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Sample records for bacteriological techniques

  1. Estimation of the diagnostic accuracy of the invA-gene-based PCR technique and a bacteriological culture for the detection of Salmonella spp. in caecal content from slaughtered pigs using Bayesian analysis.

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    Mainar-Jaime, R C; Atashparvar, N; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the accuracy of the invA-gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a culture technique based on pre-enrichment with buffered peptone water, three selective enrichment media (selenite, tetrathionate and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broths) and four selective, solid media (Xylose-Lysine-Tergitol-4, Salmonella/Shigella, Hekton-Enteric and MacConkey), for the detection of Salmonella organisms from caecal samples from slaughter pigs. For this purpose a latent-class (Bayesian) approach was used. Two hundred and three slaughtered pigs were used after grouping them into two groups of 96 and 107 animals. Sensitivity (Se) was estimated to be 56% (95% probability interval 40, 76) for culture and 91% (81, 97) for PCR. The specificity (Sp) of the PCR was 88% (80, 95) while the Sp of the culture had been considered 100% in the statistical analysis as all culture-positive samples were confirmed by serotyping. PCR Se was not affected by the Salmonella serotypes present in the samples analysed. Accordingly, a minimum of 25.5% of the pigs was estimated to harbour Salmonella organisms in their faeces. It was concluded that bacteriology on caecal samples alone was a poor diagnostic method, and that the PCR method could be considered a cost-effective alternative to culture in Salmonella monitoring programmes. However, given the moderate Sp of this molecular technique, PCR-positive samples should be further confirmed through bacteriology.

  2. Pasteur, Koch and American bacteriology.

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    Gossel, P P

    2000-01-01

    This study traces American awareness of the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch from the 1860s to the 1890s. In the years before the Civil War, American interest in germ theories had appeared at times of epidemics and persisted to a limited extent among physician-microscopists. Discussions of Pasteur's work occurred primarily in the context of spontaneous generation and antisepsis. Few Americans imitated his work on immunology or studied with Pasteur, but his work on immunity influenced their faith in the potential of bacteriology as a solution to problems of infectious disease. Koch's discoveries of the bacterial agents of tuberculosis and cholera stimulated American medical and public health interest in bacteriology in a more practical way. Americans learned Koch's methods by taking his courses and imported them directly into their own laboratories. A context of enthusiasm for science, educational reform, and problems of infectious disease associated with urbanization and changes in agriculture aided the growth of bacteriology in the American context.

  3. Bacteriological examination of gallbladder contents

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    Petaković Goran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute calculous (obstructive cholecystitis develops as a consequence of cystic obstruction and obstruction of bile flow into choledochus. Most often it is a result of impacted gallstones in Hartman's pouch or the cystic duct. Their direct pressure on gallbladder mucosa causes ischemia, necrosis and ulceration with consequential wall edema and obstructed venous flow. This mechanism is further increasing and spreading the inflammatory process. Ulcerations may be that extensive, that mucosa is highly recognizable on the microscopic preparation. Leukocyte infiltration of all segments occurs. Results of necrosis are as follows: perforation with pericholecystic abscess formation, fistulization or biliary peritonitis. Aim The aim of this investigation was to use microbial sensitivity tests in order to establish possibilities of antibiotic therapy in patients with acute cholecystitis. Material and methods Using random sampling a total of 240 patients with acute cholecystitis were included in the investigation. They were all treated at the Clinic of Abdominal and Endocrine Surgery of the Clinical Center Novi Sad in the period 1997-1999. All patients underwent bacteriological examination and were coherent in regard to sex and age. Microbial sensitivity tests analyzed two groups of bacteria: Group I Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus and Group II: other isolated bacteria (Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Proteus, Pseudomonas Serratia and Streptococcus. Results In our material Escherichia coli was isolated in most patients - 32 (55.17%, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus in 6 (10.34% patients and Streptococcus in 4 (6.90%, whereas other bacteria were infrequent (Citrobacter and Serratia in 3.45%, Enterobacter, Proteus and Pseudomonas in 1.75%. Thus, E. coli, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus were established in 75.85% of bacteriologic findings, and all the rest in 24.15%. Assessment regarding premedication with antibiotics started

  4. Bacteriological Profile of Epidural Catheters

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    B. M. Sahay, Sanjot Dahake, D. K Mendiratta*,Vijayshree Deotale*,B. Premendran, P.S.Dhande, Pratibha Narang*

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriological profile of epidural catheters was studied in 88 patients. Skin swabs before catheterizationand before removal of catheter with their controls were cultured in TSB Medium. The catheter hub, theportion at the skin puncture site and at the tip were cultured in TSB Medium. The 1cm of the catheter bitjust before the tip was cultured in TGB medium for anaerobes.Both, the skin controls swabs and theanaerobic culture, were negative. From the remaining, 56 positive cultures were obtained. Staphylococcusepidermidis was the predominant organism in 52% followed by staphylococcus aureus 25%. The remaining23% was shared by Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and E. coli. All the positive cultures fromskin prior to epidural catheterization had turned sterile by 48 hours, indicating continued bactericidal actionof the disinfectant. The likely source of positive skin cultures at 48 hours is hair follicles.The catheter tipculture was positive in 9 specimen, none of which resulted in the formation of epidural abscess. In 3 casesthe cultures of skin puncture site and the tip were identical indicating tracking-in of the organisms.

  5. Water Treatment Technology - Chemistry/Bacteriology.

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    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chemistry/bacteriology provides instructional materials for twelve competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: waterborne diseases, water sampling…

  6. Bacteriological study of fish meal in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of fish-meal production in Peru is pointed out, and the methods of manufacture are described. The bacteriological status at different stages of the fish-meal production process is reviewed. It is stated that the bacterial count of fish meal is related to the bacterial count of fish pools, the environmental sanitation in ship holds and factories and the method of preserving the fish meal. (author). 7 refs, 4 tabs

  7. Molecular analysis of single room humidifier bacteriology.

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    Hull, Natalie M; Reens, Abigail L; Robertson, Charles E; Stanish, Lee F; Harris, J Kirk; Stevens, Mark J; Frank, Daniel N; Kotter, Cassandra; Pace, Norman R

    2015-02-01

    Portable, single-room humidifiers are commonly used in homes for comfort and health benefits, but also create habitats for microbiology. Currently there is no information on home humidifier microbiology aside from anecdotal evidence of infection with opportunistic pathogens and irritation from endotoxin exposure. To obtain a broader perspective on humidifier microbiology, DNAs were isolated from tap source waters, tank waters, and biofilm samples associated with 26 humidifiers of ultrasonic and boiling modes of operation in the Front Range of Colorado. Humidifiers sampled included units operated by individuals in their homes, display models continuously operated by a retail store, and new humidifiers operated in a controlled laboratory study. The V1V2 region of the rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the taxonomic composition of humidifier samples. Communities encountered were generally low in richness and diversity and were dominated by Sphingomonadales, Rhizobiales, and Burkholderiales of the Proteobacteria, and MLE1-12, a presumably non-photosynthetic representative of the cyanobacterial phylum. Very few sequences of potential health concern were detected. The bacteriology encountered in source waters sampled here was similar to that encountered in previous studies of municipal drinking waters. Source water bacteriology was found to have the greatest effect on tank water and biofilm bacteriology, an effect confirmed by a controlled study comparing ultrasonic and boiler humidifiers fed with tap vs. treated (deionized, reverse osmosis, 0.2 μm filtered) water over a period of two months. PMID:25574772

  8. Bacteriological evaluation for one-and two-piece implant design supporting mandibular overdenture

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    Ahmed Abdelwahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated and compared the bacteriological effect of two-piece implants and one-piece implants in complete overdenture cases on supporting structures. Materials and Methods: Ten male completely edentulous patients were selected and randomly divided into two equal groups according to the implant design and surgical technique for this study; Group 1: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by two-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch following two-stage surgical technique and Group 2: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side. Evaluation was made at the time of insertion, 6, 12, and 18 months after overdenture insertion, by measuring bacteriological changes around implants abutments. Results: Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants showed better effect on the bacteriological changes as compared to that supported by two-piece implants. Conclusion: Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch showed better effect on the bacteriological changes than using the same prosthesis supported by two-piece implants.

  9. Bacteriological evaluation of wounds in seriously burned hospitalized patients

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    Sueli de Lourdes Nogueira Vilela Silva

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period between May and December 1988, 21 patients were studied bacteriologically at Hospital João XXIII's burn's unit which belongs to "Fundação Hospitalar do Estado de Minas Gerais" in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of aerobic and facultative bacteria from burn wounds was carried out by the standard filter paper disc technique, including antibiotic susceptibility. At the same time an evaluation of those bacteria isolated from the environmental unit was performed. The most common organisms recovered from wounds of patients were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. P. pseudomallei was the most frequent strain recovered from environmental specimens. In nearly all patients specimens (16 in total from whom P. aeruginosa was isolated, the rate of CFU/cm² of skin was above 10². In nine of these, it reached 10(5, wich is equivalent to 10(7 CFU/g of burned tissue.

  10. [BACTERIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF AN ACUTE APPENDICITIS].

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    Zhuchenko, O P

    2016-03-01

    Peculiarities of microflora in the appendix mucosa and abdominal exudate in different morphological forms of an acute appendicitis (AA) were studied up. In accordance to the bacteriological investigations data, anaerobic, and aerobic microorganisms in AA were revealed in a monoculture and in association, more frequently--obligate anaer- obes (bacteroids) with E. coli--in 82 (80.39%) observations, staphylococcus--in 52 (50.98%), fecal streptococcus--in 19 (18.63%). With progression of inflammatory process and destructive changes in the appendix wall the quantity of bacteroids and enterobacteria have had enhanced, while the quantity of lacto- and bifidumflora-- reduced. PMID:27514082

  11. Bacteriologic findings in tonsillitis and pericoronitis.

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    Rajasuo, A; Jousimies-Somer, H; Savolainen, S; Leppänen, J; Murtomaa, H; Meurman, J H

    1996-07-01

    Bacteriologic samples from 31 young men were cultured quantitatively for aerobes and anaerobes; these samples included 31 specimens of tonsils (16 infected and 15 healthy), 16 specimens from pericoronal pockets of lower third molars (11 infected and 5 symptom-free), and 6 postoperative specimens from lower-third-molar extraction sockets. Anaerobes were isolated more often from infected third molars than from infected tonsils (14.5 isolates vs. 8.4 isolates, respectively; P pericoronal pocket samples. Thus, partial eruption of lower third molars increases the number of anaerobic bacterial species on tonsils and many species can be isolated simultaneously from both tonsils and lower third molars.

  12. Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis, the prophet of bacteriology.

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    Wyklicky, H; Skopec, M

    1983-01-01

    Although by 1931 I. Ph. Semmelweis' achievements and the tragedy of his life had been given their due place in the history of mankind, Alexander Fränkel, formerly Theodor Billroth's assistant and later his biographer, critically stated that the discoverer of the causes of puerperal fever should have defended his discovery with facts rather than with fanaticism. It was only a few years after Semmelweis' death, for instance, that Billroth made laborious experiments. Billroth's work on Coccobacteria had important implications and even influenced Robert Koch, although his hypotheses did not really predict the pathogenic and specific nature of microbes. In 1847 Semmelweis postulated his theory; ie, that the pathological-anatomical changes which he observed in the bodies of the women who died in childbed, in their newborn infants, and in the autopsy findings on his friend Jakob Kolletschka were an entity, morphologically and clinically. He summed them up under the concept of pyemia. Even though Semmelweis was continually abhorred by the evident statistics and would have been able to prove his discovery through animal experiments, he primarily took to the pen to defend his opinion vehemently. Only the clinical facts proved him right during his lifetime; the triumph of bacteriology which began after his death made him not only the "savior of mothers" but also a genial ancestor of bacteriology. PMID:6354955

  13. CLINICO-BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VESICAL CALCULUS

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    Pushpendra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vesical calculi are the most common manifestation of lower urinary tract lithiasis. Urinary infections play an important role in aetiopathogenesis of vesical calculi. OBJECTIVE Aim of this study was proposed to establish the bacteriology of stone and urine in an attempt to evaluate the role of infection in the formation of stone. Associated factors like age, sex, site of infection, obstruction, diet were also evaluated. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS The patients were admitted in surgical ward as provisional diagnosed cases of vesical calculus, were subjected to investigations including CBC, RBS, urine analysis, renal function test, x-ray KUB region and ultrasonography. Patients who were fit for surgery, various surgical procedures were done. Gross examination and core culture of stone was done to establish their aetiology. RESULTS Ninety-four patients with vesical calculus were evaluated. Incidence of vesical calculus was 1.13%. Majority of cases were from rural areas (92.55%. Urinary tract infection was present in 37.2% of cases, majority of cases urine culture was positive (30.95%. Core culture of stone was positive in 18 cases (25.17%. E. coli was the predominant organism both in urine culture (19.04% and core culture of stone (25.71%. CONCLUSIONS There is significant association regarding the presence of vesical calculi and the development of urinary infections. E. coli was the predominant organism found both in urine and core culture of stone.

  14. Association of Sanitary Conditions and Bacteriological Quality of Tube Ice in Ice Plants in Metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand

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    Kraichat Tantrakarnapa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aimed at studying the correlation between ice plant sanitary conditions and bacteriological quality of ice. The sanitary conditions in accordance with GMP regulations, the bacteriological quality of tube ice, and the processing water in 20 plants in Bangkok were studied. A modified inspection form from the Office of Food and Drug Administration was used for sanitary condition surveys. Ice and processing water samples were collected 2 times per plant with 3 samples each time. All 120 samples were analyzed for bacteriological quality by means of Standard Plate Count technique (Pour plate method and Most Probable Number technique (MPN method. The results indicated that forty percent (8 Tube plants failed and the remaining passed sanitary condition criteria. 23% of Tube Ice samples were acceptable in the standard permission level in terms of Total coliform bacteria and Fecal coliform bacteria. All Tube Ice plant processing water samples were acceptable in comparison with the standard permission level. Ice plant sanitary conditions were significantly correlated to bacteriological quality of the ice (p<0.05. Ice plant manufacturers should develop and implement Sanitary Standard and Operational Procedures (S.S.O.P. in accordance with all GMP requirements to improve Ice plant sanitary conditions.

  15. Bacteriological study of diabetic foot infections.

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    Khairul Azmi ABD KADIR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foot infections are one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus and a significant risk factor for lower extremity amputation. Providing effective antimicrobial therapy is an important component in treating these infections. This study assesses the microbial isolates of patients with diabetic foot infections and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 75 patients with diabetic foot infections admitted to RIPAS hospital between June 2008 and June 2010 was undertaken. Bacteriological specimens were obtained and processed using standard hospital procedure for microbiological culture and sensitivity testing. Results: Overall, 40 (54% patients had subcutaneous infections, 22 (29% had infected superficial ulcers, seven (9% had infected deep ulcers involving muscle tissues and six (8% had osteomyelitis. A total of 98 pathogens were isolated. Forty percent of the patients had polymicrobial infection, 39 (52% had single organism and 6(8% had no growth. Gram-negative bacteria (67% were more commonly isolated than gram-positive bacteria (30%. The three most frequently found gram-negative organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.3%, and Acinetobacter spp. (10.2% and gram-positive organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (10.2%, Streptococcus pyogenes (7.1% and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] (7.1%. Vancomycin was found to be the most effective against gram-positive bacteria while amikacin was the most effective against gram-negative bacteria based on antibiotic testing. Conclusion: In 40% of diabetic feet infection was polymicrobial. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common gram-positive and gram-negative organisms respectively. This study helps us to choose the empirical antibiotics for cases of diabetic foot infections.

  16. The BACTLAB system - a data system for bacteriological routine.

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    Bergqvist, F; Bengtsson, S

    1975-03-01

    An implemented version of a data system for routine bacteriology is described which uses punch cards to capture all administrative data and OMR (optical mark recognition) documents for the bacteriological findings: diagnosis, antibiotic sensitivity patterns, phage type etc. The output includes reports for the customers and report lists for the laboratory, as well as surveys over findings of pertinent bacteria produced twice each month. In addition bills are produced at regular intervals, both for hospitals and for private patients. All results are stored on magnetic tape in order to make later analysis possible. The system has also been adapted for use in a research project for the study of postoperative infections. PMID:1139914

  17. [Method and procedures in bacteriological study of necrotic teeth].

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    Rodríguez-Ponce, A; López Campos, A; López Paz, J; Pazos Sierra, R

    1991-01-01

    Research was conducted of 160 radicular canals with necrotic pulp. Results of different bacteriological analyses are presented. Culture analyses in aerobic and anaerobic media, resulted in the isolation of Staphylococcus Epidermidis, Streptococcus Viridans and Corynebacterium sp in the group studied, as the most frequent bacteria. There was no evidence of a specific germ linked with the pulp necrosis. PMID:1659855

  18. [Method and procedures in bacteriological study of necrotic teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ponce, A; López Campos, A; López Paz, J; Pazos Sierra, R

    1991-01-01

    Research was conducted of 160 radicular canals with necrotic pulp. Results of different bacteriological analyses are presented. Culture analyses in aerobic and anaerobic media, resulted in the isolation of Staphylococcus Epidermidis, Streptococcus Viridans and Corynebacterium sp in the group studied, as the most frequent bacteria. There was no evidence of a specific germ linked with the pulp necrosis.

  19. Constructing COMSOL Models of a Bacteriological Fuel Cell

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    Coker, Robert; Mansell, James

    2012-01-01

    We show very initial work on a specific bioelectrochemical system (BES), a bacteriologically driven 'fuel cell' (BFS), that is intended to process waste products, such as CO2 and brine. (1) Processing is the priority, not power generation (2) Really a Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC)

  20. Bacteriologic results from 4,000 root canal cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.C.; Amerongen, J. van

    1959-01-01

    The bacteriologic results from more than 4,000 root canal cultures are discussed. Streptococci form 61 per cent of the isolated organisms. Among these, the group of hemolytic, indifferent, and indifferent anaerobic streptococci, mainly belonging to serologic groups F, G, and C, seem the most serious

  1. Clinical and bacteriological study of the effect of Nd:YAG laser in gingivitis therapy

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    Colojoara, Carmen; Mavrantoni, Androniki; Miron, Mariana I.

    2000-06-01

    The relationship between dental plaque and gingivitis was verified. Nonspecific gingivitis is an inflammatory process, frequently caused by enzymes and toxins liberate by bacteria form dental plaque. Loose plaque has come under a great deal of investigation because of its role in attachment loss. The current methods used in the treatment of non specific gingivitis encompass the use of antibiotics and conventional surgical techniques. Treating gingivitis with laser energy may further reduce the gingival inflammation and decrease the wound healing time. The lack of correlation between the quantity of dental plaque and the intensity of gingivitis determined us to study the effect of Nd:YAG pulsed laser in reduction of gingival inflammation and wound healing. The aim of this work is to evaluate clinically the anti- inflammatory and wound healing effect of pulsed Nd:YAG laser and to compare the appearance and the levels of the bacteria in the supergingival and subgingival plaque in adolescents with tooth crowding after Nd:YAG laser. The experimental procedure consisted of a clinical and bacteriological study which was undertaken in 20 patients presenting moderate gingivitis. A group of 10 patients was the subject of a bacteriological study and the other group of 10 was used for clinical and histological examination. For each group the clinical criteria of evaluation were: the gingival index, papillary bleeding index, spontaneous aches. Each patient was tested before and after laser exposure or conventional therapy for bacteriological analyses. The results prove that early gingivitis exposure to laser registers a decrease of bacterial colony number and absence of loss of attachment as compared to the application of the conventional treatment. Clinical study has shown that the combination of scaling and root planning with laser therapy is enough to provide improvement in clinical indices and reduction in the number of bacterial colonies.

  2. Bacteriological evaluation of wounds in seriously burned hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli de Lourdes Nogueira Vilela Silva

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period between May and December 1988, 21 patients were studied bacteriologically at Hospital João XXIII's burn's unit which belongs to "Fundação Hospitalar do Estado de Minas Gerais" in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of aerobic and facultative bacteria from burn wounds was carried out by the standard filter paper disc technique, including antibiotic susceptibility. At the same time an evaluation of those bacteria isolated from the environmental unit was performed. The most common organisms recovered from wounds of patients were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. P. pseudomallei was the most frequent strain recovered from environmental specimens. In nearly all patients specimens (16 in total from whom P. aeruginosa was isolated, the rate of CFU/cm² of skin was above 10². In nine of these, it reached 10(5, wich is equivalent to 10(7 CFU/g of burned tissue.No período de maio a dezembro de 1988, foram avaliados bacteriologicamente 21 pacientes da Unidade de Queimados do Hospital João XXIII pertencente à Fundação Hospitalar do Estado de Minas Gerais, em Belo Horizonte, Brasil. A avaliação qualitativa e quantitativa de bactérias aeróbicas e facultativas de queimaduras foi realizada através da técnica do disco de papel de filtro padronizado, incluindo a susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos. Ao mesmo tempo, foi realizada uma avaliação das bactérias isoladas do ambiente da Unidade. Os microrganismos mais frequentemente recuperados das feridas dos pacientes foram: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis. A espécie P. pseudomallei foi a mais frequente nos espécimes ambientais. Em quase todos os espécimes de pacientes dos quais P. aeruginosa (16 pacientes foi isolada, a taxa CFU/cm² de pele estava acima de 10². Em nove destes, alcançou 10(5, o que equivale a 10(7 CFU/g de tecido queimado.

  3. Bacteriological quality of some swimming pools in Alexandria with special reference to Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Masoud, Ghada; Abbass, Aleya; Abaza, Amani; Hazzah, Walaa

    2016-07-01

    Swimming pools have been identified as posing some public health risks to users due to either bacterial or chemical contamination. As a result, maintaining good swimming pool water quality is an important issue in preventing health risks for bathers. This study aimed to evaluate the bacteriological quality of some swimming pools in Alexandria and to investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in water samples. A total of 120 water samples from 10 swimming pools were collected. Bacteriological analysis included heterotrophic plate count (HPC) using pour plate method; enumeration of total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and S. aureus by membrane filtration technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on isolated S. aureus. Residual chlorine and pH were measured at swimming pools side. HPC was the least complying microbial parameter, followed by TC. S. aureus was recovered from 18 samples; 9 isolates were methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA), compared to E. coli that was detected in 7 samples. HPC and TC showed statistically significant correlations with all investigated parameters. In conclusion, the examined pools showed poor quality regarding all examined parameters collectively according to the Egyptian guidelines, which necessitates implementation of proper measures to ensure safer environment in swimming pools. PMID:27312255

  4. Asepsis and bacteriology: a realignment of surgery and laboratory science.

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    Schlich, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the origins of aseptic surgery in the German-speaking countries. It interprets asepsis as the outcome of a mutual realignment of surgery and laboratory science. In that process, phenomena of surgical reality were being modelled and simplified in the bacteriological laboratory so that they could be subjected to control by the researcher's hands and eyes. Once control was achieved, it was being extended to surgical practice by recreating the relevant features of the controlled laboratory environment in the surgical work place. This strategy can be seen in the adoption of Robert Koch's bacteriology by German-speaking surgeons, and the resulting technical changes of surgery, leading to a set of beliefs and practices, which eventually came to be called 'asepsis'.

  5. Bacteriological aspects of treatment failures in streptococcal tonsillitis

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Eva

    1986-01-01

    ß-hemolytic streptococci persist in 10-25% of patients with acute streptococal tonsillitis (about 10.000-25.000 per year in Sweden) in spite of treatment with a recommended dosage and schedule of Phenoxymethylpenicillin. The aim of the study was to investigate different bacteriological factors involved in treatment failures of streptococcal tonsillitis. Patients included in the study were 33 patients who underwent tonsillectomy, 62 persons included in a tonsillitis epidemic outbreak, 267 tons...

  6. Primary subacute hematogenous osteomyelitis in children: a clearer bacteriological etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Spyropoulou, Vasiliki; Dhouib Chargui, Amira; Merlini, Laura; Samara, Eleftheria; Valaikaite, Raimonda; Kampouroglou, Georgios; Ceroni, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to describe the spectrum of pediatric primary subacute hematogenous osteomyelitis (PSAHO) and to investigate its bacterial etiology. Methods Sixty-five consecutive cases of PSAHO admitted to our institution over a 16-year period (2000–2015) were retrospectively reviewed to assess their laboratory and radiographic imaging features, as well as their bacteriological etiology. Results On evaluation, white blood cell count and C-reactive protein were normal in 53 (81.5 ...

  7. Lepra: various etiologies from miasma to bacteriology and genetics.

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    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sak, Jarosław; Suchodolska, Elżbieta; Virmond, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by a close relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Mycobacterium leprae. There have been various beliefs in its etiology with two main concepts emerging: anticontagion and contagion. From ancient times through the early Middle Ages, the miasmatic theory of leprosy was the main anticontagion view. The development of histopathologic and cytologic studies in the second half of the 19th century provided a starting point to explain the etiology of leprosy bacteriologically. PMID:25432805

  8. Lepra: various etiologies from miasma to bacteriology and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sak, Jarosław; Suchodolska, Elżbieta; Virmond, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by a close relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Mycobacterium leprae. There have been various beliefs in its etiology with two main concepts emerging: anticontagion and contagion. From ancient times through the early Middle Ages, the miasmatic theory of leprosy was the main anticontagion view. The development of histopathologic and cytologic studies in the second half of the 19th century provided a starting point to explain the etiology of leprosy bacteriologically.

  9. Some Studies On Bacteriological Profile Of Kidney Stone

    OpenAIRE

    S. D. Deokar And D. G. Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Most of the antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance studies focus on isolates from hospitalized patients.In the present investigation a retrospective analysis of microbiological data of antimicrobial susceptibility ofbacterial Urinary Isolates of Urolithiasis from the hospitals in the Barshi town was performed. Such studies had notbeen undertaken earlier in this region. The bacteriological studies of urinary stone included samples from sixty six(66) cases of Urolithiasis. Thirty three (33) ...

  10. Distribution of Infections and Bacteriological Spectrum in Crush Syndrome

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    Fadime ERSOY DURSUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This research was designed as a therapeutic and prognostic study to assess the clinical and bacteriological examination findings of crush syndrome patients admitted to our hospital after the Bingol earthquake. MATERIAL and METHODS: A retrospective assessment was carried out on the medical records of the patients with Crush syndrome. Sixteen patients were admitted to the nephrology department after the earthquake. The patients had a mean age of 23 ± 13 years and a mean time spent under rubble of 10.3 ± 7 hours. A total of 16 fasciotomy procedures were carried out in 16 of 11 cases (68%, while 9 of these cases had surgical wounds complicated by infection. RESULTS: Microbiology tests detected bacteriological agents in 88 of 43 (49% specimens collected from 16 of 13 (81% patients. The major bacterial isolates from wound infections included Acinetobacter (46%, Escherichia coli (23% and coagulase negative Staphylococci (14%. Increased length of hospitalization resulted in supervening of secondary bacterial infections. No patients who received treatment died, however a patient surviving a cardiac arrest later developed ischemic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: Infections are a major problem in crush syndrome, but we suggest that early and vigorous care and appropriate prophylactic antibiotic treatment play a key role in decreased mortality.

  11. Improvement of bacteriological quality of frozen chicken by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible use of gamma irradiation at doses of 1.6 to 4.0 kGy to improve bacteriological quality of frozen chicken was investigated. The effects of gamma irradiation on salmonella viability in frozen chicken and on sensory quality of frozen chicken were also evaluated. D10-values for different isolated strains of salmonella in frozen chicken varied from 0.41 to 0.57 kGy. A dose of 4 kGy is required for a seven log cycle reduction of salmonella contamination in frozen chicken. Approximately 21 per cent of frozen chicken examined were contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium, salmonella virchow, and salmonella java were predominant. Irradiation of frozen chicken at a minimum dose of 3.2 kGy eliminated salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and, in addition, reduced baterial load by 2 log cycles. Faecal streptococci was still present in a 3.2 kGy samples but in a very small percentage and the count was not over 100 colonies per g. Discoloring of chicken meat was noted after a 2 kGy treatment. The sensory quality of frozen chicken irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy tended to decrease during frozen storage but was within the acceptable range on a nine point hedonic scale even after eight months of frozen storage. Dosage at 3.2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality of frozen chicken

  12. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities. PMID:26806135

  13. 9 CFR 147.11 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of salmonella. 147.11 Section 147.11 Animals and Animal Products... procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of salmonella. (a) For egg- and meat-type chickens... 25 birds, and birds from Salmonella enteritidis (SE) positive environments should be cultured...

  14. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality assessment of shallow wells in Kitui town, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulus Abila

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Kitui town, a small but fast growing town in arid south-eastern Kenya faces unreliable water supply and residents are highly dependent on shallow wells as the main source of water for domestic use. A study was carried out to assess the physical-chemical and bacteriological quality of water from shallow wells within the town’s main residential areas. 96 water samples were collected from 8 main residential estates within the town between May and July 2011 and analysed for physical-chemical characteristics and bacterial quantity and species. Water analysis revealed presence of 9 pathogenic genera including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Vibrio, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Multiple-tube fermentation technique was used to enumerate coliform bacteria in water. Total aerobic bacterial load ranged from 3.70 x102 to 2.352 x103 CFU/ml. E. Coli was isolated from Majengo and Mjini estates only and the bacterial load estimated as 1.10 x102 CFU/ml and 0.20 x102 CFU/ml respectively while Salmonella sp. was isolated from water samples from Kunda Kindu, JICA and Mjini estates. Conductivity and pH levels were above World Health Organization acceptable levels for drinking water in all samples. All samples tested did not meet the WHO bacteriological standards for drinking water. The presence of Salmonella, Vibrio, Listeria and E. Coli should particularly raise serious public health concerns over the quality of the town’s shallow wells water. Intervention measures including creating awareness and educating residents on shallow well construction, citing and care, boiling of water and improving sanitation should be urgently instituted. There is also need to construct sewerage works for the rapidly expanding Kitui town to reduce incidences of contamination from septic tanks.

  15. AERO-BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VEGETABLES MARKET AT JABALPUR

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    A. K. Pathak ، K. S. Verma

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban and rural vegetable markets of India characterized by mass activity with a little sanitary measure are responsible for generation of higher quantity of aerosols containing biotic and abiotic components. The aerosols generated in due course of mechanical disturbance, contain many organic compounds enable to sensitize vital respiratory organs of local inhabitants. Inhalation of airborne microorganisms can expose workers to risks from infection, toxicosis and allergy. The presence of non-spore forming gram-negative bacteria in air due to the mechanical areosolization indicates higher rate of dissemination of pollutants in these occupation associated areas. The present aero-bacteriological investigation included enumeration, identification and numerical analysis of different types of culturable airborne bacteria with inhalable fraction of gram-negative bacteria in the vegetable market of the city of Jabalpur, in order to measure the degree of aerobiopollution for this environment. The aero-bacteriological sampling has been done fortnightly for a period of one year. Samples were cultured based on standard methods. The survey revealed that in this type of atmosphere, environmental factors were responsible for the persistence of airborne bacteria with variable effects. The major contributors for aerosol generation were other mechanical activities, since this site is classified under human activity-enriched and highly trafficked site. The bioload of this atmosphere was recorded as high as 2.9 x 103 bacterial carrying particles per cubic meter during winter, dominated by both inhalable and non inhalable fractions of gram-negative bacteria. In summer, soil-borne bacteria were reported dominant in the air. High humidity and low temperature were the major factors for dissemination and distribution of gram-negative bacilli. A regression model with upto 43% variance was prepared in order to predict the bioload for this atmosphere in relation to

  16. Bacteriological evaluation of the non-struvite nephrolithiasis and its association with urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the bacteriological features in non-struvite nephrolithiasis and in its associated urinary tract infection, and to establish the relationship between the two pathologies.

  17. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Radhwane Saidi; Djamel Khelef; Rachid Kaidi

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed ​​Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showe...

  18. Bacteriological Indicators on The Environment and in Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruvalcaba Ledezma Jesús Carlos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background.Mexico has public health problems due to its inadequate systems for sewage treatment, sanitation means and low income and economic levels, which influence the increase of disease manifestation. Objective.Determine seasonal variations, frequency and distribution of enterobacteriaairborne aerosols incoming from “San Juan de Dios” River. It is worth mentioning that, these bacteria possess antimicrobial and heavy metals resistance, such as to Pb, Cr, and Cd, and their hemolytic profile.Materials and Methods.Therefore, an ecological study was conducted during the seasons of summer and autumn. Results.822 enterobacteria strains were collected,from which 723 were identified under 18 genres and 40 species, from which 63.90% corresponding to summer and 36.09% to the autumn season. As a critical sampling, point number 2 showed to have 265 colony forming units during summer and 124 during autumn. 48 strains had beta-hemolytic profile; the 68.57% of identified strains showed resistance to more than two antibiotics in reference of Pb, Cd and Cr to which also showed resistance. Conclusion. Enter bacteriological recoverability shows values above 1x103 Gram negative/m3 of air, as risk factors for human health; which allows (due to their characteristics their implementation as useful indicators of risk exposure.

  19. Seasonal bacteriological analysis of Barak River, Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Bibhas; Sharma, G. D.

    2013-09-01

    The present study was aimed at estimating the seasonal variation of human pathogenic bacteria in different sites of the Barak River. Water samples were collected in different seasons of the year from four sites of the river for physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. Total alkalinity showed a rising trend during summer and winter seasons. In contrast, the values declined during monsoon season. pH values, however, showed a narrow range of fluctuations over the seasons as well as among the study sites. In the site Panchgram higher value of dissolved oxygen was observed during monsoon season which gradually declined attaining minimum during winter season. During monsoon season, the free carbon dioxide (FCO2) value was found to be high whereas lower values of FCO2 were observed during summer and winter seasons. All samples were found to have total viable count (TVC) higher than those prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (ISI, 1991). The TVC was higher in monsoon season as compared to summer and winter. The total coliform count was also relatively higher in monsoon season than summer and winter in all the sites. Pseudomonas spp. was recorded from all sites in all seasons which were higher in monsoon in comparison to other seasons. The highest value of MPN was found in the site Panchgram and Annapurnaghat (1,600 MPN/100 ml) during monsoon season and lowest was found in the site Katakhal (110 MPN/100 ml) during winter season.

  20. AEROBIC BACTERIOLOGY OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA: OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh V .

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a condition of the middle ear that is characterized by persistent or recurrent discharge through a chronic perforation of the tympanic membrane from the middle ear cleft. Untreated cases of Chronic Suppurative Oti tis Media can result in a broad range of complications like mastoiditis, labyrinthitis, facial nerve paralysis and serious intracranial complications. In this study an attempt is made to know the aerobic bacteriology of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, wi th antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolates. The present prospective study was carried out on 50 patients presenting with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media between January 2014 to December 2014 in the department of E.N.T, Basaveshwara Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chitradurga. The most common bacteria in Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media in this study was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (62% followed by Staphylococcus aureus (22%. Gentamicin was the most sensitive (100% antibio tic against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Amikacin (96.77%. Ceftriaxone and Gentamicin were the most sensitive (100% antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus followed by Amikacin (90.9%

  1. Bacteriological quality of icecream marketed in Thrissur town, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ambily

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the bacteriological quality of ice creams marketed in Thrissur town, Kerala. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven ice cream samples randomly collected from selected retail outlets and street vendors in the town over a period of two months were analyzed for total viable count and for the presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results: Total Viable Count ranged from 1.2 x 10 2 to 8.2 x 10 3 CFU/g in industrial brands whereas in street vendor samples it was high in the range of 5.2 x 10 5 to 6.6 x 10 6 CFU/g. Coliform counts were high in 30 % of the samples. 27 % of the samples had high Staphylococcal count. E coli were isolated from two samples from street vendors and Salmonella spp. from one of the samples. Listeria spp. was not isolated from any of the samples. Conclusion: The presence of potential pathogens in the ice cream samples reveals the significance of implementation of quality control measures in marketing ice creams thus reducing the public health hazards. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 738-741

  2. Bacteriological Characteristics of Fresh Ostrich Sausage (Linguiça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate bacteriological characteristics and shelf life of three formulations of ostrich sausages (linguiças, only differing in lean meat percentage: Formula 1, 100% ostrich meat; Formula 2, 75% ostrich meat + 25% pork; and Formula 3, 50% ostrich meat + 25% pork + 25% chicken. All linguiças were vacuum-packed and stored at 5 ± 2ºC. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, sulfite-reducing Clostridia, coagulase-positive Staphylococci, and Escherichia coli were enumerated and Salmonella spp were isolated and identified. Initial mesophilic and psychotropic bacteria counts were high. During storage time, sulfite-reducing Clostridia, coagulase-positive Staphylococci, and Escherichia colicounts never reached the tolerance limit established by the Brazilian legislation. However, Salmonellawas isolated from a Formula 2 sample on day 1, therefore, it was considered inappropriate for consumption. The shelf lives of Formulas 1 and 3 were below 12 and 8 days, respectively. If initial bacterial counts had been lower, the shelf life of the evaluated formulas would probably be longer. This study showed that ostrich meat trimmings can be successfully used in the production of ostrich linguiças, and that the formula containing ostrich meat as the only source of lean meat presented the longest shelf life.

