing was compared with the bedside inoculation of ascites into blood culture bottles and into lysis-centrifugation tubes. The conventional culture method was compared with the blood culture bottle method in 31 episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Cultures were positive with the conventional culture method in 11 (35%) episodes and with the blood culture bottle method in 26 (84%) episodes (P less than 0.001). The lysis-centrifugation...

  15. Isolation and characterization of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in the commercial turkey, quail flocks and domestic pigeons by bacteriological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT is a respiratory pathogen which has been isolated throughout the world from numerous bird species. The present study was designed to isolate and characterize the ORT from domestic turkeys, quails and pigeons. For this purpose, 250 samples from each bird species (turkey, quail and pigeon with or without respiratory signs were tested by taking of tracheal swabs. In addition, respiratory tissue samples (tracheal and lung, from 250 slaughtered turkeys, 50 slaughtered quails and 100dead pigeons were also subjected to culture for ORT as tracheal swabs. Respiratory tissues were also tested for bacterial DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In general, 30 isolates including 4 isolates from turkeys, 3 isolates from quails and 23 isolates from pigeons were identified as ORT by bacteriologicalmethod and then confirmed by PCR. Bacterial DNA was detected in 20%, 50% and 35% of respiratory tissues in turkeys, quails and pigeons respectively. Five ORT isolates from pigeon and all four isolates from turkey showed smaller colony size, while other isolates had larger colonies when cultured in blood agar. Fifty percent of the isolates with larger colony but none of the isolates with small colony size could agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs. All of the isolates were sensitive to danofloxacin and chloramphenicolwhile more than 90% of pigeon isolates were resistant to ampicillin. All of turkey and quail and 30% of pigeon isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Our ORT isolates showed high identity (98%- 100% insequence of 16S rRNA gene to related data in GeneBank.

  16. Refrigerated poultry breast fillets packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated: bacteriological evaluation, shelf life and sensory acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Samira Pirola Santos; Santos, Érica Barbosa; de Freitas, Mônica Queiroz; de Carvalho Vital, Helio; Mano, Sérgio Borges; Franc, Robson Maia

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the effects on shelf life and sensory acceptance of gamma-irradiated refrigerated poultry breast fillets subjected to modified atmosphere packaging (80% CO2/20% N2 or vacuum) were investigated. After irradiation with 2 kGy, sensory acceptance tests and monitoring of bacterial growth were performed in order to determine the sanitary quality of the samples. It has been found that irradiation, used in combination with modified atmosphere packaging, can double the shelf life of refrigerated poultry breast fillets by reducing the populations of aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, enterobacteria, coliforms, Listeria spp. and Aeromonas spp., without significantly modifying its color or its overall appearance, the lactic acid bacteria being the most resistant to exposure to radiation and carbon dioxide. PMID:24031967

  17. Epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of mastitis associated with yellow-jacket wasps (Vespula germanica) in a dairy cattle herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Schwimmer, A; Brami, Y

    2002-12-01

    The German wasp, Vespula germanica has been observed to injure teats of dairy cows, causing lesions that are associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis. The presence of skin lesions on the teats, caused by the wasps, was recorded in a dairy cattle herd located in the Samaria foothills during July-October 1999. Wasp-inflicted injuries were found in 43.6% (58 of 133) of the adult cows and 1.4% (one of 71) of the first-calving cows. They were located in 42.4% of cows (n = 25) on all quarters, 18 cows (30.5%) had lesions on the front quarters and 27.1% (n = 16) of cows on the hind quarters only. Clinical and subclinical mastitis were diagnosed in 61% (36 of 59) and 28.8% (17 of 59), respectively, of the injured adult and first-calving cows. The most common bacterial isolates from the mastitic cows were Staphylococcus aureus 45.1% (n = 14), Streptococcus dysgalactiae 16.1% (n = 5), Streptococcus spp. 19.4% (n = 7) and others 13.9% (n = 5). The loss of milk production was estimated at 300 kg milk for each cow injured by wasps and exhibiting clinical mastitis. An increase in the bulk-milk somatic cell count, from 186 x 103 at 1 month prior to the outbreak to a peak of 1200 x 10(3) in the post-outbreak month, was noted. The culling rate reached 13.6% (eight of 59) of the affected cows. In summary, the considerable economic losses caused by the wasp infestation resulted from decreased milk production and a decline in milk quality, culling of affected cows, and increased demand for use of drugs and veterinary care.

  18. Bacteriological and Epidemiological Characteristics of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Isolated in Tokyo, Japan, between 1966 and 2009 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Noriko; Obata, Hiromi; Monma, Chie; Nakama, Akiko; Kai, Akemi; Tsuji, Takao

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) caused 131 outbreaks in Tokyo, Japan, between 1966 and 2009. The major serogroups were O6, O27, O148, and O159. The incidence of serogroups O25 and O169 recently increased. Heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) subtyping revealed that E. coli of serogroups O6, O15, O25, and O159 possessed the STh gene, whereas those serotyped as O27 and O169 possessed the STp gene. PMID:21752981

  19. Bacteriological Monitoring of Radiology Room Apparatus in the Department of Radiological Technology and Contamination on Hands of Radiological Technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Chil

    2008-01-01

    Distribution of microorganisms were examined for the bucky tables in the radiology rooms of the department of radiological technology, the aprons, handles of various apparatus, handles of mobile radiological apparatus, and hands of the radiological technologists. As a result, relatively larger amounts of bacteria were found on the handles of the mobile radiological apparatus and the aprons. Among the isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter baumanni (7.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.9%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.7%), Enterobacter cloaceae (0.6%), Providenica rettgeri (0.6%) are known as the cause of nosocomial infection (hospital acquired infection). In addition, similar colonies were also found on the hands of the radiological technologists such as microorganisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.6%), Yersinia enterocolotica (5.4%), Acinetobacter baumanni (4.2%), Enterobacter cloaceae (2.4%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.8%), Yersinia pseuotuberculosis (18%), Enterobacter sakazakii (1.2%), and Escherichia coli (0.6%). In particular, this result indicates clinical significance since Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli show strong pathogenicity. Therefore, a continuous education is essential for the radiological technologists to prevent the nosocomial infection.

  20. [New Enterobacteriaceae found in medical bacteriology Moellerella wisconsensis, Koserella trabulsii, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Escherichia fergusonii, Enterobacter asbutiae, Rahnella aquatilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, C

    1989-01-01

    Characteristics of 6 "new" Enterobacteriaceae species, occasionally isolated from human sources: Moellerella wisconsensis, Koserella trabulsii, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Escherichia fergusonii, Rahnella aquatilis, Enterobacter asburiae are described and compared with those of closely related species.

