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Sample records for bacteriology

  1. Pasteur, Koch and American bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossel, P P

    2000-01-01

    This study traces American awareness of the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch from the 1860s to the 1890s. In the years before the Civil War, American interest in germ theories had appeared at times of epidemics and persisted to a limited extent among physician-microscopists. Discussions of Pasteur's work occurred primarily in the context of spontaneous generation and antisepsis. Few Americans imitated his work on immunology or studied with Pasteur, but his work on immunity influenced their faith in the potential of bacteriology as a solution to problems of infectious disease. Koch's discoveries of the bacterial agents of tuberculosis and cholera stimulated American medical and public health interest in bacteriology in a more practical way. Americans learned Koch's methods by taking his courses and imported them directly into their own laboratories. A context of enthusiasm for science, educational reform, and problems of infectious disease associated with urbanization and changes in agriculture aided the growth of bacteriology in the American context.

  2. Bacteriological examination of gallbladder contents

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    Petaković Goran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute calculous (obstructive cholecystitis develops as a consequence of cystic obstruction and obstruction of bile flow into choledochus. Most often it is a result of impacted gallstones in Hartman's pouch or the cystic duct. Their direct pressure on gallbladder mucosa causes ischemia, necrosis and ulceration with consequential wall edema and obstructed venous flow. This mechanism is further increasing and spreading the inflammatory process. Ulcerations may be that extensive, that mucosa is highly recognizable on the microscopic preparation. Leukocyte infiltration of all segments occurs. Results of necrosis are as follows: perforation with pericholecystic abscess formation, fistulization or biliary peritonitis. Aim The aim of this investigation was to use microbial sensitivity tests in order to establish possibilities of antibiotic therapy in patients with acute cholecystitis. Material and methods Using random sampling a total of 240 patients with acute cholecystitis were included in the investigation. They were all treated at the Clinic of Abdominal and Endocrine Surgery of the Clinical Center Novi Sad in the period 1997-1999. All patients underwent bacteriological examination and were coherent in regard to sex and age. Microbial sensitivity tests analyzed two groups of bacteria: Group I Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus and Group II: other isolated bacteria (Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Proteus, Pseudomonas Serratia and Streptococcus. Results In our material Escherichia coli was isolated in most patients - 32 (55.17%, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus in 6 (10.34% patients and Streptococcus in 4 (6.90%, whereas other bacteria were infrequent (Citrobacter and Serratia in 3.45%, Enterobacter, Proteus and Pseudomonas in 1.75%. Thus, E. coli, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus were established in 75.85% of bacteriologic findings, and all the rest in 24.15%. Assessment regarding premedication with antibiotics started

  3. [The Constantinople Imperial Bacteriology Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, M

    2000-01-01

    The Constantinople Imperial Bacteriology Institute (CIBI) allowed the development of a common medical effort between France and Turkey at a time when the main European powers were competing to have an influence on the Ottoman Empire. In 1887, Turkey sent Zoreos Pacha, a medical doctor, to Paris to learn anti-rabies immunization techniques, and he started a rabies control institute after his coming back. In 1893, a cholera epidemic in Constantinople was vanquished by A. Chantemesse, sent by Pasteur, and France was allowed to start another microbiologic Institute. The first director of this Constantinople Imperial Bacteriology Institute was Maurice Nicolle. A brillant man, but suffering from a lack of diplomacy; he encountered numerous difficulties and regularly threatened to turn in his resignation. His successor, Paul Remlinger, arrived in 1900. His main research topic was rabies, and he became later a world-class expert on the subject. His position was taken over in 1911 by Paul-Louis Simond, unjustly forgotten nowadays despite his major discovery in 1898 showing that the plague was transmitted by ratfleas. The next director was a veterinary doctor, P. Forgeot, but his tenure was cut short by World War I, and he was the last French director of the CIBI. Since that time, Turkey has felt some gratitude towards France for its medical efforts. It organized in 1957 in Istambul a very congenial celebration for the 70th anniversary of the Rabies Control Institute, which numerous Pasteur Institute alumni attended. There is a clear contrast between the CIBI, the target of many intrigues and hostile maneuvers, and the North African Pasteur Institutes, which were making crucial discoveries during the same period. This contrast was mostly due to the absolute power of the Sultan, who would arbitrarily oppose some directors decisions, whereas the French government allowed the balanced growth of the Pasteur Institutes in territories under his control.

  4. Bacteriological Profile of Epidural Catheters

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    B. M. Sahay, Sanjot Dahake, D. K Mendiratta*,Vijayshree Deotale*,B. Premendran, P.S.Dhande, Pratibha Narang*

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriological profile of epidural catheters was studied in 88 patients. Skin swabs before catheterizationand before removal of catheter with their controls were cultured in TSB Medium. The catheter hub, theportion at the skin puncture site and at the tip were cultured in TSB Medium. The 1cm of the catheter bitjust before the tip was cultured in TGB medium for anaerobes.Both, the skin controls swabs and theanaerobic culture, were negative. From the remaining, 56 positive cultures were obtained. Staphylococcusepidermidis was the predominant organism in 52% followed by staphylococcus aureus 25%. The remaining23% was shared by Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and E. coli. All the positive cultures fromskin prior to epidural catheterization had turned sterile by 48 hours, indicating continued bactericidal actionof the disinfectant. The likely source of positive skin cultures at 48 hours is hair follicles.The catheter tipculture was positive in 9 specimen, none of which resulted in the formation of epidural abscess. In 3 casesthe cultures of skin puncture site and the tip were identical indicating tracking-in of the organisms.

  5. Bacteriological Controls at Czechoslovakia Blood Transfusion Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-07-01

    originator of the impurity (chemi- cals, water, air , poor work habits). Results The extent of the bacteriological control carried cit in our station...and its results are summarized in Table 1. which also gives the percentage of the incidence of bacterial contaminacion of the various kinds of

  6. Bacteriologic findings in tonsillitis and pericoronitis.

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    Rajasuo, A; Jousimies-Somer, H; Savolainen, S; Leppänen, J; Murtomaa, H; Meurman, J H

    1996-07-01

    Bacteriologic samples from 31 young men were cultured quantitatively for aerobes and anaerobes; these samples included 31 specimens of tonsils (16 infected and 15 healthy), 16 specimens from pericoronal pockets of lower third molars (11 infected and 5 symptom-free), and 6 postoperative specimens from lower-third-molar extraction sockets. Anaerobes were isolated more often from infected third molars than from infected tonsils (14.5 isolates vs. 8.4 isolates, respectively; P pericoronal pocket samples. Thus, partial eruption of lower third molars increases the number of anaerobic bacterial species on tonsils and many species can be isolated simultaneously from both tonsils and lower third molars.

  7. [Bacteriologic quality of the prepared dishes in cafeterias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouffok, F; Lebres, E; Makhlouf, B

    1992-01-01

    In this work, we reports results of bacteriologic analysis of 352 cooked meals (vegetables, meats, desserts). Although, 32% of analysed samples are bacteriologically good, 68% are contamined either by S.P.C but potentially dangerous either by pathogenic bacteria involved in food-born infections.

  8. CLINICO-BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VESICAL CALCULUS

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    Pushpendra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vesical calculi are the most common manifestation of lower urinary tract lithiasis. Urinary infections play an important role in aetiopathogenesis of vesical calculi. OBJECTIVE Aim of this study was proposed to establish the bacteriology of stone and urine in an attempt to evaluate the role of infection in the formation of stone. Associated factors like age, sex, site of infection, obstruction, diet were also evaluated. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS The patients were admitted in surgical ward as provisional diagnosed cases of vesical calculus, were subjected to investigations including CBC, RBS, urine analysis, renal function test, x-ray KUB region and ultrasonography. Patients who were fit for surgery, various surgical procedures were done. Gross examination and core culture of stone was done to establish their aetiology. RESULTS Ninety-four patients with vesical calculus were evaluated. Incidence of vesical calculus was 1.13%. Majority of cases were from rural areas (92.55%. Urinary tract infection was present in 37.2% of cases, majority of cases urine culture was positive (30.95%. Core culture of stone was positive in 18 cases (25.17%. E. coli was the predominant organism both in urine culture (19.04% and core culture of stone (25.71%. CONCLUSIONS There is significant association regarding the presence of vesical calculi and the development of urinary infections. E. coli was the predominant organism found both in urine and core culture of stone.

  9. Bacteriological Examination of Unbottled Soft Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, F. M.; Abd-Elnaby, H. A.

    1962-01-01

    A study of 300 samples, representing 14 different unbottled drinks, indicated that there are three vitally important criteria pertaining to their bacteriological examination. First, the total viable counts may be better accomplished by the pour-plate method, using enriched media, with incubation at either 30 or 37 C. Second, a comparative study of the coliaerogenes group and the enterococci as indices of pollution unquestionably favors the latter as the reliable indicator, owing to false interpretations of the presumptive test and to lack of accurate definition of fecal and nonfecal coliforms recovered from positive cases. The use of enterococci, however, did not provide as reliable an indicator as the pour-plate method. Third, the results with enterococci, in defining the probable source of pollution, are more precise. Experiments judiciously selected and simultaneously conducted revealed that the heat and heat-tellurite resistance tests, and the tetrazolium-reduction test, matched in relating 98.9% of available enterococci to an animal source. Negligible but vital discrepancies were obtained with the two odd strains which qualified as human-derived according to the heat and heat-tellurite resistance tests. The differential criterion of Skadhauge and Barnes, based on the failure of animal-derived enterococci to grow in the presence of a low concentration of potassium tellurite, did not apply to the other two methods, since 99.5% of the recovered strains were found tolerant to the specified tellurite concentration. PMID:14490056

  10. Bacteriology of symptomatic adenoids in children

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    Aroor Rajeshwary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with adenoid hypertrophy have been shown to harbor pathogenic bacteria in the nasopharynx despite antibiotics. Removal of the adenoid is associated with a reduction in the bacterial count. Aims: The study was done to determine the bacteriology of the adenoid tissue in chronic adenotonsillitis and adenoid hypertrophy, and determine the antibiotic sensitivity of potential pathogens. Materials and Methods : This is a descriptive study conducted on 100 patients aged between three and twelve years who underwent adenotonsillectomy/adenoidectomy. After adenoidectomy, the specimen along with the swab taken from the surface of the adenoid was sent for microbiological examination. After 48 and 96 hours, the microbial growth was identified and the antibiotic-sensitivity pattern of the isolate was studied. Results: Aerobic organisms grew in 93% of the specimens and anaerobic organisms in 68%, whereas 7% had no growth. The surface was predominated by commensals and the pathogens were mainly found in the core. The predominant pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus species. The organisms were resistant to penicillin but showed sensitivity to co-amoxiclav and ciprofloxacin. Co-amoxiclav and ciprofloxacin should be considered as the first line of medical treatment for adenotonsillar diseases. Conclusions: Infection is the main cause of adenoid hypertrophy. Amoxicillin with potassium clavulanate and ciprofloxacin should be considered as the drugs of choice for all adenotonsillar diseases.Early and prompt treatment of adenoid hypertrophy with appropriate antibiotics will avoid unnecessary exposure to repeated antimicrobial therapy, thereby maintaining the beneficial effects of the normal adenoid flora.

  11. Bacteriological study of diabetic foot infections.

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    Khairul Azmi ABD KADIR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foot infections are one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus and a significant risk factor for lower extremity amputation. Providing effective antimicrobial therapy is an important component in treating these infections. This study assesses the microbial isolates of patients with diabetic foot infections and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 75 patients with diabetic foot infections admitted to RIPAS hospital between June 2008 and June 2010 was undertaken. Bacteriological specimens were obtained and processed using standard hospital procedure for microbiological culture and sensitivity testing. Results: Overall, 40 (54% patients had subcutaneous infections, 22 (29% had infected superficial ulcers, seven (9% had infected deep ulcers involving muscle tissues and six (8% had osteomyelitis. A total of 98 pathogens were isolated. Forty percent of the patients had polymicrobial infection, 39 (52% had single organism and 6(8% had no growth. Gram-negative bacteria (67% were more commonly isolated than gram-positive bacteria (30%. The three most frequently found gram-negative organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.3%, and Acinetobacter spp. (10.2% and gram-positive organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (10.2%, Streptococcus pyogenes (7.1% and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] (7.1%. Vancomycin was found to be the most effective against gram-positive bacteria while amikacin was the most effective against gram-negative bacteria based on antibiotic testing. Conclusion: In 40% of diabetic feet infection was polymicrobial. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common gram-positive and gram-negative organisms respectively. This study helps us to choose the empirical antibiotics for cases of diabetic foot infections.

  12. Tercer Simposio Internacional de Bacteriología

    OpenAIRE

    Farfán-García, Ana Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Este suplemento reúne 24 resúmenes de proyectos de investigación básica y aplicada que fueron presentados en el marco del Tercer Simposio Internacional de Bacteriología, organizado por el programa de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Santander UDES, sede Bucaramanga entre el 27 al 29 de abril de 2016 en el marco de la celebración de los 20 años de funcionamiento del programa. En este evento se reunieron investigadores nacionales, i...

  13. [Method and procedures in bacteriological study of necrotic teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ponce, A; López Campos, A; López Paz, J; Pazos Sierra, R

    1991-01-01

    Research was conducted of 160 radicular canals with necrotic pulp. Results of different bacteriological analyses are presented. Culture analyses in aerobic and anaerobic media, resulted in the isolation of Staphylococcus Epidermidis, Streptococcus Viridans and Corynebacterium sp in the group studied, as the most frequent bacteria. There was no evidence of a specific germ linked with the pulp necrosis.

  14. Constructing COMSOL Models of a Bacteriological Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Robert; Mansell, James

    2012-01-01

    We show very initial work on a specific bioelectrochemical system (BES), a bacteriologically driven 'fuel cell' (BFS), that is intended to process waste products, such as CO2 and brine. (1) Processing is the priority, not power generation (2) Really a Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC)

  15. Carrageenan from Eucheuma striatum (Schmitz) in Bacteriological Media

    OpenAIRE

    Epifanio, E. C.; Veroy, R. L.; Uyenco, F.; Cajipe, G. J. B.; Laserna, E. C.

    1981-01-01

    The use of carrageenan from the red alga Eucheuma striatum as a possible substitute for bacteriological agar was investigated. The carrageenan medium was compared with several commercially available media in terms of both their physical properties and the colony characteristics of 16 microorganisms grown on the media.

  16. Carrageenan from Eucheuma striatum (Schmitz) in Bacteriological Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifanio, E C; Veroy, R L; Uyenco, F; Cajipe, G J; Laserna, E C

    1981-01-01

    The use of carrageenan from the red alga Eucheuma striatum as a possible substitute for bacteriological agar was investigated. The carrageenan medium was compared with several commercially available media in terms of both their physical properties and the colony characteristics of 16 microorganisms grown on the media.

  17. Bacteriologic results from 4,000 root canal cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.C.; Amerongen, J. van

    1959-01-01

    The bacteriologic results from more than 4,000 root canal cultures are discussed. Streptococci form 61 per cent of the isolated organisms. Among these, the group of hemolytic, indifferent, and indifferent anaerobic streptococci, mainly belonging to serologic groups F, G, and C, seem the most serious

  18. Asepsis and bacteriology: a realignment of surgery and laboratory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlich, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the origins of aseptic surgery in the German-speaking countries. It interprets asepsis as the outcome of a mutual realignment of surgery and laboratory science. In that process, phenomena of surgical reality were being modelled and simplified in the bacteriological laboratory so that they could be subjected to control by the researcher's hands and eyes. Once control was achieved, it was being extended to surgical practice by recreating the relevant features of the controlled laboratory environment in the surgical work place. This strategy can be seen in the adoption of Robert Koch's bacteriology by German-speaking surgeons, and the resulting technical changes of surgery, leading to a set of beliefs and practices, which eventually came to be called 'asepsis'.

  19. Generalizations about bacteriology: thermodynamic, open systems, genetic instructions, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T

    2010-05-01

    Biological generalizations about bacteriology are discussed to provide a broad perspective of what we know about bacteria. Bacteriology (and possibly all biology) from an overall perspective can be researched and understood as observations and experimentations on mass and energy, which are themselves the products of evolutionary change for about 3.5-3.9 billion years. All organisms have mass, transform, store and use biochemical energy and obey the most fundamental of all laws--the laws of thermodynamics. Bacteria can be viewed as semi-permeable, thermodynamically open systems of mass, controlled by relatively small amounts of genetic instructions with lower entropy than their higher entropy, surrounding environments. Some fundamental properties describing bacterial life are also presented.

  20. Lepra: various etiologies from miasma to bacteriology and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sak, Jarosław; Suchodolska, Elżbieta; Virmond, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by a close relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Mycobacterium leprae. There have been various beliefs in its etiology with two main concepts emerging: anticontagion and contagion. From ancient times through the early Middle Ages, the miasmatic theory of leprosy was the main anticontagion view. The development of histopathologic and cytologic studies in the second half of the 19th century provided a starting point to explain the etiology of leprosy bacteriologically.

  1. Bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in patients with acute coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Enise; Voss, Frederik; Gerigk, Roland; Lauterbach, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Loss of protective airway reflexes in patients with acute coma puts these patients at risk of aspiration pneumonia complicating the course of the primary disease. Available data vary considerably with regard to bacteriology, role of anaerobic bacteria, and antibiotic treatment. Our objective was to research the bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in acute coma patients who were not pre-treated with antibiotics or hospitalized within 30 days prior to the event. We prospectively analyzed 127 patient records from adult patients admitted, intubated and ventilated to a tertiary medical intensive care unit with acute coma. Bacteriology and antibiotic resistance testing from tracheal aspirate sampled within 24 h after admission, blood cultures, ICU scores (APACHE II, SOFA), hematology, and clinical chemistry were assessed. Patients were followed up until death or hospital discharge. The majority of patients with acute coma suffered from acute cardiovascular disorders, predominantly myocardial infarction, followed by poisonings, and coma of unknown cause. In a majority of our patients, microaspiration resulted in overt infection. Most frequently S. aureus, H. influenzae, and S. pneumoniae were isolated. Anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides spec., Fusobacteria, Prevotella spec.) were isolated from tracheal aspirate in a minority of patients, and predominantly as part of a mixed infection. Antibiotic monotherapy with a 2nd generation cephalosporin, or a 3rd generation gyrase inhibitor, was most effective in our patients regardless of the presence of anaerobic bacteria.

  2. Estimation of bacteriological spoilage of pork cutlets by electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Kinga M; Seregély, Zs; Dalmadi, I; Andrássy, Eva; Farkas, J

    2007-06-01

    The utility of chemosensor array (EN) signals of head-space volatiles of aerobically stored pork cutlets as a non-invasive technique for monitoring their microbiological load was studied during storage at 4, 8 and 12 degrees C, respectively. The bacteriological quality of the meat samples was determined by standard total aerobic plate counts (TAPC) and colony count of selectively estimated Pseudomonas (PS) spp., the predominant aerobic spoilage bacteria. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose measurements were principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to model correlation between microbial loads and EN signal responses, the degree of bacteriological spoilage, independently of the temperature of the refrigerated storage. Sensor selection techniques were applied to reduce the dimensionality and more robust calibration models were computed by determining few individual sensors having the smallest cross correlations and highest correlations with the reference data. Correlations between the predicted and "real" values were given on cross-validated data from both data reduced models and for full calibrations using the 23 sensor elements. At the same time, sensorial quality of the raw cutlets was noted subjectively on faultiness of the odour and colour, and drip formation of the samples. These preliminary studies indicated that the electronic nose technique has a potential to detect bacteriological spoilage earlier or at the same time as olfactory quality deterioration.

  3. Tercer Simposio Internacional de Bacteriología

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    Ana Elvira Farfán-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este suplemento reúne 24 resúmenes de proyectos de investigación básica y aplicada que fueron presentados en el marco del Tercer Simposio Internacional de Bacteriología, organizado por el programa de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Santander UDES, sede Bucaramanga entre el 27 al 29 de abril de 2016 en el marco de la celebración de los 20 años de funcionamiento del programa. En este evento se reunieron investigadores nacionales, internacionales, profesores, estudiantes de pregrado y posgrado, quienes compartieron experiencias y avances de investigación en torno a las ciencias biomédicas. Dentro de los objetivos del tercer simposio estaba divulgar los resultados de investigación de investigadores y estudiantes de diferentes instituciones regionales y nacionales así como establecer alianzas y acercamientos con científicos e investigadores de las instituciones participantes para el fortalecimiento de las líneas de investigación del Grupo de Investigación en Manejo Clínico –CliniUDES-. Entre los temas que fueron tratados en el simposio se destacan: enfermedades emergentes y cambio climático, enfermedades virales tropicales, hematología clínica, síndrome metabólico, actualización en diagnóstico de diabetes, cáncer y marcadores tumorales, gestión del riesgo y genética forense. Los organizadores del evento fueron la Dra. Juanita Trejos Suárez y el Dr. Sergio Yebrail Gómez Rangel acompañados por un comité científico y académico y por estudiantes del programa de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico.

  4. Bacteriological problems in water supply systems; Bakteriologische Probleme bei Wassersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, P.

    2007-07-01

    This article takes a look at bacteriological problems in hot-water distribution system and, in particular looks at the situation concerning legionella bacteria which thrive in standing water at temperatures often encountered in domestic hot water systems. The article is based on experience gained in the analysis of over 1500 hot-water systems. Diseases caused by the inhalation of water droplets emanating from domestic hot-water systems are discussed and showers are mentioned as being a problem zone. An ecological thermal protective system is described. Problems that can be encountered in ventilation and air-conditioning systems and other potential sources are also mentioned.

  5. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities.

  6. Distribution of Infections and Bacteriological Spectrum in Crush Syndrome

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    Fadime ERSOY DURSUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This research was designed as a therapeutic and prognostic study to assess the clinical and bacteriological examination findings of crush syndrome patients admitted to our hospital after the Bingol earthquake. MATERIAL and METHODS: A retrospective assessment was carried out on the medical records of the patients with Crush syndrome. Sixteen patients were admitted to the nephrology department after the earthquake. The patients had a mean age of 23 ± 13 years and a mean time spent under rubble of 10.3 ± 7 hours. A total of 16 fasciotomy procedures were carried out in 16 of 11 cases (68%, while 9 of these cases had surgical wounds complicated by infection. RESULTS: Microbiology tests detected bacteriological agents in 88 of 43 (49% specimens collected from 16 of 13 (81% patients. The major bacterial isolates from wound infections included Acinetobacter (46%, Escherichia coli (23% and coagulase negative Staphylococci (14%. Increased length of hospitalization resulted in supervening of secondary bacterial infections. No patients who received treatment died, however a patient surviving a cardiac arrest later developed ischemic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: Infections are a major problem in crush syndrome, but we suggest that early and vigorous care and appropriate prophylactic antibiotic treatment play a key role in decreased mortality.

  7. Mycoplasma hominis: an incidental but significant finding by routine bacteriological culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Jan Berg; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2009-01-01

    bacteriological culture during a 4-year period. Methods: Dpt. of Clinical Microbiology, Aalborg Hospital serves a population of 0.5 mio. Aerobic bacteriologic cultures are routinely carried out on 5% horse blood agar and chocolate agar (SSI Diagnostika, DK) at 35 °C in 5% CO2. The finding of translucent, pinpoint...

  8. 9 CFR 147.11 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of salmonella. 147.11 Section 147.11 Animals and Animal Products... procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of salmonella. (a) For egg- and meat-type chickens... 25 birds, and birds from Salmonella enteritidis (SE) positive environments should be cultured...

  9. AERO-BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VEGETABLES MARKET AT JABALPUR

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    A. K. Pathak ، K. S. Verma

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban and rural vegetable markets of India characterized by mass activity with a little sanitary measure are responsible for generation of higher quantity of aerosols containing biotic and abiotic components. The aerosols generated in due course of mechanical disturbance, contain many organic compounds enable to sensitize vital respiratory organs of local inhabitants. Inhalation of airborne microorganisms can expose workers to risks from infection, toxicosis and allergy. The presence of non-spore forming gram-negative bacteria in air due to the mechanical areosolization indicates higher rate of dissemination of pollutants in these occupation associated areas. The present aero-bacteriological investigation included enumeration, identification and numerical analysis of different types of culturable airborne bacteria with inhalable fraction of gram-negative bacteria in the vegetable market of the city of Jabalpur, in order to measure the degree of aerobiopollution for this environment. The aero-bacteriological sampling has been done fortnightly for a period of one year. Samples were cultured based on standard methods. The survey revealed that in this type of atmosphere, environmental factors were responsible for the persistence of airborne bacteria with variable effects. The major contributors for aerosol generation were other mechanical activities, since this site is classified under human activity-enriched and highly trafficked site. The bioload of this atmosphere was recorded as high as 2.9 x 103 bacterial carrying particles per cubic meter during winter, dominated by both inhalable and non inhalable fractions of gram-negative bacteria. In summer, soil-borne bacteria were reported dominant in the air. High humidity and low temperature were the major factors for dissemination and distribution of gram-negative bacilli. A regression model with upto 43% variance was prepared in order to predict the bioload for this atmosphere in relation to

  10. Bacteriological Indicators on The Environment and in Human Health

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    Ruvalcaba Ledezma Jesús Carlos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background.Mexico has public health problems due to its inadequate systems for sewage treatment, sanitation means and low income and economic levels, which influence the increase of disease manifestation. Objective.Determine seasonal variations, frequency and distribution of enterobacteriaairborne aerosols incoming from “San Juan de Dios” River. It is worth mentioning that, these bacteria possess antimicrobial and heavy metals resistance, such as to Pb, Cr, and Cd, and their hemolytic profile.Materials and Methods.Therefore, an ecological study was conducted during the seasons of summer and autumn. Results.822 enterobacteria strains were collected,from which 723 were identified under 18 genres and 40 species, from which 63.90% corresponding to summer and 36.09% to the autumn season. As a critical sampling, point number 2 showed to have 265 colony forming units during summer and 124 during autumn. 48 strains had beta-hemolytic profile; the 68.57% of identified strains showed resistance to more than two antibiotics in reference of Pb, Cd and Cr to which also showed resistance. Conclusion. Enter bacteriological recoverability shows values above 1x103 Gram negative/m3 of air, as risk factors for human health; which allows (due to their characteristics their implementation as useful indicators of risk exposure.

  11. AEROBIC BACTERIOLOGY OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA: OUR EXPERIENCE

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    Mahesh V .

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a condition of the middle ear that is characterized by persistent or recurrent discharge through a chronic perforation of the tympanic membrane from the middle ear cleft. Untreated cases of Chronic Suppurative Oti tis Media can result in a broad range of complications like mastoiditis, labyrinthitis, facial nerve paralysis and serious intracranial complications. In this study an attempt is made to know the aerobic bacteriology of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, wi th antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolates. The present prospective study was carried out on 50 patients presenting with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media between January 2014 to December 2014 in the department of E.N.T, Basaveshwara Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chitradurga. The most common bacteria in Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media in this study was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (62% followed by Staphylococcus aureus (22%. Gentamicin was the most sensitive (100% antibio tic against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Amikacin (96.77%. Ceftriaxone and Gentamicin were the most sensitive (100% antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus followed by Amikacin (90.9%

  12. CLINICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ACUTE DIARRHOEA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haricharan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : OBJECTIVES: To know the hospital prevalence and clinical features of acute diarrhoea and describe the common bacterial pathogens isolated in these cases of diarrhoea in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out in children with acute dia rrhea between 1month to 12 years of age at Shree Siddhartha Medical College Hospital, Tumkur from November 2007 to August 2009.After detailed history and examination, stool samples were collected and subjected to microscopic examination and culture and sen sitivity. The data thus collected was analysed . RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Acute diarrhea accounted for 10.12 % (95% CI 8.98, 11.26 percent of total admissions to pediatric ward. The prevalence of diarrhea peaks in children aged 7 - 24 months (the usual weani ng period and then decreases with increasing age. The analysis of clinical presentation revealed that vomiting and fever were frequent accompaniments of diarrhoea. Artificially fed children were affected more often than exclusively breast - fed ones. Varyin g grades of PEM was present in majority of the study cases. Most of the cases had some dehydration. In majority of study cases enteropathogenic bacteria were isolated; among which E. coli was the commonest. Most of the isolates were sensitive to Gentam i cin and Amikacin. Bacteriological study and sensitivity pattern helps us to identify the most prevalent organism in the locality and to select the most appropriate drug and thus reducing the cost of treatment. Appropriate fluid and antibiotic management resul ted in prompt recovery.

  13. [Bacteriological aspects of preparation, storage and transport of milk formulas (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irle, U; Gängel, G

    1976-07-01

    1. It was shown that special apparatus for cleaning milkbottles makes additional desinfection unnecessary with regard to bacteriological and hygienic aspects. -- 2. Milk-bottles should be processed centrally for safety reasons. Special basket-containers facilitate a more economic washing process, transport and storage of the bottles. -- 3. Physiologically optimal milk formulas, as available today, should be prepared and filled into bottles in the ward where they are needed, immediately before use, to guarantee bacteriologically optimal conditions. -- 4. With appropriate organization within a clinic it should be possible to store special dietary formulas which have been prepared centrally, not in the wards, over the required time without the risk of bacterial contamination. The need for regular and systemic bacteriological checks is emphasized.

  14. A study of operative treatment and bacteriological examination of persistent oro-antral fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindet-Pedersen, S; Skoglund, L A; Hvidegaard, T; Holst, E

    1983-10-01

    A retrospective study of 35 patients with oro-antral fistulas of more than 2 weeks duration is presented. Treatment results by using the Rehrmann plastic procedure, as well as complications and sequelae are described. The results of bacteriological examination in 15 patients with maxillary sinusitis in association with oro-antral fistulas are presented. The bacteriological findings suggest that broad spectrum antibiotics in certain conditions should be administered in cases of persisting oro-antral fistulas associated with maxillary sinusitis. The results of the present study show that the Rehrmann-operation proves satisfactory even in treatment-resistent cases.

  15. 9 CFR 147.10 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of egg-type breeding flocks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of egg-type breeding flocks with salmonella enteritidis positive... examination of egg-type breeding flocks with salmonella enteritidis positive environments. Birds selected for bacteriological examination from egg-type breeding flocks positive for Salmonella enteritidis after...

  16. EU Interlaboratory comparison study IX on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the ninth interlaboratory comparison study on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp. was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, the Netherlands). National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member State

  17. EU Interlaboratory comparison study VIII on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Heisterkamp SH; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    In 2004 the eighth interlaboratory comparison study on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp. was organized by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, the Netherlands). National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member Stat

  18. A bacteriological survey of an oyster-growing area: The Oualidia Lagoon, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchriti, N; El Marrakchi, A; Fahim, A; Goyal, S M

    1992-09-01

    A 3-year bacteriological survey of an oyster-growing area in Morocco, where the Japanese oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is grown, showed that the contamination of this lagunar ecosystem was not continuous but intermittent and that animal manure and human recreational activities were important sources of pollution. The major source of contamination was of animal origin, except during the summer, when human contamination prevailed.

  19. Bacteriological evaluation for one-and two-piece implant design supporting mandibular overdenture

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    Ahmed Abdelwahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated and compared the bacteriological effect of two-piece implants and one-piece implants in complete overdenture cases on supporting structures. Materials and Methods: Ten male completely edentulous patients were selected and randomly divided into two equal groups according to the implant design and surgical technique for this study; Group 1: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by two-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch following two-stage surgical technique and Group 2: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side. Evaluation was made at the time of insertion, 6, 12, and 18 months after overdenture insertion, by measuring bacteriological changes around implants abutments. Results: Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants showed better effect on the bacteriological changes as compared to that supported by two-piece implants. Conclusion: Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch showed better effect on the bacteriological changes than using the same prosthesis supported by two-piece implants.

  20. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhwane Saidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed ​​Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40% was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%, Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%, Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%, Staphylococcusaureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%, Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%, S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%, and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%.

  1. [Cultures of bacteriology in France, 1880-1900: bench and politics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwy, Ilana

    2010-01-01

    Iconic accounts of the "bacteriological revolution" presented it as a radical change in the understanding of the natural world. Scientist had discovered that human being shared their environment with billions of invisible living beings which shape life phenomena, health and disease. They also learned to cultivate and manipulate these invisible creatures. The domestication of microorganisms in the laboratory disarmed them as enemies and occasionally transformed them into allies. This analysis of the development in French bacteriology displays a more nuanced and complex picture, with continuities as well as ruptures, and multiple levels of change. Between 1880 and 1900, the rise of "pasteurian science" did produce important changes in French society, but these changes were obtained through a variety of approaches: introduction of new experimental techniques, administrative and legal methods, training of professionals, education of the general public, and a direct political intervention.

  2. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY OF THE TEPALCINGO-AXOCHIAPAN AQUIFER, MORELOS, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza S. Robles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The water quality of the Tepalcingo-Axochiapan aquifer, Mexico was determined. Six samplings were carried out, taking samples from eight wells before chlorine and one spring. Two bacteriological and 11 physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Most of the wells and spring presented hard water. The wells showed higher concentrations of dissolved solids at lower altitudes, exception of the spring. Discriminate analysis and the Mahalanobis distances showed that the spring had the biggest differences with respect to the other wells. Bacteriologically the spring and a well are not suitable for amusement activities and physicochemically three wells are not suitable as a source of drinking water. The lack of sanitation and drainage in some areas may be causing deterioration of water quality in the aquifer in such areas.

  3. Canine brucellosis: bacteriological and serological investigation of naturally infected dogs in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Castro, R; Suarez, F; Ramirez-Pfeiffer, C; Carmichael, L E

    1977-12-01

    Bacteriological investigation of canine brucellosis in Mexico City revealed a high rate (11.8%) of Brucella canis infection in a sampling of 59 stray dogs. When conservative criteria were employed in the interpretation of serological test results, there was general agreement between the serological and bacteriological findings; however, some animals with localized male genital tract infections could not be judged as infected solely by serological tests. All Mexican field isolates were identified as B. canis; however, some diversity was observed as regards nitrate reduction, growth in the presence of basic fuchsine, and the degree of mucoidness. The seemingly high prevalence of B. canis infection in Mexico City dogs suggests the need for further inquiry into the possible public health significance.

  4. First experience of electron microscopic and bacteriological examination of the prostate gland stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Vinogradov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on a study of prostate stones obtained by transurethral resection of the prostate in 5 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with chronic calculous prostatitis. Stones have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microstructural analysis, as well as a comparative study of bacteriological swabs from the surface of the stones after ultrasonic treatment of stone and without it. Pretreatment ultrasound prostate stones before sowing on nutrient medium swabs improves bacteriological diagnosis, which may be due to the dispersion of biofilms and exit vegetative forms of bacteria from it. This feature can serve as ultrasound theoretical justification for its use to improve the efficiency of diagnosis of various forms of prostatitis.

  5. Back to the kitchen: food-grade agar is a low-cost alternative to bacteriological agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovski, Steve; Tillett, Daniel

    2012-10-15

    Food-grade agar can be used as a low-cost substitute for bacteriological agar in the preparation of solid microbial media. No difference was observed in the colony morphology, growth rate, or viability of bacteria grown on solid media prepared using food-grade agar as compared with using bacteriological-grade agar. This simple tip can reduce the cost of the most common solid media by 80% or more.

  6. Evaluation of Bacteriological and Chemical Quality of Dialysis Water and Fluid in Isfahan, Central Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahryari, Ali; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; HATAMZADEH, Maryam; Vahid Dastjerdi, Marzieh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemical and microbial quality of water used in hemodialysis play key roles in a number of dialysis-related complications. In order to avoid the complications and to guarantee safety and health of patients therefore, vigorous control of water quality is essential. The objective of present study was to investigate the chemical and bacteriological characteristics of water used in dialysis centers of five hospitals in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: A total of 30 water samples from th...

  7. Asepsis and Bacteriology: A Realignment of Surgery and Laboratory Science1

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the origins of aseptic surgery in the German-speaking countries. It interprets asepsis as the outcome of a mutual realignment of surgery and laboratory science. In that process, phenomena of surgical reality were being modelled and simplified in the bacteriological laboratory so that they could be subjected to control by the researcher’s hands and eyes. Once control was achieved, it was being extended to surgical practice by recreating the relevant features of the controll...

  8. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY OF THE TEPALCINGO-AXOCHIAPAN AQUIFER, MORELOS, MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Esperanza S. Robles; Elizabeth Ramírez; Ángel Durán; María E Martínez

    2013-01-01

    The water quality of the Tepalcingo-Axochiapan aquifer, Mexico was determined. Six samplings were carried out, taking samples from eight wells before chlorine and one spring. Two bacteriological and 11 physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Most of the wells and spring presented hard water. The wells showed higher concentrations of dissolved solids at lower altitudes, exception of the spring. Discriminate analysis and the Mahalanobis distances showed that the spring had the biggest differe...

  9. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Quality Characterization of Some Selected Wells in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Aribisala

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater (Wells is obtained from several well-defined and different water-bearing geological layers or strata. The physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the water contributed from each of these water-bearing formations and resultant effects of indiscriminate wastes disposal will be dependent on the dissolution of material within the formation. Therefore, water withdrawn from any ground water source will be a composite of these individual aquifers. The water quality was determined by actual sampling and analysis of the completed wells. This study attempted to examine the physicochemical and bacteriological water quality of twenty five selected wells comprising twenty boreholes (deep wells and five hand dug wells (shallow wells. The twenty five wells cut across the entire Ado Ekiti Metropolitan area. The water samples collected using standard method was promptly taken to water laboratory at the Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti for analysis, physical, chemical and bacteriological tests were carried out. Quality characteristics tested were found to meet WHO’s standard and generally acceptable, making it potable for drinking in most situations,thus encouraging the use of groundwater. Possible improvement strategies to groundwater exploitation were highlighted while remedies to poor quality water were suggested.

  10. Bacteriological conversion in twenty urinary tuberculosis patients treated with ofloxacin, rifampin and isoniazid: a 10-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiñeiras, A Alberte; Pérez-Pascual, P; Zarranz, J Estébanez; Della-Latta, P; Herreras, A

    2002-09-01

    Twenty patients with urinary tuberculosis were treated with ofloxacin (200 mg/day, 6 months), rifampin (600 mg/day, 3 months) and isoniazid (300 mg/day, 3 months) between 1989 and 1990. All patients were new cases, diagnosed by observation and/or isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in one of the three morning urine samples. Bacteriological culture conversion (negativization) was assessed as a clinical guide of efficacy, comparing it, as the only parameter, against a control group (150 patients) with urinary tuberculosis who received conventional therapy. Bacteriological follow-up studies were performed in both groups monthly for 6 months, then again 6 months later and then every year for 10 years after completion of treatment. In the 20 patients, the initial culture was positive with over 100 colonies per culture (>50%); the smear was positive in 45% of the patients (most were 2+). All strains were susceptible to rifampin, isoniazid and ofloxacin. Two patients discontinued treatment. Beginning with the first month of treatment, the bacteriological conversion was 100%, 89.5% and 100% in the remaining controls. In the control group, which received conventional treatment, the conversion was: 90%, 87%, 93% and 100% in the remaining controls. Treatment with ofloxacin resulted in a bacteriological conversion similar to that following conventional treatment ( p>0.05, Fisher's exact test). After 10 years of patient follow-up, we conclude that ofloxacin, in combination with rifampin and isoniazid (both for 3 months only is effective against M. tuberculosis, providing satisfactory bacteriological and clinical efficacy.

  11. Bacteriology testing of cardiovascular tissues: comparison of transport solution versus tissue testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rodríguez, R; Van Hoeck, B; Mujaj, B; Ngakam, R; Fan, Y; Bogaerts, K; Jashari, R

    2016-06-01

    Bacteriology testing is mandatory for quality control of recovered cardiovascular allografts (CVA). In this paper, two different bacteriology examinations (A tests) performed before tissue antibiotic decontamination were compared: transport solution filtration analysis (A1) and tissue fragment direct incubation (A2). For this purpose, 521 CVA (326 heart and 195 artery tissues) from 280 donors were collected and analyzed by the European Homograft Bank (EHB). Transport solution (A1) tested positive in 43.25 % of hearts and in 48.21 % of arteries, whereas the tissue samples (A2) tested positive in 38.34 % of hearts and 33.85 % of arteries. The main species identified in both A1 and A2 were Staphylococcus spp. in 55 and 26 % of cases, and Propionibacterium spp. in 8 and 19 %, respectively. Mismatches in bacteriology results between both initial tests A1 and A2 were found. 18.40 % of the heart valves were identified as positive by A1 whilst 13.50 % were considered positive by A2. For arteries, 20.51 % of cases were positive in A1 and negative in A2, and just 6.15 % of artery allografts presented contamination in the A2 test but were considered negative for the A1 test. Comparison between each A test with the B and C tests after antibiotic treatment of the allograft was also performed. A total decontamination rate of 70.8 % of initial positive A tests was obtained. Due to the described mismatches and different bacteria identification percentage, utilization of both A tests should be implemented in tissue banks in order to avoid false negatives.

  12. Clinical and bacteriological study of the effect of Nd:YAG laser in gingivitis therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colojoara, Carmen; Mavrantoni, Androniki; Miron, Mariana I.

    2000-06-01

    The relationship between dental plaque and gingivitis was verified. Nonspecific gingivitis is an inflammatory process, frequently caused by enzymes and toxins liberate by bacteria form dental plaque. Loose plaque has come under a great deal of investigation because of its role in attachment loss. The current methods used in the treatment of non specific gingivitis encompass the use of antibiotics and conventional surgical techniques. Treating gingivitis with laser energy may further reduce the gingival inflammation and decrease the wound healing time. The lack of correlation between the quantity of dental plaque and the intensity of gingivitis determined us to study the effect of Nd:YAG pulsed laser in reduction of gingival inflammation and wound healing. The aim of this work is to evaluate clinically the anti- inflammatory and wound healing effect of pulsed Nd:YAG laser and to compare the appearance and the levels of the bacteria in the supergingival and subgingival plaque in adolescents with tooth crowding after Nd:YAG laser. The experimental procedure consisted of a clinical and bacteriological study which was undertaken in 20 patients presenting moderate gingivitis. A group of 10 patients was the subject of a bacteriological study and the other group of 10 was used for clinical and histological examination. For each group the clinical criteria of evaluation were: the gingival index, papillary bleeding index, spontaneous aches. Each patient was tested before and after laser exposure or conventional therapy for bacteriological analyses. The results prove that early gingivitis exposure to laser registers a decrease of bacterial colony number and absence of loss of attachment as compared to the application of the conventional treatment. Clinical study has shown that the combination of scaling and root planning with laser therapy is enough to provide improvement in clinical indices and reduction in the number of bacterial colonies.

  13. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF MICROFILTERED DRINKING WATER DISPENSERS IN CATERING ESTABLISHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Marzano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriological quality of microfiltered drinking water dispensers was evaluated, through enumeration of heterotrophic plate count at 22 and 37 °C, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this research was to control the hygiene of the microfiltered water and to evaluate the effectiveness of the microfiltration procedure on the survival of bacteria. In total, 54 water samples were analyzed. The results indicated a high contamination frequency with P. aeruginosa (25 and 20% in room temperature and chilled water samples, respectively and therefore the need to improve the efficacy and the frequency of the dispenser sanitation procedures.

  14. [Hospital solid waste: quantification. Bacteriological analyses--case of hospital Ibn Sina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Meriem; Belkhadir, Rachid; Benzakour, Mohammed; Idrissi, Larbi; Khadri, Abdelhamid

    2006-01-01

    Hospital waste represent, by their nature and their constitution, a big threat to health in the intra and extra hospital area. and a source of pollution for the environment. A 12-day campaign of weighing of the waste produced by the hospital Ibn Sina of Rabat-Morocco should an average of 1.75 kg/bed/day. In order to identify the hospital pathogenic germs as well as their sensitivities to antibiotics, some bacteriological analyses have been done on the percolat waste of this hospital. The results of these analyses put in evidence the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and their resistance to some antibiotics.

  15. Bacteriological profile of neonatal septicemia cases (for the year 1990-91.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur M

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture reports were studied in 1266 cases of clinically suspected neonatal septicemia, to determine the bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the cultured isolates. Blood culture was positive in 24.88% of cases. Gram negative septicemia was encountered in 87.1% of these neonates. Klebsiella and Enterobacter species were the predominant pathogens amongst Gram negative organisms. Of Gram positive isolates, Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant isolate (79.0%. Salmonella species was isolated in 2.4% of these cases.

  16. A Clinico-bacteriological study of primary pyodermas of children in Pondicherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Mariette

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty children selected at random and diagnosed as having Primary Pyoderma lesions were studied for clinical patterns and bacteriological profile. Sixty percent of the cases were girls. The commonest clinical type was impetigo contagiosa (45% followed by folliculities of the scalp (44.2%. Staphylococcus aureus was the etiological agent in 47.5% while 26.7% of the cases were due to mixed infection along with Streptococcus pyogenes. Almost all strains were sensitive to Erythromycin and Gentamycin. The highest resistance was to Penicillin (79.3% followed by Ampicillin (73.9% and Tetracycline (42.3%.

  17. Prokaryote phylogeny meets taxonomy: An exhaustive comparison of composition vector trees with systematic bacteriology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Lei; QI; Ji; SUN; JianDong; HAO; BaiLin

    2007-01-01

    We perform an exhaustive, taxon by taxon, comparison of the branchings in the composition vector trees (CVTrees) inferred from 432 prokaryotic genomes available on 31 December 2006, with the bacteriologists' taxonomy-primarily the latest online Outline of the Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. The CVTree phylogeny agrees very well with the Bergey's taxonomy in majority of fine branchings and overall structures. At the same time most of the differences between the trees and the Manual have been known to biologists to some extent and may hint at taxonomic revisions. Instead of demonstrating the overwhelming agreement this paper puts emphasis on the biological implications of the differences.

  18. Bacteriological profile of neonatal septicemia in a tertiary care hospital from Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrishali Avinash Muley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal septicemia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The present study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of prevalent pathogens isolated from the blood of septicemic neonates from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. A total of 180 blood samples of septicemic neonates were studied bacteriologically. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method in accordance to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institutes (CLSI guidelines. 26.6% (48 out of 180 cases of septicemia could be confirmed by blood culture. Of these, 66.7% cases were of early onset septicemia (EOS and 33.3% were of late onset septicemia (LOS. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen (35.4% among the Gram-negative pathogens and Staphylococcus aureus (22.9% was the predominant Gram-positive pathogen. 28% of K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producers. 18.1% of the Staphylococcus isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Multi-drug-resistance pattern was observed with all the isolates. Ciprofloxacin and aminoglycosides were the most effective drugs against Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. This study highlights the predominance of Gram-negative organisms in causing neonatal sepsis and emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains in our set up.

  19. Reservoir monitoring---1990: Bacteriological conditions in the Tennessee Valley. Second annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehring, J.P.

    1991-05-01

    Twenty-three designated swimming beaches, two informal swimming areas, and four canoe launching sites were sampled at least ten times during a 30-day period in 1990. All 29 met the regulatory limits of a geometric mean of less than 200 colonies of fecal coliform bacteria per l00 milliliters (ml). However, four sites had one sample each with at least 1000 colonies per 100 ml, which is a violation of recreation criteria in two of the seven Tennessee Valley states. Forty-four nonrecreation sites were also sampled to provide generic bacteriological water quality data on several reservoirs and streams and to determine if the Georgia Mountain Fair was having an adverse impact on the bacteriological water quality of Chatuge Reservoir. No impact was observed. Thirty-three sites on 15 reservoirs were sampled, and all but three met recreation criteria. Eleven locations were sampled on three streams: Cotaco Creek near Huntsville, and Beaver and Bullrun Creeks near Knoxville. A comparison of 1990 sampling results at 16 sites with results from a 1974 survey was made.

  20. Bacteriological evaluation of refrigerated vacuum and air-packed chicken fillets treated with irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantilla, Samira P.S.; Santos, Erica B.; Mano, Sergio B.; Franco, Robson M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: samiramantilla@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: ericaebs@hotmail.com, e-mail: mtasbm@vm.uff.br, e-mail: robsonmf@vm.uff.br; Conte Junior, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: carlosconte@hotmail.com; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear (DDQBN)], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Chicken meat is a nutritious food, rich in essential aminoacids and much appreciated by a large fraction of the population. However, it is also highly perishable, typically having a shelf life of 5 to 7 days in refrigeration, depending on the initial microbiological load. Irradiation has been efficiently used to improve safety and extend the shelf lives of many meat products. Its use in combination with refrigeration and exclusion of oxygen is known to greatly enhance the sanitary quality of meat. This work investigated the bacteriological effects of radiation doses of 0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy on vacuum- and air-packed chicken fillets kept at 1 deg C for up to 18 days. Bacteriological analyses that included enumerating and counting indicated that both the lag phase of the bacterial growth and the shelf life of the samples increased with dose. It was observed that exposure to 3.0 kGy extended the initial 5-day shelf life of the air-packed fillets to 10 days while prolonging to 12 days the shelf life of the vacuum-packed ones. Among the species of bacteria monitored, the lactic bacteria were found to be the most resistant to gamma radiation while coliforms were the most sensitive. (author)

  1. Bacteriological Study of the Marine Water in the Coastal of the North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Indah Sutiknowati

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the marine bacteriology of the coast of North Sulawesi. The study was accomplished by calculating the abundance of coliform, heterotrophic, and pathogenic bacteria, and analyzing the coexistence relationship between bacteria and phytoplanktons. This research, which included the sampling and laboratory works, has been carried out on 25 - 28 October, 2000. The results suggested that the abundance of each bacteria was as follows: coliform bacteria range between 227-5940 cfu/100 ml with averages 1814.1 cfu/100 ml, found in all stations; heterotrophic bacteria range between (1-82 x 103 cfu/ml with averages 12.1 x 103 cfu/ml, it was high density and has association with phytoplankton Trichodesmium thieubautii. It was also found 6 species of pathogen bacteria e.g. Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Yersinia and Shigella. The presence of coliform and pathogen bacteria was indicator of low quality of the seawater in the sampling area. Based on bacteriological study, the North Sulawesi Coastal is not suitable for aquaculture and need treatment and controlled for further coastal exploitation.

  2. Evaluation of Bacteriological and Chemical Quality of Dialysis Water and Fluid in Isfahan, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAHRYARI, Ali; NIKAEEN, Mahnaz; HATAMZADEH, Maryam; VAHID DASTJERDI, Marzieh; HASSANZADEH, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemical and microbial quality of water used in hemodialysis play key roles in a number of dialysis-related complications. In order to avoid the complications and to guarantee safety and health of patients therefore, vigorous control of water quality is essential. The objective of present study was to investigate the chemical and bacteriological characteristics of water used in dialysis centers of five hospitals in Isfahan, central Iran. Methods: A total of 30 water samples from the input of dialysis purification system and dialysis water were analyzed for chemical parameters. Heterotrophic plate count and endotoxin concentration of drinking water, dialysis water and dialysis fluid of 40 machines were also monitored over a 5-month period in 2011–2012. Results: Concentration of the determined chemicals (copper, zinc, sulfate, fluoride, chloramines and free chlorine) did not exceed the recommended concentration by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) exclude lead, nitrate, aluminum and calcium. Furthermore, the magnesium; cadmium and chromium concentration exceeded the maximum level in some centers. No contamination with heterotrophic bacteria was observed in all samples, while the AMMI standard for endotoxin level in dialysis fluid (water and fluid failed to meet the all chemical and bacteriological requirements for hemodialysis. To minimize the risk of contaminants for hemodialysis patients therefore, a water quality management program including monitoring, maintenance and development of water treatment system in hemodialysis centers is extremely important. In addition, an appropriate disinfection program is needed to guarantee better control of bacterial growth and biofilm formation. PMID:27398338

  3. Association of Sanitary Conditions and Bacteriological Quality of Tube Ice in Ice Plants in Metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraichat Tantrakarnapa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aimed at studying the correlation between ice plant sanitary conditions and bacteriological quality of ice. The sanitary conditions in accordance with GMP regulations, the bacteriological quality of tube ice, and the processing water in 20 plants in Bangkok were studied. A modified inspection form from the Office of Food and Drug Administration was used for sanitary condition surveys. Ice and processing water samples were collected 2 times per plant with 3 samples each time. All 120 samples were analyzed for bacteriological quality by means of Standard Plate Count technique (Pour plate method and Most Probable Number technique (MPN method. The results indicated that forty percent (8 Tube plants failed and the remaining passed sanitary condition criteria. 23% of Tube Ice samples were acceptable in the standard permission level in terms of Total coliform bacteria and Fecal coliform bacteria. All Tube Ice plant processing water samples were acceptable in comparison with the standard permission level. Ice plant sanitary conditions were significantly correlated to bacteriological quality of the ice (p<0.05. Ice plant manufacturers should develop and implement Sanitary Standard and Operational Procedures (S.S.O.P. in accordance with all GMP requirements to improve Ice plant sanitary conditions.

  4. Clinical and bacteriological effects of pivmecillinam for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae in urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansåker, Filip; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Sjögren, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is increasing and the therapeutic options are limited, especially in primary care. Recent indications have suggested pivmecillinam to be a suitable option. Here, we evalua...... evaluated the clinical and bacteriological effects of pivmecillinam in UTIs caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae....

  5. Bacteriological water quality in the Lake Pontchartrain basin Louisiana following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, September 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Donald M.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Demcheck, Dennis K.; Skrobialowski, Stanley C.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Bertke, Erin E.; Mailot, Brian E.; Mize, Scott V.; Fendick, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, monitored bacteriological quality of water at 22 sites in and around Lake Pontchartrain, La., for three consecutive weeks beginning September 13, 2005, following hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the associated flooding. Samples were collected and analyzed by USGS personnel from the USGS Louisiana Water Science Center and the USGS Ohio Water Microbiology Laboratory. Fecal-indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, enterococci, and fecal coliform) concentrations ranged from the detection limit to 36,000 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Data are presented in tabular form and as plots of data in the context of available historical data and water-quality standards and criteria for each site sampled. Quality-control data were reviewed to ensure that methods performed as expected in a mobile laboratory setting.

  6. Comparative Bacteriological Study of Two Wild Boar Populations in Sierra Morena (Ja�n, Spain

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    Antonio NOTARIO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of various bacterial species in the wild boar populations of Lugar Nuevo and Selladores-Contadero woodlands from Sierra Morena (Spain. Bacteriological analyses were carried out on a total of 229 wild boar individuals hunted in the period 2000-2003 in eleven experimental plots which are representative for the different biotopes of the area. The following species were detected: Brucella ovis, Clostridium sp., Corynebacterium sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Chlamydophila psittaci, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus sp. and the bacterial prevalence was estimated for each of them. The results provide useful indications of the health status of wild boar in both locations and highlight the potential of the wild boar populations to act as biological reservoirs of certain microorganisms that can be passed onto other vertebrate wild animals and humans.

  7. Pleuritis in slaughter pigs: relations between lung lesions and bacteriology in 10 herds with high pleuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirawattanapong, Pichai; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; van Leengoed, Leo; Wisselink, Henk; Raymakers, Rudolf; Cruijsen, Toine; van der Peet-Schwering, Carola; Nielen, Mirjam; van Nes, Arie

    2010-02-01

    Pleuritis in slaughter pigs has increased in recent years in the Netherlands. The aim of the present study was to determine what respiratory pathogens were involved in pleuritis. In total, lungs of 968 slaughter pigs from 10 herds with high prevalence of pleuritis were morphologically examined for size, location, and type of lesions. Moreover, histology and bacteriology were performed. Examination of gross lung lesions showed 45% pleuritis, 14% pleuropneumonia and 38% catarrhal pneumonia. Peribronchiolar cuffing was found in 61 of 142 samples. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was cultured from 22 lung samples from four herds. Pasteurella multocida was cultured from 55 lung samples in eight herds. No specific pattern with respect to the causal pathogens was found. In conclusion, no single infectious cause of pleuritis was found. A variety of infectious agents combined with environmental factors should be considered as a cause of pleuritis.

  8. Bacteriological and shelf-life characteristics of canned, pasteurized crab cake mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaharanu, P; Lopez, A

    1970-05-01

    The bacteriological spoilage characteristics of a canned, pasteurized crab cake mix product stored at various temperatures were investigated. A large number of bacteria, both mesophilic and psychrophilic, survived the pasteurization process. Bacillus and Micrococcus were found to predominate when the product was stored at 30 C (86 F) and 18 C (64 F), whereas Alcaligenes predominated at 2 C (36 F). The product was found to be free of Escherichia coli. Bacterial counts, trimethylamine nitrogen, volatile reducing substances, and ammonia determinations were evaluated as indices of quality for the product. Close correlation was observed between bacterial counts, volatile reducing substance values, and organoleptic tests when the product was stored at 30 C (86 F). The shelf-life of the product was approximately 6 months at 2 C (36 F), 4 days at 18 C (64 F), and 27 hr at 30 C (86 F).

  9. Bacteriological water quality along the Tijuana-Ensenada, Baja California, México shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Borbón, Ma Victoria; Rico-Mora, Roxana; Weisberg, Stephen B; Noble, Rachel T; Dorsey, John H; Leecaster, Molly K; McGee, Charles D

    2006-10-01

    This survey was part of a Binational Program (Mexico-United States) in microbiological water quality, with a goal to assess the shoreline bacteriological water quality from Tijuana to Ensenada, Mexico. Samples were collected at 29 sites (19 beaches and 10 outfalls), from the United States border to Punta Banda, Baja California, during summer (1998) and winter (1999). Total coliforms, fecal coliforms and enterococci were used as bacterial indicators. Standard methods were used for total and fecal coliforms, while the Enterolert quick method (IDEXX) was used for the enterococci. Compared with outfalls, the beaches exceeded water quality standards by a small percent, 25.3% in summer and 17% in winter. For outfalls, the percentage of shoreline that exceeded bacterial indicator thresholds had a minor value in summer (32.7%) than in winter (50%). Sites near wastewater discharges had the lowest quality and did not meet the microbiological water quality criteria for recreational use.

  10. Post-mortem interval and bacteriological culture yield in sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Martin A; Hartley, John C; Brooke, Ivan; Lock, Paul E; Klein, Nigel J; Malone, Marian; Sebire, Neil J

    2010-05-20

    It has been hypothesised that post-mortem translocation, the migration of micro-organisms from mucosal surfaces into the body after death, leads to microbial overgrowth in post-mortem samples, which is more frequently polymicrobial and which would be detected more frequently with increased post-mortem interval (PMI) from death to autopsy. This study aimed to evaluate the association between PMI and bacteriological yield in post-mortem examinations of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI). A retrospective review of all microbiological findings from >500 SUDI autopsies (7-365 days of age) was performed as part of a larger review of >1500 paediatric autopsies over a 10-year period, 1996-2005. All autopsies were carried out in a single specialist centre by a small number of paediatric pathologists. For the 507 SUDI included in the analysis, there were 2079 samples collected for bacteriological culture. The median PMI was 2 days. The proportion of positive cultures decreased from 83% for samples taken within 24h of death, to 67% when taken five or more days after death (chi-square for linear trend=19.99, Ppost-mortem translocation. Indeed, the opposite trend is observed, suggesting that a longer PMI may result in death of micro-organisms. However, these data do not allow assessment of the possibility of significant post-mortem translocation occurring within the first few hours after death. Whilst the interpretation of positive microbiological cultures in SUDI post-mortems remains difficult, a PMI of several days' duration is not associated with an increased risk of post-mortem translocation and routine microbiological sampling is recommended in all SUDI autopsies, even when there is a PMI of several days.