  3. Irradiation of Dried Albumin from Cattle Blood: A Bacteriological Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have undertaken a bacteriological study of irradiated albumin obtained from the blood of cattle. The albumin was obtained by drying blood collected in bulk at a slaughterhouse of the Argentine Meat Producers Corporation. The blood was separated by centrifuging into two fractions, white and red, the white fraction containing plasma, leukocytes and platelets, and the red fraction consisting of erythrocytes. The albumin is contaminated by microbes due to: (a) the impossibility of extracting the amount of blood involved (100 000 litres daily) under aseptic conditions; (b) transport of microbes in the blood during slaughter; (c) possible contamination by the blood of sick animals (veterinary examinations are carried out after extraction of the blood); (d) contamination caused by actual carcass processing. At present this material is used as a fertilizer, and for other industrial applications, but only in a minor degree for human nutrition. The reaction of the bacterial flora to gamma radiation was studied with the aid of a Gamma cell 220 apparatus operating in the dose range-0.5-4 Mrad. In the first test the whole material was irradiated, and total and differential counts performed for the purpose of identifying the different strains. The isolated bacterial flora was then studied together with the particular response, in each case, to different doses. The authors describe changes in the biochemical behaviour of some strains after irradiation. (author)

  4. A STUDY OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCER AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajila Nalakath

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: Diabetic foot infection is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Appropriate antibiotic therapy is required to reduce complication. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the bacteriological profile of diabetic foot ulcer and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of organisms. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A retrospective study was conducted in 290 patients presented with diabetic foot ulcer , in KIMS hospital in the year of 2013 . Swab technique was used to collect samples. RESULTS: A total of 372 was isolates obtained from 290 patients. Mono - microbial infection was found to be more than poly - microbial infection. Gram negative bacilli was found to be more prevalent than gram posit ive cocci. The commonest isolate was Pseudomonas (23.7% , followed by klebsiella (21.7%. The commonest gram positive organisms was enterococcus (17.5% , followed by Staphyococcus aureus (16.6%. Pseudomonas showed multidrug resistance. None of the cocci w ere resistant to vancomycin. CONCLUSION: Diabetic foot ulcers are one of the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients , appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential to prevent complications in these patients. Wound infection begin superficia lly , but with delay in treatment and impaired body defense can lead to catastrophic outcome. KEYWORDS: Diabetic Foot Ulcer.

  5. Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic children and adults: endoscopic, bacteriologic and histologic correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude A. Solari

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Using different bacteriological (urease test, Gram staining and culture and histological (Steiner staining and modified Giemsa staining techniques, we searched for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the gastric antrum of 200 dyspeptic Brazilian patients (106 females and 94 males aged 19 days to 81 years. The presence of bacteria was then correlated with the endoscopic and histological findings. H. pylori was present in 59.5 of the population studied. In Brazil, colonization occurs early, involving 37 of the dyspeptic population by 20 years of age. The presence of H. pylori in the gastric antrum was strongly associated with duodenal ulcer (P < 0.001 and a normal endoscopic examination did not exclude the possibility of colonization of the gastric antrum by H. pylori. The most sensitive test was the preformed urease test (89. We conclude that more than one diagnostic method should preferably be used for the detection of H. pylori and that the presence of H. pylori is closely correlated with active chronic gastritis (P < 0.001.

  6. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  7. Bacteriological examination of milk and milk products sold in Harare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumbor, E O; Obi, C L; Milingo, T

    2000-01-01

    A study to assess the bacteriological quality of milk and ice cream was conducted using the direct plate count method and the methylene blue dye reduction test. A total of 105 milk and 95 ice cream samples were obtained form two factories (depots) and distributing supermarkets (outlets) in Harare. Under the methylene blue test, all milk and ice cream samples passed the hour and 2 hour tests respectively. However, 99% of the milk and 69% of the ice cream samples reduced the dye after 5.5 and 4 hrs respectively. The results from the direct plate counts revealed the presence of both pathogens and non-pathogens. The median plate counts in the milk and ice cream were found 400 cfu / ml and 100 cfu / ml respectively. Organisms isolated in both samples and in all outlets were similar, these included Bacillus spp. Coagulase Staphlococcus spp., microcuccus spp., Steptococcus spp., Diphthroids, Fusiform bacterial Klebsiella spp., and Citrobacter spp. No significant differences were found in the plate counts of the samples obtained from the depots and outlets for the milk (P = 0.542, df = 1)) and ice cream samples (P = 0.377, df = 1). Results further revealed that there was no significant difference in isolates obtained form strawberry ice cream (0.0096). The study has therefore, revealed that milk and milk product sold in various outlets in Harare contained a variety of bacteria of public health importance and also that the methylene blue dye reduction test is not reliable for the detection of bacterial contaminants in dairy products. It is thus suggested that the use of methylene blue dyes be adapted in combination with other tests such as the plate count in assessing bacterial contaminants in milk products. PMID:17650038

  8. Predictors for successful bacteriological culture from milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, H; Erkelens, J; Van Winden, S

    2010-03-13

    A total of 757 milk samples were taken from 57 farms throughout Wales as part of a mastitis investigation. Problem cows were selected using the most recent milk recording or, if these data were unavailable, the whole herd was assessed using the California mastitis test (CMT) and scored on a scale of 0 to 3. The affected quarter was identified using CMT. The results of the bacteriology were grouped into negative and positive culture. All contaminated samples were excluded. The CMT recording at the time of sampling, the infection status of the cow (new, first, chronic or repeat) as defined by national milk records and the number of quarters infected at the time of sampling were identified for negative and positive samples. Selecting quarters with a higher CMT score increased the likelihood of positive culture. Culturing from a sample with a CMT score of 3 was over three times more likely to yield a positive culture than a score of 1 (odds ratio [OR] 3.74, 95 per cent confidence interval [CI] 1.41 to 9.97) and 1.7 times more likely to yield a positive culture than a score of 2 (OR 1.70, 95 per cent CI 1.16 to 2.50). Culturing from a score of 2 was not statistically different from a score of 1 in terms of the likelihood that a positive culture would be identified (OR 2.20, 95 per cent CI 0.83 to 5.93). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of negative samples when comparing chronic, repeat, new and first infections or number of quarters infected. PMID:20228365

  9. Determination of Bacteriological and Physiochemical Parameters of Drinking Water of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrolahi Omran A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Microbial, physical and chemical propertiesof drinking water, considering type and quantity of the drinking water, are thefactors for determining the acceptability of water. The effect of each of theabove components on increasing the quality of water or threatening the healthof consumers is also considerable. We aimed to investigate the trace amountsof microbial, physical and chemical parameters of drinking water in Gorgan,comparing to national and international standard.Material and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 50 samples were taken,per month, from four pilot stations in urban water network of Gorgan duringone year (2009- 2010. We used instant sampling and performed Enumerationof Coliforms in water culture with most probable number (MPN.Samplestaken from the stations during the month were investigated in two generalcategories of device test and heading-meter. All experiments were performedusing standard reference method.Results: of 598 water samples 551 (92.2% have not Coliforms, 47 (7.8%contain Coliforms and 16 (2.7% of them have thermo-tolerant Coliforms.Mean water hardness is 413mg/L, base on carbonate calcium. The amount offluoride about 0.35 mg and the residual chlorine about 0.6 mg is less thannational standard amount.Conclusion: The results show that Gorgan water network is, in view ofmicrobial contamination, safe during almost all days. All the tested samplesin terms of physical and chemical parameters are in the range of nation andinternational standards. Hardness of drinking water of Gorgan is one of thehighest.Key words: Bacteriological, Physiochemical, Drinking Water, Gorgan

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF BIOSOLIDS BY LIME ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzadkia ، N. Jaafarzadeh ، L. Loveimi Asl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of well-stabilized biosolids is a basic problem for many municipal wastewater treatment plants in Iran. Disposed biosolids from west Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant were generally used for agricultural activities. Initial evidence showed that these biosolids were untreated and had the potential to transmit many pollutants to the environment and create hazards for public health, although anaerobic digester was selected for this wastewater treatment plant. The main objective of this research was to evaluate and optimize the bacteriological quality of biosolids by lime addition in west Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant. The stability and reuse potential of biosolids from existing anaerobic digester and lime added biosolids were investigated. Lime addition to biosolids was performed in the reactor with 30 L capacity. Averge amounts of fecal coliforms and viable helminthes ova in disposal biosolids from anaerobic digester were 1.3×1015 MPN / g of dry solids and 314 ova / 4 g of dry solids, respectively. By lime addition with the ratio about 0.265 g Ca (OH2 per g of dry solids, pH was not dropped under 12 and growth of fecal coliform was not detected after 30 days. In this regard, discharged biosolids from this plant was unstable and very dangerous for reuse or disposal. Lime addition could stabilize the biosolids and reduce fecal coliforms more than 99.99% and had concordance with class B of United State Environmental Protection Agency criteria. Lime-stabilized biosolids could hence be well used for reconditioning the poor soil and for covering of solid waste landfill-sites.

  11. [Bacteriological aspects of preparation, storage and transport of milk formulas (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irle, U; Gängel, G

    1976-07-01

    1. It was shown that special apparatus for cleaning milkbottles makes additional desinfection unnecessary with regard to bacteriological and hygienic aspects. -- 2. Milk-bottles should be processed centrally for safety reasons. Special basket-containers facilitate a more economic washing process, transport and storage of the bottles. -- 3. Physiologically optimal milk formulas, as available today, should be prepared and filled into bottles in the ward where they are needed, immediately before use, to guarantee bacteriologically optimal conditions. -- 4. With appropriate organization within a clinic it should be possible to store special dietary formulas which have been prepared centrally, not in the wards, over the required time without the risk of bacterial contamination. The need for regular and systemic bacteriological checks is emphasized.

  12. 9 CFR 147.10 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of egg-type breeding flocks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the bacteriological examination of egg-type breeding flocks with salmonella enteritidis positive... examination of egg-type breeding flocks with salmonella enteritidis positive environments. Birds selected for bacteriological examination from egg-type breeding flocks positive for Salmonella enteritidis after...

  13. BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND PUBLIC PERCEPTION ABOUT DRINKING WATER OF BOREHOLES IN ARIB (AIN DEFLA, ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Hamaidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water from boreholes in Arib (Ain Defla, south-west of Algeria was investigated to ascertain its quality status and suitability for drinking and domestic uses. Fifty six water samples were collected from four boreholes. The analyses of the Coliform counts obtained from various boreholes samples ranged between 0 and 200 CFU/ 100 ml with regard to total Coliforms and between 0 and 8 CFU/ 100 ml with regard to fecal Coliforms. Three of the boreholes samples showed contamination by Streptococcus sp. Pathogens like Salmonella were not identified but some low levels of sulfite-reducing bacteria was found. The interviews were done to assess perceptions on water taste problems, odour, colour, and turbidity and health problems. The respondents were taken from people in the community using random sampling technique. Sixty people were sampled at each area surrounding the boreholes. It was found out that 43.3% of the respondents rated their drinking water safe for consumption as well as absence of illness after drinking as indicators for judging the quality of the water. The others respondents (56.7% reported having at least some concerns with safety of their water.  More  than 20% of the households reported at least one household member having suffered some water related illness in the past two years. Respondents were asked to judge the quality of the water, based on four sensory characteristics of drinking water. Many respondents rated the smell (33.3%, taste (20%, colour (23.3% and turbidity (23.3%. These results showed that all the samples did not satisfy the WHO requirements for bacteriological characteristics in human consumption.

  14. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE PYOGENIC MENINGITIS - A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pyogenic meningitis is one of the most common infectious disease emergencies involving the central nervous system with higher incidence in developing countries than developed nations. Despite the large number of pathogens that have been reported to cause acute pyogenic meningitis, certain microorganisms are isolated with higher frequency depending on patient’s age, immune status and geography. Present study was aimed to determine the trends in aetiology and spectrum of the bacteriological profile in adult patients with suspected pyogenic meningitis in North-East India. MATERIALS 50 CSF samples from as many patients of Acute Bacterial Meningitis over a period of one year were processed for cell counts, biochemical analysis, gram staining, culture, antigen detection by latex agglutination test and antibiotic susceptibility tests, as per standard techniques. OBSERVATION CSF cell counts showed neutrophilic predominance in all cases along with high protein and low sugar levels. 44% of the cases were culture positive and latex agglutination test was positive in 46.4% of the cases where culture was negative. S. pneumonia was the predominant pathogen identified in the present study in 12(24% cases, followed by Pseudomonas and E. coli in 5(10% cases each. Gram stain indicated the causative organisms in 68.2% of the culture positive cases. Among the culture negative patients gram stain indicated the causative organism in 3(10.7% cases and these three cases were positive by LAT also. CONCLUSION Simple, rapid, inexpensive tests like gram staining remain significant means for diagnosis of acute pyogenic meningitis in developing countries. LAT goes a long way in identifying the organisms where the cultures are negative. This study thus paves the way for larger studies in this region for better recognition of the predominant organisms and the empirical antibiotic regimens.

  15. Monitoring of transmission of Salmonella enterica serovars in pigs using bacteriological and serological detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsen, van R.L.; Nes, van A.; Keuzenkamp, D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Biesterveld, S.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    The standard method to detect Salmonella positive pigs is bacteriological examination of the faeces, but in recent years the use of Salmonella-ELISA’s have become available to screen pigs for serological evidence of infection. This study was conducted to monitor the transmission of five different Sa

  16. Ganga water quality at Patna with reference to physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Parashuram; Singh, A K

    2007-01-01

    The studies to assess the Ganga water quality at Patna was carried out in terms of physicochemical and bacteriological parameters to determine its suitability for various purposes. Based on this study, this paper provides the scientific information to the concerned for the implementation of River - Action - Plan and conservation of water body. PMID:18472556

  17. Bacteriological quality of creeks and marine water bodies in North Goa: Ecosystem upkeep perspectives for tourism-related activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Sadhasivan, A.; Iyer, S.R.

    Keeping tourism-related activities in the fore, several relevant bacteriological parameters were studied in depth in North Goa's aquatic ecosystems. Total bacterial abundance and activity for sewage-indicator bacteria and a select set of human...

  18. Mycoplasma hominis: an incidental but significant finding by routine bacteriological culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Jan Berg; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2009-01-01

    bacteriological culture during a 4-year period. Methods: Dpt. of Clinical Microbiology, Aalborg Hospital serves a population of 0.5 mio. Aerobic bacteriologic cultures are routinely carried out on 5% horse blood agar and chocolate agar (SSI Diagnostika, DK) at 35 °C in 5% CO2. The finding of translucent, pinpoint...... Serum Institut, Copenhagen (by courtesy to Jørgen Skov). Results: The four patients were immunocompetent women (23-56 years of age) without significant comorbidity (Table). In all patients M. hominis were obtained in pure culture. At the time of diagnosis three patients had abscesses...... by resolution of symptoms and normalisation of CRP (median 9 days). Conclusion: M. hominis is a rare finding by prolonged incubation of conventional blood agar. A pathogenic role of M. hominis was supported by the lack of clinical response to surgical drainage and prolonged empirical antibiotic therapy...

  19. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhwane Saidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed ​​Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40% was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%, Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%, Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%, Staphylococcusaureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%, Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%, S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%, and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%.

  20. Bacteriological monitoring and sustainable management of beach water quality in Malaysia: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Asmat, Ahmad; Gires, Usup; Heng, Lee Yook; Deborah, Bandele Oluwaseun

    2012-05-01

    Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia. PMID:22980239

  1. First experience of electron microscopic and bacteriological examination of the prostate gland stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Vinogradov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on a study of prostate stones obtained by transurethral resection of the prostate in 5 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in combination with chronic calculous prostatitis. Stones have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microstructural analysis, as well as a comparative study of bacteriological swabs from the surface of the stones after ultrasonic treatment of stone and without it. Pretreatment ultrasound prostate stones before sowing on nutrient medium swabs improves bacteriological diagnosis, which may be due to the dispersion of biofilms and exit vegetative forms of bacteria from it. This feature can serve as ultrasound theoretical justification for its use to improve the efficiency of diagnosis of various forms of prostatitis.

  2. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Radhwane; Khelef, Djamel; Kaidi, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%), Staphylococcus aureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%), S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%), and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%). PMID:23718559

  3. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY OF THE TEPALCINGO-AXOCHIAPAN AQUIFER, MORELOS, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza S. Robles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The water quality of the Tepalcingo-Axochiapan aquifer, Mexico was determined. Six samplings were carried out, taking samples from eight wells before chlorine and one spring. Two bacteriological and 11 physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Most of the wells and spring presented hard water. The wells showed higher concentrations of dissolved solids at lower altitudes, exception of the spring. Discriminate analysis and the Mahalanobis distances showed that the spring had the biggest differences with respect to the other wells. Bacteriologically the spring and a well are not suitable for amusement activities and physicochemically three wells are not suitable as a source of drinking water. The lack of sanitation and drainage in some areas may be causing deterioration of water quality in the aquifer in such areas.

  4. Validation of the Enterococci indicator for bacteriological quality monitoring of beaches in Malaysia using a multivariate approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Asmat; Dada, Ayokunle C; Usup, Gires; Lee Y. Heng

    2013-01-01

    There is currently no established bacteriological beach quality monitoring (BQM) program in place in Malaysia. To initiate cost-effective, sustainable bacteriological BQM schemes for the ultimate goal of protecting public health, policy decision makers need to be provided robust, indigenous empirical findings that validate appropriate water quality parameters for inclusion in such monitoring programs. This is the first study that assesses the validity of enterococci as an ideal indicator for ...

  5. Association of Sanitary Conditions and Bacteriological Quality of Tube Ice in Ice Plants in Metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kraichat Tantrakarnapa

    2010-01-01

    This investigation aimed at studying the correlation between ice plant sanitary conditions and bacteriological quality of ice. The sanitary conditions in accordance with GMP regulations, the bacteriological quality of tube ice, and the processing water in 20 plants in Bangkok were studied. A modified inspection form from the Office of Food and Drug Administration was used for sanitary condition surveys. Ice and processing water samples were collected 2 times per plant with 3 samples each time...

  6. Analysis of mammary gland according to results of CMT (California Mastitis Test) and bacteriological findings in secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Varatanović Nazif; Katica Amela; Mutevelić Tarik; Mlaćo Nadžida; Hamzić Edin

    2009-01-01

    Health control of the mammary gland was conducted comparing results of CMT (California Mastitis Test) and bacteriological findings of milk samples during one year. A total of 3863 secretion samples of mammary glands were collected. There were 85.3% matches for CMT and bacteriological findings. The most frequently isolated causative agents were: staphylococci (52.4%), streptococcus bacteria (23.5%), mixed infections (13.1%), and enterobacteria (10.3%). Secretions disorder and inflammations of ...

  7. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from p...

  8. Bacteriological analysis of drinking water in relation to diarrheic illness in and around Khammam

    OpenAIRE

    Basavaraju Anuradha; D Praveena

    2013-01-01

    Background: Drinking water is a major source of microbial pathogens in developing regions although, poor sanitation and food sources are integral to enteric pathogen exposure. Poor water quality, sanitation and hygiene are responsible for the majority of deaths a year world-wide and mainly through infectious diarrhea. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the bacteriological quality of drinking water at the source and point of use, to analyze the relationship between the p...

  9. Use of California mastitis test, somatic cells count and bacteriological findings in diagnostics of subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Varatanović N.; Podžo M.; Mutevelić T.; Podžo K.; Čengić B.; Hodžić A.; Hodžić E.

    2010-01-01

    We have performed diagnostics of sub clinical mastitis in three different cow breeds with comparison of California mastitis test results, somatic cells count at quarter level and with bacteriological findings confirmation in order to justify their appliance in mastitis diagnostics. In total, 90 cows or 360 quarters of mammary gland have been examined. In 63.3 % of the examined cows, with different racial origin, positive reaction to California mastitis test have been established. Usually, pos...

  10. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  11. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D.G.; Applegate, L.J.; Murray, A.L.; Purcell, M.K.; McKibben, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

  12. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D G; Applegate, L J; Murray, A L; Purcell, M K; McKibben, C L

    2013-09-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

  13. Bacteriological study of urinary tract infection in antenatal care patients

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    Srivastava Ritu, Singh Brij N, Begum Rehana, Yadav Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objective: To isolate and diagnose the Uropathogens and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern in anti-natal care patient suffering from Urinary tract Infections. Material and Methods: 150 samples were collected by consent pregnant women between the age group of 18 to 40 years. A midstream clean catch is adequate, provided by all pregnant women’s through given careful instructions. For enumeration of bacteria we perform standard loop techniques method. The number of colonies counted or estimated, and this number used to calculate the number of viable bacteria per ml of urine. The bacterial strains were identified by colonies character stick, gram staining, morphological and biochemical character. The bacterial strains identification was done up to genus and species level. The antibiotics sensitivity test of bacterial strains was done as per CLSI guidelines by Kirby-Baure Disc Diffusion Methods. Results: The significant bactiurea was found in 50 patients among 150 patients used. The most commonly isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli 23(40% Klebsiellaaerogens 11 (22% Staphylococcus aureus 10 (20% Pseudomonas aerugenosa 4(8%.The incidence of bacteriuria among in their first pregnancy was 22.2%.The higher incidence of UTI in 2nd and 3rd trimester was found to have 31.4% & 40%. These studies were showing high level of resistance to first line antibiotics such as Cotrimaxozole. Conclusion: To minimizing the complication of the pregnant women should be educated about the physiology of pregnancy clinical presentation includes asymptomatic bacteria, acute cystitis & pyelonephritis. Pregnant women should be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria by urine culture and treated with appropriate antibiotics. After the post treatment pregnant women should be examine again to confirm post treatment urine sterility.

  14. Bacteriology testing of cardiovascular tissues: comparison of transport solution versus tissue testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rodríguez, R; Van Hoeck, B; Mujaj, B; Ngakam, R; Fan, Y; Bogaerts, K; Jashari, R

    2016-06-01

    Bacteriology testing is mandatory for quality control of recovered cardiovascular allografts (CVA). In this paper, two different bacteriology examinations (A tests) performed before tissue antibiotic decontamination were compared: transport solution filtration analysis (A1) and tissue fragment direct incubation (A2). For this purpose, 521 CVA (326 heart and 195 artery tissues) from 280 donors were collected and analyzed by the European Homograft Bank (EHB). Transport solution (A1) tested positive in 43.25 % of hearts and in 48.21 % of arteries, whereas the tissue samples (A2) tested positive in 38.34 % of hearts and 33.85 % of arteries. The main species identified in both A1 and A2 were Staphylococcus spp. in 55 and 26 % of cases, and Propionibacterium spp. in 8 and 19 %, respectively. Mismatches in bacteriology results between both initial tests A1 and A2 were found. 18.40 % of the heart valves were identified as positive by A1 whilst 13.50 % were considered positive by A2. For arteries, 20.51 % of cases were positive in A1 and negative in A2, and just 6.15 % of artery allografts presented contamination in the A2 test but were considered negative for the A1 test. Comparison between each A test with the B and C tests after antibiotic treatment of the allograft was also performed. A total decontamination rate of 70.8 % of initial positive A tests was obtained. Due to the described mismatches and different bacteria identification percentage, utilization of both A tests should be implemented in tissue banks in order to avoid false negatives.

  15. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF MICROFILTERED DRINKING WATER DISPENSERS IN CATERING ESTABLISHMENTS

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    M.A. Marzano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriological quality of microfiltered drinking water dispensers was evaluated, through enumeration of heterotrophic plate count at 22 and 37 °C, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this research was to control the hygiene of the microfiltered water and to evaluate the effectiveness of the microfiltration procedure on the survival of bacteria. In total, 54 water samples were analyzed. The results indicated a high contamination frequency with P. aeruginosa (25 and 20% in room temperature and chilled water samples, respectively and therefore the need to improve the efficacy and the frequency of the dispenser sanitation procedures.

  16. Prokaryote phylogeny meets taxonomy: An exhaustive comparison of composition vector trees with systematic bacteriology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We perform an exhaustive, taxon by taxon, comparison of the branchings in the composition vector trees (CVTrees) inferred from 432 prokaryotic genomes available on 31 December 2006, with the bacteriologists' taxonomy-primarily the latest online Outline of the Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. The CVTree phylogeny agrees very well with the Bergey's taxonomy in majority of fine branchings and overall structures. At the same time most of the differences between the trees and the Manual have been known to biologists to some extent and may hint at taxonomic revisions. Instead of demonstrating the overwhelming agreement this paper puts emphasis on the biological implications of the differences.

  17. Bacteriological Study of the Marine Water in the Coastal of the North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

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    Lies Indah Sutiknowati

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the marine bacteriology of the coast of North Sulawesi. The study was accomplished by calculating the abundance of coliform, heterotrophic, and pathogenic bacteria, and analyzing the coexistence relationship between bacteria and phytoplanktons. This research, which included the sampling and laboratory works, has been carried out on 25 - 28 October, 2000. The results suggested that the abundance of each bacteria was as follows: coliform bacteria range between 227-5940 cfu/100 ml with averages 1814.1 cfu/100 ml, found in all stations; heterotrophic bacteria range between (1-82 x 103 cfu/ml with averages 12.1 x 103 cfu/ml, it was high density and has association with phytoplankton Trichodesmium thieubautii. It was also found 6 species of pathogen bacteria e.g. Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Yersinia and Shigella. The presence of coliform and pathogen bacteria was indicator of low quality of the seawater in the sampling area. Based on bacteriological study, the North Sulawesi Coastal is not suitable for aquaculture and need treatment and controlled for further coastal exploitation.

  18. Bacteriological study of aerobic isolates from plantar ulcers of paucibacillary leprosy patients

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    Majumdar Monalisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plantar ulcers commonly occur in leprosy patients, which usually recur and cause morbidity in such cases. Aims: The aim of the study is to find out the bacteriological profile of these ulcers and to find out the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates so that appropriate drugs may be chosen for treatment and for prevention of recurrence. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six samples from recurrent plantar ulcers of paucibacillary leprosy patients (attending the outpatient department of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine were studied for the purpose. Proper sample collection, gram staining, inoculation on culture media, and final identification by biochemical methods were undertaken. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for appropriate choice of drugs. Results: Mixed growth of bacteria was seen in 20 (36% cases while single organism was isolated from the rest. Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant single isolate followed by E. coil, Proteus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. Chloramphenicol and gentamycin are the two drugs that have shown efficacy to the extent of 75 to 100% and 25 to 100% respectively in vitro studies. Conclusion: Bacteriological study of plantar ulcers of leprosy patients has revealed Staphylococcus aureus as the main pathogen. Treatment with chloramphenicol and gentamycin holds good prospect as per our study.

  19. Bacteriological evaluation of refrigerated vacuum and air-packed chicken fillets treated with irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantilla, Samira P.S.; Santos, Erica B.; Mano, Sergio B.; Franco, Robson M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: samiramantilla@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: ericaebs@hotmail.com, e-mail: mtasbm@vm.uff.br, e-mail: robsonmf@vm.uff.br; Conte Junior, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: carlosconte@hotmail.com; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear (DDQBN)], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Chicken meat is a nutritious food, rich in essential aminoacids and much appreciated by a large fraction of the population. However, it is also highly perishable, typically having a shelf life of 5 to 7 days in refrigeration, depending on the initial microbiological load. Irradiation has been efficiently used to improve safety and extend the shelf lives of many meat products. Its use in combination with refrigeration and exclusion of oxygen is known to greatly enhance the sanitary quality of meat. This work investigated the bacteriological effects of radiation doses of 0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy on vacuum- and air-packed chicken fillets kept at 1 deg C for up to 18 days. Bacteriological analyses that included enumerating and counting indicated that both the lag phase of the bacterial growth and the shelf life of the samples increased with dose. It was observed that exposure to 3.0 kGy extended the initial 5-day shelf life of the air-packed fillets to 10 days while prolonging to 12 days the shelf life of the vacuum-packed ones. Among the species of bacteria monitored, the lactic bacteria were found to be the most resistant to gamma radiation while coliforms were the most sensitive. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Bacteriological and Chemical Quality of Dialysis Water and Fluid in Isfahan, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAHRYARI, Ali; NIKAEEN, Mahnaz; HATAMZADEH, Maryam; VAHID DASTJERDI, Marzieh; HASSANZADEH, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemical and microbial quality of water used in hemodialysis play key roles in a number of dialysis-related complications. In order to avoid the complications and to guarantee safety and health of patients therefore, vigorous control of water quality is essential. The objective of present study was to investigate the chemical and bacteriological characteristics of water used in dialysis centers of five hospitals in Isfahan, central Iran. Methods: A total of 30 water samples from the input of dialysis purification system and dialysis water were analyzed for chemical parameters. Heterotrophic plate count and endotoxin concentration of drinking water, dialysis water and dialysis fluid of 40 machines were also monitored over a 5-month period in 2011–2012. Results: Concentration of the determined chemicals (copper, zinc, sulfate, fluoride, chloramines and free chlorine) did not exceed the recommended concentration by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) exclude lead, nitrate, aluminum and calcium. Furthermore, the magnesium; cadmium and chromium concentration exceeded the maximum level in some centers. No contamination with heterotrophic bacteria was observed in all samples, while the AMMI standard for endotoxin level in dialysis fluid (water and fluid failed to meet the all chemical and bacteriological requirements for hemodialysis. To minimize the risk of contaminants for hemodialysis patients therefore, a water quality management program including monitoring, maintenance and development of water treatment system in hemodialysis centers is extremely important. In addition, an appropriate disinfection program is needed to guarantee better control of bacterial growth and biofilm formation. PMID:27398338

  1. A clinico-bacteriological study of lacrimal regurgitate in cases of chronic dacryocystitis in a referral hospital in Madhya Pradesh

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    Devendra Kumar Shakya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic dacryocystitis is an inflammation of the lacrimal sac which usually occurs because of the obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to know its clinico-bacteriological profile. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out over a period of one year to know the current bacterial flora involved in chronic dacryocystitis. All specimens were processed for isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens according to the standard microbiological techniques. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Among total 100 cases of chronic dacryocystitis, the highest percentage of infections in relation to age was noted in the age group of 50-60 years and the prevalence rate was higher in female patients compared with male. Out of total chronic dacryocystitis cases, 72% cases were found to be culture positive. Among positive culture, gram positive organisms were higher than that of Gram-negative. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated and Streptococcus pyogenes was least isolated. The highest percentage of positive samples was found in the mucopurulent discharge followed by extensive purulent and clear fluid, respectively. In Gram-positive isolates, chloramphenicol was the most sensitive followed by cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, cephalexin, vancomycin, gentamycin, and tobramycin, respectively, whereas in Gram-negative isolate, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid were equally effective followed by ofloxacin, gentamycin, cephalexin, cefazolin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Conclusion: S. epidermidis was the most frequently isolated bacteria, and chloramphenicol was the most susceptible drug in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  2. An on-line computer system for hospital bacteriology: description of its development and comments after five years' use

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, JN; Brown, PP

    1981-01-01

    The development over several years of a computer system for hospital bacteriology reporting is described. The system was developed from a manual method to a punch-card batch processing system and finally to a real-time on-line system. The value of the system to the clinical departments and laboratory is discussed.

  3. A bacteriological study of the environment of pediatric ward and neonatal nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, P S; Singh, R N; Shekhawat, R; Joshi, K R

    1992-03-01

    The hospital environment is full of pathogens which may cause nosocomial infections. A bacteriological survey of hospital air, floor, water, milk and fomites was done. The air survey showed large number of bacteria carrying particles in air. A direct relation between floor area per person and bacterial contamination of air was established. The floor survey showed that there is abundance of bacteria on the hospital floors, much more than the accepted fair standards of house keeping. The hospital water had a high coliform and total bacterial count and stored tank water was more dirty. Neonatal nursery milk also had high total bacterial and coliform counts. Regular surveillance of hospital environment may help to reduce the incidence of cross infection.

  4. Bacteriological quality of freshly processed broiler chickens as affected by carcass pretreatment and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken carcasses dipped in whey fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus, lactic acid solution or water and irradiated at 2.5 kGy by 60Co were evaluated for bacteriological quality on day 1, day-3 and at 3-day intervals for an 18-day storage (4 degrees C) period. Unirradiated carcasses treated similarly were used as control. Gram negative bacteria, Yersinia and Campylobacter counts were significantly (p0.01) lower in irradiated samples, but no significant (p0.05) differences were observed ammong the dipping solutions. Salmonellae were completely eliminated in irradiated samples. Whey fermented by S. thermophilus reduced the proportion of Salmonella contaminated carcasses from 67% to 20%. As evidenced by the bacterial counts the shelf-life was found to be 15 days for irradiated carcasses compared to about 6 days for the unirradiated samples

  5. Bacteriological water quality in the Lake Pontchartrain basin Louisiana following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, September 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Donald M.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Demcheck, Dennis K.; Skrobialowski, Stanley C.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Bertke, Erin E.; Mailot, Brian E.; Mize, Scott V.; Fendick, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, monitored bacteriological quality of water at 22 sites in and around Lake Pontchartrain, La., for three consecutive weeks beginning September 13, 2005, following hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the associated flooding. Samples were collected and analyzed by USGS personnel from the USGS Louisiana Water Science Center and the USGS Ohio Water Microbiology Laboratory. Fecal-indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, enterococci, and fecal coliform) concentrations ranged from the detection limit to 36,000 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Data are presented in tabular form and as plots of data in the context of available historical data and water-quality standards and criteria for each site sampled. Quality-control data were reviewed to ensure that methods performed as expected in a mobile laboratory setting.

  6. Comparative Bacteriological Study of Two Wild Boar Populations in Sierra Morena (Ja�n, Spain

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    Antonio NOTARIO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of various bacterial species in the wild boar populations of Lugar Nuevo and Selladores-Contadero woodlands from Sierra Morena (Spain. Bacteriological analyses were carried out on a total of 229 wild boar individuals hunted in the period 2000-2003 in eleven experimental plots which are representative for the different biotopes of the area. The following species were detected: Brucella ovis, Clostridium sp., Corynebacterium sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Chlamydophila psittaci, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus sp. and the bacterial prevalence was estimated for each of them. The results provide useful indications of the health status of wild boar in both locations and highlight the potential of the wild boar populations to act as biological reservoirs of certain microorganisms that can be passed onto other vertebrate wild animals and humans.