  1. Profile, Bacteriology, and Risk Factors for Foot Ulcers among Diabetics in a Tertiary Hospital in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaninyene Asuquo Otu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot disease is a major medical, social, and economic problem. This retrospective study assessed the profile of diabetes mellitus patients with foot ulcers in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH, Nigeria. Admission records of all patients admitted unto the medical wards of UCTH over a 5 year period were analysed. The records of diabetic patients were retrieved. Data on patient characteristics and possible risk factors for diabetes mellitus foot ulcers was extracted. Of the 3,882 patients admitted, 297 (7% were on account of complications of diabetes mellitus. Foot ulcers accounted for 63 (21.2% of all diabetic admissions. The elderly constituted the majority of patients admitted with foot ulcers. The average duration of stay of diabetics with foot ulcers was 38.5 days. Diabetics admitted for other conditions had average duration of admission of 15.8 days. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated from swabs of foot ulcers. Most of the organisms identified from ulcer swab cultures were sensitive to quinolones and resistant to penicillins. These diabetic foot ulcers were significantly associated with peripheral sensory neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, intermittent claudication, and walking barefoot. An effective diabetes foot programme is required to address these risk factors and reverse the current trend.

  2. Biological and bacteriological characterization of the strain of Xylella fastidiosa Xf-PGAICR and detection of X. fastidiosa from leafhoppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Chaves, Maria Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory tools are developed and optimized for the biological characterization of a strain of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf-PGAICR) isolated of guava. The testing of pathogenesis robustly has allowed the characterization of other strains of X. fastidiosa. The detection of X. fastidiosa is carried out in their insect vectors to establish the relationship with the presence of phytopathogen in the vector, the presence and dissemination of X. fastidiosa to nearby areas [es

  3. Clinical and bacteriological effects of pivmecillinam for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae in urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansåker, Filip; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Sjögren, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is increasing and the therapeutic options are limited, especially in primary care. Recent indications have suggested pivmecillinam to be a suitable option. Here, we...

  4. Bacteriological safety assessment, hygienic habits and cross-contamination risks in a Nigerian urban sample of household kitchen environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejechi, Bernard O; Ochei, Ono P

    2017-06-01

    Urban household kitchen environment was assessed for safety by determining their levels of indicator bacteria, hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination. Household kitchens (60) were selected in Warri Town, Nigeria, by the multi-stage sampling technique. Contact surfaces, water and indoor kitchen air were analysed for aerobic plate counts, total and faecal coliforms using Nutrient and McConkey media by swab/rinse method, membrane filtration and sedimentation methods, respectively. Hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination were assessed with structured questionnaire which included socio-demographic variables. On the basis of median counts, the prevalence of high counts (log cfu/cm 2 /m 3 /100 mL) of aerobic plate counts (>3.0), total coliforms (>1.0) and faecal coliforms (>0) on contact surfaces and air was high (58.0-92.0%), but low in water (30.0-40.0%). Pots, plates and cutleries were the contact surfaces with low counts. Prevalence of poor hygienic habits and high risk of cross-contamination was 38.6 and 67.5%, respectively. Education, occupation and kitchen type were associated with cross-contamination risk (P = 0.002-0.022), while only education was associated with hygienic habits (P = 0.03). Cross-contamination risk was related (P = 0.01-0.05) to aerobic plate counts (OR 2.30; CL 1.30-3.17), total coliforms (OR 5.63; CL 2.76-8.25) and faecal coliforms (OR 4.24; CL 2.87-6.24), while hygienic habit was not. It can be concluded that urban household kitchens in the Nigerian setting are vulnerable to pathogens likely to cause food-borne infections.

  5. Bacteriological examination of inflamed epidermal cysts: a survey between 2008 and 2009 at a hospital in southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsi Liu

    2010-09-01

    Conclusions: Both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms were present in the inflamed epidermal cysts, although the anaerobic bacteria, specifically, Propionibacterium spp and Peptostreptococcus spp, were isolated slightly more frequently. Antibiotics directed against anaerobes may be considered in the treatment regimen for inflamed epidermal cysts.

  6. Bacteriology and treatment of infections in the upper and lower airways in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian

    2017-01-01

    (QoL) improved. In this thesis, we evaluated whether PCD patients can benefit from the experience we have gained from our operative approach towards the paranasal sinuses in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In CF, it has been established that bacterial sinusitis can be a focus for initial lung...... sinus and lung infec-tions with identical pathogens in two out of three patients. This supports our hypothesis of a bacterial reservoir in the sinuses. Next (II), we examined the bacterial flora associated with acute and chronic pulmonary infections in PCD. A high prevalence of chronic infections...... can eradicate sinus bacteria and thereby reduce lung re-colonization from the sinuses. However, further evidence is needed to support this hypothesis, preferably from a multicentre randomized controlled trial....

  7. 9 CFR 147.10 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of egg-type breeding flocks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pathological tissues are present, direct culture, § 147.11(a)(1) of this subpart, may be omitted; and (b) Enrichment culture of organ (non-intestinal) tissues using a non- selective broth, § 147.11(a)(2) of this... environments. 147.10 Section 147.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...

  8. Agreement between pre-operative and intra-operative bacteriological samples in 85 chronic peri-prosthetic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter-Parrat, V; Ronde-Oustau, C; Boéri, C; Gaudias, J; Jenny, J-Y

    2017-04-01

    Whether pre-operative microbiological sampling contributes to the management of chronic peri-prosthetic infection remains controversial. We assessed agreement between the results of pre-operative and intra-operative samples in patients undergoing single-stage prosthesis exchange to treat chronic peri-prosthetic infection. Agreement between pre-operative and intra-operative samples exceeds 75% in patients undergoing single-stage exchange of a hip or knee prosthesis to treat chronic peri-prosthetic infection. This single-centre retrospective study included 85 single-stage prosthesis exchange procedures in 82 patients with chronic peri-prosthetic infection at the hip or knee. Agreement between pre-operative and intra-operative sample results was evaluated. Changes to the initial antibiotic regimen made based on the intra-operative sample results were recorded. Of 149 pre-operative samples, 109 yielded positive cultures, in 75/85 cases. Of 452 intra-operative samples, 354 yielded positive cultures, in 85/85 cases. Agreement was complete in 54 (63%) cases and partial in 9 (11%) cases; there was no agreement in the remaining 22 (26%) cases. The complete agreement rate was significantly lower than 75% (P=0.01). The initial antibiotic regimen was inadequate in a single case. Pre-operative sampling may contribute to the diagnosis of peri-prosthetic infection but is neither necessary nor sufficient to confirm the diagnosis and identify the causative agent. The spectrum of the initial antibiotic regimen cannot be safely narrowed based on the pre-operative sample results. We suggest the routine prescription of a probabilistic broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen immediately after the prosthesis exchange, even when a pathogen was identified before surgery. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical, Bacteriological, and Histopathological Findings of a Testicular Fibrosis in a 6-Year-Old Lusitano Stallion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Lusitano stallion was referred to our centre due to an enlarged left testicle. Anamnesis indicated that the stallion had a chronic hypertrophy of the left testicle, with no apparent ill effect on work (dressage training or semen production. Prolonged use of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and antibiotics were probable. Upon examination of the animal, it was found that clinical signs were compatible with chronic testicular degeneration or fibrosis. Ultrasound scanning did not evidence the exuberant macroscopic lesions seen upon hemicastration of the left testicle, but it showed in the left spermatic cord a conspicuous absence of the typical hypoechogenic areas representing the pampiniform plexus. Swabbing of the penis, prepuce, and distal urethra resulted in the isolation of Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium spp. However, histopathological examination did not support infectious orchitis as cause of the lesions and no bacterial growth was obtained from swabbing of the parenchyma in the excised testicle. Histopathological findings were compatible with chronic orchitis with fibrosis and necrosis, probably secondary to ischemia of the testicular parenchyma. After hemi-castration, the stallion resumed semen production at acceptable levels.