  11. Examination of bacteriological status of surface fresh waters using direct and cultivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Olga V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of bacteria in surface waters reflects the current state of waters and their trophicity, and it is the first parameter that is affected by the anthropogenic contamination. Traditionally, quantification of bacteria in waters is performed using the cultivation methods. However, all these methods detect only cultivable bacteria; the results depend on the incubation conditions, and the results are obtained after several days. These deficiencies are solved by using direct methods. This work is the first bacteriological examination of the reservoir Ćelije and its tributaries by using a direct method of quantification. Total of 343 samples of water from the reservoir and its tributaries were processed. In each sample, the count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was determined using cultivation method was involving involved inoculation of samples on high-nutrient PCA medium and on low-nutrient R2A medium, and incubation for 7 days at room temperature. The total number of bacteria was determined by epifluorescence microscopy technique after filtration of samples previously stained with acridine orange. Using the cultivation methods, the highest number of bacteria was recorded in the river of Blatašnica on R2A medium (56,535 CFU/ml, and lowest in the basin Vodozahvat on PCA medium (1,364 CFU/ml. According to the results from R2A, water belonged to the class of water of poorer quality compared to the results from the PCA. The results obtained by the direct method were correlated with cultivation methods. The significantly highest number of bacteria was obtained by epifluorescence microscopy, and the lowest on PCA medium. If the application of direct method for some reason is not possible, the real results of bacteriological state of surface waters can be obtained by inoculation of samples on R2A medium with adequate incubation conditions.

  12. Evaluation of Bacteriological and Chemical Quality of Dialysis Water and Fluid in Isfahan, Central Iran

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    Ali SHAHRYARI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical and microbial quality of water used in hemodialysis play key roles in a number of dialysis-related complications. In order to avoid the complications and to guarantee safety and health of patients therefore, vigorous control of water quality is essential. The objective of present study was to investigate the chemical and bacteriological characteristics of water used in dialysis centers of five hospitals in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: A total of 30 water samples from the input of dialysis purification system and dialysis water were analyzed for chemical parameters. Heterotrophic plate count and endotoxin concentration of drinking water, dialysis water and dialysis fluid of 40 machines were also monitored over a 5-month period in 2011-2012.Results: Concentration of the determined chemicals (copper, zinc, sulfate, fluoride, chloramines and free chlorine did not exceed the recommended concentration by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI exclude lead, nitrate, aluminum and calcium. Furthermore, the magnesium; cadmium and chromium concentration exceeded the maximum level in some centers. No contamination with heterotrophic bacteria was observed in all samples, while the AMMI standard for endotoxin level in dialysis fluid (<2 EU/ml was achieved in 95% of samples.Conclusion: Dialysis water and fluid failed to meet the all chemical and bacteriological requirements for hemodialysis. To minimize the risk of contaminants for hemodialysis patients therefore, a water quality management program including monitoring, maintenance and development of water treatment system in hemodialysis centers is extremely important. In addition, an appropriate disinfection program is needed to guarantee better control of bacterial growth and biofilm formation. Keywords: Dialysis water, Dialysis fluid, Chemical quality, Endotoxin, Heterotrophic bacteria 

  13. Typhoid Fever in nineteenth-century Colombia: between medical geography and bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses how the Colombian medical elites made sense of typhoid fever before and during the inception of bacteriological ideas and practices in the second half of the nineteenth century. Assuming that the identity of typhoid fever has to be understood within the broader concerns of the medical community in question, I show how doctors first identified Bogotá's epidemics as typhoid fever during the 1850s, and how they also attached specificity to the fever amongst other continuous fevers, such as its European and North American counterparts. I also found that, in contrast with the discussions amongst their colleagues from other countries, debates about typhoid fever in 1860-70 among doctors in Colombia were framed within the medico-geographical scheme and strongly shaped by the fear of typhoid fever appearing alongside 'paludic' fevers in the highlands. By arguing in medico-geographical and clinical terms that typhoid fever had specificity in Colombia, and by denying the medico-geographical law of antagonism between typhoid and paludic fevers proposed by the Frenchman Charles Boudin, Colombian doctors managed to question European knowledge and claimed that typhoid fever had distinct features in Colombia. The focus on paludic and typhoid fevers in the highlands might explain why the bacteriological aetiology of typhoid fever was ignored and even contested during the 1880s. Anti-Pasteurian arguments were raised against its germ identity and some physicians even supported the idea of spontaneous origin of the disease. By the 1890s, Pasteurian knowledge had come to shape clinical and hygienic practices.

  14. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality assessment of shallow wells in Kitui town, Kenya

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    Romulus Abila

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Kitui town, a small but fast growing town in arid south-eastern Kenya faces unreliable water supply and residents are highly dependent on shallow wells as the main source of water for domestic use. A study was carried out to assess the physical-chemical and bacteriological quality of water from shallow wells within the town’s main residential areas. 96 water samples were collected from 8 main residential estates within the town between May and July 2011 and analysed for physical-chemical characteristics and bacterial quantity and species. Water analysis revealed presence of 9 pathogenic genera including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Vibrio, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Multiple-tube fermentation technique was used to enumerate coliform bacteria in water. Total aerobic bacterial load ranged from 3.70 x102 to 2.352 x103 CFU/ml. E. Coli was isolated from Majengo and Mjini estates only and the bacterial load estimated as 1.10 x102 CFU/ml and 0.20 x102 CFU/ml respectively while Salmonella sp. was isolated from water samples from Kunda Kindu, JICA and Mjini estates. Conductivity and pH levels were above World Health Organization acceptable levels for drinking water in all samples. All samples tested did not meet the WHO bacteriological standards for drinking water. The presence of Salmonella, Vibrio, Listeria and E. Coli should particularly raise serious public health concerns over the quality of the town’s shallow wells water. Intervention measures including creating awareness and educating residents on shallow well construction, citing and care, boiling of water and improving sanitation should be urgently instituted. There is also need to construct sewerage works for the rapidly expanding Kitui town to reduce incidences of contamination from septic tanks.

  15. Bacteriological quality and food safety in a Brazilian school food program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Nagla Chaves Trindade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food safety is a critical issue in school food program. Objective: This study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality and food safety practices of a municipal school food program (MSFP in Jequitinhonha Valley, Brazil. Materials and methods: A checklist based on good manufacturing practices (GMP for food service was used to evaluate food safety practices. Samples from foods, food contact surfaces, the hands of food handlers, the water supply and the air were collected to assess bacteriological quality in establishments that comprise the MSFP. Results: Nine (81.8% establishments were classified as poor quality and two (18.2% as medium quality. Neither Salmonella nor Listeria monocytogenes were detected in food samples. Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in 36 (52.9%, 1 (1.5% and 22 (32.4% of the food samples and in 24 (40.7%, 2 (3.3% and 13 (22.0% of the food contact surfaces, respectively. The counts of coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 1 to 5.0 and 1 to 5.1 log CFU/g of food, respectively. The mean aerobic mesophilic bacteria count was 3.1 log CFU/100 cm² of surface area. Coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were detected on the hands of 33 (73.3%, 1 (2.2% and 36 (80% food handlers, respectively. With regard to air quality, all the establishments had an average aerobic mesophilic count above 1.6 log CFU/cm²/week. Conclusions: The results indicate the need to modify the GMP used in food service in MSFP in relation to food safety, particularly because children served in these establishments are often the most socially vulnerable.

  16. Development, implementation and preliminary study of a PDA-based bacteriology collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Joaquin; Fraser, Hamish SF

    2006-01-01

    Partners In Health (PIH) and its sister organization in Lima, Peru, Socios En Salud (SES), treat a majority of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients in Peru, in conjunction with the Peruvian National TB Program (NTP). Monthly bacteriology tests, which must be collected from health establishments located across this major city, are an integral part of this treatment. Currently, a SES employee visits each health establishment to collect this information by hand, process it and type it into an electronic medical record system (PIH-EMR). In this paper, we describe the development and implementation of a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based electronic system to collect, verify and upload monthly bacteriology data into the PIH-EMR. After an initial implementation period, we performed a pilot study to test the use of this system. We completed a baseline assessment in two health districts and then implemented the electronic system in one of the districts while the control site continued to use the paper-based system during the same period. The PDA-based system had a processing time of 6.2 days, significantly lower than measurements for both the baseline [54.8] and control sites [64.4] (both p<0.0001). It was also able to reduce the frequency of discrepancy from 10.1% to 2.8% (p<0.0001) and receive positive feedback from the users. Finally, the system’s cost would be recuperated in three months from time savings due to increased work efficiency. This system will be the subject of a larger study to determine its impact on delays, errors and costs. PMID:17238299

  17. Entero-hepatic pathobiology: histopathology and semi-quantitative bacteriology of the duodenum

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    NMK Ito

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Duodenum swabs were harvested from 80 broilers in 15 flocks of 8 broiler farms and were submitted to bacteriological evaluation. Five broiler breeders were sampled to obtain comparative data. Macro and microscopic lesions in the gut and the liver were evaluated in all birds submitted to swab harvesting and also broilers of two slaughter plants. Semiquantitative bacterial examination in duodenum swabs demonstrated higher microorganism growth in blood agar than in MacConkey medium. Staphylococcus sp, Enterococcus sp and Escherichia coli were found in some broiler flocks. An increased cellularity of the muscular mucosae of duodenum villi and/or the presence of some gametocytes or schizonts of coccidia were found in the lesioned gut in addition to high bacterial growth in blood agar. In some flocks, enlarged yellowish livers with vacuolated hepatocytes and/or increased reticuloendothelial response were seen in some birds. Liver and gut samples were collected in two slaughter plants in order to establish a pattern of response in broilers after withdrawal of growth promoters. Livers with macroscopic lesions presented microscopic lesions in the parenchyma such as increased leukocyte response in the sinusoidal space, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes or focal necrosis in the perilobular region, increased size or number of lymphoid nests in the perilobular region, the perivascular space and surrounding the biliary duct and increased extramedular granulocytopoiesis. Duodenum with hyperemic patches showed increased cellular response in the muscular mucosa of villi. These observations support the concept that semi-quantitative bacteriology and liver lesion evaluation could be used as a model to study gut bacterial imbalance in chickens.

  18. Geografía médica, bacteriología y el caso de las fiebres en Colombia en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relation between bacteriology and medical geography in the 19th century in Colombia, following the case of fevers. Through this, it explains how historiography has approached the relation between bacteriology and medical geography, and analyzes said relation in the medical research pertaining to yellow fever, fevers of the Magdalena River, and malaria in the 1880s. Finally, it shows that, instead of passively incorporating bacteriology, the physicians fought to combine it with medical geography, incorporating elements of both approaches, keeping them in tense separation, or rejecting one in favor of the other.

  19. Bacteriological finding in the urethra in men with and without non-gonococcal urethritis

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    Tiodorović Jelica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU is a very common sexually transmitted disease. The etiology of the disease is complex and not completely solved. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological finding in the urethra in men with and without non-gonococcal utethritis. Methods. The study group comprised 200 men with symptoms of urethritis. The control group consisted of 60 men without symptoms of urethritis. The diagnosis of nongonococcal infection was made by finding of an increased number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (≥ 5 under the microscope in a sample of Gram-stain of urethral smear (× 1 000 and without evidence of Neisseria. gonorrhoeae in specimens (negative direct microscopy and cell culture. Bacteriological examination included: direct microscopy with the Gramstained and methylblue-stained smears of urethral discharges, and cultivation of specimens under the aerobic/unaerobic conditions. In addition to standard bacterial examination and performinig direct imunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis (bioMerieux, France, urethral smears were also examined for the presence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. The finding of mycoplasmas ≥ 104 CCU/ml was positive. The data were statistically analyzed using Pearson χ2 and Student t test. Results. C. trachomatis was predominant bacterial species found in urethra in men with nongonococcal urethritis. It was isolated alone and/or mixed with mycoplasmas and/or other bacteria in 86 (43.0% of examinees. There was statistically significant difference in finding of C. trachomatis between the study group and the control group (p < 0.001. U. urealyticum was found in men with NGU: 30.2% were with C. trachomatis and 36.0% were without C. trachomatis (p > 0.05. In 16 (8.0% men with NGU, C. trachomatis was isolated alone, while in 13.0% examinees it occurred with U

  20. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds- a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

    ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Between 5% and 10% of cancer patients develop malignant wounds. In vitro and some clinical studies suggest that silver- or honey-coated dressings may have an antibacterial effect in nonmalignant wounds, but their possible antibacterial effect in malignant wounds remains unknown...... antibacterial effect of the honey or silver dressing could not be confirmed in these malignant wounds. Routine wound swabbing of malignant wounds is of little value and should be restricted to cases where signs of infection requiring antibiotic intervention are observed or where resistant organisms require....... A prospective, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed...

  1. Effects of Orally Administered Lactoferrin and Lactoperoxidase-Containing Tablets on Clinical and Bacteriological Profiles in Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiju Shimizu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of oral administration of lactoferrin (LF and lactoperoxidase-(LPO-containing tablet on periodontal condition. Seventy-two individuals with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to take either bovine LF and LPO-containing tablets (test group, n=37 or control tablets (control group, n=35 every day for 12 weeks. Periodontal parameters and levels of subgingival plaque bacteria, human and bovine LF, and endotoxin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF were evaluated at baseline, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. Significant differences were observed in GCF levels of bovine LF between the test and control groups throughout the study (P<.05. However, clinical and bacteriological parameter values proved comparable between the two groups at 1 week to 12 weeks. Therefore, the effect of oral administration of LF and LPO-containing tablets might be weak on periodontal and bacteriological profile in this study.

  2. [Bacteriological study of bivalves from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. I. Condition of the mollusk recently collected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, B; Brunker, T

    1977-07-01

    During the first six months of 1970 we collected 16 lots of the bivalve Anadara tuberculosa from two areas within the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. These were examined bacteriologically and the coliform levels found in all of them were such that they had to be graded as not satisfactory for human consumption, according to generally accepted norms. The source of these coliforms is attributed to the sewage discharge of the city of Puntarenas into its estuary.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE AND CHRONIC LARYNGITIS DEPENDING ON RESULTS OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF LARYNX MICROFLORA

    OpenAIRE

    K. I. Chuikova; T. N. Zaripova; V. I. Mukhina

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes study of larynx microflora in patients with acute laryngtis and exacerbations of chronic laryngitis. Therapeutic algorithm based on bacteriologic examination data was developed reduce. New algorithm helps reduce sickness terms and to decrease prevalence of desease.123 patients of age from 18 to 60 were under observation: 43 patients with acute laryngitis and 80 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. 22 patients with acute laryngitis and 58 patients with exacerb...

  4. Bacteriologic investigation of the effects of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine during the endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira Jr., José F.; Rocas,Isabela N.; Paiva, Simone S. M.; Pinto, Tatiana Guimarães; Magalhães, Karen M.; de Lima, Kenio C.

    2007-01-01

    SIQUEIRA JR. et al. Bacteriologic investigation of the effects of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine during the endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod., v. 104, n. 1, p. 122-130, 2007. Objective. This clinical study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate as irrigants in reducing the cultivable bacterial populations in infected root canals...

  5. Bacteriological evaluation of packaged bottled water sold at Jaipur city and its public health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Tripathi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out to investigate the microbiological quality of packaged drinking water marketed in Jaipur city. Material and Methods: In the present study 'twenty' drinking water samples (15 water bottles and 5 sachets of different brands purchased randomly, were evaluated to access the water quality on the basis of different bacteriological parameters. Result: Out of twenty, 50% samples were found unsatisfactory in standard plate count. Psychrophillic, coliforms, E. coli and staphylococcal counts revealed that 25%, 45%, 20%, and 5% samples respectively were found unfit for human consumption as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS of drinking water. On the basis of results of overall microbiological assessment 55% of samples proved to be unfit for consumption. All brands of water sachet (100% had high coliforms count which indicates faecal contamination. Amongst those sachets two brands (40% had presence of E. coli and all the sachet water brands fell below drinking water standards while out of fifteen brands of bottled water 6 samples contained higher microbiological value hence unfit for human consumption. Conclusion: Local brands of packaged drinking water were found unfit for human condumption. So it is suggested that government should intensify the efforts in the monitoring of activities in this rapidly expanding industry with a view to supply potable and wholesome water to the public. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 27-30

  6. Analysis of physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water in Mafikeng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulamattathil, Suma George; Bezuidenhout, Carlos; Mbewe, Moses

    2015-12-01

    Mafikeng, the capital of the North West Province, receives water from two sources, namely the Molopo eye and the Modimola dam. Once treated, the potable water is mixed and supplied to the city via distribution systems. This study was designed to assess the quality of drinking water in Mafikeng and also to determine whether the water from the two sources has an impact on the mixed water quality. Physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological quality (faecal coliforms (FCs), total coliforms (TCs), heterotrophic bacteria and Peudomonas spp.) was monitored at three drinking water sites weekly for 4 months. The results revealed that the physico-chemical quality of the water was generally acceptable. The pH ranged from 5.7 ± 0.18 to 8.6 ± 0.14, the temperature ranged from 18.3 ± 0.69 to 25.1 ± 0.69 °C and the total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 159.9 ± 22.44 to 364.4 ± 12.44 mg/l. These values are within the target water quality range for drinking water as prescribed by WHO, Department of Water Affairs and SANS 241. What is of concern was the microbial quality of the water. FCs, TCs, heterotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were present in some of the treated water samples. The most significant finding of this study is that all drinking water samples were positive for Pseudomonas spp. (>100/100 ml).

  7. Bacteriological safety of blood collected for transfusion at university of gondar hospital blood bank, northwest ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondimu, Hailegebriel; Addis, Zelalem; Moges, Feleke; Shiferaw, Yitayal

    2013-01-01

    Background. Transfusion associated bacterial infection has remained more frequent with a sever risk of morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the bacteriological safety of blood collected for transfusion. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar hospital blood bank from December 2011 to June 2012. Bacterial isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done as per the standard procedure. Chi-square test and P value were used to assess associations between risk factors and the bacterial isolation rate. Results. Twenty-one (15.33%) blood units were found contaminated with bacteria, and 95.24% contamination was due to external sources. The commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Streptococci species, Enterobacter species, and Citrobacter species. All of the bacteria isolated were 100% sensitive to Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, Amoxicillin, and Doxycycline. Multiple antimicrobial resistances were observed in 66.7% of the isolates. Not using glove by phlebotomist, touching disinfected phlebotomy site and double puncture at the same hand or both hands of a donor were found to be risk factors for bacterial contamination. Conclusion. Bacterial contamination of blood to be transfused is a common problem in the hospital. So attention should be given to activities performed at the blood bank for safe transfusion practices.

  8. [Bacteriological evaluation of a procedure for disinfecting the Olympus GIF-D2 panendoscope].

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    Ramírez Ramos, A; Domínguez, N; Makino, R; Barrera, C

    1980-01-01

    We have performed a total of 107 cultures from three critical areas of an Olympus Panendoscope Model GIF-D2 in order to evaluate bacteriologically cur system of desinfection of this endoscope. Samples were taken from the distal end, external surface and biopsy canal before and after an endoscopic examination was performed. The procedure of desinfection employed was as follows: washing of the distal end, external surface and biopsy canal with Hexaclorophel (Phisohex) diluted 50% with water and a second washing with tap water. In the middle of the study, we added a second washing of the biopsy canal with ten ml. of ether alcohol to allow for better drying. As a result of the present study we observed that in the distal end in 50% of the samples we encountered bacteria. Cultures of the external surface were positive in 20% of samples. The biopsy canal should be washed with ether alcohol to allow for complete drying, because when we did not use this method, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa was isolated. After this modification we did not isolate bacteria. The most frequent types of isolated bacteria were from the normal oropharyngeal flora. From the present study we can conclude that desinfection of the Panendespe with Hexaclorophen gives satisfactory results on the external surface of the endoscope. Biopsy canal requires additional washing with ether alcohol. However, both procedures do not assure a satisfactory desinfection of the distal end.

  9. [Bacteriological quality of traditional, organic and hydroponic cultured lettuce in Costa Rica].

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    Monge, Claudio; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of lettuces commercialized in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, and cultured in different ways, in order to detect differences between the culturing methods and the risk that these products may represent for Public Health. The study was done at the Food Microbiology Laboratory, Universidad de Costa Rica, from March to July, 2010. 30 lettuce samples were analyzed (10 obtained by traditional culture, 10 by organic culture and 10 by hydropony). All samples were obtained from markets where their origin was certified. Total aerobic plate count, total and fecal coliforms count and Escherichia coli were determined to all samples, as well as the presence/abscense of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g. Results obtained show that there is no statistically significant difference (p lettuce sample. Four different Salmonella spp. strains were isolated from the samples as well as one Listeria monocytogenes strain. Data obtained show that the consumption of this product, raw or without an adequate hygiene and disinfection may represent a risk for health. Also, from the bacteriological point of view, there is no significant difference between the culturing methods evaluated, suggesting that the specific directions for each type of culture are not followed or that there is an inadequate handling of the products or post harvest contamination.

  10. Travel grant program for the IX International Congresses of Mycology and Bacteriology -- Final report

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    Granigan, Marion

    2000-05-25

    In 1999, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and the National Academy of Sciences' U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Microbiological Sciences (IUMS) jointly organized a competitive travel grant program to support the participation of U.S. scientists in the 9th International Congresses of the Bacteriological and Applied Microbiology, Mycology and Virology Divisions of the IUMS in Sydney, Australia, August 16-20, 1999. Funding was solicited for the program, and the ASM Minority and International Activities department administered the $40,000 raised. Travel grants in the amount of $2,000 were offered to U.S. investigators (citizens, including federal employees, and permanent residents working in the United States) in the early stages of their careers who planned to attend and present their research at the Congress. Teams of established and new investigators who applied jointly were eligible to received a combined $3,000 award. IUMS developed a questionnaire th at each applicant were required to complete and return, which asked each award recipient about their experience at the Congresses. Questionnaire results are included.

  11. Development and bacteriological, chemical and sensory characterization of fishburgers made of Tilapia minced meat and surimi

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    S.C.R.P. Mello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study fishburger samples obtained from tilapia minced meat and surimi retrieved from fillet frames - filleting process waste - have been assessed. Four different preparations of fishburger were made. Chemical analyses was performed for protein, lipids, moisture and ash assessments, as well as bacteriological analyses through mesophilic aerobic heterotrophic and psychrotrophic bacteria counts, isolation and identification of Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and fecal coliforms. Instrumental measurements were also carried out for texture and tested sensory acceptance. The costs of the ingredients used in the preparation of formulas were also assessed. Microbiological standards, established by current regulations, were met by all samples. No significant gap (P>0.05 was detected among the percentage of protein, moisture and ashes, while a significant gap (P<0.05 was verified for lipids. A significant gap (P<0.05 for the instrumental measurements of texture was also observed. Both surimi and minced meat fishburger presented good acceptance on sensory tests for taste, texture and overall impression. The use of smoked fish flavoring and surimi caused a considerable increase in costs due to ingredient acquisition. This study shows a positive result for the industrialization and consumption potential of fishburgers made of minced fish retrieved from fillet frames.

  12. [Epidemiological and bacteriological characteristics of uropathogen bacteria isolated in a pediatric environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjani, A; Mkaddemi, H; Tilouche, S; Marzouk, M; Hannechi, N; Boughammoura, L; Boukadida, J

    2011-02-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is a grave pathology, which requires a fast and effective care. Bacteriological and epidemiological data play a determining role in patient's care. We report a retrospective study, which spreads out from January 1st till August 31st, 2009, having concerned hospitalized children for urinary infection in pediatrics service of Farhat Hached teaching hospital in Sousse. Our series contained 51 children with a sex ratio of 0.76, an average age of 32 months. The majority of cases was pyelonephritis (94.1%). A pathology is associated with the urinary infection in 41.2%. Three cases of vesico-ureteral reflux were noted. The diagnosis of urinary infection was confirmed by cytobacteriological exam of urine (CBEU). Enterobacteriacea were isolated in 96.1%. Escherichia coli remains the most often isolated (80.4%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.8%) then by Proteus mirabilis (5.9%). E. coli was resistant to amoxicillin in 78% of cases, to the association amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in 64,8%, to cephalosporins of 3(rd) generation (C3G) in 5% and to cotrimoxazole in 51%. No K. pneumoniae or P. mirabilis strain was resistant to C3G. UTI in children is always an indication for CBEU realization at first intention. The results of this exam are very important considering the diversity of the responsible bacteria and the growing frequency of acquired antibiotic resistance.

  13. Bacteriological study of discharging ear in patients attending a tertiary care hospital

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    Raakhee T

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ear infections occur in all age groups. Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is the most common illness in ENT practice. It may even cause hearing impairment especially sensory and ndash; neural deafness if not treated properly and with caution. The study was undertaken to know the aerobic microbiological/bacteriological profile of ear discharge and variations in sensitivity pattern to treat the patients efficiently. A total of 71 patients who had discharging ear infection were included in this study. The most common microorganisms isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus followed by Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS, Klebsiella spp, Proteus spp and Escherichia coli. Among the commonly used topical antibiotics, Ciprofloxacin appear to be first line antibiotic (91.52% sensitive to treat CSOM followed by Gentamycin (89.6% sensitive. However, the action of Chloramphenicol was low (59.53% sensitive. Ofloxacin can be used to treat CSOM due to Staphylococcus aureus other than Ciprofloxacin and Gentamycin. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 602-606

  14. A "Hybrid" Bacteriology Course: The Professor's Design and Expectations; The Students' Performance and Assessment

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    Steven Krawiec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A basic bacteriology course was offered in two successive academic years, first in a conventional format and subsequently as a "hybrid" course. The latter combined (i online presentation of content, (ii an emphasis on online resources, (iii thrice-weekly, face-to-face conversations to advance understanding, and (iv frequent student postings on an electronic discussion board. We compared the two courses through statistical analysis of student performances on the final examinations and the course overall and student assessment of teaching. The data indicated that there was no statistical difference in performance on the final examinations or the course overall. Responses on an instrument of evaluation revealed that students less strongly affirmed the following measures in the hybrid course: (i The amount of work was appropriate for the credit received, (ii Interactions between students and instructor were positive, (iii I learned a great deal in this course, and (iv I would recommend this course to other students. We recommend clear direction about active learning tasks and relevant feedback to enhance learning in a hybrid course.

  15. Evaluation of bacteriology of middle ear in early quiescent stage of chronic otitis media

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    Ramesh Bhandari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine whether any organism does exist in middle ear cavity during the early quiescent stage of chronic otitis media and to isolate their types. Materials and methods Forty-seven patients of age 13 years and above with diagnosis of chronic otitis media mucosal type in early quiescent stage were included. Swab was collected from middle ear cavity for culture and sensitivity in operation theatre prior to middle ear surgery and brought to microbiology laboratory within half an hour to inoculate in Blood agar, Chocolate agar and Mac Conkey agar. The isolates were identified with the use of standard bacteriological technique. Results Aerobic bacteria were isolated from 15 cases (31.9%. Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 12(80%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2(13.3% and E. coli in 1(6.7%. Conclusion Aerobic bacteria were isolated from middle ear cavity in quiescent stage of chronic otitis media in 15(32% cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2012, Vol-8, No-4, 22-26 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i4.8696

  16. Bacteraemia in Intensive Care Unit: Clinical, Bacteriological, and Prognostic Prospective Study

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    Zineb Lachhab

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We conducted a one-year observational study from December 2012 to November 2013 to describe the epidemiology of bacteraemia in intensive care units (ICU of Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital of Rabat (Morocco. Methods. The study consisted of monitoring all blood cultures coming from intensive care units and studying the bacteriological profile of positive blood cultures as well as their clinical significance. Results. During this period, a total of 46 episodes of bacteraemia occurred, which corresponds to a rate of 15,4/1000 patients. The rate of nosocomial infections was 97% versus 3% for community infections. The most common source of bacteraemia was the lungs in 33%, but no source was identified in 52% of the episodes. Gram negative organisms were isolated in 83,6% of the cases with Acinetobacter baumannii being the most frequent. Antibiotic resistance was very high with 42,5% of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae and 100% of carbapenemase in Acinetobacter baumannii. The antibiotherapy introduced in the first 24 hours was adequate in 72% of the cases. Conclusions. Bloodstream infections in ICU occur most often in patients over 55 years, with hypertension and diabetes. The bacteria involved are mainly Gram negative bacteria multiresistant to antibiotics. Early administration of antibiotics significantly reduces patients mortality.

  17. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MARINE WATER IN ADRIATIC FISH FARMS: ENUMERATION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA

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    Emin Teskeredžić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food production sectors in the world. Increase in nutrients and organic wastes lead to general deterioration of water quality. The problem of water quality is associated with both physical and chemical factors, as well as microbiological water quality. Heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in the process of decomposition of organic matter in water environment and indicate eutrophication process. Here we present our experience and knowledge on bacterial properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms with European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758, with an emphasis on enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water. We applied two temperatures of incubation, as well as two methods for enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria: substrate SimPlate® test and spread plate method on conventional artificial media (Marine agar and Tryptic Soy agar with added NaCl. The results of analysis of bacteriological properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms showed that enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water depends on the applied incubation temperature and media for enumeration. At the same time, the incubation temperature of 22C favours more intense growth of marine heterotrophic bacteria, whereas a SimPlate test gives higher values of heterotrophic bacteria. Volatile values of heterotrophic bacteria during this research indicate a possible deterioration of microbiological water quality in the Adriatic fish farms and a need for regular monitoring of marine water quality.

  18. Bacteriological Assessment of Water Quality of Public Swimming Pools in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana

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    George A. Pesewu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for life and in most parts of the world including Ghana it is used for various activities such as drinking, bathing and recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to assess the bacteriological quality of swimming pools’ water in the Accra Metropolis. Five swimming pools were selected randomly and a research team visited the pools to collect water samples and at the same time administer short questionnaires about the characteristics of the pools. The average number of swimmers, swimming bathing loads, average age group of pool users, methods of disinfection, type of chlorine used, recycling, and treatment of the water before and after use were investigated. During the visit, water samples were collected for total coliform, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus counts using the Membrane Filtration (MF method and cultured on chromogenic media. Most (60% of the selected swimming pools had a bathing load≤20 per day. The operators of the pools disinfect their pools’ water with chorine but majority (60% of the pool operators chlorinated their pools manually with powdered chlorine. The 20 water samples investigated show that 48% of swimming pools water was contaminated with S. aureus, 30.4% with Ps. aeruginosa , 20.9% with total coli form and 0.7% with E. coli. The E. coli count found in this study was very low indicating that the selected swimming pools were not feacally polluted at the time of sampling. It is recommended that future studies should use large sample sizes.

  19. A STUDY OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCER AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN

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    Sajila Nalakath

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: Diabetic foot infection is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Appropriate antibiotic therapy is required to reduce complication. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the bacteriological profile of diabetic foot ulcer and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of organisms. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A retrospective study was conducted in 290 patients presented with diabetic foot ulcer , in KIMS hospital in the year of 2013 . Swab technique was used to collect samples. RESULTS: A total of 372 was isolates obtained from 290 patients. Mono - microbial infection was found to be more than poly - microbial infection. Gram negative bacilli was found to be more prevalent than gram posit ive cocci. The commonest isolate was Pseudomonas (23.7% , followed by klebsiella (21.7%. The commonest gram positive organisms was enterococcus (17.5% , followed by Staphyococcus aureus (16.6%. Pseudomonas showed multidrug resistance. None of the cocci w ere resistant to vancomycin. CONCLUSION: Diabetic foot ulcers are one of the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients , appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential to prevent complications in these patients. Wound infection begin superficia lly , but with delay in treatment and impaired body defense can lead to catastrophic outcome. KEYWORDS: Diabetic Foot Ulcer.

  20. Estimation of sensitivity and specificity of bacteriology, histopathology and PCR for the confirmatory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis using latent class analysis.

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    Aurélie Courcoul

    Full Text Available Bacteriology and histopathology are the most commonly used tests used for official confirmatory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in cattle in most countries. PCR is also being used increasingly because it allows a fast diagnosis. This test could be applied as a supplement to or replacement for current bTB confirmatory diagnostic tests but its characteristics have first to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare sensitivities and specificities of bacteriology, histopathology and PCR under French field conditions, in the absence of a gold standard using latent class analysis. The studied population consisted of 5,211 animals from which samples were subjected to bacteriology and PCR (LSI VetMAX™ Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex PCR Kit, Life Technologies as their herd of origin was either suspected or confirmed infected with bTB or because bTB-like lesions were detected during slaughterhouse inspection. Samples from 697 of these animals (all with bTB-like lesions were subjected to histopathology. Bayesian models were developed, allowing for dependence between bacteriology and PCR, while assuming independence from histopathology. The sensitivity of PCR was higher than that of bacteriology (on average 87.7% [82.5-92.3%] versus 78.1% [72.9-82.8%] while specificity of both tests was very good (on average 97.0% for PCR [94.3-99.0%] and 99.1% for bacteriology [97.1-100.0%]. Histopathology was at least as sensitive as PCR (on average 93.6% [89.9-96.9%] but less specific than the two other tests (on average 83.3% [78.7-87.6%]. These results suggest that PCR has the potential to replace bacteriology to confirm bTB in samples submitted from suspect cattle.

  1. Bacteriological quality of raw milk used for production of a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese.

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    Costa Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza; Marçal de Faria, Camila Andreata; Silva Pinheiro, Julia; Gonçalves de Almeida, Héllen; Vieira Pires, Christiano; Silva Santos, Aline

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bacteriological quality of raw cow's milk utilized for the production of Traditional Minas Serro cheese, a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese. Raw milk samples were collected from six farmstead cheese operations manufacturing raw milk cheese from cow's milk. Coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli counts were determined using Petrifilm™ EC plates, and Staphylococcus aureus counts were determined using Petrifilm™ Staph Express count plates. The standard plate count (SPC) was determined using plate count agar. The somatic cell count (SCC) was determined with a DeLaval cell counter. The detection of Listeria monocytogenes was based in the ISO 11290-1 protocol. A total of 165 samples were analyzed, and the SPC was 1.85-7.88 log CFU/mL. Coliform were detected in 140 (84.8%) of the 165 samples, with counts of 1-6.39 log CFU/mL. E. coli was detected in 17 (10.3%) samples, with counts of 1-2.18 log CFU/mL. The SCC in raw milk was 10,000-1,390,000 cells per mL, with mean and geometric mean values of 247,000 and 162,181, respectively. The SCC did not differ significantly between the seasons (p>0.05), but differed between different farms (pcount was 1.47-5.03 log CFU/mL. The median of SPC, CC, and S. aureus counts differed significantly between seasons and between farms (pbacterial (including pathogenic) presence.

  2. Bacteriological and clinical profile of Community acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients

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    Shah Bashir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to obtain comprehensive insight into the bacteriological and clinical profile of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. The patient population consisted of 100 patients admitted with the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, as defined by British Thoracic society, from December 1998 to Dec 2000, at the Sher- i-Kashmir institute of Medical Sciences Soura, Srinagar, India. Gram negative organisms were the commonest cause (19/29, followed by gram positive (10/29. In 71 cases no etiological cause was obtained. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest pathogen (10/29, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7/29, Escherichia coli (6/29, Klebsiella spp. (3/29, Streptococcus pyogenes (1/29, Streptococcus pneumoniae (1/29 and Acinetobacter spp. (1/29. Sputum was the most common etiological source of organism isolation (26 followed by blood (6, pleural fluid (3, and pus culture (1. Maximum number of patients presented with cough (99%, fever (95%, tachycardia (92%, pleuritic chest pain (75%, sputum production (65% and leucocytosis (43%. The commonest predisposing factors were smoking (65%, COPD (57%, structural lung disease (21%, diabetes mellitus (13%, and decreased level of consciousness following seizure (eight per cent and chronic alcoholism (one per cent. Fourteen patients, of whom, nine were males and five females, died. Staphylococcus aureus was the causative organism in four, Pseudomonas in two, Klebsiella in one, and no organism was isolated in seven cases. The factors predicting mortality at admission were - age over 62 years, history of COPD or smoking, hypotension, altered sensorium, respiratory failure, leucocytosis, and s0 taphylococcus pneumonia and undetermined etiology. The overall rate of identification of microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia was 29%, which is very low, and if serological tests for legionella, mycoplasma and viruses are performed the diagnostic yield would

  3. CHRONIC OSTEOMYELITIS: A BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

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    Sanjoy Chakravarty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of infections and early diagnosis of Osteomyelitis have led to the improved management of Osteomyelitis. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile of Osteomyelitis and the antibiotic resistance pattern of various isolates obtained as it is an important cause of morbidity. A total of 50 patients of Osteomyelitis either attending the outpatient department or admitted in the wards of a teaching and tertiary care hospita l in Sikkim from October 2013 to October, 2014 were included in the study. All those patients who were clinically and/ or radiologically suspected of having Osteomyelitis were enrolled as cases. Pus/ pus swabs or sequestrum samples taken aseptically were c ultured aerobically at 37 0 C for 18 - 24 hours in Blood and Mac Conkey agar plates. Culture isolates were identified by a series of standard biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested on Mueller Hinton agar by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion met hod. Betalactamase production of S. aureus strains were verified by iodometric filter paper and acidometric agar plate methods. S. aureus strains were screened for methicillin resistance by using conventional microbiological methods. S. aureus turned out t o be the most common organism isolated. Other organism isolated were P. Aeruginosa, Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., E. coli, Enterobacter spp., S. epidermitis, Streptococcus pyogens and Enterococcus spp. Beta - lactamase production and methicillin resistance was seen in S. aureus strains respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed in other strains. Infection caused by Methicillin resistant S. aureus and multidrug resistant organisms are posing a major challenge in the treatment of Osteomyelitis. So, appropriate drug selected by antibiotic sensitivity testing should be used to treat Osteomyelitis

  4. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE PYOGENIC MENINGITIS - A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

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    Arnab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pyogenic meningitis is one of the most common infectious disease emergencies involving the central nervous system with higher incidence in developing countries than developed nations. Despite the large number of pathogens that have been reported to cause acute pyogenic meningitis, certain microorganisms are isolated with higher frequency depending on patient’s age, immune status and geography. Present study was aimed to determine the trends in aetiology and spectrum of the bacteriological profile in adult patients with suspected pyogenic meningitis in North-East India. MATERIALS 50 CSF samples from as many patients of Acute Bacterial Meningitis over a period of one year were processed for cell counts, biochemical analysis, gram staining, culture, antigen detection by latex agglutination test and antibiotic susceptibility tests, as per standard techniques. OBSERVATION CSF cell counts showed neutrophilic predominance in all cases along with high protein and low sugar levels. 44% of the cases were culture positive and latex agglutination test was positive in 46.4% of the cases where culture was negative. S. pneumonia was the predominant pathogen identified in the present study in 12(24% cases, followed by Pseudomonas and E. coli in 5(10% cases each. Gram stain indicated the causative organisms in 68.2% of the culture positive cases. Among the culture negative patients gram stain indicated the causative organism in 3(10.7% cases and these three cases were positive by LAT also. CONCLUSION Simple, rapid, inexpensive tests like gram staining remain significant means for diagnosis of acute pyogenic meningitis in developing countries. LAT goes a long way in identifying the organisms where the cultures are negative. This study thus paves the way for larger studies in this region for better recognition of the predominant organisms and the empirical antibiotic regimens.

  5. Clinico-bacteriological profile of primary pyodermas in Kashmir: a hospital-based study.

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    Bhat, Y J; Hassan, I; Bashir, S; Farhana, A; Maroof, P

    2016-03-01

    Pyodermas are a common group of infectious dermatological conditions on which few studies have been conducted. This study aimed to characterise the clinical and bacteriological profile of pyodermas, and to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in primary pyodermas in a dermatology outpatient department in Kashmir. Methods We conducted a hospital based cross-sectional study in the outpatient Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Leprosy of Shri Maharaja Hari Singh Hospital, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Patients presenting with primary pyodermas were included in the study. A detailed history and complete physical and cutaneous examination was carried out along with microbiological testing to find aetiological microorganisms and their respectiveantimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, including that for methicillin resistance, was carried out by standard methods as outlined in the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results In total, 110 patients were included; the age of the study population ranged from 3 to 65 years (mean age 28 years); 62% were male. Poor personal hygiene was noted in 76 (69%). Furunculosis (56; 51%) was the most common clinical presentation. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 89 (81%) of cases, and MRSA formed 54/89 (61%) of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. All MRSA strains were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The prevalence of MRSA was high in this sample of communityacquired primary pyodermas. It is therefore important to monitor the changing trends in bacterial infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and to formulate a definite antibiotic policy which may be helpful in decreasing the incidence of MRSA infection.

  6. Incidence, bacteriology, and clinical outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia at tertiary care hospital

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    Patil, Harsha V.; Patil, Virendra C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent Intensive Care Unit acquired infection. Aims: The aim is to determine the incidence, bacteriology and factors affecting VAP and to determine the multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study conducted over a period of 1 year from April 1, 2011, to March 31, 2012. Materials and Methods: The patients fulfilling criteria of VAP were included in this study. Statistical Analysis: This was performed using SPSS trial version 11.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) and the values of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Totally 74 (27.71%) patients were developed VAP. Of total 74 patients with VAP 53 (71.62%) were females and 21 (28.37%) were females (P < 0.0001). Total 13 (17.56%) patients had early-onset VAP and 61 (82.43%) had late-onset VAP (P < 0.0001). The overall incidence of VAP rate per 1000 ventilator days was 39.59. Total 126 bacterial isolates found in 74 patients with VAP. Predominant isolates were Gram-negative 52 (70.27%). Total 41 (55.40%) patients had polymicrobial VAP, and 33 (44.59%) had single isolate. Total 55 (43.65%) isolates were MDR organisms. Total 22 patients with VAP succumbed during treatment with overall case fatality rate of 29.72%. Of total 55 MDR isolates in VAP, 13 (26.63%) were Klebsiella spp., 11(20%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 14 (25.45%) Acinetobacter, 8 (14.54%) Escherichia coli, and 9 (16.36%) coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus. Total 12 (21.41%) patients succumbed among MDR isolates. Conclusions: There was a high incidence of MDR pathogens in late-onset VAP. The Gram-negative organisms Klebsiella, Pseudomonas E. coli and Acinetobacter were the most commonly isolated organisms with high mortality rates.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and bacteriological characteristics of bovine Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens isolates from mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Mamoru; Sawada, Takuo; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashimoto, Mizuki; Hata, Eiji; Yonezawa, Chizuko; Kato, Hajime

    2011-12-29

    The presence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) strains among bovine isolates of Gram-negative bacilli, and O-serotypes of bovine Serratia marcescens and P. aeruginosa isolates have been reported rarely. The aims of this study were to (1) elucidate antimicrobial susceptibilities and O-serotypes of P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens isolates from bovine mastitis and the presence of MBL-producers and MDRP strains among them and (2) evaluate their relationships to human isolates. We investigated the MICs of 24 antimicrobials and O-serotypes for 116 P. aeruginosa and 55 S. marcescens isolates in Japan, primarily in 2006. A total of 171 isolates exhibited high antimicrobial susceptibilities with the exception of a partial drug. P. aeruginosa isolates exhibited high susceptibilities of ≥ 95.7% to ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefoperazone/sulbactam, amikacin, tobramycin, and gentamicin; however, they exhibited a susceptibility of only 69.8% to aztreonam. They exhibited substantial resistances to ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin, cefotaxime, and moxalactam. S. marcescens isolates exhibited high susceptibilities of ≥ 90.9% to kanamycin, ceftiofur, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and the 15 aforementioned drugs, but exhibited resistance to minocycline. Neither MBL-producers nor MDRP strains were detected among the 171 strains. The dominant serotypes of P. aeruginosa isolates were OG, OA, OB, OI, OF, OE, and OK; those of S. marcescens isolates were O6 and O5. Every S. marcescens isolate was pigmented. These findings suggest that bovine P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens isolates differ from human isolates from both antibiogram and phenotypic perspectives, and could help to evaluate differences in bacteriological characteristics between bovine and human isolates.

  8. Bacteriological features of infectious spondylodiscitis at Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital of Rabat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zohoun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To review the bacteriological features of infectious spondylodiscitis and provide recommendations for the initial therapy which remains empirical in our context. Retrospective study including patients diagnosed with spondylodiscitis over a period of 4 years (2006-2009 at the Rabat Military Teaching Hospital. During the study period, we analysed 30 cases: the mean age was 49.9 years and 21 cases (70% were male. The patients were predominantly hospitalized in neurosurgery department (15/30 followed by rheumatology department (10/30. The site of infection was lumbar in 21 cases (21/30, dorsal in 7 cases (7/30. 26 cultures were positive of which 19 (19/26 were monomicrobial. Tuberculosis (TB was implicated in 10 cases (10/30 including 4 cases in association with common organisms (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium species. Brucella melitensis was isolated in 1 case. Infections caused by pyogenic bacteria were isolated in 15 cases of which 12 (12/15 revealed simple organisms including Gram-positive cocci in 9 cases (9/12 with 3 cases of S. aureus and Gram-negative bacilli in 3 cases (3/12 with 2 cases of P. aeruginosa. Blood cultures carried out for 16 patients were positive in 7 cases. The anatomopathologic exams carried out for 20 patients found in 6 cases epithelioid granulomata and giants cells with caseous necrosis in total concordance with TB culture. TB is the most frequent cause of spondylodiscitis in Morocco. Our study found the same frequency for non-specific and specific germs. Empirical treatment must take into account S. aureus and M. tuberculosis.

  9. Bacteriological and clinical profile of Community acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bashir Ahmed; Singh, Gurmeet; Naik, Muzafar Ahmed; Dhobi, Ghulam Nabi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study was to obtain comprehensive insight into the bacteriological and clinical profile of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. The patient population consisted of 100 patients admitted with the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), as defined by British Thoracic society, from December 1998 to Dec 2000, at the Sher- i-Kashmir institute of Medical Sciences Soura, Srinagar, India. Gram negative organisms were the commonest cause (19/29), followed by gram positive (10/29). In 71 cases no etiological cause was obtained. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest pathogen (10/29), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7/29), Escherichia coli (6/29), Klebsiella spp. (3/29), Streptococcus pyogenes (1/29), Streptococcus pneumoniae (1/29) and Acinetobacter spp. (1/29). Sputum was the most common etiological source of organism isolation (26) followed by blood (6), pleural fluid (3), and pus culture (1). Maximum number of patients presented with cough (99%), fever (95%), tachycardia (92%), pleuritic chest pain (75%), sputum production (65%) and leucocytosis (43%). The commonest predisposing factors were smoking (65%), COPD (57%), structural lung disease (21%), diabetes mellitus (13%), and decreased level of consciousness following seizure (eight per cent) and chronic alcoholism (one per cent). Fourteen patients, of whom, nine were males and five females, died. Staphylococcus aureus was the causative organism in four, Pseudomonas in two, Klebsiella in one, and no organism was isolated in seven cases. The factors predicting mortality at admission were - age over 62 years, history of COPD or smoking, hypotension, altered sensorium, respiratory failure, leucocytosis, and staphylococcus pneumonia and undetermined etiology. The overall rate of identification of microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia was 29%, which is very low, and if serological tests for legionella, mycoplasma and viruses are performed the diagnostic yield would

  10. Bacteriological safety of plastic-bagged sachet drinking water sold in Amassoma, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakubu B Ngwai; Adebukola A Sounyo; Siyeofori M Fiabema; Geoffrey A Agadah; Tamunobelema O Ibeakuzie

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the bacteriological safety of sachet water sold in Amassoma, a rural community in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Methods:Six samples of each of the different sachet drinking water brands were bought at random from shop shelves, markets and street vendors and were studies for microbial indicators of safety and quality. Bacterial counts were analyzed by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and significance of differences was tested at 5%probability. Results:Minimum and maximum counts with regard to the sachet water samples investigated were (4.3±1.1)í106 CFU mL-1 and (8.2±1.0)í106 CFU mL-1 for heterotrophic plate counts;(0.9±0.3)í106 CFU mL-1 and (1.2±0.4)í106 CFU mL-1 for aerobic spore-former counts;(1.3±0.5)í103 CFU mL-1 and (2.5±0.8)í103 CFU mL-1 for total coliforms;(1.6±0.9)í103 CFU mL-1 and (9.5±11.2)í103 CFU mL-1 for thermotolerant coliforms. Klebsiella spp but not Escherichia coli was present in all samples of the brands;non-coliform bacteria detected in some samples were Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Bacillus species. Conclusions:The brands of sachet water sold (at the time of this study) in Amassoma did not meet the minimum acceptable standard for microbiologically safe drinking water as recommended by the World Health Organization.

  11. Bacteriological quality of creeks and marine water bodies in North Goa: Ecosystem upkeep perspectives for tourism-related activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Sadhasivan, A.; Iyer, S.R.

    stream_size 33716 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Coastal_Tour_Environ_Sustain_Local_Dev_2003_211.pdf.txt stream_source_info Coastal_Tour_Environ_Sustain_Local_Dev_2003_211.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type... are very rapid (Pickett 1991) and consistent, as compared with those of higher forms of biota. These responses and bacterial types are useful for monitoring environmental quality. Through careful planning, choice, and analysis of relevant bacteriological...

  12. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Middle ear infection is one of the most common condition in ENT practice, particularly in our country. Its significance lies in its chronicity and its dreaded complications like hearing loss and cholesteatoma. Chronic suppurative Otitis media and its complications are among the most common conditions seen by both the otologist and pediatrician. Both gram positive and negative organisms are responsible for infection of the middle ear. AIMS: The study was primarily carried out in 200 cases of C.S.O.M. to determine the bacteriological flora and to study the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the organisms isolated on culture from discharging ears. RESULTS: In our study Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the most common isolated bacteria (40.65% [100/246], followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.63%[36/246], Klebsiella aerogenes (11.78%[29/246] and Proteus Mirabilis (10.56%[26/246]. Among the anerobic organisms Peptostreptococcus (5.69% was the most common followed by Propionibacterium (4.06% and Bacteroids spp. (3.65%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic in the present study. It was effective against maximum number of strains 97(95.48% followed by Gentamycin 95(92.36% and Ciprofloxacin 93(91.30%. Cefoperazone 88(86.42%, Cefotaxime 78(74.54% and Ofloxacin 64(62.68%. CONCLUSION: Efficient and effective treatment of CSOM is based on the knowledge of causative micro-organisms and thus their antimicrobial sensitivity ensures proper clinical recovery and avoidance of the possible dreaded complications. It has been observed that human negligence is one of the main factor responsible for the development of antibiotic resistance. Along with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics by the treating physician the lack of compliance on part of the patient also results in emergence of resistance and thus in treatment failure. It has been frequently encountered that as soon as the symptoms subside and improvement in condition occurs, many

  13. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Srivatsava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Middle ear infection is one of the most common condition in ENT practice, particularly in our country. Its significance lies in its chronicity and its dreaded complications like hearing loss and cholesteatoma. Chronic suppurative Otitis media and its complications are among the most common conditions seen by both the otologist and pediatrician. Both gram positive and negative organisms are responsible for infection of the middle ear. Aims: The study was primarily carried out in 200 cases of C.S.O.M. to determine the bacteriological flora and to study the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the organisms isolated on culture from discharging ears. Results: In our study Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the most common isolated bacteria (40.65% [100/246], followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.63% [36/246], Klebsiella aerogenes (11.78% [29/246] and Proteus Mirabilis (10.56% [26/246]. Among the anerobic organisms Peptostreptococcus (5.69% was the most common followed by Propionibacterium (4.06% and Bacteroids spp. (3.65%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic in the present study. It was effective against maximum number of strains 97 (95.48% followed by Gentamycin 95 (92.36% and Ciprofloxacin 93 (91.30%. Cefoperazone 88 (86.42%, Cefotaxime 78 (74.54% and Ofloxacin 64 (62.68%. Conclusion: Efficient and effective treatment of CSOM is based on the knowledge of causative micro-organisms and thus their antimicrobial sensitivity ensures proper clinical recovery and avoidance of the possible dreaded complications. It has been observed that human negligence is one of the main factor responsible for the development of antibiotic resistance. Along with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics by the treating physician the lack of compliance on part of the patient also results in emergence of resistance and thus in treatment failure. It has been frequently encountered that as soon as the symptoms subside and improvement in condition occurs

  14. Bacteriological and pathological studies of egg peritonitis in commercial layer chicken in Namakkal area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Palani Srinivasan; Perumal Balachandran

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To detect the various bacteriological agents and pathological changes in commercial layer chicken affected with egg yolk peritonitis in Namakkal region of India. Methods:A total of 6 572 layer chicken from 85 commercial farms were subjected for the study, out of which 1 715 showed various types of oviduct abnormalities. Among the 1 715, 264 birds from six farms were identified as egg peritonitis on the basis of postmortem examination. Trachea, lung, heart blood, liver, peritoneal exudate, oviduct (infundibulum, magnum, uterus) and cloacal swabs were collected from the 264 birds with egg peritonitis lesion for screening of bacterial agents. Signalment, clinical signs and pathological changes were recorded in the affected flocks. Result: The results of the present investigation indicated that the E. coli associated egg peritonitis was responsible for 15.39%of the reproductive tract abnormalities in commercial layers between 21 and 80 week of age. In the affected flocks egg production drop and mortality varied from 3%to 20%and 0.5%to 7.0%respectively. It was noticed during peak egg production (21 to 60 week) and southwest monsoon season (58%). Statistical analysis of age, season and egg production by Chi square test of independence revealed highly significant difference. E. coli was isolated as a pure culture and concurrent with other bacterial agents in 226 and 38 birds respectively. Among the fifteen E. coli serotypes identified serotype O166, O64 and O111 were predominant. Necropsy examination of affected birds revealed the presence of amorphous or insipissiated yolk material in the abdominal cavity with inflammatory changes in the ovary, oviduct and intestine. Microscopically the oviduct surface epithelium showed degeneration and desquamation, moderate to marked infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophils and lymphocytes in various regions and lumen contained serofibrinous exudate, inflammatory and desquamated epithelial cells with

  15. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Organic Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders Implicated in a Foodborne Salmonellosis Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamber, Sandeep; Swist, Eleonora; Oudit, Denise

    2016-05-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of sprouted chia and flax seed powders, no data have been reported on their intrinsic physicochemical properties and background microflora. Here, we report the moisture content, water activity, pH, and fatty acid methyl ester and bacteriological profiles of 19 sprouted chia and flax seed samples, 10 of which were associated with an outbreak of salmonellosis in Canada and the United States. The physicochemical parameters of the Salmonella-positive samples did not differ significantly from those of the negative samples. However, the higher Enterobacteriaceae and coliform levels on the contaminated powders were associated with the presence of Salmonella. Enumeration of Salmonella by the most probable number (MPN) method revealed concentrations ranging from 1 MPN per 3 g of powder to 1 MPN per 556 g of powder. The results of this study demonstrate that low numbers of Salmonella may be linked to foodborne outbreaks.

  16. Lashley's shift from bacteriology to neuropsychology, 1910-1917, and the influence of Jennings, Watson, and Franz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, D

    1986-01-01

    From 1910 to 1917, Karl S. Lashley's research moved from bacteriology to neuropsychology through intermediate stages of zoology, comparative psychology, and the psychology of learning. This shift is examined with particular reference to Lashley's associations with John B. Watson, Shepherd I. Franz, and Herbert S. Jennings. Watson's impact was substantial, for he attracted Lashley to comparative psychology and was the source of many of his later research interests. The bridge to neuropsychological research was provided by Franz who trained Lashley in the lesion method of investigating the brain bases of learning. The influence of Jennings, Lashley's Ph.D. supervisor, was most evident in the divergence of the post-1915 interests of Lashley and Watson. Lashley's search for brain mechanisms of learning, as contrasted with Watson's concern with behavioral prediction and control, mirrored a similar earlier difference between Jennings and Jacques Loeb.

  17. Environmental pollutions impacts on the bacteriological and physicochemical quality of suburban and rural groundwater supplies in Marrakesh area (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamrani Alaoui, H; Oufdou, K; Mezrioui, N

    2008-10-01

    This study scrutinized bacteriological and chemical quality of groundwater supplies of Marrakesh (Morocco) within a year. It assessed the influence of some chemical factors on fecal and opportunistic pathogenic bacterial communities. The annual average densities of fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were respectively: 1891 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL, 1246 CFU/100 mL and 206 CFU/100 mL. The total occurrence of these bacteria during the period of study was 94%. Detectable non-O1 Vibrio cholerae was present in 81% of samples and the mean abundances ranged from 0 to 11100 MPN/100 mL. Significant correlations between fecal coliforms and streptococci and between fecal coliforms and non-O1 V. cholerae (p pollution to acceptable levels.

  18. Association of serum levels of iron, copper, and zinc, and inflammatory markers with bacteriological sputum conversion during tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Milena Lima de; Ramalho, Daniela Maria de Paula; Delogo, Karina Neves; Miranda, Pryscila Fernandes Campino; Mesquita, Eliene Denites Duarte; de Melo Guedes de Oliveira, Hedi Marinho; Netto, Antônio Ruffino; Dos Anjos, Marcelino José; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; de Oliveira, Martha Maria

    2014-08-01

    Iron, copper, and zinc are key micronutrients that play an important role in the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between serum levels of those micronutrients, inflammatory markers, and the smear and culture conversion of M. tuberculosis during 60 days of tuberculosis treatment. Seventy-five male patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (mean age, 40.0 ± 10.7 years) were evaluated at baseline and again at 30 and 60 days of tuberculosis treatment. Serum levels of iron, copper, zinc, albumin, globulin, C-reactive protein, and hemoglobin, and smear and cultures for M. tuberculosis in sputum samples were analyzed. Compared to healthy subjects, at baseline, patients with PTB had lower serum iron levels, higher copper levels and copper/zinc ratio, and similar zinc levels. During the tuberculosis treatment, no significant changes in the serum levels of iron, zinc, and copper/zinc were observed. Lower serum copper levels were associated with bacteriological conversion in tuberculosis treatment (tuberculosis-negative) at 30 days but not at 60 days (tuberculosis-positive). C-reactive protein levels and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio were lower in tuberculosis-negative patients than in tuberculosis-positive patients at 30 and 60 days after treatment. Albumin and hemoglobin levels and the albumin/globulin ratio in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis increased during the study period, regardless of the bacteriological results. High serum globulin levels did not change among pulmonary tuberculosis patients during the study. Serum copper levels and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio may be important parameters to evaluate the persistence of non-conversion after 60 days of tuberculosis treatment, and they may serve as predictors for relapse after successful treatment.

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE AND CHRONIC LARYNGITIS DEPENDING ON RESULTS OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF LARYNX MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Chuikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes study of larynx microflora in patients with acute laryngtis and exacerbations of chronic laryngitis. Therapeutic algorithm based on bacteriologic examination data was developed reduce. New algorithm helps reduce sickness terms and to decrease prevalence of desease.123 patients of age from 18 to 60 were under observation: 43 patients with acute laryngitis and 80 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. 22 patients with acute laryngitis and 58 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis underwent etiotropic treatment with antibiotics. The group of comparison with acute laryngitis (21 patients and chronic laryngitis (22 patients received treatment according to the conventional scheme.Bacteriologic examination of larynx mucous, clinical study and functional voice test (time of maximum vowels phonation before and after treatment were carried out.As a result of the research it was established that the most common causative agent of acute and chronic inflammatory larynx diseases is S. aureus as a mono culture or combined with other bacterial associations (S. аnhemolyticus, Str. viridans etc..After the end of antibacterial therapy we found symptoms as hoarseness, irritation, dry laryngopharynx, hyperemia and swelling of larynx mucous reduced eather in new treatment group than controlled group. Time of maximum vowels phonation (in seconds also increased significantly.Sickness terms after prescription of new treatment was shorter than in comparison groups: (10.9 ± 7.9 days for acute laryngitis and (12.6 ± 7.3 days for chronic laryngitis respectively. Health index was 20.8 and 19.5% respectively.