  7. Histological and bacteriological studies of burn wounds treated with boiled potato peel dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, M H; Vartak, A M; Patil, A; Davies, J W

    1990-04-01

    Histological and clinical studies have been made on comparable burn wounds covered with either boiled potato peels affixed to gauze bandages or gauze dressings alone; both dressings were applied over a thin layer of 5 per cent silver sulphadiazine. Compared with treatment with plain gauze dressings, the application of the potato peel dressing reduced or eliminated dessication, permitted the survival of superficial skin cells and hastened epithelial regeneration. Bacteriological studies showed that the potato peels had no intrinsic antibacterial activity, the wounds beneath both dressings showing either no growth or, on most occasions, the same bacterial species. The easy availability of potato peels and gauze bandages on to which they can be affixed, the simplicity of the preparation of this dressing, the ease of sterilization and its low cost of production make this the dressing of choice for burn wounds in our developing country. PMID:2350410

  8. Bacteriological quality and food safety in a Brazilian school food program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Nagla Chaves Trindade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food safety is a critical issue in school food program. Objective: This study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality and food safety practices of a municipal school food program (MSFP in Jequitinhonha Valley, Brazil. Materials and methods: A checklist based on good manufacturing practices (GMP for food service was used to evaluate food safety practices. Samples from foods, food contact surfaces, the hands of food handlers, the water supply and the air were collected to assess bacteriological quality in establishments that comprise the MSFP. Results: Nine (81.8% establishments were classified as poor quality and two (18.2% as medium quality. Neither Salmonella nor Listeria monocytogenes were detected in food samples. Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in 36 (52.9%, 1 (1.5% and 22 (32.4% of the food samples and in 24 (40.7%, 2 (3.3% and 13 (22.0% of the food contact surfaces, respectively. The counts of coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 1 to 5.0 and 1 to 5.1 log CFU/g of food, respectively. The mean aerobic mesophilic bacteria count was 3.1 log CFU/100 cm² of surface area. Coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were detected on the hands of 33 (73.3%, 1 (2.2% and 36 (80% food handlers, respectively. With regard to air quality, all the establishments had an average aerobic mesophilic count above 1.6 log CFU/cm²/week. Conclusions: The results indicate the need to modify the GMP used in food service in MSFP in relation to food safety, particularly because children served in these establishments are often the most socially vulnerable.

  9. Entero-hepatic pathobiology: histopathology and semi-quantitative bacteriology of the duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NMK Ito

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Duodenum swabs were harvested from 80 broilers in 15 flocks of 8 broiler farms and were submitted to bacteriological evaluation. Five broiler breeders were sampled to obtain comparative data. Macro and microscopic lesions in the gut and the liver were evaluated in all birds submitted to swab harvesting and also broilers of two slaughter plants. Semiquantitative bacterial examination in duodenum swabs demonstrated higher microorganism growth in blood agar than in MacConkey medium. Staphylococcus sp, Enterococcus sp and Escherichia coli were found in some broiler flocks. An increased cellularity of the muscular mucosae of duodenum villi and/or the presence of some gametocytes or schizonts of coccidia were found in the lesioned gut in addition to high bacterial growth in blood agar. In some flocks, enlarged yellowish livers with vacuolated hepatocytes and/or increased reticuloendothelial response were seen in some birds. Liver and gut samples were collected in two slaughter plants in order to establish a pattern of response in broilers after withdrawal of growth promoters. Livers with macroscopic lesions presented microscopic lesions in the parenchyma such as increased leukocyte response in the sinusoidal space, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes or focal necrosis in the perilobular region, increased size or number of lymphoid nests in the perilobular region, the perivascular space and surrounding the biliary duct and increased extramedular granulocytopoiesis. Duodenum with hyperemic patches showed increased cellular response in the muscular mucosa of villi. These observations support the concept that semi-quantitative bacteriology and liver lesion evaluation could be used as a model to study gut bacterial imbalance in chickens.

  10. Geografía médica, bacteriología y el caso de las fiebres en Colombia en el siglo XIX

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    Mónica García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relation between bacteriology and medical geography in the 19th century in Colombia, following the case of fevers. Through this, it explains how historiography has approached the relation between bacteriology and medical geography, and analyzes said relation in the medical research pertaining to yellow fever, fevers of the Magdalena River, and malaria in the 1880s. Finally, it shows that, instead of passively incorporating bacteriology, the physicians fought to combine it with medical geography, incorporating elements of both approaches, keeping them in tense separation, or rejecting one in favor of the other.

  11. [Bacteriological and virological status in upper respiratory tract infections of cats (cat common cold complex)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Kerstin; Radeloff, Isabel; Stephan, Bernd; Greife, Heinrich; Hellmann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2005,460 bacteriological samples from cats with an acute upper respiratory tract infection were analysed in clinical field studies in two accredited laboratories in Germany. Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from these cats and sent to the laboratories for routine diagnostics. In the swab samples of 460 cats 382 bacteria strains were isolated. The following bacteria were isolated most frequently: Pasteurella spp. (32.5 %), Staphylococcus spp. (18.5 %), Escherichia coli (17.0 %), Streptococcus spp. (9.1 %), Pseudomonas spp. (6.9 %) and Klebsiella spp. (3.0 %). Bordetella bronchiseptica was found in 0.4 % of the animals To evaluate possible regional and time influences, the animals were split into three populations: 1: Germany, laboratory A; 2: Germany, laboratory B; 3: France and Belgium, laboratory B. In population 1 an 2 Pasteurella spp. were found most frequently with 42.2 % and 36.5 %, respectively. The second most frequently isolated bacterial species were Staphylococcus spp. with 14.1 % and 21.4 % and E. coli with 13.6 % and 17.5 % respectively. In population 3 Staphylococcus spp., E. coli (20 % each) and Pasteurella spp. (18.5 %) were isolated at almost the same frequency. Virological parameter were additionally analysed in 328 cats (population 2 and 3). Serum samples were analysed for antibodies specific for Feline Calicivirus (FCV) and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and for Feline Leukaemia Virus (FeLV) antigen. Oropharyngeal swabs were analysed for Feline Herpesvirus (FHV) by using PCR. Calicivirus-specific antibodies were found in 99.6 % of the cats of population 2 and in 100 % of the animals in population 3. Herpesvirus was detected in 15.3 % and 23.3 % of the cats, respectively. FeLV-Antigen was found in 0.4 % of the animals in population 2 and in 10.1 % of the cats in population 3, while FIV-antibodies were identified in 8.7 % of the animals of population 2 and in 6.1 % of the cats of population 3. In total FHV was

  12. Bacteriological finding in the urethra in men with and without non-gonococcal urethritis

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    Tiodorović Jelica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU is a very common sexually transmitted disease. The etiology of the disease is complex and not completely solved. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological finding in the urethra in men with and without non-gonococcal utethritis. Methods. The study group comprised 200 men with symptoms of urethritis. The control group consisted of 60 men without symptoms of urethritis. The diagnosis of nongonococcal infection was made by finding of an increased number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (≥ 5 under the microscope in a sample of Gram-stain of urethral smear (× 1 000 and without evidence of Neisseria. gonorrhoeae in specimens (negative direct microscopy and cell culture. Bacteriological examination included: direct microscopy with the Gramstained and methylblue-stained smears of urethral discharges, and cultivation of specimens under the aerobic/unaerobic conditions. In addition to standard bacterial examination and performinig direct imunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis (bioMerieux, France, urethral smears were also examined for the presence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. The finding of mycoplasmas ≥ 104 CCU/ml was positive. The data were statistically analyzed using Pearson χ2 and Student t test. Results. C. trachomatis was predominant bacterial species found in urethra in men with nongonococcal urethritis. It was isolated alone and/or mixed with mycoplasmas and/or other bacteria in 86 (43.0% of examinees. There was statistically significant difference in finding of C. trachomatis between the study group and the control group (p < 0.001. U. urealyticum was found in men with NGU: 30.2% were with C. trachomatis and 36.0% were without C. trachomatis (p > 0.05. In 16 (8.0% men with NGU, C. trachomatis was isolated alone, while in 13.0% examinees it occurred with U

  13. Analysis of mammary gland according to results of CMT (California Mastitis Test and bacteriological findings in secretion

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    Varatanović Nazif

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Health control of the mammary gland was conducted comparing results of CMT (California Mastitis Test and bacteriological findings of milk samples during one year. A total of 3863 secretion samples of mammary glands were collected. There were 85.3% matches for CMT and bacteriological findings. The most frequently isolated causative agents were: staphylococci (52.4%, streptococcus bacteria (23.5%, mixed infections (13.1%, and enterobacteria (10.3%. Secretions disorder and inflammations of mammary gland are most common for the warm period of the year, and very rare for the winter period. With permanent use of these two methods it is possible to obtain satisfactory results in order to get better milk production and health condition of the mammary gland. .

  14. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds- a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn;

    2011-01-01

    ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ Between 5% and 10% of cancer patients develop malignant wounds. In vitro and some clinical studies suggest that silver- or honey-coated dressings may have an antibacterial effect in nonmalignant wounds, but their possible antibacterial effect in malignant wounds remains unknown....... A prospective, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed...... antibacterial effect of the honey or silver dressing could not be confirmed in these malignant wounds. Routine wound swabbing of malignant wounds is of little value and should be restricted to cases where signs of infection requiring antibiotic intervention are observed or where resistant organisms require...

  15. Effects of Orally Administered Lactoferrin and Lactoperoxidase-Containing Tablets on Clinical and Bacteriological Profiles in Chronic Periodontitis Patients

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    Eiju Shimizu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of oral administration of lactoferrin (LF and lactoperoxidase-(LPO-containing tablet on periodontal condition. Seventy-two individuals with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to take either bovine LF and LPO-containing tablets (test group, n=37 or control tablets (control group, n=35 every day for 12 weeks. Periodontal parameters and levels of subgingival plaque bacteria, human and bovine LF, and endotoxin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF were evaluated at baseline, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. Significant differences were observed in GCF levels of bovine LF between the test and control groups throughout the study (P<.05. However, clinical and bacteriological parameter values proved comparable between the two groups at 1 week to 12 weeks. Therefore, the effect of oral administration of LF and LPO-containing tablets might be weak on periodontal and bacteriological profile in this study.

  16. Clinical and bacteriological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Regis Leite; Jailton Azevedo; Vivian Santos Galvão; Otávio Moreno-Carvalho; Joice Neves Reis; Cristiana Nascimento-Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during t...

  17. Effect of point-of-use, activated carbon filters on the bacteriological quality of rural groundwater supplies.

    OpenAIRE

    Synder, J W; Mains, C N; Anderson, R. E.; Bissonnette, G K

    1995-01-01

    The water quality of 24 rural, domestic groundwater supplies treated with point-of-use, powdered activated carbon (PAC) filters was monitored to determine how such treatment might impact the bacteriological quality of private, residential drinking water supplies. Heterotrophic-plate-count (HPC) and total coliform analyses were performed on raw, PAC-treated, and overnight or stagnant (first-draw) PAC-treated water samples. Densities of HPC bacteria were elevated by 0.86 and 0.20 orders of magn...

  18. Pharmacokinetics and bacteriological efficacy of cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, and moxalactam in experimental Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    McCracken, G H; Nelson, J.D.; Grimm, L

    1982-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and bacteriological efficacy of cefoperazone, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and moxalactam were evaluated in the experimental rabbit meningitis model of Haemophilus influenzae type b or Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. The cerebrospinal fluid penetration of these beta-lactam antibiotics was from 3 to 14% and was greater in Haemophilus-infected that in pneumococcus-infected animals. With the exception of moxalactam, the antibacterial activity in cerebrospinal fluid and chang...

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE AND CHRONIC LARYNGITIS DEPENDING ON RESULTS OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF LARYNX MICROFLORA

    OpenAIRE

    K. I. Chuikova; T. N. Zaripova; V. I. Mukhina

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes study of larynx microflora in patients with acute laryngtis and exacerbations of chronic laryngitis. Therapeutic algorithm based on bacteriologic examination data was developed reduce. New algorithm helps reduce sickness terms and to decrease prevalence of desease.123 patients of age from 18 to 60 were under observation: 43 patients with acute laryngitis and 80 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. 22 patients with acute laryngitis and 58 patients with exacerb...

  20. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MARINE WATER IN ADRIATIC FISH FARMS: ENUMERATION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Teskeredžić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food production sectors in the world. Increase in nutrients and organic wastes lead to general deterioration of water quality. The problem of water quality is associated with both physical and chemical factors, as well as microbiological water quality. Heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in the process of decomposition of organic matter in water environment and indicate eutrophication process. Here we present our experience and knowledge on bacterial properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms with European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758, with an emphasis on enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water. We applied two temperatures of incubation, as well as two methods for enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria: substrate SimPlate® test and spread plate method on conventional artificial media (Marine agar and Tryptic Soy agar with added NaCl. The results of analysis of bacteriological properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms showed that enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water depends on the applied incubation temperature and media for enumeration. At the same time, the incubation temperature of 22C favours more intense growth of marine heterotrophic bacteria, whereas a SimPlate test gives higher values of heterotrophic bacteria. Volatile values of heterotrophic bacteria during this research indicate a possible deterioration of microbiological water quality in the Adriatic fish farms and a need for regular monitoring of marine water quality.

  1. Bacteriological study of discharging ear in patients attending a tertiary care hospital

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    Raakhee T

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ear infections occur in all age groups. Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is the most common illness in ENT practice. It may even cause hearing impairment especially sensory and ndash; neural deafness if not treated properly and with caution. The study was undertaken to know the aerobic microbiological/bacteriological profile of ear discharge and variations in sensitivity pattern to treat the patients efficiently. A total of 71 patients who had discharging ear infection were included in this study. The most common microorganisms isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus followed by Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS, Klebsiella spp, Proteus spp and Escherichia coli. Among the commonly used topical antibiotics, Ciprofloxacin appear to be first line antibiotic (91.52% sensitive to treat CSOM followed by Gentamycin (89.6% sensitive. However, the action of Chloramphenicol was low (59.53% sensitive. Ofloxacin can be used to treat CSOM due to Staphylococcus aureus other than Ciprofloxacin and Gentamycin. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 602-606

  2. [Assessment of a commonly available latex particle agglutination test in rapid, bacteriologic cerebrospinal fluid diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbauer, H M; Dornbusch, H J; Zobel, G; Thiel, W

    1988-01-01

    36 cerebrospinal fluid specimens (CSF) from patients with bacterial meningitis were tested for the presence of bacterial antigens with the "Slidex Meningite Kit" (Bio Merieux). This kit has latex particles coated with antibodies against hemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and neisseria meningitidis (NM) group A and C. With the LAT we could detect the bacterial antigens in 84% of bacterial meningitis cases, 23 of the 27 of Hib meningitis (85.2%), all of the 6 cases of SP meningitis (100%) and two of the three NM meningitis cases. The test is handicapped by the fact, that there is no antiserum against NM sero-group B, the main cause of NM meningitis in Austria. There were no false positive results with the LAT. False negative results were obtained in 19.2% of Hib and in one case of NM. Even under sufficient antibiotic therapy and with negative culture we could detect 9 Hib- and 1 NM-cases during the first 12-48 hours of therapy with this method. The LAT-Kit is a useful addition to standard methods of CSF examinations in bacterial meningitis. With the LAT a rapid bacteriological diagnosis is possible within 15 minutes. The Kit is also able to identify bacterial antigens even with negative culture and after initiation of antibiotic treatment. PMID:3133628

  3. Bacteriological Assessment of Water Quality of Public Swimming Pools in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Pesewu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for life and in most parts of the world including Ghana it is used for various activities such as drinking, bathing and recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to assess the bacteriological quality of swimming pools’ water in the Accra Metropolis. Five swimming pools were selected randomly and a research team visited the pools to collect water samples and at the same time administer short questionnaires about the characteristics of the pools. The average number of swimmers, swimming bathing loads, average age group of pool users, methods of disinfection, type of chlorine used, recycling, and treatment of the water before and after use were investigated. During the visit, water samples were collected for total coliform, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus counts using the Membrane Filtration (MF method and cultured on chromogenic media. Most (60% of the selected swimming pools had a bathing load≤20 per day. The operators of the pools disinfect their pools’ water with chorine but majority (60% of the pool operators chlorinated their pools manually with powdered chlorine. The 20 water samples investigated show that 48% of swimming pools water was contaminated with S. aureus, 30.4% with Ps. aeruginosa , 20.9% with total coli form and 0.7% with E. coli. The E. coli count found in this study was very low indicating that the selected swimming pools were not feacally polluted at the time of sampling. It is recommended that future studies should use large sample sizes.

  4. [Microbiological study results (bacteriology and electron microscopy) of diarrhea in dog whelps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschöck, M; Herbst, W; Lange, H; Hamann, H P; Schliesser, T

    1989-01-01

    Bacteriological examinations of 159 faeces and intestinal contents of dogs with diarrhoea revealed E. coli in 157 specimens. 73 of these samples contained non haemolytic strains, 18 haemolytic isolates, and 66 haemolytic, as well as non haemolytic strains. Klebsiella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus were found in 9 cases, and Salmonella sp. (group B) was isolated once only. By electron microscopy parvovirus could be detected in 19 samples. Ten were positive for coronavirus and one for rotavirus. Morphologically not finally identified coronavirus like and picornavirus like particles were found in 3 cases, respectively. A significant relationship between the occurrence of virus infections and the isolation of certain bacteria species was not found. In 45 E. coli strains virulence factors, such as the heat labile enterotoxin (LT) and the verotoxin (VT), could not be detected, but 31 of these isolates showed different haemagglutination patterns which were still present by 14 of them in the presence of mannose (mannose resistant haemagglutination, MR-HA). These MR-HA inducing E. coli isolates were present more often in parvovirus positive samples (in 6 of 10) than they could be detected in parvovirus negative ones (in 8 of 35), implicating a potential pathogenic role of these E. coli strains for the parvovirus enteritis of dogs. PMID:2541519

  5. Travel grant program for the IX International Congresses of Mycology and Bacteriology -- Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granigan, Marion

    2000-05-25

    In 1999, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and the National Academy of Sciences' U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Microbiological Sciences (IUMS) jointly organized a competitive travel grant program to support the participation of U.S. scientists in the 9th International Congresses of the Bacteriological and Applied Microbiology, Mycology and Virology Divisions of the IUMS in Sydney, Australia, August 16-20, 1999. Funding was solicited for the program, and the ASM Minority and International Activities department administered the $40,000 raised. Travel grants in the amount of $2,000 were offered to U.S. investigators (citizens, including federal employees, and permanent residents working in the United States) in the early stages of their careers who planned to attend and present their research at the Congress. Teams of established and new investigators who applied jointly were eligible to received a combined $3,000 award. IUMS developed a questionnaire th at each applicant were required to complete and return, which asked each award recipient about their experience at the Congresses. Questionnaire results are included.

  6. A "Hybrid" Bacteriology Course: The Professor's Design and Expectations; The Students' Performance and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Krawiec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A basic bacteriology course was offered in two successive academic years, first in a conventional format and subsequently as a "hybrid" course. The latter combined (i online presentation of content, (ii an emphasis on online resources, (iii thrice-weekly, face-to-face conversations to advance understanding, and (iv frequent student postings on an electronic discussion board. We compared the two courses through statistical analysis of student performances on the final examinations and the course overall and student assessment of teaching. The data indicated that there was no statistical difference in performance on the final examinations or the course overall. Responses on an instrument of evaluation revealed that students less strongly affirmed the following measures in the hybrid course: (i The amount of work was appropriate for the credit received, (ii Interactions between students and instructor were positive, (iii I learned a great deal in this course, and (iv I would recommend this course to other students. We recommend clear direction about active learning tasks and relevant feedback to enhance learning in a hybrid course.

  7. Analysis of physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water in Mafikeng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulamattathil, Suma George; Bezuidenhout, Carlos; Mbewe, Moses

    2015-12-01

    Mafikeng, the capital of the North West Province, receives water from two sources, namely the Molopo eye and the Modimola dam. Once treated, the potable water is mixed and supplied to the city via distribution systems. This study was designed to assess the quality of drinking water in Mafikeng and also to determine whether the water from the two sources has an impact on the mixed water quality. Physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological quality (faecal coliforms (FCs), total coliforms (TCs), heterotrophic bacteria and Peudomonas spp.) was monitored at three drinking water sites weekly for 4 months. The results revealed that the physico-chemical quality of the water was generally acceptable. The pH ranged from 5.7 ± 0.18 to 8.6 ± 0.14, the temperature ranged from 18.3 ± 0.69 to 25.1 ± 0.69 °C and the total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 159.9 ± 22.44 to 364.4 ± 12.44 mg/l. These values are within the target water quality range for drinking water as prescribed by WHO, Department of Water Affairs and SANS 241. What is of concern was the microbial quality of the water. FCs, TCs, heterotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were present in some of the treated water samples. The most significant finding of this study is that all drinking water samples were positive for Pseudomonas spp. (>100/100 ml).

  8. [Bacteriological evaluation of a procedure for disinfecting the Olympus GIF-D2 panendoscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ramos, A; Domínguez, N; Makino, R; Barrera, C

    1980-01-01

    We have performed a total of 107 cultures from three critical areas of an Olympus Panendoscope Model GIF-D2 in order to evaluate bacteriologically cur system of desinfection of this endoscope. Samples were taken from the distal end, external surface and biopsy canal before and after an endoscopic examination was performed. The procedure of desinfection employed was as follows: washing of the distal end, external surface and biopsy canal with Hexaclorophel (Phisohex) diluted 50% with water and a second washing with tap water. In the middle of the study, we added a second washing of the biopsy canal with ten ml. of ether alcohol to allow for better drying. As a result of the present study we observed that in the distal end in 50% of the samples we encountered bacteria. Cultures of the external surface were positive in 20% of samples. The biopsy canal should be washed with ether alcohol to allow for complete drying, because when we did not use this method, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa was isolated. After this modification we did not isolate bacteria. The most frequent types of isolated bacteria were from the normal oropharyngeal flora. From the present study we can conclude that desinfection of the Panendespe with Hexaclorophen gives satisfactory results on the external surface of the endoscope. Biopsy canal requires additional washing with ether alcohol. However, both procedures do not assure a satisfactory desinfection of the distal end.

  9. Bacteriological quality and solid wastes at five coastal marine environments of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic waste and water bacteriological quality were surveyed twice a year in 2000 and in 2002 at five coastal marine environments in Costa Rica, one in the Caribbean (Bahia de Moin) and four in the Pacific (Bahia de Culebra, Golfo de Nicoya, Estero de Puntarenas, Bahia de Golfito). The most probable number (MPN)/100 mL of coliform bacteria was calculated after incubation series of five test tubes. A total of 14 coastal and two river water samples were collected in the Caribbean, and 32 coastal, nine estuarine and one tap water samples in the Pacific, plus 25 samples investigated for Escherichia coli in 2002. The means of 2 MPN/100 mL in June 2000 and 17 MPN/100 mL in May 2002, and faecal coliforms <2 MPN/100 mL in June 2000 and 4 MPN/100 mL in May 2002. Plastic materials were the most abundant item stranded in all beaches, which in more than 80% of the occasions were between moderately dirty to very dirty. (author)

  10. Development and bacteriological, chemical and sensory characterization of fishburgers made of Tilapia minced meat and surimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.R.P. Mello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study fishburger samples obtained from tilapia minced meat and surimi retrieved from fillet frames - filleting process waste - have been assessed. Four different preparations of fishburger were made. Chemical analyses was performed for protein, lipids, moisture and ash assessments, as well as bacteriological analyses through mesophilic aerobic heterotrophic and psychrotrophic bacteria counts, isolation and identification of Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and fecal coliforms. Instrumental measurements were also carried out for texture and tested sensory acceptance. The costs of the ingredients used in the preparation of formulas were also assessed. Microbiological standards, established by current regulations, were met by all samples. No significant gap (P>0.05 was detected among the percentage of protein, moisture and ashes, while a significant gap (P<0.05 was verified for lipids. A significant gap (P<0.05 for the instrumental measurements of texture was also observed. Both surimi and minced meat fishburger presented good acceptance on sensory tests for taste, texture and overall impression. The use of smoked fish flavoring and surimi caused a considerable increase in costs due to ingredient acquisition. This study shows a positive result for the industrialization and consumption potential of fishburgers made of minced fish retrieved from fillet frames.

  11. Bacteriological evaluation of packaged bottled water sold at Jaipur city and its public health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Tripathi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out to investigate the microbiological quality of packaged drinking water marketed in Jaipur city. Material and Methods: In the present study 'twenty' drinking water samples (15 water bottles and 5 sachets of different brands purchased randomly, were evaluated to access the water quality on the basis of different bacteriological parameters. Result: Out of twenty, 50% samples were found unsatisfactory in standard plate count. Psychrophillic, coliforms, E. coli and staphylococcal counts revealed that 25%, 45%, 20%, and 5% samples respectively were found unfit for human consumption as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS of drinking water. On the basis of results of overall microbiological assessment 55% of samples proved to be unfit for consumption. All brands of water sachet (100% had high coliforms count which indicates faecal contamination. Amongst those sachets two brands (40% had presence of E. coli and all the sachet water brands fell below drinking water standards while out of fifteen brands of bottled water 6 samples contained higher microbiological value hence unfit for human consumption. Conclusion: Local brands of packaged drinking water were found unfit for human condumption. So it is suggested that government should intensify the efforts in the monitoring of activities in this rapidly expanding industry with a view to supply potable and wholesome water to the public. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 27-30

  12. Validation of the Enterococci indicator for bacteriological quality monitoring of beaches in Malaysia using a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asmat; Dada, Ayokunle C; Usup, Gires; Heng, Lee Y

    2013-01-01

    There is currently no established bacteriological beach quality monitoring (BQM) program in place in Malaysia. To initiate cost-effective, sustainable bacteriological BQM schemes for the ultimate goal of protecting public health, policy decision makers need to be provided robust, indigenous empirical findings that validate appropriate water quality parameters for inclusion in such monitoring programs. This is the first study that assesses the validity of enterococci as an ideal indicator for bacteriological BQM in Malaysia using a multivariate approach. Beach water and sand samples from 7 beach locations were analyzed for a total of twenty-one microbial and non-microbial water quality parameters. A multivariate approach incorporating cluster analyses (CA), principal component analyses (PCA), and factor analysis (FA) was also adopted. Apart from the weak correlations of Staphylococcus aureus with concentrations of Vibro species (r = 0.302, p = 0.037) and total coliforms (r = 0.392, p = 0.006) in seawater, no correlation existed between S. aureus concentration and other parameters. Faecal coliforms failed to correlate with any of the tested parameters. Enterococci also correlated with more quality parameters than faecal coliforms or any other indicator. Multiple linear regressions highlighted a significant, best fit model that could predict enterococci concentrations in relation to other parameters with a maximum predictive success of 69.64%. PCA/FA clearly delineated enterococci and faecal coliforms as parameters that weighed strongly for BQM while Staphylococcus aureus, faecal coliforms and enterococci weighed strongly for beach sand quality monitoring. On the whole, higher correlations of enterococci levels with other parameters than was observed for faecal coliforms suggest that the former be considered a preferred parameter of choice for BQM in Malaysia. Our findings provide meaningful evidence particularly as it relates to the correlation of

  13. Bacteriological techniques compliment the clinical and cytological diagnosis of tuberculosis in human immuno deficiency virus infected persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikantam A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and M. tuberculosis are two intracellular pathogens that interact with each other at both clinical and cellular levels. A known HIV positive case, presentingwith vague pulmonary symptoms followed by bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy, is reported here. The condition was treated as asthma, based on lung symptoms. Cytology revealed acute purulent lymphadenitis. Only Z. N. staining and culture of sputum and lymphnode aspirate could diagnose tuberculosis. Patient responded well to the standard anti tuberculosis treatment.

  14. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF IRRIGATION WATER FROM VEGETABLE GARDENS IN THE MUNICIPALITIES OF ARARAQUARA, BOA ESPERANÇA DO SUL AND IBITINGA, SP

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    Rosa Maria BERALDO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the bacteriological quality of water used in the irrigation of vegetable gardens in the municipalities of Araraquara, Boa Esperança do Sul and Ibitinga, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 80 samples of water used in the irrigation of 40 vegetable gardens were analyzed, two samples coming from each vegetable garden. They were collected at the same site in different months, which resulted in two sample collection groups. The most probable number (MPN/100mL of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms and enterococci was identifi ed by means of the multiple tube technique. The analysis of the fi rst group samples showed quantities of thermotolerant coliforms above the amount allowed by current law for irrigation water (CONAMA Resolution n. 357 in nine cases. The owners of those vegetable gardens were then instructed in water disinfection procedures. After the analysis of the second group samples, it was noticed that only one sample did not meet the quality standards, and it was collected at a site where no disinfection procedure had been carried out. According to the results, 77.5% of the vegetable gardens were using water whose samples meet the quality standards. After the owners were instructed with regard to disinfection procedures, that number changed to 97.5%, which confi rms the importance of controlling and supervising irrigation water quality.

  15. 临床细菌检验的准确性分析%Accuarcy analysis of clinical bacteriological examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 景翠源; 万红

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析比较临床细菌检验的准确性,探讨提高临床细菌检验准确性的措施。方法选取2011~2012年在该院接受临床细菌检验的患者400例,针对采集的临床细菌标本,使用常规的K-B纸片扩散法(Kriby-Bauer法)进行药敏试验,并对其检验结果进行分析,特别是针对临床细菌检验准确性的分析,统计检验合格率。结果对送检的6种临床细菌标本检验结果进行分析,合格率依次为尿液细菌(97.1%)、血液细菌(96.4%)、创伤组织细菌(95.2%)、痰液细菌(93.8%)、生殖道细菌(89.6%)和粪便细菌(86.7%)。尿液标本检验的合格率高于粪便标本,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论严格遵守细菌标本的采集规范,规范标本在保存运送过程中的操作,加强对标本检验过程中的质量控制可提高临床细菌检验的合格率,保证临床细菌检验的准确性。%Objective Analyze and compare the accuracy of clinical bacteriological examination to get measures for im-proving the accuracy of clinical bacteriological examination. Methods In this study,400 samples from 2011 to 2012 in this hos-pital were received clinical bacteriological examination. For different clinical specimens for bacteria ,the routine Kriby-Baue (K-B) was used to conduct susceptibility testing,and the test result was analyzed,especially for the accuracy of clinical bacteriologi-cal examination. The examination qualified rate was included. Results It was analyzed the testing results of the 6 clinical bacte-ria specimen,whose qulified rate was 97.1%in urine bacteria,96.4%in blood bacteria,95.2%in wound tissue bacteria,93.8%in sputum bacteria,89.6%in reproductive tract bacteria and 86.7%in fecal bacteria in sequence. The qualified rate of urine speci-mens was higher that of faeces specimens. It had statisfical significance in difference (P<0.05). Conclusion Strict compliance with the norms of bacteria

  16. Clinico-bacteriological profile of primary pyodermas in Kashmir: a hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Y J; Hassan, I; Bashir, S; Farhana, A; Maroof, P

    2016-03-01

    Pyodermas are a common group of infectious dermatological conditions on which few studies have been conducted. This study aimed to characterise the clinical and bacteriological profile of pyodermas, and to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in primary pyodermas in a dermatology outpatient department in Kashmir. Methods We conducted a hospital based cross-sectional study in the outpatient Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Leprosy of Shri Maharaja Hari Singh Hospital, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Patients presenting with primary pyodermas were included in the study. A detailed history and complete physical and cutaneous examination was carried out along with microbiological testing to find aetiological microorganisms and their respectiveantimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, including that for methicillin resistance, was carried out by standard methods as outlined in the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results In total, 110 patients were included; the age of the study population ranged from 3 to 65 years (mean age 28 years); 62% were male. Poor personal hygiene was noted in 76 (69%). Furunculosis (56; 51%) was the most common clinical presentation. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 89 (81%) of cases, and MRSA formed 54/89 (61%) of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. All MRSA strains were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The prevalence of MRSA was high in this sample of communityacquired primary pyodermas. It is therefore important to monitor the changing trends in bacterial infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and to formulate a definite antibiotic policy which may be helpful in decreasing the incidence of MRSA infection.

  17. Bacteriological and clinical profile of Community acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients

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    Shah Bashir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to obtain comprehensive insight into the bacteriological and clinical profile of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. The patient population consisted of 100 patients admitted with the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, as defined by British Thoracic society, from December 1998 to Dec 2000, at the Sher- i-Kashmir institute of Medical Sciences Soura, Srinagar, India. Gram negative organisms were the commonest cause (19/29, followed by gram positive (10/29. In 71 cases no etiological cause was obtained. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest pathogen (10/29, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7/29, Escherichia coli (6/29, Klebsiella spp. (3/29, Streptococcus pyogenes (1/29, Streptococcus pneumoniae (1/29 and Acinetobacter spp. (1/29. Sputum was the most common etiological source of organism isolation (26 followed by blood (6, pleural fluid (3, and pus culture (1. Maximum number of patients presented with cough (99%, fever (95%, tachycardia (92%, pleuritic chest pain (75%, sputum production (65% and leucocytosis (43%. The commonest predisposing factors were smoking (65%, COPD (57%, structural lung disease (21%, diabetes mellitus (13%, and decreased level of consciousness following seizure (eight per cent and chronic alcoholism (one per cent. Fourteen patients, of whom, nine were males and five females, died. Staphylococcus aureus was the causative organism in four, Pseudomonas in two, Klebsiella in one, and no organism was isolated in seven cases. The factors predicting mortality at admission were - age over 62 years, history of COPD or smoking, hypotension, altered sensorium, respiratory failure, leucocytosis, and s0 taphylococcus pneumonia and undetermined etiology. The overall rate of identification of microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia was 29%, which is very low, and if serological tests for legionella, mycoplasma and viruses are performed the diagnostic yield would

  18. CHRONIC OSTEOMYELITIS: A BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

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    Sanjoy Chakravarty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of infections and early diagnosis of Osteomyelitis have led to the improved management of Osteomyelitis. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile of Osteomyelitis and the antibiotic resistance pattern of various isolates obtained as it is an important cause of morbidity. A total of 50 patients of Osteomyelitis either attending the outpatient department or admitted in the wards of a teaching and tertiary care hospita l in Sikkim from October 2013 to October, 2014 were included in the study. All those patients who were clinically and/ or radiologically suspected of having Osteomyelitis were enrolled as cases. Pus/ pus swabs or sequestrum samples taken aseptically were c ultured aerobically at 37 0 C for 18 - 24 hours in Blood and Mac Conkey agar plates. Culture isolates were identified by a series of standard biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested on Mueller Hinton agar by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion met hod. Betalactamase production of S. aureus strains were verified by iodometric filter paper and acidometric agar plate methods. S. aureus strains were screened for methicillin resistance by using conventional microbiological methods. S. aureus turned out t o be the most common organism isolated. Other organism isolated were P. Aeruginosa, Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., E. coli, Enterobacter spp., S. epidermitis, Streptococcus pyogens and Enterococcus spp. Beta - lactamase production and methicillin resistance was seen in S. aureus strains respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed in other strains. Infection caused by Methicillin resistant S. aureus and multidrug resistant organisms are posing a major challenge in the treatment of Osteomyelitis. So, appropriate drug selected by antibiotic sensitivity testing should be used to treat Osteomyelitis

  19. Bacteriological analysis of drinking water in relation to diarrheic illness in and around Khammam

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    Basavaraju Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking water is a major source of microbial pathogens in developing regions although, poor sanitation and food sources are integral to enteric pathogen exposure. Poor water quality, sanitation and hygiene are responsible for the majority of deaths a year world-wide and mainly through infectious diarrhea. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the bacteriological quality of drinking water at the source and point of use, to analyze the relationship between the presence of bacteria in water and diarrheic illness. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 water samples collected from various sources-bore wells, municipal tap waters, wells, and mineral water plants and also from storage containers in the house. Simultaneously, stool samples were also collected from households and processed. Results: Out of 100 water samples majority of them were consuming municipal water 16 (32%, followed by mineral water 14 (28%. For storage majority of them were using the candle filter 17 (34%, followed by steel containers 13 (26%. Escherichia coli was isolated in candle filters in the majority of cases 10 (29.4%, Enterobacter isolated in steel containers 6 (23%. Only in 50% diarrheal cases similar bacteria were observed both in water and stool samples. Conclusion: Water has become non-potable after storage due to various hygienic practices. Water may get contaminated at various levels, which is responsible for diarrheic illness. Safe water is essential for health. An efficient and well-maintained distribution system coupled with good hygienic practices would ensure that water is safe at the point of collection and before consumption.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and bacteriological characteristics of bovine Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens isolates from mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Mamoru; Sawada, Takuo; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashimoto, Mizuki; Hata, Eiji; Yonezawa, Chizuko; Kato, Hajime

    2011-12-29

    The presence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) strains among bovine isolates of Gram-negative bacilli, and O-serotypes of bovine Serratia marcescens and P. aeruginosa isolates have been reported rarely. The aims of this study were to (1) elucidate antimicrobial susceptibilities and O-serotypes of P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens isolates from bovine mastitis and the presence of MBL-producers and MDRP strains among them and (2) evaluate their relationships to human isolates. We investigated the MICs of 24 antimicrobials and O-serotypes for 116 P. aeruginosa and 55 S. marcescens isolates in Japan, primarily in 2006. A total of 171 isolates exhibited high antimicrobial susceptibilities with the exception of a partial drug. P. aeruginosa isolates exhibited high susceptibilities of ≥ 95.7% to ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefoperazone/sulbactam, amikacin, tobramycin, and gentamicin; however, they exhibited a susceptibility of only 69.8% to aztreonam. They exhibited substantial resistances to ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin, cefotaxime, and moxalactam. S. marcescens isolates exhibited high susceptibilities of ≥ 90.9% to kanamycin, ceftiofur, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and the 15 aforementioned drugs, but exhibited resistance to minocycline. Neither MBL-producers nor MDRP strains were detected among the 171 strains. The dominant serotypes of P. aeruginosa isolates were OG, OA, OB, OI, OF, OE, and OK; those of S. marcescens isolates were O6 and O5. Every S. marcescens isolate was pigmented. These findings suggest that bovine P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens isolates differ from human isolates from both antibiogram and phenotypic perspectives, and could help to evaluate differences in bacteriological characteristics between bovine and human isolates.