  10. Bacteriological and Molecular Detection of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Equines of Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Irfan Ahmad; Kumar, Bablu; Taku, Anil; Faridi, Farah; Bhat, Mohd Altaf; Baba, Naseer Ahmad; Maqbool, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to study the prevalence of β-haemolytic streptococci in equine of northern temperate region of Jammu and Kashmir, India. One hundred and forty one samples were collected in duplicate from nasopharyngeal tract of diseased (53) and apparently healthy equine (88) for isolation and direct PCR. A total of 77 isolates of streptococci were recovered from 141 samples with an overall prevalence rate of 54.60%. Out of these 77 isolates, 52 were from diseased and 25 from apparently healthy animals. Of the 77 isolates, 4 were identified as Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, 56 as S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and 17 as S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Thus the overall prevalence of S. equi subsp. equi, S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis was 2.83, 39.71 and 12.05% respectively. The sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of S. equi species was found higher when attempted from direct swab samples.

  11. Meat retail conditions within the establishments of Kigali city (Rwanda): bacteriological quality and risk factors for Salmonella occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonzima, Eugène; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Brostaux, Yves; Korsak, Nicolas; Daube, Georges; Kimonyo, Anastase; Sindic, Marianne

    2018-03-01

    Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within the establishments of Kigali (Rwanda). A questionnaire survey was carried out in 150 retail outlets to characterise meat retail conditions. Additionally, 270 retail meat samples were analysed for the enumeration of hygiene indicator bacteria (total mesophilic bacteria and Escherichia coli) and for the qualitative detection of Salmonella, using conventional culture methods. The results revealed that beef was the predominant meat sold within the retail premises of Kigali city, while meat from non-bovine animal species was mainly sold in large establishments. Salmonella was detected in 19.6% of all the retailed meat samples evaluated, whereas the mean loads for total mesophilic bacteria and E. coli were 7.3 and 3.5 log cfu/g, respectively. Three factors, namely the temperature conditions of the meat under retail, the cleanability of the used meat cutting boards, and the training of personnel in hygienic meat handling practices, were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with the risk of Salmonella occurrence in the retailed meat. The findings from this study highlight the need for improvements in hygienic meat handling practices, particularly, in small and medium meat retail establishments in Kigali.

  12. THE BACTERIOLOGIC EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT: NORMAL SALINE 5.25% AND 0.5%, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R FARHAD

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this invitro investigation was to compare the anti-bacterial effect of normal saline and sodium hypochlorite (5.25 percent and 0.5 percent with calcium hydroxide used as intra canal dressing used in different time periods. Methods: 180 single-rooted freshly extracted teeth were selected. The crowns were resected of CEJ and the canal were flared to the same length using a number one Gates-Glidden. A suspension of selected strict and facultative anaerobic bacteria was placed inside the canals and incubated in anaerobic condition for 24 hours. Then the teeth were randomly assigned to 9 groups. Results: Group 1. Negative control; group 2. Positive control; group 3. instrumented using normal saile; group 4. instrumented using 0.5 percent sodium hypochlorite; grooup 5. instrumentation using 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite; group 6. After instrumentation, 10 min. of calcium hydroxide was placed; group 7. after instrumentation 24h of calcium hydroxide was placed; group 8. After instrumentation 48h of calcium hydroxide was placed; group9. After instrumentation a week of calcium hydroxide was placed. Then paper points were used to get samples in each group. The samples incubated in anaerobid condition for 48 hours. The TSB turbidity was compared to mcfarland"s scale. Discussion: The results of this study indicates: Sodium hypochlorite in both concentrations were significantly more effective than normal saline. The one week calcium hydroxide group was significantly more effective than all other groups and was comparable to negative control group. The 24h and 48h calcium hydroxide groups did not have significant differences with each other or with the sodium hypochlorite groups. The 10 min. calcium hydroxide group was only comparable to normal saline group.

  13. [Contribution of direct bacteriologic examinations to the diagnosis of early materno-fetal bacterial infection: the Lille experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivier, D; Dubos, J P; Mteyrek, M; Codaccioni, X; Courcol, R J; Husson, M O

    1999-10-01

    A prospective study was conducted in 3056 live-born infants delivered at the Jeanneade-Flandre maternity hospital of the Lille Teaching Hospital between January and August 1997. Clinical, laboratory test, and microbiological test findings were compared. A cohort of 1003 infants who remained in the maternity ward but were considered at increased risk of maternofetal infection (MFI) based on history and/or obstetrical criteria and/or neonatal criteria underwent routine collection of specimens including gastric fluid, auricular and anal swabs, amniotic fluid, and placental fragments. Microscopic examination of gastric fluid smears, the first result available to the clinician, was found to have 27.5% sensitivity (983 samples). Positive predictive value (PPV) was only 17.8% because of a high rate of colonization (16.8%), defined as absence of clinical symptoms and three peripheral specimens positive for the same organism. However, negative predictive value (NPV) was as high as 99.8% as a result of high sensitivity (97.8%) in the infected neonates. The gastric fluid smear was positive in 30% and 35% of neonates born to mothers with hyperpyrexia during early and late labor, respectively, and in 42% of neonates born to mothers with a history of group B streptococcus carriage during the pregnancy. Forty-two per cent of neonates with a history of fetal tachycardia had a positive gastric fluid smear. Diagnostic criteria for infection were three peripheral specimens positive for the same organism, C-reactive protein elevation, and/or one or more clinical signs suggestive of infection, and/or a positive central specimen (blood, CSF). The infection rate in infants who remained in the maternity ward was 1.6%. The most common causative organisms were group B streptococci. These findings illustrate the useful contribution of gastric fluid smears to the early diagnosis of MFI and confirm the predominant role of group B streptococci.