  20. Tuberculosis in Australia: bacteriologically confirmed cases and drug resistance, 2007. A report of the Australian Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Richard; Bastion, Ivan; Carter, Robyn; Jelfs, Peter; Keehner, Terillee; Sievers, Aina

    2009-09-01

    The Australian Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory Network collects and analyses laboratory data on new cases of disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In 2007, a total of 872 cases were identified by bacteriology; an annual reporting rate of 4.1 cases per 100,000 population. Isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis (n=867), M. africanum (n=4) and M. bovis (n=1). Fifteen children aged under 10 years had bacteriologically-confirmed tuberculosis. Results of in vitro drug susceptibility testing were available for 871 of 872 isolates for isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R), ethambutol (E), and pyrazinamide (Z). A total of 98 (11.3%) isolates of M. tuberculosis were resistant to at least one of these anti-tuberculosis agents. Resistance to at least H and R (defined as multi-drug resistance, MDR) was detected in 24 (2.8%) isolates, all from overseas-born patients; 17 were from the respiratory tract (sputum n=16, endotracheal aspirate n=1). Thirteen patients with MDR-TB were from the Papua New Guinea-Torres Strait Islands zone. Of the 98 M. tuberculosis isolates resistant to at least one of the standard drugs, 54 (55.1%) were from new cases, 9 (9.2%) from previously treated cases, and no information was available on the remaining 35 cases. Seven were Australian-born, 90 were overseas- born, and the country of birth of 1 was unknown. Of the 90 overseas-born persons with drug resistant disease, 66 (73.3%) were from 5 countries: India (n=16); Papua New Guinea (n=15); the Philippines (n=12); Vietnam (n=12); and China (n=11). No XDR-TB was detected in 2007.

  1. Epidemiology of coagulase-negative staphylococci intramammary infection in dairy cattle and the effect of bacteriological culture misclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, S; Dohoo, I R; Barkema, H W; Descôteaux, L; Devries, T J; Reyher, K K; Roy, J-P; Scholl, D T

    2012-06-01

    Objectives of this study were to identify the manageable risk factors associated with the lactational incidence, elimination, and prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) intramammary infections (IMI) while taking into account the difficulties inherent to their diagnosis. A second objective was to evaluate the effect of CNS IMI misclassification in mastitis research. A cohort of 90 Canadian dairy herds was followed throughout 2007 to 2008. In each herd, series of quarter milk samples were collected from a subsample of cows and bacteriological culture was performed to identify prevalent, incident, and eliminated CNS IMI. Practices used on farms were captured using direct observations and a validated questionnaire. The relationships between herd CNS IMI prevalence and herd incidence and elimination rates were explored using linear regression. Manageable risk factors associated with the prevalence, incidence, or elimination of CNS IMI were identified via Bayesian analyses using a latent class model approach, allowing adjustment of the estimates for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of bacteriological culture. After adjustment for the diagnostic test limitations, a mean CNS IMI quarter prevalence of 42.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 34.7, 50.1] and incidence and elimination rates of 0.29 new IMI/quarter-month (95% CI: 0.21, 0.37) and 0.79 eliminated IMI/quarter-month (95% CI: 0.66, 0.91), respectively, were observed. Considerable biases of the estimates were observed when CNS IMI misclassification was ignored. These biases were important for measures of association with risk factors, were almost always toward the null value, and led to both type I and type II errors. Coagulase-negative staphylococci IMI incidence appeared to be a stronger determinant of herd IMI prevalence than IMI elimination rate. The majority of herds followed were already using blanket dry cow treatment and postmilking teat disinfection. A holistic approach considering

  2. Bacteriology, wind wave spectra, and benthic organism data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 01 February 1978 - 03 May 1979 (NODC Accession 7900247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology, wind wave spectra, and benthic organism data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from February 1, 1978...

  3. Bacteriology data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS-Mid Atlantic Ocean) project, 05 November 1976 - 16 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7800207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 5, 1976 to August 16, 1977....

  4. [Bacteriological control of blood preservation, production of infusion solutions and dry human plasma under conditions of aseptic work and possible sources of their contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, S; Lucić, N; Aganović, N; Grbić, E

    1975-01-01

    In premises for blood conservation, production of dry human plasma and infusion solutions "notwithstanding the permanent measures for desinfection, new bacterial contamination occurs from time to time and whose source are the casings and material originating from non-sterile environment. Bacteriological control, which has primarily a preventive character, enables a due forecast for measures to be undertaken by the appropriate desinfection of the working surfaces and air, satisfactory conditions of aseptic work can be maintained. General hygiene should be paid attention to as well as mechanical cleansing of premises, avoidance of groups for lunch-time etc., since the treatment by desinfectors would not be sufficient for maintenance of aseptic working conditions. In order to prevent the transmission of bacterial contamination, premises for blood conservation should be strictly separated from other operations and also prevent the unnecessary movements of personnel through corridors. The results of the bacteriological control of the personnel show that greater attention should be paid to their health care since the workers there work in closed aseptic systems and thus avoid them as a bacteria transmittors in respect to danger of blood and dry human plasma contamination. It is also necessary to efficiently educate the personnel for work in aseptic conditions and also increase their elementary knowledge from bacteriology and hygiene. The bacterial skin-flora on the spot of donor's venepuncture also presents a certain danger for blood contamination. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the most optimal manner of skin desinfecate together with the most appropriate means having a fast bactericidal and fungicidal action. It would also be useful, on the basis of further test, to suggest certain standard for an allowed number of conditionally pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms which would be used by the instutions performing the blood transfusion and production of

  5. Salmonella level of Danish swine herds based on serological examination of meat-juice samples and salmonella occurrence measured by bacteriological follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Sørensen, Vibeke

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of data collected in the Danish Salmonella Control Program in swine herds were conducted to assess the association between bacteriological and serological findings (including the degree to which changing serological status over time modulated the relationship) and to assess the degree to...... on the change in serological status over time and the age group being tested. salmonella infection assessed by serological tests at a single time-point and data on age group tested would allow better targeting and managing control programs....

  6. [Bacteriological study of bivalves of the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. II. State of the mollusk at the time of eating it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, B; Ryan, K A

    1983-11-01

    In a sanitary survey, nine taverns were chosen among those selling mollusk coctails, eaten raw, in the city of San José so as to represent three socio-economic levels. Sixty-six samples of coctails were examined for total and fecal coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, and salmonellas. Only 7% of the samples proved to be within the accepted limits for human consumption. No correlation was found between sample origin and its bacteriologically determined quality.

  7. Some Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Soil Samples around Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorafor, K. A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of soil samples around Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria were examined to determine the pollution status of the soil quality. Results of the physico-chemical analysis showed that the soil samples had pH range of 4.4 – 5.2. Tinapa soil has the highest value of Copper (39.63mg/kg and Nickel (11.36mg/kg and Anantigha has the highest value of Zinc (14.59mg/kg, Iron Fe (78.19mg/kg and Manganese (47.42mg/kg. The results revealed a high total count of 23.5x106 cfu/g in Anantigha and 24.5x10-3 cfu/g in Tinapa for bacteria and fungi respectively. Some bacteria isolates found during the study includes, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilus, Clostridium sp, Arthrobacter sp, Streptomyces sp, Nocardia sp, Pseudomonas sp and Micrococcus sp., and Fungal isolates includes, Actinomycete sp, Verticullium sp, Aspergillus sp, Mucor sp, Nigospora sp and Paecilomyces sp. From the result, soil sample from Anantigha have comparatively the highest Total Bacterial Counts compared to the other two locations. The health implications of this work is that Anantigha and Tinapa areas being low lying were likely, because of the presence of Escherichia coli, to experience gastro-intestinal diseases such as dysentery and cholera than the Ediba environments.

  8. [Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Vázquez, M; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Radice, M; Galas, M; Pasterán, F; Bantar, C; Casellas, J M; Kovensky Pupko, J; Couto, E; Goldberg, M; Lopardo, H; Gutkind, G; Soloaga, R

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account previous recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), the Antimicrobial Committee, Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (SADEBAC), Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (AAM), and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  9. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D G; Applegate, L J; Murray, A L; Purcell, M K; McKibben, C L

    2013-09-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

  10. Clinical and bacteriological correlates of whole blood interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in newly detected cases of pulmonary TB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bandyopadhyay M; Bhakta A; Chakrabarty S; Pal M; Bharati P

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the relationship of the capacity to produce interferon gamma (IFN-毭) in whole blood, bacteriological, hematological, radiographic and clinical presentations in new,HIVseronegative cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB).Methods: 80 cases and 50 control subjects aged 15 years onwards, representative of Kasturba Hospital and Nursing schools of Wardha district of Maharashtra state in India were examined for their health condition with standard methodology.Results: Among theseTB patients, 73.8% were Quantiferon-TB gold (QFT) positive withIFN-γ concentration as 0.35 IU or more and there was none in healthy controls. The meanIFN-γ concentrations varied between 9.58IU (50-59 yrs) and 2.58IU ≥60 yrs), showing no trend. The differences in positivity and meanIFN-γconcentrations were statistically insignificant. Both the QFT positivity andIFN-γconcentrations were higher in normal lymphocyte percent as compared to below and above normal, but differences were not statistically significant.Conclusions: TheIFN-γconcentrations are not correlated with any of the predictors of disease severity studied, the levels are significantly higher in observation group as compared to healthy group.

  11. Influences of NOM composition and bacteriological characteristics on biological stability in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Meyer, Anne S; Kim, Sungpyo; Maeng, Sung Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The influences of natural organic matter (NOM) and bacteriological characteristics on the biological stability of water were investigated in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. We found that prechlorination decreased the hydrophobicity of the organic matter and significantly increased the high-molecular-weight (MW) dissolved organic matter, such as biopolymers and humic substances. High-MW organic matter and structurally complex compounds are known to be relatively slowly biodegradable; however, because of the prechlorination step, the indigenous bacteria could readily utilise these fractions as assimilable organic carbon. Sequential coagulation and sedimentation resulted in the substantial removal of biopolymer (74%), humic substance (33%), bacterial cells (79%), and assimilable organic carbon (67%). Rapid sand and granular activated carbon filtration induced an increase in the low-nucleic-acid content bacteria; however, these bacteria were biologically less active in relation to enzymatic activity and ATP. The granular activated carbon step was essential to securing biological stability (the ability to prevent bacterial growth) by removing the residual assimilable organic carbon that had formed during the ozone treatment. The growth potential of Escherichia coli and indigenous bacteria were found to differ in respect to NOM characteristics. In comparison with E. coli, the indigenous bacteria utilised a broader range of NOM as a carbon source. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the measured biological stability of water could differ, depending on the NOM characteristics, as well as on the bacterial inoculum selected for the analysis.

  12. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D.G.; Applegate, L.J.; Murray, A.L.; Purcell, M.K.; McKibben, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

  13. [Recommendations for implementing the UNE-EN-ISO 15189 quality standard in the clinical microbiology laboratory: bacteriology and serology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, María Dolores; Aguiar, Juan Manuel; Cercenado, Emilia; de Ory, Fernando; de la Rosa, Manuel

    2010-11-01

    The UNE-EN-ISO 15189:2007 standard specifies the management and technical requirements that clinical microbiology laboratories must meet to achieve optimal quality when performing microbiological analyses. With implementation of this standard, a laboratory can receive the accreditation and formal recognition of an authorized body, certifying that it is apt for performing an assay or group of assays. In Spain, laboratories that apply these standards can be accredited by the Entidad Nacional de Acreditación (ENAC, Spanish accreditation body). The purpose of this review is to familiarize clinical microbiology laboratory specialists with the UNE-EN-ISO 15189:2007 standard through a practical approach focussed on bacteriology and serology studies. We briefly define the scope and specify the requisites required for managing the quality of the procedures and processes involved in performing tests on human specimens, for document control, and for management of instruments and equipment, personnel, information systems, supply systems, and external services. Lastly, evaluation approaches are indicated to achieve continuing improvement of the processes carried out and the services the laboratory provides.

  14. [Clinical and bacteriological profiles of the urinary infections associated the VIH/AIDS in hospital area of Bamako, Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, S; Oumar, A A; Dembele, J P; Noutache, J L; Fongoro, S; Maiga, I; Bougoudogo, F

    2007-01-01

    The syndrome of immunodepression is the bed of multiple infections of which urinary infections. The goal of this study was to determine the aspects clinical and bacteriological urinary infections during the AIDS with the service of the infectious diseases of the hospital of the Point G of February 1, 2003 to June 30 2005. The diagnosis of the urinary infection was retained on the basis of bacteria number > or =10(4) bacteriury and or leucocytes count > or =10(5)/mm3. The prevalence of the urinary infection was estimated at 8.85%. The principal clinical aspects were a symptomatic pyelonephritis 73.5%, the leucocytiury 11.8%, the cystitis 8.8%, and acute prostatitis 5.9%. Escherichia coli was the most frequent bacterium (46.7%). The sensitivity of the germs was 91.7% with the aminosides, 90.9% with the fluoroquinolones, from 63.6 to 80% respectively with the cephalosporines of first and second generation. Resistance to ampicilline, chloramphenicol and sulfamides was about 72 and 80%. The systematic research of the urinary infection is necessary during the AIDS and the antibiotherapy of choice in first intention in absence of etiologic possibility of diagnosis should be the aminosides and or the fluoroquinolones.

  15. Bacteriological And Nutritional Analysis Of Groundnut Cake Sold In An Open Market In Samaru Zaria-Kaduna State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteriological and nutritional analysis of groundnut cake powder sold in open market at Samaru-Zaria was studied. The samples collected from four zones of the study area were analysed for possible microbiological contamination and its nutritional quality. The results indicated a microbial load of 1.93 x 105 cfug and 1.94 x 105 cfug for zones A and B respectively 1.01 x 105 cfug for zone C and 2.37 x 105 cfug for zone D. The bacterial isolates found to be associated with the groundnut cake powder in this study included Klebsiella oxytoca Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus E. coli P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus feacalis. The nutrients content of the sample included carbohydrates 55.15 moisture 12.65 lipid 15.40 protein 12.60 ash 3.95 and crude fibre 0.25. Groundnut cake sold in the study area is highly contaminated with bacteria except for samples from zone C which is within the Food and Drugs Agency FDA recommendation of 1.0 x 105cfuml as allowable microbial contamination for food. The high level of microbial contamination is a serious cause for concern as it may trigger epidemics. However the product is highly nutritious.

  16. The dogma of bacteriology and other events as spearheads of virology Dogma de la bacteriología y otros eventos como puntas de lanza de la virología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Volcy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    This review analyzes some of the main events during the twentieth century that led to the birth of virology. In the literature of the time, a relationship of causality was established between virus and disease, and within this pathological context, the notions of fixed virus, volatile virus, contagium vivum fluidum and contagium fixum were formed. The transformation of the virus concept as a technoscientific object took place based on the criterion of filterability and on the methodology devised for the bacteriology dogma. Studies on tobacco mosaic virus are highlighted, as well as those on viral diseases of human beings and animals, which led to the discovery of these submicroscopic agents through the appropriation of technologies and the impulse triggered by political and economic factors.

    Esta investigación analiza algunos de los eventos principales del siglo XIX que condujeron hacia la cristalización de la virología. En los documentos de esta investigación analiza algunos de los eventos principales del siglo XIX que condujeron hacia la cristalización de la virología. En los documentos de aquella época, se plasmó una relación de causalidad entre virus y enfermedad o contagio, y en este contexto patológico, se elaboraron las nociones de virus fijo, virus volátil, contagium vivum fluidum y contagium fixum. De otro lado, la transformación conceptual hacia el virus como objeto tecnocientífico tuvo lugar con base en el criterio de filtrabilidad y en la metodología trazada por la bacteriología convertida en dogma. Asimismo, se

  17. Bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicaemia in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India

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    S Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is not much published literature on neonatal septicemia available for the Sub-Himalayan region of North India. Hence, we undertook this study to find out the bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicemia in the neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Material and Methods: Blood cultures were performed for all clinically suspected neonatal septicemia cases for 1-year. Identification of all pathogenic isolates was followed by antibiotic sensitivity testing. Results: We did blood cultures for 450 neonates and 42% were culture positive. Early onset sepsis were 92 (49% and 96 (51% were late onset sepsis. Gram-positive isolates were 60% and 40% were Gram-negative. Staphylococcus aureus (40%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (16%, non-fermenter group of organisms (NFGOs (15%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10% were the main isolates. Nasal cannula 101 (54%, birth asphyxia 91 (48%, and prematurity 73 (38% were the prominent risk factors associated with septicemia. Gram-positive organisms were highly resistant to penicillin (87% whereas Gram-negative isolates showed high resistance to third generation cephalosporins (53–89% and aminoglycosides (50–67%. The S. aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant in 41% whereas extended spectrum beta lactamase production was seen in 48% Gram-negative isolates.Conclusion: Our study highlights the recent emergence of Gram-positive organisms as predominant cause of neonatal septicemia in this part of Sub-Himalayan region, along with the review of literature which shows similar results from North India and rest of the world too. Though Gram-negative bacteria still remain the main cause of mortality in neonatal septicemia, we want to dispel the common notion among practitioners that they are the predominant isolates in neonatal septicemia.

  18. Bacteriology of deep carious lesions underneath amalgam restorations with different pulp-capping materials - an in vivo analysis

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    Prasanna Neelakantan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms remaining in dentin following cavity preparation may induce pulp damage, requiring the use of pulp-capping agents with antimicrobial activity underneath permanent restorations. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the bacteriological status of carious dentin and to assess the efficacy of different base underneath silver amalgam restorations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 50 patients aged 13 to 30 years. Sterile swabs were used to take samples after cavity preparation, which was assessed by microbiological culture to identify the microorganisms present. Following this, cavities were restored with silver amalgam, using one of the materials being investigated, as the base: calcium hydroxide (Group II, polyantibiotic paste (Group III, a novel light-cured fluoride-releasing hydroxyapatite-based liner (Group IV and mineral trioxide aggregate - MTA (Group V. In Group I, the cavities were restored with silver amalgam, without any base. After 3 months, the amalgam was removed and samples taken again and analyzed for the microbial flora. RESULTS: Lactobacilli were the most commonly isolated microorganisms in the samples of carious dentin. Groups IV and V showed negative culture in the 3-month samples. There was no statistically significant difference between Groups I, II and III. There was no significant difference between Groups IV and V (p>0.05. Both Groups IV and V showed significantly better results when compared to Groups I, II and III (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The hydroxyapatite-based liner and MTA performed significantly better in terms of antibacterial activity than the other materials.

  19. Conjunctival cytological examination, bacteriological culture, and antimicrobial resistance proifles of healthy Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Southern Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Lamagna; Luisa De Martino; Maria Pia Pasolini; Sandra Nizza; Karina Mallardo; Maurizio Formicola; Alessandro Costagliola; Gerardo Fatone; Filomena Fiorito; Orlando Paciello

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess normal conjunctival cytological and bacteriological/fungal flora features in the Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Methods:Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes of 57 healthy female buffaloes aged 24-36 months, with no evidence of ocular disease, farmed in Campania region (Southern Italy), for microbiological analysis. Conjunctival eye specimens of both eyes were subsequently obtained by a cyto-brush, for cytological analysis. The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates was also determined using the disk-diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates. Results: Cytological examination of conjunctival swab specimens (114 eyes) revealed epithelial cells (basal, intermediate, columnar and superficial) in all samples, whereas neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells were present in 70%, 10%and 2%of samples, respectively. Microorganisms, for a total of 261 aerobic bacteria and 6 fungi, were isolated from 112/114 conjunctival samples (98.25%;95%confidence interval (CI):93.18–99.70). Only two conjunctival swabs did not yield bacteria and/or fungi (2/114, 1.75%;95% CI:0.30–6.82). Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured (181/261, 69.35%;95%CI: 63.31–74.81), with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus lentus predominating. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated as Gram-negative bacteria (80/261, 30.65%;95%CI:25.19–36.69). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria showed amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and cephalothin as the least sensitive antibiotics for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: These results provided first information on normal conjunctival ocular microflora and cytological features in Mediterranean buffalo.

  20. Clinical and bacteriological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Carolina Regis; Azevedo, Jailton; Galvão, Vivian Santos; Moreno-Carvalho, Otávio; Reis, Joice Neves; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during the post-implementation period. Eighty-two cases were eligible. Mean age was 31 years (interquartile range, 3-42); 17.1% and 30.5% were under 2 years and 5 years, respectively. Pneumococcal meningitis (n=64, 78.1%), bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (n=12, 14.6%) and bacteraemia (n=6, 7.3%) were the clinical syndromes identified. Thirty-three different serotypes were found. Of these, serotype 14 (n=12, 14.6%) was the most common, followed by 23F (n=10, 12.2%), 12F (n=8, 9.8%), 18C (n=5, 6.1%) and 6B (n=5, 6.1%). Investigations conducted in Salvador in the pre-vaccine period did not identify serotype 12F as one of the most prevalent serotypes. Increase of serotype 12F was observed in different regions of Brazil, in the post-vaccine period. Among children under two years of age, the target group for 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 11 (78.6%) of the 14 isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae belonged to vaccine serotypes; at least 50% of these children were not vaccinated. The relatively recent implementation of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil reinforces the need to maintain an active surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease cases, considering the possible increase of invasive pneumococcal disease cases related to non-vaccine serotypes and the changes on the clinical presentation of the disease.

  1. Risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island dairy herds. Part 1: overall risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoslemany, A M; Keefe, G P; Dohoo, I R; Jayarao, B M

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine on-farm risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank raw milk quality was evaluated on all Prince Edward Island dairy herds (n = 235) over a 2-yr period (March 2005 to March 2007). Biweekly total bacterial, preliminary incubation, laboratory pasteurization, and coliform counts were conducted using a Petrifilm culture system. For the assessment of risk factors, a case-control study was conducted from January 2006 to May 2007. Case and control herds were defined based on the last 6 analyses of bulk tank bacterial counts before on-farm evaluation. Cases were herds that had multiple elevated counts for any of the parameters measured. A total of 69 herds (39 cases and 30 control herds) were evaluated. Data collection included 1) observation and questionnaire on basic hygiene and farm management practices; 2) complete wash analysis of the milking equipment, monitoring the presence of bacterial films on equipment and evaluation of cooling system function; and 3) environmental and cow hygiene scoring. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The results of the final model indicated that high alkalinity in the wash water and poor teat-end cleanliness were associated with high bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 12 and 5.3, respectively). It was also observed that high water temperature of detergent wash and the use of a water softener were associated with low bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 0.87 and 0.11, respectively). A significant association between udder hair clipping and teat-end cleanliness was also observed. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of udder hygiene and milking system washing factors on hygienic quality of bulk tank milk.

  2. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN IN ACUTE EXACERBATION OF ADVANCED CASES OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbations are significant and frequent events in the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Majority of these exacerbations are of infectious aetiology, bacteria being responsible for 30-50% of these cases. With not many studies of similar type being conducted in the Indian context, this study was undertaken with the purpose of determining the bacteriology of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in hospitalized patients with advanced disease and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern to formulate a cost effective algorithm for antibiotic usage while at the same time reducing the chances of emergence of drug resistance. Sputum sample from a total of 338 patients were send for Gram’s stain and culture sensitivity testing using an array of the commonly used antibiotics. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 203 (60.1% samples. Gram negative bacteria were isolated from 79.8 percent (162/203 cases while the rest were Gram positive. Klebsiella species were the commonest (49.2%; 100/203 Gram negative isolates from the sputum samples. Among the gram negative organisms, Carbapenem had the highest sensitivity (90.2% followed by Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin and Piperacillin-Tazobactam. Linezolid was found to be 100 percent sensitive amongst the Gram positive organisms while both Amoxicillin Clavulanate and Azithromycin showed a rather low sensitivity profile overall. 5.0 percent of the Klebsiella infections were multi drug resistant. It was thereby concluded that either Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin or Piperacillin-Tazobactam for be considered for Gram negative organisms and Linezolid be considered for Gram positive organisms as first line antibiotics in empirical therapy while Carbapenems may be kept as reserve drugs should the first line drugs fail.

  3. Bacteriological quality of drinking water in the Atebubu-Amantin District of the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekpor, M.; Akrong, M. O.; Asmah, M. H.; Banu, R. A.; Ansa, E. D. O.

    2016-08-01

    The study was carried out to determine the bacteriological safety of water in hand-dug wells in the Atebubu-Amantin District of the Brong-Ahafo Region in Ghana. A total of 60 samples were collected from ten hand dug wells and analysed for total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC), E. coli (EC), Salmonella spp. (SP) and Enterococcus spp. (ES). Data was collected in both the rainy and the dry seasons. The results obtained showed that water from all the wells in the study area did not meet the World Health Organisation guideline and Ghana standard for drinking water of zero (0) coliform forming unit (cfu) per 100 ml for TC, FC, EC, SP and ES, respectively. Contamination was found to be high in the wells during the wet season as compared to the dry season. Wells (A1 to A5) which were close to septic tanks had high bacteria counts in both seasons. The total coliform counts ranged from 2.98 to 5.93 log cfu/100 ml in the wet season and 3.10-5.03 log cfu/100 ml in the dry season. There was drastic reduction of faecal coliform count from a range of 2.78-4.55 log cfu/100 ml in the wet season to 1.70-3.51 log cfu/100 ml in the dry season. The high bacteria count in wells A1 to A5 could be attributed to the closeness of the wells to the septic tank, and contaminant transport through the saturated underground zones. It is recommended that the water should be treated properly before drinking.

  4. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Bacteriologic Detection and Antibiogram of Bacteria Isolated from Otitis Media with Effusion in Children, Shiraz, Iran

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    Mahmood Shishegar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Otitis media with effusion is one of the leading causes of hearing loss in children. Effective treatment of effusion in the middle ear requires appropriate empirical treatment and characterization of responsible pathogens. Objective of the present study was to detect pathogens in clinical samples from patients with otitis media with effusion in our area and to determine the sensitivity profile of isolated organisms to commonly used antibiotics. Methods: Sixty three samples of middle ear effusion were aseptically obtained from 36 children, who had been treated up to at least two weeks before sampling. They were analyzed using standard bacteriological and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were also performed. Results: PCR analysis showed that DNA of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were present in 60 (95.2% of the samples. The culture-positive effusion for Streptococcus Pneumoniae, HaemophilusInfluenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was 34.9%. Almost all isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniaee were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, and none of them was sensitive to co-trimoxazole. None of H. Influenzae isolates was sensitive to erythromycin, cefixim, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin and amoxicillin. None of M. Catarrhalis isolates was sensitive to ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusion: Compared with other studies using PCR method, the number of H. influenza isolates was in higher in the present study (95.2%. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles of pathogens isolated in this study were different from others. Thus, we can determine empirical antibiotic therapy based on sensi-tivity profile in our geographic area.

  5. [Quantitative and qualitative bacteriological studies on urine specimens obtained by suprapubic needle aspiration and on midstream-voided samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, R; Seybold, G; Witzenhausen, R; Hessler, M; Niemeyer, G

    1978-06-24

    In 398 patients with suspected urinary tract infection, quantitative and qualitative bacteriological studies were conducted in urine samples obtained by suprapubic needle aspiration of the bladder (BPU) and in midstream-voided specimens (MSU) collected immediately following the aspirations. In MSU, bacteria were found in 96.5% of all cases and in BPU in only 38.2%. Of the infected MSU, 63.3% showed mixed infections, while mixed cultures were found in only 11.2% of infected BPU. In 80% of the investigated patients, the MSU contained at least one more type of bacteria than the BPU, thus indicating urethral contamination. Of the patients with bladder bacteriuria, only 74% had bacterial counts of 10(5)/ml or more in the midstream-voided urine. Accordingly, 26% of the urinary tract infections diagnosed by bladder aspiration would not have been recognized on the basis of a single bacterial count in the midstream-voided urine. On the other hand, about 4% of patients with bacterial counts of 10(5)/ml or more in the MSU had a sterile bladder aspirate. In 72.4% of the infected BPU, E. coli was found, followed in frequency by Enterococcus (14.5%). In the infected MSU, however, Enterococcus was more frequent than C. coli (65.6% and 61.7% respectively). Thus, E. coli appears to be the most important etiological species in infections of the bladder and the kidneys, while Enterococcus seems to be the most frequent contaminant during urethral passage. The most frequent bacterial combination in mixed cultures in both BPU and MSU was that of E. coli and Enterococcus.

  6. Clinical and bacteriological efficacies of sitafloxacin against community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae: nested cohort within a multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Jiro; Niki, Yoshihito; Kadota, Jun-Ichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kaku, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Akira; Aoki, Nobuki; Hori, Seiji; Tanigawara, Yusuke; Cash, Haley L; Kohno, Shigeru

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of oral sitafloxacin (STFX) in clinically diagnosed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Additionally, we cultured these patient samples to test the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of levofloxacin (LVFX), moxifloxacin (MFLX), STFX, and penicillin G (PCG), as well as identified mutations in the quinolone resistance determinant regions (QRDRs) in LVFX-resistant strains. This study is a nested cohort from a prospective, multicenter clinical trial consisting of 139 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), from which 72 were included in this study. After diagnosis of CAP caused by S. pneumoniae, STFX (50 mg twice daily, or 100 mg once daily) was orally administered for 7 days. Sixty-five patient sputum samples were then cultured for MIC analysis. In a LVFX-resistant strain that was identified, mutations in the QRDRs of the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes were examined. Of 72 patients eligible for this study, S. pneumoniae was successfully cultured from the sputum of 65 patients, and only 7 patients were diagnosed by urinary antigen only. Clinical improvement of CAP was obtained in 65 of the 69 clinically evaluable patients (65/69, 94.2 %). Eradication of S. pneumoniae was observed in 62 patients of the 65 bacteriologically evaluable patients (62/65, 95.4 %). Additionally, STFX showed the lowest MIC distribution compared with LVFX, MFLX, and PCG, and no major adverse reactions were observed. STFX treatment in patients with CAP caused by S. pneumoniae was found to be highly effective both clinically (94.2 %) and bacteriologically (95.4 %).

  7. Comparison of conventional PCR, quantitative PCR, bacteriological culture and the Warthin Starry technique to detect Leptospira spp. in kidney and liver samples from naturally infected sheep from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornazari, Felipe; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Beserra, Hugo Enrique Orsini; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui; Langoni, Helio

    2012-09-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of worldwide importance. The development of diagnostic techniques allows sick animals to be identified, reservoirs to be eliminated and the disease prevented and controlled. The present study aimed to compare different techniques for diagnosing leptospirosis in sheep. Samples of kidney, liver and blood were collected from 465 animals that originated from a slaughterhouse. The sera were analyzed by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and kidney and liver samples of seropositive animals were analyzed using four techniques: bacteriological culture, the Warthin Starry (WS) technique, conventional PCR (cPCR), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). With the MAT, 21 animals were positive (4.5%) to serovars Hardjo (n=12), Hebdomadis (n=5), Sentot (n=2), Wolfii (n=1) and Shermani (n=1). Titers were 100 (n=10), 200 (n=2), 400 (n=6) and 1600 (n=3). No animal was positive by bacteriological culture; four animals were positive by the WS technique in kidney samples; six animals were positive by cPCR in kidney samples; and 11 animals were positive by qPCR, eight of which in kidney samples and three in liver. The bacterial quantification revealed a median of 4.3 bacteria/μL in liver samples and 36.6 bacteria/μL in kidney samples. qPCR presented the highest sensitivity among the techniques, followed by cPCR, the WS technique and bacteriological culture. These results indicate that sheep can carry leptospires of the Sejroe serogroup, and demonstrate the efficiency of quantitative PCR to detect Leptospira spp. in tissue samples.

  8. Investigación formativa: algunas alternativas de acción con estudiantes de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannette Vargas Hernández, Liliana Caycedo Lozano

    2006-01-01

    En el presente artículo se exponen alternativas de acción que se han llevado a término desde los componentes temáticos química aplicada I y matemáticas aplicadas en el ambiente de investigación formativa, con la intención de enriquecer y compartir la experiencia de docentes del Programa de Ciencias Básicas en su proceso de orientación a los estudiantes de primer semestre de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico de la Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca. Con este fin, se expone brevemente ...

  9. Bacteriological and physico-chemical assessment of wastewater in different region of Tunisia: impact on human health

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    Hassine Mouna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many parts of the world, health problems and diseases have often been caused by discharging untreated or inadequately treated wastewater. In this study, we aimed to control physico-chemical parameters in wastewater samples. Also, microbiological analyses were done to reveal Salmonella strains and each Escherichia coli (E.coli pathotype. Findings Sixty wastewater samples were collected from fifteen different regions of Tunisia. All physico-chemical parameters (pH, residual free chlorine, total suspended solids, biological oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand were evaluated. For microbiological analyses, samples were filtered to concentrate bacteria. DNA was extracted by boiling and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR using different pairs of primers. The mean pH values recorded for the sampling point were above the WHO pH tolerance limit. The total suspended solids (TSS concentrations varied between 240 mg/L and 733 mg/L in entrance points and between 13 mg/L and 76 mg/L in exit points. In entrance points, the studied wastewater has an average COD concentration that varied between 795 mg/mL to 1420 mg/mL. Whereas, BOD concentration of the wastewater ranged between 270 mg/L to 610 mg/L. In exit points, COD concentration varied between 59 mg/L and 141 mg/L, whereas BOD concentration ranged from 15 mg/L to 87 mg/L. The bacteriological control of wastewaters showed that, in entrance points, Escherichia coli (E.coli was detected at the rate of 76.6%. Three E.coli pathotypes were found: ETEC (53.3%, EAEC (16.6% and EIEC (6.6%. Concerning the ETEC isolated strains, 8 of 16 (50% have only the heat-labile toxin gene, 5 of 16 (31.2% present only the heat-stable toxin gene and 3 of 16 (18.7% of strains possess both heat-labile toxin gene and heat-stable toxin gene. In exist point, the same pathotypes were found but all detected ETEC strains present only the "est" gene. Concerning Salmonella isolated strains; percentages

  10. Physico-chemical and Bacteriological Quality of Water from Shallow Wells in Two Rural Communities in Benue State, Nigeria

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    Akaahan, Terngu J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground water abstraction from shallow wells is widely practiced in the Obi and in Oju rural areas of Benue State, Central Nigeria, as a means of fighting guinea worm infestation associated with the surface water sources (streams in these areas. To ascertain the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the water used by the population, water samples from 27 shallow wells in Obi and 19 Oju were taken and examined for key health-related quality parameters using routine methods. In Obi, the ground water colour ranged from 4.0-80.0 TCU, conductivity 55.2-1600.0 µS/cm, pH 6.1-8.6, TDS 38.6-1286 mg/L, turbidity 1.0-55.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.210mg/L, copper 0.01-2.53mg/L, fluoride 0.08-1.82mg/L and nitrate 10.8-63.0mg/L, while in Oju, colour varied from 2.0-87.0 TCU, conductivity 107.4-1375 µS/cm, pH 6.4-8.53, TDS 75.2-1150 mg/L, turbidity 3.0-48.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.023 mg/L, copper 0.01-2.10 mg/L, fluoride 0.01-1.54 mg/L and nitrate 10.2-59.7 mg/L. Some of these values in some instances exceed the WHO standard for drinking water. Alongside with the presence significant total coliform count in most of the wells (0-47/100 mL in Oju and 0-53/100 mL in Obi, the available water is considered largely unsafe for human consumption as obtained. It is concluded that, while ground water abstraction may be a safety measure against guinea worm infestation it, nevertheless presents other health challenges to the rural population in the area, as the quality of the ground water is generally low.

  11. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF PYODERMA

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    Surekha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY: To isolate the bacteria associated with pyodermas and to characterize the major isolate Staphylococcus aureus and to identify the MRSA. MATERIAL & METHODS: Study was conducted on 100 patients of pyodermas of all age groups and sex. Specimens were processe d by performing microscopy, culture, biochemical reaction, antibiotic susceptibility, and the major isolate Staphylococcus aureas was further screened for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. RESULTS: In total 100 patients fulfilling the study cri teria were evaluated. Impetigo (30% was the most common clinical type followed by folliculitis (22%, showing male preponderance. The predominant isolate was Staphylococcus aureus which was further characterized for MRSA. Out of 69 cases 5 strains were identified as MRSA. CONCLUSION: Among the 100 samples processed bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, beta haemolytic streptococci and a mixture of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. Predominant organism causing pyoderma was Staphylococcus aureus . Present study underline the need to take efforts to develop methods for rapid detection of MRSA to prevent Hospital Acquired Infections .

  12. [Altruistic public servant or heroic genius? The propagated image of provincial and academic directors of bacteriological laboratories in Belgium (ca. 1900-1940)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Sofie

    2009-01-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century provincial bacteriological institutes were established in Belgium--in Liège, Mons, Namur and Brussels--in order to combat epidemics, to promote preventive medicine and to pursue the successful research of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. Similar laboratories existed at the universities of Ghent, Louvain and Brussels. The image building played an important role for both kinds of institutes, as bacteriology in pioneering phase had to be publicly confirmed as a new, valuable discipline. However, the directors of provincial and academic institutes--with the same academic training though--were awarded with different qualities at their jubilees, fitting with the purposes and the self-image of their respective institutions, either provincial authorities or universities. The image of academic directors was guided by academic decorum: Emile van Ermengem, Edmond Destrée and Joseph Denys were represented as savants, solely devoted to pure science and paternally educating young researchers, notwithstanding the fact that their laboratories had humanitarian merits as well. On the other hand, the discourse on the first provincial directors--Ernest Malvoz, Martin Herman, Achille Haibe--emphasized their altruistic commitment and their solid work for the provincial government. Jules Bordet, a internationally rewarded scientist, professor and provincial director of the Pasteur Institute in Brussels, was celebrated with both sorts of discourses.

  13. La proyección social: una estrategia para la formación integral en el programa de Bacteriología de la Universidad de Córdoba- Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Noble González, Agustina María; Valencia Jiménez, Nydia Nina; Ortega Montes, Jorge Eliecer

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo se fundamenta en el principio que concibe la proyección social como una estrategia valida en la formación integral de los estudiantes de bacteriología. Es una apuesta que implica repensar el carácter socio humanístico de los currículos de bacteriología y la responsabilidad social de las universidades, desde un enfoque neo institucionalista sociológico que convoca al restablecimiento de la confianza, la potenciación de las redes de cooperación, la visibilizarían de las com...

  14. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF COAGULASE-POSITIVE AND COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI IN RELATION TO METHICILLIN SENSITIVITY TESTING

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    Padmanabham Yalangi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognised as an important pathogen in human disease. Staphylococci infection occurs regularly in hospitalised patients and has serious consequences despite antibiotic therapy. Shortly after introduction of methicillin after clinical use Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA were identified in many countries and become one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of the study is to know the methicillin sensitivity of both coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from various samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 strains of staphylococci both coagulase positive and coagulase negative were isolated in the Department of Microbiology from various clinical samples. They were confirmed by morphology, staining methods and by using standard bacteriological procedures and biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test. RESULTS Predominant species from pus were S. epidermidis (42.42% and from sputum S. haemolyticus (31.81% from blood S. haemolyticus (53.33%. 53% of strains produced beta-lactamase. Majority 47.22% by S. epidermidis from pus followed by S. haemolyticus 23.33% from pus. Beta-lactamase production was least from throat swab (5.55%. Out of 32 coagulase-positive staphylococci tested to methicillin 15 (46.87% were found to be sensitive, 17 (53.13% were found to be resistant. Out of 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci tested, 13 (19.11% were found to sensitive and 55 (80.88% were found to be resistant. 72% of strains were sensitive to novobiocin and 28% resistant to novobiocin. 43% showed drug resistance to 2 drugs. 14% to 3 drugs and 5 drugs. 6% of staphylococci sensitive to all the 10 drugs. CONCLUSION MRSA is a type of bacteria that is resistant to a number of widely used antibiotics. This means MRSA infections can be more difficult to treat than other bacterial infections. In recent years

  15. Chemical and bacteriological quality of water at selected sites in the San Antonio area, Texas, August 1968-January 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, R.D.; Blakey, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    investigations showed the source of pesticides in these wells to be. surface drainage that entered the wellbores. Water-quality data collected at sites on streams that cross the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer show the chemical composition of surface water to be very similar to that of ground water in the area. Water in most streams is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. Limited data on the bacteriological quality show that coliforms were present at each of the site sampled and that fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci were present at most sites. Although the number of these bacteria varied greatly in both time and place, their density in samples from most sites were low for untreated surface water.

  16. Comparison of Salivary Anti Helicobacter pylori IgG with Serum IgG and Bacteriological Tests in Detecting Helicobacter pylori Infections

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    H Ghasemian safaei

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detecting anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori specific IgG antibodies in specimens of oral fluid and serum with bacteriological tests. Methods: Antral biopsy specimens, as well as serum and oral fluid samples were collected from 97 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The presence or absence of current H. pylori infection was determined by culture, histology and urease detection. Anti-H. pylori specific IgG was detected in serum and oral fluid, using an established lab-made, and a commercial ELISA kit. The obtained data were compared with results of bacteriological tests. Results: In all, 62 (64% of 97 patients were positive for H. pylori by one or more of the gold standard tests (culture, histology and urease detection. Lab-made enzyme-linked immunoassay of oral fluid had a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 83% respectively. A sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 83%, respectively, was obtained with the commercial kit. Lab-made enzyme-linked immunoassay of serum samples had a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 88%, respectively. A sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 86% was obtained with the commercial kit. Conclusion: Detection of anti-H. pylori specific IgG in oral fluid by ELISA is comparable in sensitivity and specificity with serum based methods. Oral fluid based ELISA could provide a reliable, non-invasive method for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Saliva testing may have a role in epidemiological studies. Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, ELISA, Oral fluid

  17. Bacteriological quality of foods and water sold by vendors and in restaurants in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria: a comparative study of three microbiological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkere, Chukwuemeka K; Ibe, Nnenne I; Iroegbu, Christian U

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods--beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri--and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p food samples. However, this did not differ significantly in the three methods used for the enumeration of coliforms, suggesting that any of the three methods could be validly used for such studies with confidence. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two major coliforms identified among 98 coliform isolates obtained from the various food samples, of which 78 (79.6%) were assumed to be of human origin on account of their ability to grow at 44 degrees C. The level of coliform contamination in the food samples from vendors and restaurants (geometric mean count 7.64-9.21; MPN > or = 50) were above the accepted 10(4) colony-forming unit/g or MPN food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors.

  18. O grupo pullorum-gallinarum em provas bacteriologicas comparativas The pullorum-gallinarum group in comparative bacteriological tests

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    Genesio Pacheco

    1936-01-01

    acção de substancias antidiastasicas. h A analyse sôrologica das amostras estudadas não permittiu differenciar os typos entre si.Thirty eight strains of microorganisms of the pullorum-gallinarum group, of European, American or Brazilian origin were investigated bacteriologically in order to ascertain as to the fixity of their properties and the possibility of transforming a strain in another. a Five types could be distinguished in our strains: 1 - gasogenic pullorum; 2 - non-gasogenic pullorum; 3 - intermedius; 4 - gasogenic gallinarum?; 5 - non-gasogenic gallinarum. The first, two and fifth types are well known and recognized by specialists; the fourth group has been recognized by Beck & Eber, in 1920; the third group was recognized by ourselves, in 1935. b The table found in this paper summarizes the most important characteristics of these five types. The changes produced on neutral red, H²S production, fermentation of glycerol, isodulcitol, xylose, dulcite, sorbitol and maltose, the activity upon Seignette salt, gas production and appearance of the colonies, are among the characteristics on which the distinction of these five types is founded. c The gasogenic gallinarum type, on account of its action on sorbitol and xylose, and also on Jordan's medium, must be rather considered as a gasogenic intermedius type. d Other biological characteristics, such as activity upon milk, milk-whey, dextrin, etc., accepted by several specialists, appeared as of no practical value to the distinction of the different types of our strains. e The strains kept their properties invariable during all the time of our investigations. The hypothesis of a possible transformation of one type into another has not been confirmed in any of the studied strains and this justifies the idea of independence of each one of the accepted types. f Some discrepances in fermentation of maltose as found by several authors in microorganisms of this group, have been not confirmed in this paper. g In

  19. Bacteriologia do aspirado do meato médio em pacientes com fibrose cística Bacteriology of the middle meatus aspirate in patients with cystic fibrosis

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    Guilherme Luis da Silva Franche

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A combinação de fatores como viscosidade das secreções dos seios paranasais, diminuição da drenagem sinusal e comprometimento do transporte mucociliar podem ser responsáveis pela criação de um ambiente propício e adequado para a colonização de bactérias nos seios paranasais de pacientes com fibrose cística. OBJETIVO: Analisar a bacteriologia do aspirado do meato médio de pacientes portadores de fibrose cística. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Através de um estudo prospectivo de delineamento transversal, avaliou-se uma amostra composta de 23 pacientes, avaliados durante 2 anos. Realizaram-se relações entre a cultura do meato médio e a avaliação radiológica do seio maxilar e a avaliação clínica. Secundariamente, estudou-se a relação da bacteriologia do aspirado do meato médio e a do escarro. RESULTADOS: No total foram realizadas 42 aspirações do meato médio. Em 17 (73,91% dos 23 pacientes, as culturas foram negativas e, em 6 (26,08%, positivas. Das 42 aspirações, 31 (73,8% foram negativas e 11 (26,2%, positivas. A presença de Pseudomonas aeruginosa foi observada em 18,18% das culturas positivas e o Staphylococcus aerus em 27,28%. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria das culturas do aspirado do meato médio de pacientes com fibrose cística foi negativa.The combination of factors, such as abnormal viscosity of the paranasal sinus secretions, decreased sinus drainage, and impaired mucociliary clearance may account for the establishment of a suitable and opportune environment for the colonization of bacteria in the paranasal sinuses of patients with cystic fibrosis. AIM: The goal of the present study was to assess the bacteriology of the middle meatus aspirate in patients diagnosed whit cystic fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Through a cross-sectional prospective study, a sample consisting of 23 patients evaluated for 2 years, was assessed. Firstly, we established the relationship between the middle meatus culture and the maxillary sinus x

  20. Clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected children with leprosy: A population based study in a defined rural and urban area of Maharashtra, Western India

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    Vanaja P Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy has been a major public-health problem in many developing countries for centuries. According to the National Leprosy Elimination Programme report of March 2012, there were a total of about 0.13 million cases of leprosy in India, 9.7% of which were children. Numerous studies have investigated child leprosy amongst reported cases however, studies pertaining to proportion and characteristics of undetected childhood cases in the community are very few. Aim: To examine the clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected child leprosy cases in the community. Methods: The population survey conducted from June to September 2007 and the defined rural areas, which included five primary health centers of Panvel Taluka, in Raigad district and urban areas, which included M-east ward of the municipal corporation of greater Mumbai of western Maharashtra, India. Results: House-to-house survey yielded 32 and 37 so far, undetected child cases of leprosy in the rural and urban region, and the prevalence rate was 10.5 and 1.5 per 10,000, respectively. The age of child leprosy cases detected, ranged from 3 to 14 years with a mean of 10.06 ± 3.35 years in the rural and 9.97 ± 3.12 years in the urban area. Most of the cases were paucibacillary (62%. A large proportion of children (49% had single skin lesion (SSL. Of the 19 SSL cases examined histopathologically, 15 (99% showed features of borderline tuberculoid, 1 (5% borderline lepromatous and 3 (16% had indeterminate type of leprosy. Tuberculoid leprosy was not seen in any, indicating less likelihood of self-healing. Overall, three cases had deformity (grade 1 = 1 and grade 2 = 2 and 31% of multibacillary cases were smear positive. Conclusion: The clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected child cases in the community evidently indicate the grave nature of the problem of undetected child leprosy, recent active

  1. 采血人员手部细菌学监测调查%The monitoring analysis and significance of bacteriology from hand of blood collection staff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奠忠; 郭世莉; 李兰萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:规范采血人员的操作规程,预防或控制采血过程中的感染。方法在采血者不更换手套的情况下进行手部细菌学监测采样,每次采血完毕后采样一次,连续采集10次,进行常规细菌学培养,并将培养结果进行细菌菌落计数及病原微生物学鉴定;每天1组,每组10人次,连续3 d ,取均值计算。结果采血人员的手在未采血前无菌,超过采血人数2人次时检出有菌落生长,并且菌落计数和致病菌均随着采样次数的增多而逐渐上升。结论采血人员每次完成采血后更换一次性医用薄膜手套,是预防感染的有效措施之一。%Objective To standardize the blood collectors′operation procedures ,prevent and control infection occurring during blood collection .Methods Conduct bacteriological monitoring and sampling of blood collectors′ hands without changing their gloves once after completion of each blood collection ,sample for 10 successive times ,start routine bacteriological culture ,record the quantity of bacterial clumps and make pathogenic microbiological identification of the cultured results 10 person times each group and one group a day for 3 consecutive days with the average values calculated .Results The blood collectors′hands were aseptic be-fore collecting the blood .When collecting blood for more than 2 person times ,bacterial clumps were detected on the hands ;the colo-ny counts and pathogenic bacteria increased with the rise of collect times .Conclusion Replacing the disposable medical film gloves after each blood collection is one of the most effective measures for prevention and control of infection .

  2. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds--a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Between 5% and 10% of cancer patients develop malignant wounds. In vitro and some clinical studies suggest that silver- or honey-coated dressings may have an antibacterial effect in nonmalignant wounds, but their possible antibacterial effect in malignant wounds remains unknown. A prospective...... antibacterial effect of the honey or silver dressing could not be confirmed in these malignant wounds. Routine wound swabbing of malignant wounds is of little value and should be restricted to cases where signs of infection requiring antibiotic intervention are observed or where resistant organisms require......, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed by the same...

  3. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds--a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

     Between 5% and 10% of cancer patients develop malignant wounds. In vitro and some clinical studies suggest that silver- or honey-coated dressings may have an antibacterial effect in nonmalignant wounds, but their possible antibacterial effect in malignant wounds remains unknown...... antibacterial effect of the honey or silver dressing could not be confirmed in these malignant wounds. Routine wound swabbing of malignant wounds is of little value and should be restricted to cases where signs of infection requiring antibiotic intervention are observed or where resistant organisms require....... A prospective, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed...

  4. Physical-chemical and bacteriological aspects of the groundwater in the sanitary landfills in the metropolitan region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the physical-chemical and bacteriological qualities of the subterranean water at sanitary landfills in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (PR, was carried out. The field of twelve wells that reach the groundwater as well as the emergence of the watertable of the Periquitos River, were also monitored. The results of the analyses of 120 samples of the collected water were compared to the permissible maximum values for human consumption according to the Federal Legislation in Brazil. Total excrements were found around 3,1 NMP/100mL (Well 4 and 120330 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River and fecal matter between 0 and 4100 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River. Such values were associated to the contamination caused by the presence of animals from neighbor properties, feeding themselves in that region. The pH, turbidity, COD and BOD were among the values expected, except for the conductivity that showed to be altered.

  5. Chlorine treatment effectiveness and physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of treated water supplies in distribution networks of Accra-Tema Metropolis, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, A. Y.; Ampofo, J. A.

    2013-06-01

    Drinking water quality from two major treatment plants in Ghana; Kpong and Weija Plants, and distribution networks in the Accra-Tema Metropolis were monitored monthly for a year at fifteen different locations. The study determined the relationship between chlorine residual, other physico-chemical qualities of the treated water, and, bacteria regrowth. Results indicated that the treated water at the Kpong and Weija Treatment Plants conformed to WHO guidelines for potable water. However, the water quality deteriorated bacteriologically, from the plants to the delivery points with high numbers of indicator and opportunistic pathogens. This could be due to inadequate disinfection residual, biofilms or accidental point source contamination by broken pipes, installation and repair works. The mean turbidity ranged from 1.6 to 2.4 NTU; pH varied from 6.8 to 7.4; conductivity fluctuated from 71.1 to 293 μS/cm. Chlorine residual ranged from 0.13 to 1.35 mg/l. High residual chlorine was observed at the treatment plants, which decreased further from the plants. Results showed that additional chlorination does not take place at the booster stations. Chlorine showed inverse relationship with microbial counts. Total coliform bacteria ranged from 0 to 248 cfu/100 ml, and faecal coliform values varied from 0 to 128 cfu/100 ml. Other microorganisms observed in the treated water included Aeromonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Boiling water in the household before consumption will reduce water-related health risks.

  6. [Evaluation of the methodological quality of the Rémic (microbiology guidelines - bacteriology and mycology) of the Société française de microbiologie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonfrède, Michèle; Couaillac, Jean Paul; Augereau, Christine; De Moüy, Danny; Lepargneur, Jean Pierre; Szymanowicz, Anton; Watine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated the methodological quality of the Rémic (microbiology guidelines - bacteriology and mycology) of the Société française de microbiologie (edition2007), using to AGREE criteria, which are consensual at an international level, in particular at the the World Health Organisation (WHO) and at the European Union. The methodological quality of the Rémic appears to be sub-optimal. These shortcomings in quality are mainly observed in AGREE domain n° 5 (applicability), in AGREE item n° 5 (patients' opinions were not considered), and in AGREE item n° 23 (conflicts of interest were not declared). The users of the Rémic must be aware of these few methodological shortcomings in order for them to be careful before they put its recommendation in practice. In conclusion, we advise the editors of the Rémic to insert at least a methodological chapter in their next edition.

  7. Bacteriological evaluation of bone grafts stored by cryogenic freezing at –24°C from a canine (Canis familiaris bone bank

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    Jaqueline França dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific basis of bone transplantation was established during the mid-nineteenth century, when the osteogenic properties of the bone and periosteum, beneficial influence of cold preservation of bones, and first conventional attempt to store bones for elective use, were described. A bone bank has several advantages, such as the immediate availability of grafts in large quantities, and different shapes and sizes, and maintenance of osteoinductive activity in grafts. In addition, it reduces patient blood loss, surgical time, and quantity of anesthetics required. Clinical applications include the correction of comminuted fractures, treatment of non-union bones, and replacement of bone loss due to infections or malignancies. The success of these procedures depends on the preservation and integrity of the graft. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of maintaining a canine bone bank (Canis familiaris by quantifying the bacterial contamination of bone grafts preserved at –24°C. The samples were evaluated through a monthly assessment of bacteriological cultures over a period of 6 months. The harvest method was efficient and sterile, reducing the risk of contamination. We conclude that the techniques chosen for the implementation of a bone bank were effective and feasible (use of a common freezer reaching a temperature below –24°C. The viability of the bones was attested during a 6-month period, and the samples demonstrated a 100% sterility rate.

  8. Bacteriological profile of community acquired acute bacterial meningitis: A ten-year retrospective study in a tertiary neurocare centre in South India

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    Mani R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ten years retrospective study to evaluate the bacteriological spectrum of community acquired acute bacterial meningitis (CAABM. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from 385 clinically suspected cases of pyogenic meningitis were processed for cell counts, cytospin Gram stain, culture, antigen detection by latex agglutination (LAT and antibiotic susceptibility test. Eighteen of these CSF samples were also subjected to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay for detection of pneumococcal DNA. Results: The etiological agent could be identified in 284 (73.8% of the total 385 cases by culture and/or smear and /or LAT. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen accounting for 238 (61.8% cases. Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis accounted for 7 (1.8% and 4 (1% cases respectively. Other gram negative bacilli, Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 19 (4.9%, 9 (2.3% and 7 (1.8% cases respectively. Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the major aetiological agent of CAABM both in adults and children in our set-up. No penicillin resistance was detected among the isolates. Further research should focus on preventable aspects of CAABM, especially pneumococcal vaccines, to help reduce the disease burden.

  9. [The Austrian Red Cross and Austrian bacteriologists in the Balkan wars 1912/13 - Centenary of the first application of the bacteriology in theatres of war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Heinz

    2012-04-01

    When Austria joined the Geneva Convention the "Patriotischer Hilfsverein" (Patriotic Aid Society) which was founded for the concerns of wounded soldiers, was named "Austrian Society of the Red Cross". It had to stand its first big test in 1912 in the first Balkan war; military surgeons and bacteriologists were deployed to all warring states. The cholera dominated under the infectious diseases among the various forces and the civilian populations. Upon request of the Bulgarian king renowned bacteriologists of the University of Vienna were dispatched. Their work presented the first action of bacteriology for disease control on theatres of war. The great success of the surgical and hygienic measures initiated in 1912 a reform of the Austrian Red Cross. In 1913 Austria made a detailed application to the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to extend the Geneva Convention to war epidemics. The Committee forwarded and recommended this application to all member states, however, the outbreak of the First World War then prevented its resolution.

  10. [Consensus on antimicrobial sensitivity tests in gram-positive cocci. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Predari, S C; Corso, A; Lopardo, H; Casellas, J M; Bantar, C; Couto, E; Galas, M; Goldberg, M; Gutkind, G; Kovensky Pupko, J; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Pasterán, F; Radice, M; Soloaga, R

    2003-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is mainly performed in Argentina by disk diffusion method, following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommendations. We worked out new recommendations for the reporting and interpretation of this test when dealing with gram-positive cocci, in accordance to local trends and epidemiology. General considerations for performing the diffusion assay, quality control, and an update on susceptibility testing for gram-positive cocci are reported in this first document. The present update should be considered as a group of recommendations summarized by Argentinean experts and as the result of a consensus meeting coordinated by the Subcomisión de Antimicrobianos of the Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (Asociación Argentina de Microbiología). Experts in antimicrobial agents were convened in order to prepare this final document. These recommendations take into account local needs, affordability and availability to be used in current practice, tending to contribute to the correct antimicrobial treatment election, according to the particular microorganism and the infection sites.

  11. A preliminary study of the relationship between antibiotic administration and changes in bacteriological profile of wound infection in a burn unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yong; Sheng Zhiyong; Yang Xiaoqiang; Chang Dong; Jiang Wei

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between antibiotic administration and the changes in bacteriological profile in a burn unit. Methods: The data of consumption of different kinds of antibiotics, including total antibiotic consumption [expressed as the number of defined daily doses (DDD)] as well as pathogen identification, were collected in a 8-year period. The constituent ratios of different kinds of antibiotics in total antibiotic consumption to isolation rates of various species of bacteria were calculated, and their correlation was analyzed. Results: Within this period, it was found that the aminoglycosides and first generation cephalosporins were used less frequently, while the polypeptides, carbopenem and macrolides were used proportionally more. At the same time, the isolation rates of Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter sp, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were gradually increased. The constituent ratios of predominant pathogens were correlated to the different kinds of antibiotics consumption in the burn unit. Conclusion: The results suggested that the consumption of different antibiotics was closely related to the trends of emergence of bacterial isolates from infected burn wounds. The result might imply that to regulate the administration of certain antibiotics might help decrease the emergence of certain pathogenic bacteria in burn infections.

  12. [Bacteriological quality and toxigenic Bacillus cereus detection in cooked white rice sold at the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coto, Rodrigo; Chaves, Carolina; Gamboa, María del Mar; Arias, Maria Laura

    2012-09-01

    The wide use of rice is one of the factors that favors its implication in food borne diseases, and one of the most important pathogens associated to it is Bacillus cereus. The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 50 samples of white cooked rice sold in restaurants at the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, including the determination of the total aerobic plate count, the Most Probable Number of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli. MPN of Bacillus cereus and the detection of nheA, nheB and nHeC genes, associated to its toxicity, was also performed. Procedures described in the Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods were followed for the bacteriological analysis, multiplex PCR was used for the detection of genes following the methodology described by Hansen et al, 2001. 46% of the samples analysed were positive for total coliforms, 34% for fecal coliforms, 16% for E. coli and 10% for B. cereus, being 8% toxigenic. These facts suggest that white cooked rice may represent a risk for Pubic Health and that improvements shall be performed in order to offer a safe and high quality product to consumers.

  13. Suitable Types and Constituent Ratios for Clay-Pot Water Filters to Improve the Physical and Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharaporn Wongsakoonkan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate suitable types and ratios of materials for making clay-pots, and their performance to improve the physical and bacteriological quality of drinking water. Synthetic water was prepared and used to select suitable types and ratios for clay-pot water filters. The clay-pots were prepared by combining clay with sand, coconut-shell charcoal, and rice-husk charcoal, at various ratios. The results indicated that all types and ratios could remove 100% of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli, and were thus suitable for treating drinking water. However, for practical use, the system should have real-world application. Therefore, filtration rate/inner surface area/time was used as a criterion to determine suitable types and ratios. Different types of clay-plot water filter yielded significantly different filtration rates (p 0.01. A ratio with a maximal filtration rate of 60:40(0.38 ± 0.28 mL/cm2/hr was found to be suitable. The quality of filtered water was acceptable in terms of turbidity, coliform bacteria level, and Escherichia coli, according to WHO drinking-water quality guidelines.