  1. [Bacteriological quality of traditional, organic and hydroponic cultured lettuce in Costa Rica].

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    Monge, Claudio; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of lettuces commercialized in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, and cultured in different ways, in order to detect differences between the culturing methods and the risk that these products may represent for Public Health. The study was done at the Food Microbiology Laboratory, Universidad de Costa Rica, from March to July, 2010. 30 lettuce samples were analyzed (10 obtained by traditional culture, 10 by organic culture and 10 by hydropony). All samples were obtained from markets where their origin was certified. Total aerobic plate count, total and fecal coliforms count and Escherichia coli were determined to all samples, as well as the presence/abscense of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g. Results obtained show that there is no statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) between the different types of cultures analyzed for any of the parameters evaluated. An important percentage of the samples presented coliforms, nevertheless, just one E. coli strain was isolated from a traditionally cultured lettuce sample. Four different Salmonella spp. strains were isolated from the samples as well as one Listeria monocytogenes strain. Data obtained show that the consumption of this product, raw or without an adequate hygiene and disinfection may represent a risk for health. Also, from the bacteriological point of view, there is no significant difference between the culturing methods evaluated, suggesting that the specific directions for each type of culture are not followed or that there is an inadequate handling of the products or post harvest contamination. PMID:22097292

  2. Survey of Bacteriological Quality of the Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Saqqez City

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    S Golmohamadi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Safe drinking water providing is one of the main purposes in the community. Development and improvement of community is related to the public health. In this study !we studied the bacteriological quality of 116 villages under coverage of the water and wastewater companies in rural areas of Saqqez in.1386"nMaterial and Methods:Drinking water of these rural areas have provided of deep, semi-depth- wells and spring water sources. Because in numerous rural areas both sources of drinking water and in some of them different sources of drinking water were used (old and new storage water source, in general, 359 samples were collected and transferred to the laboratory for testing to evaluate its quality. We also used linear Regression statistical analysis for collected data."nResults:results show that residual chlorine in drinking water in 33.88 percent of rural areas population were in range 0.2-1 mg/l. For 98.3 percent of the seqqez rural population, the turbidity was lower than the maximum permissible levels of drinking water standards of Iran (5 NTU. There was no any E.coli contamination in 88 percent of drinking water in saqqez rural areas."nConclusion:Based on WHO guidelines concerning the microbial quality of water published in 2006! the average indicator for lack of E.coli in water of rural areas of seqqez was 88 percent and water is safe or good for drinking.

  3. Bacteriological safety of plastic-bagged sachet drinking water sold in Amassoma, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakubu B Ngwai; Adebukola A Sounyo; Siyeofori M Fiabema; Geoffrey A Agadah; Tamunobelema O Ibeakuzie

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the bacteriological safety of sachet water sold in Amassoma, a rural community in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Methods:Six samples of each of the different sachet drinking water brands were bought at random from shop shelves, markets and street vendors and were studies for microbial indicators of safety and quality. Bacterial counts were analyzed by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and significance of differences was tested at 5%probability. Results:Minimum and maximum counts with regard to the sachet water samples investigated were (4.3±1.1)í106 CFU mL-1 and (8.2±1.0)í106 CFU mL-1 for heterotrophic plate counts;(0.9±0.3)í106 CFU mL-1 and (1.2±0.4)í106 CFU mL-1 for aerobic spore-former counts;(1.3±0.5)í103 CFU mL-1 and (2.5±0.8)í103 CFU mL-1 for total coliforms;(1.6±0.9)í103 CFU mL-1 and (9.5±11.2)í103 CFU mL-1 for thermotolerant coliforms. Klebsiella spp but not Escherichia coli was present in all samples of the brands;non-coliform bacteria detected in some samples were Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Bacillus species. Conclusions:The brands of sachet water sold (at the time of this study) in Amassoma did not meet the minimum acceptable standard for microbiologically safe drinking water as recommended by the World Health Organization.

  4. Bacteriological quality of raw milk used for production of a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese.

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    Costa Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza; Marçal de Faria, Camila Andreata; Silva Pinheiro, Julia; Gonçalves de Almeida, Héllen; Vieira Pires, Christiano; Silva Santos, Aline

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bacteriological quality of raw cow's milk utilized for the production of Traditional Minas Serro cheese, a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese. Raw milk samples were collected from six farmstead cheese operations manufacturing raw milk cheese from cow's milk. Coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli counts were determined using Petrifilm™ EC plates, and Staphylococcus aureus counts were determined using Petrifilm™ Staph Express count plates. The standard plate count (SPC) was determined using plate count agar. The somatic cell count (SCC) was determined with a DeLaval cell counter. The detection of Listeria monocytogenes was based in the ISO 11290-1 protocol. A total of 165 samples were analyzed, and the SPC was 1.85-7.88 log CFU/mL. Coliform were detected in 140 (84.8%) of the 165 samples, with counts of 1-6.39 log CFU/mL. E. coli was detected in 17 (10.3%) samples, with counts of 1-2.18 log CFU/mL. The SCC in raw milk was 10,000-1,390,000 cells per mL, with mean and geometric mean values of 247,000 and 162,181, respectively. The SCC did not differ significantly between the seasons (p>0.05), but differed between different farms (pcount was 1.47-5.03 log CFU/mL. The median of SPC, CC, and S. aureus counts differed significantly between seasons and between farms (pbacterial (including pathogenic) presence.

  5. Bacteriological assessment of smoked game meat in Lubumbashi, D.R.C.

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    Kabwang a Mpalang, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriological quality of smoked game meat in Lubumbashi has not been studied much to date. The present study focused on the analysis of 182 samples of smoked game meat from three species, Syncerus caffer (n = 63, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (n = 60 and Sylvicapra grimmia (n = 59, sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi. The isolation of Escherichia coli from 81.3% of samples (mean 4.87 ± 0.6 log10 CFU·g-1 of sample confirms significant faecal contamination of smoked game meat. The study has determined by culture prevalences of 0.0%, 4.3% [CI95% 1.4-7.4], 3.8% [CI95% 1.1-6.6] and 14.2% [CI95% 9.2-19.4] respectively for Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction, these prevalences were of 2.2% [IC95% 0.1-4.3], 6.0% [IC95% 2.6-9.5], 3.8% [IC95% 1.1-6.6] and 15.9% [IC95% 10.6-21.3] respectively for STEC, Salmonella spp., C. jejuni and C. coli. Syncerus caffer was established as a potential vehicle of STEC carrying stx1 gene (3.2%, stx2 gene (1.6% and the combination of stx2 and eae genes (1.6%. On the basis of these data, we suggested the need for developing monitoring plans of the production, preparation, handling and distribution of smoked game meat in Lubumbashi.

  6. Bacteriological features of infectious spondylodiscitis at Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital of Rabat

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    A Zohoun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To review the bacteriological features of infectious spondylodiscitis and provide recommendations for the initial therapy which remains empirical in our context. Retrospective study including patients diagnosed with spondylodiscitis over a period of 4 years (2006-2009 at the Rabat Military Teaching Hospital. During the study period, we analysed 30 cases: the mean age was 49.9 years and 21 cases (70% were male. The patients were predominantly hospitalized in neurosurgery department (15/30 followed by rheumatology department (10/30. The site of infection was lumbar in 21 cases (21/30, dorsal in 7 cases (7/30. 26 cultures were positive of which 19 (19/26 were monomicrobial. Tuberculosis (TB was implicated in 10 cases (10/30 including 4 cases in association with common organisms (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium species. Brucella melitensis was isolated in 1 case. Infections caused by pyogenic bacteria were isolated in 15 cases of which 12 (12/15 revealed simple organisms including Gram-positive cocci in 9 cases (9/12 with 3 cases of S. aureus and Gram-negative bacilli in 3 cases (3/12 with 2 cases of P. aeruginosa. Blood cultures carried out for 16 patients were positive in 7 cases. The anatomopathologic exams carried out for 20 patients found in 6 cases epithelioid granulomata and giants cells with caseous necrosis in total concordance with TB culture. TB is the most frequent cause of spondylodiscitis in Morocco. Our study found the same frequency for non-specific and specific germs. Empirical treatment must take into account S. aureus and M. tuberculosis.

  7. Comparative Bacteriological Efficacy of Pharmacokinetically Enhanced Amoxicillin-Clavulanate against Streptococcus pneumoniae with Elevated Amoxicillin MICs and Haemophilus influenzae

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Valerie; Hoover, Jennifer; Singley, Christine; Woodnutt, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A new pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000 mg of amoxicillin/125 mg of clavulanate twice a day; ratio 16:1) has been designed, with sustained-release technology, to allow coverage of bacterial strains with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid MICs of at least 4/2 μg/ml. The bacteriological efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanate, 2,000/125 mg twice a day, ratio 16:1, was compared in a rat model of respiratory tract infection versus four other amoxicillin-clavulanate f...

  8. Bacteriological and pathological studies of egg peritonitis in commercial layer chicken in Namakkal area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Palani Srinivasan; Perumal Balachandran

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To detect the various bacteriological agents and pathological changes in commercial layer chicken affected with egg yolk peritonitis in Namakkal region of India. Methods:A total of 6 572 layer chicken from 85 commercial farms were subjected for the study, out of which 1 715 showed various types of oviduct abnormalities. Among the 1 715, 264 birds from six farms were identified as egg peritonitis on the basis of postmortem examination. Trachea, lung, heart blood, liver, peritoneal exudate, oviduct (infundibulum, magnum, uterus) and cloacal swabs were collected from the 264 birds with egg peritonitis lesion for screening of bacterial agents. Signalment, clinical signs and pathological changes were recorded in the affected flocks. Result: The results of the present investigation indicated that the E. coli associated egg peritonitis was responsible for 15.39%of the reproductive tract abnormalities in commercial layers between 21 and 80 week of age. In the affected flocks egg production drop and mortality varied from 3%to 20%and 0.5%to 7.0%respectively. It was noticed during peak egg production (21 to 60 week) and southwest monsoon season (58%). Statistical analysis of age, season and egg production by Chi square test of independence revealed highly significant difference. E. coli was isolated as a pure culture and concurrent with other bacterial agents in 226 and 38 birds respectively. Among the fifteen E. coli serotypes identified serotype O166, O64 and O111 were predominant. Necropsy examination of affected birds revealed the presence of amorphous or insipissiated yolk material in the abdominal cavity with inflammatory changes in the ovary, oviduct and intestine. Microscopically the oviduct surface epithelium showed degeneration and desquamation, moderate to marked infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophils and lymphocytes in various regions and lumen contained serofibrinous exudate, inflammatory and desquamated epithelial cells with

  9. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN RURAL AREA

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    Mohit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Middle ear infection is one of the most common condition in ENT practice, particularly in our country. Its significance lies in its chronicity and its dreaded complications like hearing loss and cholesteatoma. Chronic suppurative Otitis media and its complications are among the most common conditions seen by both the otologist and pediatrician. Both gram positive and negative organisms are responsible for infection of the middle ear. AIMS: The study was primarily carried out in 200 cases of C.S.O.M. to determine the bacteriological flora and to study the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the organisms isolated on culture from discharging ears. RESULTS: In our study Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the most common isolated bacteria (40.65% [100/246], followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.63%[36/246], Klebsiella aerogenes (11.78%[29/246] and Proteus Mirabilis (10.56%[26/246]. Among the anerobic organisms Peptostreptococcus (5.69% was the most common followed by Propionibacterium (4.06% and Bacteroids spp. (3.65%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic in the present study. It was effective against maximum number of strains 97(95.48% followed by Gentamycin 95(92.36% and Ciprofloxacin 93(91.30%. Cefoperazone 88(86.42%, Cefotaxime 78(74.54% and Ofloxacin 64(62.68%. CONCLUSION: Efficient and effective treatment of CSOM is based on the knowledge of causative micro-organisms and thus their antimicrobial sensitivity ensures proper clinical recovery and avoidance of the possible dreaded complications. It has been observed that human negligence is one of the main factor responsible for the development of antibiotic resistance. Along with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics by the treating physician the lack of compliance on part of the patient also results in emergence of resistance and thus in treatment failure. It has been frequently encountered that as soon as the symptoms subside and improvement in condition occurs, many

  10. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN RURAL AREA

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    Mohit Srivatsava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Middle ear infection is one of the most common condition in ENT practice, particularly in our country. Its significance lies in its chronicity and its dreaded complications like hearing loss and cholesteatoma. Chronic suppurative Otitis media and its complications are among the most common conditions seen by both the otologist and pediatrician. Both gram positive and negative organisms are responsible for infection of the middle ear. Aims: The study was primarily carried out in 200 cases of C.S.O.M. to determine the bacteriological flora and to study the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the organisms isolated on culture from discharging ears. Results: In our study Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the most common isolated bacteria (40.65% [100/246], followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.63% [36/246], Klebsiella aerogenes (11.78% [29/246] and Proteus Mirabilis (10.56% [26/246]. Among the anerobic organisms Peptostreptococcus (5.69% was the most common followed by Propionibacterium (4.06% and Bacteroids spp. (3.65%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic in the present study. It was effective against maximum number of strains 97 (95.48% followed by Gentamycin 95 (92.36% and Ciprofloxacin 93 (91.30%. Cefoperazone 88 (86.42%, Cefotaxime 78 (74.54% and Ofloxacin 64 (62.68%. Conclusion: Efficient and effective treatment of CSOM is based on the knowledge of causative micro-organisms and thus their antimicrobial sensitivity ensures proper clinical recovery and avoidance of the possible dreaded complications. It has been observed that human negligence is one of the main factor responsible for the development of antibiotic resistance. Along with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics by the treating physician the lack of compliance on part of the patient also results in emergence of resistance and thus in treatment failure. It has been frequently encountered that as soon as the symptoms subside and improvement in condition occurs

  11. Comparison of California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations for detection of camel (Camelus dromedarius) mastitis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Gadir Atif, E; Hildebrandt, Goetz; Kleer, Josef N; Molla, Bayleyegn; Kyule, Moses N; Baumann, Maximilian P O

    2006-01-01

    A total of 956 quarter milk samples from 253 traditionally managed lactating camels were collected aseptically from Negele (Borena Region), Dire Dawa, and Gewane (Afar Region), Ethiopia, according to multi-stage sampling. The quarter milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations. Five hundred and seventy one (59.7%) quarter milk samples had microorganisms. Of these, 428 (75.0%) had isolates that were identified as major pathogens (MAP) and 143 (25.0%) as minor pathogens (MIP). A positive correlation was found between CMT scores and bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) (p-value = 0.00). Strong correlation (p-value = 0.00) between CMT scores and SCC was recorded. The differences among the median log SCC of bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) were not significant (p-value = 0.24). Similarly, the application of the cut-off level of 2.5 x 10(5) ml(-1) indicated less agreement (p-value = 0.32) for bacteriological classes MAP and MIP. PMID:16450708

  12. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Organic Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders Implicated in a Foodborne Salmonellosis Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamber, Sandeep; Swist, Eleonora; Oudit, Denise

    2016-05-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of sprouted chia and flax seed powders, no data have been reported on their intrinsic physicochemical properties and background microflora. Here, we report the moisture content, water activity, pH, and fatty acid methyl ester and bacteriological profiles of 19 sprouted chia and flax seed samples, 10 of which were associated with an outbreak of salmonellosis in Canada and the United States. The physicochemical parameters of the Salmonella-positive samples did not differ significantly from those of the negative samples. However, the higher Enterobacteriaceae and coliform levels on the contaminated powders were associated with the presence of Salmonella. Enumeration of Salmonella by the most probable number (MPN) method revealed concentrations ranging from 1 MPN per 3 g of powder to 1 MPN per 556 g of powder. The results of this study demonstrate that low numbers of Salmonella may be linked to foodborne outbreaks.

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE AND CHRONIC LARYNGITIS DEPENDING ON RESULTS OF BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF LARYNX MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Chuikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes study of larynx microflora in patients with acute laryngtis and exacerbations of chronic laryngitis. Therapeutic algorithm based on bacteriologic examination data was developed reduce. New algorithm helps reduce sickness terms and to decrease prevalence of desease.123 patients of age from 18 to 60 were under observation: 43 patients with acute laryngitis and 80 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. 22 patients with acute laryngitis and 58 patients with exacerbation of chronic laryngitis underwent etiotropic treatment with antibiotics. The group of comparison with acute laryngitis (21 patients and chronic laryngitis (22 patients received treatment according to the conventional scheme.Bacteriologic examination of larynx mucous, clinical study and functional voice test (time of maximum vowels phonation before and after treatment were carried out.As a result of the research it was established that the most common causative agent of acute and chronic inflammatory larynx diseases is S. aureus as a mono culture or combined with other bacterial associations (S. аnhemolyticus, Str. viridans etc..After the end of antibacterial therapy we found symptoms as hoarseness, irritation, dry laryngopharynx, hyperemia and swelling of larynx mucous reduced eather in new treatment group than controlled group. Time of maximum vowels phonation (in seconds also increased significantly.Sickness terms after prescription of new treatment was shorter than in comparison groups: (10.9 ± 7.9 days for acute laryngitis and (12.6 ± 7.3 days for chronic laryngitis respectively. Health index was 20.8 and 19.5% respectively.

  14. Tuberculosis in Australia: bacteriologically confirmed cases and drug resistance, 2007. A report of the Australian Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Richard; Bastion, Ivan; Carter, Robyn; Jelfs, Peter; Keehner, Terillee; Sievers, Aina

    2009-09-01

    The Australian Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory Network collects and analyses laboratory data on new cases of disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In 2007, a total of 872 cases were identified by bacteriology; an annual reporting rate of 4.1 cases per 100,000 population. Isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis (n=867), M. africanum (n=4) and M. bovis (n=1). Fifteen children aged under 10 years had bacteriologically-confirmed tuberculosis. Results of in vitro drug susceptibility testing were available for 871 of 872 isolates for isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R), ethambutol (E), and pyrazinamide (Z). A total of 98 (11.3%) isolates of M. tuberculosis were resistant to at least one of these anti-tuberculosis agents. Resistance to at least H and R (defined as multi-drug resistance, MDR) was detected in 24 (2.8%) isolates, all from overseas-born patients; 17 were from the respiratory tract (sputum n=16, endotracheal aspirate n=1). Thirteen patients with MDR-TB were from the Papua New Guinea-Torres Strait Islands zone. Of the 98 M. tuberculosis isolates resistant to at least one of the standard drugs, 54 (55.1%) were from new cases, 9 (9.2%) from previously treated cases, and no information was available on the remaining 35 cases. Seven were Australian-born, 90 were overseas- born, and the country of birth of 1 was unknown. Of the 90 overseas-born persons with drug resistant disease, 66 (73.3%) were from 5 countries: India (n=16); Papua New Guinea (n=15); the Philippines (n=12); Vietnam (n=12); and China (n=11). No XDR-TB was detected in 2007.

  15. Comparison of two methods for assessing the bacteriological condition of the water supply in slaughter houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossel, D.A.A.; Corstiaensen, G.P.; Eggenkamp, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and five water samples of drinking water quality used in slaughter houses were examined according to The Netherlands' Standard N 3043 (1956) and by the new ‘Differential Hydrobacteriogramme’ (DHB) technique. The latter procedure allows for resuscitation of debilitated cells, uses one sin

  16. Bacteriology, wind wave spectra, and benthic organism data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 01 February 1978 - 03 May 1979 (NODC Accession 7900247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology, wind wave spectra, and benthic organism data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from February 1, 1978...

  17. Bacteriology data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS-Mid Atlantic Ocean) project, 05 November 1976 - 16 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7800207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 5, 1976 to August 16,...

  18. Water quality and bacteriology in an aquaculture facility equipped with a new aeration system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Karekar, S.V.; PraveenKumar, R.; Sreepada, R.A.; Vogelsang, C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    less dynamic conditions. However, modified extensive shrimp ponds have been observed for their low risk, low cost and operational strategies unlike the intensive farming where pond environment is controlled by modern aeration techniques which makes... (90%) enters the farm/pond as formulated shrimp food of which 22% is converted to harvested shrimp, 14% remained in the sediment and the remainder 57% is discharged to the environment (Christopher et al. 2003). Among the inorganic nitrogen species...

  19. Assessment of the relationship between bacteriological quality of dug-wells, hygiene behaviour and well characteristics in two cholera endemic localities in Douala, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla; Omam, Lundi-Anne; Massalla, Thomas Njinuwo

    2013-01-01

    Background Access to potable water is grossly inadequate in Douala-Cameroon. The situation is worse in slum areas, compelling inhabitants to obtain water from sources of doubtful quality. This has contributed to frequent outbreaks of water-borne diseases particularly cholera, which results in severe morbidity and mortality. Shallow wells are a major source of water in these areas. We analyzed the influence of some factors on the bacteriological quality of well water in Bepanda and New Bell, c...

  20. The comparative evaluation of serum biochemical, haematological, bacteriological and clinical findings of dead and recovered bitches with pyometra in the postoperative process

    OpenAIRE

    Küplülü S.; Vural M.R.; Demirel A; Polat M.; Akçay A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognosis, the risk status and the death reasons in dead and recovered bitches with pyometra after the operative approach by comparing serum biochemical, and haematological parameters, as well as bacteriological and clinical findings. Bitches with pyometra (n=30) were ovariohysterectomized. Eight bitches that died after the ovariohysterectomy formed Group 1 and the rest, which recovered, was Group 2. In addition, 10 healthy bitches were used as the...

  1. [Bacteriological control of blood preservation, production of infusion solutions and dry human plasma under conditions of aseptic work and possible sources of their contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, S; Lucić, N; Aganović, N; Grbić, E

    1975-01-01

    In premises for blood conservation, production of dry human plasma and infusion solutions "notwithstanding the permanent measures for desinfection, new bacterial contamination occurs from time to time and whose source are the casings and material originating from non-sterile environment. Bacteriological control, which has primarily a preventive character, enables a due forecast for measures to be undertaken by the appropriate desinfection of the working surfaces and air, satisfactory conditions of aseptic work can be maintained. General hygiene should be paid attention to as well as mechanical cleansing of premises, avoidance of groups for lunch-time etc., since the treatment by desinfectors would not be sufficient for maintenance of aseptic working conditions. In order to prevent the transmission of bacterial contamination, premises for blood conservation should be strictly separated from other operations and also prevent the unnecessary movements of personnel through corridors. The results of the bacteriological control of the personnel show that greater attention should be paid to their health care since the workers there work in closed aseptic systems and thus avoid them as a bacteria transmittors in respect to danger of blood and dry human plasma contamination. It is also necessary to efficiently educate the personnel for work in aseptic conditions and also increase their elementary knowledge from bacteriology and hygiene. The bacterial skin-flora on the spot of donor's venepuncture also presents a certain danger for blood contamination. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the most optimal manner of skin desinfecate together with the most appropriate means having a fast bactericidal and fungicidal action. It would also be useful, on the basis of further test, to suggest certain standard for an allowed number of conditionally pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms which would be used by the instutions performing the blood transfusion and production of

  2. Salmonella level of Danish swine herds based on serological examination of meat-juice samples and salmonella occurrence measured by bacteriological follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Sørensen, Vibeke;

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of data collected in the Danish Salmonella Control Program in swine herds were conducted to assess the association between bacteriological and serological findings (including the degree to which changing serological status over time modulated the relationship) and to assess the degree...... on the change in serological status over time and the age group being tested. salmonella infection assessed by serological tests at a single time-point and data on age group tested would allow better targeting and managing control programs....

  3. Bacteriological Quality of Foods and Water Sold by Vendors and in Restaurants in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria: A Comparative Study of Three Microbiological Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nkere, Chukwuemeka K.; Ibe, Nnenne I.; Iroegbu, Christian U.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of fo...

  4. Comparison of Salivary Anti Helicobacter pylori IgG with Serum IgG and Bacteriological Tests in Detecting Helicobacter pylori Infections

    OpenAIRE

    H Ghasemian safaei; Fazeli, A.; H Tamizifar; Rashidi, N.(Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47416-1467, Babolsar, Iran)

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) specific IgG antibodies in specimens of oral fluid and serum with bacteriological tests. Methods: Antral biopsy specimens, as well as serum and oral fluid samples were collected from 97 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The presence or absence of current H. pylori infection was determined by culture, ...

  5. Studies on the bacteriological qualities of the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chigor, Vincent N.; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    The Buffalo River and its dams are major surface water sources used for fresh produce irrigation, raw water abstraction and recreation in parts of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Over a 12-month period (August 2010 to July 2011), we assessed the bacteriological qualities of water from the river and 3 source water dams along its course. Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC) and enterococci (ENT) counts, were high and ranged as follows: ...

  6. Clinical and bacteriological correlates of whole blood interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in newly detected cases of pulmonary TB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bandyopadhyay M; Bhakta A; Chakrabarty S; Pal M; Bharati P

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the relationship of the capacity to produce interferon gamma (IFN-毭) in whole blood, bacteriological, hematological, radiographic and clinical presentations in new,HIVseronegative cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB).Methods: 80 cases and 50 control subjects aged 15 years onwards, representative of Kasturba Hospital and Nursing schools of Wardha district of Maharashtra state in India were examined for their health condition with standard methodology.Results: Among theseTB patients, 73.8% were Quantiferon-TB gold (QFT) positive withIFN-γ concentration as 0.35 IU or more and there was none in healthy controls. The meanIFN-γ concentrations varied between 9.58IU (50-59 yrs) and 2.58IU ≥60 yrs), showing no trend. The differences in positivity and meanIFN-γconcentrations were statistically insignificant. Both the QFT positivity andIFN-γconcentrations were higher in normal lymphocyte percent as compared to below and above normal, but differences were not statistically significant.Conclusions: TheIFN-γconcentrations are not correlated with any of the predictors of disease severity studied, the levels are significantly higher in observation group as compared to healthy group.

  7. Some Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Soil Samples around Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorafor, K. A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of soil samples around Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria were examined to determine the pollution status of the soil quality. Results of the physico-chemical analysis showed that the soil samples had pH range of 4.4 – 5.2. Tinapa soil has the highest value of Copper (39.63mg/kg and Nickel (11.36mg/kg and Anantigha has the highest value of Zinc (14.59mg/kg, Iron Fe (78.19mg/kg and Manganese (47.42mg/kg. The results revealed a high total count of 23.5x106 cfu/g in Anantigha and 24.5x10-3 cfu/g in Tinapa for bacteria and fungi respectively. Some bacteria isolates found during the study includes, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilus, Clostridium sp, Arthrobacter sp, Streptomyces sp, Nocardia sp, Pseudomonas sp and Micrococcus sp., and Fungal isolates includes, Actinomycete sp, Verticullium sp, Aspergillus sp, Mucor sp, Nigospora sp and Paecilomyces sp. From the result, soil sample from Anantigha have comparatively the highest Total Bacterial Counts compared to the other two locations. The health implications of this work is that Anantigha and Tinapa areas being low lying were likely, because of the presence of Escherichia coli, to experience gastro-intestinal diseases such as dysentery and cholera than the Ediba environments.

  8. [Clinical and bacteriological profiles of the urinary infections associated the VIH/AIDS in hospital area of Bamako, Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, S; Oumar, A A; Dembele, J P; Noutache, J L; Fongoro, S; Maiga, I; Bougoudogo, F

    2007-01-01

    The syndrome of immunodepression is the bed of multiple infections of which urinary infections. The goal of this study was to determine the aspects clinical and bacteriological urinary infections during the AIDS with the service of the infectious diseases of the hospital of the Point G of February 1, 2003 to June 30 2005. The diagnosis of the urinary infection was retained on the basis of bacteria number > or =10(4) bacteriury and or leucocytes count > or =10(5)/mm3. The prevalence of the urinary infection was estimated at 8.85%. The principal clinical aspects were a symptomatic pyelonephritis 73.5%, the leucocytiury 11.8%, the cystitis 8.8%, and acute prostatitis 5.9%. Escherichia coli was the most frequent bacterium (46.7%). The sensitivity of the germs was 91.7% with the aminosides, 90.9% with the fluoroquinolones, from 63.6 to 80% respectively with the cephalosporines of first and second generation. Resistance to ampicilline, chloramphenicol and sulfamides was about 72 and 80%. The systematic research of the urinary infection is necessary during the AIDS and the antibiotherapy of choice in first intention in absence of etiologic possibility of diagnosis should be the aminosides and or the fluoroquinolones.

  9. [Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Vázquez, M; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Radice, M; Galas, M; Pasterán, F; Bantar, C; Casellas, J M; Kovensky Pupko, J; Couto, E; Goldberg, M; Lopardo, H; Gutkind, G; Soloaga, R

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account previous recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), the Antimicrobial Committee, Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (SADEBAC), Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (AAM), and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  10. Influences of NOM composition and bacteriological characteristics on biological stability in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Meyer, Anne S; Kim, Sungpyo; Maeng, Sung Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The influences of natural organic matter (NOM) and bacteriological characteristics on the biological stability of water were investigated in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. We found that prechlorination decreased the hydrophobicity of the organic matter and significantly increased the high-molecular-weight (MW) dissolved organic matter, such as biopolymers and humic substances. High-MW organic matter and structurally complex compounds are known to be relatively slowly biodegradable; however, because of the prechlorination step, the indigenous bacteria could readily utilise these fractions as assimilable organic carbon. Sequential coagulation and sedimentation resulted in the substantial removal of biopolymer (74%), humic substance (33%), bacterial cells (79%), and assimilable organic carbon (67%). Rapid sand and granular activated carbon filtration induced an increase in the low-nucleic-acid content bacteria; however, these bacteria were biologically less active in relation to enzymatic activity and ATP. The granular activated carbon step was essential to securing biological stability (the ability to prevent bacterial growth) by removing the residual assimilable organic carbon that had formed during the ozone treatment. The growth potential of Escherichia coli and indigenous bacteria were found to differ in respect to NOM characteristics. In comparison with E. coli, the indigenous bacteria utilised a broader range of NOM as a carbon source. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the measured biological stability of water could differ, depending on the NOM characteristics, as well as on the bacterial inoculum selected for the analysis. PMID:27376858

  11. Molecular and bacteriological investigation of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in domestic bovids from Ismailia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohey; Selim, Abdelfattah

    2015-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in smallholder dairy farms in Ismailia, Egypt. A total of 340 milking cows and buffaloes were sampled from 60 farms, and 50 nasal swabs were collected from consenting farm workers. Milk samples were subjected to California mastitis test (CMT) and the positive samples were examined by bacterial culture and PCR to identify etiological agents. Based on CMT, the prevalence of SCM was 71.6 % in cattle and 43.5 % in buffaloes while the prevalence was 25.2 % at cow-quarter level and 21.7 % at buffaloes-quarter level. Bacteriological analysis showed that the most frequently identified bacteria were Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (38.3 %) and Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae (20 %). The diagnostic sensitivity of PCR compared to bacterial culture was superior with S. aureus and Str. agalactiae detection being 41 and 22.6 %, respectively. Furthermore, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains occurred in 52.2 and 45 % of isolates of animals and workers, respectively. Subclinical mastitis due to S. aureus and Str. agalactiae is endemic in smallholder dairy herds in Ismailia. The occurrence of MRSA in animals and workers highlights a need for wide epidemiological studies of MRSA and adopting control strategies. PMID:25374070

  12. Bacteriological And Nutritional Analysis Of Groundnut Cake Sold In An Open Market In Samaru Zaria-Kaduna State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteriological and nutritional analysis of groundnut cake powder sold in open market at Samaru-Zaria was studied. The samples collected from four zones of the study area were analysed for possible microbiological contamination and its nutritional quality. The results indicated a microbial load of 1.93 x 105 cfug and 1.94 x 105 cfug for zones A and B respectively 1.01 x 105 cfug for zone C and 2.37 x 105 cfug for zone D. The bacterial isolates found to be associated with the groundnut cake powder in this study included Klebsiella oxytoca Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus E. coli P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus feacalis. The nutrients content of the sample included carbohydrates 55.15 moisture 12.65 lipid 15.40 protein 12.60 ash 3.95 and crude fibre 0.25. Groundnut cake sold in the study area is highly contaminated with bacteria except for samples from zone C which is within the Food and Drugs Agency FDA recommendation of 1.0 x 105cfuml as allowable microbial contamination for food. The high level of microbial contamination is a serious cause for concern as it may trigger epidemics. However the product is highly nutritious.

  13. Influences of NOM composition and bacteriological characteristics on biological stability in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Meyer, Anne S; Kim, Sungpyo; Maeng, Sung Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The influences of natural organic matter (NOM) and bacteriological characteristics on the biological stability of water were investigated in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. We found that prechlorination decreased the hydrophobicity of the organic matter and significantly increased the high-molecular-weight (MW) dissolved organic matter, such as biopolymers and humic substances. High-MW organic matter and structurally complex compounds are known to be relatively slowly biodegradable; however, because of the prechlorination step, the indigenous bacteria could readily utilise these fractions as assimilable organic carbon. Sequential coagulation and sedimentation resulted in the substantial removal of biopolymer (74%), humic substance (33%), bacterial cells (79%), and assimilable organic carbon (67%). Rapid sand and granular activated carbon filtration induced an increase in the low-nucleic-acid content bacteria; however, these bacteria were biologically less active in relation to enzymatic activity and ATP. The granular activated carbon step was essential to securing biological stability (the ability to prevent bacterial growth) by removing the residual assimilable organic carbon that had formed during the ozone treatment. The growth potential of Escherichia coli and indigenous bacteria were found to differ in respect to NOM characteristics. In comparison with E. coli, the indigenous bacteria utilised a broader range of NOM as a carbon source. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the measured biological stability of water could differ, depending on the NOM characteristics, as well as on the bacterial inoculum selected for the analysis.