  14. Comparison of bacteriological conversion and treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients with and without diabetes in Mexico: Preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muñoz-Torrico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB. However, it is not known to what extent DM affects the outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB treated with second-line anti-TB drugs.The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological evolution (sputum smear and culture conversion and final outcomes of MDR/XDR-TB patients with and without DM, managed at the national TB reference centre in Mexico City. Results: Ninety patients were enrolled between 2010 and 2015: 73 with MDR-TB (81.1%, 11 with pre-XDR-TB (e.g. MDR-TB with additional resistance to one injectable drug or a fluoroquinolone, 12.2% and 6 (6.7% with XDR-TB. Out of these, 49 (54.4% had DM and 42 (86% were undergoing insulin treatment.No statistically significant differences were found in treatment outcomes comparing DM vs. non-DM MDR-TB cases: 18/32 (56.3% of DM cases and 19/24 (79.2% non DM patients achieved treatment success (p = 0.07. The time to sputum smear and culture conversion was longer (although not statistically in patients without DM, as follows: the mean (±SD time to sputum smear conversion was 53.9 (±31.4 days in DM patients and 65.2 (±34.8 days in non-DM ones (p = 0.15, while the time to culture conversion was 66.2 (±27.6 days for DM and 81.4 (±37.7 days for non-DM MDR-TB cases (p = 0.06. Conclusions: The study results support the Mexican National TB programme to strengthen its collaboration with the DM programme, as an entry point for TB (and latent TB infection screening and management. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Delay, Sputum and culture conversion, MDR-TB, High treatment adherence

  15. Bacteriological quality of creeks and marine water bodies in North Goa: Ecosystem upkeep perspectives for tourism-related activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Sadhasivan, A.; Iyer, S.R.

    criminate, deliberate, accidental, or regular/routine disposals), the higher would be the number of coliform bacteria in environmental samples. As can be seen in Figure 5, the counts ofTC ranged within 19-69 per litre, 60-519 per litre, and 60-263 per litre...

  16. Bacteriological Profile of Neonatal Sepsis in Neonatal Intermediate Care Unit of Central Paediatric Referral Hospital in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, R H; Acharya, R; Shrestha, N; Giri, B R; Bagale, B B; Kayastha, M

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Because of difference in local epidemiology and possible variation with time, regular monitoring and updates on pathogen and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern is important for prevention and treatment. A retrospective descriptive study was carried out among cases of neonatal sepsis admitted in neonatal intermediate care unit of Kanti Children's hospital from August 2014 to August 2015. The data was collected from medical records of neonatal intermediate care unit and microbiology department and analyzed using SPSS version 20. There were 644 admissions, among which 210 (32%)were suspected of having neonatal sepsis. Thirty(14%) of the suspected cases had positive blood culture. Proportions of late and early onset were 25 (83.3%) and 5(17.7%) respectively.In blood culture Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism(80%),followed by Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (6.66%), Acinetobacter (6.66%), Enterobacter species(3.33%) and Morgonellamorgoni (3.33.5%).Gram positive organisms were isolated in all cases of early onset sepsis and in 84% of late onset sepsis. Most of the isolated organisms showed sensitivity to amikacin, cloxacillin, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. This study has indicated possible emergence of Staphylococcus aureus as the dominant cause of neonatal sepsis. Cloxacillin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin have high proportion of efficacy against the commonly isolated bacteria in neonatal sepsis.

  17. Quantitative and qualitative studies on the bacteriological quality of Indian white shrimp (Penaeus indicus) stored in dry ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasekaran, G; Ganesan, P; Anandaraj, R; Jeya Shakila, R; Sukumar, D

    2006-09-01

    Indian white shrimp (Penaeus indicus) stored in dry ice at the 1:1 ratio were found to be organoleptically suitable for consumption when they were stored for 24 h without reicing. Shrimp stored in water ice at the 1:1 ratio (as control) were acceptable up to 18 h. Shrimp stored in a combination of dry ice and water ice at the ratio of 1:0.2:0.5 were also found to be acceptable up to 24 h. Total bacterial load ranged from 10(6) to 10(9) cfu g(-1), while total psychrophiles ranged from 10(3) to 10(6) cfu g(-1). Total lactics were found in the levels of 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1). H(2)S producers were from 10(3) to 10(5) cfu g(-1). Lowest temperature of -4.8 degrees C was observed in shrimps stored in dry ice at 1:1 ratio. Bacterial flora associated with fresh raw shrimp were Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Flavobacterium and Serratia. Aeromonas constituted 38% of the flora in raw shrimp. Flavobacterium (43%), Pseudomonas (47%) and Pseudomonas (38%) were the dominant bacterial flora in the shrimp stored in dry ice at 1:1 ratio, in the combination package, and in water ice at 1:1 ratio, respectively.

  18. The Bacteriological safety of air movements and air changes in operating theatres. A technique for continuous monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegersma, Nicolaas

    1980-01-01

    Het risico van wondbesmetting tijdens operaties is afhankelijk van een groot aantal factoren. In dit proefschrift wordt een aantal van deze factoren onderzocht met als kernpunt de invloed van het toegepaste ventilatiesysteem op het besmettingsrisico van de wond, de instrumenten en de wondomgeving

  19. Bacteriological quality of raw camel milk along the market value chain in Fafen zone, Ethiopian Somali regional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Tsegalem; Legesse, Yoseph; Mummed, Behar; Urga, Befekadu

    2016-05-26

    The camel is a multipurpose animal with a huge productive potential. Camel milk is a key food in arid and semi-arid areas of the African and Asian countries. The quality of milk is influenced by different bacteria present in milk. This study was conducted to evaluate total bacterial content in raw camel milk along the market chain in Fafen zone, Ethiopian Somali Regional State. One hundred twenty-six raw camel milk samples were collected from Gursum (47.1 %) and Babile (52.9 %) districts. The three sampling levels included were udder (14.7 %), milking bucket (29.4 %) and market (55.9 %). Milk samples were analyzed for total bacterial counts (TBC) and coliform counts (CC). Furthermore, major pathogens were isolated and identified. 108 (85.7 %) of raw camel milk samples demonstrated bacterial contamination. The overall mean TBC and CC of contaminated raw camel milk samples was 4.75 ± 0.17 and 4.03 ± 0.26 log CFU/ml, respectively. TBC increased from udder to market level and was higher in Gursum compared to Babile district (P < 0.05). Around 38.9 % of TBCs and 88.2 % CCs in contaminated raw camel milk samples were in the range considered unsafe for human utility. Staphylococcus spp. (89.8 %), Streptococcus spp. (53.7 %), E. coli (31.5 %), Salmonella spp. (17.6 %), Klebsiella spp. (5.6 %) and Enterobacter spp. (5.6 %) were the major bacterial microorganisms isolated. The majority of the bacterial isolates in this study showed high incidence in market as compared to production level. These results indicate a lack of compliance with good production practices and hygiene at milking, transportation and market of raw camel milk.