  14. Quality control discussion of bacteriological examination in clinical appli-cation%微生物检验在临床应用中的质量控制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董德平

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriological examination refers to the process of putting test samples like secreta,humor,excreta,and blood in different inspection instruments and reagents for assay,separation,cultivation,and identification of pathogenic microorganisms from the body by combining with multiple disciplinaries such as biology,chemistry,and statistics and so forth. Bacteriological examination has been widely applied in the diagnosis of clinical disorders and has obtained great effect,which serves as a key factor in improving diagnostic accuracy and clinical effect.The accuracy of bacteriological examination outcomes directly influences on patient’s effect and prognosis.Implementation of quality control as required can improve its effect in bacteriological examination,ensure accuracy of inspection results,decrease the misdiagnosis rate and rate of missed diagnosis,and guarantee patient’s curative effect and prognosis Quality control of bacteriological examination can be divided into internal quality control and external quality control.The former includes inspection personnel,sample collection and transportation,method,instrument,reagent,and culture medium,etc.%微生物检验涉及生物、化学、统计等多学科知识,指将人体分泌物、体液、排泄物、血液等检验样本,应用各种检验仪器及试剂检测及化验,分离、培养、鉴定机体内病原微生物的过程。微生物检验已被广泛应用于临床疾病诊疗过程中,并取得显著效果,是提高疾病诊断正确率及临床疗效的关键因素,微生物检验结果的准确性将直接影响患者的疗效及预后。按要求实施质量控制,可提高微生物检验质量控制的效果,确保医师获得准确的检验结果,降低误诊、漏诊概率,保障患者的疗效及预后。微生物检验质量控制分为室内质量控制(检验人员、样本采集及运输、方法、仪器试剂、培养基等)及室间质量控制。

  15. Truth about the Consequence of Bacteriological Warfare of Disseminating Plague Bacteria%散布鼠疫菌(PX)细菌战“战果”之真相

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莇昭三[日](著); 韩慧光(译)

    2015-01-01

    日本军在中国实施细菌战的事实,随着中日学者的研究逐渐被揭示,在研究中所用材料大部分都是加害者(当事人)和受害者的口述史,缺乏日本军当时实施细菌战后对被害地的全面详细的疫学调查。731部队细菌战研究人员金子顺一论文《鼠疫效果略算法》,揭示了1940年农安、新京鼠疫流行事件是731部队实施的细菌战的事实。《陆军军医学校防疫研究报告第2部》中的高桥正彦论文中关于农安、新京鼠疫流行事件的论文,是731部队细菌战后对被害地进行的疫学调查。达格威文件Q报告中的部分数据来自“农安细菌战”受害者的病理解剖,其中不仅有中国人,也有日本人。%Facts about bacteriological warfare conducted by Japanese Army in China have been gradually re-vealed by related Chinese and Japanese researchers. However, the majority of materials used in the research are oral history orally accounted by offenders and victims, hence the lack of epidemic prevention surveys on the inflicted areas of bacteriological warfare by Japanese army. The thesis paper by Jun-Ichi Kaneko (bacterial warfare researcher of U-nit 731) namedBubonicPlagueAlgorithmunveiled the fact that plague epidemics which struck Nong’an and Changchun were caused by the Unit 731’s bacteriological warfare. Takahashi’s thesis paper inArmyMedicalCol-legeEpidemicPreventionResearchReport(VolumeⅡ)on plague epidemics that hit Nong’an and Changchun is in connection with the epidemic prevention surveys on the inflicted areas of bacteriological warfare carried out by the U-nit 731. Some data of the Report of“Q”from Dugway Proving Ground Documents came from pathological anatomy of victims of Nong’an bacteriological warfare, some of whom were Chinese and Japanese.

  16. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-07-01

    light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  17. Bacteriological quality of weaning food and drinking water given to children of market women in Nigeria: implications for control of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroegbu, C U; Ene-Obong, H N; Uwaegbute, A C; Amazigo, U V

    2000-12-01

    Bacteriological quality of weaning food and drinking water given to 2 groups of children aged market and the other of those left at home in the care of older siblings or house-helps. Bacterial counts (geometric mean) ranged from 5.02 +/- 1.82 to 8.70 +/- 1.0 log10 cfu per g or mL of food, and from 1.15 +/- 1.67 to 6.53 +/- 0.81 log10 cfu per g or 100 mL of water. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference in counts between types of food and between meals (breakfast and lunch). Bacterial contamination increased significantly with storage time, and was, in all circumstances except the water samples, significantly higher in foods given to children left at home. Reheated leftover foods also had significantly higher bacterial load than the freshly-cooked food. Coliform count varied significantly with source of drinking water. Poor hygiene standard (inferred from bacterial contamination) was generally observed among mothers weaning market, thus exposing their children to high risk of diarrhoea. Hygiene was significantly poorer in weaning of children left at home in the care of older siblings or house-helps. This implies that, in spite of their trading activities in the market, mothers still take better care of their babies than the older siblings or house-helps who may be inexperienced. These mothers may need education on childcare and food hygiene to suit to their trading activities, for example, during their monthly meetings. There is also a need to establish ORT (oral rehydration therapy) corners in the markets as part of the municipal services. This can be used not only for efficient and quick management of diarrhoea in the market but also for reinforcing hygiene education.

  18. Liver function and bacteriology of organs in broiler inoculated with nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and treated with organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane M. Rocha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbAns etxrpaecritment was carried out with 630 one-day-old chicks to evaluate the effects of organic acids when birds were experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium. Liver damage and the persistence of the bacterium in the organs were evaluated as well. Broilers were distributed in a completely randomised experimental design in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of six treatments with seven replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were inoculated with saline solution or the bacterium via gavage at 1 day of age, or were offered a feed containing or not the organic acid blend for the period of 7 to 14 days of age. A dose of 5.0x102 colony-forming units (CFU/0.5 mL of Salmonella Typhimurium was used for inoculation both via gavage and feed. The parameters evaluated are weight, liver histopathology, liver and serum biochemistry, and bacteriological analyses of the caeca, crop, spleen, and liver and heart pool. At 21 and 28 days of age, the liver of the non-inoculated groups was significantly lighter as compared to the other treatments. Birds fed organic acids presented lower bacterial isolation rates in all organs tested. Birds inoculated in the crop and treated with organic acids presented lower E. coli CFU counts (P<0.05. Birds inoculated with Salmonella presented significant changes (P<0.05 in liver enzymes, as detected by serum biochemistry, and in liver histopathology. It was concluded that organic acids effectively controlled Salmonella Typhimurium and did not cause any liver damage.

  19. The pig as a model for excisional skin wound healing: characterization of the molecular and cellular biology, and bacteriology of the healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J F; Olson, M E; Reno, C R; Wright, J B; Hart, D A

    2001-08-01

    A pig model of wound healing was developed by excision of 2-cm-diameter full thickness skin in young Yorkshire pigs. The results indicated that wound re-epithelialization in this animal model took an average of 20 days. Analysis of cellular change was assessed by use of DNA quantification and determination of apoptotic cells in tissue sections. The results indicate that RNA and DNA contents paralleled each other throughout the healing process, and observed changes in the pattern of RNA and DNA content of the scar tissues were consistent with cell loss due to apoptosis in this model. Expression of mRNA for relevant genes was assessed by use of semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, using porcine specific primer sets and RNA isolated from normal skin and specimens obtained at various times after wounding. The mRNA values for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), and decorin were significantly high at specific times after wounding, but mRNA values for the transcription factors (c-fos and c-jun) were significantly decreased. Quantitative bacteriologic results indicated that the total bacterial count in this animal model reached 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU)/g, with the highest value at post-wounding day 7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylocococci aureus were the most common bacteria detected in this model. Further definition of this model should identify unique points in the healing process, and such information could lead to development of therapeutic interventions to improve skin wound healing.

  20. [Analysis of a proposal for changing the educational paradigm in bacteriology and virology. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, E; González, S; López, T; Giayetto, V; Littvik, A; Cannistraci, R; Pavan, J

    2000-01-01

    The productive character of the scientific thought points out a methodological means that include the demand of the students' job about the information and not his mere reception and reproduction. It is essential to give the students the opportunity of discovering the cognitive processes used in the production of the scientific knowledge. In this work, we present the result of the starting of a workshop dynamic in a basic subject, the students' answers, and the analysis of the subject. In the Chair of Medical Bacteriology and Virology of the School of Medical Sciences, the National University of Córdoba, 1700 students attended classes in 1997. The subject was developed with the activities that worked the same contents from two different learning conceptions: (I) workshop activity, non obligatory, constructive, and (II) theorico-practical activity, obligatory and traditional. Two voluntary and anonymous interviews were done about the valuation that the student gave to these two activities and their basis, one in the middle and the other at the end of the course. 90.55% classified the traditional activity as positive, and 9.45% as negative. Regarding the workshop activity, the 60.5% classified it as positive and the 39.5% as negative. The same developed content with two activities made possible the analysis of the impact that the two different methodologies produced on the students. The student's answer to the traditional activity was better than the workshop activity (p < 0.001). The differences in the student's acceptance between the two option revealed the major difficulty of an alternative methodological strategy in the current educational model.

  1. [Changes in the bacteriological, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the Antartic krill (Euphausia superba) during storage at 0-2 degrees C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locati, G A; Espeche, M E; Fraile, E R

    1980-01-01

    A study was performed on the bacteriological, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of antartic krill (Euphausia superba) stored at 0-2 degrees C. After 6-8 hours of storage a dark color started in the head and legs and spread slowly to the tail. Within 24 hours 17% of the total nitrogen was lost by hepatopancreas autolisis. After 72 hours the krill became inedible due to strong amoniacal odor and flavor. These changes were associated with the multiplication of aerobic psychrophilic bacteria. The bacterial counts of freshly caught krill ranged between 3,7 X 10(2)/g and 2,5 X 10(5)/g at 21 degrees C. During storage at 0-2 degrees C the counts gradually increased and off-odors were produced when they reached values of 10(6)/g at 21 degrees C. The total volatile bases content of freshly caught krill, 0.018 to 0.038%, increased considerably during storage reaching values of approximately 0.100% when off-odors became noticeable and 0.200% or more when the odor was clearly ammoniacal. Pseudomonas spp Gp. II (Shewan) were predominant in the bacterial flora of the freshly caught krill along with Moraxella spp Alcalígenes spp, Vibrio spp, Micrococcus spp and coryneforms. The spoilage flora developed during cold storage consisted mainly of Pseudomonas spp G. II (96-100%). The results were related to the saline composition of medium; however, Pseudomonas spp Gp. II were predominant with both media used.

  2. CHARACTERISATION OF AEROBIC BACTERIOLOGICAL ISOLATES FROM ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANT SITE INFECTIONS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BIOFILM FORMATION IN A TERITIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Shree

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orthopedic implant site infection is one of the major constituents of surgical site infection associated with high morbidity and mortality . Due to the use of implants for open reduction and internal fixation , which are foreign to the body , orthopedic trauma surgery is at grave risk of microbiological contamination . Often isolates causing these infections are assoc iated with biofilm formation resulting in increased antibiotic resistance . OBJECTIVES: To determine the aerobic bacteriological profile with their antibiotic susceptibility patterns from pus samples of patients with orthopedic implant site infections . To d etermine the potential of these isolates to produce biofilm . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Pus samples were collected and sent to the laboratory from patients with suspected implant infections over a period of 6 months were processed according to CLSI guidelines . Biofilm detection was done using Congo red Agar ( CRA method , tube method and Tissue culture plate method . RESULTS: Of the 46 culture positive cases out of 63 , most common isolate was Staphylococcus aureus 30 ( 65 . 21% followed by Coagulase negative Staphy lococcus 4 ( 8 . 69% , Escherichia coli 4 ( 8 . 69% , Klebsiella species 3 ( 6 . 52% , Pseudomonas species 3 ( 6 . 52% , enterococcus species 2 ( 4 . 32% . 13 . 33% of S . aureus was Methicillin resistant ( MRSA , 100% of gram negative bacilli were ESBL and AmpC producers , 27 . 27% of gram negative bacilli were resistant to Imepenem and Meropenem , 1 vancomycin resistant enterococci was isolated . 72% of the isolates were biofilm producers by Congo Red Agar method , 76% by Tube method , and 84% by tissue culture plate m ethod . CONCLUSIONS : Staphylococcus aureus ( MSSA is the most common organism causing orthopedic implant site infection . Gram negative isolates exhibit multidrug resistance patterns . Significant numbers of isolates causing implant infections are biofilm pro ducers . Antibiotic

  3. Conjunctival cytological examination,bacteriological culture,and antimicrobial resistance profiles of healthy Mediterranean buffaloes(Bubalus bubalis) from Southern Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara; Lamagna; Maria; Pia; Pasolini; Sandra; Nizza; Karina; Mallardo; Maurizio; Formicola; Alessandro; Costagliola; Gerardo; Fatone; Filomena; Fiorito; Orlando; Paciello; Luisa; De; Martino

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess normal conjunctival cytological and bacteriological/fungal flora features in the Mediterranean buffalo(Bubalus bubalis).Methods: Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes of 57 healthy female buffaloes aged 24–36 months, with no evidence of ocular disease, farmed in Campania region(Southern Italy), for microbiological analysis. Conjunctival eye specimens of both eyes were subsequently obtained by a cyto-brush, for cytological analysis.The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates was also determined using the diskdiffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates.Results: Cytological examination of conjunctival swab specimens(114 eyes) revealed epithelial cells(basal, intermediate, columnar and super ficial) in all samples, whereas neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells were present in 70%, 10% and 2% of samples,respectively. Microorganisms, for a total of 261 aerobic bacteria and 6 fungi, were isolated from 112/114 conjunctival samples [98.25%; 95% con fidence interval(CI): 93.18–99.70]. Only two conjunctival swabs did not yield bacteria and/or fungi(2/114, 1.75%;95% CI: 0.30–6.82). Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured(181/261,69.35%; 95% CI: 63.31–74.81), with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus lentus predominating. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated as Gram-negative bacteria(80/261, 30.65%; 95% CI: 25.19–36.69). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria showed amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and cephalothin as the least sensitive antibiotics for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Conclusions: These results provided first information on normal conjunctival ocular micro flora and cytological features in Mediterranean buffalo.

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of PCR analysis and bacteriological culture of milk samples for identification of intramammary infections in dairy cows using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Emanuelson, U; Frössling, J

    2016-12-01

    Real-time PCR analysis of milk samples is a fast method to identify intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows, and has the potential to be used for routine analysis of test milking composite milk samples. However, the results of the PCR analysis can be difficult to interpret. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of PCR analysis of composite milk samples, and conventional bacteriological culturing (BC) of quarter milk samples, when used to identify cows with IMI. The comparisons were performed for IMI with four common udder pathogens; Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (Str dysgalactiae), Str uberis and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). The Se and Sp of real-time PCR (SePCR; SpPCR) and BC (SeBC; SpBC) was simultaneously estimated using latent class analysis (LCA), studying one pathogen at the time. Milk samples from 970 dairy cows from 25 herds were included. Aseptically collected quarter milk samples taken at the day before test milking (TM), at the day of TM, and at the day after TM, were analyzed using BC. Non-aseptically collected composite milk samples taken at the day of TM were analyzed using PCR. Moreover, the composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) was recorded and summarized by diagnostic test and bacterial finding. LCA was first performed using only test results from samples taken at the day of TM, but in a second analysis BC results from the three consecutive samplings, interpreted in parallel, were included. The SePCR was significantly higher than the SeBC for S aureus, Str dysgalactiae and CoNS in the first analysis, but only for CoNS in the second analysis. The SpPCR was significantly lower than the SpBC for Str dysgalactiae and CoNS. In conclusion, using PCR analysis of composite milk samples, as a diagnostic tool for identifying cows with IMI increased the Se for all the pathogens investigated (although not always significantly), while Sp in general remained on a

  5. Treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media with ofloxacin in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ear drops: a clinical/bacteriological study in a rural area of Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hasselt, Piet; van Kregten, Eric

    2002-03-15

    Chronic suppurative otitis media in young children is a major problem in Africa, with socio-economic consequences at a later age. Common treatment regimens with antibiotics are expensive and often not practically feasible. Therefore, a project was started to develop a low-cost and effective treatment in a rural area of Malawi by studying the clinical efficacy of an inexpensive application regimen of ofloxacin (0.075%) in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (1.5%) ear drops. In earlier studies with this treatment regimen, it was possible to cure approximately 70% of ears. The aim of this study was to find out whether the bacteriological spectrum cultured from wet ears before and after treatment, and patterns of resistance to antibiotics, played a role in the percentage of cures. Patients with long-standing chronic suppurative otitis media were clinically assessed and treated with suction cleaning and instillation of ear drops on days 1, 3, 7 and 10. Bacterial swabs were taken for culture and sensitivity tests for ofloxacin were on days 1 and 10 from the ears that were still discharging. After 21 weeks, the ears were assessed again clinically. Clinical cure was considered to be complete cessation of otorrhea. Ninety of 104 tested patients (124 ears) completed the study. About 73% of the ears had become dry by day 10. This dropped to 42% after 21 weeks. Before treatment, most ears (91%) harbored fecal bacteria, Proteus mirabilis (74%) and enterococci (60%) being the most frequently isolated microbes. The second group of frequently cultured bacteria were water bacteria e.g. Pseudomonas species and other non-fermenters (69%), whereas the classical otitis media pathogens were detected only in 15% of ears. Before treatment, 9.7% of strains were resistant to ofloxacin, most (30/35) of which were cultured from ears that were eventually cured. After treatment, fecal and water bacteria were still the most frequently found, with 36% new strains and an overall sensitivity to

  6. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TAP WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Zamorska; Monika Zdeb; Dorota Papciak

    2016-01-01

    The most sensitive method of detecting contamination in water supply networks is microbiological testing. Microbiological water safety is evaluated mainly based on the results of traditional tests that rely on bacteria culturing on the so called bacterial growth mediums. Flow cytometry is a modern technology that has been used in microbiology only recently. The diagnostic method based on flow cytometry is much faster and more versatile. Microbiological quality testing was conducted in rzes...

  7. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TAP WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Zamorska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most sensitive method of detecting contamination in water supply networks is microbiological testing. Microbiological water safety is evaluated mainly based on the results of traditional tests that rely on bacteria culturing on the so called bacterial growth mediums. Flow cytometry is a modern technology that has been used in microbiology only recently. The diagnostic method based on flow cytometry is much faster and more versatile. Microbiological quality testing was conducted in rzeszowski district, in the area of water network supplied by surface waters, and in the area of water network supplied by underground waters. The scope of the analysis of the microbiological quality of tap water was based on the determination of selected indicators of the sanitary condition of water ie; the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria on nutrient agar (reference called Agar A and additionally called agar supplemented with R, the number of coliforms and faecal streptococci. Determination of the total number of microorganisms by flow cytometry was performed using two dyes SYBR Green and iodide pyridine. Water from underground water intakes, not under the permanent control of microbial had worse microbiological parameters. Used new methods of microbiological assays showed greater amounts of microbiological contamination.

  8. The bacteriology of hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Riis Mikkelsen, Peter; Miller, Iben Marie;

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disabling skin disease consisting of recurrent nodules, sinuses, fistulas and scarring involving the intertriginous regions. HS is often a therapeutic challenge and most treatments are off-label. A better understanding of aetiology and patho......Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disabling skin disease consisting of recurrent nodules, sinuses, fistulas and scarring involving the intertriginous regions. HS is often a therapeutic challenge and most treatments are off-label. A better understanding of aetiology...

  9. Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…

  10. BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CREAMY FOODSTUFFS

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    A. Afaghi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonpasturized cream is usually contaminated with different types of pathogens, and its use in foodstuffs such as creamy cake and ice-cream is the main cause of contamination of such foodstuffs. The purpose of the analysis was to show the contamination rate of nonpasturized cream and foodstuffs in which such creams are used. Studies carried out on 70 samples from 231 distribution centers, from Dec, 1987 to May, 1988, in the city of Qazvin, Iran revealed that 95% of the samples were contaminated with different types of pathogens. The microbial counts were as follows: total count, 95%; Coliform, 77%; Staphylococcus aureus, 62%, and positive cases of E. Coli with feacal origin, 55%.

  11. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoga, R; Khairul, A; Sunita, K; Suresh, C

    2006-02-01

    Infection plays a pivotal role in enhancing a diabetic foot at risk toward amputation. Effective antibiotic therapy against the offending pathogens is an important component of treatment of diabetic foot infections. Recognition of the pathogen is always difficult as the representative deep tissue sample for culture is surrounded by ulcer surface harbouring colonies of organisms frequently labelled as skin commensals. The emergent of resistant strains represents a compounding problem standing against efforts to prevent amputation. This study was undertaken to identify the pathogens associated with diabetic foot infection in terms of their frequency and sensitivity against certain commonly used antibiotics. Forty-four consecutive patients with open diabetic foot infections had wound swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing. Cultures positive were observed in 89% of the cases with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa encountered in 20%, 14% and 14% of cases respectively. Mixed growths were isolated in 6% of cultures. All Staphylcoccus aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin but 80% were sensitive to Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to Methicillin and Gentamycin in 80% and 60% of cases respectively, and resistant to Ampicillin and Ceftazidime in 83% and 50% respectively. All Pseudomonas aeroginosa isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin but 50% were resistant to Gentamycin. There was no single antibiotic possessing good coverage for all common organisms isolated from diabetic foot lesions. Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant cause of diabetic foot infections followed by Klebsiela pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most infections are monomicrobial. The emergence of multiresistant organisms is a worrying feature in diabetic foot infections.

  12. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

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    Shareen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  13. BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SOFT DRINKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, William Royal

    1920-01-01

    Prohibition has boomed soft drinks so that more than ever there is need of rigid inspection. Dr. Stokes finds beverages with five-figure counts and empty “sterile” bottles always with some bacteria, sometimes with millions. This paper should attract the attention of health officers to their soft drink problems. PMID:18010284

  14. Cow health: bacteriological diagnostic examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, H.E.; Sampimon, O.C.; Lam, T.J.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Mastitis wordt vrijwel altijd veroorzaakt door een infectie met bacteriële ziektekiemen. Virale infecties kunnen ook een rol spelen, maar zijn van ondergeschikt belang. Dit artikel zal daarom alleen ingaan op diagnostisch onderzoek van bacteriele ziektekiemen. Er zijn veel verschillende bacteriën di

  15. Estimation of the diagnostic accuracy of the invA-gene-based PCR technique and a bacteriological culture for the detection of Salmonella spp. in caecal content from slaughtered pigs using Bayesian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainar-Jaime, R C; Atashparvar, N; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the accuracy of the invA-gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a culture technique based on pre-enrichment with buffered peptone water, three selective enrichment media (selenite, tetrathionate and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broths) and four selective, solid media (Xylose-Lysine-Tergitol-4, Salmonella/Shigella, Hekton-Enteric and MacConkey), for the detection of Salmonella organisms from caecal samples from slaughter pigs. For this purpose a latent-class (Bayesian) approach was used. Two hundred and three slaughtered pigs were used after grouping them into two groups of 96 and 107 animals. Sensitivity (Se) was estimated to be 56% (95% probability interval 40, 76) for culture and 91% (81, 97) for PCR. The specificity (Sp) of the PCR was 88% (80, 95) while the Sp of the culture had been considered 100% in the statistical analysis as all culture-positive samples were confirmed by serotyping. PCR Se was not affected by the Salmonella serotypes present in the samples analysed. Accordingly, a minimum of 25.5% of the pigs was estimated to harbour Salmonella organisms in their faeces. It was concluded that bacteriology on caecal samples alone was a poor diagnostic method, and that the PCR method could be considered a cost-effective alternative to culture in Salmonella monitoring programmes. However, given the moderate Sp of this molecular technique, PCR-positive samples should be further confirmed through bacteriology.

  16. 2000例小儿肺炎细菌学及耐药性分析%Analysis of bacteriology and drug resistance of 2000 cases of pediatric pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志新

    2014-01-01

    目的:对本院2000例小儿肺炎细菌学及其耐药性进行分析。方法随机选择本院2011年10月至2013年8月收治的2000例小儿肺炎患儿。将其痰液制成标本,进行细菌学培养,测定其对药物的敏感性。结果①分离出G-杆菌占62.26%;G+球菌占27.32%;真菌占10.42%;②对于G-杆菌致病性前5位为:肺炎克雷伯杆菌、大肠埃希杆菌、阴沟肠杆菌、鲍曼不动杆菌以及铜绿假单胞菌,占G-杆菌总数的90%;③对于G+球菌致病性前5位为:金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌、轻型链球菌、溶血性葡萄球菌以及肺炎链球菌;④对G-杆菌敏感度较高的药物分别为环丙沙星、奈替米星、哌拉西林、阿米卡星以及美洛培南;⑤对G+球菌142株金黄色葡萄球菌敏感度较高的药物为青霉素、四环素、红霉素、庆大霉素以及氯林可霉素。对220株其他球菌耐药性较高的药物为:青霉素、苯唑西林、红霉素、庆大霉素以及喹诺酮二代。结论在临床诊治过程中,应明确患者的致病菌,使用合理、有效的抗生素。%ObjectiveTo analyze the bacteriology and drug resistance of pediatric pneumonia in our hospital. MethodsThere were 2000 cases of pediatric pneumonia in our hospital randomly selected from October 2011 to August 2013. The sputum specimens were made for bacterial culture and measurement of susceptibility testing of drugs.Results ①Gram-negative bacillus accounted for 62.26% of the pathogenic bacteria, gram-positive bacillus accounted for 27.32% and fungus accounted for 10.42%.②The top 5 pathogenicity of gram-negative bacillus were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, accounting for 90% of the number of gram-negative bacillus.③The top 5 pathogenicity of gram-positive bacillus were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus

  17. Short communication: comparing real-time PCR and bacteriological cultures for Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus in bulk-tank milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, G; Caminiti, A; Delle Donne, G; Moroni, P; Santi, A; Galletti, G; Tamba, M; Bolzoni, G; Bertocchi, L

    2014-09-01

    For more than 30 yr, a control plan for Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus has been carried out in more than 1,500 dairy herds of the province of Brescia (northern Italy). From 2010 to 2011, the apparent prevalence of Strep. agalactiae has been relatively stable around 10%, but the apparent prevalence of Staph. aureus has been greater than 40% with an increasing trend. The aim of this paper was to estimate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3 assays for the detection of Strep. agalactiae and Staph. aureus in bulk-tank milk samples (BTMS) in field conditions. The assays were a qualitative and a quantitative bacteriological culture (BC) for each pathogen and a homemade multiplex real-time PCR (rt-PCR). Because a gold standard was not available, the sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were evaluated using a Bayesian latent class approach. In 2012 we collected one BTMS from 165 dairy herds that were found positive for Strep. agalactiae in the previous 2-yr campaigns of eradication plan. In most cases, BTMS collected in these herds were positive for Staph. aureus as well, confirming the wide spread of this pathogen. At the same time we also collected composite milk samples from all the 8,624 lactating cows to evaluate the within-herd prevalence of Strep. agalactiae. Streptococcus agalactiae samples were cultured using a selective medium Tallium Kristalviolette Tossin, whereas for Staph. aureus, we used Baird Parker modified medium with added Rabbit Plasma Fibrinogen ISO-Formulation. In parallel, BTMS were tested using the rt-PCR. Regarding Strep. agalactiae, the posterior median of Se and Sp of the 2 BC was similar [qualitative BC: Se=98%, posterior credible interval (95%PCI): 94-100%, and Sp=99%, 95%PCI: 96-100%; quantitative BC: Se=99%, 95%PCI: 96-100%, and Sp=99%, 95%PCI: 95-100%] and higher than those of the rt-PCR (at 40 cycle threshold, Se=92%, 95%PCI: 85-97%; Sp=94%, 95%PCI: 88-98%). Also in case of Staph. aureus, the posterior medians

  18. Controle bacteriológico de carne caprina para elaboração de hambúrguer caprino defumado Bacteriological control of goat meat to elaboration of smoked goat hamburger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Metri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se avaliações bacteriológicas da matéria-prima utilizada na elaboração de um produto cárneo caprino tipo hambúrguer defumado, antes e após sanitização. A carne foi tratada por aspersão, com uma solução de ácidos orgânicos contendo 2% de ácido acético, 1% de ácido lático, 0,25% de ácido cítrico e 0,1% de ácido ascórbico, e armazenada sob refrigeração. As análises bacteriológicas foram realizadas no dia 0 e aos 7 e 14 dias após defumação. Na carne, no dia 0, a contagem de coliformes fecais estava acima do limite permitido pela legislação vigente, mas sete dias após a sanitização, esse parâmetro estava dentro dos limites permitidos. No produto final todos os parâmetros bacteriológicos encontraram-se dentro dos padrões higiênico-sanitários.In order to obtain a safe goat smoked hamburger, bacteriological analysis of the raw material was performed before and after sanitation. Meat was sprayed with a solution of organic acids containing 2% acetic acid, 1% lactic acid, 0.25% citric acid and 0.1% ascorbic acid and, after that, stored under refrigeration. Bacteriological analysis was carried out on days 0, 7 and 14 after goat smoked hamburger processing. In meat, on day 0, the fecal coliform count was above legal limits, but on day 7 after sanitation this parameter was these limits. In the final product, all the results of the bacteriological parameters were according to the sanitary-hygienic standards.

  19. Radiografia torácica e bacteriologia na fase inicial de tratamento de 800 pacientes masculinos com tuberculose pulmonar Chest X-ray and bacteriology in the initial phase of treatment of 800 male patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Levent Ozsahin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar radiografias de tórax de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar e determinar se a extensão das lesões radiográficas correlaciona-se com os parâmetros bacteriológicos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo descritivo e retrospectivo; foram avaliadas radiografias de tórax, baciloscopias para BAAR e culturas de escarro para Mycobacterium tuberculosis no momento basal e durante os dois primeiros meses de tratamento. A amostra foi composta por 800 pacientes masculinos internados entre 1995 até o presente em um hospital com 250 leitos no noroeste da Turquia. RESULTADOS: A VHS média inicial foi de 58 ± 37 mm/h. Inicialmente, a baciloscopia e as culturas de escarro tiveram resultado positivo em 83,8% e em 89,5% dos pacientes, respectivamente. Após o primeiro mês do tratamento, a proporção de culturas positivas foi maior nos pacientes com doença cavitária do que naqueles sem doença cavitária (53,7% vs. 37,7%; p 0.05 para todos, mas houve correlação positiva com VHS (r = 0,23, p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate chest X-rays of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine whether the extent of radiographic lesions correlates with bacteriological parameters. METHODS: In this retrospective, descriptive study, we evaluated chest X-rays, as well as AFB detection by smear microscopy and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, initially and during the first two months of treatment, in 800 male patients hospitalized between 1995 and the present at a 250-bed hospital in northwestern Turkey. RESULTS: The initial mean ESR was 58 ± 37 mm/h. Initial sputum smears and cultures were positive in 83.8% and 89.5% of the patients, respectively. After the first month of treatment, the proportion of patients with positive sputum culture was higher among those with cavitary tuberculosis than among those with non-cavitary tuberculosis (53.7% vs. 37.7%, p 0.05 for all but was positively correlated with the ESR (r = 0.23, p < 0.001. During the first and second

  20. 两种状态下婴儿培养箱内细菌学检测结果比较%Comparison of the results of bacteriological detection inside the infant incubator in two different conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安云

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨贮水湿化与非湿化状态下婴儿培养箱内细菌滋生情况.方法 将使用婴儿培养箱的90例新生儿分为观察组和对照组,比较相同条件下培养箱贮水湿化与非湿化状态箱内物体表面和空气的细菌检测结果以及两组新生儿体温、婴儿培养箱温度和环境湿度.结果 观察组婴儿培养箱内物体表面、空气的细菌检测合格率高于对照组(P<0.01);对照组婴儿培养箱内湿度高于新生儿所需湿度.结论 婴儿培养箱不宜常规贮水湿化,否则易引起细菌滋生;使用婴儿培养箱时应监测箱内湿度,当湿度过低不能满足患儿需要时才贮水湿化,且每日更换蒸馏水,并做好水槽消毒.%Objective To observe the bacteria breeding situation inside the infant incubator in wet and non -wet conditions. Methods A total of 90 infants in incubator were assigned to the experimental group and the control group. The results of the object surface and the air bacteriological detection inside the incubator and thermoregulation in newborn, infant incubabor's temperature and the humidity of the environment in two groups under web and non - web conditions were collected and compared. Results The qualified rates of the object surface and the air bacteriological detection of the experimental group were higher than the control group ( P < 0. 01 ). The humidity inside the incubator in the control group was higher than the requined humidity. Conclusion Infant incubator should not store water for humidifying, because it is easy to cause bacteria breeding. The humidity of infant incubator should be monitored. It is necessary to storage water when the humidity is too low to meet the needs of infants. The distilled water should be replaced everyday and do well in water disinfection.

  1. Research on Japanese Invaders Using of Chemical, Bacteriological Weapons to Kill Chinese People%侵华日军使用化学、细菌武器杀害中国人民述略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庭华

    2015-01-01

    During the 14-year war of aggression against China, the Japanese army in China used bacteriologi-cal weapons in 20 provinces, in other words,the implementation of germ warfare can be said was always an impor-tant means of the Japanese invaders and combat styles.Although postwar the truth of Japanese Aggressors germ war-fare had come out, but the Japanese government had not admited fault up to now.Despite repeatly Chinese germ warfare victims sue the Japanese government to protest, but until August 2002, Tokyo, Japan, the court adjudica-ted "affirmed the truth that the Japanese invaders have germ warfare and killed of the Chinese people, but refused to take an apology and financial compensation for victims".Dare to reflect, to deny the crimes of their own nation, is bound to repeat mistakes, this is a law of history.Chinese descendants should remember this history in future.%日军在14年侵华战争期间曾在中国20个省区内使用过细菌武器,实施细菌战,可以说细菌战始终是侵华日军的重要作战手段和作战样式。战后虽然侵华日军实施细菌战的真象大白于天下,但日本政府至今不认错。虽经中国细菌战受害者多次向日本政府起诉、抗议,但一直到2002年8月,日本东京法院才作出“认定有侵华日军曾发动细菌战和杀害中国人民的事实,但拒绝向受害者赔礼道歉及经济赔偿”的裁决。不敢反省、否认自己罪行的民族,必然会重蹈复辙,这是一条历史的规律。中国的子孙后代都应该铭记这段历史。

  2. Use of real-time PCR on faecal samples for detection of sub-clinical Salmonella infection in cattle did not improve the detection sensitivity compared to conventional bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A N; Nielsen, L R; Baggesen, D L

    2013-05-03

    There is a need for more sensitive detection methods to improve effectiveness of control programmes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes (Salmonella) in cattle. We assessed the performance of a rapid, molecular-based, real-time PCR (rt-PCR) method against the conventional bacteriological culture-reference method (BCRM) on cattle faecal samples for detection of sub-clinical Salmonella infections in cattle. Thirty faecal samples were artificially contaminated with either 10 or 50 CFU of one of five strains of S. Dublin (SD) and S. Typhimurium (ST). The overall detection sensitivity of both rt-PCR and BCRM was 100% for ST and 78% for SD. Furthermore, 163 faecal samples from cattle herds with suspected Salmonella infection were tested to compare the relative performance of rt-PCR to BCRM on samples from naturally infected herds. The relative sensitivity of rt-PCR was 20% (3/15 BCRM positive samples) while the relative specificity and accuracy was 99% and 92%, respectively. Both methods had limitations for detecting low levels of SD (<1 CFU/g). Hence, the evaluated rt-PCR method did not provide a sensitive alternative to the BCRM for detection of bacteria in faecal samples of sub-clinically, Salmonella-infectious cattle.

  3. Epidemiologic and Bacteriologic Study of the Burned Patients from the Plastic Surgery Department of the County Emergency Hospital of Ploieşti, over a 4 Years Period (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbuchea, A; Racasan, O; Falca, V; Mitache, C; Vladescu, C

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the epidemiologic data and the bacteriologic results of a total number of 759 burned patients, which were treated and discharged from the Plastic Surgery Department of the County Emergency Hospital of Ploiesti, between 01 01 2010 and 31 12 2013. The investigated parameter shave been: age and gender distribution, rural or urban population, burn etiology, total burn surface area (TBSA),TBSA, location and depth of lesions, therapeutic management,length of hospital stay, types of bacteria isolated from the infected wounds and their sensitivity to antibiotics, patients' mortality. The statistical analysis revealed the following results: mean age 51.33 ± 18.44 years, male/female ratio 1.35/1, rural/urban ratio 1.34/1, most common etiologies were scalds (44.8%) and flames (37.6%), mean TBSA 7.7 ± 8.4%, main locations were the extremities, splitthickness skin grafting in 15% of the patients, hospital stay 15.57 ± 13.84 days, main bacteria isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (22.9%), mortality rate 0.13%. The best methods to decrease the burn morbidity are the burn and infection prevention, for which several measures are discussed.

  4. - Caracterización clínica - bacteriológica - micológica de los procesos dermatológicos en caninos (Clinical - bacteriological - fungal characterization - of dermatological processes in canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Alvarez, Tania

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos dermatológicos en caninos constituyen una problemática de carácter sanitario, ético y social a escala mundial. Su etiología diversa y los problemas en el diagnóstico elevan el costo y duración de los tratamientos, agravando la situación. Con el objetivo de realizar la caracterización clínica–bacteriológica–micológica de los principales procesos dermatológicos se realizó la inspección clínica y el aislamiento bacteriológico y micológico a partir de las lesiones observadas en 50 caninos. También fueron realizados antibiogramas. Se pudieron caracterizar los procesos dermatológicos en los caninos analizados, correspondiendo la presencia de costras amarillas claras, escamas, tejido edematoso con inflamación y fístulas, zonas alopécicas circunscritas, vesículas, pústulas y prurito variable, al aislamiento de Staphylococcus aureus sensible a Estreptomicina, Eritromicina, Cloranfenicol, Gentamicina y Amikacina (42%; rubicundez cutánea hiperémica circunscrita, seborrea con olor rancio, costras amarillas e intenso prurito, a Malassezia pachydermatis (34%; rubicundez cutánea hiperémica circunscrita, seborrea con olor anómalo y fétido (rancio, escamas de color amarillo claro hasta amarillo-verde y prurito intenso, a Malassezia pachydermatis asociado con Staphylococcus aureus (16%; costras de color amarillo-verde y prurito variable, a Streptococcus spp. sensible a Estreptomicina, Eritromicina, Cloranfenicol, Gentamicina, Amikacina y Penicilina (4%; e Hipotricosis y foliculitis superficial, a resultados negativos en el aislamiento (4%. Abstract. Dermatological processes in canines constitute a problem of sanitary, ethical and social character to world scale. Their diverse etiology and the problems in the diagnosis raise the cost and duration of treatments, increasing the situation. With the objective of carrying out the clinic-bacteriological-fungal characterization of the main dermatological processes it was

  5. 破溃兔扩张皮瓣的细菌学研究%The experimental study of the bacteriology of the recipient bed of the ruptured expanded flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡守舵; 赵延勇; 蒋海越; 杨庆华; 庄洪兴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the bacteriology of the ruptured expanded flap. Methods The New Zealand White rabbits were selected as experimental animals. Firstly,the ruptured expanded flap animal models were made and were randomly classified into four groups, named as A group.B group, C group and D group. The tissues of the flap of each group were divided into six parts from center to edge when taking the rupture as the center. The specimens were taken from these parts. All the specimens were quantificationally examined with Cooney's method and qualitatively examined for gram smear and aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Results The experiment results revealed that: ?with the extension of the rupture time, the length of the inflammatory reaction skin-capsule composite tissue gradually increased.the bacterial number in the flap tissue increased, the significant differences existed between each group (P < 0.05). @ If the rupturetime lasted more than three weeks, the infectious ratio of the floor would increase significantly (17%vs67%;P< 0.05). When the floor infection did exist, bacteria could be found in all parts of the flap. ?lf the floor didn't infect.the bacteria exist within the scope 0.5cm longer than the inflammatory reaction skin-capsule composite tissues. @ the main kind of bacteria was gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions The bacteriology of the flap was changed when the expanded flap was ruptured, more attention should be given in clinic.%目的:研究扩张皮瓣破溃后不同时段及部位的细菌状态.方法:以新西兰大白兔作为实验动 物.首先形成兔扩张皮瓣模型,进而形成破溃的扩张皮瓣模型,并随机分为A、B、C、D破溃时间长短不同的四组.各组的皮瓣组织均以破 口为中心,呈环状由内向外分为6个部分;然后在无菌的环境下分别对这6个部分进行标本采集.采取的标本采用Cooney法进行细菌定 量检查和常规接种、需氧和厌氧培养定性检查.结果:①随着破溃时

  6. A comparison of the BAX system method to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual and International Organization for Standardization reference methods for the detection of Salmonella in a variety of soy ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belete, Tamrat; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Gensic, Joseph; Wallace, F Morgan

    2014-10-01

    The performances of two DuPont BAX System PCR assays for detecting Salmonella on a variety of low-moisture soy ingredients were evaluated against the U. S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) method or the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6579 reference method. These evaluations were conducted as a single laboratory validation at an ISO 17025 accredited third-party laboratory. Validations were conducted on five soy ingredients: isolated soy protein (ISP), soy fiber, fluid soy lecithin, deoiled soy lecithin, and soy nuggets, using a paired-study design. The ISP was analyzed as both 25- and 375-g composite test portions, whereas all other sample matrices were analyzed as 375-g composite test portions. To evaluate 25-g test portions of ISP, the test material was inoculated using Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Mbandaka (Q Laboratories isolate 11031.1). Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Tennessee (Q Laboratories isolate 11031.3) was used for all other trials. For each trial of the method comparison, 25 samples were analyzed for each matrix: 5 uninoculated controls and 20 samples inoculated at low levels (0.2 to 2 CFU per test portion) that were targeted to achieve fractionally positive results (25 to 75%). Using McNemar's chi-square analysis, no significant difference at P ≥ 0.05 (χ(2) ≤ 3.84) was observed between the number of positives obtained by the BAX System and the reference methods for all five test matrices evaluated. These studies indicate that the BAX System PCR assays, in combination with the single buffered peptone water primary enrichment and subsequent brain heart infusion regrowth step, demonstrate equivalent sensitivity and robustness compared with the FDA BAM and ISO reference methods for both 25- and 375-g composite samples. Moreover, there was no observed reduction of sensitivity in the larger 375-g composite samples for all five matrices.

  7. Estudos bacteriológicos e sorológicos de um surto de peste no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Bacteriological and serological studies of a plague outbreak in the Paraíba state, Brazil

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    Alzira Maria Paiva Almeida

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados estudos bacteriológicos e/ou sorológicos para diagnóstico da infecção pestosa, em material obtido de 452 pacientes (48 positivos, 1.938 roedores e outros pequenos mamíferos (75 positivos, 4.756 cães (141 positivos e 3.047 gatos (57 positivos, oriundos de 41 municípios localizados em toda a extensão da área paraibana do Planalto da Borborema. A infecção foi encontrada em 21 municípios. Foram isoladas 20 cepas de Yersinia pestis de amostras coletadas de três pacientes e 17 roedores. Estas cepas apresentam características bioquímicas, fatores de virulência, sensibilidade aos antibióticos e poder patogênico experimental semelhantes ao de cepas isoladas anteriormente. Pelos estudos realizados não foram observados, no surto de peste que eclodiu em setembro de 1986 na Paraíba, fatores diferentes dos observados nos outros focos do nordeste do Brasil.During a plague outbreak in the Borborema Plateu focus (Paraíba, bacteriological and serological studies were carryed out in material from 452 patients (48 positives, 1,938 rodents and other small mammals (75 positives, 4,756 dogs (141 positives and 2,047 cats (57 positives obtained from 41 counties (out of which, 21 produced positive samples. Twenty Yersinia pestis strains isolated from material from 3 patients ans 17 rodents, displayed biochemical reactions, virulence factors, antibiotic susceptibility and animal experimental pathogenicity similar to those observed in strains previously isolated. According to our findings this recent plague outbreak did not exhibite different factors from those observed during prior outbreaks in other plague foci in the northeast of Brazil.

  8. BACTERIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WASHED AND UNWASHED LAYING HEN’S EGGS CARACTERÍSTICAS BACTERIOLÓGICAS DE OVOS LAVADOS E NÃO LAVADOS DE GRANJAS DE PRODUÇÃO COMERCIAL

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    Maria Luiza Ferreira Stringhini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the bacteriological quality of washed and unwashed eggs obtained in four commercial poultry farms located in the metropolitan area of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil was the purpose of this study. Farms 1 and 2 were considered as medium and small production capacity, respectively, and washed mechanically the eggs with heated water containing sanitizing while farms 3 and 4 produced unwashed eggs. The sample universe was made up of 576 eggs from farms 1 and 2, 288 obtained from the poultry facilities and other 288 collected in the classification hall, and 132 obtained in farms 3 and 4, half of this collected in the facilities and the other half in the classification hall. It was considered commercial eggs classified as large eggs from 30 to 40 weeks of age Dekalb White hens. The experimental design was a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (washing procedure x collection place with three replicates and the experimental unit consisted of pool of six eggs. Counts of mesophilic and positive Staphylococcus coagulase and Most Probable Number (MPN of total and fecal coliforms in shells and internal content of eggs and Salmonella spp. research in eggshells were made. Results of the counts were expressed as log CFU/g and “t” Student test (5% adopted. Descriptive and frequency analysis was used to analyse MPN of total and faecal coliforms. Counts of mesophilic and positive Staphylococcus coagulase in eggshells of washed eggs in the classification hall of the farm 1 were lower (p <0.05 than that eggs collected in hen’s facilities which showed the efficiency of sanitization and good bacteriological quality of eggshell. The eggshells obtained in the classification hall of the farm 3 showed a higher (p <0.05 counts of mesophilic than in the facilities. Despite the high counting for positive Staphylococcus coagulase in the classification halls of farms 3 and 4, these values are lower than those needed to form toxin capable of

  9. Bacteriological Survey of AFD (Meat Packing Plant

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    T. N. Rawal

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the manufacturing process of freeze dried mutton from slaughtering to packing and makes an assessment of microbial build-up on equipment, hands of workers and environment in which the mutton comes in contact during processing.

  10. Programa de Bacteriología

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    Inés del Socorro Bedoya Ortiz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de la investigación cualitativadescriptiva “Comprensión de las inteligencias develadas en el aula”. Su propósito fue comprender las inteligencias develadas en los estudiantes en el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la asignatura de Hematología. Se hace referencia a los contextos que convalidan la investigación, se describe paso a paso la manera cómo fue pensado y desarrollado el proyecto, señalando la población participante, las etapas del proceso, las técnicas e instrumentos de recolección de información y el tipo de investigación; se presenta el acercamiento teórico que demandó el trabajo y que se fue construyendo y reconstruyendo acorde con los hallazgos encontrados en el proceso de interacción entre estudiantes, docente e investigadora. Finalmente, se plantea una reflexión educativa a manera de recomendación, en la que se invita a los docentes a repensar, a reorientar la práctica educativa y al reto de proponer nuevos paradigmas de interpretación y de acción frente a la ciencia y a la vida misma.

  11. [Bacteriologic and serologic diagnosis of enteral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelmann, R

    1988-09-01

    Infections of the gastrointestinal tract still are numerous, ranging on the second place after infections of the respiratory tract. Some of them show quite severe or prolonged course. In contrast to other infections, especially those of the urinary tract, laboratory diagnostic of enteritis is only scarcely ordered. During the last ten years new methods and knowledge of etiologic germs like Campylobacter, Yersinia, various types of E. coli, Clostridium difficile, Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Giardia, Blastomyces and Cryptosporidia have been accumulated. A better etiologic diagnosis of these infections should enable the clinician to start a more precise and therefore more effective therapy.

  12. 42 CFR 493.911 - Bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... monocytogenes Corynebacterium species CDC Group JK Gram-positive cocci: Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus Group A Streptococcus Group B Streptococcus Group D (S. bovis and enterococcus) Streptococcus pneumoniae... freundii Enterobacter aerogenes Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae Proteus mirabilis...

  13. Macroscopia, histopatologia e bacteriologia de fígados de frangos (Gallus gallus condenados no abate Gross, microscopic and bacteriologic evaluations of broiler chicken livers (Gallus gallus condemned at slaughter

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    Aleverson da Silva Barcelos

    2006-04-01

    infecção bacteriana nos fígados condenados.Gross, microscopic, and bacteriologic evaluations of broiler chicken livers condemned at slaughter were performed. One hundred broiler livers were sampled. Ninety of them had gross lesions and were condemned by the meat inspection service. Ten of them were grossly normal. The sampling was done in two processing plants located in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For the gross evaluation, the following parameters were considered: shape, color, size, texture, odor, and the presence of other visible lesions. Livers with changes in color, shape, size and/or texture were 47/90; brown-pale livers with other associated macroscopic lesions were 19/90; yellow or yellowish livers with other associated gross lesions were 5/90; and green or greenish livers with other associated lesions were 19/90. The main microscopic diagnoses consisted of multifocal heterophilic colangio-hepatitis, degeneration and/or centrilobular to bridging hepatocellular necrosis, random necrotizing hepatitis and multifocal heterophylic pericolangitis. The bacteriological evaluation was oriented to finding of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus sp. It was carried out by direct culture of the liver samples in selective culture media. E. coli was isolated in 26/100 samples and Staphylococcus sp. in 24/100 samples. For culturing of Salmonella spp., the conventional method indicated for this bacteria was utilized. However, there was no isolation of any species of the Salmonella genus. In all the three evaluations, a high incidence of lesions suggestive of bacterial infections was observed in the condemned livers.

  14. 慢性呼吸衰竭急性加重期患者呼吸道分泌物细菌学结果与病程和预后的关系%Bacteriological culture of airway secretions in acute onset of chronic respiratory failure and its relationship with clinical prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何慕芝; 蔡闯; 李志斌; 池丽庄; 邹霞英

    2008-01-01

    Objecfive To investigate the association between bacteriology of airway secretions in acute onset chronic respiratory failure (ACRF) and its clinical prognosis.Methods The bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance in the airway secretions from 44 patients with 49 cases of ACRF were studied,the associations between bacteriology,antibiotic resistance and annual ACRF hospital admission frequency (ACRF≥2 or ACRF2次/年组致病菌阳性率是ACRF<2次/年组的2倍(P<0.01).致病菌中耐药菌占61.3%,耐药菌阳性患者机械通气时间、住院天数较阴性者显著延长,病死率显著增高(P<0.05). 结论 ACRF患者主要致病菌为铜绿假单胞茵等非传统病原体,致病菌阳性率、非传统病原体比率随慢性呼吸衰竭的加重而增高,耐药菌感染导致ACRF病死率增高.

  15. 贵州省2010年五个点结核病流行病学抽样调查细菌学结果分析%Bacteriological analysis and epidemiological survey of tuberculosis in five places of Guizhou province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁薇; 张铭; 陈依江; 陈慧娟; 李杨; 潘建敏; 周华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the results of bacteriological test and epidemiological survey of tuberculosis and to evaluate the prevalence of TB in Guizhou province.Methods:Sputum samples were collected for smear and culture,isolates from epidemiology survey were subjected to identification and susceptibility testing against 4 anti-tuberculosis drugs.Results:A total of 6933 people were involved in the survey,in which 16 person were smear positive,the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis is 231/100000,thirty-eight person were bacteriological positive,the prevalence of bacteriological positive pulmonary tuberculosis is 548/100000;the resistant rate to any drug is 37.1% in 35 mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates,33.3% in new cases,mult-drug resistence (MDR)was14.3%.The resistence rates to H,S,R,F were 28.6%,17.1%,14.3%,5.7% respectively;non-mycobacterium tuberculosis accounted for 24.5%.Conclusion:The epidemiology survey in five points shows higher prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis,higher prevalence of bacteriological positive pulmonary tuberculosis and higher resistence rate,especially the prevalence of bacteriological positive pulmonary tuberculosis,higher than that in 2000 significantly(P <0.05).There is very grim situation in TB control in Guizhou province,so effective measures should be taken to strengthen the prevention of tuberculosis.%目的:分析结核病流行病学调查细菌学检查结果,为评价贵州省结核病流行现状提供依据.方法:将流行病学调查采集的痰标本进行涂片和培养,对培养出的分枝杆菌进行菌型鉴定和四种一线抗结核药物敏感性测定.结果:6933人中,16例涂阳,涂阳患病率为231/10万;38例菌阳,菌阳患病率为548/10万;35株结核分枝杆菌的总耐药率为(37.1%),初始耐药率为33.3%,耐多药率为14.3%.耐不同抗结核药物的顺位由高到低依次为:H(28.6%)、S(17.1%)、R(14.3%)、E(5.7%);非结核

  16. Calidad bacteriológica del agua para consumo humano en zonas de alta marginación de Chiapas Bacteriological quality of drinking water in areas of high levels of poverty in Chiapas, Mexico

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    Héctor Javier Sánchez-Pérez

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la calidad bacteriológica del agua (CBA para consumo humano y su relación con diarreas y enteroparasitosis en niños de 1 a 14 años en comunidades de alta marginación socioeconómica de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En una muestra aleatoria de 99 viviendas de la Región Fronteriza de Chiapas, de marzo a septiembre de 1998, se recolectaron muestras de agua para consumo humano, se indagó sobre diarreas en los últimos 15 días y se recolectaron muestras de heces de 322 niños de 1 a 14 años. La CBA se determinó mediante la técnica de filtración por membranas y las enteroparasitosis por el método de Faust. Se utilizó el estadístico ji² para el análisis de la CBA con relación a los diversos factores analizados. RESULTADOS: Sólo 31% de las muestras de agua fueron aptas para consumo humano. La CBA y la presencia de diarreas referida por las madres de los menores no mostraron asociación. Los niños con mala CBA en sus viviendas mostraron mayor prevalencia de Entamoeba histolytica y mayor tendencia a estar parasitados. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario desarrollar medidas que mejoren la CBA y campañas de educación que incrementen el uso de agua hervida, su manejo adecuado y el cuidado de las fuentes de abastecimiento comunitarias.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the bacteriological quality of drinking water (BQDW and its association with diarrhoea and intestinal parasites in children 1 to 14 years old, in areas of high levels of poverty in Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March to September 1998, drinking water was collected from a random sample of 99 households in the Border Region of Chiapas, Mexico; data on diarrhoeal disease (in the past 15 days were collected and stool testing for intestinal parasites was performed in children 1 to 14 years old (n= 322. The BQDW was determined by the filtration membrane technique. Intestinal parasitic infections were determined by the Faust Method. The chi² statistic was

  17. The analysis of bacteriology and antibiotic susceptibility in 493 patients with bronchiectasis complicated with acute infection%493例支气管扩张急性感染的细菌学特点及药敏分析

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    宋杰; 刘保清; 王金祥; 胥振阳; 李晓辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析支气管扩张症患者急性感染的细菌学特点及药敏情况.方法 对本院呼吸科收治的493例支气管扩张急性感染患者痰标本的细菌培养及药敏试验进行分析.结果 493例痰标本分离出细菌200株,其中革兰阴性杆菌178株,占89.0%,革兰阳性球菌22株,占11.0%.根据五年统计结果,总数排在前6位的分别是铜绿假单胞菌(21.5%)、洛菲不动杆菌(15.5%)、肺炎克雷伯菌(8.5%),肠杆菌属(包括阴沟肠杆菌、产气肠杆菌、中间型肠杆菌及聚团肠杆菌)(8%)、鲍曼溶血不动杆菌(5.5%)和金黄色葡萄球菌(5%).结论 支气管扩张急性感染患者的细菌分布以革兰氏阴性菌为主,铜绿假单胞菌排在首位,提示合理选用抗菌药物对减少耐药菌的产生有重要作用.%Objective To investigate the bacteriology and antibiotic susceptibility in patients with bronchiectasis complicated with acute infection. Methods Data of sputum culture and antibiotic susceptibility of 493 patients with bronchiectasis complicated with acute infection from Jul 2006 to Aug 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results In the test of sputum culture, 200 strains of bacteria were ob-tained. Among them, there were 178 strains of gram negative bacilli ( 89. 0% ), and 22 strains of gram positive coccus ( 11. 0% ) . According to the statistical results of five years, the bacteria ranked the top six were Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 21. 5% ), Acinetobacter lwoffii (11. 5% ), Klebsiella pneumonia( 8. 5% ), Enterobacter ( Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter intermedi-us and Enterobacter agglomerans) ( 8% ). Acinetobacter baumannii ( 5. 5% ), Staphylococcus aureus rosenbach( 5% ). Conclusions The most common pathogenic bacteria that induce acute infection in patients with bronchiectasis are Gram-negative bacteria, especially pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is suggested that reasonable use of antibiotics to reduce drug resistance is very important.

  18. Bacteriological characteristics and risk factors for urinary tract infections in stroke patients%脑卒中患者尿路感染细菌学特征及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管朝红; 茅新蕾; 黄向东; 韩丽雅

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the bacteriological characteristics and risk factors for urinary tract infections in stroke patients. METHODS A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the clinical data of 2954 stroke patients in department of neurology and neurosurgery from Jan 2008 to Oct 2010. Then the clinical risk factors for urinary tract infections in stroke patients were compared with those with the coronary heart disease complicated with urinary tract infections in department of cardiology and related departments during the same period. RESULTS Totally 108 (3. 7%) stroke patients were with urinary tract infections) a total of 84 strains of pathogenic bacteria were cultured from urine, including 57 strains of gram-negtive bacilli (67. 9%), 18 strains of gram-positive coccobacteria (21. 4%), and 9 strains of fungi (10. 7%);the top 4 pathogens isolated were in order as follows:Kscherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia , Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus faecalis ; long bed rest, the disturbance of consciousness, and Indwelling urinary are special risk factors of stroke patients with urinary tract infection. As compared with coronary heart disease patients with urinary tract infection, there were statistically significant differences in percentage of Lying in bed, conscious disturbance* and indwelling urinary catheter were the risk factors for urinary tract infections in stoke patients. CONCLUSION The urinary tract infections in stoke patients are subject to various risk factors, therefore, we can take appropriate measures to prevent the stroke patients away from urinary tract infections.%目的 探讨脑卒中患者并发尿路感染的细菌学特征及危险因素.方法 收集2008年1月-2010年10月神经内外科住院的脑卒中2954例患者临床资料,对其进行统计分析,并与同期心内科及相关科室住院冠心病并发尿路感染患者进行比较.结果 108例脑卒中患者发生尿路感染3.7%,尿培养共获得84

  19. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF MALASIAN GIANT SHRIMPS (Macrobrachium rosembergii RAISED WITH CHICKEN MANURE QUALIDADE BACTERIOLÓGICA DE CAMARÕES GIGANTES DA MALÁSIA (Macrobrachium rosembergii CULTIVADOS COM DEJETOS DE AVES

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    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The bacteriological quality of Malaysian giant shrimps (Macrobrachium rosnnbergii raised under captivity condition and fed with aviculture residue was studied in the Station of Pisciculture of the Veterinary School, Federal University of Goiás. The following results were observed: research of Salmonella free in 25g, in all samples; Staphylococcus aureus counts ranged from < 1,0 x 10¹ to 2,0 x 10¹ CFU/g; aerobic or aerobic facultative mesophiles counts ranged from < 1,0 x 10¹ to 1,0³ CFU/g; psicrotrophiles count was < 1,0 x 10¹ to 1,0 x 10³ CFU/g; MPN of total coliforms was 3 to 15/g; MPN of fecal coliforms was 3 to 7/g. All the values above are in agreement to the national pattern.

    KEY-WORDS: Macrobrachium rosembergii; shrimp; chicken manure.