  14. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge: Bacteriological and parasitological studies after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative bacteriological studies of sewage sludge in a sewage plant have demonstrated that mechanical-biological sewage treatment reduced the total bacterial count and those of Enterococces by 2 log and the Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 log. Frequently Salmonella could be isolated from sewage sludge. A further reduction of viable micro-organisms could be achieved by irradiation of sewage sludge (60Co, gamma-radiation, 260 krad, 210 min). This reduction amounted to an average of 2 log with Enterococces and total bacterial count, and to 5 log with Enterobacteriaceae. Out of 40 samples investigated after irradiation, two contained Salmonella. The hygienic effects of the irradiation unit were demonstrated by means of a model experiment with bacterial pure cultures. Micro-organisms of different species as well as strains of the same species differ in their sensitivity to irradiation. Parasitological experiments with eggs of Ascaris suum were carried out to test the inhibitory or killing ability of the gamma rays on the developing stages of parasites

  15. Bacteriological studies in sediment from Cerna-Belareca-Danube hydrographic system (SW Romania with a role in assessing pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicoleta FILIMON

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains data about the microorganism population in sediment from Cerna-Belareca-Danube hydrographic system. Data allows us to identify possible pollution sources and determine their effect on certain eco physiological group of microorganisms. Bacteriological studies had in view to establish three eco physiological groups of microorganism: nitrifying bacteria, iron-reducing bacteria and anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Determination has been made using serial dilutions and specific culture environment for each eco physiological group. Based on absolute values of those 3 microorganism groups, the bacterial indicator of sediment quality has been established (BISQ. Sediment analyses have values between 1.274 (Orşova upstream and 1.296 (Mehadia downstream in spring. These are the values for winter: 1.286 (Topleţ downstream and 1.310 (Orşova upstream. Additional contribution of organic sulfur compounds and microorganisms involved in the sulfur cycle have relatively close values for both seasons in Herculane sample point. Sampling points Mehadia downstream and Topleţ downstream represent the endpoint of BISQ. Lowest values had been recorded here in autumn and the highest values had been recorded in spring. BISQ lower values from Orşova harbor and Orşova shipyard is due to oil pollution, varnishes, paints, detergents and metals. BISQ has seasonal variations, depending on the sampling point of the studied aquatic ecosystem.

  16. Bacteriological and metal analyses of water samples from Awotunde fish pond and river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Odeyemi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and metal analyses of water samples obtained from Awotunde fish pond and river in Ila-Orangun, Osun State, Nigeria were determined. The total bacterial and coliform counts were done using pour plating technique. Mineral was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry techniques. The physicochemical parameters were done using standard methods. The total bacterial and coliform count of the water samples ranged 6.4 x 104 CFU/ml - 7.4 x 104 CFU/ml and 1.1 x 103 CFU/ml - 4.0 x 103 CFU/ml respectively. The values obtained for the physicochemical parameters ranged as follows: temperature (24 - 26 oC, HCO3 (2.0 - 4.6, pH (6.0 - 7.2, alkalinity (40 - 100 mg/l, hardness (60 - 120 mg/l, conductivity (200 - 400μS/cm, dissolved oxygen (1.1 - 2.0 mg/l, BOD (0.06 - 0.22 mg/l, chloride (28.4 - 106.4 mg/l, nitrite (4.0 - 188.0 mg/l, sulphate (14.0 - 640.0 mg/l, nitrate (0.0 - 90.0 mg/l and phosphate (1.6 - 83.2 mg/l. The mean values of the mineral contents of the water samples are as follows; potassium (94.4 mg/l, sodium (94.7 mg/l, magnesium (89.3 mg/l and calcium (94.9 mg/l. The mean value obtained for the heavy metal concentrations are as follow; copper (0.1 mg/l, manganese (0.13 mg/l, nickel (2.09 mg/l, lead (0.03 mg/l and iron (0.26 mg/l. This shows that heavy metal concentrations were below critical limit according to the WHO standard. However, the microbial counts obtained portend the fact that the fish harvested from the pond might be a source of food poisoning if such fishes are not adequately cooked. Since the river serve as a source of water for domestic usage, an outbreak of water borne diseases could be imminent. Hence there must be a need for the Nigeria fish farmers to improve on their fish farming management which includes fish food preparation, environmental sanitation and monitoring the quality fish yield.

  17. [Commemorative lecture of receiving Imamura Memorial Prize. I. Studies on bacteriological diagnostic methods for mycobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, C

    1994-08-01

    Two systems, radiometric BACTEC and biphasic MB-Check, based on liquid media proved to be significantly better than the egg-based solid media for the isolation of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. The difference in the rates of isolation of mycobacteria between two groups of media was more remarkable with smear-negative specimens. The time to the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with MB- Check was shorter than that with the 3% Ogawa egg method but longer than that with BACTEC. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using oligonucleotides based on the repetitive sequence (IS986) of M. tuberculosis as a primer and the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD), which combines an M. tuberculosis rRNA amplification method with the hybridization protection assay format, were evaluated for detection of M. tuberculosis in clinical samples. Although the sensitivities of the PCR and MTD appeared to be similar to that of culture with the MB-Check system, the two methods based on nucleic acid amplification should be very useful for rapid detection of M. tuberculosis infections without the long time required for culture of M. tuberculosis. Epidemiological studies with techniques which allow differentiation of strains within M. tuberculosis groups are important for limiting the dissemination of the disease. We analyzed six groups of small outbreaks of M. tuberculosis infections by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Five showed identical fingerprints within each group, but one which as also suspected to have a common source of infection showed different banding patterns, emphasizing that RFLP analysis using IS986 as a probe is useful in epidemiological studies of tuberculosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7933779

  18. [Commemorative lecture of receiving Imamura Memorial Prize. I. Studies on bacteriological diagnostic methods for mycobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, C

    1994-08-01

    Two systems, radiometric BACTEC and biphasic MB-Check, based on liquid media proved to be significantly better than the egg-based solid media for the isolation of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. The difference in the rates of isolation of mycobacteria between two groups of media was more remarkable with smear-negative specimens. The time to the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with MB- Check was shorter than that with the 3% Ogawa egg method but longer than that with BACTEC. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using oligonucleotides based on the repetitive sequence (IS986) of M. tuberculosis as a primer and the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD), which combines an M. tuberculosis rRNA amplification method with the hybridization protection assay format, were evaluated for detection of M. tuberculosis in clinical samples. Although the sensitivities of the PCR and MTD appeared to be similar to that of culture with the MB-Check system, the two methods based on nucleic acid amplification should be very useful for rapid detection of M. tuberculosis infections without the long time required for culture of M. tuberculosis. Epidemiological studies with techniques which allow differentiation of strains within M. tuberculosis groups are important for limiting the dissemination of the disease. We analyzed six groups of small outbreaks of M. tuberculosis infections by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Five showed identical fingerprints within each group, but one which as also suspected to have a common source of infection showed different banding patterns, emphasizing that RFLP analysis using IS986 as a probe is useful in epidemiological studies of tuberculosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The bacteriology of the small intestinal mucosa of free-living reindeer

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    Wenche Sørmo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in close associaton with the intestinal mucosa are thought to protect the mucosa from pathogenic microorganisms. The pH of the small intestinal mucosa and the viable populations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria associated with the proximal and distal jejunal mucosa, were measured in four free-living reindeer in winter. The anaerobic bacterial populations were characterized. The median pH of the mucosa of the duodenum was 6.6 (n=4 at point 0.2 m from the pyloric sphincter. The mucosal pH increased along the length of the intestine to 8.3 at 14 m and then decreased to 7.9 at 19.8 m from the pyloric sphincter. Examination by transmission electron microscopy and cultivation techniques failed to reveal any bacteria on the mucosa of the proximal jejunum in two of the animals. In two other reindeer the median anaerobic bacterial densities in the proximal jejunum ranged from 25-2500 cells/g mucosa. The median anaerobic bacterial populations in the distal jejunum ranged from 80 to 20000 bacteria/g mucosa (n=4. The anaerobic population of bacteria in the proximal jejunum was dominated by streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods. Bacteroidaceae, streptococci and unidentified gram positive rods were common in the distal jejunum. The low density and the species diversity of bacteria in the small intestine suggests that these microorganisms are inhibited by components in the natural winter diet of reindeer. Bacteria evidently play a minor role in protection of the mucosa of reindeer in winter.

  20. Bacteriological Spectrum of Post Operative Orthopedic Implant Infections and Their Antibiogram

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    Satya Chandrika V

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection is a major problem in orthopedics leading to implant failure and in severe cases, amputation and even mortality. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to isolate and identify organisms from postoperative Orthopaedic implant infections and determine their antibiogram. Method and Materials: This prospective study was conducted on 50 cases of infected implants from Orthopaedics ward, Government General Hospital, st st Kakinda from 1 June 2014 to 1 November 2014 after obtaining clearance from Institutional Ethics Committee. Pus samples were collected using two sterile swabs. One is used for Gram's stain and the other for inoculation on MacConkey and Blood agar. Isolates were identied according to the standard protocols and antibiotic sensitivity was done by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion technique. Results: Out of 50 samples, 45(90% were culture positive and 5(10% were sterile for aerobic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus (30% is common isolate followed by Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CONS (20%, Escherichia coli (16%, Klebsiella sps (10% , Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%, Acinetobacter species (4%, Proteus species (4%. Most of Gram positive cocci are resistant to Methicillin (64% followed by Ciprooxin (36% and Cotrimoxazole (28%. They were mostly sensitive to Vancomycin, Linezolid, Amoxycillin Clavulanic acid and Cefotaxime. Gram negative bacilli are resistant to Cotrimoxazole (65% followed by Ciprooxacin (60% and Ceftriaxone (60% and sensitive to Carbapenems (80%, Piperacillin Tazobactam (60% and Amoxycillin Clavulanic acid (60%. Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL production is seen in 60% of Gram negative bacilli. Conclusions: The incidence of multidrug resistance pathogens as a cause of implant infections is rising. Adequate preventive measures should be enforced to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistant organisms

  1. Clinical and bacteriological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Carolina Regis; Azevedo, Jailton; Galvão, Vivian Santos; Moreno-Carvalho, Otávio; Reis, Joice Neves; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during the post-implementation period. Eighty-two cases were eligible. Mean age was 31 years (interquartile range, 3-42); 17.1% and 30.5% were under 2 years and 5 years, respectively. Pneumococcal meningitis (n=64, 78.1%), bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (n=12, 14.6%) and bacteraemia (n=6, 7.3%) were the clinical syndromes identified. Thirty-three different serotypes were found. Of these, serotype 14 (n=12, 14.6%) was the most common, followed by 23F (n=10, 12.2%), 12F (n=8, 9.8%), 18C (n=5, 6.1%) and 6B (n=5, 6.1%). Investigations conducted in Salvador in the pre-vaccine period did not identify serotype 12F as one of the most prevalent serotypes. Increase of serotype 12F was observed in different regions of Brazil, in the post-vaccine period. Among children under two years of age, the target group for 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 11 (78.6%) of the 14 isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae belonged to vaccine serotypes; at least 50% of these children were not vaccinated. The relatively recent implementation of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil reinforces the need to maintain an active surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease cases, considering the possible increase of invasive pneumococcal disease cases related to non-vaccine serotypes and the changes on the clinical presentation of the disease.

  2. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN IN ACUTE EXACERBATION OF ADVANCED CASES OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD

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    Avik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbations are significant and frequent events in the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Majority of these exacerbations are of infectious aetiology, bacteria being responsible for 30-50% of these cases. With not many studies of similar type being conducted in the Indian context, this study was undertaken with the purpose of determining the bacteriology of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in hospitalized patients with advanced disease and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern to formulate a cost effective algorithm for antibiotic usage while at the same time reducing the chances of emergence of drug resistance. Sputum sample from a total of 338 patients were send for Gram’s stain and culture sensitivity testing using an array of the commonly used antibiotics. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 203 (60.1% samples. Gram negative bacteria were isolated from 79.8 percent (162/203 cases while the rest were Gram positive. Klebsiella species were the commonest (49.2%; 100/203 Gram negative isolates from the sputum samples. Among the gram negative organisms, Carbapenem had the highest sensitivity (90.2% followed by Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin and Piperacillin-Tazobactam. Linezolid was found to be 100 percent sensitive amongst the Gram positive organisms while both Amoxicillin Clavulanate and Azithromycin showed a rather low sensitivity profile overall. 5.0 percent of the Klebsiella infections were multi drug resistant. It was thereby concluded that either Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin or Piperacillin-Tazobactam for be considered for Gram negative organisms and Linezolid be considered for Gram positive organisms as first line antibiotics in empirical therapy while Carbapenems may be kept as reserve drugs should the first line drugs fail.

  3. Bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicaemia in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India

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    S Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is not much published literature on neonatal septicemia available for the Sub-Himalayan region of North India. Hence, we undertook this study to find out the bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicemia in the neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Material and Methods: Blood cultures were performed for all clinically suspected neonatal septicemia cases for 1-year. Identification of all pathogenic isolates was followed by antibiotic sensitivity testing. Results: We did blood cultures for 450 neonates and 42% were culture positive. Early onset sepsis were 92 (49% and 96 (51% were late onset sepsis. Gram-positive isolates were 60% and 40% were Gram-negative. Staphylococcus aureus (40%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (16%, non-fermenter group of organisms (NFGOs (15%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10% were the main isolates. Nasal cannula 101 (54%, birth asphyxia 91 (48%, and prematurity 73 (38% were the prominent risk factors associated with septicemia. Gram-positive organisms were highly resistant to penicillin (87% whereas Gram-negative isolates showed high resistance to third generation cephalosporins (53–89% and aminoglycosides (50–67%. The S. aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant in 41% whereas extended spectrum beta lactamase production was seen in 48% Gram-negative isolates.Conclusion: Our study highlights the recent emergence of Gram-positive organisms as predominant cause of neonatal septicemia in this part of Sub-Himalayan region, along with the review of literature which shows similar results from North India and rest of the world too. Though Gram-negative bacteria still remain the main cause of mortality in neonatal septicemia, we want to dispel the common notion among practitioners that they are the predominant isolates in neonatal septicemia.

  4. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Bacteriologic Detection and Antibiogram of Bacteria Isolated from Otitis Media with Effusion in Children, Shiraz, Iran

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    Mahmood Shishegar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Otitis media with effusion is one of the leading causes of hearing loss in children. Effective treatment of effusion in the middle ear requires appropriate empirical treatment and characterization of responsible pathogens. Objective of the present study was to detect pathogens in clinical samples from patients with otitis media with effusion in our area and to determine the sensitivity profile of isolated organisms to commonly used antibiotics. Methods: Sixty three samples of middle ear effusion were aseptically obtained from 36 children, who had been treated up to at least two weeks before sampling. They were analyzed using standard bacteriological and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were also performed. Results: PCR analysis showed that DNA of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were present in 60 (95.2% of the samples. The culture-positive effusion for Streptococcus Pneumoniae, HaemophilusInfluenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was 34.9%. Almost all isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniaee were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, and none of them was sensitive to co-trimoxazole. None of H. Influenzae isolates was sensitive to erythromycin, cefixim, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin and amoxicillin. None of M. Catarrhalis isolates was sensitive to ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusion: Compared with other studies using PCR method, the number of H. influenza isolates was in higher in the present study (95.2%. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles of pathogens isolated in this study were different from others. Thus, we can determine empirical antibiotic therapy based on sensi-tivity profile in our geographic area.

  5. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Bacteriologic Detection and Antibiogram of Bacteria Isolated from Otitis Media with Effusion in Children, Shiraz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishegar, Mahmood; Faramarzi, Abolhasan; Kazemi, Tayyebe; Bayat, Akbar; Motamedifar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Otitis media with effusion is one of the leading causes of hearing loss in children. Effective treatment of effusion in the middle ear requires appropriate empirical treatment and characterization of responsible pathogens. Objective of the present study was to detect pathogens in clinical samples from patients with otitis media with effusion in our area and to determine the sensitivity profile of isolated organisms to commonly used antibiotics. Methods: Sixty three samples of middle ear effusion were aseptically obtained from 36 children, who had been treated up to at least two weeks before sampling. They were analyzed using standard bacteriological and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were also performed. Results: PCR analysis showed that DNA of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were present in 60 (95.2%) of the samples. The culture-positive effusion for Streptococcus Pneumoniae, HaemophilusInfluenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was 34.9%. Almost all isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniaee were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, and none of them was sensitive to co-trimoxazole. None of H. Influenzae isolates was sensitive to erythromycin, cefixim, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin and amoxicillin. None of M. Catarrhalis isolates was sensitive to ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusion: Compared with other studies using PCR method, the number of H. influenza isolates was in higher in the present study (95.2%). Antibiotic sensitivity profiles of pathogens isolated in this study were different from others. Thus, we can determine empirical antibiotic therapy based on sensitivity profile in our geographic area. PMID:23115412

  6. Bacteriological quality of drinking water in the Atebubu-Amantin District of the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekpor, M.; Akrong, M. O.; Asmah, M. H.; Banu, R. A.; Ansa, E. D. O.

    2016-08-01

    The study was carried out to determine the bacteriological safety of water in hand-dug wells in the Atebubu-Amantin District of the Brong-Ahafo Region in Ghana. A total of 60 samples were collected from ten hand dug wells and analysed for total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC), E. coli (EC), Salmonella spp. (SP) and Enterococcus spp. (ES). Data was collected in both the rainy and the dry seasons. The results obtained showed that water from all the wells in the study area did not meet the World Health Organisation guideline and Ghana standard for drinking water of zero (0) coliform forming unit (cfu) per 100 ml for TC, FC, EC, SP and ES, respectively. Contamination was found to be high in the wells during the wet season as compared to the dry season. Wells (A1 to A5) which were close to septic tanks had high bacteria counts in both seasons. The total coliform counts ranged from 2.98 to 5.93 log cfu/100 ml in the wet season and 3.10-5.03 log cfu/100 ml in the dry season. There was drastic reduction of faecal coliform count from a range of 2.78-4.55 log cfu/100 ml in the wet season to 1.70-3.51 log cfu/100 ml in the dry season. The high bacteria count in wells A1 to A5 could be attributed to the closeness of the wells to the septic tank, and contaminant transport through the saturated underground zones. It is recommended that the water should be treated properly before drinking.

  7. Conjunctival cytological examination, bacteriological culture, and antimicrobial resistance proifles of healthy Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Southern Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Lamagna; Luisa De Martino; Maria Pia Pasolini; Sandra Nizza; Karina Mallardo; Maurizio Formicola; Alessandro Costagliola; Gerardo Fatone; Filomena Fiorito; Orlando Paciello

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess normal conjunctival cytological and bacteriological/fungal flora features in the Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Methods:Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes of 57 healthy female buffaloes aged 24-36 months, with no evidence of ocular disease, farmed in Campania region (Southern Italy), for microbiological analysis. Conjunctival eye specimens of both eyes were subsequently obtained by a cyto-brush, for cytological analysis. The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates was also determined using the disk-diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates. Results: Cytological examination of conjunctival swab specimens (114 eyes) revealed epithelial cells (basal, intermediate, columnar and superficial) in all samples, whereas neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells were present in 70%, 10%and 2%of samples, respectively. Microorganisms, for a total of 261 aerobic bacteria and 6 fungi, were isolated from 112/114 conjunctival samples (98.25%;95%confidence interval (CI):93.18–99.70). Only two conjunctival swabs did not yield bacteria and/or fungi (2/114, 1.75%;95% CI:0.30–6.82). Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured (181/261, 69.35%;95%CI: 63.31–74.81), with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus lentus predominating. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated as Gram-negative bacteria (80/261, 30.65%;95%CI:25.19–36.69). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria showed amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and cephalothin as the least sensitive antibiotics for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: These results provided first information on normal conjunctival ocular microflora and cytological features in Mediterranean buffalo.

  8. Bacteriology of deep carious lesions underneath amalgam restorations with different pulp-capping materials - an in vivo analysis

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    Prasanna Neelakantan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms remaining in dentin following cavity preparation may induce pulp damage, requiring the use of pulp-capping agents with antimicrobial activity underneath permanent restorations. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the bacteriological status of carious dentin and to assess the efficacy of different base underneath silver amalgam restorations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 50 patients aged 13 to 30 years. Sterile swabs were used to take samples after cavity preparation, which was assessed by microbiological culture to identify the microorganisms present. Following this, cavities were restored with silver amalgam, using one of the materials being investigated, as the base: calcium hydroxide (Group II, polyantibiotic paste (Group III, a novel light-cured fluoride-releasing hydroxyapatite-based liner (Group IV and mineral trioxide aggregate - MTA (Group V. In Group I, the cavities were restored with silver amalgam, without any base. After 3 months, the amalgam was removed and samples taken again and analyzed for the microbial flora. RESULTS: Lactobacilli were the most commonly isolated microorganisms in the samples of carious dentin. Groups IV and V showed negative culture in the 3-month samples. There was no statistically significant difference between Groups I, II and III. There was no significant difference between Groups IV and V (p>0.05. Both Groups IV and V showed significantly better results when compared to Groups I, II and III (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The hydroxyapatite-based liner and MTA performed significantly better in terms of antibacterial activity than the other materials.

  9. THE BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES ON OLUMIRIN WATERFALL ERIN- IJESHA, OSUN STATE, NIGERIA

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    Oluwakemi Akindolapo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The potability and qualities of Olumirin waterfall, Erin-Ijesa were investigated by determining the total bacteria and coliform count with antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria and physico-chemical qualities of the water samples. Total bacteria and coliform enumeration were determined using pour plating and multiple tube techniques, the antibiotic susceptibility were carried out using disc diffusion method, while physico-chemical and mineral studies were also carried out using standard methods. The mean total viable count of the water samples ranged 14.8 x 102 CFU.ml-1 - 21.3 x 103 CFU.ml-1 while the coliform count ranged 13 -175 MPN/100ml. The identified bacteria isolates and their percentage distribution were E.coli (43.1%, Klebsiella spp (20.7%, Proteus spp (12.1%, Salmonella spp (6.99%, Pseudomonas spp (5.17%, Shigella spp (6.9%, and Enterococcus spp (5.17 %. Antibiotic resistance shown by bacteria isolates were exhibited as follow; Nalixidic acid (31%, Ampicilin (76%, Cotrimoxazole (60%, Gentamicin (19%, Nitrofurantoin (24%, Colitin (48%, Streptomycin (34% and tetracycline (52%. 82.8% of the isolate exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance. The physico-chemical analysis also revealed the presence of some mineral elements in the water samples. The mineral value of the water samples include; magnesium (84.8 - 93.4 mg.L-1, phosphate (12.6 - 17.1 mg.L-1, sodium (47.8 - 87.6 mg.L-1, potassium (76.6 - 104.5 mg.L-1, chloride (59.0 - 90.2 mg.L-1, zinc (0.75 - 1.82 mg.L-1, lead (0.12 - 0.33 mg.L-1, iron (0.52 - 0.60 mg.L-1, copper (0.12 - 0.27 mg.L-1 while nickel and arsenic were not detected in any of the water samples. Comparing the experimental results with the international water standard for natural water, the waterfall is not fit for consumption or for any domestic purpose unless being treated. Also, problems that may arise from the resistance bacteria strains can be tackled while the new antibiotics can also be developed.

  10. A STUDY TO FIND OUT THE BACTERIOLOGY OF TONSILLAR SURFACE AND CORE, AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING TONSILLECTOMY AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

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    Binu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The study was aimed at finding out the bacteriology of the tonsillar surface and core, in those patients undergoing tonsillectomy at a tertiary care hospital. The study was also planned to look for the antibiotic resistance pattern among organisms identified and to see whether a tonsillar surface swab can be used as a surrogate for finding out the aetiopathogenesis of tonsillar infections. METHODS This is a 2-year cross-sectional study of 100 patients undergoing who consented for the study, after taking a smear from the surface of the tonsil. Tonsillectomy was done by dissection and snare method. The core of the tonsil is then biopsied and microbiological culture and sensitivity is done. The bacteria were identified by morphology and staining characteristics and cultured using standard laboratory procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The data was digitalised using a data entry platform using Epidata and analysed using SPSS 16. Relativity between organism identified as the surface and core was tested using Chi-square tests and Kappa statistics. RESULTS There were significant differences between the organisms identified from the tonsillar surface and the core; out of the 200 specimens, only 48 showed a similar bacteriology. The viability between the surface and the core specimens were measured using Kappa statistics and was found to be 0.04, which shows a very poor agreement between them. Assessment of antibiotic sensitivity shows that Staph aureus was resistant to most of the commonly used antibiotics. H. influenza isolated showed 70% susceptibility to erythromycin and cotrimoxazole. While group A β haemolytic streptococci showed 95% susceptibility to ampicillin and 100% to erythromycin. CONCLUSION Staph. aureus, H. influenza, Streptococci pneumonia were the major pathogenesis identified from the tonsil of the patients undergoing tonsillectomy, and bacteriology was different between

  11. Physico-chemical and Bacteriological Quality of Water from Shallow Wells in Two Rural Communities in Benue State, Nigeria

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    Akaahan, Terngu J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground water abstraction from shallow wells is widely practiced in the Obi and in Oju rural areas of Benue State, Central Nigeria, as a means of fighting guinea worm infestation associated with the surface water sources (streams in these areas. To ascertain the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the water used by the population, water samples from 27 shallow wells in Obi and 19 Oju were taken and examined for key health-related quality parameters using routine methods. In Obi, the ground water colour ranged from 4.0-80.0 TCU, conductivity 55.2-1600.0 µS/cm, pH 6.1-8.6, TDS 38.6-1286 mg/L, turbidity 1.0-55.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.210mg/L, copper 0.01-2.53mg/L, fluoride 0.08-1.82mg/L and nitrate 10.8-63.0mg/L, while in Oju, colour varied from 2.0-87.0 TCU, conductivity 107.4-1375 µS/cm, pH 6.4-8.53, TDS 75.2-1150 mg/L, turbidity 3.0-48.0 NTU, arsenic 0.001-0.023 mg/L, copper 0.01-2.10 mg/L, fluoride 0.01-1.54 mg/L and nitrate 10.2-59.7 mg/L. Some of these values in some instances exceed the WHO standard for drinking water. Alongside with the presence significant total coliform count in most of the wells (0-47/100 mL in Oju and 0-53/100 mL in Obi, the available water is considered largely unsafe for human consumption as obtained. It is concluded that, while ground water abstraction may be a safety measure against guinea worm infestation it, nevertheless presents other health challenges to the rural population in the area, as the quality of the ground water is generally low.

  12. Comparison of bacteriological culture and PCR for detection of bacteria in ovine milk--sheep are not small cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Tassi, Riccardo; Martin, Elena; Holopainen, Jani; McCallum, Sarah; Gibbons, James; Ballingall, Keith T

    2014-10-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is an important cause of disease, mortality, and production losses in dairy and meat sheep. Mastitis is commonly caused by intramammary infection with bacteria, which can be detected by bacterial culture or PCR. PathoProof (Thermo Fisher Scientific Ltd., Vantaa, Finland) is a commercially available real-time PCR system for the detection of bovine mastitis pathogens. Sheep differ from cattle in the bacterial species or bacterial strains that cause mastitis, as well as in the composition of their milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the PathoProof system was suitable for detection of mastitis pathogens in sheep milk. Milk samples were collected aseptically from 219 udder halves of 113 clinically healthy ewes in a single flock. Aliquots were used for bacteriological culture and real-time PCR-based detection of bacteria. For species identified by culture, the diagnosis was confirmed by species-specific conventional PCR or by sequencing of a housekeeping gene. The majority of samples were negative by culture (74.4% of 219 samples) and real-time PCR (82.3% of 192 samples). Agreement was observed for 138 of 192 samples. Thirty-four samples were positive by culture only, mostly due to presence of species that are not covered by primers in the PCR system (e.g., Mannheimia spp.). Two samples were positive for Streptococcus uberis by culture but not by PCR directly from the milk samples. This was not due to inability of the PCR primers to amplify ovine Streptococcus uberis, as diluted DNA extracts from the same samples and DNA extracts from the bacterial isolates were positive by real-time PCR. For samples containing Staphylococcus spp., 11 samples were positive by culture and PCR, 9 by culture only, and 20 by PCR only. Samples that were negative by either method had lower bacterial load than samples that were positive for both methods, whereas no clear relation with species identity was observed. This study provides

  13. The serologic response to Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally infected chickens, followed by an indirect lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bacteriologic examinations through a one-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Feld, Niels Christian; Carstensen, B.;

    2002-01-01

    a measurable serologic response in serum samples. The response persisted throughout the study in both serum and egg yell, samples. The inclusion of serologic methods is a valuable additional tool in the detection of salmonella in poultry, but serology should be used in conjunction with bacteriologic methods...... uninfected as controls. The groups were monitored bacteriologically by examination of cloacal swabs and organs and serologically by examination of serum and egg yolk by a lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay throughout the period. Within the first week, 100% of birds in both infected groups...... at the onset of egg production. For both S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis, positive bacteriologic cultures were obtained by sampling from internal organs at the end of the experiment, more than 1 yr from the time of infection. At the age of 6-7 wk, 50% of the chickens in the two infected groups showed...

  14. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuoka, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the int...

  15. Chemical and bacteriological quality of water at selected sites in the San Antonio area, Texas, August 1968-January 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, R.D.; Blakey, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    investigations showed the source of pesticides in these wells to be. surface drainage that entered the wellbores. Water-quality data collected at sites on streams that cross the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer show the chemical composition of surface water to be very similar to that of ground water in the area. Water in most streams is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. Limited data on the bacteriological quality show that coliforms were present at each of the site sampled and that fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci were present at most sites. Although the number of these bacteria varied greatly in both time and place, their density in samples from most sites were low for untreated surface water.

  16. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  17. Access to Bacteriologic-Based Diagnosis in Smear Positive Retreatment Tuberculosis Patients in Rural China: A Cross-Sectional Study in Three Geographic Varied Provinces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changming Zhou

    Full Text Available To determine factors influencing the utilization and accessibility to bacteriologic-based tuberculosis (TB diagnosis among sputum smear positive (SS+ retreatment TB patients, and to develop strategies for improving the case detection rate of MDR-TB in rural China.A cross-sectional study of SS+ TB retreatment patients was conducted in eight counties from three provinces with different implementation period and strategy of MDR-TB program in China. Demographic and socioeconomic parameters were collected by self-reporting questionnaires. Sputum samples were collected and cultured by the laboratory of county-designated TB clinics and delivered to prefectural Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC labs for DST with 4 first-line anti-TB drugs.Among the 196 SS+ retreatment patients, 61.22% received culture tests during current treatment. Patients from more developed regions (OR = 24.0 and 3.6, 95% CI: 8.6-67.3 and 1.1-11.6, with better socio-economic status (OR = 3. 8, 95% CI: 1.3-10.7, who had multiple previous anti-TB treatments (OR = 5.0, 95% CI: 1.6-15.9, and who failed in the most recent anti-TB treatment (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.0-6.4 were more likely to receive culture tests. The percentage of isolates resistant to any of first-line anti-TB drugs and MDR-TB were 50.0% (95% CI: 39.8%-60.2% and 30.4% (95% CI: 21.0%-39.8% respectively.Retreatment SS+ TB patients, high risk MDR-TB population, had poor utilization of access to bacteriologic-based TB diagnosis, which is far from optimal. The next step of anti-TB strategy should be focused on how to make bacteriological-based diagnosis cheaper, safer and more maneuverable, and how to assure the DST-guided treatment for these high-risk TB patients.

  18. Use of real-time PCR on faecal samples for detection of sub-clinical Salmonella infection in cattle did not improve the detection sensitivity compared to conventional bacteriology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nielsen, L.R.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for more sensitive detection methods to improve effectiveness of control programmes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes (Salmonella) in cattle. We assessed the performance of a rapid, molecular-based, real-time PCR (rt-PCR) method against the conventional bacteriologi...

  19. Latent class analysis of the diagnostic characteristics of PCR and conventional bacteriological culture in diagnosing intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cows at dry off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederlöf, Sara Ellinor; Toft, Nils; Aalbæk, Bent;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of intramammary infections in dairy cows at dry off. Reliable identification is important for disease management on herd level and for antimicrobial treatment of infected animals. Our objective was to evaluate the test...... characteristics of PathoProof TM Mastitis PCR Assay and bacteriological culture (BC) in diagnosing bovine intramammary infections caused by S. aureus at dry off at different PCR cycle threshold (Ct)-value cut-offs. METHODS: Sterile quarter samples and non-sterile composite samples from 140 animals in seven herds...... were collected in connection with the dairy herd improvement (DHI) milk recording. All quarter samples were analyzed using BC whereas all composite samples were analyzed with PathoProof TM Mastitis PCR Assay. Latent class analysis was used to estimate test properties for PCR and BC in the absence...