  20. Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection.

  1. The answer of the Bacteriology Laboratory to new clinical needs. Rapid sepsis diagnotics at the Novara hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Kroumova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faster microbiological responses are increasingly necessary in modern medicine and the Laboratory of Microbiology must be equipped in this sense. New instrumentation and, above all, a new approach by the Clinical Microbiologist that puts a focus on the real needs of the patient before the microbiological may allow for significantly improving the TAT of these diagnostics. The use of both new methodologies, new tools and revisited old technologies may mean less these days as it was obtained at the Laboratory of Microbiology and Virology of Novara, where the combined use of molecular biology techniques, and mass spectrometry techniques rapid growth have allowed for more than 36 hours to shorten the response time by positivization of blood cultures. Such an approach allows an important support to the clinician with obvious benefits for the patient.

  2. Bacteriological Profile and Drug Resistance Patterns of Blood Culture Isolates in a Tertiary Care Nephrourology Teaching Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpesh Gohel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stream infections can lead to life threatening sepsis and require rapid antimicrobial treatment. The organisms implicated in these infections vary with the geographical alteration. Infections caused by MDR organisms are more likely to increase the risk of death in these patients. The present study was aimed to study the profile of organisms causing bacteremia and understand antibiotic resistance patterns in our hospital. 1440 blood samples collected over a year from clinically suspected cases of bacteremia were studied. The isolates were identified by standard biochemical tests and antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined by CLSI guidelines. Positive blood cultures were obtained in 9.2% of cases of which Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 58.3% of cases with staph aureus predominance; gram negative bacteria accounted for 40.2% with enterobactereciea predominence; and 1.5% were fungal isolates. The most sensitive drugs for Gram-positive isolates were vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline and for Gram-negative were carbapenems, colistin, aminoglycosides, and tigecycline. The prevalence of MRSA and vancomycin resistance was 70.6% and 21.6%, respectively. ESBL prevalence was 39.6%. Overall low positive rates of blood culture were observed.

  3. Bacteriological Monitoring of Radiology Room Apparatus in the Department of Radiological Technology and Contamination on Hands of Radiological Technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Chil [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Distribution of microorganisms were examined for the bucky tables in the radiology rooms of the department of radiological technology, the aprons, handles of various apparatus, handles of mobile radiological apparatus, and hands of the radiological technologists. As a result, relatively larger amounts of bacteria were found on the handles of the mobile radiological apparatus and the aprons. Among the isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter baumanni (7.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.9%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.7%), Enterobacter cloaceae (0.6%), Providenica rettgeri (0.6%) are known as the cause of nosocomial infection (hospital acquired infection). In addition, similar colonies were also found on the hands of the radiological technologists such as microorganisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.6%), Yersinia enterocolotica (5.4%), Acinetobacter baumanni (4.2%), Enterobacter cloaceae (2.4%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.8%), Yersinia pseuotuberculosis (18%), Enterobacter sakazakii (1.2%), and Escherichia coli (0.6%). In particular, this result indicates clinical significance since Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli show strong pathogenicity. Therefore, a continuous education is essential for the radiological technologists to prevent the nosocomial infection.

  4. Bacteriological study of raw and unexpired pasteurized cow's milk collected at the dairy farms and super markets in Sari city in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, M; Nasrolahei, M; Sharif, M; Mirabi, A M

    2013-06-01

    The quality of milk is influenced by different bacteria present in milk. This study was undertaken to investigate the bacterial contamination of raw and pasteurized milk in Sari Township, Iran, 2011. In this investigation, 100 pasteurized milk samples were collected randomly from the super markets in the city and 100 raw milk samples from 4 dairy farms from suburb areas and evaluated for the presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes by culture methods and biochemical tests. Data analysis was performed by SPSS software using Chi2 test and described in percentage. In the raw milk, contamination with E. coli, coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus was observed in 42 (42%), 36 (36%) and 22 (22%) of samples respectively, and the same for the pasteurized milk samples was 9 (9%), 2 (2%) and 2 (2%), respectively. Listeria monocytogenes was not detected in any sample. Presence of E. coli in the milk could be due to contamination with waste water and fecal materials. Considering the contamination of raw and pasteurized milk with E. coli and coliforms, sanitary practice during collecting and transporting, particularly in the summer season is recommended.

  5. Bacteriological study of raw and unexpired pasteurized cow's milk collected at the dairy farms and super markets in Sari city in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    VAHEDI, M.; NASROLAHEI, M.; SHARIF, M.; MIRABI, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction. The quality of milk is influenced by different bacteria present in milk. This study was undertaken to investigate the bacterial contamination of raw and pasteurized milk in Sari Township, Iran, 2011. Methods. In this investigation, 100 pasteurized milk samples were collected randomly from the super markets in the city and 100 raw milk samples from 4 dairy farms from suburb areas and evaluated for the presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and List...

  6. Prevalence of ectoparasites and bacteriological diagnosis in Nile tilapia bred in net-tanks in the Corvo’s river, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hideo Mori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Predominance of ectoparasites and bacteria diagnosis were identified in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, GIFT strain, bred in net-tanks at different densities. Current experiment was performed in the Corvo’s river, State of Paraná, Brazil, in two cycles: cycle A installed in August 2010 with 155 days, and cycle B, installed in February 2011 with 128 days. Twenty 6.8 m-3 (2.0 x 2.0 x 1.7 m net-tanks were employed, using 6.0 m-3 and five densities (150, 175, 200, 225 and 250 fish/m-3, with four replications each. No significant difference was registered with regard to the prevalence of ectoparasites due to densities in the two experimental cycles. In the months of September to November cycle A displayed increase in the predominance of Trichodina and a decrease in the prevalence of Monogenoidea and mixed parasites. Further, an inverse relationship with a decrease in the prevalence of Trichodina and an increase in the prevalence of Monogenoidea and mixed parasites occurred during October and November. Trochodina prevalence occurred in October and November. Cycle B showed a significant difference in total prevalence of ectoparasites due to months. There was an increase in tricodinid infestation between March and June in proportion to increase of density and throughout the experiment. More care should be taken with regard to densities during the period. No positive result was registered in the diagnosis of bacteria in Nile tilapias in the two cycles. The above was perhaps due to the water quality standards for the species and the cleanliness of the net-tanks for the experiments. Density increase did not affect the prevalence of ectoparasites and influenced tricodinid infestation between March and June.