    No presente experimento verificou-se a qualidade bacteriológica de camarões gigantes da Malásia (Macrobrachium rosembergii cultivados em cativeiro, em consórcio com dejetos de avicultura, na Estação de Piscicultura da Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Goiás, obtendo-se os seguintes resultados: pesquisa de Salmonella ausência em 25g em todas as amostras; contagem de Staphylococcus aureus - variou de < 1,0 x 10¹ a 2,0 x 10¹ UFC/g contagem de microrganismos aeróbios ou facultativos mesófilos viáveis - < 1,0 x 10¹ a 1,0 x l0³ UFC/g ; psicrotróficos - < 1,0 x

  20. Tuberculose pulmonar: achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax em pacientes com doença em atividade comprovada bacteriologicamente Pulmonary tuberculosis: findings on high resolution computerized tomography of active disease on patients with bacteriological confirmation

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    CRISTIANE ALÓ CAMPOS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever os achados em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar em atividade na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução e o padrão de distribuição das lesões pelo parênquima pulmonar. Casuística e método: Foram analisadas retrospectivamente as tomografias de alta resolução de 42 pacientes com diagnóstico bacteriológico de tuberculose pulmonar ou forte suspeita clínica, com posterior confirmação bacteriológica. Resultados: Os principais sinais sugestivos de atividade encontrados foram nódulos do espaço aéreo (83%, nódulos centrolobulares (74%, aspecto de árvore em brotamento (67%, cavitações (67%, espessamento das paredes brônquicas (55%, consolidações (48%, opacidade em vidro fosco (21%, e espessamento do interstício pulmonar (9%. Conclusão: A tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax pode sugerir fortemente atividade da doença, sendo particularmente útil nos pacientes com baciloscopias negativas e/ou radiografias indeterminadas, permitindo a instituição de tratamento adequado, antes mesmo do crescimento da micobactéria em meio de cultura.Background: The aim of this study was to describe the signs of active tuberculosis in patients submitted to high resolution computerized tomography and the distribution of lesions along the pulmonary parenchyma. Material and methods: The high resolution CTs performed on 42 patients with tuberculosis either bacteriologically diagnosed or clinical suspected and later confirmed by bacteriological tests were studied. Results: The signs of disease activity observed were airspace nodule (83%, centrilobular nodule (74%, tree-in-bud pattern (67%, cavitations (67%, bronchial thickening (55%, parenchymal consolidations (48%, ground glass opacity (21% and thickening of the inter and intralobular septa (9%. Conclusion: High resolution computed tomography can be strongly suggestive of disease activity, is particularly helpful in patients with negative smear and

  1. Inspeção visual e avaliações bacteriológica e físico-química da carne de piramutaba (Brachyplatistoma vaillanti congelada Visual inspection and bacteriological and physico-chemical evaluations of frozen piramutaba, Brachyplatistoma vaillanti, meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se inspeção visual e avaliações bacteriológicas e físico-químicas da piramutaba, Brachyplatistoma vaillanti, congelada, eviscerada e sem cabeça, de 20 amostras compostas por um pool de três peixes dos dois principais distribuidores da região de Belo Horizonte, MG, sob as exigências legais. Salmonella ssp. e Staphylococcus aureus foram encontradas somente em amostras de um distribuidor, indicando que 10% delas estavam impróprias para o consumo humano. Os resultados confirmam a baixa incidência desses patógenos na piramutaba. As bases voláteis totais estiveram dentro do limite exigido por lei, e os valores de pH apresentaram-se fora dos padrões legais em 90% das amostras, nos dois distribuidores.Visual inspection and bacteriological and physico-chemical evaluations were carried out in frozen, eviscerated, and headless piramutaba (Brachyplatistoma vaillanti. Twenty samples composed by a pool of three fish from the two main wholesalers of Belo Horizonte, MG, were studied. Salmonella ssp. and Staphylococcus aureus were only found in samples of one wholesaler, representing that 10% of the samples were inappropriate for human consumption. The results confirmed the low incidence of these pathogens in piramutaba. The total volatile bases were in accordance and the pH values were not in accordance with the law requirements in 90% of the samples.

  2. Caracterização química e bacteriológica de polpa e surimi obtidos do espinhaço residual da filetagem de tilápia Chemical and bacteriological characterization of minced fish and surimi obtained from fillet frames of tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Conceição Reis Pereira Mello

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar rendimentos, composição centesimal e características bacteriológicas da polpa e do surimi de tilápia obtidos a partir da desossa mecânica de espinhaços residuais da filetagem de peixes de 400 a 650 gramas e oriundos de unidade de processamento oficial. As amostras foram divididas em quatro lotes, com intervalos de prazo de coleta de dois meses. As análises realizadas foram determinação do rendimento, composição centesimal (umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinzas e análises bacteriológicas: contagem de Bactérias Heterotróficas Aeróbias Mesófilas (CBHAM e Psicrotróficas (CBHAP; isolamento e identificação de Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e Escherichia coli. Os rendimentos obtidos para a polpa e o surimi em relação aos espinhaços foram, respectivamente, de 17,96 e 13,61%, observando-se diferença significativa (PThe aim of this study was to assess the yields, proximate composition and bacteriological characteristics of minced fish and surimi obtained from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from 400 to 650 grams, recovered from fillet frames, after mechanical deboning. The samples were divided in four lots, collected each two months. The percentage yields were determined and the chemical analysis carried out included moisture, protein, lipids and ashes. Bacteriological analysis considered Heterotrophic Aerobics Mesophilics and Psychrotrophics bacteria count, isolation and identification of Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli. The yields obtained from minced fish and surimi, in relation with fillet frames, were 17.96% and 13.61% with significant gaps (P<0.05 between samples. The moisture, proteins, lipids and ashes percentage rate were for the minced fish: 80.69, 16.5, 3.14 and 0.50 and for the surimi: 80.82, 14.6, 0.27, and 0.98, with significant gaps (P<0.05 for lipids and ashes. The counted Mesophilics and Psychrotrophics Bacteria in the

  3. [Bacteriological control of various methods of sewage sludge hygienization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breer, C

    1983-09-01

    As a result of extensive parallel investigations in a water treatment plant it was found that the fresh sludge pasteurization or prepasteurization with ensuing sludge digestion gives a product which is unobjectionable from an epidemiological hygienic point of view. The result were confirmed by investigations in a second plant. Similarly satisfactory results were obtained with the composting of previously desiccated sludge, with the aerobic-thermophilic fermentation of liquid sludge or with the drying of sewage sludge. An alternative to these thermal processes is the application of gamma rays or accelerated electrons.

  4. Bacteriological study of Indian cheese (paneer sold in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishnavi C

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to isolate and identify bacterial pathogens/contaminants in paneer samples sold in Chandigarh. Fifty eight samples of paneer bought at random were cultured on several media. Bacterial colony counts were also done. The predominant organisms isolated were Staphylococcus species, aerobic spore bearers, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni, Acinetobacter species and Streptococcus species. The viable bacterial counts obtained ranged from 3 x 102 to 9.7 x 1010 CFU/mL. Contamination of paneer by pathogenic bacteria could be an important factor of gastrointestinal illnesses in the consumers.

  5. [Epidemiology and bacteriological diagnosis of paediatric acute osteoarticular infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroni, A

    2007-10-01

    Acute paediatric osteo-articular infections require a fast and sensitive diagnosis allowing a treatment directed to the causative pathogen. Many micro-organisms can be incriminated, but Staphylococcus aureus and Kingella kingae markedly prevail. K. kingae became the first bacterial species responsible for septic arthritis in children septic arthritis relies upon analysis of articular fluid, which requires systematic inoculation of a blood culture vial to increase the recovery rate of K. kingae. If the culture is negative, it is recommended to carry out a universal PCR or a PCR targeted to the main germs responsible for septic arthritis. Indeed, PCR represents an undeniable benefice for the diagnosis of paediatric septic arthritis, particularly for the DNA detection of K. kingae. The diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis relies primarily upon blood cultures, since the bone puncture is not a systematic procedure in this setting. Their efficiency is low, and there is still a need to look for other arguments of diagnosis such as search of possible portals of entry or specific serologies.

  6. [The perfusate culture--bacteriologic monitoring of kidney grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B; Zastrow, F; Lison, A E; Ritzerfeld, W

    1985-01-01

    Since the kidney recipient's immune system is entirely suppressed, any bacterial contamination from a graft might be hazardous. Major statistics [1,3,4,5] reveal a mortality as high as 10% due to infectious and gastrointestinal complications. From July 1979 to December 1983 114 kidney grafts have been done in our center. After transplantation none of the patients died as a result of complications due to infection. Microbiologic examination of the perfusate is obligatory to detect contamination. It was used in 145 donor nephrectomies; 28% of the perfusate culture samples were positive: In 4 of 5 cases (81%) the bacteria isolated were of the non-pathogenic type seen in the normal flora of the skin (Staphylococcus epidermidis). Introduction of cover drapes lowered the positive culture rate to 8%. Isolation of S. epidermidis after desinfection of the skin (6x) with 70% spore-free alcohol is proof of the extraordinary sensitivity of the method used. The outstanding clinical importance of this method is the rapid information obtained on any contamination and the early suggestion concerning the first choice of antibiotic. Though E.coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found in the culture, no clinical infection was seen under adequate antimicrobial therapy. Among 114 kidney transplantations in our center no patient died of bacterial infection. Our experience points out that the effect of general antibiotic prophylaxis is negligible. Instead, the effect of early application of antibiotics in accordance with the results of the perfusate culture is superior.

  7. Bacteriological research for the contamination of equipment in chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Gu; Song, Woon Heung; Kweon, Dae Cheol [Shinhan University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose is to determine the degree of contamination of the equipment for infection control in chest radiography of the radiology department. We confirmed by chemical and bacterial identification of bacteria of the equipment and established a preventive maintenance plan. Chest X-ray radiography contact area on the instrument patients shoulder, hand, chin, chest lateral radiography patient contact areas with a 70% isopropyl alcohol cotton swab were compared to identify the bacteria before and after sterilization on the patient contact area in the chest radiography equipment of the department. The gram positive Staphylococcus was isolated from side shoots handle before disinfection in the chest radiography equipment. For the final identification of antibiotic tested that it was determined by performing the nobobiocin to the sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chest radiography equipment before disinfecting the handle side of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria were detected using a disinfectant should be to prevent hospital infections.

  8. BACTERIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON Fasciola hepatica AND CATTLE BILIARY DUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panebianco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of bacteria in Fasciola hepatica and into cattle biliary ducts containing the parasite. A total of 24 liver and 58 F. hepatica samples were analysed. In all biliary ducts and in 62,06% of parasite Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. The bacterial specie more frequently isolated from parasite were Citrobacter freundii (34%, Proteus mirabilis (18%, Providencia rettgeri (12%, Staphylococcus spp. (18%, Enterobacter spp. (12%. There doesn’t appear to be a correlation between bacterial specie from parasite and ducts. The Authors conclude with some related inspective consideration.

  9. Bacteriological Indicators on The Environment and in Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ruvalcaba Ledezma Jesús Carlos; Rosas Pérez Irma; Pertuz Belloso Silvana Beatriz; Interían Gómezleticia; Raygoza Anaya Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Background.Mexico has public health problems due to its inadequate systems for sewage treatment, sanitation means and low income and economic levels, which influence the increase of disease manifestation. Objective.Determine seasonal variations, frequency and distribution of enterobacteriaairborne aerosols incoming from “San Juan de Dios” River. It is worth mentioning that, these bacteria possess antimicrobial and heavy metals resistance, such as to Pb, Cr, and Cd, and their hemolytic profile...

  10. BACTERIOLOGY OF WOUNDS INFECTIONS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguneswari Giddi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wound infections are one of the leading causes of patient’s morbidity, which ends in financial loss to both patient and hospital. Delayed treatment drug resistance due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics is implicated as the cause of chronicity of wounds. Empirical treatment without culturing the causative agent somehow lessens the delay of treatment, but actually is leading to the rise of resistant strains in the community. It is obligatory to know the prevalence of causative agents to implicate the early treatments without wait for the culture reports. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was done to identify the prevalent organisms of wounds and its susceptibility to antimicrobials. 100 pus samples from different wounds of 100 patients, both inpatients and outpatients attending Viswabharathi Medical College at Kurnool were collected. All the pus samples were processed by gram staining of the direct smear, inoculating on to nutrient agar, blood agar, and MacConkey agar and incubated overnight at 370c. Culture morphology and gram staining was done from the positive growth. Confirmation was done by biochemical reactions and necessary special tests. Results: 100 wound samples yielded 105 isolates. Among the total 105 isolates, the gram negative isolates were dominating and accounted for 53.33% and gram positive accounted for 46.66% only. In the overall study, Staphylococcus remained as predominant isolate and is 100% sensitive to vancomycin, Linezolid. CONCLUSION The accurate identification of culture isolates may be a useful tool to provide appropriate antibiotic and help in reducing the drug-resistant strains in wound infections. This study provides better guidance for the clinicians to cure wounds without delay and much waste of antibiotics that ultimately prevents the resistant strains and saves the economy of both patient as well as hospital.

  11. Bacteriological analysis of necrotic pulp and fistulae in primary teeth

    OpenAIRE

    FABRIS, Antônio Scalco; Nakano, Viviane; Avila-Campos,Mario Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Primary teeth work as guides for the eruption of permanent dentition, contribute for the development of the jaws, chewing process, preparing food for digestion, and nutrient assimilation. Treatment of pulp necrosis in primary teeth is complex due to anatomical and physiological characteristics and high number of bacterial species present in endodontic infections. The bacterial presence alone or in association in necrotic pulp and fistula samples from primary teeth of boys and gir...

  12. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF NEONATAL SEPTICAEMIA

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    Shilpy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is one of the most common causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity, particularly in the developing countries. Appropriate clinical diagnosis and empirical treatment is crucial as pathogens causing sepsis and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern varies in different settings. The objective of this study was to determine the causative bacteria and pattern of susceptibility to antibiotics in NICU, which in turn may help in implementation of empirical therapy. MATERIALS AND METHOD A total of 100 blood samples were screened for sepsis in newborns less than 28 days old in this prospective study. The blood cultures of suspected cases were detected by using BACTEC blood culture systems and antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. This prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology and Level III NICU in the Department of Paediatrics of D. Y. Patil Hospital and Research Centre during the period of two years 2013 to 2015. RESULTS In this study out of 100 neonates 38 (38% showed sepsis and 62 (62% showed no sepsis. Most common organisms responsible for the sepsis were CONS followed by Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter sp. Gram negative organisms were 100% sensitive to Colistin, Imipenem and Meropenem while Gram positive organisms were 100% sensitive to Azithromycin, Linezolid and Vancomycin. CONCLUSION The diagnostic capabilities of blood culture systems have improved over the last decade with the advent of automated continuous blood culture monitoring systems. BACTEC is a sensitive method and lead to earlier detection of bacterial growth

  13. EU Collaborative study VI on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Mooijman KA; Nagelkerke NJD; van de Giessen AW; Henken AM; MGB; IMA

    2003-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) organiseerde in 2002 een zesde bacteriologisch ringonderzoek. Zeventien Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) namen deel aan deze studie. Referentie materialen in combinatie

  14. SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON CHEMICAL, ENZYMATIC AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia-Paulina BALAURE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the problem of soil pollution as the result of human activities. Soil pollutans may be either chemicals or biological in nature. microbial enzymatic activities are often proposed as indicators of environmental stress. The soil samples were submitted by chemical, microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Chemical analyses were been made for determinating the heavy metals. Heavy metals from the forest soil were represented by Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. To evaluate the concentration in heavy metals from the filtrate, we used a acetylene-nitrous oxide flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Potential dehydrogenase activity, the only indicator of the possible sources of pollution, excluded the presence of either chemical or biological pollution. The number of bacteria involved in the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in the analyzed soil indicated a high efficiency regarding the mineralization of the organic residues of plant and animal origin.

  15. Bacteriological cultures of removed intrauterine devices and pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanadis, G; Kalantaridou, S N; Kaponis, A; Paraskevaidis, E; Zikopoulos, K; Gesouli, E; Dalkalitsis, N; Korkontzelos, I; Mouzakioti, E; Lolis, D E

    2002-05-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are highly effective, long-term methods of contraception. Although evidence of a direct association between IUD use and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is scarce, concerns about PID related to IUDs use has limited their use throughout the world. We designed this study to examine the effect of IUDs on PID. For the study, we recruited 200 participants from among women who requested an IUD as a means of contraception. The IUDs were removed 36 months later or in case of PID. No PID cases were recorded during the follow-up period. Prior to IUD insertion, 121 women (60.5%) had symptoms and/or signs of lower genital tract infection, whereas during the follow-up period 179 women (89.5%) had symptoms and/or signs of lower genital tract infection. The Papanicolaou smears were negative for Actinomyces throughout the study period. Also, cultures for sexualy transmitted disease microorganisms were negative throughout the study period. Following IUD removal, 189 IUD cultures (94.5%) were positive. The bacterial flora of the removed IUDs consisted of common aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that do not account for PID. The most common microorganisms identified were Staphylococcus coagulase negative, Eschericia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis. IUDs are a very effective and safe method of contraception if potential recipients are selected carefully. Culture of the removed IUDs and therapeutic management of women with positive cultures are not recommended when women are asymptomatic for PID.

  16. [Bacteriology and mycology of otitis externa in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornand, V

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial and fungal flora of 1118 ears of dogs with otitis externa and 100 ears of healthy control dogs were studied in order to isolate the causative agents. The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis (56%) was by far the most common organism in otitic dogs followed by the bacteria Staphylococcus intermedius (23%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%), Proteus spp. (6%) and Streptococcus canis (5%). A statistical analysis of observed results showed that the incidence of these organisms is significant in otitic dogs. Many strains of S.intermedius, P.aeruginosa and Proteus spp. are resistant to antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat otitis externa. Therefore an antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using "Cobas Bact" for these bacterias. Furthermore, 80 strains of M.pachydermatis were submitted to identification-kits (API 20 CAUX, API STAPH, Cobas Micro). The observed results showed that an identification with these tests was not possible.

  17. Branhamella catarrhalis: significance in pulmonary infections and bacteriological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J J; Gadeberg, O; Bruun, B

    1986-04-01

    A three-month survey revealed 29 patients at our hospital with symptoms of acute pulmonary infection, from whom Branhamella catarrhalis was isolated from lower respiratory tract specimens, in 18 cases in pure culture. Approximately 2% of all respiratory tract specimens examined during the period yielded growth of B. catarrhalis. All except one patient suffered from chronic pulmonary disease, notably chronic bronchitis. A phenotypic comparison was made between 55 strains of B. catarrhalis, of which 50 were recent isolates from lower respiratory tract specimens, and 23 Neisseria strains representing Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria cinerea, Neisseria flavescens, Neisseria mucosa, Neisseria pharyngis, and Neisseria lactamica. The morphology of B. catarrhalis colonies is very characteristic, and when the diagnosis is suspected, testing for the ability to hydrolyze tributyrin may confirm it within hours. Ability to produce deoxyribonuclease is another property which differentiates B. catarrhalis from the Neisseria species. Otherwise, the combination of nitrate reduction and failure to produce acid from glucose, maltose, and sucrose establishes the diagnosis.

  18. A serological and bacteriological survey of canine brucellosis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Castro, R; Segura, R

    1976-07-01

    Using agglutination procedures, 203 human and 500 dog sera collected in Mexico City were tested for canine brucellosis. Blood samples from the 500 dogs also were cultured for Brucella canis (B. canis). Positive agglutination titers (1:100 or greater) were found in 27 (13.3%) of the human and 140 (28.0%) of the dog sera tested. B. canis was isolated from the blood of eight dogs. The disease was experimentally produced in susceptible dogs by inoculation with one of the isolated strains.

  19. Automated single-slide staining device. [in clinical bacteriology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    An automatic single-slide Gram staining device is described. A timer-actuated solenoid controls the dispensing of gentian violet, Gram iodine solution, decolorizer, and 1% aqueous safranin in proper sequence and for the time required for optimum staining. The amount of stain or reagent delivered is controlled by means of stopcocks below each solenoid. Used stains and reagents can be flushed automatically or manually. Smears Gram stained automatically are equal in quality to those prepared manually. The time to complete one Gram cycle is 4.80 min.

  20. Bacteriologic evaluation of electric clippers for surgical hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, T M; Rodeheaver, G T; Morgan, R F; Edlich, R F

    1984-09-01

    Clipper blade assemblies for electric clippers used repeatedly without sterilization demonstrated high levels of bacterial contaminations that are potential sources of infection. A technique of sterilization of the clipper blade has been reported that eliminates the exogenous bacterial contamination.

  1. Bacteriological study of urinary tract infection in antenatal care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Ritu, Singh Brij N, Begum Rehana, Yadav Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objective: To isolate and diagnose the Uropathogens and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern in anti-natal care patient suffering from Urinary tract Infections. Material and Methods: 150 samples were collected by consent pregnant women between the age group of 18 to 40 years. A midstream clean catch is adequate, provided by all pregnant women’s through given careful instructions. For enumeration of bacteria we perform standard loop techniques method. The number of colonies counted or estimated, and this number used to calculate the number of viable bacteria per ml of urine. The bacterial strains were identified by colonies character stick, gram staining, morphological and biochemical character. The bacterial strains identification was done up to genus and species level. The antibiotics sensitivity test of bacterial strains was done as per CLSI guidelines by Kirby-Baure Disc Diffusion Methods. Results: The significant bactiurea was found in 50 patients among 150 patients used. The most commonly isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli 23(40% Klebsiellaaerogens 11 (22% Staphylococcus aureus 10 (20% Pseudomonas aerugenosa 4(8%.The incidence of bacteriuria among in their first pregnancy was 22.2%.The higher incidence of UTI in 2nd and 3rd trimester was found to have 31.4% & 40%. These studies were showing high level of resistance to first line antibiotics such as Cotrimaxozole. Conclusion: To minimizing the complication of the pregnant women should be educated about the physiology of pregnancy clinical presentation includes asymptomatic bacteria, acute cystitis & pyelonephritis. Pregnant women should be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria by urine culture and treated with appropriate antibiotics. After the post treatment pregnant women should be examine again to confirm post treatment urine sterility.

  2. Evaluation of Water Quality--Howard AFB, Panama Bacteriological Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    samples and Air Force BEE sampling results did not show contamination. The most common coliforms PM identified were Enterobacter and Klebsiella . Scope...reports the addition of 5 mg/l lime to raw water caused a 99% reduction in Klebsiella pneumoniae in Nova Scotia where previous application of 3-4 mg/l...Water and Wastewater 17th Ed. Washington D.C. APHA, AWWA and WPCF (1989) 13 (This page left blank) 14 APPENDIX A Survey Request Letter 15 (This page left

  3. The bacteriological quality of goat and ovine milk

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    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on information concerning the microbiological hazards that can be present in raw milk from animal species other than cows. A total of 54 (23 of ovine and 31 of goat bulk tank milk samples from 10 farms in the Czech Republic were collected in years 2013 - 2014. The sampling was done at regular time intervals during the whole year, with five to eight samples collected from each of the 10 dairy farms involved in the study. All milk samples were collected into sterile sampling bottles and transported in a cooler sampling case to the laboratory for immediate examination. Farms were randomly selected to cover the whole area of the Czech Republic. The prevalence and characteristic of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Raw cow's milk can be contaminated by E. coli intramammarily during clinical or subclinical mastitis and either directly through animal feces or indirectly during milk collection through farm employees or the milking equipment. E. coli was detected in 90.3% of the goat milk and 95.7% of the ovine milk samples. The genes encoding Shiga toxins 1 and 2- (stx1, stx2 were not detected and no STEC was identified. The Eae was the detected in 3 (4.6% isolates. S. aureus was detected in 9 (29.0% samples of goat milk and 8 (34.8% samples of ovine milk. A total 12 (57.1% enterotoxin positive S. aureus were obtained; 6 (28.6% were positive for the production of sec encoding enterotoxin SEC; in 4 (19.0% isolates the gene seh was detected; 2 (9.5% isolates were proven positive for seg (4.8% and combination seg and sei (4.8%. The presence of MRSA was not detected in the tested samples in our study. L. monocytogenes was detected in 1 (3.2% samples of goat milk and 1 (4.3% samples of ovine milk. The serotype (1/2a, 1/2b was detected in our study. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. These results form the basis for determining the microbiological quality standards for goat and ovine milk.

  4. Pertussis: clinical and bacteriological diagnosis of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arellano Penagos Mario

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ertussis is an endemic disease in our population. Every 3 to 4 years, pertussis has an epidemic pattern even in countries with good health conditions. Antipertussis vaccine first dose is adminis- tered at the age of 2 months; a second and third dose are given at 4 and 6 months of age. This vaccine has an 8 to 10 year protective effect, for which reason it is suggested that pregnant women in the third trimester should be vaccinated in order to prevent pertussis in newborns. It should also be administered to older people to avoid turning them into asymptomatic carriers. Clinic manifestations are easily identifiable due to respiratory symptoms, especially to the particular characteristics of the cough. The diagnosis is supported by the presence of leukocytosis (predominantly lymphocytes and by certain thoracic radiologic findings. The diagnosis is confirmed with a positive culture for Bordetella pertussis or with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In a non complicated clinic course macrolides are still the best therapeutic choice. Nonetheless clinic observation is highly recom- mended in order to avoid complications. Redefinition of vaccine programs against Bordetella pertussis in Mexican population is recommended and also to notify the presence of the disease to the corresponding health authorities.

  5. Lab-Test® 4: Dental caries and bacteriological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cura

    2012-01-01

    The main factors predisposing the onset of the carious process are: 1 the presence of bacterial species able to lower the pH until critical values of 5.5, 2 the absence of adequate oral hygiene, 3 an inefficient immune response anti-caries, 4 the type of alimentary diet and 5 the structure of the teeth. Among the 200 bacterial species isolated from dental plaque the most pathogenic for dental caries are: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomices viscusus and Bifidobacterium dentium. Our laboratory (LAB® s.r.l., Codigoro, Ferrara, Italy has developed a test for absolute and relative quantification of the most common oral cariogenic bacteria. The test uses specific primers and probes for the amplification of bacteria genome sequences in Polymerase Chain Reaction Real Time. The results provide a profile of patient infection, helpful for improving the diagnosis and planning of preventive treatment to reduce the bacterial load.

  6. 濒海战创伤动物模型腹腔感染细菌学特点及药敏试验研究%Experimental study on the characteristics of bacteriology and drug sensitivity test of naval warfare injury animal model with abdominal infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王代勇; 徐先锋; 唐玉娟; 王瑜; 王烈; 张再重

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨濒海实地海水中动物模型腹部火器伤后腹腔感染的细菌学特点及其药敏试验研究.方法 将小型猪分为海水中腹部火器伤组(n=8)和陆地腹部火器伤组(n=8).海水中腹部火器伤组浸泡于海水中,在距离10 m处步枪射击左麦氏点处,继续浸泡30 min,陆地腹部火器伤组固定于陆地支架上,相同方法射击后于陆地观察30 min;之后两组行剖腹探查术,术中取腹腔液5 ml行细菌检测.细菌鉴定分析仪进行细菌学鉴定,抗菌药物敏感试验使用K-B 纸片琼脂扩散法.同时采集8份海水进行细菌鉴定.结果 两组共同检测出表皮葡萄球菌、奇异变形杆菌、大肠埃希菌等内源性肠道菌群,其中海水中腹部火器伤组检测出特有的副溶血弧菌(4%)、溶藻弧菌(8%).细菌药敏实验结果显示,对革兰阴性菌敏感率大于70%的抗菌药物包括亚胺培南、阿莫西林/克拉维酸、替卡西林/克拉维酸妥布霉素等.对革兰阳性菌敏感率大于70%的抗菌药物包括环丙沙星、达托霉素、呋喃妥因等.结论 濒海实地海水中腹部火器伤后腹腔感染为内源性肠道菌群、皮肤表面菌群和海水中特有弧菌的混合感染,故提倡早期联合使用广谱抗生素控制感染.%Objective To investigate the bacteriological characteristics and drug sensitivity test for abdominal infection of animal model after abdominal firearm injury in littoral seawater.Methods Mini-pigs were randomly divided into two groups, the group of abdominal firearm injury in littoral seawater(n=8) and the group on land (n=8).The pigs of abdominal firearm injury in littoral seawater group were soaked in sea water, and were shot from a distance of 10 m, hitting the left mcburney point, finally immersed into seawater for 30 min. Pigs in another group were fixed on fixator on land and were shot in the same way, finally observed on land for 30 min. The animals in two groups underwent exploratory

  7. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (second edition) Volume 5 and the study of Actinomycetes systematic in China%“伯杰氏系统细菌学手册(第二版)”第5卷与我国的放线菌系统学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮继生

    2013-01-01

    “伯杰氏系统细菌学手册”(下文简称“伯杰氏手册”),是世界各国分类学家普遍接受的学术观点的汇总,集科学性、统一性和实用性于一身.2012年5月,随着“伯杰氏手册”第二版第5卷(放线菌专刊)分A、B两册出版,这部经典巨著在Michael Goodfellow等的领导下精心组织并顺利完成.“伯杰氏手册”第5卷对放线菌分类系统做出了重大调整,正式建立了放线菌门,包括6个纲、23个目(含一个未确定目)、53个科、222个属、近3000个种,其分类阶元为细菌域、放线菌门,在门下为纲、目、科、属和种.“伯杰氏手册”收录了我国放线菌分类学研究的大量成果,这是我国四代放线菌分类学家们共同努力的结果.但需要指出的是,由于“伯杰氏手册”过于严谨、保守的著书宗旨与漫长的出版周期,对DNA基因多位点序列分析(MLSA)技术、基因芯片技术和基因组技术等在分类学领域中所做出的新研究成果采纳不足,而这部分内容或许在不久的将来会使原核生物分类学发生深刻的改变.%Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (hereinafter referred to as "Bergey's Manual") is the collection of academic views accepted by taxonomists in many countries.It has scientificity,unitarity and practicality." Bergey's Manual" (special issue of Actinomycetes) divided into two parts (part A and part B) was published in May,2012.Under the guidance and the organization of Michael Goodfellow et al.,the great work has been completed successfully in May 2012." Bergey's Manual" made a great modification on the systematic of Actinomycetes and formally set up the phylum of Actinobacteria,which encompasses 6 classes,23 orders (include one order incertae sides),53 families,222 genera and about 3000 species.The taxonomic catalogue is Bacteria,phylum of Actinobacteria,under the phylum there are class,order,family,genera and species." Bergey's Manual" collected a great deal

  8. Bacteriological monitoring of eye cover for visual test and effectiveness of disinfection with three disinfectants%视力检查遮眼板细菌学监测及3种消毒剂消毒效果对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菊兰; 张俭; 王燕

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the microbiological contamination of eye cover used for visual test and to discuss appropriate disinfection ways. METHODS The eye covers were sampled instantly after being disinfected with three disinfectants including 500 mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant, 75% ethanol, and isopropanol composite disinfectant wipes, and were sampled after the eye covers were respectively used for 5 case-times and 10 case-times, the bacteriology test was performed, the bacterial colony counts were calculated, the bacteria were identified , and the statistical analysis of the test result was performed. RESULTS The microbial contamination rate was 100.0% before the disinfection, Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus were the main species of pathogens. After the being respectively disinfected by 500 mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant, 75% ethanol, and isopropanol composite disinfectant wipes, the total bacterial colony counts were significantly decreased, and the germicidal rates were 99. 46% , 99. 46% , and 99. 89% , respectively, as compared with those before the disinfection ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0. 01). The test result for the sampling after being used for 5 case-times and 10 case-times indicated that the isopropanol composite disinfectant wipes was superior to the 500 mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant and 75% ethanol in the continuous disinfection effect (P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). CONCLUSION The bacterial contamination of the eye covers is so serious that it is necessary to be disinfected, the 500 mg/L chlorine-containing disinfectant and the isopropanol composite disinfectant wipes are superior to 75% ethanol in the disinfection effect.%目的 了解视力检查遮眼板的带菌情况及3种消毒剂消毒效果比较,探讨适宜的消毒方法.方法 在消毒前使用500 mg/L含氯消毒剂、75%乙醇、异丙醇复合消毒湿巾3种不同方法对遮眼板消毒处理后即刻采样、使用5

  9. Salmonella sp. bacteriology monitoring in laying hens at different growing and laying periods from poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza Monitoramento bacteriológico para Salmonella sp. em poedeira comercial em diferentes fases de recria e produção de empresas avícolas da Região Metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuella Evangelista da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to verify Salmonella occurrence in laying hen flocks from eight poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza city. Swab collections were performed in transport boxes of day-old-chicks, totaling 40 feces samples (5 samples/flock, which presented no Salmonella contamination. Bacterial analyses from a pool of feces were performed in the same flocks at 10, 20, 30 and 40 weeks of age. Salmonella enterica rough strain and Salmonella Newport were found in two flocks at 20 and 40 weeks of age, respectively. These results suggest that the birds were infected with Salmonella after their arrival in the poultry farms. It was verified that 25% of the poultry farms presented positive feces samples for Salmonella contamination, indicating the need for a more efficacious preventive program in the poultry farms for egg production. This work suggests that day old birds were of Salmonella contamination which indicates no vertical Salmonella transmission, however the rearing phase present failures regarding bacterial control.

     

    KEY WORDS: Bacteriology, chickens, eggs, feces, Salmonella.

    O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a presença de Salmonella em lotes de poedeiras comerciais de oito empresas da região metropolitana de Fortaleza,CE, Brasil. Realizaram-se suabes em cinco caixas de transporte por lote das oito empresas analisadas, totalizando quarenta amostras de mecônio, sendo todas negativas para Salmonella. Os mesmos lotes (oito foram monitorados na décima, vigésima, trigésima e quadragésima semanas de idade com exame bacteriológico de pool de cem fezes frescas. Foram isoladas Salmonella enterica subsepécie enterica cepa rugosa e Salmonella Newport das amostras de fezes nas empresas 2 e 6 na

  10. Impact of applying hygienic practices at farm on bacteriological quality of raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pandey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to explore the potential source of contamination and the efficacy of different washing practices towards quality milk production. Materials and Methods: Probable sources of contamination viz. stored water, potable water, milker’s hands, milking pail, udder of individual buffalo and milk cans were subjected to different types of bacterial counts before the actual experiment to start. Twenty milch buffaloes thereafter were divided randomly into four treatment groups where washing was performed in each step viz. milker hands, udder of individual buffalo, milking pail and milk cans before milking either with water (T0: stored water, T1: potable water or sanitizers (T2: 200 ppm chlorine solution, T3: 50 ppm iodophore solution for 60 days. Bacterial counts again were performed for last 5 alternate days for all the sources involved along with the microbial load of raw milk. Data obtained were subjected to standard statistical analysis. Results: It was found that for all bacterial count stored water contributed significantly higher as compared to the potable water. Among the other potential sources of contamination (log/6 cm2, standard plate count (SPC and coliform count were significantly highest for milking pail (6.73±0.02 and udder of milch buffaloes (3.77±0.12, respectively, while for Staphylococci count both milking pail (3.24±0.02 and milking can (3.22±0.04 were contributed maximally (p0.05 for most of the parameters, even for the raw milk quality. Conclusion: Study revealed that milker hands, milking pails, udder of animals, milk cans and stored water used for washing of equipment are the potential source of contamination in raw milk. These were counted as critical point which needs attention for the production of high-quality milk. Potable water was found to be better than stored water. The use of either chlorine 200 ppm and iodophor 50 ppm is highly effective in reducing the bacterial population for quality milk production.

  11. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RAW MILK SUPPLIED TO FAISALABAD CITY DURING SUMMER MONTHS

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    Kashifa Khaliq, M. Ashfaque, Iftikhar Hussain and Masood Akhtar1

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Standard plate count of 100 milk samples collected from Faisalabad city during tile months of June- August, 2000, ranged from 6.9 x 103 to 1.12 x 107. Time required for the reduction of methylene blue dye in milk samples was half hour in 26% samples, one hour in 25%, one & half hour in 27%, two hour in 9% and two & half hours in 13% milk samples. Microscopic count ranged from 1.3 x 106 to 9x 108. Presumptive test for presence of coliform organisms was positive in all tile 100 milk samples. The electrical conductivity was recorded as low as 2200 mcromho/cm and as high as 4500 micromho/cm. The values of coefficient of correlation of viable count with electrical conductivity was 0.805 (P<0.05; methylene blue reduction test with electrical conductivity was -0.758 (P<0.05. 24% of tile samples fulfilled the International Standard of grade “A” raw milk (<100,000 bacteria per ml of milk, but their methylene blue reduction test gave fair quality milk. An overall hygienic quality of milk supplied to Faisalabad city was very poor.

  12. When ice cream was poisonous: adulteration, ptomaines, and bacteriology in the United States, 1850-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Edward

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of ice cream in the nineteenth century, the incidence of foodborne illness attributed to this dessert exploded. Struggling to understand the causes of the mysterious and sometimes lethal ailment called "ice cream poisoning," Victorian doctors and scientists advanced theories including toxic vanilla, galvanism in ice cream freezers, and extreme indigestion. In the late 1880s Victor C. Vaughan's argument that ice cream poisoning could be attributed to the ptomaine "tyrotoxicon" received widespread acceptance. To date historians have neglected the role played by the ptomaine theory of food poisoning in shaping the evolution of both scientific thinking and public health in the late nineteenth century. The case of ice cream poisoning illustrates the emergence, impact, and decline of the ptomaine idea.

  13. Aerobic bacteriology of chronic suppurative otitis media: a hospital based study

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    Asifa Nazir

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Otitis media linked with high levels of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major health concern in all age groups of the study population. An appropriate knowledge of the etiology and antibacterial susceptibility of microorganisms would contribute to a rational antibiotic use and the success of treatment for chronic supportive otitis media. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1521-1525

  14. Clinical presentation and bacteriological profile of diabetic foot in Eastern Bihar, India

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    Deepak Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: Diabetic foot has varied presentation. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its surgical complications can be attributed to poor patient knowledge, education and awareness of the disease. Patient education for care of feet such as pairing of nails, wearing proper footwear and prompt reporting to doctor in case of early lesions is essential. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3058-3064

  15. Three-year Review of Bacteriological Profile and Antibiogram of Burn Wound Isolates in Van, Turkey

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    Yasemin BAYRAM, Mehmet PARLAK, Cenk AYPAK, İrfan BAYRAM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of infection in burns is well-known. In recent decades, the antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from burn patients has increased. For this reason, a retrospective study was conducted at Van Training and Research Hospital to analyze the bacterial isolates from the wounds of patients admitted to the Burn Unit and to determine the susceptibility patterns of the commonly cultured organisms over a 3-year period, January 2009 to December 2011.A total of 250 microorganisms were isolated from burn wounds of 179 patients. Our results revealed that the most frequent isolate was Acinetobacter baumannii (23.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%, Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%, Escherichia coli (10% respectively. Multidrug-resistance has emerged as an important concern in our burn unit. Tigecycline, and colistin were found to be the most active drugs against Acinetobacter baumannii. Carbapenems and amikacin, were found to be the most active drugs against other gram negative bacteria. Vancomycin and linezolid were active against gram positive bacteria.Aggressive infection control measures should be applied to limit the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  16. Bacteriological study of pus isolates from neuropathic plantar ulcers associated with acute inflammatory phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezer, G; Daniel, S; Suneetha, S; Reuben, E; Partheebarajan, S; Solomon, S

    2000-01-01

    In this retrospective study, sensitivity of organisms cultured from ulcers of leprosy patients without and with diabetes mellitus, diabetic patients without leprosy and patients with ulcers from other causes was examined. The profile of organisms grown from these groups of patients did not differ significantly. However, there was a high prevalence of organisms like Proteus, E. coli and Enterococcus in the ulcers of leprosy patients indicating faecal contamination of the ulcers. Co-trimaxazole and tetracycline were of little value in the treatment of these ulcers. We therefore recommend that in situations where there is no culture facility, the patients be started on a course of penicillin and gentamycin. If these antibiotics fail, it would be necessary to use more advanced antibiotics like norfloxacin, amikacin and ciprofloxacin.

  17. Sensory, biochemical and bacteriological properties of octopus (Cistopus indicus) stored in ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, R; Shakila, R Jeya; Jeyasekaran, G; Jeevithan, E

    2015-10-01

    Octopus (Cistopus indicus) were examined for the changes in autolytic activity, ammoniacal nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen (NPN), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), free fatty acid (FFA) content, aerobic plate count (APC) and sensory quality based on Quality Index Method (QIM) during ice storage. They were sensorily acceptable up to 7 days when QIM score was 10.97 out of 16.00. Autolytic activity increased from the initial value of 174 to 619 nmoles Tyr/g/h within day 3 and later decreased. There was also an increase in NPN (34.88 to 76.16 mg %), ammoniacal nitrogen (0 to 7.30 ppm) and free fatty acid content (0.35 to 1.69 % of oleic acid) during storage. TVBN values did not correlate with the spoilage, as it increased from 28 to 145 mg% within day 5, exceeding the limit of acceptability; although total QIM score was 7.47. Aerobic plate count did not show significant change suggesting that the spoilage in octopus was not microbial. The rapid spoilage in octopus was mainly due to the release of NPN compounds following autolytic activity leading to the formation of ammoniacal nitrogen, rather than microbial spoilage. Hence, ammoniacal nitrogen can be taken as an index for spoilage of ice stored octopus.

  18. Bacteriological assessment of the hospital environment in two referral hospitals in Yaoundé-Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Gonsu, Kamga Hortense; Guenou, Etienne; Toukam, Michel; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Mbakop, Calixte Didier; Tankeu, Dongmo Norbert; Mbopi-Keou, Francois Xavier; Takongmo, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many studies still show significant numbers of surgical patients contracting nosocomial infections each year globally with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify potential bacteria reservoirs that may be responsible for nosocomial infection in surgical services in the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (YUTH) and the Central Hospital Yaoundé (CHY). Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to August 2012. Air, water, and su...

  19. Water quality and bacteriology in an aquaculture facility equipped with a new aeration system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Karekar, S.V.; PraveenKumar, R.; Sreepada, R.A.; Vogelsang, C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    l sup(-1). Non-aerated conditions promoted denitrification maintaining nitrate concentration between 0.32 and 0.98 Mu M NO sub(3) sup(-) - N l sup(-1). However, a marked increase in ammonium content was observed in the non-aerated pond at the end...

  20. Bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates in a tertiary care cancer center

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    Vivek Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This increased risk of bacterial infections in the cancer patient is further compounded by the rising trends of antibiotic resistance in commonly implicated organisms. In the Indian setting this is particularly true in case of Gram negative bacilli such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter spp. Increasing resistance among Gram positive organisms is also a matter of concern. The aim of this study was to document the common organisms isolated from bacterial infections in cancer patients and describe their antibiotic susceptibilities. Methods: We conducted a 6 month study of all isolates from blood, urine, skin/soft tissue and respiratory samples of patients received from medical and surgical oncology units in our hospital. All samples were processed as per standard microbiology laboratory operating procedures. Isolates were identified to species level and susceptibility tests were performed as per Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines -2012. Results: A total of 285 specimens from medical oncology (114 and surgical oncology services (171 were cultured. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter spp. were most commonly encountered. More than half of the Acinetobacter strains were resistant to carbapenems. Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae to cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and carbapenems was >50%. Of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates 41.67% were methicillin resistant. Conclusion: There is, in general, a high level of antibiotic resistance among gram negative bacilli, particularly E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter spp. Resistance among Gram positives is not as acute, although the MRSA incidence is increasing.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF COMPOST FROM A YARD WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citizen concern over possible pathogenic microorganism contamination in compost and in a runoff collection pond prompted a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigation. One out of eight samples collected from the distribution pile at a yard waste compost processing f...

  2. Bacteriological study of pyoderma with special reference to antibiotic susceptibility to newer antibiotics

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    Ghadage D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and forty-two cases of pyoderma were investigated to study bacterial aetiology and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Of these 65.87% cases were of primary pyoderma and the rest were of secondary pyoderma. Maximum cases were of impetigo (38.78% followed by folliculitis (12.92%, furunculosis (2.95%, ecthyma (3.5%, carbuncle (1.5% and sycosis barbae (0.4%. Secondary pyoderma constituted infected trophic ulcer (18.82%, infected pemphigus (7.2%, infected contact dermatitis (6.27%, and infected scabies (1.8%. Single organism was isolated from 46.9% cases and more than one type of organisms in 65.46% of cases. No organism was isolated in 5% of cases. Staphylococcus (67.34% was the predominant species isolated followed by beta-haemolytic streptococcus (21.77%. Maximum strains of Staph. aureus were susceptible to amikacin (75%, co-trimoxazole (72%, cefotaxime (65%, chloramphenicol (62%, ciprofloxacin (61% and clindamycin (61%. There was low susceptibility to cephaloridin (11%, gentamicin (12% and penicillin (21%. Streptococcus betahaemolyticus was highly sensitive to most of the antibiotics and less sensitive to cefotaxime (7%, co-trimoxazole (11% and penicillin (27%. Most of the strains were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics.

  3. EU Interlaboratory comparison study food III : Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in minced chicken meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; van de Kassteele J; Mooijman KA; LZO; cib

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 waren 31 van de 32 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) in de Europese Unie in staat om hoge en lage concentraties van de Salmonella bacterie in kippengehakt aan te tonen. Zij behaalden direct het gewenste niveau. Een laboratorium werd tijdens de herkansing bezocht door medewerkers van he

  4. URINARY TRACT INFECTION: BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE AND ITS ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY IN WESTERN INDIA

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    Latika J Shah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are counted among the most common infections in humans. In spite of the availability and use of the antimicrobial drugs, UTIs caused by bacteria have been showing increasing trends. The extensive and inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents has invariably resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance which, in recent years, has become a major problem worldwide. Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed clinically as UTI during the study period were included in the study. Urine sample of these patients were tested for Culture. All positive cultures were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Out of total 232 patients, Isolates were detected in 177 (76.29% samples. Out of these, 137 (77.40% were female. Most common organism found positive was Escherichia Coli. E. coli was highly sensitive to Amikacin and Nitrofurantoin. Whereas, E.coli was highly resistant to Ampicillin and Nalidixic acid. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Klebsiella and Acinitobacter shows that they were also highly sensitive to Amikacin. Klebsiella and Acinobacter were highly resistant to Ampicillin and Gentamycin. Conclusion: The pattern of resistance to commonly used antibiotics for treating UTI alerts us against indiscriminate usage of antibiotics [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(1.000: 71-74

  5. EU Interlaboratory comparison study veterinary XII . Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in chicken faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2009-01-01

    In 2009 heeft een vergelijkende studie onder 34 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) uitgewezen dat alle NRL's in staat waren hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella in kippenmest aan te tonen. Van deze laboratoria lieten er 33 direct zien dat zij het onderzoek met succes en volgens de

  6. BACTERIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF HATCHERIES FLUFF AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE ISOLATES

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    F. Deeba, H. Afzal, M. Siddique and F. M. Khan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 100 fluff samples were collected from five hatcheries located in and around Faisalabad. After isolation of different bacteria in the hatcheries fluff their sensitivity to Norfloxacin, Gentamicin, Flumequine, Chloramphenicol, Neomycin, Ampicillin and Erythromycin was determined. Similarly, the susceptibility of the bacterial isolates for three disinfectants (EWABO ALDEKOL, TH4 and BROMOSEPT and three spray sanitizers (Sani squad. Sanitol and TH4 was also observed. The results indicated that the occurrence of different bacterial species among 148 isolates was: Escherichia coli 62 (41.89%, Paratyphoid salmonellae 24 (16.22%, Salmonella pullorum 3 (2.03%, Proteus mirabelis 2(1.35%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4(2.70%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 2(1.35%, Streptococcus faecalis 4 (2.70%, Staphylococcus aureus 22(14.8%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 7 (4.73% and Bacillus subtilis 18 (12.16%. The in vitro sensitivity of the isolates was highest for Norfloxacin (91.89% and the lowest for Erythromycin (16.89 %. The bacterial isolates (Salmonella pullorum, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus faecalis were 100 percent susceptible for all the three disinfectants. Efficacy of sprays Sani Squad and TH4 was 100 percent for some of the bacterial isolates e.g. Salmonella pullorum, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The efficacy of spray sanitol was more than 60 percent for some of the bacterial isolates including E. coli, Salmonella pullorum and Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. Bacteriology and changes in antibiotic susceptibility in adults with community-acquired perforated appendicitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Gil Jeon

    Full Text Available This study evaluated bacterial etiology and antibiotic susceptibility in patients diagnosed with community-acquired perforated appendicitis over a 12-year-period. We retrospectively reviewed records of adult patients diagnosed with perforated appendicitis at an 800-bed teaching hospital between January 2000 and December 2011. In total, 415 culture-positive perforated appendicitis cases were analyzed. Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen (277/415, 66.7%, followed by Streptococcus species (61/415, 14.7%. The susceptibility of E. coli to ampicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftriaxone, cefepime, amikacin, gentamicin, and imipenem was 35.1%, 97.1%, 97.0%, 98.2%, 98.9%, 81.8%, and 100%, respectively. The overall susceptibility of E. coli to quinolones (ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin was 78.7%. During the study period, univariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant decrease in E. coli susceptibility to quinolones (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99, P = 0.040. We therefore do not recommend quinolones as empirical therapy for community-acquired perforated appendicitis.

  8. Bacteriological studies of new substituted hydroxy -1, 3-propanediones and 4-methyl-5-chloroacetophenones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Vitthalrao Tekade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The titled compounds were screened for antibacterial activity against gram + & gram – bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Enterobacter aerogenes by using Muller Hinton Hiveg Agar No.2 MV-1084 (Hi-Media. All the screened compounds were found inactive against Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli. The produced compounds have shown average to good antibacterial activity

  9. Control of the bacteriological condition of calf brain. I. Impact of improving hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, Frans J.M.; Korteknie, Frank; Woolthuis, Caspar H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sixty calves of the Dutch Friesian (FH) breed were stunned mechanically. Without previously having been stunned, another 30 calves were stuck according to the Jewish rite. Upon opening of the skulls (1–2 h post mortem) brains of mechanically stunned calves were collected either conventionally (n = 3

  10. Bacteriological quality of some dairy products (kariesh cheese and ice cream) in alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahareem, Omar H; El-Shamy, Hoda A; Bakr, Wafaa M; Gomaa, Naglaa F

    2007-01-01

    The present study estimated the total viable bacterial density, total and faecal coliforms, and E. coli in Kariesh cheese and ice cream. The study included 160 ice cream and kariesh cheese samples (80 samples each). Ice cream samples were 47 packed (33 cup and 14 stick) and 33 open samples while kariesh cheese samples were 62 open, 18 packed samples (8 of known brand and 10 of unknown brand). Samples were collected from supermarkets, shops and street vendors. All samples were analyzed for enumeration of total viable heterotrophic bacteria using standard pour plate method, and for the determination of the total coliforms, fecal coliforms and E. coli using multiple tube dilution method. Ice cream samples, showed that the total bacterial count was >/=1.5x105 cfu/g in 26 (32.5%) samples, total coliforms were >/= 10 MPN/g in 36 (45.0%) samples, fecal coliforms were detected in 45 (56.3%) samples ,and E. coli was detected in 34 (42.5%). kariesh cheese samples, showed a total coliforms of >/= 10 MPN/g in 54 (67.5%) samples, while fecal coliforms were detected in 64 (80%) samples, and E. coli was detected in 60 (75%). It is recommended to use and implement immediate regulatory measures like good manufacturing practices as well as distribution and retail storage practices for ensuring microbiological safety of ice cream and kariesh cheese.

  11. Pleuritis in slaughter pigs: Relations between lung lesions and bacteriology in 10 herds with high pleuritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jirawattanapong, P.; Stockhofe, N.; Leengoed, van L.A.M.G.; Wisselink, H.J.; Raymakers, R.; Cruijsen, T.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Nielen, M.; Nes, van A.

    2010-01-01

    Pleuritis in slaughter pigs has increased in recent years in the Netherlands. The aim of the present study was to determine what respiratory pathogens were involved in pleuritis. In total, lungs of 968 slaughter pigs from 10 herds with high prevalence of pleuritis were morphologically examined for s

  12. EU Interlaboratory comparison study Food-I Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in minced beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; Kassteele J van de; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2007-01-01

    The European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for Salmonella were able to detect high and low levels of Salmonella in a ring trial using minced beef as matrix, thereby reaching the level of good performance. The Modified Semi-solid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV), a method often used for the det

  13. EU Interlaboratory comparison study VII on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Nagelkerke NJD; van de Giessen AW; Mooijman KA; MGB; IMAR

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 werd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, the Netherlands) het zevende bacteriologische ringonderzoek georganiseerd. Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRL's-Salmonella) van de EU lidstaten (16), van NRL Noorwegen en v

  14. EU Interlaboratory comparison study VIII on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Heisterkamp SH; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    In 2004 werd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) het achtste bacteriologische ringonderzoek georganiseerd. Deelnemers van de studie waren de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRL's-Salmonella) van de EU lidstaten

  15. Current status of bacteriological parameters and DOC/POC in Xiamen coastal waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Maskaoui; Tianling Zheng; Huasheng Hong; Zhiming Yu; Zhong Hu; Yun Tian; Lizhe Cai

    2003-01-01

    The surface and bottom waters samples were collected from six locations in Xiamen west-em sea. The quantified estimation of bacterial production (3H-thymidine method) and observation ofbacterial heterotrophic activity (14C-glucose method) have been made in order to have a better under-standing of the role of marine bacteria and their activities. The results showed that the mean value ofbacterial heterotrophic activity was 9 × 108 cells/(L. h) in the surface waters and 2.6 × 108 cells/( L. h)in the bottom waters. The mean value of bacterial production was 38 × 108 cells/( L. h) in the surfacewaters and 7.1 × 108 cells/(L.h) in the bottom waters. The relationship between bacterial production,heterotrophic activity, POC and DOC measured during this survey were discussed. The good under-standing of the relationship between bacteria activity and total coliform was addressed.

  16. Bacteriological Quality of Tilapia Fish from Treated Wastewater in Peri-Urban Areas, Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, OJ; Mdegela, RH; Kusiluka, LJM

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess faecal bacterial contamination in tilapia fish from wastewater treatment ponds at Mzumbe and in pristine water in Mindu dam. Tilapia fish (fish flesh and fish intestines) and water samples were analysed for Escherichia coli and total plate count. The concentrat...

  17. Bacteriological collaborative study III amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes M; Voogt N; Veld PH in ' t; Nagelkerke N; Henken AM; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Het communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een derde bacteriologisch ringonderzoek georganiseerd waaraan alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella deelnamen. Doel van het ringonderzoek was het vergelijken van de resultaten (tussen en binnen de verschi

  18. Bacteriological findings and antimicrobial resistance in odontogenic and non-odontogenic chronic maxillary sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Salvatore; Privitera, Salvatore; Maiolino, Luigi; Serra, Agostino; Garotta, Matteo; Blandino, Giovanna; Speciale, Annamaria

    2011-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to estimate the frequency of chronic maxillary sinusitis of dental origin, and to evaluate the microbiology of odontogenic and non-odontogenic chronic maxillary sinusitis. Aspirates from 59 patients with chronic maxillary sinusitis (47 non-odontogenic, 12 odontogenic), collected during a 3-year period, were microbiologically processed for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Moreover, antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated in the isolated bacteria. In this study, 20 % of chronic maxillary sinusitis cases were associated with a dental origin, and sinus lift procedures were the main aetiological factor. Our microbiological findings showed that all specimens from chronic maxillary sinusitis were polymicrobial. Sixty aerobes and 75 anaerobes were recovered from the 47 cases of non-odontogenic sinusitis (2.9 bacteria per specimen); 15 aerobes and 25 anaerobes were isolated from the 12 patients with odontogenic sinusitis (3.3 bacteria per specimen). The predominant aerobes were Staphylococcus aureus (27) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (16), while the more frequent anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus species (31) and Prevotella species (30). Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were absent in sinusitis associated with a dental origin. Overall, 22 % of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were oxacillin-resistant, and 75 % of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were penicillin-resistant and/or erythromycin-resistant; 21 % of anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria were penicillin-resistant, and 44 % of anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were β-lactamase-positive. Vancomycin and quinopristin-dalfopristin had the highest in vitro activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species, respectively; amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime showed the highest in vitro activity against aerobic Gram-negative bacteria; and moxifloxacin, metronidazole and clindamycin were the most active against anaerobic bacteria.

  19. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Alsawaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1% was significantly more affective (P<0.05 as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3% respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05 in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% were observed in treated soft white cheese.

  20. Iron crosslinked alginate as novel nanosorbents for removal of arsenic ions and bacteriological contamination from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fixed-bed column studies were conducted to evaluate performance of Fe (III crosslinked alginate nanoparticles for the removal of pentavalent arsenic ions [As (V] from aqueous environments. The study involved observing the influences of column bed depth, influent As (V concentration and influent flow rates on the removal of arsenic ions. The total adsorbed quantity, equilibrium uptake and total percentage removal of arsenic were determined from the breakthrough curves obtained at different flow rates, initial metal ion concentration and bed heights. The results showed that column demonstrate fairly well performance at the lowest flow rate. Also, column bed capacity and exhaustion time were found to increase with increasing bed height. When initial metal ion concentration was increased from 0.5 mg/L to 1.5 mg/L, the corresponding adsorption bed capacity decreases from 0.066 to 0.022 mg/g. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST model was used to analyze the experimental data and the model parameters were evaluated. Good agreement of the experimental breakthrough curves with the model predictions was observed.

  1. Bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in neonatal septicemia in view of emerging drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimoona Mustafa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate pathogenic bacteria in neo-natal septicaemia cases, and to know their antibiograms. Under aseptic precautions, blood was drawn from 140 neonates with sus-pected septicaemia and inoculated in brain heart infusion (BHI broth. Isolates obtained were identified as per standard protocol and antibi-otic susceptibility was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method (as per CLSI guidelines. A total number of 62 (44.2% patients had positive blood cultures. The most common pathogens isolated were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=22, 35% followed by Staphylococcus aureus (n=15, 24.1%, Escherichia coli (n=14, 22.5%, CONS (n=7, 11.2% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=4, 6.4%. The Gram nega-tive organisms showed high resistance to commonly used antibiotics and were highly sensitive to Meropenem. The Gram positive bacteria showed high resistance to Ampicillin, Erythromycin and Amoxycillin; but they were highly susceptible to Linizolid and Vancomycin. As the Gram negative organisms were the most common isolates in neona-tal septicemia, their resistance pattern should be considered essen-tial for deciding the empirical treatment. Prompt treatment of neonatal sepsis with judicious use of appropriate antibiotics can minimize the morbidity and mortality, besides reducing the emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms in intensive care units (ICUs.

  2. Histologic, cytologic, and bacteriologic examinations of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection in Lewis rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, P; Martinsen, C; Hougen, H P;

    2000-01-01

    Histopathologic changes, cellular composition, and bacterial spreading were studied in rat spleen after experimentally induced infection with Salmonella typhimurium.......Histopathologic changes, cellular composition, and bacterial spreading were studied in rat spleen after experimentally induced infection with Salmonella typhimurium....

  3. Bacteriological safety of packaged drinking water sold in Nigeria: public health implications

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide A. Odeyemi

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past years, there has been increase in packaged water consumption in Nigeria. Although, there are several studies on microbial safety of sachet packaged drinking water, there is no information on prevailing pathogens. Findings A comprehensive literature search and meta-analysis of peer reviewed primary studies reported from 2005 for microbiological safety of packaged drinking water sold in Nigeria was conducted using “sachet water”, “bottled water” and “packaged water” and...