  20. [Cytological and bacteriological examinations of the cervix and vagina. A review of the results obtained in a laboratory for analyses in Guadeloupe (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, J; Crenn, O; Lidome, E

    1981-01-01

    The authors give the results of their cytological and bacteriological examinations of the cervix and vagina carried out routinely in a laboratory. They emphasize, in detailing their method of working, the criteria that they feel must be adopted in an attempt to code the qualitative appraisal of direct examination and the result of studying the cultures. The first part of the paper deals with an overall survey of the 4,573 examinations which were carried out over a period of 8 years. The second part is concerned with a more detailed analysis of the 883 samples which were divided into 4 categories: pregnant women, those having oral contraception, those with an intra-uterine device, and others. There are several variations revealed between these 4 categories as far as the white cell count, the bacterial flora and even pathogenic organisms are concerned. PMID:7334191

  1. Comparison of Salivary Anti Helicobacter pylori IgG with Serum IgG and Bacteriological Tests in Detecting Helicobacter pylori Infections

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    H Ghasemian safaei

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detecting anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori specific IgG antibodies in specimens of oral fluid and serum with bacteriological tests. Methods: Antral biopsy specimens, as well as serum and oral fluid samples were collected from 97 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The presence or absence of current H. pylori infection was determined by culture, histology and urease detection. Anti-H. pylori specific IgG was detected in serum and oral fluid, using an established lab-made, and a commercial ELISA kit. The obtained data were compared with results of bacteriological tests. Results: In all, 62 (64% of 97 patients were positive for H. pylori by one or more of the gold standard tests (culture, histology and urease detection. Lab-made enzyme-linked immunoassay of oral fluid had a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 83% respectively. A sensitivity and specificity of 87% and 83%, respectively, was obtained with the commercial kit. Lab-made enzyme-linked immunoassay of serum samples had a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 88%, respectively. A sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 86% was obtained with the commercial kit. Conclusion: Detection of anti-H. pylori specific IgG in oral fluid by ELISA is comparable in sensitivity and specificity with serum based methods. Oral fluid based ELISA could provide a reliable, non-invasive method for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Saliva testing may have a role in epidemiological studies. Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, ELISA, Oral fluid

  2. O grupo pullorum-gallinarum em provas bacteriologicas comparativas The pullorum-gallinarum group in comparative bacteriological tests

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    Genesio Pacheco

    1936-01-01

    acção de substancias antidiastasicas. h A analyse sôrologica das amostras estudadas não permittiu differenciar os typos entre si.Thirty eight strains of microorganisms of the pullorum-gallinarum group, of European, American or Brazilian origin were investigated bacteriologically in order to ascertain as to the fixity of their properties and the possibility of transforming a strain in another. a Five types could be distinguished in our strains: 1 - gasogenic pullorum; 2 - non-gasogenic pullorum; 3 - intermedius; 4 - gasogenic gallinarum?; 5 - non-gasogenic gallinarum. The first, two and fifth types are well known and recognized by specialists; the fourth group has been recognized by Beck & Eber, in 1920; the third group was recognized by ourselves, in 1935. b The table found in this paper summarizes the most important characteristics of these five types. The changes produced on neutral red, H²S production, fermentation of glycerol, isodulcitol, xylose, dulcite, sorbitol and maltose, the activity upon Seignette salt, gas production and appearance of the colonies, are among the characteristics on which the distinction of these five types is founded. c The gasogenic gallinarum type, on account of its action on sorbitol and xylose, and also on Jordan's medium, must be rather considered as a gasogenic intermedius type. d Other biological characteristics, such as activity upon milk, milk-whey, dextrin, etc., accepted by several specialists, appeared as of no practical value to the distinction of the different types of our strains. e The strains kept their properties invariable during all the time of our investigations. The hypothesis of a possible transformation of one type into another has not been confirmed in any of the studied strains and this justifies the idea of independence of each one of the accepted types. f Some discrepances in fermentation of maltose as found by several authors in microorganisms of this group, have been not confirmed in this paper. g In

  3. Bacteriologia do aspirado do meato médio em pacientes com fibrose cística Bacteriology of the middle meatus aspirate in patients with cystic fibrosis

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    Guilherme Luis da Silva Franche

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A combinação de fatores como viscosidade das secreções dos seios paranasais, diminuição da drenagem sinusal e comprometimento do transporte mucociliar podem ser responsáveis pela criação de um ambiente propício e adequado para a colonização de bactérias nos seios paranasais de pacientes com fibrose cística. OBJETIVO: Analisar a bacteriologia do aspirado do meato médio de pacientes portadores de fibrose cística. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Através de um estudo prospectivo de delineamento transversal, avaliou-se uma amostra composta de 23 pacientes, avaliados durante 2 anos. Realizaram-se relações entre a cultura do meato médio e a avaliação radiológica do seio maxilar e a avaliação clínica. Secundariamente, estudou-se a relação da bacteriologia do aspirado do meato médio e a do escarro. RESULTADOS: No total foram realizadas 42 aspirações do meato médio. Em 17 (73,91% dos 23 pacientes, as culturas foram negativas e, em 6 (26,08%, positivas. Das 42 aspirações, 31 (73,8% foram negativas e 11 (26,2%, positivas. A presença de Pseudomonas aeruginosa foi observada em 18,18% das culturas positivas e o Staphylococcus aerus em 27,28%. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria das culturas do aspirado do meato médio de pacientes com fibrose cística foi negativa.The combination of factors, such as abnormal viscosity of the paranasal sinus secretions, decreased sinus drainage, and impaired mucociliary clearance may account for the establishment of a suitable and opportune environment for the colonization of bacteria in the paranasal sinuses of patients with cystic fibrosis. AIM: The goal of the present study was to assess the bacteriology of the middle meatus aspirate in patients diagnosed whit cystic fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Through a cross-sectional prospective study, a sample consisting of 23 patients evaluated for 2 years, was assessed. Firstly, we established the relationship between the middle meatus culture and the maxillary sinus x

  4. 采血人员手部细菌学监测调查%The monitoring analysis and significance of bacteriology from hand of blood collection staff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奠忠; 郭世莉; 李兰萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:规范采血人员的操作规程,预防或控制采血过程中的感染。方法在采血者不更换手套的情况下进行手部细菌学监测采样,每次采血完毕后采样一次,连续采集10次,进行常规细菌学培养,并将培养结果进行细菌菌落计数及病原微生物学鉴定;每天1组,每组10人次,连续3 d ,取均值计算。结果采血人员的手在未采血前无菌,超过采血人数2人次时检出有菌落生长,并且菌落计数和致病菌均随着采样次数的增多而逐渐上升。结论采血人员每次完成采血后更换一次性医用薄膜手套,是预防感染的有效措施之一。%Objective To standardize the blood collectors′operation procedures ,prevent and control infection occurring during blood collection .Methods Conduct bacteriological monitoring and sampling of blood collectors′ hands without changing their gloves once after completion of each blood collection ,sample for 10 successive times ,start routine bacteriological culture ,record the quantity of bacterial clumps and make pathogenic microbiological identification of the cultured results 10 person times each group and one group a day for 3 consecutive days with the average values calculated .Results The blood collectors′hands were aseptic be-fore collecting the blood .When collecting blood for more than 2 person times ,bacterial clumps were detected on the hands ;the colo-ny counts and pathogenic bacteria increased with the rise of collect times .Conclusion Replacing the disposable medical film gloves after each blood collection is one of the most effective measures for prevention and control of infection .

  5. Clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected children with leprosy: A population based study in a defined rural and urban area of Maharashtra, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanaja P Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy has been a major public-health problem in many developing countries for centuries. According to the National Leprosy Elimination Programme report of March 2012, there were a total of about 0.13 million cases of leprosy in India, 9.7% of which were children. Numerous studies have investigated child leprosy amongst reported cases however, studies pertaining to proportion and characteristics of undetected childhood cases in the community are very few. Aim: To examine the clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected child leprosy cases in the community. Methods: The population survey conducted from June to September 2007 and the defined rural areas, which included five primary health centers of Panvel Taluka, in Raigad district and urban areas, which included M-east ward of the municipal corporation of greater Mumbai of western Maharashtra, India. Results: House-to-house survey yielded 32 and 37 so far, undetected child cases of leprosy in the rural and urban region, and the prevalence rate was 10.5 and 1.5 per 10,000, respectively. The age of child leprosy cases detected, ranged from 3 to 14 years with a mean of 10.06 ± 3.35 years in the rural and 9.97 ± 3.12 years in the urban area. Most of the cases were paucibacillary (62%. A large proportion of children (49% had single skin lesion (SSL. Of the 19 SSL cases examined histopathologically, 15 (99% showed features of borderline tuberculoid, 1 (5% borderline lepromatous and 3 (16% had indeterminate type of leprosy. Tuberculoid leprosy was not seen in any, indicating less likelihood of self-healing. Overall, three cases had deformity (grade 1 = 1 and grade 2 = 2 and 31% of multibacillary cases were smear positive. Conclusion: The clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological characteristics of newly detected child cases in the community evidently indicate the grave nature of the problem of undetected child leprosy, recent active

  6. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds--a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn;

    2011-01-01

    Between 5% and 10% of cancer patients develop malignant wounds. In vitro and some clinical studies suggest that silver- or honey-coated dressings may have an antibacterial effect in nonmalignant wounds, but their possible antibacterial effect in malignant wounds remains unknown. A prospective......, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed by the same...... antibacterial effect of the honey or silver dressing could not be confirmed in these malignant wounds. Routine wound swabbing of malignant wounds is of little value and should be restricted to cases where signs of infection requiring antibiotic intervention are observed or where resistant organisms require...

  7. Qualitative bacteriology in malignant wounds--a prospective, randomized, clinical study to compare the effect of honey and silver dressings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Gottrup, Finn;

    2011-01-01

     Between 5% and 10% of cancer patients develop malignant wounds. In vitro and some clinical studies suggest that silver- or honey-coated dressings may have an antibacterial effect in nonmalignant wounds, but their possible antibacterial effect in malignant wounds remains unknown....... A prospective, randomized, single-blind controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology of malignant wounds and compare the effect of a honey-coated (Group A) to a silver-coated (Group B) dressing on the qualitative bacteriology of malignant wounds. All wound interventions were performed...... by the same healthcare professional. Swab cultures were obtained at baseline and following a 4-week intervention and were evaluated without information about the patient treatment group. Of the 75 patients with advanced cancer and malignant wounds identified, 67 (34 in group A, 33 in group B; median age 64...

  8. The answer of the Bacteriology Laboratory to new clinical needs. Rapid sepsis diagnotics at the Novara hospital

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    Vesselina Kroumova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faster microbiological responses are increasingly necessary in modern medicine and the Laboratory of Microbiology must be equipped in this sense. New instrumentation and, above all, a new approach by the Clinical Microbiologist that puts a focus on the real needs of the patient before the microbiological may allow for significantly improving the TAT of these diagnostics. The use of both new methodologies, new tools and revisited old technologies may mean less these days as it was obtained at the Laboratory of Microbiology and Virology of Novara, where the combined use of molecular biology techniques, and mass spectrometry techniques rapid growth have allowed for more than 36 hours to shorten the response time by positivization of blood cultures. Such an approach allows an important support to the clinician with obvious benefits for the patient.

  9. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  10. Study for the effect of improved rhinal medicare for nasal cavity bacteriology%改进鼻科护理对鼻腔细菌学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丹雪; 张洪; 谢朝红; 徐群; 程代全; 谭倩; 高扬清

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of improved rhinal medicare on nasal cavity bacteriology. Method 88 cases with the deflection of nasal septum and nasosinusitis were randomly divided into two groups, 44 cases in observation and control group. The patients in the observation group were treated with the mixture of physiological salt solution, Gentamycin and Dexamethasone (no Dexamethasone treatment for the patients with the Deflection of Nasal Septum) from the first day to the sixth day after surgery. The patients in the control group were treated with the conventional nasal medicare, which is to change cotton nasal vestibule daily. Secretion of nasal cavity on hemostatic sponge were collected and examined by bacteriological culture at 48 hrs, 6 and 7 days after surgery. Result 13 types of bacteria were detected in 53 cases out of total 263 samples. Among them, there were 6 types and 11 cases (8.3%) for the observation group, and 11 types and 42 cases (31.81% ) for the control group. There was significant difference in the case numbers detected bacteria between the two groups(P<0.01). The test results of bacteriological culture on the secretion of nasal cavity at 48 hfs and 7 days after surgery showed significantly difference between the two groups (P<0.01). The test results of bacteriological culture at 6 days after surgery between these two groups are also statistically different (P<0.05). Conclusion The improved conventional medicare after nasal surgery plus medications on nasal cavity is able to effectively suppress bacterium growth and reduce the potential risk of infection after surgery. In addition, it also alleviates patents' pain in the period of nasal cavity blockage and benefits their recovery.%目的 探讨改进鼻科护理对鼻腔细菌学产生的影响.方法 将88例鼻中隔偏曲,鼻窦炎患者随机分为观察组和对照组各44例.观察组于术后1~6 d用生理盐水、庆大霉素、地塞米松(鼻中隔偏曲患者不用地塞

  11. Chlorine treatment effectiveness and physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of treated water supplies in distribution networks of Accra-Tema Metropolis, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, A. Y.; Ampofo, J. A.

    2013-06-01

    Drinking water quality from two major treatment plants in Ghana; Kpong and Weija Plants, and distribution networks in the Accra-Tema Metropolis were monitored monthly for a year at fifteen different locations. The study determined the relationship between chlorine residual, other physico-chemical qualities of the treated water, and, bacteria regrowth. Results indicated that the treated water at the Kpong and Weija Treatment Plants conformed to WHO guidelines for potable water. However, the water quality deteriorated bacteriologically, from the plants to the delivery points with high numbers of indicator and opportunistic pathogens. This could be due to inadequate disinfection residual, biofilms or accidental point source contamination by broken pipes, installation and repair works. The mean turbidity ranged from 1.6 to 2.4 NTU; pH varied from 6.8 to 7.4; conductivity fluctuated from 71.1 to 293 μS/cm. Chlorine residual ranged from 0.13 to 1.35 mg/l. High residual chlorine was observed at the treatment plants, which decreased further from the plants. Results showed that additional chlorination does not take place at the booster stations. Chlorine showed inverse relationship with microbial counts. Total coliform bacteria ranged from 0 to 248 cfu/100 ml, and faecal coliform values varied from 0 to 128 cfu/100 ml. Other microorganisms observed in the treated water included Aeromonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Boiling water in the household before consumption will reduce water-related health risks.

  12. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF FIGUEIRA STREAM BELONGING TO THE WATERSHED QUEIMA-PÉ OF THE TANGARÁ DA SERRA, STATE OR MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Ribeiro da Silva Nunes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work has like purpose to evaluate the physical-chemical and bacteriological aspects of the Figueira stream water, belonging to the “Queima-pé” micro basin, at county of Tangará da Serra, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, through the comparison with the parameters established for the resolution n.º 357/05 of the Nacional Advice of Half Environment – CONAMA. The data had been collected in the hydrological period of filling and flood (November/2006 to March/2007 in which the aspects had been analyzed: depth, water transparency, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total and thermotolerant coliforms. The variations in the depth and transparency of the stream had suffered interference with bigger frequency from rain, the water temperature was steady, pH, dissolved oxygen and the turbidity had presented values inside of established for the legislation. The presence of termotolerantes coliformes had exceeded the limits for waters of Class 2. The biggest values of thermotolerant coliforms had been found in months of high pluviometric precipitation and relative humidity of air (January and February/2007. The results showed that in the studied period it had great concentration of coliforms bacteria due to environmental changes existing into same areas of the stream.

  13. A preliminary study of the relationship between antibiotic administration and changes in bacteriological profile of wound infection in a burn unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yong; Sheng Zhiyong; Yang Xiaoqiang; Chang Dong; Jiang Wei

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between antibiotic administration and the changes in bacteriological profile in a burn unit. Methods: The data of consumption of different kinds of antibiotics, including total antibiotic consumption [expressed as the number of defined daily doses (DDD)] as well as pathogen identification, were collected in a 8-year period. The constituent ratios of different kinds of antibiotics in total antibiotic consumption to isolation rates of various species of bacteria were calculated, and their correlation was analyzed. Results: Within this period, it was found that the aminoglycosides and first generation cephalosporins were used less frequently, while the polypeptides, carbopenem and macrolides were used proportionally more. At the same time, the isolation rates of Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter sp, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were gradually increased. The constituent ratios of predominant pathogens were correlated to the different kinds of antibiotics consumption in the burn unit. Conclusion: The results suggested that the consumption of different antibiotics was closely related to the trends of emergence of bacterial isolates from infected burn wounds. The result might imply that to regulate the administration of certain antibiotics might help decrease the emergence of certain pathogenic bacteria in burn infections.

  14. Bacteriological quality evaluation of seawater and oysters from the Hansan-Geojeman area in Korea, 2011-2013: impact of inland pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Poong Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Ha, Kwang Soo; Shim, Kil Bo; Lee, Ka Jeong; Jung, Yeoun Joong; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2016-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013, we conducted a full sanitary survey of pollution sources in proximity to a shellfish growing area in the Hansan-Geojeman region in Korea, which includes a designated shellfish growing area. In the sea area, 1152 seawater and 209 oyster samples were collected and examined to evaluate their bacteriological quality. There were 758 potential pollution sources in the drainage area, including 40 sources discharging water in 2013. Fecal coliform (FC) concentrations and impact radii of discharges ranged from 1.8 to 700,000 MPN/100 mL and from 3 to 600 m, respectively; however, the pollutants did not reach the designated area. This demonstrates that the dilution of waste was sufficient such that no significant impact occurred within the designated shellfish growing area. The variation in the FC levels of seawater was closely related to season and rainfall. The FC levels of seawater and oysters from the designated area met the regulation limits set by various countries. No pathogens were found in any oysters. The results of the survey indicate that the oysters produced in this area are apparently safe for raw consumption based on their bacterial quality. PMID:27610330

  15. Physical-chemical and bacteriological aspects of the groundwater in the sanitary landfills in the metropolitan region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the physical-chemical and bacteriological qualities of the subterranean water at sanitary landfills in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (PR, was carried out. The field of twelve wells that reach the groundwater as well as the emergence of the watertable of the Periquitos River, were also monitored. The results of the analyses of 120 samples of the collected water were compared to the permissible maximum values for human consumption according to the Federal Legislation in Brazil. Total excrements were found around 3,1 NMP/100mL (Well 4 and 120330 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River and fecal matter between 0 and 4100 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River. Such values were associated to the contamination caused by the presence of animals from neighbor properties, feeding themselves in that region. The pH, turbidity, COD and BOD were among the values expected, except for the conductivity that showed to be altered.

  16. Utilisation de techniques bactériologiques et biochimiques pour l'étude du biofilm bactérien Use of Bacteriological and Biochemical Techniques for Analyzing Bacterial Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fera P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La formation d'un voile biologique sur des surfaces métalliques exposées en milieu marin se traduit par une augmentation de la résistance au transfert thermique et à l'écoulement du fluide, mais aussi par un risque d'initiation de corrosion localisée due à la présence et à l'activité métabolique des microorganismes constituant ce biofilm. L'utilisation conjointe des méthodes microbiologiques et biochimiques permet une meilleure compréhension, à la fois des mécanismes de formation de ce biofilm et de la structure de la communauté bactérienne qui le constitue. Ces méthodes ont déjà été utilisées simultanément lors de travaux visant à étudier la corrosion bactérienne, la colonisation bactérienne de surfaces métalliques exposées à une eau de mer circulante ou l'action de biocides sur la formation du biofilm. Materials exposed to seawater typically develop a layer of attached microorganisms that is referred to as biofouling. This biofouling can induce heat transfer resistance and fluid frictional resistance and can also initiate localized corrosion due to the metabolic activity of microorganisms making up the biofilm. Microbiological and biochemical methods can be used to gain a better understanding of the mecanisms of biofilm formation and the structure of the attached bacteria community. These methods can be applied in many circumstances, as shown by bacterial corrosion analysis, colonization of surfaces exposed to flowing seawater or use of biocides against sessile bacteria.

  17. Quality control discussion of bacteriological examination in clinical appli-cation%微生物检验在临床应用中的质量控制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董德平

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriological examination refers to the process of putting test samples like secreta,humor,excreta,and blood in different inspection instruments and reagents for assay,separation,cultivation,and identification of pathogenic microorganisms from the body by combining with multiple disciplinaries such as biology,chemistry,and statistics and so forth. Bacteriological examination has been widely applied in the diagnosis of clinical disorders and has obtained great effect,which serves as a key factor in improving diagnostic accuracy and clinical effect.The accuracy of bacteriological examination outcomes directly influences on patient’s effect and prognosis.Implementation of quality control as required can improve its effect in bacteriological examination,ensure accuracy of inspection results,decrease the misdiagnosis rate and rate of missed diagnosis,and guarantee patient’s curative effect and prognosis Quality control of bacteriological examination can be divided into internal quality control and external quality control.The former includes inspection personnel,sample collection and transportation,method,instrument,reagent,and culture medium,etc.%微生物检验涉及生物、化学、统计等多学科知识,指将人体分泌物、体液、排泄物、血液等检验样本,应用各种检验仪器及试剂检测及化验,分离、培养、鉴定机体内病原微生物的过程。微生物检验已被广泛应用于临床疾病诊疗过程中,并取得显著效果,是提高疾病诊断正确率及临床疗效的关键因素,微生物检验结果的准确性将直接影响患者的疗效及预后。按要求实施质量控制,可提高微生物检验质量控制的效果,确保医师获得准确的检验结果,降低误诊、漏诊概率,保障患者的疗效及预后。微生物检验质量控制分为室内质量控制(检验人员、样本采集及运输、方法、仪器试剂、培养基等)及室间质量控制。

  18. Truth about the Consequence of Bacteriological Warfare of Disseminating Plague Bacteria%散布鼠疫菌(PX)细菌战“战果”之真相

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莇昭三[日](著); 韩慧光(译)

    2015-01-01

    日本军在中国实施细菌战的事实,随着中日学者的研究逐渐被揭示,在研究中所用材料大部分都是加害者(当事人)和受害者的口述史,缺乏日本军当时实施细菌战后对被害地的全面详细的疫学调查。731部队细菌战研究人员金子顺一论文《鼠疫效果略算法》,揭示了1940年农安、新京鼠疫流行事件是731部队实施的细菌战的事实。《陆军军医学校防疫研究报告第2部》中的高桥正彦论文中关于农安、新京鼠疫流行事件的论文,是731部队细菌战后对被害地进行的疫学调查。达格威文件Q报告中的部分数据来自“农安细菌战”受害者的病理解剖,其中不仅有中国人,也有日本人。%Facts about bacteriological warfare conducted by Japanese Army in China have been gradually re-vealed by related Chinese and Japanese researchers. However, the majority of materials used in the research are oral history orally accounted by offenders and victims, hence the lack of epidemic prevention surveys on the inflicted areas of bacteriological warfare by Japanese army. The thesis paper by Jun-Ichi Kaneko (bacterial warfare researcher of U-nit 731) namedBubonicPlagueAlgorithmunveiled the fact that plague epidemics which struck Nong’an and Changchun were caused by the Unit 731’s bacteriological warfare. Takahashi’s thesis paper inArmyMedicalCol-legeEpidemicPreventionResearchReport(VolumeⅡ)on plague epidemics that hit Nong’an and Changchun is in connection with the epidemic prevention surveys on the inflicted areas of bacteriological warfare carried out by the U-nit 731. Some data of the Report of“Q”from Dugway Proving Ground Documents came from pathological anatomy of victims of Nong’an bacteriological warfare, some of whom were Chinese and Japanese.

  19. Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection.

  20. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-07-01

    light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  1. Bacteriological Analysis and Resistance Pattern Among Various Culture Isolates From Neonatal Septicemia at Tertiary Care Hospital, Ahmedabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay D Rathod

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Septicemia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn. Shortly after the introduction of potent and broad-spectrum antibiotics, the emergence of resistant strains became a major problem in various Intensive care units. So, determination of bacterial etiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates from septicemia in Neonatal intensive care units (NICU is now crucial to abate neonatal mortality. This study was under taken to know the bacterial etiology of septicemia in neonate and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Materials and Methods: During Jan-2011 to June -2011, 626 Blood samples were collected aseptically from newborns admitted with sepsis in NICU, Sheth Vadilal Sarabhai General Hospital, Ahmadabad and processed by standard conventional method. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates was studied by Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion technique. Results: Total 626 samples were received during the study period of which 107 (17.09% samples were found to be positive. Out of 107 isolated organisms 59 (55.14% were Klebsiella sp., 11 (10.28% Staphylococcus aureus, 10 (9.34% Escherichia coli, 9 (8.41% Coagulase negative staphylococci, 7 (6.54% Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 5 (4.67% Enterobacter sp.5, 4(0.63% Enterococcus sp., 1 (0.93% Acinetobacter baumanii and 1 (0.93% Proteus-mirabilis. Majority of organisms isolated were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Imipenem showed 100% sensitivity for gram negative organisms. Methicillin resistance was found in 9.01% Staphylococcus aureus. Isolated all Enterococcus sp. were sensitive to vancomycin and high level gentamycin. Conclusion: Multi-drug resistance organisms were isolated from septicemia in neonates. This study would guide the clinicians to formulate appropriate treatment strategy as well as to take various preventive measures which ultimately would help to decrease neonatal mortality. [Natl J of Med Res 2012; 2(4.000: 466-469

  2. CHARACTERISATION OF AEROBIC BACTERIOLOGICAL ISOLATES FROM ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANT SITE INFECTIONS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BIOFILM FORMATION IN A TERITIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Shree

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orthopedic implant site infection is one of the major constituents of surgical site infection associated with high morbidity and mortality . Due to the use of implants for open reduction and internal fixation , which are foreign to the body , orthopedic trauma surgery is at grave risk of microbiological contamination . Often isolates causing these infections are assoc iated with biofilm formation resulting in increased antibiotic resistance . OBJECTIVES: To determine the aerobic bacteriological profile with their antibiotic susceptibility patterns from pus samples of patients with orthopedic implant site infections . To d etermine the potential of these isolates to produce biofilm . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Pus samples were collected and sent to the laboratory from patients with suspected implant infections over a period of 6 months were processed according to CLSI guidelines . Biofilm detection was done using Congo red Agar ( CRA method , tube method and Tissue culture plate method . RESULTS: Of the 46 culture positive cases out of 63 , most common isolate was Staphylococcus aureus 30 ( 65 . 21% followed by Coagulase negative Staphy lococcus 4 ( 8 . 69% , Escherichia coli 4 ( 8 . 69% , Klebsiella species 3 ( 6 . 52% , Pseudomonas species 3 ( 6 . 52% , enterococcus species 2 ( 4 . 32% . 13 . 33% of S . aureus was Methicillin resistant ( MRSA , 100% of gram negative bacilli were ESBL and AmpC producers , 27 . 27% of gram negative bacilli were resistant to Imepenem and Meropenem , 1 vancomycin resistant enterococci was isolated . 72% of the isolates were biofilm producers by Congo Red Agar method , 76% by Tube method , and 84% by tissue culture plate m ethod . CONCLUSIONS : Staphylococcus aureus ( MSSA is the most common organism causing orthopedic implant site infection . Gram negative isolates exhibit multidrug resistance patterns . Significant numbers of isolates causing implant infections are biofilm pro ducers . Antibiotic

  3. Bacteriological quality of weaning food and drinking water given to children of market women in Nigeria: implications for control of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroegbu, C U; Ene-Obong, H N; Uwaegbute, A C; Amazigo, U V

    2000-12-01

    Bacteriological quality of weaning food and drinking water given to 2 groups of children aged market and the other of those left at home in the care of older siblings or house-helps. Bacterial counts (geometric mean) ranged from 5.02 +/- 1.82 to 8.70 +/- 1.0 log10 cfu per g or mL of food, and from 1.15 +/- 1.67 to 6.53 +/- 0.81 log10 cfu per g or 100 mL of water. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference in counts between types of food and between meals (breakfast and lunch). Bacterial contamination increased significantly with storage time, and was, in all circumstances except the water samples, significantly higher in foods given to children left at home. Reheated leftover foods also had significantly higher bacterial load than the freshly-cooked food. Coliform count varied significantly with source of drinking water. Poor hygiene standard (inferred from bacterial contamination) was generally observed among mothers weaning market, thus exposing their children to high risk of diarrhoea. Hygiene was significantly poorer in weaning of children left at home in the care of older siblings or house-helps. This implies that, in spite of their trading activities in the market, mothers still take better care of their babies than the older siblings or house-helps who may be inexperienced. These mothers may need education on childcare and food hygiene to suit to their trading activities, for example, during their monthly meetings. There is also a need to establish ORT (oral rehydration therapy) corners in the markets as part of the municipal services. This can be used not only for efficient and quick management of diarrhoea in the market but also for reinforcing hygiene education.

  4. The pig as a model for excisional skin wound healing: characterization of the molecular and cellular biology, and bacteriology of the healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J F; Olson, M E; Reno, C R; Wright, J B; Hart, D A

    2001-08-01

    A pig model of wound healing was developed by excision of 2-cm-diameter full thickness skin in young Yorkshire pigs. The results indicated that wound re-epithelialization in this animal model took an average of 20 days. Analysis of cellular change was assessed by use of DNA quantification and determination of apoptotic cells in tissue sections. The results indicate that RNA and DNA contents paralleled each other throughout the healing process, and observed changes in the pattern of RNA and DNA content of the scar tissues were consistent with cell loss due to apoptosis in this model. Expression of mRNA for relevant genes was assessed by use of semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, using porcine specific primer sets and RNA isolated from normal skin and specimens obtained at various times after wounding. The mRNA values for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), and decorin were significantly high at specific times after wounding, but mRNA values for the transcription factors (c-fos and c-jun) were significantly decreased. Quantitative bacteriologic results indicated that the total bacterial count in this animal model reached 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU)/g, with the highest value at post-wounding day 7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylocococci aureus were the most common bacteria detected in this model. Further definition of this model should identify unique points in the healing process, and such information could lead to development of therapeutic interventions to improve skin wound healing.

  5. Correlations among the somatic cell count of individual bulk milk, result of the California Mastitis Test and bacteriological status of the udder in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jánosi, Sz; Baltay, Zs

    2004-01-01

    In a survey of about 3000 dairy cows producing low somatic cell count (SCC) milk and kept on a large-scale dairy farm, California Mastitis Test (CMT) positivity was found in 2714 udder quarters of 1491 cows. Pathogenic microorganisms were isolated from 57.6% of these 2714 udder quarters during bacteriological examination. The commonest pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 41%) and Staphylococcus aureus (32.5%); however, udder infections caused by environmental streptococci (12.8%) and coliform bacteria (6.8%) were also common. All pathogens resulted in a significant increase of the SCC in individual bulk milk (IBM) samples. In the case of CNS, this SCC elevation in IBM was significantly lower than in the case of infection by the other pathogens. In spite of this, because of the high number of udder infections caused by CNS, the adverse effect exerted by CNS on dairy herds is considered to be substantial. It was found that 54.6% of all CMT-positive cows produced IBM of an SCC below 400 thousand per ml. The milk produced by 41% of the 315 cows excreting S. aureus also had an SCC below 400 thousand per ml. This poses a serious risk of infection to the healthy herdmates. At the same time, 11% of the infected cows produced IBM with an SCC below 100 thousand per ml. On the basis of these findings, only the regular analysis of SCC of IBM can be a reliable indicator of chronic intramammary infection. As the SCC of milk produced by CMT-positive cows (and especially of those excreting pathogens) tended to increase with advancing lactation, the authors suggest that an efficient drying-off therapy should be used to restore udder health and, whenever justified, culling of cows cannot be avoided either. PMID:15168749

  6. Conjunctival cytological examination,bacteriological culture,and antimicrobial resistance profiles of healthy Mediterranean buffaloes(Bubalus bubalis) from Southern Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara; Lamagna; Maria; Pia; Pasolini; Sandra; Nizza; Karina; Mallardo; Maurizio; Formicola; Alessandro; Costagliola; Gerardo; Fatone; Filomena; Fiorito; Orlando; Paciello; Luisa; De; Martino

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess normal conjunctival cytological and bacteriological/fungal flora features in the Mediterranean buffalo(Bubalus bubalis).Methods: Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes of 57 healthy female buffaloes aged 24–36 months, with no evidence of ocular disease, farmed in Campania region(Southern Italy), for microbiological analysis. Conjunctival eye specimens of both eyes were subsequently obtained by a cyto-brush, for cytological analysis.The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates was also determined using the diskdiffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates.Results: Cytological examination of conjunctival swab specimens(114 eyes) revealed epithelial cells(basal, intermediate, columnar and super ficial) in all samples, whereas neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells were present in 70%, 10% and 2% of samples,respectively. Microorganisms, for a total of 261 aerobic bacteria and 6 fungi, were isolated from 112/114 conjunctival samples [98.25%; 95% con fidence interval(CI): 93.18–99.70]. Only two conjunctival swabs did not yield bacteria and/or fungi(2/114, 1.75%;95% CI: 0.30–6.82). Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured(181/261,69.35%; 95% CI: 63.31–74.81), with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus lentus predominating. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated as Gram-negative bacteria(80/261, 30.65%; 95% CI: 25.19–36.69). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria showed amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and cephalothin as the least sensitive antibiotics for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Conclusions: These results provided first information on normal conjunctival ocular micro flora and cytological features in Mediterranean buffalo.

  7. [Analysis of a proposal for changing the educational paradigm in bacteriology and virology. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, E; González, S; López, T; Giayetto, V; Littvik, A; Cannistraci, R; Pavan, J

    2000-01-01

    The productive character of the scientific thought points out a methodological means that include the demand of the students' job about the information and not his mere reception and reproduction. It is essential to give the students the opportunity of discovering the cognitive processes used in the production of the scientific knowledge. In this work, we present the result of the starting of a workshop dynamic in a basic subject, the students' answers, and the analysis of the subject. In the Chair of Medical Bacteriology and Virology of the School of Medical Sciences, the National University of Córdoba, 1700 students attended classes in 1997. The subject was developed with the activities that worked the same contents from two different learning conceptions: (I) workshop activity, non obligatory, constructive, and (II) theorico-practical activity, obligatory and traditional. Two voluntary and anonymous interviews were done about the valuation that the student gave to these two activities and their basis, one in the middle and the other at the end of the course. 90.55% classified the traditional activity as positive, and 9.45% as negative. Regarding the workshop activity, the 60.5% classified it as positive and the 39.5% as negative. The same developed content with two activities made possible the analysis of the impact that the two different methodologies produced on the students. The student's answer to the traditional activity was better than the workshop activity (p < 0.001). The differences in the student's acceptance between the two option revealed the major difficulty of an alternative methodological strategy in the current educational model.

  8. Liver function and bacteriology of organs in broiler inoculated with nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and treated with organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane M. Rocha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbAns etxrpaecritment was carried out with 630 one-day-old chicks to evaluate the effects of organic acids when birds were experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium. Liver damage and the persistence of the bacterium in the organs were evaluated as well. Broilers were distributed in a completely randomised experimental design in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of six treatments with seven replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were inoculated with saline solution or the bacterium via gavage at 1 day of age, or were offered a feed containing or not the organic acid blend for the period of 7 to 14 days of age. A dose of 5.0x102 colony-forming units (CFU/0.5 mL of Salmonella Typhimurium was used for inoculation both via gavage and feed. The parameters evaluated are weight, liver histopathology, liver and serum biochemistry, and bacteriological analyses of the caeca, crop, spleen, and liver and heart pool. At 21 and 28 days of age, the liver of the non-inoculated groups was significantly lighter as compared to the other treatments. Birds fed organic acids presented lower bacterial isolation rates in all organs tested. Birds inoculated in the crop and treated with organic acids presented lower E. coli CFU counts (P<0.05. Birds inoculated with Salmonella presented significant changes (P<0.05 in liver enzymes, as detected by serum biochemistry, and in liver histopathology. It was concluded that organic acids effectively controlled Salmonella Typhimurium and did not cause any liver damage.

  9. Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engelfried, J

    1999-01-01

    In this course we will give examples for experimental techniques used in particle physics experiments. After a short introduction, we will discuss applications in silicon microstrip detectors, wire chambers, and single photon detection in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters. A short discussion of the relevant physics processes, mainly different forms of energy loss in matter, is enclosed.

  10. Approximation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This interactive tutorial presents the following concepts of Approximation Techniques: Methods of Weighted Residual (MWR), Weak Formulatioin, Piecewise Continuous Function, Galerkin Finite Element FormulationExplanations especially for mathematical statements are provided using mouseover the highlight equations. ME4613 Finite Element Methods

  11. Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectro...... in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon....