  7. EFFECTS OF A NEW ANTIBIOTIC COMBINATION ON POST -THAW MOTION CHRACTERISTICS AND MEMBRANE INTEGRITY OF BUFFALO AND SAHIWAL BULL SPERMATOZOA AND ON THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF THEIR SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hasan, S. M. H. Andrabi, R. Muneer, M. Anzar and N. Ahmad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of a new antibiotic combination, i.e., gentamycin, tylosin and linco-spectin (STLS on post-thaw motion characteristics, plasma membrane integrity, sperm morphology and the total aerobic bacterial counts (TABC in buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen were investigated. Ten ejaculates, five each from a buffalo and a Sahiwal bull, possessing more than 60% sperm motility were used. These ejaculates were diluted in Tris-citric acid (TCA extender (at 37 °C; 50 X 106 spermatozoa/mi, containing either GTLS (gentamycin 500 g/ml, tylosin 100 g/ml and linco-spectin 300/600 g/ml, streptomycin 1000 g/ml and penicillin 1000 IU/ml (SP, or negative control with no antibiotics (NCON. Samples were cooled to 4°C in 2 hours, equilibrated at 4°C for 4 hours, filled in 0.5 ml straws, frozen in a controlled rate cell freezer and plunged into liquid nitrogen. Frozen semen was thawed at 37°C for 15 seconds. Post-thaw sperm motion characteristics, plasma membrane integrity and sperm morphology were determined. Total aerobic bacterial counts and the frequency of appearance of bacterial genera were determined in neat semen, after dilution, and after freezing and thawing. Mean motilities (visual; computer-assisted, linear and circular, velocities (straight-line, average path and curvilinear and lateral head displacement (LHD in post- thaw semen samples did not differ due to antibiotics or species. Same was true for sperm plasma membrane integrity. Morphologically abnormal spermatozoa were lower (P<0.05 in GTLS and SP than in NCON. Sperm cells possessing normal acrosomes were higher (P<0.01 in GTLS and SP than in NCON. Total aerobic bacterial counts in post-thaw samples were lower (P<0.05 in GTLS than in SP or NCON. Staphylococcus and micrococcus were lower in samples treated with GTLS than that of SP or NCON. Pseudomonas and E.coli were more frequent in buffaloes than Sahiwal bull samples. Proteus and corynebacteria were scarcely present. In conclusion, GTLS was not determintal to post thaw motion characteristics, sperm morphology and membrane integrity of buffalo and Sahiwal bull spermatozoa. Furthermore, it efficiently reduced the number of aerobic micro-organisms in buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen.

  8. Qualidade bacteriológica de águas subterrâneas em cemitérios Bacteriological quality of groundwater in cermiteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Therezinha Martins

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas amostras de águas subterrâneas de três cemitérios localizados em áreas geologicamente distintas de São Paulo e de Santos, Brasil, com relação às condições higiênicas e sanitárias. Para as primeiras foram considerados os coliformes totais, bactérias heterotróficas, microrganismos proteolíticos e lipolíticos. Para as sanitárias foram pesquisados coliformes fecais, estreptococos fecais, clostrídios sulfito redutores, colifagos e salmonelas. Verificou-se que as águas não apresentaram condições higiênicas satisfatórias e, em alguns casos, foram encontrados niveis altos de nitrato (75,7 mg/l. A deteção de níveis mais elevados de estreptococos fecais e de clostrídios sulfito redutores em relação aos coliformes fecais, na maior parte das amostras, parece mostrar que os dois primeiros indicadores seriam mais adequados para avaliação das condições sanitárias deste tipo de água. Foi detectada Salmonella apenas em uma amostra e não foram detectados colifagos. Na análise estatística, foram encontradas correlações significantes entre três indicadores de poluição fecal assim como entre as contagens em placas de bactérias heterotróficas aeróbias, anaeróbias e lipolíticas. Foi observada uma relação direta entre a deterioração da qualidade da água e as condições geológicas e hidrogeológicas do ambiente estudado, devendo este fator ser considerado para o planejamento e implantação de cemitérios.Groundwater samples collected by piezometers from three cemiteries in geologically distinct areas of S. Paulo and Santos, Brazil, were analysed in order to determine their hygienic and sanitary conditions. Fecal coliformes, fecal streptococci, sulfite reducer clostridia and Salmonella were searched for the purpose of evaluating sanitary conditions, and total coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria, proteolitic and lipoli-tic microorganisms for evaluating hygienic conditions. In some samples, nitrate levels were also determined. It was discovered that these waters do not present adequate sanitary and higienic conditions and that, in some cases, nitrate levels were extremelly high (75.7 mg/l. In most samples, higher levels of fecal streptococci and sufite reducer clostridia than fecal coliforms were detected, which seems to show that the two former indicators would be more appropriate for evaluating the sanitary conditions of this kind of water. Salmonella were detected in only one of 44 samples analysed and coliphages in none. In the stastistical analysis, the correlation matrix showed significant correlations among three fecal pollution indicators, as well as among anaerobic and aerobic heterotrophs and lipolitic bacteria. A direct relationship between the deterioration of water quality and the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the environment studied was observed. When cemiteries are constructed these conditions should, therefore, be taken into consideration.

  9. Two-step bacterial broad-range polymerase chain reaction analysis of heart valve tissue improves bacteriological diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussier, Rémi; Rogez, Sylvie; François, Bruno; Denes, Eric; Ploy, Marie-Cécile; Garnier, Fabien

    2013-03-01

    Positive heart valve (HV) culture is a major Duke's criterion for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis but is poorly sensitive. Two broad-range 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 31 HV samples: first, a real-time method, then conventional end-point PCR was applied to HV samples on which the first PCR was negative. Five specific real-time PCR procedures were also used in order to identify Bartonella spp., Tropheryma whipplei, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumonia, and Coxiella burnetii. A strategy combining the 2-step broad-range PCR methods improved the sensitivity of the molecular method from 38.7% to 58%. Specific PCR identified 1 T. whipplei, which was also identified by conventional end-point PCR. These results confirm that blood culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, shows that molecular methods applied to HV can be useful when blood culture is negative, and that 2-step broad-range PCR approach seems to be more sensitive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 40 CFR 131.41 - Bacteriological criteria for those states not complying with Clean Water Act section 303(i)(1)(A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... people as at typical designated bathing beach waters within the State. States may also include light use... the recreation season, are used by less than half of the number of people as at typical designated... table in paragraph (c)(1): a. This value is for use with analytical methods 1103.1, 1603, or 1604 or any...