  4. The Implementation of a New Method of Student Assessment in a Pathogenic Bacteriology Laboratory Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frances Hite

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new case study method of assessment was developed to challenge advanced undergraduate biology majors interested in medical careers and allied health professions. This method is an alternative to traditional "unknown" identifications used in many microbiology laboratories. Students used various biochemical tests and selective media throughout the course to identify organisms cultured from their own bodies. In preparing a final assessment for the course, an assignment was developed to challenge the students to apply what they had learned in a medically relevant setting. Also of importance was the elimination of further biochemical testing by these students and prevention of contact with strict pathogens in this lab, due to budget and safety constraints, respectively. Each student was provided with a clinical specimen data record sheet and additional information about their "diseased patient". Students used analytical skills and critical thinking, as well as knowledge gained throughout the semester, to logically deduce the causative agent of disease in the mock patients. Students were required to: (i describe the steps in this logical deduction, (ii provide a brief overview of the characteristics and virulence factors of the organism(s, (iii investigate all disease(s caused by the organism, (iv describe symptomology of the patient in detail, and (v investigate disease treatment and prevention methods. The final assignment involved library and Internet research and culminated in a written report, which further developed writing and communication skills. Detailed descriptions of and materials for this assignment are provided along with an overall evaluation of this method after implementation.

  5. Bacteriological and molecular identification of Bartonella species in cats from different regions of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congli Yuan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available With the improvements in diagnostic techniques, Bartonella henselae (B. henselae infection has recently been recognized to cause a widening spectrum of diseases. Cats are the natural reservoir hosts of B. henselae. The current study aims to investigate the prevalence of B. henselae infection in the cat populations in China. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and bacterial cultures confirm that 12.7% of the tested cats were positive for the infection. Old age and outdoor exposure were statistically associated with the infection. Multilocus sequence typing and eBURST analysis of the cat isolates collected in the present study show that 65.4% of the isolates belong to sequence type 1 (ST1. Three new STs (ST16-18 were identified in Midwestern China. These results may aid our understanding of the population structure of B. henselae in China and the relationship between human and cat strains in subsequent studies.

  6. The bacteriology of chronic venous leg ulcer examined by culture-independent molecular methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Trine R; Aasholm, Martin S; Rudkjøbing, Vibeke B;

    2010-01-01

    , such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing, fingerprinting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Each wound contained an average of 5.4 species but the actual species varied between wounds. The diversity determined by culture-based methods and the molecular biological methods...... was different. All the wounds contained Staphylococcus aureus, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa was in six out of 14 wounds. Molecular methods detected anaerobic pathogens in four ulcers that were not detected with anaerobic culture methods. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to compare the abundance......The bacterial microbiota plays an important role in the prolonged healing of chronic venous leg ulcers. The present study compared the bacterial diversity within ulcer material from 14 skin graft operations of chronic venous leg ulcers using culture-based methods and molecular biological methods...

  7. Bacteriological and metal analyses of water samples from Awotunde fish pond and river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Odeyemi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and metal analyses of water samples obtained from Awotunde fish pond and river in Ila-Orangun, Osun State, Nigeria were determined. The total bacterial and coliform counts were done using pour plating technique. Mineral was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry techniques. The physicochemical parameters were done using standard methods. The total bacterial and coliform count of the water samples ranged 6.4 x 104 CFU/ml - 7.4 x 104 CFU/ml and 1.1 x 103 CFU/ml - 4.0 x 103 CFU/ml respectively. The values obtained for the physicochemical parameters ranged as follows: temperature (24 - 26 oC, HCO3 (2.0 - 4.6, pH (6.0 - 7.2, alkalinity (40 - 100 mg/l, hardness (60 - 120 mg/l, conductivity (200 - 400μS/cm, dissolved oxygen (1.1 - 2.0 mg/l, BOD (0.06 - 0.22 mg/l, chloride (28.4 - 106.4 mg/l, nitrite (4.0 - 188.0 mg/l, sulphate (14.0 - 640.0 mg/l, nitrate (0.0 - 90.0 mg/l and phosphate (1.6 - 83.2 mg/l. The mean values of the mineral contents of the water samples are as follows; potassium (94.4 mg/l, sodium (94.7 mg/l, magnesium (89.3 mg/l and calcium (94.9 mg/l. The mean value obtained for the heavy metal concentrations are as follow; copper (0.1 mg/l, manganese (0.13 mg/l, nickel (2.09 mg/l, lead (0.03 mg/l and iron (0.26 mg/l. This shows that heavy metal concentrations were below critical limit according to the WHO standard. However, the microbial counts obtained portend the fact that the fish harvested from the pond might be a source of food poisoning if such fishes are not adequately cooked. Since the river serve as a source of water for domestic usage, an outbreak of water borne diseases could be imminent. Hence there must be a need for the Nigeria fish farmers to improve on their fish farming management which includes fish food preparation, environmental sanitation and monitoring the quality fish yield.

  8. Salmonella infection in healthy pet reptiles: Bacteriological isolation and study of some pathogenic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Chemaly, Marianne; Cerri, Domenico; Gall, Françoise Le; Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2016-06-01

    The fecal samples from 213 captive reptiles were examined, and 29 (13.61%) Salmonella enterica isolates were detected: 14/62 (22.58%) from chelonians, 14/135 (10.37%) from saurians, and 1/16 (6.25%) from ophidians. The isolates were distributed among 14 different serotypes: Miami, Ebrie, Hermannsweder, Tiergarten, Tornov, Pomona, Poona, Goteborg, Abaetetube, Nyanza, Kumasi, Typhimurium, 50:b:z6, 9,12:z29:1,5, and a non-motile serotype with antigenic formula 1,4,[5],12:-:-. Salmonella typhimurium and 50:b:z6 isolates showed the spv plasmid virulence genes, responsible of the capability to induce extra-intestinal infections. In some cases, pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed different profiles for the strains of the same serotypes, showing different origins, whereas a common source of infection was supposed when one pulsotype had been observed for isolates of a serovar. Twenty-seven (93.10%) isolates showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. Ceftazidime was active to all the tested isolates, whereas the highest percentages of strains were no susceptible to tigecycline (93.10%), streptomycin (89.66%), and sulfonamide (86.21%).

  9. Bacteriological study and structural composition of staghorn stones removed by the anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Shafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the composition of staghorn stones and to assess the proportion of infected stones as well as the correlation between infection in the stones and bacteria grown in urine. Samples of 45 consecutive stones removed through anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedures were taken from the operation site and samples of urine were obtained by simultaneous bladder catheterization. The frequency of infection in the stones and correlation between infection of stone and urine samples were determined with respect to the composition of the stones. Twenty-two males and 23 females, with respective mean ages of 48.3 ± 15.6 years and 51 ± 7.4 years, were studied. The stone and urine cultures yielded positive results in ten and 16 patients, respectively, of a total of 45 patients (22.2% and 35.5%, respectively. Calcium oxalate was the main constituent of staghorn stones, seen in 31 patients (68.8%, uric acid in 12 patients (26.6% and struvite and/or calcium phosphate in 11 patients (24.4%. In seven of ten stones with bacterial growth, bacteria were isolated from urine cultures as well, which accounted for a concordance rate of 70%. The bacteria grown in the stone were the cause of urinary tract infection (UTI in 43.5% of the cases. Stone infection was significantly associated with UTI (OR = 6.47; 95% CI 1.43-31.7, P = 0.021 and presence of phosphate in the stones (OR = 18, 95% CI 3.28-99.6, P = 0.0006. E. coli was the most common bacteria grown from the stones, and was isolated in 50% of the cases; Ureaplasma urealyticum was the most common organism causing UTI, grown in 62.5% of the urine samples. There was a high concordance rate between bacteria in the stones and urine. These findings indicate that the urine culture can provide information for selection of an appropriate anti-microbial agent for stone sterilization. In addition, preventing re-growth or recurrence of stones and treatment of post-surgical infections would be facilitated based on the results of the urine culture.

  10. Bacteriological Aspects of Hand Washing: A Key for Health Promotion and Infections Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataee, Ramezan Ali; Ataee, Mohammad Hosein; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Salesi, Mahmud

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. Data were descriptively analyzed. The insistence on hand washing has a history of 1400 years. The research results indicate that the bacteria released from the female washed hands in wet and dry condition was lower than from the male's hands with a significance level (3 CFU vs. 8 CFU; confidence interval 95%, P ≤ 0.001). The valuable results of the study indicated that released amount of bacterial flora from wet hands is more than 10 times in compared to dry hands. In addition, established monitoring systems for washing hands before and after patient's manipulation as well as after toilet were dominant indices to prevent the transfer of infectious agents to the patients. Increasing awareness and belief of the healthcare workers have shown an important role by about 30% reduction in the transfection. Hand washing could reduce the episodes of transmission of infectious agents in both community and healthcare settings. However, hand washing is an important key factor to prevent transmission of infectious agents to patients. There is no standard method for measuring compliance. Thus, permanent monitoring of hand washing to reduce the transmission of infections is crucial. Finally, the personnel must believe that hand washing is an inevitable approach to infection control.

  11. Host adaptation of bovine Staphylococcus aureus seems associated with bacteriological cure after lactational antimicrobial treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Nielen, M.; Schaik, van G.; Melchior, M.B.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of diseases in multiple species. Some sequence types (ST) are observed in a variety of hosts, whereas other strains are mainly associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting host adaptation. We propose that host adaptation of Staph. aureus may influence bacteri

  12. Bacteriology in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted to hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette V; Janner, Julie H; Nielsen, Susanne D;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the bacterial flora and antimicrobial sensitivity in sputum from patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in order to recommend the best empirical treatment for these patients. The survey was a retrospective study of a...... for AECOPD we recommend either cefuroxime for intravenous treatment or amoxicillin-clavulanate for oral treatment....

  13. Problems of Anti-Bacteriological Defense: According to Data from Foreign Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-10-01

    muedical academy, and it found active support among the general staff of the Japanese army. After the capture of Manchuria and its conversion into...month. At the start of this program a unit was located in Harbin but later the main part of it was relocated in a special military sector in the district...34 1912, 192, 7, 3137.7 81. Fujnaml, " Manchuria Plague Prevention Service", Report of 1923 - 1924, Volume IV of series. 82. Wulien-Theiertoar

  14. Effect of new aeration technology on the bacteriology of shrimp ponds growing Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karekar, S.V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, P.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Bergheim, A.; Vogelsang, C.

    , particularly the disease causing bacteria in response to aeration during the cultivation of tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. In HOBAS aerated pond (P1) showed more stable DO levels and the pond sediment was healthier with no visual black sulphur deposits. However...

  15. Comparison of two methods for assessing the bacteriological condition of the water supply in slaughter houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossel, D.A.A.; Corstiaensen, G.P.; Eggenkamp, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and five water samples of drinking water quality used in slaughter houses were examined according to The Netherlands' Standard N 3043 (1956) and by the new ‘Differential Hydrobacteriogramme’ (DHB) technique. The latter procedure allows for resuscitation of debilitated cells, uses one sin

  16. Bacteriological comparison of low anal fistula operated by ordinary methods and laser methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanrong; Xiong, Yigai

    1996-09-01

    Since 1989, 42 cases with low anal fistula were operated with laser and ordinary methods respectively. During the operation, secreted or charred tissues were extracted from the surface of the wound for bacteria culture. Experimental group (laser method): no bacteria were found in 24 cases operated by laser method. Control group (ordinary method): bacterial were found in 16 out of 18 cases operated by ordinary methods. The results of two different group showed that they had statistical difference for P anal fistula were operated by the laser, the neurotic carboatomic tissue can block blood vessel and prevent infection from spreading. The high temperature produced by the carboatomic action have enough ability to kill directly the bacteria living in the anal fistula.

  17. Bacteriology of the teeth from a great white shark: potential medical implications for shark bite victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J D; Spotte, S; Gadbaw, J J

    1984-11-01

    Bacteria were cultured for the first time from the teeth of a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). Isolates included Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and other genera. All are common in the marine environment and some may be associated with wound infections in humans. Shark bite lacerations may serve as a source of these potentially infectious bacteria, particularly Vibrio spp., and should be treated immediately. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns are shown for representatives of Vibrio isolates and indicate that a variety of new agents may be appropriate chemotherapy for shark bite victims.

  18. THE BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES ON OLUMIRIN WATERFALL ERIN- IJESHA, OSUN STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Akindolapo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The potability and qualities of Olumirin waterfall, Erin-Ijesa were investigated by determining the total bacteria and coliform count with antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria and physico-chemical qualities of the water samples. Total bacteria and coliform enumeration were determined using pour plating and multiple tube techniques, the antibiotic susceptibility were carried out using disc diffusion method, while physico-chemical and mineral studies were also carried out using standard methods. The mean total viable count of the water samples ranged 14.8 x 102 CFU.ml-1 - 21.3 x 103 CFU.ml-1 while the coliform count ranged 13 -175 MPN/100ml. The identified bacteria isolates and their percentage distribution were E.coli (43.1%, Klebsiella spp (20.7%, Proteus spp (12.1%, Salmonella spp (6.99%, Pseudomonas spp (5.17%, Shigella spp (6.9%, and Enterococcus spp (5.17 %. Antibiotic resistance shown by bacteria isolates were exhibited as follow; Nalixidic acid (31%, Ampicilin (76%, Cotrimoxazole (60%, Gentamicin (19%, Nitrofurantoin (24%, Colitin (48%, Streptomycin (34% and tetracycline (52%. 82.8% of the isolate exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance. The physico-chemical analysis also revealed the presence of some mineral elements in the water samples. The mineral value of the water samples include; magnesium (84.8 - 93.4 mg.L-1, phosphate (12.6 - 17.1 mg.L-1, sodium (47.8 - 87.6 mg.L-1, potassium (76.6 - 104.5 mg.L-1, chloride (59.0 - 90.2 mg.L-1, zinc (0.75 - 1.82 mg.L-1, lead (0.12 - 0.33 mg.L-1, iron (0.52 - 0.60 mg.L-1, copper (0.12 - 0.27 mg.L-1 while nickel and arsenic were not detected in any of the water samples. Comparing the experimental results with the international water standard for natural water, the waterfall is not fit for consumption or for any domestic purpose unless being treated. Also, problems that may arise from the resistance bacteria strains can be tackled while the new antibiotics can also be developed.

  19. Strain, clone and species : comments on three basic concepts of bacteriology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursing, BM; Ursing, JB

    2000-01-01

    Different aspects of the terms strain, clone and species are discussed. The term strain is commonly used to denote a pure culture - here called 'the strain in the taxonomic sense' - but does also refer to a natural concept closely related to the clone. The term clone on the other hand is used both i

  20. Bacteriological Spectrum of Post Operative Orthopedic Implant Infections and Their Antibiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Chandrika V

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection is a major problem in orthopedics leading to implant failure and in severe cases, amputation and even mortality. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to isolate and identify organisms from postoperative Orthopaedic implant infections and determine their antibiogram. Method and Materials: This prospective study was conducted on 50 cases of infected implants from Orthopaedics ward, Government General Hospital, st st Kakinda from 1 June 2014 to 1 November 2014 after obtaining clearance from Institutional Ethics Committee. Pus samples were collected using two sterile swabs. One is used for Gram's stain and the other for inoculation on MacConkey and Blood agar. Isolates were identied according to the standard protocols and antibiotic sensitivity was done by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion technique. Results: Out of 50 samples, 45(90% were culture positive and 5(10% were sterile for aerobic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus (30% is common isolate followed by Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CONS (20%, Escherichia coli (16%, Klebsiella sps (10% , Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%, Acinetobacter species (4%, Proteus species (4%. Most of Gram positive cocci are resistant to Methicillin (64% followed by Ciprooxin (36% and Cotrimoxazole (28%. They were mostly sensitive to Vancomycin, Linezolid, Amoxycillin Clavulanic acid and Cefotaxime. Gram negative bacilli are resistant to Cotrimoxazole (65% followed by Ciprooxacin (60% and Ceftriaxone (60% and sensitive to Carbapenems (80%, Piperacillin Tazobactam (60% and Amoxycillin Clavulanic acid (60%. Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL production is seen in 60% of Gram negative bacilli. Conclusions: The incidence of multidrug resistance pathogens as a cause of implant infections is rising. Adequate preventive measures should be enforced to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistant organisms

  1. Reasons for the low bacteriological coverage of tuberculosis reported in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mngomezulu, N; Cameron, D; Olorunju, S; Luthuli, T; Dunbar, R; Naidoo, P

    2015-06-21

    Contexte : Hôpitaux publics et centres de santé primaire de la province de Mpumalanga en Afrique du Sud.Objectif : Déterminer si le défaut de respecter les directives de diagnostic de la tuberculose (TB) (c'est-à-dire soumettre des crachats à la microscopie de frottis) a contribué à la faible couverture bactériologique rapportée en 2008.Méthodes : Nous avons revu les dossiers cliniques des nouveaux cas de TB pulmonaire dans 30 de 118 structures sélectionnées au hasard qui ont atteint la couverture bacteriologique visée de 80% et 30 de 87 structures qui ne l'ont pas atteinte. Les données des cas suivis dans les hôpitaux et les dispensaires ont été résumées sur des formulaires, saisies en informatique et comparées aux données du registre électronique de la TB (ETR). Nous avons évalué l'âge, le sexe, l'infection au virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) et le type de structure en tant que facteurs de confusion de l'enregistrement des frottis.Résultats : L'âge, le sexe et l'infection VIH n'ont pas influencé l'enregistrement des frottis. Dans les hôpitaux, 61,8% des cas de TB pulmonaire ont eu des résultats de frottis de crachats dans leurs dossiers cliniques comparés à 93,6% dans les dispensaires (P < 0,001). Sur les 711 cas (30,3%) qui n'avaient pas de résultats de frottis dans le ETR, 342 (48,1%) avaient des résultats de frottis dans leurs dossiers cliniques.Conclusion : La faible couverture bactériologique constatée est due à la fois à des pratiques cliniques médiocres (surtout dans les hôpitaux) et à une maintenance insuffisante des dossiers. Ces deux problèmes doivent être résolus afin d'améliorer la prise en charge des patients et la gestion du programme.

  2. The bacteriology of the small intestinal mucosa of free-living reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Sørmo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in close associaton with the intestinal mucosa are thought to protect the mucosa from pathogenic microorganisms. The pH of the small intestinal mucosa and the viable populations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria associated with the proximal and distal jejunal mucosa, were measured in four free-living reindeer in winter. The anaerobic bacterial populations were characterized. The median pH of the mucosa of the duodenum was 6.6 (n=4 at point 0.2 m from the pyloric sphincter. The mucosal pH increased along the length of the intestine to 8.3 at 14 m and then decreased to 7.9 at 19.8 m from the pyloric sphincter. Examination by transmission electron microscopy and cultivation techniques failed to reveal any bacteria on the mucosa of the proximal jejunum in two of the animals. In two other reindeer the median anaerobic bacterial densities in the proximal jejunum ranged from 25-2500 cells/g mucosa. The median anaerobic bacterial populations in the distal jejunum ranged from 80 to 20000 bacteria/g mucosa (n=4. The anaerobic population of bacteria in the proximal jejunum was dominated by streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods. Bacteroidaceae, streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods were common in the distal jejunum. The low density and the species diversity of bacteria in the small intestine suggests that these microorganisms are inhibited by components in the natural winter diet of reindeer. Bacteria evidently play a minor role in protection of the mucosa of reindeer in winter.

  3. Incidence and Bacteriology of Burn Infections at a Military Burn Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    is independently associated with mortality in burn patients. Ann Surg 2007;245: 978–85. [27] Griffith ME, Lazarus DR, Mann PB, Boger JA, Hospenthal DR...SE. Effects of delayed wound excision and grafting in severely burned children. Arch Surg 2002;137(9):1049–54. [30] Hart DW, Wolf SE, Chinkes DL ...F, Thompson P, Linares HA, Stein M, Traber DL . Pulmonary injury in burned patients. Surg Clin North Am 1987;67(1):31–46. [42] Santucci SG, Gobara S

  4. Sensory, chemical and bacteriological changes during storage of iced squid ( Todaropsis eblanae )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paarup, T.; Sanchez, J.A.; Moral, A.

    2002-01-01

    psychrophilic and had a requirement for NaCl. 16S rDNA sequence analyses identified the strains as belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas . Shewanella putrefaciens , Pseudoalteromonas sp. and Pseudomonas sp. dominated in spoiled gutted squid. Identification of strains from the stomach and digestive gland...... to spoilage through activity in the digestive gland, followed by diffusion of volatile compounds and amines to the mantle. Significance and Impact of the Study: Due to the psychrophilic nature of P. phosphoreum and Pseudoalteromonas sp., spread- plating and low temperature incubation are recommended...

  5. [Commemorative lecture of receiving Imamura Memorial Prize. I. Studies on bacteriological diagnostic methods for mycobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, C

    1994-08-01

    Two systems, radiometric BACTEC and biphasic MB-Check, based on liquid media proved to be significantly better than the egg-based solid media for the isolation of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. The difference in the rates of isolation of mycobacteria between two groups of media was more remarkable with smear-negative specimens. The time to the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with MB- Check was shorter than that with the 3% Ogawa egg method but longer than that with BACTEC. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using oligonucleotides based on the repetitive sequence (IS986) of M. tuberculosis as a primer and the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD), which combines an M. tuberculosis rRNA amplification method with the hybridization protection assay format, were evaluated for detection of M. tuberculosis in clinical samples. Although the sensitivities of the PCR and MTD appeared to be similar to that of culture with the MB-Check system, the two methods based on nucleic acid amplification should be very useful for rapid detection of M. tuberculosis infections without the long time required for culture of M. tuberculosis. Epidemiological studies with techniques which allow differentiation of strains within M. tuberculosis groups are important for limiting the dissemination of the disease. We analyzed six groups of small outbreaks of M. tuberculosis infections by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Five showed identical fingerprints within each group, but one which as also suspected to have a common source of infection showed different banding patterns, emphasizing that RFLP analysis using IS986 as a probe is useful in epidemiological studies of tuberculosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. [The importance of Robert Koch's discovery for the development of bacteriology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G

    1983-01-01

    On March 24th, 1882 Robert Koch reported to the Physiological Society of Berlin the discovery of microbes causing tuberculosis. Simultaneously he expressed his views on the pathogenesis of this nation-wide disease. With his work he contributed decisively to the development of a theory on infectious process. The results of his investigations on cholera and typhoid fever greatly stimulated the development of the epidemiology of contagious diseases.

  7. 9 CFR 147.15 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of mycoplasma reactors. 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Company, Inc., Endwell, NY 13760. (a) Turbinates, trachea, air sacs, sinuses, nasal passages, respiratory... culture as needed to maintain the original isolates. Incubate tubes at 37 °C for at least 21 days before... incubation, inoculate broth culture onto a plate of Mycoplasma Agar Medium (MAM). (See paragraph (g) of...

  8. BACTERIOLOGY OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES IN TEHSIL SAMUNDRI OF DISTRICT FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. ALI, G. MUHAMMAD, M. ARSHAD1, M. SAQIB AND I. J. HASSAN2

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred fore-milk samples collected from 200 mastitis quarters of buffaloes (clinically mastitis quarters n = 17, sub-clinically mastitis quarters n = 183 were subjected to microbiological examination. The diagnosis of sub-clinical mastitis was based on the results of Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. A total of 214 isolates of 13 different microbial species were recovered. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently recovered bacterial species accounting for 49.53% of all the isolates, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23.83%, Staphylococcus hyicus (8.88%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (6.54%, Bacillus spp. (3.74%, Staphylococcus hominis (1.40%, Escherichia coli (1.40%, Staphylococcus xylosus (0.93%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (0.93% and Corynebacterial spp. (0.93%. Yeast and prototheca each accounted for 0.47 percent of isolates. Two (0.93% isolates were identified as coagulase negative staphylococci species. In view of preponderance of the contagious pathogens (S. aureus, Str. agalactiae, it is recommended that mastitis control in the area of study should be based on contagious mastitis control practice.

  9. Syndromic approach to sexually transmitted infections in Tunisian women: bacteriological validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, M; Mansour, K Ben; Abid, F; Masmoudi, A; Fendri, C

    2008-02-01

    The World Health Organization emphasizes an integrated primary care approach using syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections. The objective of our study was to evaluate the quality of care of the syndromic management of sexually transmitted disease in women in Rabta hospital in Tunisia. Algorithms have been developed for: cervicitis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia (algorithm 3a), vaginitis due to Trichomonas vaginalis or Chlamydia trachomatis (algorithm 3b) and vaginitis due to Candida (algorithm 3c). A total of 116 women were enrolled in the study during February 2003 to April 2004. The prevalence of each bacterium was Chlamydia (10%), N. gonorrhoeae (1%), Treponema pallidum (1%), T. vaginalis (5%) and Candida (21%). Algorithm '3a' had a sensitivity of 45%, a specificity of 42% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 11.9%. Algorithm '3b' had a sensitivity of 35.7%, a specificity of 68.9% and PPV of 20.8%. Algorithm '3c' had a sensitivity of 12%, a specificity of 88% and PPV of 33.3%. To improve the sensitivity of the syndromic approach, we suggest improving the quality of history taking.

  10. Bacteriology profile of febrile infectious complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hao Huang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated an overall postbiopsy febrile complicating infection rate of 1.39%. E. coli was the most common pathogen. Fluoroquinolones or second generation cephalosporins are suggested as the initial choice in patients with postbiopsy fever.

  11. Histologic and bacteriologic findings in valvular endocarditis of slaughter-age pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik E.; Gyllensten, Johanna; Hofman, Carolina;

    2010-01-01

    Endocarditis lesions from 117 slaughter pigs were examined pathologically and etiologically in addition to 90 control hearts with cardiac valves. Lesions were located on the valves; however, the lesions had extended to the walls in 21 cases (18%). Lesions predominated on the mitral valve (59...... 10 cases of endocarditis due to S. suis and E. rhusiopathiae were disclosed. Within lesions, streptococci predominated (53%) followed by E. rhusiopathiae (30%). Distinct features of both the lesions and the shape and localization of bacterial colonies were related to streptococci and E. rhusiopathiae....... The propensity for streptococci to be localized on more than 1 valve in single hearts may be because S. suis-infected pigs tend to have been infected for a longer period compared with E. rhusiopathiae. Mineralization of endocarditis lesions was significantly associated with infection by streptococci...

  12. EU Interlaboratory comparison study Food-II Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in minced beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; van de Kassteele J; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2008-01-01

    Van de 30 Europese Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) waren er 29 in staat hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella in rundergehakt aan te tonen. Vijf laboratoria hadden hiervoor een herkansing nodig. Een laboratorium kon ook tijdens deze herkansing niet voldoende presteren. Momenteel wordt ond

  13. EU Interlaboratory comparison study Food-I Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in minced beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; van de Kassteele J; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2007-01-01

    De Europese Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella hebben in een ringonderzoek hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella aangetoond in rundergehakt. Hiermee hebben ze laten zien dat ze voldoen aan de gestelde eisen. De Modified Semi-solid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV), een analysemetho

  14. EU Interlaboratory comparison study veterinary XI : Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in chicken faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2009-01-01

    Alle 32 Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) waren in 2008 in staat hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella in kippenmest aan te tonen. Hiervan behaalden 28 laboratoria direct het gewenste niveau. Twee laboratoria hadden een herkansing nodig. Bij een NRL was het CRL-Salmonella aanwezig tij

  15. Urinary tract infections in general practice patients: diagnostic tests versus bacteriological culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, S.; Merode, T. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections encountered in general practice. For the optimal treatment the general practitioner (GP) should rely on the results of diagnostic tests and recent antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens. Patients and methods: In total

  16. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY... ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2) Incubate at 37 °C for 48 hours. The presence of acid, and...

  17. Assessment of physicochemical and bacteriological drinking water quality of different sources of H.D. Kote town, Mysore district.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopavathi C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to sustain the life. Water samples have collected from a different urban area of H. D. Kote town of Mysore district from different sources such as hand pump, public taps, and stored household drinking water. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the water samples were analysed following the standard methods to evaluate the quality of drinking water. All physic-chemical parameters are within the permissible limit to WHO. The microbiological analysis shows that that t nearly 53 % of the samples were observed with coliform contamination. The significant difference among water sources regarding total plate count was observed, where stored household water has relatively higher compared to tap and borewell water exceeding the standard limit. Both hand pump and the tap water were not detected with any E. coli contamination whereas 80% of the household stored water samples have shown E. coli contamination. The presence of significant counts of coliforms in stored household water indicates post poor sanitation and existence of human activities. Attention should be given to the collection, storage, and management by additional treatment to maintain and prevent excessive microbial growth

  18. Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection.

  19. Effects of hydroclimatic anomalies on bacteriological quality of the Middle Paraná River (Santa Fe, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, F

    2004-01-01

    Lenitic and lotic aquatic environments were studied in the Middle Paraná River basin, one of the largest rivers of the world (basin: 1,510,000 km2, length: 2,570 km). The Paraná River (S 31 degrees 42' 04"; W 60 degrees 29' 39"), during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (1997-1998), registered maximum flows of 29,962 m3 s(-1) (more than twice the mean flow) and also positive pluvial anomalies (A) (from +120 mm to +161 mm). However, concentrations of Escherichia coli remained low, with values similar to the mean (p > 0.05) (1.3802 log10cfu/100 ml). Only a maximum peak (1.903 log10cfu/100 ml), significantly higher than the mean (p < 0.0001), was detected during the ascending phase of the flood pulse. During La Niña (September 1999-March 2000; Q = 11,255 m3 s(-1); A = -78 mm to -84 mm), concentrations of E. coli were significantly lower than the mean (p < 0.0001). During the post-Niña period, with normal flows (Q = 14,900 m3 s(-1)) but with strong positive pluvial anomalies (A = +118 mm to +377 mm), the fecal indicator density reached maximum values (up to 2.699 log10cfu/100 ml, p < 0.0001). The multiple regression model used with all the results obtained in the Paraná River showed that variations in concentrations of E. coli are mainly explained by pluvial precipitations and hydrometric level (p = 0.001). Temporal patterns of concentrations of E. coli in a small, secondary course (Q = 101 m3 s(-1)) followed those of the Paraná River, but concentrations and peaks of E. coli produced by exceptional rains showed a higher magnitude (maximum: 3.325 log10cfu/100 ml). In the floodplain lakes, away from urban centers, concentrations of E. coli were not associated to hydroclimatic anomalies, but directly to vegetable cover: maximum concentrations were always registered during periods that lakes remained covered by floating macrophytes (mainly Eichhornia crassipes); on the contrary, minimum concentrations were registered during periods without vegetable cover.

  20. Bacteriological techniques compliment the clinical and cytological diagnosis of tuberculosis in human immuno deficiency virus infected persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikantam A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and M. tuberculosis are two intracellular pathogens that interact with each other at both clinical and cellular levels. A known HIV positive case, presentingwith vague pulmonary symptoms followed by bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy, is reported here. The condition was treated as asthma, based on lung symptoms. Cytology revealed acute purulent lymphadenitis. Only Z. N. staining and culture of sputum and lymphnode aspirate could diagnose tuberculosis. Patient responded well to the standard anti tuberculosis treatment.

  1. Bacteriological analysis of saliva from partially or fully engorged female adult Rhipicephalus microplus by next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Liangliang; Poźniak, Błażej; Cheng, Tian-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a major epidemiological problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial composition of saliva obtained from engorged adult Rhipicephalus microplus females. Saliva samples collected from partially or fully engorged adult female ticks were analysed using an ultra-high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing system. To elucidate the possible routes of bacterial transmission, the bacterial flora from whole ticks were also investigated. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the predominant phyla in all samples, and Acinetobacter, Rickettsia, Escherichia and Coxiella were the major genera. Microbial diversity in saliva samples from partially engorged ticks was more complex than that of samples from fully engorged individuals. The comparison of saliva and whole-tick samples suggests that bacteria in saliva also colonize the tick's body. We believe that some bacterial genera, such as Dermacoccus, Achromia, SMB53, Sutterella, Providencia, Mycoplana, Oscillospira, and Agrobacterium, were found and reported in ticks for the first time. The Coxiella and Rickettsia detected in this study might be tick-borne pathogens, suggesting health risks associated with exposure to R. microplus in humans and animals. These findings may serve as the basis for developing strategies to control ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  2. The answer of the Bacteriology Laboratory to new clinical needs. Rapid sepsis diagnotics at the Novara hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Kroumova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faster microbiological responses are increasingly necessary in modern medicine and the Laboratory of Microbiology must be equipped in this sense. New instrumentation and, above all, a new approach by the Clinical Microbiologist that puts a focus on the real needs of the patient before the microbiological may allow for significantly improving the TAT of these diagnostics. The use of both new methodologies, new tools and revisited old technologies may mean less these days as it was obtained at the Laboratory of Microbiology and Virology of Novara, where the combined use of molecular biology techniques, and mass spectrometry techniques rapid growth have allowed for more than 36 hours to shorten the response time by positivization of blood cultures. Such an approach allows an important support to the clinician with obvious benefits for the patient.

  3. Clinical, Bacteriological, and Histopathological Findings of a Testicular Fibrosis in a 6-Year-Old Lusitano Stallion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Lusitano stallion was referred to our centre due to an enlarged left testicle. Anamnesis indicated that the stallion had a chronic hypertrophy of the left testicle, with no apparent ill effect on work (dressage training or semen production. Prolonged use of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and antibiotics were probable. Upon examination of the animal, it was found that clinical signs were compatible with chronic testicular degeneration or fibrosis. Ultrasound scanning did not evidence the exuberant macroscopic lesions seen upon hemicastration of the left testicle, but it showed in the left spermatic cord a conspicuous absence of the typical hypoechogenic areas representing the pampiniform plexus. Swabbing of the penis, prepuce, and distal urethra resulted in the isolation of Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium spp. However, histopathological examination did not support infectious orchitis as cause of the lesions and no bacterial growth was obtained from swabbing of the parenchyma in the excised testicle. Histopathological findings were compatible with chronic orchitis with fibrosis and necrosis, probably secondary to ischemia of the testicular parenchyma. After hemi-castration, the stallion resumed semen production at acceptable levels.

  4. BACLAB: A Computer Simulation of a Medical Bacteriology Laboratory--An Aid for Teaching Tertiary Level Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewington, J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation program which helps students learn the main biochemical tests and profiles for identifying medically important bacteria. Also discusses the advantages and applications of this type of approach. (ML)

  5. Ultimate pH values and bacteriological condition of meat and stress metabolites in blood of transported reindeer bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wiklund

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three reindeer bulls, aged 2-3 years, fed during two winter months at the Vuolda reindeer research station in Arjeplog, Sweden, were used in the study. The first group of eight reindeer was moved from their feeding corral to a selection corral, captured by lasso and stunned with a captive bolt outside the selection corral. The second group of seven reindeer was moved to the selection corral, captured by lasso and restrained, after which they were loaded onto a lorry- and transported for 1 hour and then slaughtered. The third group of eight reindeer was moved to the selection corral and herded directly onto the lorry, without any manual handling. They were transported for 5 h and then slaughtered. In both transport groups, four reindeer were fitted with pre-programmed automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE. ABSE sampled blood at predetermined times via a jugular vein catheter. Ultimate pH-values in three muscles (Mm. longissimus, triceps brachii and biceps femoris were significantly lower in the group carefully handled and transported for 5 h compared with the other two groups. The physiological mechanisms behind these results are discussed. Samples from M. semimembranosus were collected at slaughter and after 2, 6 and 10 days of refrigerated storage (+4 °C. The samples were analysed for total counts of aerobic bacteria (pour-plated in Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar, Difco, incubated at 20 °C and 30 °C, respectively for 72 h, coliform bacteria 37 °C (pour-plated in Violet Red Bile Agar, Oxoid, incubated at 37 °C for 24 h, Enterococci (surface-plated onto Slantez and Bartley Agar, Oxoid, incubated at 44 °C for 48 h and Bacillus cereus (surface-plated onto Blood Agar Plates (Blood Agar Base, Difco, supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood 30 °C for 24 h. All samples fell in the range 'fit for consumption'. At slaughter, there was no difference in ASAT activity, urea and Cortisol concentrations between the two transported groups. However, the plasma ASAT activity and urea concentrations at slaughter were significantly lower in the non-transported group. In both transport groups, the plasma Cortisol concentrations increased during loading onto and unloading from the lorry. Abomasal lesions were observed in all treatment groups. It was concluded that reindeer showed an acute stress response to manual handling and transport.

  6. Systemic Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection not associated with endocarditis highlighting bacteriological diagnosis difficulties Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volard, Bertrand; Mignot, Loïc; Piednoir, Emmanuel; de Champs, Christophe; Limelette, Anne; Guillard, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is mostly isolated in swine causing erysipelas. Human invasive infections due to E. rhusiopathiae remain poorly described and interestingly bacteraemia associated with endocarditis are a source of ineffective empirical antibiotherapy. We report a case of sepsis without endocarditis due to E. rhusiopathiae and a review of the literature.

  7. Profile, Bacteriology, and Risk Factors for Foot Ulcers among Diabetics in a Tertiary Hospital in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaninyene Asuquo Otu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot disease is a major medical, social, and economic problem. This retrospective study assessed the profile of diabetes mellitus patients with foot ulcers in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH, Nigeria. Admission records of all patients admitted unto the medical wards of UCTH over a 5 year period were analysed. The records of diabetic patients were retrieved. Data on patient characteristics and possible risk factors for diabetes mellitus foot ulcers was extracted. Of the 3,882 patients admitted, 297 (7% were on account of complications of diabetes mellitus. Foot ulcers accounted for 63 (21.2% of all diabetic admissions. The elderly constituted the majority of patients admitted with foot ulcers. The average duration of stay of diabetics with foot ulcers was 38.5 days. Diabetics admitted for other conditions had average duration of admission of 15.8 days. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated from swabs of foot ulcers. Most of the organisms identified from ulcer swab cultures were sensitive to quinolones and resistant to penicillins. These diabetic foot ulcers were significantly associated with peripheral sensory neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, intermittent claudication, and walking barefoot. An effective diabetes foot programme is required to address these risk factors and reverse the current trend.

  8. Bacteriological Profile of Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery and Evaluation of a Bacterial Filter using Protected Broncho-Alveolar Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempe, D K; Mehta, N; Mishra, B; Tondon, M S; Tomar, A S; Budharaja, P; Nigam, M

    1998-01-01

    Twenty seven patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were included in this prospective study. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group C (n = 12) constituted the control group in whom no breathing filter was used in the anaesthesia circuit in the operating room or in the ICU. Humidification of breathing gases was achieved with the help of conventional heated humidifier. In group F (n = 15), heat and moisture exahanging bacterial / viral filter was incorporated in the breathing circuit at the patient end between the catheter mount and Y connection of the breathing circuit. In both the groups, samples of throat swab, protected broncho-alveolar lavage with double catheter and Ryles tube aspirate were collected preoperatively (in the operation theatre) and postoperatively (in the Intensive Care Unit on day 1). All the samples were sent to the laboratory immediately after the collection for Gram staining and culture and sensitivity. Pathogenic organisms were isolated from a total of 9 patients (33%) preoperatively. Exogenous spread of the organisms to the lungs was considered to have occurred if new pathogenic organisms were isolated from the postoperative bronchoalveolar lavage and the simultaneous samples of the throat swab and Ryles tube did not contain the same organism. By this definition, the exogenous spread of the organisms occurred in one patient in group C and in no patient in group F (P = 0.46, Fishers test). The commonest organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. We conclude that colonization of the pathogenic organisms is common (33%) in orophrynx and gastrointestinal tract in hospitalized patients. There was no difference in the exogenous spread of the organisms between the two groups. The unity of the filter, therefore, appears to be limited to prevent contamination of anaesthesia machines or ventilators as has been shown by earlier studies.

  9. Bacteriological Analysis of the Digestive Tube of the Mud Snail (Bullacta exarata Philippi) and Its Rearing Shoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guoliang; ZHENG Tianlun; LU Tongxia; WANG Yinong; YU Hong; JIN Shan

    2002-01-01

    The bacterial flora in the digestive tube of Bullacta exarata Philippi and its rearing shoal were investigated. A to-tal of 157 strains of heterotrophic bacteria, isolated from crop, stomach intestine and other parts of the digestive tube,mainly belong to the genera Photobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas Vibrio and some genera of the family Enterobacteri-aceae. There are significantly more varieties of bacteria in crop than in stomach and intestine. A total of 173 strains of bacte-ria were isolated from the rearing shoal, belonging to 13 genera. The 5 predominant genera, such as Bacillus and Photobac-terium, are the same as those in the digestive tube, but greatly differ in percentages. The number of heterotrophic bacteriaand Vibrio in rearing shoal change in line with the alteration of the temperature, and are significantly affected by the use ofpesticides.

  10. Comparison of bacteriological conversion and treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients with and without diabetes in Mexico: Preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Torrico, M; Caminero Luna, J; Migliori, G B; D'Ambrosio, L; Carrillo-Alduenda, J L; Villareal-Velarde, H; Torres-Cruz, A; Flores-Ergara, H; Martínez-Mendoza, D; García-Sancho, C; Centis, R; Salazar-Lezama, M Á; Pérez-Padilla, R

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). However, it is not known to what extent DM affects the outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) treated with second-line anti-TB drugs. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological evolution (sputum smear and culture conversion) and final outcomes of MDR/XDR-TB patients with and without DM, managed at the national TB reference centre in Mexico City.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in the commercial turkey, quail flocks and domestic pigeons by bacteriological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT is a respiratory pathogen which has been isolated throughout the world from numerous bird species. The present study was designed to isolate and characterize the ORT from domestic turkeys, quails and pigeons. For this purpose, 250 samples from each bird species (turkey, quail and pigeon with or without respiratory signs were tested by taking of tracheal swabs. In addition, respiratory tissue samples (tracheal and lung, from 250 slaughtered turkeys, 50 slaughtered quails and 100dead pigeons were also subjected to culture for ORT as tracheal swabs. Respiratory tissues were also tested for bacterial DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In general, 30 isolates including 4 isolates from turkeys, 3 isolates from quails and 23 isolates from pigeons were identified as ORT by bacteriologicalmethod and then confirmed by PCR. Bacterial DNA was detected in 20%, 50% and 35% of respiratory tissues in turkeys, quails and pigeons respectively. Five ORT isolates from pigeon and all four isolates from turkey showed smaller colony size, while other isolates had larger colonies when cultured in blood agar. Fifty percent of the isolates with larger colony but none of the isolates with small colony size could agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs. All of the isolates were sensitive to danofloxacin and chloramphenicolwhile more than 90% of pigeon isolates were resistant to ampicillin. All of turkey and quail and 30% of pigeon isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Our ORT isolates showed high identity (98%- 100% insequence of 16S rRNA gene to related data in GeneBank.

  12. Comparison of ELISA and histopathologic and bacteriologic findings in diagnosis of helicobacter pylori in gastro-intestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsalehian A

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H.Pylori is the most common human infection in the world. This agent has a strong role in pathogenesis of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer. Therefore introducing of simple and cost effective tests are important for diagnosis of H.Pylori infections. ELISA has been considered as an alternative test compare with biopsy, histological staining, culture and urease test in diagnosis of H.Pylori infection. In this investigation, 111 patients referred to GI endoscopy department of Imam Khomeini Hospitals for U.G.I problems which were evaluated for H.Pylori infection. Culture and histological staining (GIMSA and H & E were used as a gold standard test compare with ELISA-IgG and urease test. Sensitivity and specificity for ELISA were 90%, 93% respectively. This report suggests that ELISA is a cost effect and valid test in diagnosis of H.Pylori infection

  13. Bacteriological Monitoring of Radiology Room Apparatus in the Department of Radiological Technology and Contamination on Hands of Radiological Technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Chil [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Distribution of microorganisms were examined for the bucky tables in the radiology rooms of the department of radiological technology, the aprons, handles of various apparatus, handles of mobile radiological apparatus, and hands of the radiological technologists. As a result, relatively larger amounts of bacteria were found on the handles of the mobile radiological apparatus and the aprons. Among the isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter baumanni (7.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.9%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.7%), Enterobacter cloaceae (0.6%), Providenica rettgeri (0.6%) are known as the cause of nosocomial infection (hospital acquired infection). In addition, similar colonies were also found on the hands of the radiological technologists such as microorganisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.6%), Yersinia enterocolotica (5.4%), Acinetobacter baumanni (4.2%), Enterobacter cloaceae (2.4%), Serratia liquefaciens (1.8%), Yersinia pseuotuberculosis (18%), Enterobacter sakazakii (1.2%), and Escherichia coli (0.6%). In particular, this result indicates clinical significance since Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli show strong pathogenicity. Therefore, a continuous education is essential for the radiological technologists to prevent the nosocomial infection.

  14. Tuberculosis in Australia: bacteriologically confirmed cases and drug resistance, 2000: report of the Australian Mycobacterium Laboratory Reference Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Richard; Bastian, Ivan; Dawson, David; Gilpin, Chris; Havekort, Frank; Howard, Peter; Sievers, Aina

    2002-01-01

    The Australian Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory Network collected and analysed laboratory data on new diagnoses of disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in the year 2000. A total of 765 cases were identified, representing an annual reporting rate of 4.0 cases of laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) per 100,000 population. Pulmonary disease was diagnosed in 64.9 per cent of cases with a male:female ratio of 1.5:1. Smears were positive for 209/365 (57.3%) of sputum isolates and 39/117 (33.3%) bronchoscopy isolates. Sputum from males was more likely to be smear-positive (63.3%) than from females (47.5%). Isolates from lymph node accounted for 136 (17.7%) of all cases; only 28.7 per cent were smear-positive. Eighty-four (11.0%) isolates, comprising 82 M. tuberculosis and 2 M. bovis strains, demonstrated in vitro resistance to at least one of the standard anti-TB medications. Resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin (defined as multidrug-resistant TB) was observed for only 8 (1.0%) strains, a rate similar to previous years. Almost all (96.3%) of patients with drug resistant strains were classified as having initial resistance. The country of birth was known for 76 (92.7%) of 82 patients with a drug resistant strain of M. tuberculosis; 6 were Australian-born and 70 (92.1%) had migrated from a total of 17 countries. Of these 70 migrants with drug-resistant disease, 68.6 per cent had migrated from one of the following countries: Vietnam (n=15), China (n=11), Philippines (n=11), India (n=6), and Indonesia (n=5).

  15. 浓缩集菌法诊断粪便幽门螺杆菌的实用价值%Wang RuiFang Laboratory of Bacteriology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞芳

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨浓缩集菌法诊断HP的实用价值.方法:采用ELA和浓缩集菌法检查了经胃镜确诊的31例胃病患者粪便标本中的HP.结果:组织学法与ELA二者间值和比数无显著性意义P>0.05(X2=0.0),ELA的敏感性为90%,特异性为83.3%,准确性为95%,阳性预测值为94.7%,阴性预测值为71.4%,组织学法与浓缩集菌法二者间结果比较无显著性差异P>0.05(X2=0.0),浓缩集菌法敏感性为92%,特异性为83.3%,准确性为96%,阳性预测值为95.8%,阴性预测值为71.4%.结论:ELA与浓缩集菌法是临床诊断胃病较好的方法,浓缩集菌法更适用于基层.

  16. A Survey of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in the Hyporheic Zone of a Subtropical Stream: Their Bacteriological, Physicochemical and Environmental Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Riccardo; Sattamini, Ana; Albuquerque dos Santos, José Augusto; Regua-Mangia, Adriana Hamond

    2015-01-01

    The Hyporheic Zone is among the most important interstitial freshwater habitats, but the relationship between biotic and abiotic factors in this zone remains under-explored. Enterobacteria were expected to be present, but no specific studies had ever confirmed this prediction. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in hyporheic water and to determine the relationship of the physical, chemical and environmental factors at different depths in a rainforest stream. To this end, thirty-six water samples were collected at three depths in sites located in the first, second and third orders in diverse substrates. The total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. were evaluated in terms of their CFU/ml. In the interstitial samples, coliforms were detected in 100% of the samples. The total coliform counts had higher values at intermediate depths, while E. coli and Salmonella spp. instead had higher values at intermediate and large depths, often reaching or exceeding the values of the surface samples. Our results revealed that Salmonella spp. and the coliforms have different microhabitat preferences. Salmonella spp. and coliform species prefer deposition areas, such as lateral sides of pools, curves and bars, but they have a tendency to distribute into different depths, likely due to temperature differences. Salmonella spp. prefer compact substrata, with fewer fluids passing through and with upwelling areas with lower oxygen inflow. The coliform species showed the opposite preference. Our results suggest that bacterial variation is related to environmental factors and physical-chemical parameters within the HZ and may play a key role in the microbial diversity and distribution in these ecosystems. PMID:26067288

  17. Bacteriological studies of blood, tissue fluid, lymph and lymph nodes in patients with acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (DLA) in course of 'filarial' lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, W L; Jamal, S; Manokaran, G; Pani, S; Kumaraswami, V; Kubicka, U; Lukomska, B; Tripathi, F M; Swoboda, E; Meisel-Mikolajczyk, F; Stelmach, E; Zaleska, M

    1999-10-15

    Filarial lymphedema is complicated by frequent episodes of dermatolymphangioadenitis (DLA). Severe systemic symptoms during attacks of DLA resemble those of septicemia. The question we asked was whether bacterial isolates can be found in the peripheral blood of patients during the episodes of DLA. Out of 100 patients referred to us with 'filarial' lymphedema 14 displayed acute and five subacute symptoms of DLA. All were on admission blood microfilariae negative but had a positive test in the past. Blood bacterial isolates were found in nine cases, four acute (21%) and five subacute (26%). In 10 acute cases blood cultures were found negative. Six blood isolates belonged to Bacilli, four to Cocci and one was Sarcina. To identify the sites of origin of bacterial dissemination, swabs taken from the calf skin biopsy wounds and tissue fluid, lymph and lymph node specimens were cultured. Swabs from the calf skin biopsy wound contained isolates in nine (47%) cases. They were Bacilli in nine, Cocci in three, Acinetobacter and Erwinia in two cases. Tissue fluid was collected from 10 patients and contained Bacilli in four (40%) and Staphylococci in three (30%). Lymph was drained in four patients and contained isolates in all samples (100%). They were Staphylococcus epidermis, xylosus and aureus, Acinetobacter, Bacillus subtilis and Sarcina. Three lymph nodes were biopsied and contained Staphylococcus chromogenes, xylosus, Enterococcus and Bacillus cereus. In six cases the same phenotypically defined species of bacteria were found in blood and limb tissues or fluids. In the 'control' group of patients with lymphedema without acute or subacute changes all blood cultures were negative. Interestingly, swabs from biopsy wound of these patients contained isolates in 80%, tissue fluid in 68%, lymph in 70% and lymph nodes in 58% of cases. In healthy controls, tissue fluid did not contain bacteria, and lymph isolates were found only in 12% of cases. This study demonstrates that patients with acute episodes of DLA reveal bacteremia in a high percentage of cases. Diversity of blood and tissue bacterial isolates in these patients points to a breakdown of the skin immune barrier in lymphedema and subsequently indiscriminate bacterial colonization of deep tissues and spread to an blood circulation.

  18. The serological response to Salmonella serovars typhimurium and infantis in experimentally infected pigs. The time course followed with an indirect anti-LPS ELISA and bacteriological examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Bager, Flemming;

    1995-01-01

    serologically in an indirect ELISA using mixed purified LPS from S. typhimurium and S. choleraesuis (O:6,7), all but one S. typhimurium infected pig and all S. infantis infected pigs produced significantly increased optical densities (OD) in the ELISA as compared to the control groups. The maximum anti...... organs were detected at necropsy in 4/22 of the S. typhimurium inoculated pigs with persistent anti-LPS reaction and all 3 S. infantis inoculated pigs but in none of the antibody-negative pigs. The ELISA is therefore suitable for screening for the presence of infection with S. typhimurium or S. infantis...... on a herd basis. Its suitability for other serotypes of Salmonella will require further testing....

  19. Clinical and bacteriological efficacy of twice daily topical retapamulin ointment 1% in the management of impetigo and other uncomplicated superficial skin infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R. Bohaty, MD

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Safety profile appears favorable given the low number of AEs. Study design limits conclusions that can be drawn. Nevertheless, this study supports use of topical retapamulin 1% ointment in treatment of cutaneous bacterial infections, particularly those caused by S. aureus, including MRSA.

  20. Qualidade bacteriológica de águas subterrâneas em cemitérios Bacteriological quality of groundwater in cermiteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Therezinha Martins

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas amostras de águas subterrâneas de três cemitérios localizados em áreas geologicamente distintas de São Paulo e de Santos, Brasil, com relação às condições higiênicas e sanitárias. Para as primeiras foram considerados os coliformes totais, bactérias heterotróficas, microrganismos proteolíticos e lipolíticos. Para as sanitárias foram pesquisados coliformes fecais, estreptococos fecais, clostrídios sulfito redutores, colifagos e salmonelas. Verificou-se que as águas não apresentaram condições higiênicas satisfatórias e, em alguns casos, foram encontrados niveis altos de nitrato (75,7 mg/l. A deteção de níveis mais elevados de estreptococos fecais e de clostrídios sulfito redutores em relação aos coliformes fecais, na maior parte das amostras, parece mostrar que os dois primeiros indicadores seriam mais adequados para avaliação das condições sanitárias deste tipo de água. Foi detectada Salmonella apenas em uma amostra e não foram detectados colifagos. Na análise estatística, foram encontradas correlações significantes entre três indicadores de poluição fecal assim como entre as contagens em placas de bactérias heterotróficas aeróbias, anaeróbias e lipolíticas. Foi observada uma relação direta entre a deterioração da qualidade da água e as condições geológicas e hidrogeológicas do ambiente estudado, devendo este fator ser considerado para o planejamento e implantação de cemitérios.Groundwater samples collected by piezometers from three cemiteries in geologically distinct areas of S. Paulo and Santos, Brazil, were analysed in order to determine their hygienic and sanitary conditions. Fecal coliformes, fecal streptococci, sulfite reducer clostridia and Salmonella were searched for the purpose of evaluating sanitary conditions, and total coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria, proteolitic and lipoli-tic microorganisms for evaluating hygienic conditions. In some samples, nitrate levels were also determined. It was discovered that these waters do not present adequate sanitary and higienic conditions and that, in some cases, nitrate levels were extremelly high (75.7 mg/l. In most samples, higher levels of fecal streptococci and sufite reducer clostridia than fecal coliforms were detected, which seems to show that the two former indicators would be more appropriate for evaluating the sanitary conditions of this kind of water. Salmonella were detected in only one of 44 samples analysed and coliphages in none. In the stastistical analysis, the correlation matrix showed significant correlations among three fecal pollution indicators, as well as among anaerobic and aerobic heterotrophs and lipolitic bacteria. A direct relationship between the deterioration of water quality and the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the environment studied was observed. When cemiteries are constructed these conditions should, therefore, be taken into consideration.

  1. 鼻内镜术后病情迁延的细菌学分析%Bacteriological analysis of persistent rhinosinusitis after endoscopic sinus surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代保强; 王全桂

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性鼻-鼻窦炎(CRS)鼻内镜术后迁延不愈者鼻腔分泌物的细菌学特征.方法:选取单纯鼻中隔偏曲患者20例(对照组),取其中鼻道分泌物;选取首次接受鼻内镜手术的CRS患者30例(手术组),术中取中鼻道分泌物;取FESS术后随访3个月以上未达治愈标准的患者20例(迁延组),在鼻内镜下取中鼻道分泌物,分别做细菌培养和药物敏感试验,3组结果进行比较分析.结果:对照组检出细菌13株,手术组检出15株,迁延组检出15株,其检出阳性率差异无统计学意义;迁延组G-菌检出率明显高于对照组和手术组;对常用抗生素耐药的菌株比例迁延组显著高于手术组.结论:需氧菌可存在于正常鼻腔内;CRS术后迁延不愈者,G-杆菌的感染和细菌的耐药性明显增加.因此,强调要合理应用抗生素,对术后迁延性鼻窦炎的抗生素治疗,应建立在细菌培养和药敏试验的基础上.%Objective:To investigate the bacterial characteristics of persistent rhinosinusitis after functional endoscopic sinus surgery(FESS). Method: Twenty patients with nasal septum deviation, 30 patients with chronic rh-inosinusitis(CRS) and 20 patients with persistent rhinosinusitis, were selected to take discharges from middle me-atus during the operation. Bacteria culture and drug susceptibility of the discharges were compared betweent three groups. Result:There were 13,15 and 15 isolates detected in nasal septum deviation group, CRS group and persis-tent rhinosinusitis group. There was no significant difference among the three groups at the detection rate of Gram-positive bacteria. But there was significant difference between the persistent rhinosinusitis group and the oth-er two groups at the detection rate of Gram-negative bacteria. The detection rate of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were significantly higher in persistent rhinosinusitis group than in CRS group. Conclusion) Aerobic bacteria can live in nasal cavity. Bacteria infection is one of the etiological factors of persistent rhinosinusitis after FESS. Gram-negative bacteria and antibiotic resistant bacteria are increased in patients with persistent rhinosinusitis. To treat the persistent rhinosinusitis after surgery, the antibiotics should be reasonably used according to the bacteria cul-ture and the drug susceptibility.

  2. Early Limnology of Dworshak Reservoir. Part 1. Limnology. Part 2. Impact of Log Leachates on Phytoplankton. Part 3. Fate of Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Dynamics. Part 4. Bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Chemistry ....................... 1-55 Phytoplankton.......................1-64 Zooplankton.........................1-74 Regression Analyses...4 when 02 was 0. Hydrogen sulfide was never detected downstream of the dam. Water Chemistry Chemical composition of the North Fork of the Clearwater...growth tissue ( Schaum - burg 1972). Servizi et al. (1971) had similar results when comparing outer bark to actively growing inner bark. The highest

  3. EFFECTS OF A NEW ANTIBIOTIC COMBINATION ON POST -THAW MOTION CHRACTERISTICS AND MEMBRANE INTEGRITY OF BUFFALO AND SAHIWAL BULL SPERMATOZOA AND ON THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF THEIR SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hasan, S. M. H. Andrabi, R. Muneer, M. Anzar and N. Ahmad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of a new antibiotic combination, i.e., gentamycin, tylosin and linco-spectin (STLS on post-thaw motion characteristics, plasma membrane integrity, sperm morphology and the total aerobic bacterial counts (TABC in buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen were investigated. Ten ejaculates, five each from a buffalo and a Sahiwal bull, possessing more than 60% sperm motility were used. These ejaculates were diluted in Tris-citric acid (TCA extender (at 37 °C; 50 X 106 spermatozoa/mi, containing either GTLS (gentamycin 500 g/ml, tylosin 100 g/ml and linco-spectin 300/600 g/ml, streptomycin 1000 g/ml and penicillin 1000 IU/ml (SP, or negative control with no antibiotics (NCON. Samples were cooled to 4°C in 2 hours, equilibrated at 4°C for 4 hours, filled in 0.5 ml straws, frozen in a controlled rate cell freezer and plunged into liquid nitrogen. Frozen semen was thawed at 37°C for 15 seconds. Post-thaw sperm motion characteristics, plasma membrane integrity and sperm morphology were determined. Total aerobic bacterial counts and the frequency of appearance of bacterial genera were determined in neat semen, after dilution, and after freezing and thawing. Mean motilities (visual; computer-assisted, linear and circular, velocities (straight-line, average path and curvilinear and lateral head displacement (LHD in post- thaw semen samples did not differ due to antibiotics or species. Same was true for sperm plasma membrane integrity. Morphologically abnormal spermatozoa were lower (P<0.05 in GTLS and SP than in NCON. Sperm cells possessing normal acrosomes were higher (P<0.01 in GTLS and SP than in NCON. Total aerobic bacterial counts in post-thaw samples were lower (P<0.05 in GTLS than in SP or NCON. Staphylococcus and micrococcus were lower in samples treated with GTLS than that of SP or NCON. Pseudomonas and E.coli were more frequent in buffaloes than Sahiwal bull samples. Proteus and corynebacteria were scarcely present. In conclusion, GTLS was not determintal to post thaw motion characteristics, sperm morphology and membrane integrity of buffalo and Sahiwal bull spermatozoa. Furthermore, it efficiently reduced the number of aerobic micro-organisms in buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen.