  12. Electrochemical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  13. Calidad bacteriológica del agua para consumo humano en zonas de alta marginación de Chiapas Bacteriological quality of drinking water in areas of high levels of poverty in Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Javier Sánchez-Pérez

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la calidad bacteriológica del agua (CBA para consumo humano y su relación con diarreas y enteroparasitosis en niños de 1 a 14 años en comunidades de alta marginación socioeconómica de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En una muestra aleatoria de 99 viviendas de la Región Fronteriza de Chiapas, de marzo a septiembre de 1998, se recolectaron muestras de agua para consumo humano, se indagó sobre diarreas en los últimos 15 días y se recolectaron muestras de heces de 322 niños de 1 a 14 años. La CBA se determinó mediante la técnica de filtración por membranas y las enteroparasitosis por el método de Faust. Se utilizó el estadístico ji² para el análisis de la CBA con relación a los diversos factores analizados. RESULTADOS: Sólo 31% de las muestras de agua fueron aptas para consumo humano. La CBA y la presencia de diarreas referida por las madres de los menores no mostraron asociación. Los niños con mala CBA en sus viviendas mostraron mayor prevalencia de Entamoeba histolytica y mayor tendencia a estar parasitados. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario desarrollar medidas que mejoren la CBA y campañas de educación que incrementen el uso de agua hervida, su manejo adecuado y el cuidado de las fuentes de abastecimiento comunitarias.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the bacteriological quality of drinking water (BQDW and its association with diarrhoea and intestinal parasites in children 1 to 14 years old, in areas of high levels of poverty in Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March to September 1998, drinking water was collected from a random sample of 99 households in the Border Region of Chiapas, Mexico; data on diarrhoeal disease (in the past 15 days were collected and stool testing for intestinal parasites was performed in children 1 to 14 years old (n= 322. The BQDW was determined by the filtration membrane technique. Intestinal parasitic infections were determined by the Faust Method. The chi² statistic was

  14. Diagnóstico bacteriológico de la tuberculosis en Argentina: resultados de una encuesta nacional Bacteriological diagnosis of tuberculosis in Argentina: results of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Susana Imaz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar recursos, prácticas y medidas de bioseguridad utilizados en el diagnóstico bacteriológico de tuberculosis y determinar la utilidad y alcance de las técnicas empleadas, se llevó adelante una encuesta transversal a laboratorios del sector público de Argentina utilizando un cuestionario estructurado. El análisis de los resultados mostró que la densidad de centros de microscopía y cultivo se encuentra al nivel o encima de lo recomendado por Organización Mundial de la Salud. El programa de control de calidad de microscopía cubre mayoritariamente los laboratorios con alta carga de trabajo. El promedio de baciloscopías/paciente fue bajo (1,6. El 25% de los laboratorios de cultivo empleaban protección respiratoria inadecuada. El aporte del cultivo a la confirmación de casos pulmonares en las jurisdicciones estuvo asociado a la proporción de muestras cultivadas. Globalmente, el porcentaje de pacientes pulmonares baciloscopía-negativa que fue confirmado bacteriológicamente fue de 18.9%; mientras que la may-oría de los casos extrapulmonares se confirmó sólo por cultivo (71,3%. Es prioritario aún el incremento del número de esputos estudiados por baciloscopía y cultivo, así como aumentar la cobertura de programa de control de calidad de microscopía; es fundamental proveer al personal de laboratorio de adecuada protección respiratoria y evaluación médica regular.In order to assess laboratory resources, practices, and biosafety measures during mycobacterial testing and determine the usefulness and scope of mycobacterial techniques, a cross-sectional survey of public laboratories was conducted in Argentina using a structured questionnaire. Sputum smear analysis showed that both smear and culture testing centers are being provided at or above the WHO recommended density for such facilities. The microscopy quality assessment program covered most high-demand laboratories. Mean number of sputum smears per

  15. The impact of hospital and urban wastewaters on the bacteriological contamination of the water resources in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Kayembe, John M; Laffite, Amandine; Thevenon, Florian; Devarajan, Naresh; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mubedi, Josué I; Yav, Zéphirin G; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-10-14

    hospital effluent waters can be a significant source of the deterioration of the bacteriological quality for urban rivers. The approach used in this investigation can be further used to decipher the pollution of water resources by human faecal contamination. The results of this research will help to better understand the microbiological pollution problems in river-receiving systems and will guide municipality decisions on improving the urban water quality. PMID:27389829

  16. 金银湖水质细菌学检测与分析%Bacteriological Detection and Analysis of Water Quality of Jinyin Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙增灵; 范喜梅; 阮嘉玲; 张山山; 韩喆; 于玉珍; 余晓丽

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to carry out bacteriological detection and analysis on water body of Jinyin Lake. [Method] The water samples were collected from three different sites of Jinyin Lake in Wuhan City. They were carried out detections of total numbers of bacteria and coliforms. [ Result] The water body of Jinyin Lake was α-mesosaprobic zone pollution. The total number of bacteria was 3. 6 X 105 CFU/ml, and the total number of coliforms was 3 133 bacteria/L, which seriously surpassed sanitary standard of national drinking water. [ Conclusion] The total number of bacteria in water body of Jinyin Lake seriously surpassed standard. It reflected the organic pollution of water body was serious, and revealed the possibilities of production and life pollutions in water body. The research provided the certain theoretical guidance for protection and treatment of water environment in Wuhan, improvement of water quality in Jinyin Lake.%[目的] 对金银湖水体进行细菌学检测与分析.[方法] 从武汉市金银湖3个不同位点取水样,进行细菌总数和大肠菌群总数的检测.[结果] 金银湖水体为α-中污带污染,细菌总数为3.6×105 CFU/ml,大肠菌群总数约为3 133个/L,严重超过国家饮用水的卫生标准.[结论] 金银湖水体中细菌总数严重超标,间接反映该水体受有机物污染严重,揭示了该水体存在来自生产和生活污染源的可能性,对武汉水环境的保护治理、金银湖水质的提高提供了一定的理论指导.

  17. Cow health: bacteriological diagnostic examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, H.E.; Sampimon, O.C.; Lam, T.J.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Mastitis wordt vrijwel altijd veroorzaakt door een infectie met bacteriële ziektekiemen. Virale infecties kunnen ook een rol spelen, maar zijn van ondergeschikt belang. Dit artikel zal daarom alleen ingaan op diagnostisch onderzoek van bacteriele ziektekiemen. Er zijn veel verschillende bacteriën di

  18. Bacteriological examination of gallbladder contents

    OpenAIRE

    Petaković Goran; Korica Milan; Gavrilović Sava

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Acute calculous (obstructive) cholecystitis develops as a consequence of cystic obstruction and obstruction of bile flow into choledochus. Most often it is a result of impacted gallstones in Hartman's pouch or the cystic duct. Their direct pressure on gallbladder mucosa causes ischemia, necrosis and ulceration with consequential wall edema and obstructed venous flow. This mechanism is further increasing and spreading the inflammatory process. Ulcerations may be that extensive, th...

  19. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  20. The bacteriology of hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Riis Mikkelsen, Peter; Miller, Iben Marie;

    2015-01-01

    and pathogenesis of HS may facilitate the development of effective treatment. Although the clinical presentation is strongly reminiscent of bacterial infection, the role of bacteria remains controversial. Studies have isolated an array of different bacteria specimens. Consistent findings of Gram-positive cocci...... and Gram-positive rods including Staphylococus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Corynebacterium species in deep tissue samples have been demonstrated in HS and may constitute a central target for the immune system. Efficacy of antibiotics, that is rifampicin, clindamycin or tetracycline......, supports a microbial role in disease pathogenesis. However, these antibiotics also work as immunomodulators of especially T cells, and the underlying mechanisms may therefore be more complex. We performed a systematic review of previous studies investigating the bacterial flora in hidradenitis suppurativa...

  1. Comparative bacteriology of juvenile periodontitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Palcanis, K G; Ranney, R R

    1985-01-01

    Statistical comparisons of the floras associated with juvenile periodontitis, severe periodontitis, and moderate periodontitis indicated that differences in the bacterial compositions of affected sites in these populations were not statistically significant. The subgingival flora of affected juvenile periodontitis sites was statistically significantly different from the adjacent supragingival flora and from the subgingival floras of people with healthy gingiva and of children with developing ...

  2. BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CREAMY FOODSTUFFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afaghi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonpasturized cream is usually contaminated with different types of pathogens, and its use in foodstuffs such as creamy cake and ice-cream is the main cause of contamination of such foodstuffs. The purpose of the analysis was to show the contamination rate of nonpasturized cream and foodstuffs in which such creams are used. Studies carried out on 70 samples from 231 distribution centers, from Dec, 1987 to May, 1988, in the city of Qazvin, Iran revealed that 95% of the samples were contaminated with different types of pathogens. The microbial counts were as follows: total count, 95%; Coliform, 77%; Staphylococcus aureus, 62%, and positive cases of E. Coli with feacal origin, 55%.

  3. Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…

  4. Problems and Suggestions for Bacteriological Quality Monitoring of Laboratory Animals in China%实验动物细菌学监测工作中存在的问题及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽芳

    2011-01-01

    The standards of bacteriological quality monitoring of laboratory animals are very important index to evaluate the quality of laboratory animals. Based on the analysis of the standards of microbiological quality monitoring of laboratory animals in developed countries, in this paper, we will discuss some current problems such as test item, test methods, test frequency and sampling method and make suggestions for bacteriological quality monitoring of laboratory animals in China.%实验动物细菌学质量控制标准是评价实验动物质量的重要指标,本文在分析发达国家实验动物质量标准的基础上,结合目前的检测现状,对我国实验动物细菌学监测标准在检测项目、检测方法、检测频率、取样要求等方面存在的问题进行了分析并提出建议.

  5. 2000例小儿肺炎细菌学及耐药性分析%Analysis of bacteriology and drug resistance of 2000 cases of pediatric pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志新

    2014-01-01

    目的:对本院2000例小儿肺炎细菌学及其耐药性进行分析。方法随机选择本院2011年10月至2013年8月收治的2000例小儿肺炎患儿。将其痰液制成标本,进行细菌学培养,测定其对药物的敏感性。结果①分离出G-杆菌占62.26%;G+球菌占27.32%;真菌占10.42%;②对于G-杆菌致病性前5位为:肺炎克雷伯杆菌、大肠埃希杆菌、阴沟肠杆菌、鲍曼不动杆菌以及铜绿假单胞菌,占G-杆菌总数的90%;③对于G+球菌致病性前5位为:金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌、轻型链球菌、溶血性葡萄球菌以及肺炎链球菌;④对G-杆菌敏感度较高的药物分别为环丙沙星、奈替米星、哌拉西林、阿米卡星以及美洛培南;⑤对G+球菌142株金黄色葡萄球菌敏感度较高的药物为青霉素、四环素、红霉素、庆大霉素以及氯林可霉素。对220株其他球菌耐药性较高的药物为:青霉素、苯唑西林、红霉素、庆大霉素以及喹诺酮二代。结论在临床诊治过程中,应明确患者的致病菌,使用合理、有效的抗生素。%ObjectiveTo analyze the bacteriology and drug resistance of pediatric pneumonia in our hospital. MethodsThere were 2000 cases of pediatric pneumonia in our hospital randomly selected from October 2011 to August 2013. The sputum specimens were made for bacterial culture and measurement of susceptibility testing of drugs.Results ①Gram-negative bacillus accounted for 62.26% of the pathogenic bacteria, gram-positive bacillus accounted for 27.32% and fungus accounted for 10.42%.②The top 5 pathogenicity of gram-negative bacillus were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, accounting for 90% of the number of gram-negative bacillus.③The top 5 pathogenicity of gram-positive bacillus were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus

  6. Controle bacteriológico de carne caprina para elaboração de hambúrguer caprino defumado Bacteriological control of goat meat to elaboration of smoked goat hamburger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Metri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se avaliações bacteriológicas da matéria-prima utilizada na elaboração de um produto cárneo caprino tipo hambúrguer defumado, antes e após sanitização. A carne foi tratada por aspersão, com uma solução de ácidos orgânicos contendo 2% de ácido acético, 1% de ácido lático, 0,25% de ácido cítrico e 0,1% de ácido ascórbico, e armazenada sob refrigeração. As análises bacteriológicas foram realizadas no dia 0 e aos 7 e 14 dias após defumação. Na carne, no dia 0, a contagem de coliformes fecais estava acima do limite permitido pela legislação vigente, mas sete dias após a sanitização, esse parâmetro estava dentro dos limites permitidos. No produto final todos os parâmetros bacteriológicos encontraram-se dentro dos padrões higiênico-sanitários.In order to obtain a safe goat smoked hamburger, bacteriological analysis of the raw material was performed before and after sanitation. Meat was sprayed with a solution of organic acids containing 2% acetic acid, 1% lactic acid, 0.25% citric acid and 0.1% ascorbic acid and, after that, stored under refrigeration. Bacteriological analysis was carried out on days 0, 7 and 14 after goat smoked hamburger processing. In meat, on day 0, the fecal coliform count was above legal limits, but on day 7 after sanitation this parameter was these limits. In the final product, all the results of the bacteriological parameters were according to the sanitary-hygienic standards.

  7. Application of molecular biology techniques in diagnosis of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli%分子生物学技术在肠致泻性大肠杆菌诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱平; 陈建辉; 杨劲松; 林杰

    2011-01-01

    Application of molecular biology techniques in laboratory diagnosis of three public health events occurred recently was summarized. To investigate possible pathogenic agents of these events, routine bacteriologic culture, serologital and biochemical identification were conducted, combined with a series of molecular biology approaches such as gene-specific PCR, real-time PCR and sequence analysis. Conventional bacteriologic tests indicated Escherichia coli as causative agents, however, gene-specific PCR and RT-PCR assays precisely directed to certain sub-groups of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. These results suggest that application of molecular biology techniques, in addition to conventional bacteriologic tests, plays an important role in successful laboratory investigations in public health events.%目的 分析总结3起公共卫生事件中分子生物学诊断方法发挥的作用.方法 在这3起事件中,实验室诊断先后采用常规细菌培养、血清学和生化鉴定,以及部分基因的PCR、实时荧光PCR、核酸序列分析等方法.结果 常规方法只能将这3起事件的可能致病因子鉴定到普通大肠杆菌,一系列特异基因片段的PCR检测可以进一步鉴定到不同的肠致泻性大肠杆菌.结论分子生物学诊断手段与常规方法的有机结合,对细菌性病原菌来讲是今后公共卫生事件实验室调查的一个有力手段.

  8. Radiografia torácica e bacteriologia na fase inicial de tratamento de 800 pacientes masculinos com tuberculose pulmonar Chest X-ray and bacteriology in the initial phase of treatment of 800 male patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Levent Ozsahin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar radiografias de tórax de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar e determinar se a extensão das lesões radiográficas correlaciona-se com os parâmetros bacteriológicos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo descritivo e retrospectivo; foram avaliadas radiografias de tórax, baciloscopias para BAAR e culturas de escarro para Mycobacterium tuberculosis no momento basal e durante os dois primeiros meses de tratamento. A amostra foi composta por 800 pacientes masculinos internados entre 1995 até o presente em um hospital com 250 leitos no noroeste da Turquia. RESULTADOS: A VHS média inicial foi de 58 ± 37 mm/h. Inicialmente, a baciloscopia e as culturas de escarro tiveram resultado positivo em 83,8% e em 89,5% dos pacientes, respectivamente. Após o primeiro mês do tratamento, a proporção de culturas positivas foi maior nos pacientes com doença cavitária do que naqueles sem doença cavitária (53,7% vs. 37,7%; p 0.05 para todos, mas houve correlação positiva com VHS (r = 0,23, p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate chest X-rays of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine whether the extent of radiographic lesions correlates with bacteriological parameters. METHODS: In this retrospective, descriptive study, we evaluated chest X-rays, as well as AFB detection by smear microscopy and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, initially and during the first two months of treatment, in 800 male patients hospitalized between 1995 and the present at a 250-bed hospital in northwestern Turkey. RESULTS: The initial mean ESR was 58 ± 37 mm/h. Initial sputum smears and cultures were positive in 83.8% and 89.5% of the patients, respectively. After the first month of treatment, the proportion of patients with positive sputum culture was higher among those with cavitary tuberculosis than among those with non-cavitary tuberculosis (53.7% vs. 37.7%, p 0.05 for all but was positively correlated with the ESR (r = 0.23, p < 0.001. During the first and second

  9. 两种状态下婴儿培养箱内细菌学检测结果比较%Comparison of the results of bacteriological detection inside the infant incubator in two different conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安云

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨贮水湿化与非湿化状态下婴儿培养箱内细菌滋生情况.方法 将使用婴儿培养箱的90例新生儿分为观察组和对照组,比较相同条件下培养箱贮水湿化与非湿化状态箱内物体表面和空气的细菌检测结果以及两组新生儿体温、婴儿培养箱温度和环境湿度.结果 观察组婴儿培养箱内物体表面、空气的细菌检测合格率高于对照组(P<0.01);对照组婴儿培养箱内湿度高于新生儿所需湿度.结论 婴儿培养箱不宜常规贮水湿化,否则易引起细菌滋生;使用婴儿培养箱时应监测箱内湿度,当湿度过低不能满足患儿需要时才贮水湿化,且每日更换蒸馏水,并做好水槽消毒.%Objective To observe the bacteria breeding situation inside the infant incubator in wet and non -wet conditions. Methods A total of 90 infants in incubator were assigned to the experimental group and the control group. The results of the object surface and the air bacteriological detection inside the incubator and thermoregulation in newborn, infant incubabor's temperature and the humidity of the environment in two groups under web and non - web conditions were collected and compared. Results The qualified rates of the object surface and the air bacteriological detection of the experimental group were higher than the control group ( P < 0. 01 ). The humidity inside the incubator in the control group was higher than the requined humidity. Conclusion Infant incubator should not store water for humidifying, because it is easy to cause bacteria breeding. The humidity of infant incubator should be monitored. It is necessary to storage water when the humidity is too low to meet the needs of infants. The distilled water should be replaced everyday and do well in water disinfection.

  10. Research on Japanese Invaders Using of Chemical, Bacteriological Weapons to Kill Chinese People%侵华日军使用化学、细菌武器杀害中国人民述略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庭华

    2015-01-01

    During the 14-year war of aggression against China, the Japanese army in China used bacteriologi-cal weapons in 20 provinces, in other words,the implementation of germ warfare can be said was always an impor-tant means of the Japanese invaders and combat styles.Although postwar the truth of Japanese Aggressors germ war-fare had come out, but the Japanese government had not admited fault up to now.Despite repeatly Chinese germ warfare victims sue the Japanese government to protest, but until August 2002, Tokyo, Japan, the court adjudica-ted "affirmed the truth that the Japanese invaders have germ warfare and killed of the Chinese people, but refused to take an apology and financial compensation for victims".Dare to reflect, to deny the crimes of their own nation, is bound to repeat mistakes, this is a law of history.Chinese descendants should remember this history in future.%日军在14年侵华战争期间曾在中国20个省区内使用过细菌武器,实施细菌战,可以说细菌战始终是侵华日军的重要作战手段和作战样式。战后虽然侵华日军实施细菌战的真象大白于天下,但日本政府至今不认错。虽经中国细菌战受害者多次向日本政府起诉、抗议,但一直到2002年8月,日本东京法院才作出“认定有侵华日军曾发动细菌战和杀害中国人民的事实,但拒绝向受害者赔礼道歉及经济赔偿”的裁决。不敢反省、否认自己罪行的民族,必然会重蹈复辙,这是一条历史的规律。中国的子孙后代都应该铭记这段历史。

  11. Stress Management Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Czabała

    2016-05-01

    Of all the stress management techniques people used mostly those included in the categories of “problem solving”, “vicarious gratification” and “distancing”. This points to the use of techniques that require no effort but are not fully effective. It could be so that they have not skills to use other techniques, or are aware that such techniques exist.

  12. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  13. Training techniques for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used training techniques in relation to cost-effective, prevention-oriented Quality Assurance are examined. Important questions are whether training techniques teach cost effectiveness and whether the techniques are, themselves, cost effective. To answer these questions, criteria for evaluating teaching techniques for cost effectiveness were developd, and then commonly used techniques are evaluated in terms of specific training program objectives. Motivation of personnel is also considered important to the success of a training program, and methods are outlined by which recognition of the academic quality of industrial training can be used as a motivational technique

  14. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  15. Nuclear techniques in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques are utilized in almost every industry. The discussion in this paper includes discussions on tracer methods and uses nucleonic control systems technology; non-destructive testing techniques and radiation technology. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. 破溃兔扩张皮瓣的细菌学研究%The experimental study of the bacteriology of the recipient bed of the ruptured expanded flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡守舵; 赵延勇; 蒋海越; 杨庆华; 庄洪兴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the bacteriology of the ruptured expanded flap. Methods The New Zealand White rabbits were selected as experimental animals. Firstly,the ruptured expanded flap animal models were made and were randomly classified into four groups, named as A group.B group, C group and D group. The tissues of the flap of each group were divided into six parts from center to edge when taking the rupture as the center. The specimens were taken from these parts. All the specimens were quantificationally examined with Cooney's method and qualitatively examined for gram smear and aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Results The experiment results revealed that: ?with the extension of the rupture time, the length of the inflammatory reaction skin-capsule composite tissue gradually increased.the bacterial number in the flap tissue increased, the significant differences existed between each group (P < 0.05). @ If the rupturetime lasted more than three weeks, the infectious ratio of the floor would increase significantly (17%vs67%;P< 0.05). When the floor infection did exist, bacteria could be found in all parts of the flap. ?lf the floor didn't infect.the bacteria exist within the scope 0.5cm longer than the inflammatory reaction skin-capsule composite tissues. @ the main kind of bacteria was gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions The bacteriology of the flap was changed when the expanded flap was ruptured, more attention should be given in clinic.%目的:研究扩张皮瓣破溃后不同时段及部位的细菌状态.方法:以新西兰大白兔作为实验动 物.首先形成兔扩张皮瓣模型,进而形成破溃的扩张皮瓣模型,并随机分为A、B、C、D破溃时间长短不同的四组.各组的皮瓣组织均以破 口为中心,呈环状由内向外分为6个部分;然后在无菌的环境下分别对这6个部分进行标本采集.采取的标本采用Cooney法进行细菌定 量检查和常规接种、需氧和厌氧培养定性检查.结果:①随着破溃时

  17. - Caracterización clínica - bacteriológica - micológica de los procesos dermatológicos en caninos (Clinical - bacteriological - fungal characterization - of dermatological processes in canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Alvarez, Tania

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos dermatológicos en caninos constituyen una problemática de carácter sanitario, ético y social a escala mundial. Su etiología diversa y los problemas en el diagnóstico elevan el costo y duración de los tratamientos, agravando la situación. Con el objetivo de realizar la caracterización clínica–bacteriológica–micológica de los principales procesos dermatológicos se realizó la inspección clínica y el aislamiento bacteriológico y micológico a partir de las lesiones observadas en 50 caninos. También fueron realizados antibiogramas. Se pudieron caracterizar los procesos dermatológicos en los caninos analizados, correspondiendo la presencia de costras amarillas claras, escamas, tejido edematoso con inflamación y fístulas, zonas alopécicas circunscritas, vesículas, pústulas y prurito variable, al aislamiento de Staphylococcus aureus sensible a Estreptomicina, Eritromicina, Cloranfenicol, Gentamicina y Amikacina (42%; rubicundez cutánea hiperémica circunscrita, seborrea con olor rancio, costras amarillas e intenso prurito, a Malassezia pachydermatis (34%; rubicundez cutánea hiperémica circunscrita, seborrea con olor anómalo y fétido (rancio, escamas de color amarillo claro hasta amarillo-verde y prurito intenso, a Malassezia pachydermatis asociado con Staphylococcus aureus (16%; costras de color amarillo-verde y prurito variable, a Streptococcus spp. sensible a Estreptomicina, Eritromicina, Cloranfenicol, Gentamicina, Amikacina y Penicilina (4%; e Hipotricosis y foliculitis superficial, a resultados negativos en el aislamiento (4%. Abstract. Dermatological processes in canines constitute a problem of sanitary, ethical and social character to world scale. Their diverse etiology and the problems in the diagnosis raise the cost and duration of treatments, increasing the situation. With the objective of carrying out the clinic-bacteriological-fungal characterization of the main dermatological processes it was

  18. Estudos bacteriológicos e sorológicos de um surto de peste no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Bacteriological and serological studies of a plague outbreak in the Paraíba state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Maria Paiva Almeida

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados estudos bacteriológicos e/ou sorológicos para diagnóstico da infecção pestosa, em material obtido de 452 pacientes (48 positivos, 1.938 roedores e outros pequenos mamíferos (75 positivos, 4.756 cães (141 positivos e 3.047 gatos (57 positivos, oriundos de 41 municípios localizados em toda a extensão da área paraibana do Planalto da Borborema. A infecção foi encontrada em 21 municípios. Foram isoladas 20 cepas de Yersinia pestis de amostras coletadas de três pacientes e 17 roedores. Estas cepas apresentam características bioquímicas, fatores de virulência, sensibilidade aos antibióticos e poder patogênico experimental semelhantes ao de cepas isoladas anteriormente. Pelos estudos realizados não foram observados, no surto de peste que eclodiu em setembro de 1986 na Paraíba, fatores diferentes dos observados nos outros focos do nordeste do Brasil.During a plague outbreak in the Borborema Plateu focus (Paraíba, bacteriological and serological studies were carryed out in material from 452 patients (48 positives, 1,938 rodents and other small mammals (75 positives, 4,756 dogs (141 positives and 2,047 cats (57 positives obtained from 41 counties (out of which, 21 produced positive samples. Twenty Yersinia pestis strains isolated from material from 3 patients ans 17 rodents, displayed biochemical reactions, virulence factors, antibiotic susceptibility and animal experimental pathogenicity similar to those observed in strains previously isolated. According to our findings this recent plague outbreak did not exhibite different factors from those observed during prior outbreaks in other plague foci in the northeast of Brazil.

  19. 新生儿病区工作服细菌学监测结果与改进措施%Bacteriological monitoring results of work clothes in neonatal ward and improvement measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施源; 曾丽娟; 蔡晋; 汪莉; 李敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨新生儿病区工作服细菌学监测结果与改进措施。方法:选择10个被检测对象,采用合理的方式测定其工作服上的细菌数,进行统计学分析。结果:医务人员工作服穿后第3天,其菌落数量已超过卫生部规定的新生儿科病房的物体表面细菌菌落总数。结论:医院工作服的细菌污染是客观存在的,医院感染部门应重视新生儿科医务人员的工作服清洗消毒流程,加强管理。%Objective:To explore the bacteriological monitoring results of work clothes in neonatal ward and improvement measures. Methods:10 objects were selected,and we determined the number of bacteria on the work clothes with reasonable methods,and made a statistical analysis.Results:At the third day of work clothes dressed for the medical staff,the number of colonies had more than the total number of bacteria on the object surface stipulated by the ministry of health in neonatal ward.Conclusion:Bacterial contamination of work clothes in hospital was objective existence,Hospital infection department should attach importance to the work clothes cleaning and disinfection process of the medical staff in neonatal ward,and strengthen management.

  20. Hygienic and microbiological influences exerted on natural water biotopes by algae and the growth of water plants. 2. Communication: improvement of the chemical and bacteriological water quality by the natural growth of aquatic plants (author's transl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graef, W.; Kersch, D.; Pawlofsky, C.M.

    1981-12-01

    For a natural pond, whose waters are used for recreational purposes (swimming) and are subject to waste water inflow, the biological purifying function of a zone overgrown with reeds and aquatic plants was ascertained by means of chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters. In the years from 1975 to 1980 the contents of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates and chlorides as well as the colony counts (CFU/ml), the coli titres and the content of fruiting myxobacteria were determined from water samples, both during the lush-growth summer period and the low-growth winter season. The location of the 6 sampling points systematically extended from the sewage outlet via the tributary ditch, in front of and behind the natural growth zone as far as the swimming waters. The test series showed - that in the tributary ditch and especially during the passage through the upper water zone densely overgrown with aquatic plants, the proportion of degradable nitrogen compounds and phosphates is distinctly reduced beyond the extent of reduction by dilution processes, - that the colony counts in the effluent water as well as the content of E. coli and of the fruiting myxobacteria, which act as indirect faecal indicator, are also reduced considerably, - that the biological purifying of the vegetation zone is definitely higher in summer than during the low-growth winter months. From this the conclusion can be drawn that for maintaining and furthering an adequate water quality of recreational waters compromised by waste water, the preservation of the naturally growing aquatic plants both in the water itself and on the banks is absolutely necessary.

  1. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Quality Attribute Techniques Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Yin Kia; Zhu, Liming; Staples, Mark

    The quality of software is achieved during its development. Development teams use various techniques to investigate, evaluate and control potential quality problems in their systems. These “Quality Attribute Techniques” target specific product qualities such as safety or security. This paper proposes a framework to capture important characteristics of these techniques. The framework is intended to support process tailoring, by facilitating the selection of techniques for inclusion into process models that target specific product qualities. We use risk management as a theory to accommodate techniques for many product qualities and lifecycle phases. Safety techniques have motivated the framework, and safety and performance techniques have been used to evaluate the framework. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of quality risk management to cover the development lifecycle and to accommodate two different product qualities. We identify advantages and limitations of the framework, and discuss future research on the framework.

  3. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  4. Persian fencing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reproduced herein. This is the first article on Persian swordsmanship published in any periodical.

  5. Deployment of learning techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolino, Antonia; Calabro, Antonello; Cassel, Sofia; Chen, Yu-Fang; Howar, Falk; Isberner, Malte; Jonsson, Bengt; Merten, Maik; Pelliccione, Patrizio; Steffen, Bernhard; Tivoli, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The CONNECT Integrated Project aims at enabling continuous composition of networked systems, by developing techniques for synthesizing connectors. A prerequisite for synthesis is to learn about the interaction behavior of networked peers. The role of WP4 is to develop techniques for learning models of networked peers and middleware through exploratory interaction.

  6. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  7. Contamination Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  8. Contamination Control Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

  9. BACTERIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WASHED AND UNWASHED LAYING HEN’S EGGS CARACTERÍSTICAS BACTERIOLÓGICAS DE OVOS LAVADOS E NÃO LAVADOS DE GRANJAS DE PRODUÇÃO COMERCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Ferreira Stringhini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the bacteriological quality of washed and unwashed eggs obtained in four commercial poultry farms located in the metropolitan area of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil was the purpose of this study. Farms 1 and 2 were considered as medium and small production capacity, respectively, and washed mechanically the eggs with heated water containing sanitizing while farms 3 and 4 produced unwashed eggs. The sample universe was made up of 576 eggs from farms 1 and 2, 288 obtained from the poultry facilities and other 288 collected in the classification hall, and 132 obtained in farms 3 and 4, half of this collected in the facilities and the other half in the classification hall. It was considered commercial eggs classified as large eggs from 30 to 40 weeks of age Dekalb White hens. The experimental design was a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (washing procedure x collection place with three replicates and the experimental unit consisted of pool of six eggs. Counts of mesophilic and positive Staphylococcus coagulase and Most Probable Number (MPN of total and fecal coliforms in shells and internal content of eggs and Salmonella spp. research in eggshells were made. Results of the counts were expressed as log CFU/g and “t” Student test (5% adopted. Descriptive and frequency analysis was used to analyse MPN of total and faecal coliforms. Counts of mesophilic and positive Staphylococcus coagulase in eggshells of washed eggs in the classification hall of the farm 1 were lower (p <0.05 than that eggs collected in hen’s facilities which showed the efficiency of sanitization and good bacteriological quality of eggshell. The eggshells obtained in the classification hall of the farm 3 showed a higher (p <0.05 counts of mesophilic than in the facilities. Despite the high counting for positive Staphylococcus coagulase in the classification halls of farms 3 and 4, these values are lower than those needed to form toxin capable of

  10. L-form bacteriologic assessment of bile from gallbladder in patients with gallstones and cholecystitis and implication%检测胆囊结石胆汁中L型细菌的研究及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文胜; 石景森; 杨毅军; 李国才; 韩月; 焦兴元; 卓健生

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of L-form bacteria in the development of gallstone and cholecystitis. Methods A L-form bacteriological study was made on 130 patients undergoing elective surgery for gallbladder diseases and 20 subjects with a normal biliary tract as a control group. Results The positive rate of bacterial L-form was 59.2 % in benign gallbladder diseases and 5.0 % in the control group. In the bile from gallbladder, the detectable rate for pigment stones was the highest (88.9 %), followed by mixed, cholesterol and black stones (80.0 %, 54.8 % and 50.0 % respectively). There was relationship between the number of gallstone and the L-form bacterial positive rate, as well as the age of the patients. Conclusion L-form bacterial infection might play a certain role in stone formation in gallbladder and the therapy for L-form bacterial infection in the patients with gallstones and chronic cholecystitis should be performed clinically.%目的探讨L型细菌在胆囊结石、胆囊炎发病中的意义。方法应用高渗培养技术对130例胆囊结石、胆囊炎及20例非胆道疾病的患者胆囊胆汁标本进行普通菌及L型菌联合培养。结果 L型菌总检出率胆囊疾病组为59.2%,对照组为5.0%;胆囊结石胆汁中,检出率最高为胆色素类结石(88.9%),其次为混合性胆石(80.0%)、胆固醇结石(54.8%)和黑色结石(50.0%);多发结石明显高于单个结石。随年龄增加,其感染检出率增高。结论 L型菌感染可能在胆囊结石、胆囊炎发生发展中有重要意义,临床上应重视其检测和治疗。

  11. Spectrometric techniques 4

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume IV discusses three widely diversified areas of spectrometric techniques. The book focuses on three spectrometric methods. Chapter 1 discusses the phenomenology and applications of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), the most commonly used optical technique that exploit the Raman effect. The second chapter is concerned with diffraction gratings and mountings for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region. Chapter 3 accounts the uses of mass spectrometry, detectors, types of spectrometers, and ion sources. Physicists and chemists will find the book a go

  12. Advanced analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

  13. Spectrometric techniques 3

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume III presents the applications of spectrometric techniques to atmospheric and space studies. This book reviews the spectral data processing and analysis techniques that are of broad applicability.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the instrumentation used for obtaining field data. This text then reviews the contribution that space-borne spectroscopy in the thermal IR has made to the understanding of the planets. Other chapters consider the instruments that have recorded the planetary emission spectra. This book discusses as well

  14. Approximation techniques for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Komzsik, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.

  15. Computer techniques for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittra, R

    1973-01-01

    Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

  16. Spectrometric techniques 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  17. 42 CFR 493.911 - Bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Gram-negative bacteria: Campylobacter jejuni Haemophilis influenza, Type B Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3... identify aerobic bacteria from throat, urine, cervical, or urethral discharge specimens to the genus level... bacteria from any source to the species level and may also perform antimicrobial susceptibility tests;...

  18. Bacteriological Survey of AFD (Meat Packing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Rawal

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the manufacturing process of freeze dried mutton from slaughtering to packing and makes an assessment of microbial build-up on equipment, hands of workers and environment in which the mutton comes in contact during processing.

  19. Bacteriología de la listeriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcenac, Fernando M. L.

    1980-01-01

    La Listeria monocytogenes es el agente causante de la listeriosis. Pertenece al género Listeria, el que además cuenta con dos especies: L. denitrificans, L. grayi y L. murrayi. Este género está transitoriamente ubicado en el grupo Coryneforme. L. monocytogenes es un bacilo gram positivo, con cierta tendencia al pleomorfismo, pudiendo aparecer como diplococo o bajo formas filamentosas. Es aerobia o facultativa y desarrolla bien en la mayoría de los medios comunes de aislamiento. La gr...

  20. Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    This manual presents laboratory procedures for the differentiation and identification of disease agents from clinical materials. Included are procedures for the collection of specimens, preparation of culture media, pure culture methods, cultivation of the microorganisms in natural and simulated natural environments, and procedures in…

  1. [Bacteriologic and serologic diagnosis of enteral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelmann, R

    1988-09-01

    Infections of the gastrointestinal tract still are numerous, ranging on the second place after infections of the respiratory tract. Some of them show quite severe or prolonged course. In contrast to other infections, especially those of the urinary tract, laboratory diagnostic of enteritis is only scarcely ordered. During the last ten years new methods and knowledge of etiologic germs like Campylobacter, Yersinia, various types of E. coli, Clostridium difficile, Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Giardia, Blastomyces and Cryptosporidia have been accumulated. A better etiologic diagnosis of these infections should enable the clinician to start a more precise and therefore more effective therapy.

  2. Programa de Bacteriología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés del Socorro Bedoya Ortiz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de la investigación cualitativadescriptiva “Comprensión de las inteligencias develadas en el aula”. Su propósito fue comprender las inteligencias develadas en los estudiantes en el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la asignatura de Hematología. Se hace referencia a los contextos que convalidan la investigación, se describe paso a paso la manera cómo fue pensado y desarrollado el proyecto, señalando la población participante, las etapas del proceso, las técnicas e instrumentos de recolección de información y el tipo de investigación; se presenta el acercamiento teórico que demandó el trabajo y que se fue construyendo y reconstruyendo acorde con los hallazgos encontrados en el proceso de interacción entre estudiantes, docente e investigadora. Finalmente, se plantea una reflexión educativa a manera de recomendación, en la que se invita a los docentes a repensar, a reorientar la práctica educativa y al reto de proponer nuevos paradigmas de interpretación y de acción frente a la ciencia y a la vida misma.