  11. Bacteriología e hidroquímica de ríos de montaña, Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora C. Romero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se desarrolla en el Valle de Tafí (Tucumán, Argentina, ubicado a 2000 msnm, en la cadena montañosa Aconquija, donde se emplazan dos poblaciones importantes: El Mollar (comuna, 3471 habitantes y Tafí del Valle (municipio, 3250 habitantes. Uno de los problemas más importantes de la comunidad es el suministro de agua potable en cantidad y calidad. Existen dos plantas potabilizadoras: El Churqui y La Quebradita, que abastecen aproximadamente al 50 % de la población de Tafí del Valle. El resto se abastece a través de servicios a cargo de cooperativas y de pozos propios. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la calidad de las aguas superficiales destinadas a consumo humano, desde el punto de vista hidroquímico y bacteriológico. Se fijaron 3 puntos de muestreo en los ríos Blanquito, Churqui y Tafí, donde se colectaron muestras de agua en forma bimensual durante los años 2007-2008. Se analizaron parámetros bacteriológicos, físico-químicos y metales traza. La metodología usada para toma de muestras y determinaciones analíticas responden a Standard Methods for the Examination of de Water and Wastewater. El pH varió de neutro a alcalino, y conductividad osciló entre 62-296 uS.cm-1. La composición iónica mayoritaria refleja que las aguas de los ríos son bastante estables a lo largo del tiempo, con característica bicarbonatada-cálcica dominante. Zn, Hierro y Arsénico no presentaron valores de riesgo, mientras que Cobre registró un valor máximo de 2.5 mg.L-1, en el río Churqui, en forma esporádica. En ningún punto de muestreo el contenido bacteriano fue mayor de 103 UFC por 100 mL. El río Churqui evidencia mayor deterioro desde el punto de vista bacteriológico. Luego del estudio se puede concluir que la composición química y bacteriológica de las aguas del Valle de Tafí es de excelente calidad para ser usadas como fuente de captación, potabilización y consumo.

  12. Bacteriology and treatment of infections in the upper and lower airways in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia: adressing the paranasal sinuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian

    2017-05-01

    The respiratory tract is lined with motile cilia that transport respiratory mucus. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a chronic genetic disease caused by mutations in genes responsible for ciliary structure and function. Non-functional airway cilia impair the mucociliary clearance (MCC), causing mucostasis, lung infections and destruction, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and hearing impairment. It is of paramount importance to postpone chronic lung infection mainly with Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in patients with an impaired MCC. When successful, lung function can be stabilized and quality of life (QoL) improved. In this thesis, we evaluated whether PCD patients can benefit from the experience we have gained from our operative approach towards the paranasal sinuses in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In CF, it has been established that bacterial sinusitis can be a focus for initial lung colonization and chronic lung infection. Combined endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and adjuvant therapy can eradicate sinus bacteria, reduce pulmonary infections and improve quality of life (QoL).      Currently, approximately 120 patients are diagnosed with PCD in Denmark and all are affiliated with the Danish PCD Centre. Patients included in this thesis were recruited from this cohort. In papers (I, IV), we found that the most frequent sinus pathogen was P. aeruginosa, which was isolated in 12 out of 31 (39%) patients who underwent ESS. In searching for a non-pulmonary infectious focus, we observed simultaneous sinus and lung infec-tions with identical pathogens in two out of three patients. This supports our hypothesis of a bacterial reservoir in the sinuses. Next (II), we examined the bacterial flora associated with acute and chronic pulmonary infections in PCD. A high prevalence of chronic infections encouraged a search for new treatment regimens, including ESS with adjuvant therapy, to impact the course of infection. We revealed that P. aeruginosa frequently colonizes the airways in PCD and during the 11-year study period a total of 42 out of 107 (39%) patients fulfilled the definition of chronic lung infection at some point. Importantly, 10 out of 12 patients (83%) with chronic lung infection had the same clone type of P. aeruginosa for years, as determined by pulsed field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE), thus substantiating factual chronic airway infection. Further, we found an increase in the prevalence of P. aeruginosa with age and observed a negative association between early PCD diagnosis and prevalence of P. aeruginosa. This indicates a positive effect of early diagnosis and initiation of therapy. In paper (III), we performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of P. aeruginosa isolated from the same 12 patients who were included in the PFGE analysis in paper II. By sequencing and phenotypically characterizing multiple isolates from the same patients we were able to study the with-in host bacterial evolution for the first time in PCD. The analyses provided detailed insight into how P. aeruginosa evolves in PCD when they are stressed by the host immune system and antibiotics. We verified the persistence of clonal lineages and confirmed that different clone types of P. aeruginosa can establish persistent infections in PCD patients. Further, we showed that P. aeruginosa acclimatizes grad-ually to the PCD airway by accumulating pathoadaptive mutations and phenotypic characteristics similar to those of CF. Such information may provide valuable clinical information, and as an example we identified mutations in genes responsible for the development of antibiotic resistance. Based on our research we conclude that P. aeruginosa is a major pathogen in PCD and that future research should focus on pre-venting or eradicating these bacteria. Implementing ESS with adjuvant therapy to PCD patients (I, IV) significantly ameliorated CRS symptoms. Further, postoperatively patients tended to have fewer positive lower airway cultures and better lung function; approximately one out of four operated patients, in search of an infectious focus, remained free of lung colonization with P. aeruginosa during follow-up for at least six months. Based on these results, it is tempting to speculate that ESS with adjuvant therapy can eradicate sinus bacteria and thereby reduce lung re-colonization from the sinuses. However, further evidence is needed to support this hypothesis, preferably from a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Articles published in the Danish Medical Journal are “open access”. This means that the articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

  13. Clinical and bacteriological efficacy of twice daily topical retapamulin ointment 1% in the management of impetigo and other uncomplicated superficial skin infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R. Bohaty, MD

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Safety profile appears favorable given the low number of AEs. Study design limits conclusions that can be drawn. Nevertheless, this study supports use of topical retapamulin 1% ointment in treatment of cutaneous bacterial infections, particularly those caused by S. aureus, including MRSA.

  14. Personal digital assistants to collect tuberculosis bacteriology data in Peru reduce delays, errors, and workload, and are acceptable to users: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Joaquín A; Cohen, Ted; Rodríguez, Pablo; Kim, Jihoon; Fraser, Hamish S F

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based system for collecting tuberculosis test results and to compare this new system to the previous paper-based system. The PDA- and paper-based systems were evaluated based on processing times, frequency of errors, and number of work-hours expended by data collectors. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in 93 health establishments in Peru. Baseline data were collected for 19 months. Districts (n=4) were then randomly assigned to intervention (PDA) or control (paper) groups, and further data were collected for 6 months. Comparisons were made between intervention and control districts and within-districts before and after the introduction of the intervention. The PDA-based system had a significant effect on processing times (p90 days was reduced from 9.2% to 0.1% and the number of errors was decreased by 57.1%. The intervention reduced the work-hours necessary to process results by 70% and was preferred by all users. A well-designed PDA-based system to collect data from institutions over a large, resource-poor area can significantly reduce delays, errors, and person-hours spent processing data.