  4. Influence of Covering Reused Broiler Litter with Plastic Canvas on Litter Characteristics and Bacteriology and the Subsequent Immunity and Microbiology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In broiler production, the litter is reused for consecutives flocks, and it is treated during down time between flocks to reduce its microbial load. Although covering the litter with a plastic canvas is a common litter treatment in the field, there is little scientific information available on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of covering broiler litter with a plastic canvas for eight days on litter microbiological, physical, and chemical parameters, and on the intestinal microbiota and immunity of broilers. In the first trial, reused litter from a previous flock was distributed into three treatments, with six replicates each: L1 (negative control, litter free from Salmonella Enteritidis (SE and Eimeria maxima (EM and not covered, L2 (positive control, litter with SE and EM, and not covered, and L3 (litter with SE and EM, and covered with plastic canvas for eight days. Litter total bacteria, Enterobacteria, Lactobacillus, SE, and EM counts, and litter pH, temperature, moisture, and ammonia emission were determined on days 1 and 8. In the second trial, broilers were housed on those litters according to the treatments described above, and their intestinal microbiota, gut CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and macrophages, and liver and intestinal pro-inflammatory interleukin (IFN-γ, IL-1β e IL-18 levels were evaluated on days 14 and 28. A significant reduction of litter bacterial populations was observed in the litter covered with plastic canvas. A significantly higher mRNA IFN-γ gene expression (12.5-fold was observed in the jejunum and liver of broilers reared on the litter with Enterobacteria counts. No EM reduction was observed in the covered litter. Covering reused broiler litter with plastic canvas reduces initial litter bacterial load as a result of the interaction between physical and chemical parameters.

  5. Bacteriologic characterization of 36 strains of Roseomonas species and proposal of Roseomonas mucosa sp nov and Roseomonas gilardii subsp rosea subsp nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiang Y; Pham, Audrey S; Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Rolston, Kenneth V; Helsel, Leta O; Levett, Paul N

    2003-08-01

    We used a polyphasic approach (sequencing analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and phenotypic analyses) to characterize 36 strains of Roseomonas species isolated from blood. Five strains, represented by strain MDA5176 (M.D. Anderson Cancer Center), were identified as Roseomonas gilardii. One strain belonged to Roseomonas genomospecies 4. The 22 strains represented by strain MDA5527 showed significant differences genotypically and phenotypically with R gilardii and other Roseomonas species and represented a new Roseomonas species; Roseomonas mucosa sp nov was proposed to denote its prominent mucoid, almost runny colonies. Eight strains, represented by strain MDA5605, had minor differences with R gilardii and displayed obvious pink to red colonies; Roseomonas gilardii subsp rosea subsp nov was proposed. For subspecies differentiation, R gilardii was proposed to be R gilardii subsp gilardii subsp nov. Unique patterns of biochemical reactions were established for these Roseomonas species, which may assist routine identification of these organisms. All 36 strains and 2 American Type Culture Collection strains were susceptible to amikacin and ciprofloxacin but resistant to cefepime and ceftazidime. They also were frequently susceptible to imipenem and ticarcillin-clavulanate but far less susceptible to ceftriaxone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin. R mucosa strains were most resistant, whereas R gilardii subsp gilardii strains were most susceptible.

  6. Bacteriological investigation of microorganisms (Salmonella sp. and other Enterobacteriaceae in common quails (Coturnix coturnix submitted to different forced-molting procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RSC Teixeira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella in common quails submitted to forced molting. A total of 240 quails were divided at 40 weeks of age into four groups: CG (control, quails not submitted to molting; FM (fasting method; WM (fed wheat midds ad libitum; and ZM (zinc oxide method. From each group, 10 cloacal swabs, 10 fecal samples, and 20 egg samples were collected before molting (two weeks and after molting (two weeks. The microbiological procedures for Salmonella spp. identification were performed in four steps. The agglutination test, using somatic and flagellar antigens, was used to confirm Salmonella-suspected colonies. According to the methodology applied, none of the samples was positive for Salmonella spp. The results showed that 20.0% of the egg samples from birds submitted to forced molting were contaminated with enterobacteria. It was concluded that, under the conditions of the present experiment, the stress caused by forced molting did not induce infection by Salmonella spp. or increased Enterobacteriaceae contamination levels in the eggs.

  7. The prevalence and distribution of Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles) as determined by enhanced post mortem examination and bacteriological culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D; Gormley, E; Costello, E; O'Meara, D; Corner, L A L

    2010-02-01

    The accurate diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers is key to understanding the epidemiology of tuberculosis in this species and has significant implications for devising strategies to limit spread of the disease. In this study, badgers (n=215) in the Republic of Ireland were examined at post mortem and tissues were collected from a range of anatomical locations and pooled into groups for bacterial culture of M. bovis. By assessing confirmed gross visible lesions (VL) alone, infection was detected in 12.1% of badgers. However, by including the results of all culture positive pooled samples, the overall infection prevalence increased significantly to 36.3%. Two-thirds (66.7%) of infected animals had no visible lesions (NVL). While the thoracic cavity (lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes) was found to be the most common site of infection, in a proportion of animals infection was absent from the lungs and draining lymph nodes and was confined to the lymph nodes of the carcase or the head. This may indicate an early extrapulmonary dissemination of infection or alternatively, in the case of the head lymph nodes, a secondary pathogenic pathway involving the lymphoid tissues of the upper respiratory tract (URT).

  8. An Evaluation of Foods Processed in Tray Pack versus Two Standard Food Service Containers. Part 1. Sensory, Container and Bacteriological Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Vie-Del 3.50 Margarine 1.50 Hydrolyzed vegetable protein, Nestles 4BE 1.00 Starch* 2.50 Vinegar , cider , 40 grain 1.00 Salt .75 Monosodium glutamate .75...paste, 26% solids 8.86 Brown sugar 3.59 Starch* 3.25 Dehydrated onion pieces, rehydrated 1.75 Cider vinegar , 40 grain 3.25 Salt 0.80 Monosodium glutamate...tender, chewy, stringy. The ingredients in this product are pork, pork broth, tomato paste, brown sugar, starch, cider vinegar , onion, white sugar

  9. Bacteriología e hidroquímica de ríos de montaña, Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora C. Romero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se desarrolla en el Valle de Tafí (Tucumán, Argentina, ubicado a 2000 msnm, en la cadena montañosa Aconquija, donde se emplazan dos poblaciones importantes: El Mollar (comuna, 3471 habitantes y Tafí del Valle (municipio, 3250 habitantes. Uno de los problemas más importantes de la comunidad es el suministro de agua potable en cantidad y calidad. Existen dos plantas potabilizadoras: El Churqui y La Quebradita, que abastecen aproximadamente al 50 % de la población de Tafí del Valle. El resto se abastece a través de servicios a cargo de cooperativas y de pozos propios. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la calidad de las aguas superficiales destinadas a consumo humano, desde el punto de vista hidroquímico y bacteriológico. Se fijaron 3 puntos de muestreo en los ríos Blanquito, Churqui y Tafí, donde se colectaron muestras de agua en forma bimensual durante los años 2007-2008. Se analizaron parámetros bacteriológicos, físico-químicos y metales traza. La metodología usada para toma de muestras y determinaciones analíticas responden a Standard Methods for the Examination of de Water and Wastewater. El pH varió de neutro a alcalino, y conductividad osciló entre 62-296 uS.cm-1. La composición iónica mayoritaria refleja que las aguas de los ríos son bastante estables a lo largo del tiempo, con característica bicarbonatada-cálcica dominante. Zn, Hierro y Arsénico no presentaron valores de riesgo, mientras que Cobre registró un valor máximo de 2.5 mg.L-1, en el río Churqui, en forma esporádica. En ningún punto de muestreo el contenido bacteriano fue mayor de 103 UFC por 100 mL. El río Churqui evidencia mayor deterioro desde el punto de vista bacteriológico. Luego del estudio se puede concluir que la composición química y bacteriológica de las aguas del Valle de Tafí es de excelente calidad para ser usadas como fuente de captación, potabilización y consumo.

  10. High-Throughput Sequencing, a VersatileWeapon to Support Genome-Based Diagnosis in Infectious Diseases: Applications to Clinical Bacteriology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ségolène Caboche

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent progresses of high-throughput sequencing (HTS technologies enable easy and cost-reduced access to whole genome sequencing (WGS or re-sequencing. HTS associated with adapted, automatic and fast bioinformatics solutions for sequencing applications promises an accurate and timely identification and characterization of pathogenic agents. Many studies have demonstrated that data obtained from HTS analysis have allowed genome-based diagnosis, which has been consistent with phenotypic observations. These proofs of concept are probably the first steps toward the future of clinical microbiology. From concept to routine use, many parameters need to be considered to promote HTS as a powerful tool to help physicians and clinicians in microbiological investigations. This review highlights the milestones to be completed toward this purpose.

  11. Assessing effects of the e-Chasqui laboratory information system on accuracy and timeliness of bacteriology results in the Peruvian tuberculosis program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Joaquin A; Shin, Sonya S; Yagui, Martin J A; Yale, Gloria; Suarez, Carmen; Asencios, Luis; Fraser, Hamish

    2007-10-11

    We created a web-based laboratory information system, e-Chasqui to connect public laboratories to health centers to improve communication and analysis. After one year, we performed a pre and post assessment of communication delays and found that e-Chasqui maintained the average delay but eliminated delays of over 60 days. Adding digital verification maintained the average delay, but should increase accuracy. We are currently performing a randomized evaluation of the impacts of e-Chasqui.

  12. A study on the bacteriological profile of urinary tract infection in adults and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in a tertiary care hospital in central Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubina Bency A. T.

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, females were mostly affected and the most common organisms were E.Coli and Klebsiella. These organisms were most sensitive to Amikacin, Nitrofurantoin and resistant predominantly to Ampicillin. The sensitivity and resistance pattern of uropathogens to common antimicrobial agents must be taken into account when selecting treatment plans for UTI.

  13. Bacteriology of hospital-acquired infection and antibiotic resistance in a hospital university of Bushehr Port Fatemeh Zahra (s in 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Vahdat

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection is an increasing problem. The global problem of antimicrobial resistance is particularly pressing in developing countries, where the infectious disease burden is high and cost constraints prevent the widespread application of newer, more expensive agents. In a prospective study, 203 consecutive cases with hospital-acquired infection in a university hospital in Bushehr port were evaluated. The most common hospital-acquired infection was urinary (76 cases, conjunctivitis (16 cases, bacteremia (8 cases, meningitis (5 cases, wound (3 cases, empyema (2 cases and peritonitis (1 case. The patients with hospital-acquired infection were from surgical and internal medicine I.C.Us (53.2% & 15.6%, respectively. The most frequent isolated organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25.6%, Acinetobacter baumannii (19.7%, E. coli (13.3%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.3%, Staphylococcus aureus (8.4%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (7.9%, Enterobacter species (7%, Streptococcus species (6.4%, and Proteus mirabilis (0.5%. The most resistant organisms to antimicrobial agents were Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 97 & 93.3% of these bacteria were resistant to third generation cephalosporins. The isolated Staphylococcal species were resistant to amikacin (94%. In conclusion, gram negative bacteria were the most common etiologic agent of hospital-acquired infection and had a high level of resistance to amikacin and third generation cephalosporins. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies should be designed to combat these microorganisms.

  14. Bacteriological Study of Beef Cattle with Mycoplasma Bovis Infection%肉牛牛支原体肺炎感染的细菌学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖淦文; 彭清洁; 崔朋; 胡长敏; 陈颖钰; 巴晓亮; 陈焕春; 郭爱珍

    2012-01-01

    [目的]牛支原体肺炎是严重危害国内外肉牛养殖业的一种重要疾病,病原混合感染将加剧病情,增加临床治疗难度。本研究通过阐明我国牛支原体肺炎混合感染情况,为探讨更加有效的防控手段提供参考依据。[方法]近4年来采用门诊和出诊的方式,收集了全国范围内35个临床初诊为牛支原体肺炎的牛场病牛样本,进行牛支原体及混合感染细菌的分离和分型鉴定。[结果]确定了这类疾病的细菌学感染特征,表现为牛支原体感染占绝对优势,混合感染模式主要以牛支原体合并多杀性巴氏杆菌A型感染、牛支原体合并和化脓隐秘杆菌感染为主。[结论]经实验室检测证实临床初诊病例绝大部分为牛支原体肺炎,但混合感染很普遍。%[Objective]Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) pneumonia is a serious disea tle industry. Co-infection of M. bovis with other pathogens will augment this diseas investigate the bacterial spectrum of this disease and therefore provide the evidence se that harms beef cat- e. This paper aimed to to improve the control measures. [Method]In the last 4 years, the samples of diseased cattle were collected from 35 beef cattle farms clinically diagnosed as M. boris pneumonia, and bacterial isolation and typing were carried out using cultural isolation and molecular tests. [Result] M. bovis was absolutely dominant type in this disease. The co-infection patterns were mainly expressed as infection of M. bovis with Pasteurella multocida type A and M. bovis with Arcanobacterium pyogenes. [Conclusion]Most of the clinical cases was determined to be infected by M. bovis. However,the co-infection was very popular.

  15. Polymerase chain reaction and bacteriological comparative analysis of raw milk samples and buffalo mozzarella produced and marketed in Caserta in the Campania region of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To help identify an epidemiological link between the consumption of buffalo mozzarella prepared with raw milk (not heat-treated and cases of human brucellosis, 80 samples of raw buffalo milk and 315 samples of mozzarella were tested for the presence of Brucella spp. Samples originated from Caserta, the province with the highest number of Brucella-positive buffalo herds in Campania, the region in which 96.02% of all cases of human brucellosis reported in 2000-2005 were recorded. To take into account possible seasonal variations, between February 2006 and March 2007, samples were purchased directly from 72 dairy outlets that were representative of the province. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and bacterial isolation. Samples tested negative for Brucella using both methods. Spiked samples were then prepared and tested by PCR and bacterial isolation and the sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reproducibility and limit of detection were determined. The PCR limit of detection was below 1 colony-forming unit (cfu/g. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were 100% (p = 0.95, the sensitivity was 96.7% (p = 0.95 and the specificity was 100% (p = 0.95.

  16. The Crime of Bacteriological Warfare of Huabei 1855 Troops%华北(甲)一八五五部队的细菌战犯罪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢忠厚; 谢丽丽

    2003-01-01

    笔者在一文(载2002年第1期)中,比较系统地揭露了华北(甲)一八五五细菌部队的组织系统及其进行活人实验、实施细菌战的罪行.本文作为前文的补充,主要依据档案文献,以时间为序,对华北(甲)一八五五部队的细菌战罪行进行更深入、更具体的考察和揭露.

  17. Epidemiologic analysis of a previous outbreak of bubonic plague:The first identified outbreak with bacteriological confirmation in Kobe and Osaka,Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To characterize the case fatality and estimate the symptomatic period of bubonic plague.Methods:Epidemiologic analyses of a previous outbreak of plague in Osaka and Kobe,two major port cities in Japan, from 1899-1900 were performed.In addition to date of onset of symptoms,gender,age and the date of death were extracted from the historical data.The time from onset to death (symptomatic period)was fitted to gamma distribution using the maximum likelihood method.Results:Temporal distribution revealed suspected chains of transmission of the primary pneumonic plague at the late stage of the outbreak.The case fatality of bubonic plague without specific treatment was 83.4 %,and the mean time from onset to death was estimated as 4.7 days (95 % confidence interval:4.0,5.5).Conclusion:Case fatality of bubonic plague without specific treatment was extremely high.The symptomatic period of bubonic plague appeared to be longer than that of pneumonic plague.

  18. Bacterial Loads Measured by the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay as Markers of Culture Conversion and Bacteriological Cure in Pulmonary TB

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Biomarkers are needed to monitor tuberculosis (TB) treatment and predict treatment outcomes. We evaluated the Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay as a biomarker for TB treatment during and at the end of the 24 weeks therapy. Methods Sputum from 108 HIV-negative, culture-positive pulmonary TB patients was analyzed using Xpert at time points before and during anti-TB therapy. Results were compared against culture. Direct Xpert cycle-threshold (Ct), a change in the Ct (delta Ct), or a novel...

  19. An examination of teat drying with disinfectant impregnated cloths on the bacteriological quality of milk and on the transfer of Streptococcus agalactiae before milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, C H; Higgs, T M; Bramley, A J

    1985-08-01

    Total bacterial counts of the milk from individual cows were measured for three groups of ten winter housed cows at three milkings. The teats were either (i) left unwashed or (ii) washed with disinfected water (60 ppm available iodine) and dried with individual paper towels or (iii) washed with plain water and then dried with a single fabric cloth impregnated with a polymeric bisguanide and a quaternary ammonium compound. The mean total bacterial counts/ml for the groups were 5820, 2108 and 1116 respectively. Treatments (ii) and (iii) were also compared for their ability to prevent the inter-teat transfer of bacteria. Before teat washing and drying, one teat of each cow was deliberately contaminated with Streptococcus agalactiae. Significantly fewer teats (5/30) became contaminated with Str. agalactiae when treatment (iii) was used for teat washing and drying compared with treatment (ii) (20/30).

  20. Nasal bacteriological flora: a study among medical residents of Londrina University Hospitais – Parana State – Brazil Flora bacteriana nasal: estudo entre médicos residentes dos Hospitais Universitários de Londrina – Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Giampietro Brandão

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little information about the growth of pathogenic microorganism of the nasal flora in tropical countries since most investigations were held in places with other climate. We identified the nasal flora bacteria of the medical residents of Londrina State University Hospitals. The method is the same that was described previously. The study was carried out in 88 medical residents and the results are presented in tables. It is possible confirm that the majority of the residents has 2 or more pathogenic bacteria in nasal flora with antibiotic resistance for penicillin (29%, erythromycin (19%, terramycin (12% and cloranfenicol (9%. The resistance of the bacteria is low for the new antibiotics like ciprofloxacin, oxacilin, rifamphycin and the cephepyme.   As publicações sobre a flora bacteriana nasal em pessoas normais são poucas e a maioria foi realizada em países de clima temperado. O objetivo é identificar esta flora entre os médicos residentes dos hospitais da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. A coleta foi realizada com zaragatoa, e a identificação dos germes utilizou-se do método descrito anteriormente. O material consiste de 88 residentes e os resultados são apresentados em forma de tabelas. Podemos afirmar que a maioria dos médicos residentes dos Hospitais universitários de Londrina é portador de mais de 2 germes patogênicos na fossa nasal, com alta resistência aos antibióticos testados, como a penicilina (29%, eritromicina (19 %, terramicina 12%, cloranfenicol 9%. Os germes apresentaram resistência menor aos antibióticos mais novos de 2% para a ciprofloxacina, oxacilina, rifampicina e a cefepime. O estafilococo coagulase negativo, considerado flora normal, também mostrou resistência elevada.  

  1. Advance in application of 16S rRNA gene in bacteriology%16S rRNA基因序列分析技术在细菌分类中应用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞; 陈陆; 王川庆

    2008-01-01

    由于16S rRNA基因序列的保守性和存在的普遍性,应用16S rRNA作为分子指标已逐渐成为微生物检测和分类鉴定的一种强有力工具.文章就该基因的特征、研究方法、检测方法及临床应用与研究的新进展等作以简要综述,同时对存在的问题进行了探讨.

  2. Evaluación de la terapia mecánica periodontal en bolsas profundas: Respuesta clínica y bacteriológica Evaluation of periodontal mechanical therapy in deep pockets: Clinical and bacteriological response

    OpenAIRE

    Bazzano, G.; Parodi, R.; Tabares, S; Sembaj,A

    2012-01-01

    Objetivos: Evaluar la composición microbiológica y los parámetros clínicos de bolsas periodontales ≥5 mm de profundidad al inicio, 1 semana, 3 y 12 meses post raspado y alisado radicular. Materiales y Métodos: Se tomaron registros clínicos y muestras de placa subgingival de 44 sitios de pacientes con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica. Se identificaron por técnica de Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR) patógenos putativos periodontales: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa)...

  3. Bacteriological water quality in and around Lake Pontchartrain following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Chapter 7H in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demcheck, Dennis K.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Blehert, David S.; Hippe, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Following the Louisiana landfalls of Katrina on August 29 and Rita on September 24, 2005, the local population and the American public were concerned about the effects the hurricanes might have on water quality in Lake Pontchartrain. The lake is a major recreational resource for the region and an important fishery. Contamination carried by the storm surge—along with runoff and water pumped from flooded areas of New Orleans—was considered a serious threat to the water body. The USGS, in collaboration with the LDEQ, monitored the sanitary quality of water at 22 sites in and around Lake Pontchartrain, La., for 3 consecutive weeks from September 13 to 29, 2005 (fig. 1). A subsequent multipleagency survey of 30 sites within Lake Pontchartrain was undertaken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the USGS, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration during the week of October 11–14, 2005, to evaluate the effects of the hurricanes and overall levels of fecal contamination on the water quality of the lake (see Heitmuller and Perez, this volume). In addition, the EPA monitored fecal-indicator concentrations at a variety of sites in New Orleans, surrounding areas, and the Mississippi River between September 3 and October 22, 2005 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006). This article describes fecal-indicator bacteria concentration results collected by USGS in the context of other existing data.

  4. Use of real-time PCR on faecal samples for detection of sub-clinical Salmonella infection in cattle did not improve the detection sensitivity compared to conventional bacteriology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nielsen, L.R.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2013-01-01

    of both rt-PCR and BCRM was 100% for ST and 78% for SD. Furthermore, 163 faecal samples from cattle herds with suspected Salmonella infection were tested to compare the relative performance of rt-PCR to BCRM on samples from naturally infected herds. The relative sensitivity of rt-PCR was 20% (3/15 BCRM......There is a need for more sensitive detection methods to improve effectiveness of control programmes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes (Salmonella) in cattle. We assessed the performance of a rapid, molecular-based, real-time PCR (rt-PCR) method against the conventional...

  5. 莱芜地区胆道感染患者胆汁细菌学及药敏结果分析%Analysis of bile bacteriology and drug sensitive results in patients with biliary tract infection in Laiwu area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏爱美; 王云

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究莱芜地区胆道感染患者胆汁中细菌谱的变化及其药物敏感性变化,为本地区胆道感染患者合理应用抗生素提供理论依据。方法:对2009年1月-2014年12月间收治的262例本地区胆道感染患者的胆汁细菌培养阳性的231株病原菌分布及耐药情况作回顾性分析。结果:对于2009年1月-2011年12月、2012年1月-2014年12月两个时间段90、172份胆汁标本中各有63、132份病原菌培养阳性,分别检出病原菌73、158株;所分离的病原菌以革兰阴性杆菌为主,2个时间段分别占78.07%、73.48%,革兰阳性菌分别为20.56%、21.97%,真菌分别占1.37%、4.55%;革兰阴性菌在胆道感染中所占的比率下降,而革兰阳性菌及真菌的比率上升;大肠埃希氏菌仍占最大比例,2个时间段分别为34.21%、31.82%,大肠埃希氏菌中ESBLs阳性耐药株分别为16.0%(4/25),54.8%(23/42)(P<0.05),胆道感染的病原菌发生明显的变迁。结论:胆道感染的病原菌中主要以大肠埃希氏菌、肠球菌属等为主,6年来胆道感染的病原菌发生明显的变迁,临床应用广泛的抗菌药物耐药率增加。%Objective:To study the changes of biliary bacteria and drug sensitivity to antibiotics in patients with biliary tract infection in laiwu, to provide the theory basis for clinical medicaton.Methods:The data of 231 strains of microbes were found in 262 patients with positive bile culture from Jan 2001 to Dec 2006 and their sensitivity to antibiotics were retrospectively analyzed.Results: There were 63 and 132 positive samples respectively in 90 samples during the first half of this study (2009-2011)and 172 ones during the second half (2012-2014) as well as 73 and 158 strains cultured. Respectively, Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 78.07% and 73.48%, Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 20.56% and 21.97%, fungi accounted for 1.37% and 4.55%; Escherichia coli was the major one and accounts for 34.21%, and 31.82%, the rate of positive ESBLs bacteria were increasing (16.0% vs 54.8%,P<0.05).Varieties of pathogens of biliary tract have evidently changed.Conclusions:The main pathogens of biliary in fection are E. coli and Enterococcus . Varieties of pathogens of biliary tract have evidently changed during six years. The resistance of clinica antimicrobial is increasing.

  6. Application and bacteriological monitoring of humidification of infant in-cubator bx water-filled cup%水杯加湿法在婴儿暖箱中的应用及细菌学监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宏; 黄建花; 王顺顺

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较采用水杯和储水槽加无菌注射用水对婴儿培养箱的湿化效果,以及暖箱内细菌培养情况。方法将某院新生儿科10台暖箱随机分为观察组和对照组(各5台),观察组采用一次性水杯加无菌注射用水对暖箱进行湿化,对照组采用储水槽内加灭菌注射用水对暖箱进行湿化,比较更换湿化液24 h 后湿化液、暖箱内空气和物体表面的细菌培养情况。结果两组暖箱内湿度均能达到>50%的要求。观察组湿化液细菌培养合格率(91.00%)显著高于对照组(74.00%)(χ2=10.009,P=0.002);湿化液细菌计数为(26.85±16.67)CFU/mL,显著低于对照组的(37.20±15.28)CFU/mL(t=4.577,P<0.001)。观察组暖箱内空气和物体表面细菌检测合格率分别为94.00%、98.00%,明显高于对照组的85.00%和68.00%(均P<0.05)。结论水杯加灭菌注射用水放置于婴儿暖箱中进行空气湿化,能达到湿化要求,可减少细菌生长繁殖,有助于防止医院感染的发生。%Objective To compare the humidification efficacy of sterile water-filled cup and sterile water-filled wa-ter reservoir on infant incubators,as well as bacterial culture of incubators . Methods Ten infant incubators in a neonatal intensive care unit were randomly divided into observation group and control group,incubators in observa-tion group were humidified through sterile water in single used cups,in control group were through water in water reservoirs ,humidified water,air in incubators,and object surface were performed bacterial culture 24 hours after the change of humidified water. Results The humidity in both groups achieved the requirement of >50% ;the qualified rate of bacterial culture of humidified water in observation group was significantly higher than control group (91.00% vs 74.00% ,χ2= 10.009,P= 0.002);bacterial count in observation group was significantly lower than control group([26.85±16.67]CFU/mL vs [37.20±15.28]CFU/mL,t= 4.577,P<0.001).The qualified rate of bacterial culture of air and surface of incubators in observation group were both significantly higher than control group (94.00% vs 85.00% ;98.00% vs 68.00% ,both P<0.05).Conclusion Water-filled cups can achieve the air humidification efficacy on infant incubators,reduce the growth of bacteria,and is helpful for preventing the occur-rence of healthcare-associated infection.

  7. Bacteriological Analysis, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Detection of 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by PCR in Drinking Water Samples of Earthquake Affected Areas and Other Parts of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed, F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Pakistan, clean drinking water is not available to most of the population. Main source of drinking water in Hazara, Azad Jammu and Kashmir-Pakistan is underground and spring water, due to earthquake water reservoirs in these areas were immensely contaminated. Moreover, drinking water treatment and proper sanitary facilities were also lacking. This study was conducted to analyze the quality of drinking water available in most of the cities of Pakistan including earthquake hit areas. For this purpose, 112 water samples were collected and analyzed by membrane filtration method. Microbial isolates were identified using QTS-10 and biochemical tests. Almost all samples were found to be contaminated but in earthquake affected areas quality of drinking water was substandard than other areas of Pakistan. Results revealed the detection of following bacterial pathogens among the water samples: Enterobacter sp., Klebsiellasp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Proteus sp., Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. Furthermore, these bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin (32.1%, amoxicillin (30.4%, sulphometoxazole (20.5% and cefaclor (31.3%. All drinking water samples were analyzed for 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by using PCR, however no positive result was found in these samples. Based on our results it is suggested that authorities should pay attention to supply safe water and proper sanitary facilities to avoid epidemics of infectious diseases in future.

  8. Bacteriologic surveillance for milk powder,butter and whey powder importing and exporting by Qingdao port%青岛口岸进口奶粉、奶油、乳清粉细菌学监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林修光; 寇运同

    2001-01-01

    本文对1368份进口奶粉、奶油、乳清粉3个品种进行了细菌学监制.检出不合格样品63份,不合格率为4.60%,其中大肠菌群指标超标48份,细菌总数超标15份,肠道致病及球菌未检出.乳制品是一种营养丰富、容易消化吸收的食品,它富含蛋白质、脂肪、碳水化合物、无机盐和维生素等营养物质,能满足新生儿生长发育的需要 ,也适于成人包括老年人、孕妇、病人等饮用,但它也是微生物特别是细菌的良好培养基. 乳制品一旦被微生物污染,在适宜条件下,可迅速繁殖引起乳的腐败变质而失去食用价值, 乳制品如被致病微生物污染,还可能以乳制品为媒介而引起食物中毒或其他传染病的传播. 此项分析为加强进口奶粉、奶油、乳清粉卫生监督、监测提供了依据.

  9. 复合树脂和银汞合金充填体周缘继发龋的细菌组成%The bacteriological analysis of secondary caries around composite or amalgam fillings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月玲; 董华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the microbial spectrum around amalgam and composite resin restorations in class Ⅰ and Ⅱ cavities.Methods: Clinical samples from marginal gaps of the restorations were inoculated onto special agars.The bacteria spectrum was identified by KLDBME system.Results: The bacteria of secondary caries included primarily Prevotella, Veillonella, Lactobacilli, Streptococci mutans and Neisseriae.In each group the geometric mean of the detected bacteria had statistical difference( P < 0.05 ).Although the percent of each detected bacteria had no statistical difference among the four groups (P > 0.05 ).In each group the percent of the detected bacteria was significantly different( P < 0.05 ).The prevalence of the detected bacteria had statistical difference in each group(P <0.05 ).Conclusion: The bacteria of secondary caries include obligate anaerobic species and facultative anaerobic species.%目的:研究复合树脂和银汞合金充填体周缘继发龋的细菌组成.方法:充填体周缘继发龋采样,常规培养鉴定.结果:继发龋的主要优势菌为不产黑色素普雷沃菌、产黑色素普雷沃菌等.每组中各种细菌的几何均数之间有显著差异(P<0.05).每组中各菌种占可培养菌的百分比之间有显著差异(P<0.05).每组中各菌种的检出率有显著差异(P<0.05).结论:继发龋的主要优势菌为不产黑色素普雷沃菌、产黑色素普雷沃菌、韦荣菌、乳杆菌、变形链球菌、奈瑟菌,其次为放线菌、核梭杆菌、消化链球菌、牙龈卟啉菌.

  10. The serologic response to Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally infected chickens, followed by an indirect lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bacteriologic examinations through a one-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Feld, Niels Christian; Carstensen, B.

    2002-01-01

    Three groups of 100 individually marked salmonella-free chickens were followed for a period of 53 wk. The chickens were infected as day olds by crop instillation of 101 colony-forming units: one group with Salmonella enteritidis and a second group with Salmonella typhimurium. A third group was kept...

  11. Bayesian estimation of test characteristics of real-time PCR, bacteriological culture and California mastitis test for diagnosis of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle at routine milk recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser; Toft, Nils; Katholm, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    Danish farmers can order a real-time PCR mastitis diagnostic test on routinely takencow-level samples from milk recordings. Validation of its performance in comparison toconventional mastitis diagnostics under field conditions is essential for efficient control ofintramammary infections (IMI...... higher than test estimates of BCand CMT. SeCMTwas higher than SeBChowever, SpBCwas higher than SpCMT. SePCRwas 91%,while SeBCwas 53%, and SeCMTwas 61%. SpPCRwas 99%, while SpBCwas 89%, and SpCMTwas65%.In conclusion, PCR has a higher performance than the conventional diagnostic tests (BCand CMT......) suggesting its usefulness as a routine test for accurate diagnosis of S. aureus IMIfrom dairy cows at routine milk recordings. The use of LCA provided estimates of the testcharacteristics for two currently diagnostic tests (BC, CMT) and a novel technique (real-time PCR) for diagnosing S. aureus IMI under...

  12. Bayesian estimation of test characteristics of real-time PCR, bacteriological culture and California mastitis test for diagnosis of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle at routine milk recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Toft, Nils; Katholm, Jørgen; Grønbæk, Carsten; Klaas, Ilka C

    2013-11-01

    Danish farmers can order a real-time PCR mastitis diagnostic test on routinely taken cow-level samples from milk recordings. Validation of its performance in comparison to conventional mastitis diagnostics under field conditions is essential for efficient control of intramammary infections (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time PCR, bacterial culture (BC) and California mastitis test (CMT) for the diagnosis of the naturally occurring IMI with S. aureus in routinely collected milk samples using latent class analysis (LCA) to avoid the assumption of a perfect reference test. Using systematic random sampling, a total of 609 lactating dairy cows were selected from 6 dairy herds with bulk tank milk PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value ≤39 for S. aureus. At routine milk recordings, automatically obtained cow-level (composite) milk samples were analyzed by PCR and at the same milking, 2436 quarter milk samples were collected aseptically for BC and CMT. Results showed that 140 cows (23%) were positive for S. aureus IMI by BC while 170 cows (28%) were positive by PCR. Estimates of Se and Sp for PCR were higher than test estimates of BC and CMT. SeCMT was higher than SeBC however, SpBC was higher than SpCMT. SePCR was 91%, while SeBC was 53%, and SeCMT was 61%. SpPCR was 99%, while SpBC was 89%, and SpCMT was 65%. In conclusion, PCR has a higher performance than the conventional diagnostic tests (BC and CMT) suggesting its usefulness as a routine test for accurate diagnosis of S. aureus IMI from dairy cows at routine milk recordings. The use of LCA provided estimates of the test characteristics for two currently diagnostic tests (BC, CMT) and a novel technique (real-time PCR) for diagnosing S. aureus IMI under field conditions at routine milk recordings in Denmark.

  13. Bacteriological analysis of wound infections and analysis of drug susceptibility%感染性创面细菌学调查与药物敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦孝康; 程代薇; 王毅

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析感染性创面临床特点与耐药性 ,以降低耐药菌的产生.方法 回顾性分析2010年1月 -2012年12月医院整形烧伤科收治的280例慢性感染创面患者临床资料 ;采用法国生物梅里埃公司VIT EK-32型自动微生物检测仪及GNI鉴定卡对分离培养的病原菌予以鉴定 ,数据采用SPSS17 .0软件进行统计分析.结果 慢性感染性创面由创伤、术后、烧伤、压疮、糖尿病、血管性疾病引起 ,分别占47 .60% 、22 .60% 、15 .41% 、6 .85% 、4 .11% 、3 .43% ;所有创面均行病原菌培养 ,结果均为阳性 ,共培养出332株病原菌 ,其中革兰阴性菌228株占68 .68% ,革兰阳性菌103株占31 .02% ,真菌1株占0 .30% ;感染性创面主要以革兰阴性菌为主 ,对氨苄西林均耐药 ,对三代头孢菌素抗菌药物耐药率较高 ,对碳青霉烯类及万古霉素药物敏感性降低.结论 创面感染以革兰阴性菌为主 ,其耐药率较高 ,抗菌治疗难以愈合 ,因此在创面感染时 ,未进行细菌培养前勿滥用抗菌药物 ,以降低泛耐药菌的产生.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical characteristics of the wound infections and analyze the drug re-sistance so as to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant strains .METHODS The clinical data of 280 patients with chronic wound infections who were treated in the plastic surgery and burn department from Jan 2010 to Dec 2012 were retrospectively analyzed .The isolated pathogens were identified by using VITEK-32 automatic microorgan-ism detection system of bioMerieux ,France and GNI identification card ,and the statistical analysis of data was performed with the use of SPSS17 .0 software .RESULTS Of the patients with the chronic wound infections , 47 .60% had the traumatic wound infections ,22 .60% had the postoperative wound infections ,15 .41% had the postoperative wound infections ,6 .85% had the pressure sores wound infections ,4 .11% had the diabetic mellitus wound infections ,and 3 .43% had the vascular wound infections .All the wounds were cultured for pathogens , and the culture results were positive .A total of 332 strains of pathogens were isolated ,including 228 (68 .68% ) strains of gram-negative bacteria ,103 (31 .02% ) strains of gram-positive bacteria ,and 1 (0 .30% ) strain of fun-gus .The gram-negative bacteria were dominant among the pathogens causing the wound infections and were re-sistant to ampicillin ;the drug resistance rate to the third generation cephalosporins was high ,and the drug suscep-tibility rates to carbapenems and vancomycin were reduced .CONCLUSION The gram-negative bacteria are domi-nant among the pathogens causing the wound infections and are highly resistant to antibiotics .The wound infec-tions are hardly cured through antibacterial therapy ,thus the abuse of antibiotics should be avoided before the bac-terial culture so as to prevent the emergence of the drug-resistant strains .

  14. Utilisation de techniques bactériologiques et biochimiques pour l'étude du biofilm bactérien Use of Bacteriological and Biochemical Techniques for Analyzing Bacterial Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fera P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La formation d'un voile biologique sur des surfaces métalliques exposées en milieu marin se traduit par une augmentation de la résistance au transfert thermique et à l'écoulement du fluide, mais aussi par un risque d'initiation de corrosion localisée due à la présence et à l'activité métabolique des microorganismes constituant ce biofilm. L'utilisation conjointe des méthodes microbiologiques et biochimiques permet une meilleure compréhension, à la fois des mécanismes de formation de ce biofilm et de la structure de la communauté bactérienne qui le constitue. Ces méthodes ont déjà été utilisées simultanément lors de travaux visant à étudier la corrosion bactérienne, la colonisation bactérienne de surfaces métalliques exposées à une eau de mer circulante ou l'action de biocides sur la formation du biofilm. Materials exposed to seawater typically develop a layer of attached microorganisms that is referred to as biofouling. This biofouling can induce heat transfer resistance and fluid frictional resistance and can also initiate localized corrosion due to the metabolic activity of microorganisms making up the biofilm. Microbiological and biochemical methods can be used to gain a better understanding of the mecanisms of biofilm formation and the structure of the attached bacteria community. These methods can be applied in many circumstances, as shown by bacterial corrosion analysis, colonization of surfaces exposed to flowing seawater or use of biocides against sessile bacteria.

  15. Comprensión de las inteligencias develadas en el aula. Una experiencia en el contexto de la asignatura de Hematología en un Programa de Bacteriología

    OpenAIRE

    Inés del Socorro Bedoya Ortiz; María Amarís Macías

    2007-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan los resultados de la investigación cualitativadescriptiva Comprensión de las inteligencias develadas en el aula. Su propósito fue comprender las inteligencias develadas en los estudiantes en el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la asignatura de Hematología. Se hace referencia a los contextos que convalidan la investigación, se describe paso a paso la manera cómo fue pensado y desarrollado el proyecto, señalando la población participante, las etap...

  16. 九孔鲍养殖水体及消化道细菌学的研究%Bacteriological Studies in a Digestive Tract of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) and in the Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡创华; 周毅频; 蔡俊鹏; 杨洪志

    2005-01-01

    2002年对汕尾健生鲍鱼养殖场养殖水体和鲍消化道中异养细菌及弧菌的数量和类群组成进行了研究.研究结果表明:养殖水体中异养细菌数量的四季变化从2.4×104~1.3×l05 cfu/ml,平均为7.6×104 cfu/ml;消化道中异养细菌数量四季变化则从1.6×107~5.4×107 cfu/g(湿重),平均为3.3×107 cfu/g.水体中弧菌数量四季变化从1.2×104~5.1×104 cfu/ml,平均为2.5×104 cfu/ml;而消化道中弧菌数量四季变化则从2.8×105~3.8×105 cfu/g,平均为3.2×105cfu/g.水体中细菌类群由Sphingomonas, Vibrio, Pasteurella, Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Weeksella和Alcall组成,消化道中细菌类群由Sphingomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Shewanella, Sphingobacterium, Pseudomonas组成,水体和消化道弧菌种类主要为Vibrio fluvialis,Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Vibrio vulnificus,Vibrio cholerae,Vibrio minicus,Vibrio alginolyticus.并对不同养殖场水源弧菌数量也进行了比较.

  17. 急诊科护理人员手部细菌培养监测分析%Bacteriological surveillance for hand hygiene of nursing staffs in department of emergency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅申聪; 丁亚君; 唐芳; 朱长太

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查急诊科护理人员手部细菌携带情况及细菌种类,监测其洗手效果,评估其执行手卫生的意义.方法 对急诊科共20 名护理人员进行手部细菌培养检测,分别在洗手前及洗手后进行采样.细菌鉴定及药敏主要由VITEK 仪器完成.结果 洗手前手部中位菌落数为2 CFU/cm2,四分位距(interquartile range,IQR)为1-3.75 CFU/cm2.洗手后中位菌落数为0 CFU/cm2,IQR 为0-0 CFU/cm2.同洗手前比较,洗手后菌落计数减少有统计学意义(P<0.05).细菌鉴定及药敏结果显示:菌种分布较为广泛,以葡萄球菌属及肠杆菌科等条件致病菌为主;检出多重耐药菌3 株.结论 急诊科护理人员操作中手部存在一定程度细菌污染,而正确洗手及提高护理人员手卫生依从性,可有效清除细菌,有利于预防医院感染的发生.%Objective To investigate the situation of bacteria carrying and classification on the hands of nursing staffs in the department of emergency, monitor the effect of hand -washing, and evaluate the significance of hand hygiene. Methods 20 nurses in the department of emergency were selected, and the samplings for the hands were conducted and cultivated in operation (before hand-washing) and after hand-washing , respectively. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed mainly by the VITEK instrument. Results The median colony number before hand-washing was 2 CFU (colony forming unit)/cm2 and the interquartile range (IQR) was 1-3.75 CFU/cm2. While after hand-washing, the median and IQR colony numbers were 0 CFU/cm2 and. 0-0 CFU/cm2, respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction before hand-washing in colony count compared to that after hand-washing (P<0.05). The identification and susceptibility results showed that the distribution of bacteria species were widely, but mainly belonged to Staphylococcus and Enterobacteriaceae opportunistic pathogen. Three multidrug-resistant strains were found. Conclusion Bacterial contamination may exist on the hands of nurses in operation in the department of emergency, and proper hand-washing and higher compliance on hand hygiene for nurses can remove bacteria and contribute to the prevention of nosocomial infection effectively.

  18. A BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY AMONG PATIENTS BELOW FIVE YEARS OF AGE SUFFERING FROM DIARRHOEA AND GASTROENTERITIS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE RESPONSIBLE SEROTYPES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AT A TERTIARY HEALTHCARE HOSPITAL IN EASTERN BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoea is defined as passage of loose, liquid or watery stools. In the developing countries, diarrhoea remains a wet season disease with bacteria playing a greater role. The agents responsible for infantile diarrhoea may be bacteria, viruses, parasites, malnutrition and drugs. Infectious agents that cause diarrhoeal disease are usually spread by the fecal-oral route. Escherichia coli (E. coli is a gram-negative bacillus that may be found in the normal intestinal flora of humans and animals, but can also be an important cause of enteric illness. Our present study is an attempt to fulfil this vacuum and investigate the most common pathogens causing these diseases amongst patients in and around a tertiary care hospital of eastern Bihar, with special reference to the serotypes of Escherichia coli. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples were collected from both male and female patients below five years of age, admitted to the Pediatrics Department, with complains of diarrhoea and gastroenteritis. Samples were processed, identified and antibiotic sensitivity was done as per standard protocol. Serotyping of E. coli isolates was carried out using antisera as per manufacturer’s instructions. RESULTS: Different diarrhoeagenic strains of E. coli showed that the maximum numbers of strains were EPEC, followed by DAEC. EAEC and ETEC accounted for only a small percentage of strains. Upon Serotyping the different E. coli isolates from patients with diarrhoea, the results showed that the Serotype O26, O111 and O55 were the predominant serotypes of EPEC. Among the ETEC strains only 2 serotypes were seen viz. O6 and O15. Serotype O44 and O125 were the only two serotypes of EAEC seen. Among the DAEC, the only serotype was O1. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of various isolates shows maximum resistance against ampicillin followed by cefixime. Strains were significantly sensitive to amikacin, gentamicin and ofloxacin. CONCLUSION: Our result shows high rate of diarrhoeagenic E. coli among Indian children presenting with diarrhoea particularly in Katihar / Kosi region of Bihar. The finding of diverse E. coli subtypes even amongst the small number of E. coli isolates highlights the importance of pathogenic E. coli in cases of diarrhoea and gastroenteritis and stresses upon the need for enhanced surveillance of children with diarrhoea in these parts of the globe.

  19. O149大肠菌株的细菌学检测与肠毒素鉴定%Bacteriological Detection of O149 Escherichia coli and its Appraisal of Enterotoxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金志强; 杨勇

    2001-01-01

    By the analysis of epidemiology and pathogen,13 O149 Escherichia coli from piglet suffered from yellow dysentery were separated.Its producing-enterotoxin was tested by means of the adult rabbit ligated ileum loop assay and slide agglutination.The results of biological and serological test showed that the filtered solution of O149 Escherichia coli contained heat-sensitive enterotoxin.%通过流行病学及病原学的调查研究,从患黄痢的新生仔猪分离出13株O149大肠杆菌,采用兔肠结扎试验、平板免疫溶血试验对其产肠毒素性能进行了鉴定。生物学试验和血清学反应的结果表明,O149大肠菌株的被检滤液中存在热敏肠毒素(LT)。

  20. Brucella canis: inquéritos sorológico e bacteriológico em população felina Brucella canis: serological and bacteriological surveys in the feline population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available De 134 soros de felinos domésticos examinados pela prova de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, 4 (3% foram positivos para Brucella canis, todos com título igual a 100. Não se obteve êxito na tentativa de isolamento de Brucella canis através de hemocultura desses animais.Of the 134 feline sera tested by tube agglutination test, 4 (3% were positive for Brucella canis antibodies, all with titer 100. It was not possible to isolate Brucella canis by blood culture in the case of these animals.

  1. Latent class analysis of the diagnostic characteristics of PCR and conventional bacteriological culture in diagnosing intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cows at dry off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederlöf, Sara Ellinor; Toft, Nils; Aalbæk, Bent;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of intramammary infections in dairy cows at dry off. Reliable identification is important for disease management on herd level and for antimicrobial treatment of infected animals. Our objective was to evaluate the test c...

  2. Evaluación de la terapia mecánica periodontal en bolsas profundas: Respuesta clínica y bacteriológica Evaluation of periodontal mechanical therapy in deep pockets: Clinical and bacteriological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bazzano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la composición microbiológica y los parámetros clínicos de bolsas periodontales ≥5 mm de profundidad al inicio, 1 semana, 3 y 12 meses post raspado y alisado radicular. Materiales y Métodos: Se tomaron registros clínicos y muestras de placa subgingival de 44 sitios de pacientes con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica. Se identificaron por técnica de Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR patógenos putativos periodontales: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, Treponema denticola (Td, Tannerella forsythia (Tf y Prevotella intermedia (Pi. Los pacientes recibieron terapia mecánica periodontal y fueron reevaluados a los 7 días, 3 y 12 meses. Resultados: Luego del tratamiento, todos los parámetros clínicos (Placa Bacteriana, Hemorragia, Supuración, Profundidad al Sondaje y Nivel de Inserción Clínica se redujeron significativamente y los valores obtenidos se mantuvieron hasta los 12 meses. Al inicio, las especies bacterianas prevalentes fueron Pg, presente en 66% de los sitios, Tf (55% y Td (41%. Los sitios más profundos se relacionaron con las asociaciones Tf-Td (6.8 mm y Tf-Td-Pi (7 mm. Post terapia, el número de sitios positivos para Td, Tf y Pg se redujo significativamente. Conclusiones: El raspado y alisado radicular mejoró significativamente los parámetros clínicos y redujo la prevalencia de los patógenos periodontales Pg, Tf y Td en bolsas periodontales profundas. Los resultados obtenidos se mantuvieron hasta los 12 meses. No se detectaron mayores pérdidas de inserción clínica en el 86% de los sitios a 3 meses y en 79% a los 12 meses. Los sitios en los que el tratamiento no fue efectivo en la eliminación de patógenos a los 12 meses desarrollaron mayores profundidades de sondaje.Objectives: To evaluate the microbial composition and clinical parameters of periodontal pockets with probing depth ≥5 mm at baseline, 1 week, 3 and 12 months after scaling and root planning. Methods: Clinical parameters were measured and bacterial samples were collected from 44 sites in 11 patients with chronic periodontitis. By means of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, Treponema denticola (Td, Tannerella forsythia (Tf and Prevotella intermedia (Pi was estimated. The patients received mechanical periodontal therapy and were evaluated after 1 week, 3 months and 12 months. Results: After treatment, all clinical parameters (Plaque, Bleeding on Probing, Supuration, Probing Pocket Depth and Clinical Attachment Level were significantly reduced, and the values obtained were maintained up to the 12 months that the study lasts. At baseline, the most prevalent species were Pg, present in 66% of the sites, Tf (55% and Td (41%. The deepest sites were related to the association Tf-Td (6.8 mm and Tf-Td-Pi (7 mm. The number of positive sites for Td, Tf and Pg was significantly reduced after therapy. Conclusions: Scaling and root planning improve significantly clinical parameters as well as reduce the prevalence of periodontal pathogens Pg, Td and Tf in deep periodontal pockets. The results obtained were maintained up to 12 months. No further clinical attachment loss was found in 86% of the sites at 3 months and 79% at 12 months. The sites where the treatment failed in removing pathogens developed at 12 months greater probing pocket depths.

  3. Mycobacterial factors relevant for transmission of tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Hof, S. van den; Deutekom, H. van; Hermans, P.W.M.; Kremer, K.; Borgdorff, M.W.; Soolingen, D. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) transmission is associated with patient-related risk factors. However, DNA fingerprint analysis has provided anecdotal evidence suggesting a role for bacteriological factors. METHODS: To examine the importance of the bacteriological component in TB transmission, we inve

  4. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli: recommendations from the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee of the Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología, Micología y Parasitología Clínicas, Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Marcela; Marín, Marcelo; Giovanakis, Marta; Vay, Carlos; Almuzara, Marisa; Limansky, Adriana; Casellas, José M; Famiglietti, Angela; Quinteros, Mirta; Bantar, Carlos; Galas, Marcelo; Kovensky Pupko, Jaime; Nicola, Federico; Pasterán, Fernando; Soloaga, Rolando; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This document contains the recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), adopted after conforming those from international committees to the experience of the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee members and invited experts. This document includes an update on NFGNB classification and description, as well as some specific descriptions regarding natural or frequent antimicrobial resistance and a brief account of associated resistance mechanisms. These recommendations not only suggest the antimicrobial drugs to be evaluated in each case, but also provide an optimization of the disk diffusion layout and a selection of results to be reported. Finally, this document also includes a summary of the different methodological approaches that may be used for detection and confirmation of emerging b-lactamases, such as class A and B carbapenemases.

  5. 某市部分郊县2010~2011农村生活饮用水卫生细菌学的调查%Bacteriological Investigation of the City Part of the Suburban Counties 2010-2011 Rural Drinking Water Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺鸿; 熊建明

    2012-01-01

      Objective To administer of place of Ya'an City mountain, Lushan, the three county rural drinking water project water supply. Methods From 2010March to 2011August, divided during the dry season ( March) and abundant water period ( August) in 3 counties of rural drinking water projects in172 pieces and 170 Pieces of sample. Results During the dry period were detected in water samples of 172, colony total qualified150, the qualified rate is 87.20%;the total coliform qualified104, the qualified rate is 60.47%;heat-resistant coliform qualified107, the qualified rate is 62.21%. In abundant water period water170, colony total qualified145, the qualified rate is 85.30%;the total coliform qualified71, the qualified rate is 41.76%;heat-resistant coliform qualified80, the qualified rate is 47.06%. Conclusion The investigation sample pass rate on the low side, and the storage of fecal pollution is serious.%  目的了解雅安市所辖名山、芦山、宝兴三县的农村饮用水工程供水情况.方法2010年3月至2011年8月,分枯水期(3月)和丰水期(8月)对我市3县的农村饮用水工程采样172件和170件.结果在枯水期共检测水样172件,菌落总数合格150件,合格率为87.20%;总大肠菌群合格104件,合格率为60.47%;耐热大肠菌群合格107件,合格率为62.21%.在丰水期检测水样170件,菌落总数合格145件,合格率为85.30%;总大肠菌群合格71件,合格率为41.76%;耐热大肠菌群合格80件,合格率为47.06%.结论调查水样的合格率偏低,且受人蓄粪便污染情况比较严重.

  6. 活体和施肥管理体系下锦鲤池塘产量、水质及细菌学参数%Fish Production,Water Quality and Bacteriological Parameters of Koi Carp Ponds Under Live-food and Manure Based Management Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prithwiraj Jha; Sudip Barat; Chitta R.Nayak

    2008-01-01

    为探讨在观赏池塘中的投放浮游动物以及直接投放动物粪便对锦鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)的生长及产量的影响,在池塘中进行了为期11周的实验.实验按如下四种管理系统进行处理:1.给幼体锦鲤投喂浮游动物饲料(LF组);2.直接投放家禽粪便(PM组);3.直接投放牛粪(CD组);4.不投放任何食物,仅进行常规管理(C组).每组实验重复三次.同时检测非自养细菌及致病微生物(如:Aeromonas sp.和Pseudomonas sp.)的生长状况,以此了解池塘的管理状况.在LF组中,其水体含氧量较高,与其它组相比具显著差异(P<0.05).而PM、CD组与LF、C组比较,在PO4-P,NH4-N,NO3-N,NO2-N的关系,导电率、碱度以及生化需氧量等较高,且差异显著(P<0.05),在池塘底部淤泥中的总氮量及有机碳百分率方面PM、CD与LF组相比,具有显著差异(P<0.05).PM与CD组与其它组相比在池塘中的非自养细菌(Aeromonas sp.和Pseudomonas sp.)的繁殖率较高,皆具显著差异P<0.05).LF组中锦鲤的体重增长率较其它组高(P<0.05).锦鲤幼体在C及LF组中的成活率分别为:67.21%和90.11%.结果提示:提高锦鲤幼体的存活率及其产量可通过对水质的管理(即保持优良水质)及提高池塘中浮游生物丰富度加以获得.值得注意的是:LF组中非自养细菌(Aeromonas sp.与Pseudomonas sp.)比率的过低将导致细菌性疾病的发生.%To test the effectiveness of introducing live zooplankton against direct manuring in ornamental fish ponds upon their survival and production,larvae of koi carp,Cyprinus carpio L.,were cultured for 11 weeks in earthen ponds maintained according to four management regimes:(1)live zooplankton fed to carp lalwae(LF);(2)direct fertilization with poultry manure(PM);(3)direct fertilization with cowdung(CD);and(4)a conffol treatment(C).There were three replicates for each treatment.The growth of heterotrophic bacteda and pathogenic microorganisms like Aeromonas sp.and Pseudomonas sp.were also examined in response to pond management.Values of dissolved oxygen were significantly higher(P<0.05)in the water of LF ponds,compared to other treatments,while the PM and CD treatments recorded were significantly higher(P<0.05)values of PO4-P,NH4-N,NO3-N,NO2-N,specific conductivity,alkalinity,and BOD,compared to the LF and C treatments.The pementages of organic carbon and total nitrogen in the bottom sediments were higher in the PM and CD treatments compared to LF(P<0.05).Average counts of heterotrophic bacteria in the water of PM and CD ponds were significantly higher than other treatments(P<0.05).The development of Aeromonas sp.and Pseudomonas sp.were significantly higher(P<0.05)in the PM and CD treatments.Weight gain of koi carp stocked in LF was significantly higher(P<0.05)than that of fish in the other treatments.There was a significant difference in the survival rate of koi carp among the treatments ranging from 67.21%in C to 90.1l%in LF.The results suggest that raising koi carp larvae in ponds and feeding them exogenously with zooplankton would support high rates of survival and production through maintenance of better water quality and greater abundance of zooplankton in the system.Significantly lower abundance of Aeromonas sp.and Pseudomonas sp.in the LF treatment considerably lowered any possibility of occurrence of bacterial disease.

  7. BACTERIAL DETERIORANTS IN CHICKEN BREAST FILLET PACKAGED IN AIR, VACUUM AND IRRADIATED: BACTERIOLOGICAL GROWTH PARAMETERS AND SHELF-LIFE BACTÉRIAS DETERIORANTES EM FILÉS DE FRANGO EMBALADOS EM AR, VÁCUO E IRRADIADOS: PARÂMETROS BACTERIOLÓGICOS DE DESENVOLVIMENTO E PRAZO COMERCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Pirola Santos Mantilla

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of packaging in 100% air and vacuum, combined with radiation (2 kGy and 3 kGy, on chicken breast fillet shelf-life by evaluation of bacterial deteriorants growth and pH variation parameters. The vacuum packaging increased shelf-life, when compared to commercial packaging in 100% air, both in non-irradiated and irradiated to 3 kGy fillets. The irradiation increased the shelf-life of fillet samples at both doses. The lactic acid bacteria were the organisms that most developed in irradiated samples, showing greater radioresistance, as compared to other microorganisms studied, while the enterobacteria showed greater sensitivity to treatment with ionizing radiation. The vacuum packaging, combined with irradiation, can be used to improve the safety of chicken breast fillets and to extend its shelf-life.

    KEY-WORDS: Deterioration; chicken meat; vacuum packaging; meat radiation.

    O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o efeito do uso de embalagens, em 100% ar e a vácuo, combinadas com a radiação gama (2 kGy e 3 kGy, no aumento do prazo de validade comercial de filé de peito de frango resfriado, avaliando-se os parâmetros de desenvolvimento de bactérias deteriorantes e a variação do pH das amostras. A embalagem a vácuo aumentou o prazo de validade comercial, quando comparada à embalagem em 100% ar, tanto nos filés não irradiados, como nos irradiados a 3 kGy. A irradiação das amostras, nas duas doses utilizadas, aumentou, consideravelmente, a validade comercial desse alimento. As bactérias láticas foram os micro-organismos que mais se desenvolveram nas amostras irradiadas, confirmando, assim, uma maior radiorresistência, quando comparada com os outros micro-organismos estudados, enquanto as enterobactérias demonstraram maior sensibilidade ao tratamento com radiação ionizante. A embalagem a vácuo, combinada com a tecnologia de irradiação, pode ser utilizada para melhorar a segurança de filés de peito de frango resfriados e para estender seu prazo de validade comercial.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Deterioração; carne de frango; embalagem a vácuo; radiação de carne; radiação gama.

  8. Estudio bacteriológico de leche cruda por el sistema Diralec en un municipio de la región oriental del país (Bacteriological study of crude milk by the system Diralec in a municipality of the oriental region of the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, Y. N; Rodríguez, Y. V.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un trabajo para determinar la calidad bacteriológica de la leche cruda por el sistema Diralec en tres sectores de un municipio, los cuales se dedican a la producción de leche, con bovinos mestizos; en su totalidad se encuentran bajo el mismo régimen de manejo y alimentación. Se acopiaron 90 muestras, de ellas 30, procedentes de UBPC, 30 de CAI arroceros y 30 del sector campesino. Las muestras se tomaron después del ordeño de los recipientes colectores, previa homogeneización de la leche,se envasaron en frascos estériles y se trasladaron al laboratorio con hielo para su conservación; fueron procesadas antes de las 6 horas de ser colectadas. Las muestras se clasificaron de acuerdo al número de microorganismo (ufc/ml en: Excelentes, buenas, regular y malas; todas trabajadas por duplicado y siguiendo la metodología propuesta para el análisis de leche cruda en el Diralec. Además de la calidad bacteriológica se les determinó el contenido de grasa por el método GERBER, según ISO 2446:1976; la densidad a través del lactodensímetro de Quevenne a una temperatura de 15 °c, según NC 119:2001. Del total de muestras trabajadas el 37% fueron calificadas de excelente, el 21% fueron buenas, 17% regulares y el 25% de mal aproximadamente. Las muestras procedentes de la entidad particular tuvieron un mayor conteo de unidades formadoras de colonia que el resto. Se concluye que la calidad de la leche en las entidades investigadas en general es no buena y que el equipo Diralec constituye una opción rápida y fiable para su calificación.