  15. Early Limnology of Dworshak Reservoir. Part 1. Limnology. Part 2. Impact of Log Leachates on Phytoplankton. Part 3. Fate of Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Dynamics. Part 4. Bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    infusion (BHI) *4-J broth; Streptococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens, APT broth (all purpose medium with Tween 80). Samples were returned to the... Streptococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes, and a Salmonella sp. in filtered Dworshak water, 3 August 1973...4-52 * 35, Survival of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis ./ var. liquefaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes, and a_ _.__ _ _, Salmonella

  16. Influence of Covering Reused Broiler Litter with Plastic Canvas on Litter Characteristics and Bacteriology and the Subsequent Immunity and Microbiology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In broiler production, the litter is reused for consecutives flocks, and it is treated during down time between flocks to reduce its microbial load. Although covering the litter with a plastic canvas is a common litter treatment in the field, there is little scientific information available on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of covering broiler litter with a plastic canvas for eight days on litter microbiological, physical, and chemical parameters, and on the intestinal microbiota and immunity of broilers. In the first trial, reused litter from a previous flock was distributed into three treatments, with six replicates each: L1 (negative control, litter free from Salmonella Enteritidis (SE and Eimeria maxima (EM and not covered, L2 (positive control, litter with SE and EM, and not covered, and L3 (litter with SE and EM, and covered with plastic canvas for eight days. Litter total bacteria, Enterobacteria, Lactobacillus, SE, and EM counts, and litter pH, temperature, moisture, and ammonia emission were determined on days 1 and 8. In the second trial, broilers were housed on those litters according to the treatments described above, and their intestinal microbiota, gut CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and macrophages, and liver and intestinal pro-inflammatory interleukin (IFN-γ, IL-1β e IL-18 levels were evaluated on days 14 and 28. A significant reduction of litter bacterial populations was observed in the litter covered with plastic canvas. A significantly higher mRNA IFN-γ gene expression (12.5-fold was observed in the jejunum and liver of broilers reared on the litter with Enterobacteria counts. No EM reduction was observed in the covered litter. Covering reused broiler litter with plastic canvas reduces initial litter bacterial load as a result of the interaction between physical and chemical parameters.

  17. Bacterial Loads Measured by the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay as Markers of Culture Conversion and Bacteriological Cure in Pulmonary TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhada Shenai

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are needed to monitor tuberculosis (TB treatment and predict treatment outcomes. We evaluated the Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert assay as a biomarker for TB treatment during and at the end of the 24 weeks therapy.Sputum from 108 HIV-negative, culture-positive pulmonary TB patients was analyzed using Xpert at time points before and during anti-TB therapy. Results were compared against culture. Direct Xpert cycle-threshold (Ct, a change in the Ct (delta Ct, or a novel "percent closing of baseline Ct deficit" (percent closing were evaluated as classifiers of same-day and end-of-treatment culture and therapeutic outcomes.Xpert was positive in 29/95 (30.5% of subjects at week 24; and positive one year after treatment in 8/64 (12.5% successfully-treated patients who remained free of tuberculosis. We identified a relationship between initial bacterial load measured by baseline Xpert Ct and time to culture conversion (hazard ratio 1.06, p = 0.0023, and to the likelihood of being among the 8 treatment failures at week 24 (AUC = 72.8%. Xpert Ct was even more strongly associated with culture conversion on the day the test was performed with AUCs 96.7%, 99.2%, 86.0% and 90.2%, at Day 7, Week 4, 8 and 24, respectively. Compared to baseline Ct measures alone, a combined measure of baseline Ct plus either Delta Ct or percent closing improved the classification of treatment failure status to a 75% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity.Genome loads measured by Xpert provide a potentially-useful biomarker for classifying same day culture status and predicting response to therapy.

  18. Bacteriological contamination, dirt, and cracks of eggshells in furnished cages and noncage systems for laying hens: An international on-farm comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reu, de K.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Messens, W.; Heyndrickx, M.; Tuyttens, F.; Sonck, B.; Zoons, J.; Herman, L.

    2009-01-01

    For laying hens, the effects of housing system on bacterial eggshell contamination and eggshell quality is almost exclusively studied in experimental hen houses. The aim of this study was to compare eggshell hygiene and quality under commercial conditions. Six flocks of laying hens in furnished

  19. Polymerase chain reaction and bacteriological comparative analysis of raw milk samples and buffalo mozzarella produced and marketed in Caserta in the Campania region of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To help identify an epidemiological link between the consumption of buffalo mozzarella prepared with raw milk (not heat-treated and cases of human brucellosis, 80 samples of raw buffalo milk and 315 samples of mozzarella were tested for the presence of Brucella spp. Samples originated from Caserta, the province with the highest number of Brucella-positive buffalo herds in Campania, the region in which 96.02% of all cases of human brucellosis reported in 2000-2005 were recorded. To take into account possible seasonal variations, between February 2006 and March 2007, samples were purchased directly from 72 dairy outlets that were representative of the province. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and bacterial isolation. Samples tested negative for Brucella using both methods. Spiked samples were then prepared and tested by PCR and bacterial isolation and the sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reproducibility and limit of detection were determined. The PCR limit of detection was below 1 colony-forming unit (cfu/g. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were 100% (p = 0.95, the sensitivity was 96.7% (p = 0.95 and the specificity was 100% (p = 0.95.

  20. Matrix-Specific Method Validation of an Automated Most-Probable-Number System for Use in Measuring Bacteriological Quality of Grade "A" Milk Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Samantha; Kmet, Matthew; Reddy, Ravinder; Uhlig, Steffen

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees a long-standing cooperative federal and state milk sanitation program that uses the grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance standards to maintain the safety of grade "A" milk sold in the United States. The Pasteurized Milk Ordinance requires that grade "A" milk samples be tested using validated total aerobic bacterial and coliform count methods. The objective of this project was to conduct an interlaboratory method validation study to compare performance of a film plate method with an automated most-probable-number method for total aerobic bacterial and coliform counts, using statistical approaches from international data standards. The matrix-specific validation study was administered concurrently with the FDA's annual milk proficiency test to compare method performance in five milk types. Eighteen analysts from nine laboratories analyzed test portions from 12 samples in triplicate. Statistics, including mean bias and matrix standard deviation, were calculated. Sample-specific bias of the alternative method for total aerobic count suggests that there are no large deviations within the population of samples considered. Based on analysis of 648 data points, mean bias of the alternative method across milk samples for total aerobic count was 0.013 log CFU/ml and the confidence interval for mean deviation was -0.066 to 0.009 log CFU/ml. These results indicate that the mean difference between the selected methods is small and not statistically significant. Matrix standard deviation was 0.077 log CFU/ml, showing that there is a low risk for large sample-specific bias based on milk matrix. Mean bias of the alternative method was -0.160 log CFU/ml for coliform count data. The 95% confidence interval was -0.210 to -0.100 log CFU/ml, indicating that mean deviation is significantly different from zero. The standard deviation of the sample-specific bias for coliform data was 0.033 log CFU/ml, indicating no significant effect of milk type.