  9. Retrospective study of the evolution of nutritional, inflammatory and bacteriological profiles of patients suffering from inoperable aero-digestive duct tumour during sequential or concomitant chemo-radiotherapy; Etude retrospective de l'evolution des profils nutritionnels, inflammatoires et bacteriologiques des patients atteints de tumeur des voies aero digestives inoperable au cours des chimioradio-therapies sequentielles ou concomitantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L. [Centre Guillaume-le-Conquerant, 76 - Le Havre (France); Brocard, C. [CMC Ormeaux-Vauban, 76 - Le Havre (France); Coudray, C. [Hopital Monod, 76 - Montivilliers (France); Pavlovitch, J.M. [Clinique du Petit-Colmoulin, 76 - Harfleur (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a retrospective study which aimed at analysing a cohort of consecutive patients in terms of clinic and biological aspects reflecting their nutritional and inflammatory status as well as the status of their buccal bacterial flora during a sequential or concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. The objective was to detect a possible difference between these both therapeutic modalities, and a possible relationship with toxicity. Several data have been collected for patients suffering from inoperable aero-digestive tract tumour: weight, body mass index, prealbumin, albumin, orosomucoid, C-reactive protein, PINI index, and buccal bacterial flora. The evolution of these nutritional biological criteria appears to depend on the treatment modality. Short communication

  10. 气体中毒患者机械通气后肺部感染病原菌监测和分子流行病学调查%Bacteriologic surveillance and molecular epidemiology for acute gas poisoning patients with mechanical ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓东

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathogens, their drug sensitivities and molecular typing in patients suffering from acute irritant and suffocating gas poisoning under mechanical ventilation. Methods Samples from lower respiratory tracts and breathing circuits of 15 gas poisoning patients and those from hand swabs and fiberoptic bronchoscopies were collected. Pathogens were isolated and drug sensitivity tests and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis were performed for those with high isolation rates. Results There were average 3. 86 kinds of isolates in the lower respiratory tracts per patient. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ranked first, and followed by Enterococcus faecalis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was resistant to most antibiotics with the resistant rates above 60%. PFGE analysis showed that the isolates from patients and those from hand swabs and fiberoptic bronchoscopies were of the same type. Conclusions It suggests that multi-pathogen infections exit in the lower respiratory tracts of patients who suffered from acute irritant and suffocating gas poisoning with mechanical ventilation. The pathogens are resistant to most antibiotics and their clones may be transmitted among the patients.%目的 分析急性刺激性和窒息性气体中毒患者机械通气后肺部感染病原菌及其药物敏感性和克隆传播情况.方法 动态采集15例气体中毒患者机械通气后下呼吸道、呼吸机管路、医护工作人员手拭子及纤维支气管镜样本,常规方法分离病原菌.对分离率较高的病原菌进行药物敏感性试验和脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分子分型.结果 患者下呼吸道平均分离病原菌3.86种,分离率较高的为嗜麦芽窄食单胞菌、粪肠球菌、鲍曼不动杆菌、表皮葡萄球菌和白假丝酵母菌等.分离率最高的嗜麦芽窄食单胞菌对大多数常用抗菌药物的耐药率都在60%以上,且来自患者的菌株与来自工作人员手拭子和纤维支气管镜的菌株PFGE分型一致.结论 急性刺激性和窒息性气体中毒机械通气患者下呼吸道存在较严重的多药耐药复合菌感染,且病原菌在不同患者间存在克隆传播.

  11. Kingella kingae infections of the skeletal system in children: diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagupsky, Pablo

    2004-10-01

    As the result of improved bacteriological techniques, Kingella kingae is emerging as an important cause of infections of the skeletal system in children younger than 2 years of age. This review details the bacteriological features and detection methods of this pathogen, as well as the epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis of septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and diskitis caused by the organism.

  12. Diagnostic aspects of gonorrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Stolz (Ernst)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractIn 1971 an investigation into the epidemiological, clinical, bacteriological and therapeutic aspects of gonorrhoea was started in collaboration with the Bacteriological Laboratory of the University Hospital/Medical Faculty Rotterdam. Jn the framework of this investigation, the data were

  13. Medical Laboratory Technician--Microbiology (AFSC 90470).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are laboratory procedures in clinical bacteriology (the history of bacteriology; aseptic techniques and sterilization procedures; bacterial morphology and…

  14. Serious complications after infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes.......The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes....

  15. Odo Bujwid - an eminent Polish bacteriologist and professor at the Jagiellonian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Katarzyna; Bulanda, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    To celebrate the 650th Jubilee of the Jagiellonian University, we would like to give an outline of the life and work of Odo Bujwid, known as the father of Polish bacteriology. The intention of the authors is to recall the beginnings of Polish bacteriology, the doyen of which was Professor Odo Bujwid, a great Polish scholar who also served as a promoter of bacteriology, a field created in the 19th century. He published about 400 publications, including approx. 200 in the field of bacteriology. He is credited with popularizing the research of the fathers of global bacteriology - Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur - and applying it practically, as well as educating Polish microbiologists who constituted the core of the scientific staff during the interwar period.

  16. Etude bactériologique et biochimique du miel vendu au marché central de Bukavu (Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitambala, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriological and Biochemical Study of Honey Sold at Bukavu (Congo Central Market. The honey sold in the central market of Bukavu (Congo is produced by traditional bee keepers. This article deals with a bacteriological and biochemical study of this product in order to determine its contamination and pollution levels. Results indicated a contamination of faecal origin (presence of enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli. The bacteriological tests showed the presence of bacteria fermenting glucose, thus altering the quality of the honey. The latter is therefore inappropriate for consumption and constitutes a danger for the health of humans.

  17. Pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a horse: zoonotic concerns and limitations of antemortem testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of disease. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid...

  18. Coliform and human pathogenic bacteria in tourism affected water bodies in North Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    forms of biota. Thus, bacteria as a community are useful and reliable indicators of ecosystem alterations. Through careful planning, choice, and analysis of relevant bacteriological parameters, deeper insights on quality, health, and stability of natural...

  19. Application of biological filters in water treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, T. L.; Bambenek, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Silver chloride placed on or close to barrier kills bacteria as they arrive. Dead bacteria accumulate linearly, whereas previously, live bacteria accumulated exponentially. During continuous 30-day tests, no bacteriological contamination was found downstream of filters with silver chloride added.

  20. Accelerator Department. Annual Progress Report 1 January - 31 December 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    A description is given of work in the fields of radiation chemistry and reaction kinetics, physical dosimetry, radiation physics and technological application of radiaticn, radiation bacteriology research and irradiation technology, as well as of the operation of various irradiation facilities....

  1. Appréciation et amélioration de la qualité bactériologique du poisson commercialisé au Burundi. Cas de Stolothrissa tanganicae et Luciolates stappersii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindayigaya, E.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Appreciation and improvement of the bacteriological quality of fish commercialized in Burundi. Cases of Stolothrissa tanganicae and Luciolates stappersii. The bacteriological quality of Stolothrissa tanganicae and Luciolates stappersii has been estimated by determining the aerobic mesophilic flora, Staphylococcus aureus as pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis as fecal contamination indices. The freshness has been evaluated by the determination of the total volatile bases (T.V.B.. At the arrival of fresh fish on the market, the aerobic mesophilic flora was sometimes high due to inadequate handling and processing on board. Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus can be found in fresh fish. The determination of the T.V.B. and the bacteriological analysis provided concordant informations. An improvement of bacteriological quality has been obtained by a combination of the traditional conservation methods : drying, salting and smoking.

  2. Evaluation of different sampling methods and criteria for diagnosing canine urinary tract infection by quantitative bacterial culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tina Møller; Jensen, A.B.; Damborg, Peter Panduro

    2016-01-01

    The use of voided urine specimens for bacteriological culture in dogs is discouraged because contamination from external genitalia could lead to misinterpretation of laboratory results. Quantitative culturing and defining significant bacteriuria could increase the usefulness of voided specimens. ...

  3. NODC Standard Format Marine Bacteria (F009) Data (1975-1979) (NODC Accession 0014148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Bacteria (F009) data set contains data from bacteriological studies of the water column and ocean bottom. Data include the density (number per unit...

  4. The status of -o- or on the allomorphy of neo-classical compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamans, C.; de la Cruz Cabanillas, I.; Tejedor Martínez, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at solving an old descriptive problem in dealing with neoclassical compounds: the status of the segment -o- which usually appears between the two elements of neoclassical compounds as in hamburgerology, buyology, bacteriology and epidemiology.

  5. Helicobacter Infection and Chronic Liver Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recentHelicobacter infection associated with chronic liver disease. The bacteriology, prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis were reviewed. Future work should be conducted on the pathogenesis and treatment of this disease.

  6. Pulmonary tuberculosis specificities in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhanim Aziza

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Our study raised the harmful impact of smoking on the clinical and radiological presentation of tuberculosis, and late bacteriological negativity, therefore we need to integrate smoking control into the national TB control program.

  7. Duration of treatment and other aspects of tuberculosis control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooyackers, Johanna Hendrica

    2002-01-01

    Inclusion criteria were study populations of patients with predominantly pulmonary tuberculosis, cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis, tuberculous meningitis, spinal tuberculosis and tuberculosis of the kidney and urinary tract. The diagnosis had been confirmed bacteriologically and/or histologically

  8. Lessons from Women in the Agricultural Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Jennette; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses women who have made an impact in the agricultural sciences. Profiles Elizabeth Pickney, indigo; Jane Colden, botany; Harriet Strong, irrigation and flood control; Anna Comstock, nature studies; Alice Evans, bacteriology; Edith Patch, entomology; and Beatrix Potter, botany. (JOW)

  9. Tropical marine ecosystems: The microbial component

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    for vital biogeochemical cycles. Although the bacteriology of fish has been extensively studied in connection with spoilage, comparatively little work has been done on the role of intestinal flora in fish nutrition. A number of plant and animal diseases have...

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Brucella melitensis Isolates in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    and Prevmtive Medicine Unit Two. Norfolk, Virginia’ Hospital Naciorwl Daniel Alcides Carrion , Callao, Pent~; Hospital Arzobi5po Loayza, Lima, Peru5...Alcides Carrion (Callao, Peru). All cultures, species identification, and antimicrobial suscep- tibility tests were performed in the Bacteriology

  11. FREQUENCY OF PATHOGENS ISOLATED IN CLINICAL CASES OF CANINE PIODERMA AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Antúnez A., Oscar; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Calle E., Sonia; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Morales C., Siever; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Falcón P., Néstor; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.; Pinto J., Chris; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2012-01-01

    The canine bacterial dermatitis, commonly known as pyoderma is one of the main skin diseases in the veterinary practice. The present retrospective study had the objective to determine the frequency of the bacteriological agents involved with the disease and the antibiotics that show better antimicrobiobial susceptibility. Laboratory records of bacterial isolation and antibiogram of the Laboratory of Bacteriology of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty, San Marcos University, Lima, were analyzed. S...

  12. Brucellar epididymoorchitis - Report of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantur B

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here 5 bacteriologically proven cases of Brucellar epididymoorchitis. Four cases presented with unilateral epididymoorchitis and with bilateral presentation in one case. Blood culture grew Brucella melitensis in all 5 cases. B.melitensis was isolated in testicular aspirate of 4 patients. Brucella agglutinins were demonstrated in testicular aspirate of 4 patients and semen of 2 patients. To our knowledge this is the first report of bacteriologically proven cases of brucellar epididymoorchitis in the world literature.

  13. Effect of superovulation on uterine and serum biochemical parameters and its potential association with transferable embryos in Holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Rasolomboahanginjatovo, Hasina Santatriniaina; Chorfi, Younès; Dupras, Raynald; Mills, Louis; Lefebvre, Réjean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of superovulation (SOV) on serum and uterine biochemical parameters, uterine bacteriology and cytology and number of transferable embryos (TE). Dairy cows were placed on a Presynch/CIDR Synch protocol. The SOV group was superovulated, induced in estrus, and inseminated, whereas the control group was induced in estrus and inseminated without SOV. Uterine bacteriology and cytology and uterine and serum biochemical parameters were measured...

  14. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Mycobacterium sp. FROM SWINE SLAUGHTERED IN UBERLÂNDIA (MG) ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE Mycobacterium sp.EM SUÍNOS ABATIDOS NO MUNICÍPIO DE UBERLÂNDIA (MG)

    OpenAIRE

    Cleusely Matias de Souza; Albenones José de Mesquita; Lilian de Souza

    2007-01-01

    In this present study 103 samples of pigs from the Uberlândia area were submitted to bacteriological analyses. Tissues with abscess were present in 12 samples; lymphonodes without lesions in 20 samples and 71 of them were lymphonodes with lesions “tuberculosis-like infection”. The bacteriological analyses of the 103 samples have permitted the isolation of 12 mycobacterias strains, all of them from the 71 lymphonode...

  15. QUALITE BACTÉRIOLOGIQUE DE L’OUED KHOUMANE, MOULAY IDRISS ZERHOUN (MAROC).

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The results of the bacteriological quality of the river Khoumane,Moulay Idriss Zerhoun (Morocco) indicate that the city of Moulay Idriss Zerhoun is confronted with realdifficulties in consolidation of its raw sewage. These difficultiesmay be relatedto the evacuation particularly , without pretreatment, thewater in the river Khoumane. Indeed, our results concerning the evolution of monthly bacteriological pollution of the river during the period August 2010 to July 2011,revealed that wastewate...

  16. Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in equine nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziuso, Silvia; Laus, Fulvio; Tejeda, Aurora Romero; Valente, Carlo; Cuteri, Vincenzo

    2010-03-01

    Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis is responsible for severe diseases in humans, including primary bacteraemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, and toxic shock syndrome. Infection in some animal species can also occur, although a few studies have looked into cross-species infectivity. In horses, S. equisimilis is generally considered infrequent or opportunistic, but has recently been isolated from cases of strangles-like disease. Rapid and sensitive diagnostic techniques could enable epidemiological studies and effective investigation of outbreaks involving these bacteria. In this study, PCR protocols previously described in cattle and in humans to detect the species S. dysgalactiae and the subspecies equisimilis were evaluated to detect specific sequences in equine samples. For this purpose, 99 monolateral nasal swabs were collected from horses from stud farms with a history of S. equisimilis infection and were tested blindly by bacteriological isolation and by single and duplex PCR. DNA for PCR was extracted both from the colonies grown on agar media and from enrichment broth aliquots after incubation with nasal swab samples. S. equisimilis was identified by bacteriological isolation in 23 out of 99 swab samples, and PCR assays on these colonies were fully concordant with bacteriological identification (kappa statistic = 1.00). In addition, PCR of the enrichment broth aliquots confirmed the bacteriological results and detected S. equisimilis in 6 samples more than the bacteriological examination (kappa statistic = 0.84). The PCR protocols appeared to be reliable for the rapid identification of S. equisimilis in equine nasal swab samples, and could be useful for microbiological diagnosis.

  17. Graduate Education in Medical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A. J.

    1963-01-01

    During the last five years, 48 graduates have taken the formal Diploma in Bacteriology course offered by the School of Hygiene, University of Toronto. This course provides instruction by lectures, seminars, and practical work in bacteriology, virology, immunology, parasitology, sanitary bacteriology, and statistics. A graduate course of this type presents many advantages as it is possible to cover a considerable area of knowledge in the relatively short space of one academic year. Of the 48 students, 23 held degrees in medicine, and 25 in veterinary science, arts, or science. Eleven diplomates continued further formal studies by enrolling in Master's or Ph.D. programs. Twenty diplomates are now engaged in university teaching in Canada or overseas. Almost all of the remaining 28 are employed in hospital, public health, or veterinary laboratories. PMID:13981970

  18. A comparison of hypertext and Boolean access to biomedical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, C P; Wildemuth, B M; Muriuki, M; Gant, S P; Downs, S M; Twarog, R G; de Bliek, R

    1996-01-01

    This study explored which of two modes of access to a biomedical database better supported problem solving in bacteriology. Boolean access, which allowed subjects to frame their queries as combinations of keywords, was compared to hypertext access, which allowed subjects to navigate from one database node to another. The accessible biomedical data were identical across systems. Data were collected from 42 first year medical students, each randomized to the Boolean or hypertext system, before and after their bacteriology course. Subjects worked eight clinical case problems, first using only their personal knowledge and, subsequently, with aid from the database. Database retrievals enabled students to answer questions they could not answer based on personal knowledge only. This effect was greater when personal knowledge of bacteriology was lower. The results also suggest that hypertext was superior to Boolean access in helping subjects identify possible infectious agents in these clinical case problems.

  19. [Sudden death of outdoor housed pigs caused by Clostridium novyi. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandowsky, A; Bodenthin, A; Seyboldt, C; Frölich, K

    2013-01-01

    In an outdoor pig-breeding unit of the Tierpark Arche Warder e. V. (Germany), 16 pigs of different age and sex died in October 2011. Necropsy findings revealed tympany, liver emphysema, subcutaneous oedema, haemopericardium, haemothorax, and intense gas bubble infiltrations in muscles. The stomachs were filled. The initial anaerobic bacteriological investigations gave negative results. In further analyses of tissue samples, the flagellin gene of C. novyi types A and B was detected using PCR. Based on the anatomical-pathological and bacteriological findings as well as PCR testing, a C. novyi infection was assumed to be the cause of the pig mortality.

  20. Microbiological quality of poultry meat on the Croatian market

    OpenAIRE

    Kozačinski, Lidija; Hadžiosmanović, Mirza; Zdolec, Nevijo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the microbiological quality of poultry meat sold on the Croatian market. Bacteriological analysis was performed on 66 samples of fresh, retail-cut chicken meat (21 samples of chicken breasts without skin - “fillet”, and 19 samples of chicken breasts with skin) and frozen ground chicken meat (26 samples). Samples were collected from retailers (kept in cooling showcases at +4 ºC, deep-freezers at -18 ºC, respectively), and then bacteriologically tested fo...

  1. STUDY OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One hundred six patients with clinical diagnosis of CSOM were investigated bacteriologically using appropriate aerobic and anaerobic techniques. Positive cultures were obtained in 100 specimens. Aerobic bacteria alone were present in 51%, anaerobic bacteria alone in 10% and a combination of both in 34% of aural swabs . The anaerobes isolated were Bacteroides 30%, Peptostreptococci 26%, followed by others. Aerobic bacteriology showed the predominance of Pseudomonas 30.4% followed by Staphylococcus aureus 21.4%. Metronidazole was found to be most effective (87% drug aga inst anaerobes and Amikacin (98% against aerobes.

  2. BACTERIAL CAUSES OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS ATTENDING CENTRAL REFERRAL HOSPITAL, GANGTOK WITH REFERENCE TO ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERN

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Paul; Tukaram Prabhu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is inadequate information from India on various lower respiratory tract pathogens and their resistance pattern in hospital settings. The present study was undertaken to see the bacteriological profile an d the antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates causing LRTI from this geographic region. OBJECTIVE: To identify and characterize bacterial pathogens causing community acquired and hospital acquired infections with reference to ant...

  3. Medical Students? Confidence Judgments Using a Factual Database and Personal Memory: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Karen M.; Wildemuth, Barbara M.; Friedman, Charles P.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the quality of medical students' confidence estimates in answering questions in bacteriology based on personal knowledge alone and what they retrieved from a factual database in microbiology, in order to determine whether medical students can recognize when an information need has been fulfilled and when it has not. (Author/LRW)

  4. Isolation of two strains of Kingella kingae associated with septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J; Bergeret, M; Bargy, F; Missenard, G

    1986-12-01

    Two new cases of infection, a presternal abscess and a spondylodiscitis caused by the recently classified bacterium Kingella kingae, are reported. The main bacteriological characteristics and the susceptibility of the two isolates to antimicrobial agents are described. The pathology of K. kingae, particularly among children, is reviewed.

  5. Isolation of two strains of Kingella kingae associated with septic arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, J.; Bergeret, M; Bargy, F; Missenard, G.

    1986-01-01

    Two new cases of infection, a presternal abscess and a spondylodiscitis caused by the recently classified bacterium Kingella kingae, are reported. The main bacteriological characteristics and the susceptibility of the two isolates to antimicrobial agents are described. The pathology of K. kingae, particularly among children, is reviewed.

  6. Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis caused by Kingella kingae.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, J M; Peel, M M

    1982-01-01

    The clinical and bacteriological findings in two cases of osteomyelitis and one case of septic arthritis caused by Kingella kingae are presented. This appears to be the first report providing clear evidence for a pathogenic role for this species in bone and joint infections.

  7. Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis caused by Kingella kingae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Peel, M M

    1982-02-01

    The clinical and bacteriological findings in two cases of osteomyelitis and one case of septic arthritis caused by Kingella kingae are presented. This appears to be the first report providing clear evidence for a pathogenic role for this species in bone and joint infections.

  8. Bacterial Interference in Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Flora of Otitis-prone and Non-otitis-prone Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Bernstein; S. Sagahtaheri-ALtaie; D.M. Dryja; J. Wactawski-Wende

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe quantitative bacteriology of the adenoid was studied in 34 otitis-prone and 25 non-otitis prone children. Viridans streptococci appeared to be the predominant normal flora in children who are non-otitis prone. There was a significant decrease in viridans streptococci in the otitis-pr

  9. Elimination of Salmonella typhimurium infection by the strategic movement of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J.; Wingstrand, Anne; Nielsen, B.

    1997-01-01

    and disinfected finishing units with no known history of salmonella infection, No detectable infection was observed at slaughter either serologically or bacteriologically by random testing of the pigs which had been moved, whereas a proportion of the pigs raised at the same time in the continuous systems...

  10. Aeromonas hydrophila as an agent of infection in alligators. Phase I, final report. Progress report, September 1, 1976--September 30, 1977, Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorden, R.W.; Esch, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental alligators were exposed to various concentrations of young, washed cells of Aeromonas hydrophila under controlled conditions. Responses of all alligators were monitored on the basis of: observations of external lesions; immunoglobulin production; blood chemistry and hematology; bacteriology, parasitology, and pathology of internal organs, skeletal muscle and external lesions at necropsy. The findings are summarized.

  11. [THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TECHNIQUES OF IDENTIFICATION OF CORYNEBACTERIUM NON DIPHTHERIAE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharseeva, G G; Voronina, N A; Mironov, A Yu; Alutina, E L

    2015-12-01

    The comparative analysis was carried out concerning effectiveness of three techniques of identification of Corynebacterium non diphtheriae: bacteriological, molecular genetic (sequenation on 16SpRNA) andmass-spectrometric (MALDI-ToFMS). The analysis covered 49 strains of Corynebacterium non diphtheriae (C.pseudodiphheriticum, C.amycolatum, C.propinquum, C.falsenii) and 2 strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolated under various pathology form urogenital tract and upper respiratory ways. The corinbacteria were identified using bacteriologic technique, sequenation on 16SpRNA and mass-spectrometric technique (MALDIToF MS). The full concordance of results of species' identification was marked in 26 (51%) of strains of Corynebacterium non diphtheriae at using three analysis techniques; in 43 (84.3%) strains--at comparison of bacteriologic technique with sequenation on 16S pRNA and in 29 (57%)--at mass-spectrometric analysis and sequenation on 16S pRNA. The bacteriologic technique is effective for identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The precise establishment of species belonging of corynebacteria with variable biochemical characteristics the molecular genetic technique of analysis is to be applied. The mass-spectrometric technique (MALDI-ToF MS) requires further renewal of data bases for identifying larger spectrum of representatives of genus Corynebacterium.

  12. Vaccine-induced waning of Haemophilus influenzae empyema and meningitis, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Heikki; Pelkonen, Tuula; Bernardino, Luis; Monteiro, Lurdes; Silvestre, Silvia da Conceição; Anjos, Elizabete; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Pitkäranta, Anne; Roine, Irmeli

    2014-11-01

    In Angola during 2003-2012, we detected Haemophilus influenzae in 18% of 2,634 and 26% of 2,996 bacteriologically positive pleural or cerebrospinal fluid samples, respectively, from children. After vaccination launch in 2006, H. influenzae empyema declined by 83% and meningitis by 86%. Severe H. influenzae pneumonia and meningitis are preventable by vaccination.

  13. First assumptions and overlooking competing causes of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Andersen, Anh Thao Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    of cause of death, which was based on results from bacteriology tests, proved to be wrong when the results from the forensic toxicology testing became available. This case also illustrates how post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) findings of radio opaque material in the stomach alerted the pathologist...

  14. Telemicrobiology for Mission Support in the Field of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    the Bundeswehr Medical Service Laboratory department I (Medicine); Diagnostics Laboratory of Medical Parasitology Andernacher Street 100 56070...medical parasitology , allows a treatment-essential diagnosis without dispatch of specimens to Germany. In bacteriology, telemicrobiology allows the...Institute of the Bundeswehr Medical Service Laboratory department I (Medicine); Diagnostics Laboratory of Medical Parasitology Andernacher Street 100 56070

  15. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens...

  16. Studies on bacterial activities in aerobic and anaerobic waste water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, A D; Deinema, M H; Zehnder, A J

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of the bacteriology of aerobic and anaerobic waste water purification are discussed in view of current opinions and recent developments in the technology of waste water treatment. Various contributions of scientific workers attached to the Department of Microbiology of the Agricultural University, Wageningen, during the past 65 years are summarized. Besides, present investigations are described and research activities in future indicated.

  17. Analysis of repeated tests for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) response and faecal excretion for diagnosis of subclinical paratuberculosis in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huda, A.; Lind, Peter; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil;

    2003-01-01

    A total of 315 cattle were tested for infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) at three consecutive samplings, using the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) test on whole blood and bacteriological culture of faecal samples. Of 205 cattle from 10 infected herds 99...

  18. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  19. Standardized Curriculum for Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: cosmetology I and II. The 18 units in cosmetology I are as follows: introduction to cosmetology; Vocational Industrial Clubs of America; the look you like; bacteriology; sterilization and sanitation; hair and disorders; draping,…

  20. Cosmetology--A Profitable Career for Men and Women; Cosmetology 1: 9205.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course introduces the student to the goals and organization of the cosmetology program, and includes aspects of hygiene, ethics, bacteriology, law, and safety rules. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, orientation, shampooing and rinses, finger-waving, pin curling, and roller curls. A brief bibliography and 30 pages of…

  1. Phaeobacterium nitratireducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a phototrophic gammaproteobacterium isolated from a mangrove forest sediment sample

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nupur, P.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; Takaichi, S.; AnilKumar, P.

    & G. M. Garrity. New York: Springer. Imhoff, J. F. (2005f). Genus XII.Thioalkalicoccus Bryantseva, Gorlenko and Imhoff 2000b, 2161VP. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 2, part B, pp. 25–26. Edited by D. J. Brenner, N. R...

  2. Mechanisme van de bacteriele besmetting tijdens het slachten van pluimvee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notermans, S.H.W.

    1975-01-01

    Literature is reviewed on bacteriological problems in poultry processing, especially the mechanism of bacterial contamination.During processing, bacteria become attached to the carcases. The attachment rate of flagellate bacteria was greatly dependent on temperature and pH. Heat destruction of bacte

  3. Actinomyces pyogenes septic arthritis in a diabetic farmer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, M

    2012-02-03

    We report a case of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis of the left ankle due to Actinomyces pyogenes in a diabetic farmer. Few confirmed human cases of A. pyogenes infection have been reported, partly because of inadequate identification of this bacterium. Bacteriological characteristics of the organism, which resembles Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, are described with a review of previous case reports.

  4. Dominance of Human Innate Immune Responses in Primary Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    Diseases, Bacteriology Division, 425 Porter St, Frederick , MD 21702-5011. Dr Brittingham is the recipient of the National Research Council Fellowship...tularemia vaccine strain) infection by the sera of human recipients of the live tula- remia vaccine. Am J Med Sci 1994;308:83-7. 10. Herzberg VL

  5. [Development of sanitary microbiology researches at the A. N. Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, A M; Surmasheva, E V; Korchak, G I

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the main stages of development of sanitary bacteriological studies at the leading hygiene research institute of Ukraine--the A. N Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology. These researches have made a substantial contribution to the formation and development of hygiene science in the former Soviet Union. The current and promising areas in sanitary microbiology in Ukraine are considered.

  6. [The analysis of surgical treatment with laser of ingrown toenail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listratenkov, K V; Lelianov, A D

    2013-01-01

    The article presents data on the retrospective analysis of medical treatment of ingrown toenail in 264 cases with use of carbonic laser. We describe the methods of operation and way of treatment for postoperative wound. We assess the effectiveness of treatment on the basis of dynamics of wound healing, bacteriological research of wound discharge, length of disability and number of relapses of disorder.

  7. Enteric Infections occuring during an eight Year Period at the Chicago Zoological Park Brookfield, Illinois

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williamson, W.M.; Tilden, E.B.; Getty, R.E.

    1963-01-01

    The bacteriological examinations of abnormal stools, irrespective of the apparent seriousness of the illness, is particularly important in a zoological park where it is difficult to apply measures to keep out possibly infected wild, non-resident animals and mechanical carriers, such as flies, cockro

  8. Allied Health Field, Tenth Grade. Introduction to Allied Health and the Health Care Team. Operation TACT [Toward an Allied Health Career Today] Curriculum [and Teachers' Handbook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy

    The two-part set consists of a student handbook and a related teachers' handbook in allied health education for use at the tenth grade level. The student handbook consists of seven units which focus on the biology curriculum: (1) community water examination, (2) bacteriological examination of water, (3) the microscope, (4) microbes and man, (5)…

  9. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J.; Schougaard, H.;

    2006-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...

  10. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J; Schougaard, H;

    2007-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...

  11. Recovery of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida from ulcerated fish from the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Tabolina, I; Bezgachina, T.V.

    1999-01-01

    Ulcerated fish of six different species were collected during the BMB/ICES Sea-going Workshop "Fish Diseases and Parasites in the Baltic Sea", 25 November to 8 December 1994, and examined for bacteriological infections. Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida strains were isolated from the majority...

  12. [Post-pneumonectomy Empyema Successfully Treated with Negative Pressure Wound Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Nana; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Ishibashi, Kei; Kitada, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    A 61-year-old man underwent right pneumonectomy for primary lung cancer. Four weeks later, he was referred to our hospital for empyema. After 2 months of irrigation with saline, vacuum-assited closure therapy followed by the open thoracotomy was started. After cleaning thoracic cavity bacteriologically, the thoracoplasty and muscle flap transposition was performed, and the empyema completely disappeared.

  13. Biotic Iron Precipitation in Sand Filtration Systems by Gallionella ferruginea: Morphology and content of Exopolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Charlotte

    ; Ghiorse, W.C. (1993) Ultrastructure and Chemical composition of the sheats of Leptothrix discophora SP-6; Journal of Bacteriology, 175, 7808-7818 Mouchet, P. (1992) From Conventional to Biological Removal of Iron and Manganese in France. Jour. AWWA 84, 4, 158-167 Søgaard E.G., Medenwaldt R. and Abraham...

  14. Prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in pig herds on farms with and without cattle or poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boes, J.; Nersting, L.; Nielsen, Eva;

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter jejuni was investigated in pig herds on farms with and without cattle or poultry production. A bacteriological screening of pig cecal samples from 247 finisher herds was carried out at the slaughterhouse. Subsequently, a follow-up study was conducted ...

  15. Herd-level diagnosis for Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Dublin infection in bovine dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, J.; Barkema, H.W.; Schans, van de J.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Verhoeff, J.

    2002-01-01

    Herd-level sensitivities of bacteriological and serological methods were compared in 79 bovine dairy herds, recently infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin. All farms experienced clinical signs of salmonellosis for the first time and had no history of vaccination against sa

  16. Patient Workload Profile: National Naval Medical Center (NNMC), Bethesda, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Special Chemistry) * Microbiology (including Bacteriology, Mycology , Serology, and Virology) * Hematology 0 Blood Bank (including Blood Donor Center...fish, poultry , meats, milk, bread, canned goods, etc.); labor, overhead, and expendable non-food items are excluded. The current food budget is

  17. Clinical Investigation Program. Annual Research Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-30

    Stereoscope 79/118 $6149.00 Ion Generator 78/116 $5000.00 Poultry Cages 79/301 $2929.00 Microtome/Cryostat 79/304 $5494.72 Tissue Embedder 79/300... Mycology : Assessment of bacteriologic and seroligic parameters of clinically-important mycoses normal and immunologic comprised host. Presented: American

  18. Effect of sex, age, and race on the clinical presentation of tuberculosis: a 15-year population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Bengård Andersen, Åse; Lillebaek, Troels;

    2011-01-01

    Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is an important health problem that may cause serious morbidity and diagnostic challenges. We conducted a case-control study involving 5,684, approximately 99% of bacteriologically confirmed TB patients (including 1,925 EPTB cases) diagnosed in Denmark and Green...

  19. Analysis of water quality in the river Turia near Teruel. I. - Findings of the sampling and quality indices. Estudio de calidad de las aguas en el entorno de Teruel. I Resultados de muestreo e indices de calidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, M.D. (E.V. Profesorado de E.G.B. Zaragoza (Spain)); Lanaja, J.; Puebla, P.; Puebla, J.; Sainz, A. (E.V.I.T.I. Zaragoza (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Following up previous studies, it was obvious the need to take samples along two hydrological years in the rivers. Alfambra and Guadalaviar-Turia near Teruel (four stations): this is the area suffering the higher environmental impact. Physical and chemical parameters are determined and undesirable components; a bacteriological analysis is carried out, and the macro invertebrate group is studied. (Author) 14 refs.

  20. Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis using Laser Irradiation of Micro-Etched Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Dry Population—wasteful? Adjust Slurry EtOH; ា% Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) "As far as the material going into solution. We use a 1mg/ml...Rowley, D. (1963). Configuration and Base Composition of Deoxyribosenucleic Acid from Spores of Bacillus Subtilis var Niger . Journal of Bacteriology

  1. Specificity for field enumeration of Escherichia coli in tropical surface waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Aalbaek, B; Aslam, R

    2001-01-01

    In remote rural areas in developing countries, bacteriological monitoring often depends on the use of commercial field media. This paper evaluates a commercial field medium used for the enumeration of Escherichia coli in different surface waters under primitive field conditions in rural Pakistan....

  2. An enzymatic pretreatment process for drillings; Procede de pretraitement enzymatique des deblais de forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliphat, S.; Perie, F.; Zurdo, C.; Martignon, A.

    1996-05-24

    A process is proposed for drilling muds, and more especially ester-based substitution muds, recovered at the surface level, that accelerate their biodegradation through a preliminary enzymatic treatment, prior to the usual bacteriological treatment. The enzymatic process involves the hydrolysis of the mud by the means of a lipase 4 refs.

  3. An atypical presentation of salmonella typhi - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast abscess due to Salmonella typhi is an extremely rare occurrence. A lady with a lump in the left breast was diagnosed to have a fibroadenoma and was subjected to a surgical procedure. She was found to have an abscess due to Salmonella typhi as confirmed by conventional bacteriological methods. She was treated with ciprofloxacin and responded favourably.

  4. The Development of a New Practical Activity: Using Microorganisms to Model Gas Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    For many in the school science classroom, the term "microbiology" has become synonymous with "bacteriology". By overlooking other microbes, teachers may miss out on powerful practical tools. This article describes the development of an activity that uses algae and yeast to demonstrate gas cycling, and presents full instructions…

  5. Revisiting bovine pyometra-New insights into the disease using a culture-independent deep sequencing approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lif Rødtness Vesterby; Karstrup, Cecilia Christensen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi;

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria present in the uterus during pyometra have previously been studied using bacteriological culturing. These studies identified Fusobacterium necrophorum and Trueperella pyogenes as the major contributors to the pathogenesis of pyometra. However, an increasing number of culture-independ...... rights reserved....

  6. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  7. The Use of Stimulable Bioluminescence from Marine Dinoflagellates as a Means of Detecting Toxicity in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    zinc in this study (7 mg/L) ( Lankford and Eckenfelder 1990). Additionally, our calculated 4-d ICs value of 4% for the sto-m drain effluent compared...Metals and Narcotics, Self-Photographed in Color," Journal of Bacteriology, 44: 703. Langford, P.W., and Eckenfelder , W.W., 1990, Toxicity Reduction

  8. The polymerase chain reaction: current and future clinical applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, J R; Brown, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction has undergone rapid improvement since its initial development, such that the technique currently permits rapid, accurate, predictive tests to be made in the field of prenatal diagnosis and has greatly aided forensic medicine. It is anticipated that the polymerase chain reaction will also facilitate advances in other fields, in particular preimplantation diagnosis, virology, bacteriology, and cancer therapy.

  9. Typhoid fever in a South African in-patient population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Mohammad Enayet Hossain

    2004-01-01

    In conclusion, the data presented herein show that no single clinical or paraclinical parameter is reliable in arriving at a correct clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever and that bacteriologic confirmation is necessary for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Patients ’ age and sex influence the clinical

  10. Diagnostic multiplex PCR for toxin genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Christoph G; Schotte, Ulrich; Amtsberg, Gunter; Goethe, Ralph

    2004-05-20

    In this study we provide a protocol for genotyping Clostridium perfringens with a new multiplex PCR. This PCR enables reliable and specific detection of the toxin genes cpa, cpb, etx, iap, cpe and cpb2 from heat lysed bacterial suspensions. The efficiency of the protocol was demonstrated by typing C. perfringens reference strains and isolates from veterinary bacteriological routine diagnostic specimens.

  11. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan

    1982-01-01

    A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)

  12. Mycobacterium ulcerans disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, TS; Stienstra, Y; Johnson, RC; Phillips, R; Adjei, O; Fleischer, B; Wansbrough-Jones, MH; Johnson, PDR; Portaels, F; van der Graaf, WTA; Asiedu, K

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) is an important health problem in several dwest African countries. It is prevalent in scattered foci around the world, predominantly in riverine areas with a humid, hot climate. We review the epidemiology, bacteriology, transmission, immunology, patholog

  13. [Health sites and controlled spaces. A morphological study of quarantine architecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonastra, Quim

    2010-01-01

    Taking as a chronological field the period between the black plague pandemic and the beginning of the bacteriological era in Europe, the Mediterranean and North America and other areas, this article addresses the morphology of lazarets as a whole, taking account of the different traditions and knowledge that influenced their configuration.

  14. Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in the kidneys and genital tracts of naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, D; Nuvoloni, R; Ebani, V; Pedrini, A; Mani, P; Andreani, E; Farina, R

    1996-04-01

    A bacteriological study was carried out to identify possible renal and/or genital carriers of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo. L. hardjo was found at slaughter in the kidneys of three seropositive ewes, but not in uterus or salpinges of these animals.

  15. 9 CFR 147.52 - Approved tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved tests. 147.52 Section 147.52... Approved Tests § 147.52 Approved tests. (a) The procedures for the bacteriological examination of poultry and poultry environments described in this part are approved tests for use in the NPIP. In...

  16. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in the wild boar (Sus scrofa: a comparison of methods applicable to hunter-harvested animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To obtain robust epidemiological information regarding tuberculosis (TB in wildlife species, appropriate diagnostic methods need to be used. Wild boar (Sus scrofa recently emerged as a major maintenance host for TB in some European countries. Nevertheless, no data is available to evaluate TB post-mortem diagnostic methods in hunter-harvested wild boar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six different diagnostic methods for TB were evaluated in parallel in 167 hunter-harvested wild boar. Compared to bacteriological culture, estimates of sensitivity of histopathology was 77.8%, gross pathology 72.2%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 66.7%, detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB in tissue contact smears 55.6% and in histopathology slides 16.7% (estimated specificity was 96.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.4% and 100%, respectively. Combining gross pathology with stained smears in parallel increased estimated sensitivity to 94.4% (94.4% specificity. Four probable bacteriological culture false-negative animals were identified by Discriminant Function Analysis. Recalculating the parameters considering these animals as infected generated estimated values for sensitivity of bacteriology and histopathology of 81.8%, gross pathology 72.7%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 63.6%, detection of AFB in tissue contact smears 54.5% and in histopathology slides 13.6% (estimated specificity was 100% for gross pathology, PCR, bacteriology and detection of AFB in histopathology slides, 96.7% for histopathology and 94.4% for stained smears. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that surveys for TB in wild boar based exclusively on gross pathology considerably underestimate prevalence, while combination of tests in parallel much improves sensitivity and negative predictive values. This finding should thus be considered when planning future surveys and game meat inspection schemes. Although bacteriological culture is the reference test for TB diagnosis, it can generate false

  17. EFECTO TERAPÉUTICO DE QUINOLONAS EN 29 PACIENTES CON TUBERCULOSIS GENITOURINARIA: 18 AÑOS DE SEGUIMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alberte Castiñeiras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYBACKGROUND. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic therapy efficacy of quinolones in genitourinary tuberculosis.MATERIAL AND METHODS. Twenty nine patients with urinary tuberculosis were treated with ofloxacin (200 mg/12 h, 6 months, rifampin (600 mg/day, 3 months and isoniazid (300 mg/day, 3 months between 1989 and 1992. All patients, new cases, were diagnosed by isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in one of the three morning urine samples. Bacteriological culture conversion (negativization was assesed as a clinical guide of efficacy, comparing it, as the only parameter, against a control group (150 patients with genitourinary tuberculosis and conventional therapy. Bacteriological follow-up studies were performed in both groups monthly for 6 months, then again 6 months later and then every year for 10 years after completion of treatment.RESULTS. In the 29 patients, the initial culture was positive with over 100 colonies per culture (62%, and the smear was positive in 56% of the patients. All strains were susceptible to rifampicin, isoniazid and ofloxacin. Three patients discontinued therapy, one due to liver disease and another due to an allergic reaction and the third for not compliance. Beginning with the first month of treatment, the bacteriological conversion was 92.6% (first and second month and 100% in the remaining controls. In the control group, wich received conventional treatment, the conversion was: 90%, 87%, 93% and 100% in the remaining controls. Treatment with ofloxacin showed a bacteriological conversion similar to the conventional treatment (p>0.05, Fisher`s exact test.CONCLUSION. After 10 years of patient follow-up, we conclude that ofloxacin, in combination with rifampin and isoniazid (both for 3 monts only is effective in genitourinary tuberculosis, providing satisfactory bacteriological and clinical efficacy.

  18. Relapse of leprosy presenting as nodular lymph node swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphadenopathy is known to be associated with lepromatous leprosy and has also been observed as a feature of type-2 lepra reaction. However, nodular lymph node enlargement is not commonly reported in leprosy patients or as a feature of relapse. We herewith are presenting a case of bacteriological relapse in a patient of lepromatous leprosy treated 22 years before till smear negativity with WHO multidrug therapy (MDT multibacillary type (MB. She presented with prominent nodular swelling of the cervical group of lymph nodes along with generalized lymphadenopathy, which was mistakenly treated as tubercular lymphadenopathy. A diagnosis of late bacteriological relapse of lepromatous leprosy presenting with prominent lymphadenopathy and ENL was made after relevant investigations. The patient was started on treatment with WHO MDT MB (daily dapsone and clofazimine and monthly rifampicin and thalidomide (200 mg/day. Nerve pain regressed within 2 weeks of therapy. The lymph nodal swelling regressed within 3 months of starting treatment.

  19. Silent iritis in treated bacillary negative leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K; Job, C K

    1996-09-01

    Iridectomy specimens from 59 leprosy patients who had adequate medical records of whom 33 belong to the lepromatous (LL) leprosy variety and 16 normal controls were studied histopathologically. All patients were bacteriologically negative and had received dapsone followed by multidrug therapy (MDT), or MDT only, or only dapsone for varying periods. It was found that leprosy, particularly lepromatous disease, did not significantly decrease the age of formation of cataract. Of the 33 LL patients studied 60.6% had silent iritis. The duration of treatment had no obvious influence on the persistence of iritis. Treatment with only 2 years of MDT for LL patients did not significantly increase the prevalence of persistent silent iritis compared to those who received other types of antileprosy therapy for long periods. It is pointed out that chronic iritis is a serious complication that continues even after the patient is declared clinically and bacteriologically cured, especially in patients who had a history of chronic iritis clinically.

  20. Effect of topical and systemic antibiotics on bacterial growth kinesis in generalized peritonitis in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowski, Z H; Al-Sayer, H M; Reid, T M; Matheson, N A

    1987-04-01

    Quantitative bacteriology in peritoneal exudate was studied in 40 patients with generalized peritonitis of small intestinal, appendicular or colonic origin. Bacterial growth kinesis was measured in 28 of the patients. Systemic antibiotics given before operation resulted in a significant reduction in both the concentration and growth rate of viable bacteria in the peritoneal fluid. Lavage of the peritoneal cavity with saline resulted in a further reduction in growth rate in patients given pre-operative systemic antibiotics by an effect attributable to simple dilution. In contrast, peritoneal lavage with tetracycline (1 mg/ml) resulted in complete inhibition of bacterial growth in the residual peritoneal fluid. These observations support the policy of giving systemic antibiotics to patients with generalized peritonitis as soon as the diagnosis has been made and provide bacteriological evidence for the value of peroperative antibiotic peritoneal lavage.

  1. Who made John Snow a hero?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, J P; Eelkman Rooda, H M; Beukers, H

    1991-05-15

    This paper describes how and why John Snow's investigation of the transmission of cholera grew into an epidemiologic classic. The evolution of the interpretation of the work of John Snow was first studied in depth in the Dutch medical literature, and thereafter traced more superficially in the bacteriologic, hygienic, and epidemiologic literature of Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. From the oral tradition of teaching, as well as from the written sources, it is concluded that US epidemiologist W. H. Frost was responsible for the revival of the work of John Snow in the 1930s. Besides the obvious and enjoyable clarity of thinking and reasoning, epidemiologically and medically, of the writings of John Snow, his example well suited epidemiology of the 1930s since his convictions came very close to the bacteriologic paradigm of the day.

  2. Comparisons of sampling procedures and time of sampling for the detection of Salmonella in Danish infected chicken flocks raised in floor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Andersen, J.; Madsen, M.

    2002-01-01

    other within each flock: 1) 5 pairs of socks, analysed as 5 samples, 2) 2 pairs of socks, analysed as one sample, and 3) 60 faecal samples, analysed as one pooled sample. Agreement between sampling methods was evaluated by the following statistical tests: 'Kappa', 'The adjusted rand', McNemar"s test......Bacteriological follow-up samples were taken from 41 chicken (Gallus gallus) flocks in floor systems, where Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) had been detected either directly in bacteriological samples or indirectly by serological samples. Three types of follow-up samples were compared to each...... for marginal symmetry, Proportion of agreement P-0, P-, P-, and Odds Ratio. The highest agreement was found between the 2 types of sock sampling, while the lowest agreement was found by comparing 60 faecal samples with 5 pairs of socks. Two pairs of socks analysed as one pool appeared to be just as effective...

  3. [Pollution of the groundwater in the city of Niamey, Niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Houssier, S; Gross, P; Bouvier, C; Brissaud, F

    2002-06-01

    We conducted a study on chemical and bacteriological groundwater pollution in Niamey, a Sahelian city of some 700,000 inhabitants. A total of 22 wells and 24 bore-holes were selected on a geological and socio-economic basis. The superficial aquifers, located on each bank of the River Niger and connected to the wells, presented high levels of oxidizable nitrogen and bacteriological pollution (coliform and faecal Streptococcus) which make the water unfit for human consumption. The deep aquifer, which supplies pumps, was also polluted but to a lesser degree. Faecal pollution increased after the rainy season. The lack of sanitation in Niamey and the seepage of polluted matters from the superficial layers could explain this pollution. Eventually, the use of the groundwater could increase and constitute a major health risk for the majority of the inhabitants of Niamey.

  4. Water quality of springs and water wells which are used in human consumption, in the Jocotitlan volcano region at State of Mexico; Calidad del agua de manantiales y pozos que se utilizan para consumo humano, en la region del volcan Jocotitlan, Estado de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca G, A.; Segovia, N.; Iturbe, J.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, V. [CIRA, UAEM, Unidad San Cayetabo, Toluca-Ixtlahuaca (Mexico); Armienta, M.A. [IGFUNAM, C. Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L. [CNRS, Univ. Montpellier (France)

    1998-07-01

    In this work are presented the results of water quality of seven springs (San Antonio Enchisi, Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Pasteje, Los Reyes, Santa Cruz and Tiacaque) and two water wells (Jocotitlan No. 2 and La Providencia No. 35) which are used for human consumption and that are located surrounding area to Jocotitlan volcano, state of Mexico. It was determined the {sup 222} Rn concentration through liquid scintillation, the {sup 226} Ra by Gamma spectroscopy, the physical-chemical parameters (major elements) and bacteriological, using standardized methods. The minor elements and trace in solution were determined by Icp-Ms mass spectroscopy. The water quality was established in function of the standing standards. Therefore Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Santa Cruz, Tiacaque springs and the Jocotitlan No. 2 well, are drinkable water. So, Pasteje, Los Reyes, San Antonio Enchisi springs and the La Providencia No. 35 well are chemically drinkable but presenting bacteriological pollution. (Author)

  5. Povidone-iodine in the treatment of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, P R; Bugyi, S

    1985-03-01

    The improvement in infusion therapy of burn patients in the last decades has led to a marked reduction of the early mortality rate and to an increase in the importance of severe wound infection and septicaemia. For the control of infection, detailed bacteriological monitoring is recommended. The main therapeutic fields for prevention of infection are: immunotherapy, antisepsis, aseptic techniques, and rapid restoration of the destroyed body surface. The most important part of antisepsis in burns is topical treatment. The good bacteriological and clinical results with povidone-iodine (PVP-I), in combination with open treatment are described. A possible disadvantage of this therapy was the extensive iodine resorption. However, no disorders of thyroid function were revealed, and the TRH test indicated no abnormal reactions of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. The high serum and urine iodine levels returned rapidly to normal after discontinuing the PVP-I application.

  6. Salmonella Enteritidis infection in young broiler chickens from breeding farm: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available old from a breeding farm not far from Bogor. Samples were examined pathologic anatomically (PA and bacteriologically to isolate the causative agents . The sensitivity of the main causative agents isolated from the samples was tested with some drugs, while its pathogenicity was tested in 3 days old chickens intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intraperitoneally and orally, three chickens per inoculations . Exudative and caseous omphalitis, pericarditis, hepatitis, sirsacculitis, and coxofemoral and knee joints were observed in PA examinations, while on bacteriological examination the main cusative agent, ie. Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated successfully . Drug sensitivity test showed that the pathogen was sensitive to chloramphenicol, baytril, gentamisin, and sulphametoxazole-trimethoprim, and resistant to erythromycin, colistin, streptomycin and kanamycin . On the other hand, pathogenicity test of the isolate showed that all but two chickens which were inoculated orally, were died 24 hours post-inoculation . It was concluded that young broiler chickens of the farm were infected by Salmonella Enteritidis.

  7. [Bacterial vaginal fluor in intrauterine contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichter, G E; Nohlen, M; Tauber, P F

    1979-11-01

    Vaginal swabs obtained from 100 IUD-users were examined bacteriologically. Fifty-one women had vaginal discharge and 49 women used as control group had no complaints originating either from the IUD or from the genital tract. In the group of IUD-users with vaginal discharge the number of bacterial isolates was higher and the cultures were more diversified. The nulliparous patients in this group exhibited more anaerobic cultures than the IUD-users without discharge. The significance of vaginal discharge in IUD-users is its function as a pool for pathogenic bacteria which may provoke and/or maintain inflammatory diseases of the female genital tract. IUD-users with vaginal discharge do therefore need not only bacteriologic diagnosis, but also consequent treatment of the discharge.

  8. Isolation of a field strain of Brucella abortus from RB51-vaccinated- and brucellosis-seronegative bovine yearlings that calved normally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Estrada, Félix Mejía; Michel-GómezFlores, Fernando; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Acosta, Rómulo Beltrán; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén

    2013-02-01

    A study was carried out in Pichucalco, Chiapas (Mexico) to determine whether recently calved cows or those that aborted shed Brucella. Serological diagnosis of brucellosis was made in all animals (209). Six of the cows that calved normally and two that aborted underwent a bacteriological study of milk and vaginal exudate. Brucella abortus was isolated from vaginal exudate samples in two 3- to 4-year-old seronegative first-birth cows that had calved normally. This was confirmed through bacteriological identification and PCR as a field strain and smooth phenotypes. We conclude that seronegative cows vaccinated with RB51 which calved normally and shed B. abortus in the vaginal exudate after calving could be a serious problem because these cows are overlooked in routine diagnoses and are a source of Brucella infection.

  9. Investigation of the pathogenesis of Enterococcus cecorum after intravenous, intratracheal or oral experimental infections of broilers and broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoefner, Ida; Christensen, Jens Peter

    in both bird types. Full post mortem (PM) and bacteriological investigation 3, and 10 days after infection were performed. Bacteriology was performed daily on the eggs from the parent birds. After IV infection of the broiler breeders (high dose) a pronounced egg drop and decreased appetite was observed....... Despite very mild or no lesions the majority of the high dose group demonstrated low grade bacteraemia at both time points. In the low dose group no lesions was observed and only 1 bird had bacteraemia. No clinical signs, PM lesion or positive bacterial re-isolation was observed. No E. cecorum could...... be detected from the egg content. In the broilers, all birds in the IV high dose group died within 12h of peracute sepsis, despite massive bacteraemia very few lesions was observed. The PM findings in the low dose IV group resembled the field outbreaks, with severe pericarditis as the major manifestation...

  10. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O. L.; Iburg, T.; Aalbæk, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus......, with the aim of mimicking human sepsis and pyemia. Methods: The study was conducted in anaesthetized and intravenously inoculated pigs, and was based on bacteriological examination of blood and testing of blood for IL-6 and C-reactive protein. Following killing of the animals and necropsy bacteriological...... and histological examinations of different organs were performed 4, 5 or 6 h after inoculation. Results: Clearance of bacteria from the blood was completed within the first 2 h in some of the pigs and the highest bacterial load was recorded in the lungs as compared to the spleen, liver and bones. This probably...

  11. [Microbiological contamination of fish in the delta of Volga].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartseva, L V; Rogatkina, I Iu; Bormotova, S V

    1997-01-01

    Examining 213 bacteriological samples from 57 pike perch has revealed the high contamination of the fish with Enterobacteria in the branchia and intestine, which spread into the viscera and tissues. In the kidney there prevalent Escherichia coli (27.3%). Enterobacteria (20.), and Edvardsiella (16.6). The liver most commonly displayed yeasts and fungi (18.2%). Citrobacteria (14.3). Acinobacteria (14.3%). Many microbial strains had proteolytic and hemolytic activities and a considerable resistance to sodium chloride (7.5%). Acinobacteria, Providencia, and Proteus remain viable in its 10% solution. The findings suggest that the foods from the pike perch should undergo thermal treatment and a thorough bacteriological monitoring from its raw material to finished products to be made.

  12. [Viridans streptococci isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Clinical significance of 9 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, D; Guerra, A; Peña, P; Molina, F

    1997-02-01

    Viridans streptococci (VS) are often isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, the significance of such isolates is poorly understood. In the present study we carry out a retrospective analysis of 9 patients in whom VS were isolated from CSF during a 1-year period at La Paz Hospital. Two patients (22.2%) had meningitis diagnosed through clinical, laboratory and bacteriologic findings. Both patients had predisposition diseases (previous difficult spinal tap, ventriculo-peritoneal shunt). The other isolations were considered as contaminants. Three patients (33.3%) with no VS meningitis had other different serious disease (sepsis without bacteriologic confirmation). VS are isolated with relative frequency from CSF, although they cause meningitis in less than one-quarter of the cases (those who have a predisposition disease). In the other cases, VS are isolated as contaminants of CSF and other disease should be search as cause of patient symptoms.

  13. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O. L.; Iburg, T.; Aalbæk, B.;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus......, with the aim of mimicking human sepsis and pyemia. Methods: The study was conducted in anaesthetized and intravenously inoculated pigs, and was based on bacteriological examination of blood and testing of blood for IL-6 and C-reactive protein. Following killing of the animals and necropsy bacteriological...... was not detected in the blood and C-reactive protein did not increase, probably because of the short time course of the study. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the successful induction of acute pyemia (microabscesses), and forms a basis for future experiments that should include inoculation with strains of S...

  14. CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY OF BACTERIAL GROWTH FROM EXOTIC COWS SUFFERING FROM ENDOMETRITIS UNDER PAKISTANI CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ali Zahid

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriology of endometritis and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates in Holstein Friesian and Jersey cows maintained at Research Institute for Physiology of Animal Reproduction, Bhunikey, District Kasur were carried out. Out of 100 samples, 89 contained different strains of bacteria and 11 were found bacteriologically sterile. Different species of bacteria isolated from these samples were, Bacillus subtilis (08.99%, Corynebacterium pyogenes (19.10%, Escherichia coli (29.21%, Neisseria meningitides (03.37%, Staphylococcus aureus (23.60%, Streptococcus pneumonia (03.37% and Streptococcus pyogenes (12.36%. The in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that the highest number of isolates (92% were sensitive to neomycin, followed by doxycyline (89%. Clindramycin showed the lowest results in terms of in vitro antibiotic sensitivity (51%.

  15. Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    subdivision of Proteobacteria, dog pathogen Ehrlichia canis and thf. human pathogen but belongs to subgroup 2 and is specifically related to Rickettsia...fever group rickettsia ? tu res: similarities to the growth cycle of Ehrlichia canis . from humans in Japan. J. Infect. Dis. 159:1122-1126. Infect. Immun...fever oroup; genotypes; Rickettsiae; Ehrlichia ; Proteobacteria; Chlamydiae; serologic relat’i’onships; bacteriology; -, " -I" taxon; phylogeny

  16. Microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES Swai

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that raw market milk in the study area is of poor bacteriological quality and hazardous for human consumption. This highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices and effective monitoring from production through the delivery chain to the consumer. Further studies are needed for detection of toxins that are produced by E. coli, other pathogenic spore forming bacteria (Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. and other harmful microorganisms.

  17. NAMRU-3 Reprint Accession List 1982. Number 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    TuberculousMeningitli. J. Clin. Lab. Inwnunol, 8:37-42, 1982. 1295 SIPPEL, I.E., EL-MASRY, N.A., FARID, Z.: Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis with ELISA. The Lancet...Hyalomma (Hyalonunina) arabica sp. N. Parasitizing Goats andSheep In the Yemen Arab Republic and Saudi Arabia. J. Parasitol., 68(1):150-156, 1982. 1298...Accession Number BACTERIOLOGY Brucellosis 1295 Identification of micro-organisms by gas-chromatography 1282 Meningitis 1294, 1302, 1305, 1311, 1321

  18. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Casalinuovo; Lucia Ciambrone; Antonio Cacia; Paola Rippa

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the ly...

  19. Små børn får hyppigt bihulebetaendelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herløv-Nielsen, Henrik; Høiby, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Children have air-filled paranasal sinuses from birth. Acute sinusitis is common in early childhood and complicates 5-13% of common colds. Bacteriology comprises 30% Streptococcus pneumoniae, 20% Haemophilus influenzae, 20% Moraxella catarrhalis. While suppurative complications are rare, there has...... been an increasing focus on comorbidity affecting the lower airways (asthma). The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria developed through microbiological studies. Antibiotic treatment is controversial, but evidence suggests an effect when the diagnosis has been made correctly. We advocate antibiotic...

  20. Usefulness of 16S rDNA sequencing for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathipati, Padmaja; Menon, Thangam; Kumar, Naveen; Francis, Thara; Sekar, Prem; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen

    2012-08-01

    We report a rare case of infective endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae in an 8-year-old boy, 2 years after a right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction with a bovine Contegra valved conduit. The patient recovered well after an RV-PA conduit enblock explantation and replacement with an aortic homograft with antibiotic treatment. All bacteriological cultures of excised tissue and blood were negative. The aetiological agent was identified as C. diphtheriae subsp. gravis by 16s rDNA sequencing.