  3. Bacteriological analysis of bile in cholecystectomy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik M. Parekh

    2015-11-01

    Methods: The study was a prospective study carried out in SSG Hospital. A total of 78 patients undergone cholecystectomy who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. 3cc bile was aspirated from all patients, this collected bile from gallbladder before cholecystectomy was transported to the laboratory in sterile test-tube. The specimen was evaluated to find out whether it is sterile or has any bacteria present. The types of bacteria are determined and whether the amount of isolate is significant or not. And sensitivity to antibacterial agents against antibiotics was determined. Results: 19 patients showed positive bile culture in which Escherichia coli was the most common isolated bacteria (63.16% among positive bile culture and 15.38% among all patients and bile was sterile in 59 patients (75.64%. Other organisms isolated were Pseudomonas (3.85%, Klebsiella (2.56%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus viridans (1.28%. Positive bile culture was a more common finding (50% of patients were bile culture positive in patients with acute cholecystitis in this study. Post-operative wound infection is more common (15.79% in group of patients with isolated organism from bile. There is a strong correlation between bile culture and wound culture (75%. Conclusions: It was found that sensitivity to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins was higher as compared to aminoglycoside in acute as well as chronic cholecystitis. In this study levofloxacin also shows good sensitivity against isolated organism from bile. Piperacilin and tazobactum also shows good sensitivity against isolated organism from bile and they are more effective against pseudomonas. The resistance to second-generation cephalosporins and aminoglycoside has increased. For preoperative prophylaxis third and fourth-generation cephalosporins and levofloxacin show better promise and may be used as the first line of preoperative prophylaxis in operations for acute and chronic cholecystitis undergoing cholecystectomy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3091-3096

  4. Macroscopia, histopatologia e bacteriologia de fígados de frangos (Gallus gallus condenados no abate Gross, microscopic and bacteriologic evaluations of broiler chicken livers (Gallus gallus condemned at slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleverson da Silva Barcelos

    2006-04-01

    infecção bacteriana nos fígados condenados.Gross, microscopic, and bacteriologic evaluations of broiler chicken livers condemned at slaughter were performed. One hundred broiler livers were sampled. Ninety of them had gross lesions and were condemned by the meat inspection service. Ten of them were grossly normal. The sampling was done in two processing plants located in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For the gross evaluation, the following parameters were considered: shape, color, size, texture, odor, and the presence of other visible lesions. Livers with changes in color, shape, size and/or texture were 47/90; brown-pale livers with other associated macroscopic lesions were 19/90; yellow or yellowish livers with other associated gross lesions were 5/90; and green or greenish livers with other associated lesions were 19/90. The main microscopic diagnoses consisted of multifocal heterophilic colangio-hepatitis, degeneration and/or centrilobular to bridging hepatocellular necrosis, random necrotizing hepatitis and multifocal heterophylic pericolangitis. The bacteriological evaluation was oriented to finding of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus sp. It was carried out by direct culture of the liver samples in selective culture media. E. coli was isolated in 26/100 samples and Staphylococcus sp. in 24/100 samples. For culturing of Salmonella spp., the conventional method indicated for this bacteria was utilized. However, there was no isolation of any species of the Salmonella genus. In all the three evaluations, a high incidence of lesions suggestive of bacterial infections was observed in the condemned livers.

  5. Plant tissue culture techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  6. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fall. There are also many other types of breathing techniques you can learn. In many cases, you do ... These sensors measure your skin temperature, brain waves, ... time, you can learn to change them without using the monitor.

  7. The MST Radar Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  8. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  9. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...

  10. Reversible Data Hiding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Yadav

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reversible data hiding is a technique that is used to hide data inside an image. The data is hidden in such a way that the exact or original data is not visible. The hidden data can be retrieved as and when required. There are several methods that are used in reversible data hiding techniques like Watermarking, Lossless embedding and encryption. In this paper we present a review of reversible watermarking techniques and show different methods that are used to get reversible data hiding technique with higher embedding capacity and invisible objects. Watermark need not be hidden. Watermarking can be applied to 1. Images, 2. Text, 3. Audio/video, 4. Software.

  11. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Xue-Song Li; Li-Qun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique.Data Sources:The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages.Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy.A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted.The use of coaxial guide is recommended.For biopsy location,sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended.Conclusion:In spite of some limitations,RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors.

  12. RFCM Techniques Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to develop radio-frequency countermeasure (RFCM) techniques in a controlled environment from 2.0 to 40.0 GHz. The configuration of...

  13. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  14. Techniques Enabling Generator Refactoring

    OpenAIRE

    Krahn, Holger; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents our approach to use refactoring techniques together with code generation. Refactoring is particularly useful if not only the generated classes but also the generator itself can be adapted in an automatic fashion. We have developed a simple demonstration prototype to illustrate this. The demonstration is based on a special technique where the template for the code generation is defined as compilable source code. The directives to ll out this template prototype to the actual...

  15. Apollo Onboard Navigation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic navigation concepts, describes coordinate systems and identifies attitude determination techniques including Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) IMU management and Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System/Lunar Module (LM) Abort Guidance System (AGS) attitude management. The presentation also identifies state vector determination techniques, including PGNCS coasting flight navigation, PGNCS powered flight navigation and LM AGS navigation.

  16. Stargate: Energy Management Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Raghunathan; Mani Srivastava; Trevor Pering; Roy Want

    2004-01-01

    This poster presents techniques for energy efficient operation of the Stargate wireless platform. In addition to conventional power management techniques such as dynamic voltage and scaling and processor shutdown, the Stargate features several mechanisms for energy efficient operation of the communication subsystem, such as support for hierarchical radios, Bluetooth based remote wakeup, mote based wakeup, etc. Finally, design optimizations including the use of power gating, and provision for ...

  17. TECHNIQUE OF JEJUNOSTOMY

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tarcoveanu

    2005-01-01

    Feeding difficulties is an important problem of some patients (postoperative feeding in major interventions, acute pancreatitis etc.). Many of these patients are managed by jejunostomy. This paper presents the surgical technique for temporary or permanent jejunostomy by laparoscopic and open approach. Standard technique is Witzel jejunostomy but in some cases it is indicated other types of interventions: Stamm, Liffmann, Albert or Roux jejunostomy. It is also presented postoperative complic...

  18. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  19. Techniques for colorectal anastomosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yik-Hong; Ashour, Mohamed Ahmed Tawfik

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leak remains one of the most feared post-operative complications, particularly after anterior resection of the rectum with, the shift from abdomino-peritoneal resections to total mesorectal excision and primary anastomosis. The literature fails to demonstrate superiority of stapled over hand-sewn techniques in colorectal anastomosis, regardless of the level of anastomosis, although a high stricture rate was noted in the former technique. Thus, improvements in safety asp...

  20. 慢性呼吸衰竭急性加重期患者呼吸道分泌物细菌学结果与病程和预后的关系%Bacteriological culture of airway secretions in acute onset of chronic respiratory failure and its relationship with clinical prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何慕芝; 蔡闯; 李志斌; 池丽庄; 邹霞英

    2008-01-01

    Objecfive To investigate the association between bacteriology of airway secretions in acute onset chronic respiratory failure (ACRF) and its clinical prognosis.Methods The bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance in the airway secretions from 44 patients with 49 cases of ACRF were studied,the associations between bacteriology,antibiotic resistance and annual ACRF hospital admission frequency (ACRF≥2 or ACRF2次/年组致病菌阳性率是ACRF<2次/年组的2倍(P<0.01).致病菌中耐药菌占61.3%,耐药菌阳性患者机械通气时间、住院天数较阴性者显著延长,病死率显著增高(P<0.05). 结论 ACRF患者主要致病菌为铜绿假单胞茵等非传统病原体,致病菌阳性率、非传统病原体比率随慢性呼吸衰竭的加重而增高,耐药菌感染导致ACRF病死率增高.

  1. Handbook of laboratory techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have laboratories of support to regulations functions on radiological and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, that have a surface of 2950 m2 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The manual describes in seven chapters the different techniques developed and applied in the laboratories along four decades of existence. The chapter 1: Dedicated to the treatment of environmental samples, described the procedures associated with the different types of samples: deposits, waters, sediments, vegetables, milk, fish and diet. The chapter 2: Details 48 radiochemical techniques associated to the measurements of americium 241, carbon 16, strontium 90, iodine 129, plutonium, radium 226, radon, uranium, nickel and actinides. The chapter 3: Describes the measurements techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry. The different techniques of biological and physical dosimetry are described in the chapters 5 and 6 respectively. The final chapter is dedicated the techniques of external and internal contamination. It s important to emphasize that this manual contains the standardized technologies that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina submits regularly to international comparisons

  2. Neuronavigation. Principles. Surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Marcel; Ciurea, Alexandru Vlad

    2009-01-01

    Neuronavigation and stereotaxy are techniques designed to help neurosurgeons precisely localize different intracerebral pathological processes by using a set of preoperative images (CT, MRI, fMRI, PET, SPECT etc.). The development of computer assisted surgery was possible only after a significant technological progress, especially in the area of informatics and imagistics. The main indications of neuronavigation are represented by the targeting of small and deep intracerebral lesions and choosing the best way to treat them, in order to preserve the neurological function. Stereotaxis also allows lesioning or stimulation of basal ganglia for the treatment of movement disorders. These techniques can bring an important amount of confort both to the patient and to the neurosurgeon. Neuronavigation was introduced in Romania around 2003, in four neurosurgical centers. We present our five-years experience in neuronavigation and describe the main principles and surgical techniques. PMID:20108488

  3. Radiation techniques for acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minniti Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Radiotherapy (RT remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques.

  4. Fritting techniques in chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Won Jo

    2014-03-01

    It is surprising that there has been no devoted review article for frits and relevant studies so far despite the long history of packed columns and the use of frits in them. This review was activated for such a reason. Both separate frits and in situ permanent frits have been covered since the appearance of primitive frits. The in situ fritting methods such as the formation of organic monoliths, sol-gel technology, sintering, fritless techniques such as tapered tip and capillary restrictors, and miscellaneous fritting techniques including magnetically trapped frits and single particle frits are introduced and discussed. In addition, frit-related studies and patents are also introduced. Finally, some conclusive comments on the choice of fritting technique in different situations and future perspectives are given. PMID:24510688

  5. Novel Foraminal Expansion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Salim; Ciplak, Mert; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Egemen, Emrah; Yaman, Onur; Suzer, Tuncer

    2016-01-01

    The technique we describe was developed for cervical foraminal stenosis for cases in which a keyhole foraminotomy would not be effective. Many cervical stenosis cases are so severe that keyhole foraminotomy is not successful. However, the technique outlined in this study provides adequate enlargement of an entire cervical foraminal diameter. This study reports on a novel foraminal expansion technique. Linear drilling was performed in the middle of the facet joint. A small bone graft was placed between the divided lateral masses after distraction. A lateral mass stabilization was performed with screws and rods following the expansion procedure. A cervical foramen was linearly drilled medially to laterally, then expanded with small bone grafts, and a lateral mass instrumentation was added with surgery. The patient was well after the surgery. The novel foraminal expansion is an effective surgical method for severe foraminal stenosis. PMID:27559460

  6. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  7. Communication Analysis modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    España, Sergio; Pastor, Óscar; Ruiz, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    This report describes and illustrates several modelling techniques proposed by Communication Analysis; namely Communicative Event Diagram, Message Structures and Event Specification Templates. The Communicative Event Diagram is a business process modelling technique that adopts a communicational perspective by focusing on communicative interactions when describing the organizational work practice, instead of focusing on physical activities1; at this abstraction level, we refer to business activities as communicative events. Message Structures is a technique based on structured text that allows specifying the messages associated to communicative events. Event Specification Templates are a means to organise the requirements concerning a communicative event. This report can be useful to analysts and business process modellers in general, since, according to our industrial experience, it is possible to apply many Communication Analysis concepts, guidelines and criteria to other business process modelling notation...

  8. Neuronavigation. Principles. Surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Marcel; Ciurea, Alexandru Vlad

    2009-01-01

    Neuronavigation and stereotaxy are techniques designed to help neurosurgeons precisely localize different intracerebral pathological processes by using a set of preoperative images (CT, MRI, fMRI, PET, SPECT etc.). The development of computer assisted surgery was possible only after a significant technological progress, especially in the area of informatics and imagistics. The main indications of neuronavigation are represented by the targeting of small and deep intracerebral lesions and choosing the best way to treat them, in order to preserve the neurological function. Stereotaxis also allows lesioning or stimulation of basal ganglia for the treatment of movement disorders. These techniques can bring an important amount of confort both to the patient and to the neurosurgeon. Neuronavigation was introduced in Romania around 2003, in four neurosurgical centers. We present our five-years experience in neuronavigation and describe the main principles and surgical techniques.

  9. Clustering Techniques in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Masood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with data means to group information into a set of categories either in order to learn new artifacts or understand new domains. For this purpose researchers have always looked for the hidden patterns in data that can be defined and compared with other known notions based on the similarity or dissimilarity of their attributes according to well-defined rules. Data mining, having the tools of data classification and data clustering, is one of the most powerful techniques to deal with data in such a manner that it can help researchers identify the required information. As a step forward to address this challenge, experts have utilized clustering techniques as a mean of exploring hidden structure and patterns in underlying data. Improved stability, robustness and accuracy of unsupervised data classification in many fields including pattern recognition, machine learning, information retrieval, image analysis and bioinformatics, clustering has proven itself as a reliable tool. To identify the clusters in datasets algorithm are utilized to partition data set into several groups based on the similarity within a group. There is no specific clustering algorithm, but various algorithms are utilized based on domain of data that constitutes a cluster and the level of efficiency required. Clustering techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper is a survey of few clustering techniques out of many in data mining. For the purpose five of the most common clustering techniques out of many have been discussed. The clustering techniques which have been surveyed are: K-medoids, K-means, Fuzzy C-means, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN and Self-Organizing Map (SOM clustering.

  10. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  11. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlatescu, Ioana, E-mail: scarlatescuioana@gmail.com; Avram, Calin N. [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timisoara, Bd. V. Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Virag, Vasile [County Hospital “Gavril Curteanu” - Oradea (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  12. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp......-like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  13. Brachytherapy applications and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Phillip M

    2015-01-01

    Written by the foremost experts in the field, this volume is a comprehensive text and practical reference on contemporary brachytherapy. The book provides detailed, site-specific information on applications and techniques of brachytherapy in the head and neck, central nervous system, breast, thorax, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, as well as on gynecologic brachytherapy, low dose rate and high dose rate sarcoma brachytherapy, vascular brachytherapy, and pediatric applications. The book thoroughly describes and compares the four major techniques used in brachytherapy-intraca

  14. Neutron visual sensing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron visual sensing technique is a technology to extract physical quantities from the information on inner structures of complex materials or machineries which have been visualized and recorded by using neutron beams. Research and utilization of this technique is now under worldwide development since it can provide the information that is not possible by X-ray radiography. We show how to use stationary neutron sources (Research reactors) in chapter 2, and how to utilize pulsed neutron source (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex, J-PARC). Also the production of micro-element analyzer by an enterprise using the knowledge on radiological equipment is described as an example. (author)

  15. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  16. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  17. Millimicrosecond pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ian A D

    1959-01-01

    Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques, Second Edition focuses on millimicrosecond pulse techniques and the development of devices of large bandwidth, extending down to comparatively low frequencies (1 Mc/s). Emphasis is on basic circuit elements and pieces of equipment of universal application. Specific applications, mostly in the field of nuclear physics instrumentation, are considered. This book consists of eight chapters and opens with an introduction to some of the terminology employed by circuit engineers as well as theoretical concepts, including the laws of circuit analysis, Fourier analysi

  18. Wireless communications algorithmic techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

  19. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  20. Advanced Techniques in Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrondo, José Luis R

    2006-01-01

    Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

  1. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  2. The efficiency of active cycle of breathing techniques regarding the improvement the quality of life in cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Almăjan-Guţă

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapy is well known as one of the most important part of CF patient’s management. The right choice ofappropriate therapy schema will improve the life’s quality of the patients. The purpose of the study was to prove the efficiencyof Active cycle of breathing techniques at children with cystic fibrosis. The study was performed between September 2006-september 2007 and the lot of study consisted of 20 children (11 girls and 9 boys with an age range between 6 and 18 years(average 14,8 years from the records of the Cystic Fibrosis National Centre Timisoara. The results showed an improvement inall measured values: general well-being, coughing, physical signs, X-ray signs and CT, bacteriological exam, nutritional status,functional respiratory tests. The statistical briefing of data shows the fact that there are significant statistical difference (p<0,05, before and after treatment in all ventilator index. The conclusion of this study was that the chosen technique (ACTBproved to be very efficient, in improving of respiratory symptoms and ventilator parameters

  3. Bacteriological characteristics and risk factors for urinary tract infections in stroke patients%脑卒中患者尿路感染细菌学特征及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管朝红; 茅新蕾; 黄向东; 韩丽雅

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the bacteriological characteristics and risk factors for urinary tract infections in stroke patients. METHODS A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the clinical data of 2954 stroke patients in department of neurology and neurosurgery from Jan 2008 to Oct 2010. Then the clinical risk factors for urinary tract infections in stroke patients were compared with those with the coronary heart disease complicated with urinary tract infections in department of cardiology and related departments during the same period. RESULTS Totally 108 (3. 7%) stroke patients were with urinary tract infections) a total of 84 strains of pathogenic bacteria were cultured from urine, including 57 strains of gram-negtive bacilli (67. 9%), 18 strains of gram-positive coccobacteria (21. 4%), and 9 strains of fungi (10. 7%);the top 4 pathogens isolated were in order as follows:Kscherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia , Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus faecalis ; long bed rest, the disturbance of consciousness, and Indwelling urinary are special risk factors of stroke patients with urinary tract infection. As compared with coronary heart disease patients with urinary tract infection, there were statistically significant differences in percentage of Lying in bed, conscious disturbance* and indwelling urinary catheter were the risk factors for urinary tract infections in stoke patients. CONCLUSION The urinary tract infections in stoke patients are subject to various risk factors, therefore, we can take appropriate measures to prevent the stroke patients away from urinary tract infections.%目的 探讨脑卒中患者并发尿路感染的细菌学特征及危险因素.方法 收集2008年1月-2010年10月神经内外科住院的脑卒中2954例患者临床资料,对其进行统计分析,并与同期心内科及相关科室住院冠心病并发尿路感染患者进行比较.结果 108例脑卒中患者发生尿路感染3.7%,尿培养共获得84

  4. QUALIDADE BACTERIOLÓGICA DE CAMARÕES GIGANTES DA MALÁSIA (Macrobrachium rosembergii CULTIVADOS COM DEJETOS DE AVES BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF MALASIAN GIANT SHRIMPS (Macrobrachium rosembergii RAISED WITH CHICKEN MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lorena da Silva Neves Guimarães

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    No presente experimento verificou-se a qualidade bacteriológica de camarões gigantes da Malásia (Macrobrachium rosembergii cultivados em cativeiro, em consórcio com dejetos de avicultura, na Estação de Piscicultura da Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Goiás, obtendo-se os seguintes resultados: pesquisa de Salmonella ausência em 25g em todas as amostras; contagem de Staphylococcus aureus - variou de < 1,0 x 10¹ a 2,0 x 10¹ UFC/g contagem de microrganismos aeróbios ou facultativos mesófilos viáveis - < 1,0 x 10¹ a 1,0 x l0³ UFC/g ; psicrotróficos - < 1,0 x 10¹ a 1,0 x 10³ UFC/g; NMP de Coliformes totais - 3 a 15/g; NMP de Coliformes fecais - 3 a 7/g. Os valores acima estão em acordo com o padrão nacional.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Camarão, Macrobrachium rosembergii; dejetos de aves.

    The bacteriological quality of Malaysian giant shrimps (Macrobrachium rosnnbergii raised under captivity condition and fed with aviculture residue was studied in the Station of Pisciculture of the Veterinary School, Federal University of Goiás. The following results were observed: research of Salmonella free in 25g, in all samples; Staphylococcus aureus counts ranged from < 1,0 x 10¹ to 2,0 x 10¹ CFU/g; aerobic or aerobic facultative mesophiles counts ranged from < 1,0 x 10¹ to 1,0³ CFU/g; psicrotrophiles count was < 1,0 x

  5. 湿疹伴细菌感染定植的检测和治疗%Detection of bacteriological colonization and treatment in the patients with eczema accompanied with infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩影; 宗文凯; 向志; 栾超; 陈敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To detection the bacteriological colonization of eczema and assess the efficacy of desonide cream combined with fusidic acid cream in the treatment of infected eczema. Methods: Eighty four patients with eczema were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in group A were treated with desonide cream (twice a day) combined with fusidic acid cream (twice a day), and patients in group B were given desonide cream only ( twice a day) for 14 days. Effective rate was assessed after treatment of 7 days and 14 days. Bacterial cultures and drug sensitivity test were performed before treatment. Results:The effective rates after 7 days and 14 days treatment in group A were 71.43% and 88.09% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in group B ( 42. 86% and 69. 05%) . The differences were significant ( P=0. 008 and P=0.033) . The bacteria culture of 45 patients was positive, including 32 isolated of staphylococcus aureus, 10 staphylococcus epidermis, 2 escherichia coli and 1 streptococcus. Conclusion: Eczema usually accompanied with bacterial infection and desonide cream combined with fusidic acid cream is effective in the treatment of in ̄fected eczema.%目的::分析湿疹皮损处的细菌定植情况并评价地奈德乳膏与夫西地酸乳膏联合外用治疗的疗效。方法:84例湿疹患者分两组:A组外用地奈德乳膏(2次/天)和夫西地酸乳膏(2次/天),B组外用地奈德乳膏(2次/天),分别于治疗后7天和14天观察疗效,治疗前皮损处取材做细菌培养和药敏。结果:治疗7天和14天后,A组患者的有效率为71.43%和88.09%明显高于B组的42.86%和69.05%( P=0.008和P=0.033)。84例湿疹患者中45例患者皮损处培养鉴定细菌阳性,包括金黄色葡萄球菌32株(38.09%),表皮葡萄球菌10株(11.9%),大肠埃希菌2株(2.38%),溶血性链球菌1株(1.19%)。结论:湿疹皮损易伴发微生物感染,地奈德联合夫西地酸外用治疗伴发细菌感染的湿疹可提高疗效。

  6. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic stress can be bad for your body and mind. In can put you at risk for health problems such as high blood pressure, stomachaches, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Using relaxation techniques can help you feel calm. These exercises can also help you ...

  7. Process measuring techniques; Prozessmesstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberger, A.

    2000-07-01

    This introduction into measurement techniques for chemical and process-technical plant in science and industry describes in detail the methods used to measure basic quantities. Most prominent are modern measuring techniques by means of ultrasound, microwaves and the Coriolis effect. Alongside physical and measuring technique fundamentals, the practical applications of measuring devices are described. Calculation examples are given to illustrate the subject matter. The book addresses students of physical engineering, process engineering and environmental engineering at technical schools as well as engineers of other disciplines wishing to familiarize themselves with the subject of process measurement techniques. (orig.) [German] Diese Einfuehrung in die Messtechnik fuer chemische und verfahrens-technische Forschungs- und Produktionsanlagen beschreibt ausfuehrlich die Methoden zur Messung der Basisgroessen. Moderne Messverfahren mit Ultraschall, Mikrowellen und Coriolis-Effekt stehen dabei im Vordergrund. Beruecksichtigung finden sowohl die physikalischen und messtechnischen Grundlagen als auch die praktischen Anwendungen der Geraete. Berechnungsbeispiele dienen der Erlaeuterung und Vertiefung des Stoffes. Angesprochen sind Studenten der Ingenieurstufengaenge Physikalische Technik und Verfahrens- und Umwelttechnik an Fachhochschulen als auch Ingenieure anderer Fachrichtungen, die sich in das Gebiet der Prozessmesstechnik einarbeiten wollen. (orig.)

  8. Differential doppler heterodyning technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars

    1971-01-01

    Measuring velocity without disturbing the moving object is possible by use of the laser doppler heterodyning technique. Theoretical considerations on the doppler shift show that the antenna property of the photodetector can solve an apparent conflict between two different ways of calculating...

  9. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  10. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...... various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations....

  11. ELECTROSPRAY, TECHNIQUE AND APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUINS, AP

    1993-01-01

    Electrospray makes use of ions present in electrically charged droplets in an aerosol. The generation of an aerosol by electrospray has already been published by Zeleny in 1917. The feasibility of electrospray as an ionization technique was demonstrated by Fenn and coworkers, and by a group of Russi

  12. The attribute measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  13. Art Appreciation and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Diane R.; Milam, Debora

    1985-01-01

    Presents examples of independent study units for gifted high school students in a resource room setting. Both art appreciation and technique are covered in activities concerned with media (basics of pencil, India ink, pastels, crayons, oil, acrylics, and watercolors), subject matter (landscapes, animals, the human figure), design and illustration…

  14. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food scientists use standards and calibrations to relate the concentration of a compound of interest to the instrumental response. The techniques used include classical, single point, and inverse calibrations, as well as standard addition and internal standards. Several fundamental criteria -- sel...

  15. A video authentication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as line supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system

  16. Safeguards techniques and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

  17. Log10 technique charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopford, J E

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer a reliable and easily formulated alternative to random technique selection or control panel roulette when producing diagnostic radiographs. This system requires only minutes to complete and will reduce the radiation dose to patients, the radiographic film wasted, and the time lost repeating examinations. PMID:523624

  18. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among

  19. Managerial Techniques in Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Management techniques developed during the past 20 years assume the rational bureaucratic model. School administration requires contingent techniques. Quality Circle, Theory Z, and the McKenzie 7-Framework are discussed as techniques to increase school productivity. (MD)

  20. Signal integrity characterization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bogatin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    "Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

  1. New measurements techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni

    Acoustic measurements are traditionally based on transducers, and in particular, the most advanced measurement techniques are nowadays based on transducer arrays. This poses a fundamental problem, namely the influence of the transducer itself on the actual properties of sound when the transducer...... uncertainties to the measurement process. Optical techniques may help overcoming this problem because the sensing element is not a bulky instrument, but a beam of light that does not change the properties of sound. Optical methods are thus non-invasive and can thereby enhance the current state of the art...... in the measurement of sound. The present PhD study primarily examines the use of the acousto-optic effect, that is, the interaction between sound and light, as a means to characterize acoustic fields. The acousto-optic measuring principle does not provide a direct measure of the pressure, but the integral...

  2. Monte Carlo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The course of ''Monte Carlo Techniques'' will try to give a general overview of how to build up a method based on a given theory, allowing you to compare the outcome of an experiment with that theory. Concepts related with the construction of the method, such as, random variables, distributions of random variables, generation of random variables, random-based numerical methods, will be introduced in this course. Examples of some of the current theories in High Energy Physics describing the e+e- annihilation processes (QED, Electro-Weak, QCD) will also be briefly introduced. A second step in the employment of this method is related to the detector. The interactions that a particle could have along its way, through the detector as well as the response of the different materials which compound the detector will be quoted in this course. An example of detector at LEP era, in which these techniques are being applied, will close the course. (orig.)

  3. CTV rendezvous techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Anderson, Robert L.

    The cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) requires the capability to perform automated rendezvous with Space Station Freedom (SSF) using onboard sensors and algorithms. The current approach to CTV rendezvous applies techniques developed during the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) program which have been mechanized for automatic, onboard execution. The initial catch up sequence can be described as a passive rendezvous without explicit time of arrival control. The ultimate requirement for this rendezvous technique is to place the CTV on the SSF V-bar axis at some specified downrange distance. The launch vehicle will use yaw steering during orbit injection to achieve the proper phantom plane for nodal biasing. This presentation describes the primary components of the CTV rendezvous scheme.

  4. Management of science technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book mentions change of environment and management of technique, business environment in information age technology and management such as classification of technology, innovation of technology and meaning of technology management, item innovation and technology about meaning of item development, innovation and item development, creation of item concept and item development, process of product innovation, product activity, product innovation product innovation and technology, development of product innovation, technology and marketing innovation, innovation of skill of marketing information system and globalization.

  5. Site characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    Geoelectrical methods have been used since the 1920's to search for metallic ore deposits. During the last decade, traditional mining geophysical techniques have been adapted for environmental site characterization. Geoelectrical geophysics is now a well developed engineering specialty, with different methods to focus both on a range of targets and on depths below the surface. Most methods have also been adapted to borehole measurements.

  6. Computer Assisted Audit Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Today, the environment based on informatics influences continuously auditors’ work, because it creates new opportunities and new risks, additional rules in what concerns security, fairness and acceptable margin of error. The growth of the systems’ complexity, especially the informatics accounting Systems of ERP type (Enterprise Resource Planning), so as the large volume of transactions registered at present have lead to the replacement of the „manual”, classic audit techniques with modern tec...

  7. Ozone flow visualization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Stedman, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques using ozone for tracing gas flows are proposed whereby ozone is detected through its strong absorption of ultraviolet light, which is easily made visible with fluorescent materials, or through its reaction with nitric oxide to form excited nitrogen dioxide, which in relaxing emits detectable light. It is shown that response speeds in the kHz range are possible with an ultraviolet detection system for initial ozone concentrations of about 1%.

  8. Novel food processing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that a...

  9. SUSY using boosted techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Giordon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, I present a discussion of techniques used in supersymmetry searches in papers published by the ATLAS Collaboration from late Run 1 to early Run 2. The goal is to highlight concepts the analyses have in common, why/how they work, and possible SUSY searches that could benefit from boosted studies. Theoretical background will be provided for reference to encourage participants to explore in depth on their own time.

  10. Computer Assisted Audit Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Iancu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From the modern point of view, audit takes intoaccount especially the information systems representingmainly the examination performed by a professional asregards the manner for developing an activity by means ofcomparing it to the quality criteria specific to this activity.Having as reference point this very general definition ofauditing, it must be emphasized that the best known segmentof auditing is the financial audit that had a parallel evolutionto the accountancy one.The present day phase of developing the financial audithas as main trait the internationalization of the accountantprofessional. World wide there are multinational companiesthat offer services in the financial auditing, taxing andconsultancy domain. The auditors, natural persons and auditcompanies, take part at the works of the national andinternational authorities for setting out norms in theaccountancy and auditing domain.The computer assisted audit techniques can be classified inseveral manners according to the approaches used by theauditor. The most well-known techniques are comprised inthe following categories: testing data techniques, integratedtest, parallel simulation, revising the program logics,programs developed upon request, generalized auditsoftware, utility programs and expert systems.

  11. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  12. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-05-01

    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  13. Covariance mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasinski, Leszek J.

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  14. Enseignement technique/Technical Training

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    Bureautique et techniques administratives/Office Automation & Administrative Techniques - Premiers pas/Getting started - E-Mail - Management Tools - WWW - Applications bureautiques/Office applications

  15. 高温高湿环境下负压伤口疗法对创面细菌学定量的影响%Influence of topical negative pressure wound therapy on bacteriological quantity of wounds in hot and humid environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁方; 李亚洁

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高温高湿环境下局部负压伤口治疗对创伤伤口的抗菌作用.方法 以兔背部皮肤全层皮肤缺损的急性创面为模型,将24只创伤兔随机分为常温对照组、常温实验组、高温对照组、高温实验组,每组6只.实验组给予局部负压伤口治疗,对照组用纱布覆盖,不给予负压引流.观察伤口细菌数量的变化和伤口大体情况.结果 高温对照组创面细菌量随着时间的延长呈直线上升趋势,与常温对照组、常温实验组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),高温实验组细菌数量增长显著低于高温对照组(P<0.05).结论 高温高湿环境有利于细菌生长繁殖,局部负压伤口疗法具有显著的隔离和抑制细菌生长的作用.%Objective To study the antibacterial effects of topical negative pressure wound therapy (TNP) on traumatic wound under high temperature and high humidity condition. Methods After the acute whole-skin-loss wounds model of rabbit backside were established, a total of 24 rabbits were divided into 4 groups equally (6 rabbits each) and randomly as normal temperature control (NEC) , ordinary temperature experiment ( NEE) , high-temperature control (HHC) , and high-temperature experiment (HHE). The rabbits of HHE and NEE were treated with TNP, and the rabbits of HHC and NEC were treated with normal dressing. Wound bacteriological lation and appearance were observed. Results Compared with the normal environment ( NEC, NEE) , the bacteriological ration of HHC increased significantly after trauma and the difference had statistical significance (P < 0. 05) . Compared with HHC,the increase of bacteriological ration in HHE was significantly lower after trauma (P < 0.05). Conclusion Ahigh temperature and high humidity circumstance is one of important influence factors that cause the bacterial rise on wound. The wound bacteriological ration under high temperature and high humidity condition can be efficiently counteracted by

  16. Evaluation of monitoring methods of chemotherapeutic efficiency on pulmonary tuberculosis by bacteriological study of 38 resected lung specimens%38例肺切除标本的细菌学评价肺结核疗效监测手段

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 高孟秋; 王子彤; 陆宇; 谢汝明

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析手术切除的38例肺结核标本的细菌学结果,评价药物疗效的监测手段.方法 采集北京胸科医院胸外科自2008年10月至2009年6月行肺结核手术的标本共38例,进行结核菌罗氏培养、药敏试验及菌种鉴定,与术前痰标本的细菌学结果比较,所得培阳率进行统计学分析,采用Fisher确切概率法;并分析与病程、疗程及影像学的关系.结果 对所得培阳率进行统计学分析,P=0.033,P<0.05,有统计学意义,认为手术标本中MTB培阳率比痰标本高.24例培阳菌株的药敏结果显示在不同程度上均存在耐药性;病程短于120月(0~120月),疗程短于24月(0~24月),主灶病变为空洞的患者,结核菌培阳率高.结论 不能单纯以痰菌结果评价肺结核疗效,而需综合分析患者的病程、疗程及影像学特征.%Objective To evaluate the monitoring method of chemotherapy by analysis of bacteriological study of 38 resected lung specimens. Method 38 cases received surgical treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis in Beijing Chest Hospital from October. 2008 to June. 2009. 38 resected lung specimens were inoculated to the Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and drag susceptibility testing ( DST ) and species identification were done for the culture-positive. And the results were compared with those of sputum samples before operation. Statistical analysis with Fisher probabilities was performed with the culture-positive rate. The relationship between the bacteriology, the course of disease, treatment and imageology was synthetically analyzed. Results High culture-positive rate was observed for the resected specimens by statistical analysis of the culture positive rate and the statistical difference was significant with P = 0. 033, P < 0. 05. The DST shown that 24 culture-positive strains were resistant. High culture-positive rate was achieved for patients with course of disease shorter than 120 months ( 0 ~ 120 months ), time of treatment was shorter

  17. Applied ALARA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  18. SAR antenna calibration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, K. R.; Newell, A. C.

    1978-01-01

    Calibration of SAR antennas requires a measurement of gain, elevation and azimuth pattern shape, boresight error, cross-polarization levels, and phase vs. angle and frequency. For spaceborne SAR antennas of SEASAT size operating at C-band or higher, some of these measurements can become extremely difficult using conventional far-field antenna test ranges. Near-field scanning techniques offer an alternative approach and for C-band or X-band SARs, give much improved accuracy and precision as compared to that obtainable with a far-field approach.

  19. RFI emitter location techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using Doppler techniques for determining the location of ground based emitters causing radio frequency interference with low orbiting satellites. An error analysis indicates that it is possible to find the emitter location within an error range of 2 n.mi. The parameters which determine the required satellite receiver characteristic are discussed briefly along with the non-real time signal processing which may by used in obtaining the Doppler curve. Finally, the required characteristics of the satellite antenna are analyzed.

  20. Monopulse principles and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Samuel M

    2011-01-01

    Monopulse is a type of radar that sends additional information in the signal in order to avoid problems caused by rapid changes in signal strength. Monopulse is resistant to jamming which is one of the main reasons it is used in most radar systems today. This updated and expanded edition of an Artech House classic offers you a current and comprehensive treatment of monopulse radar principles, techniques, and applications. The Second Edition features two brand new chapters, covering monopulse countermeasures and counter-countermeasures and monopulse for airborne radar and homing seekers.This es

  1. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  2. DNA Microarray Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakare SP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA Microarray is the emerging technique in Biotechnology. The many varieties of DNA microarray or DNA chip devices and systems are described along with their methods for fabrication and their use. It also includes screening and diagnostic applications. The DNA microarray hybridization applications include the important areas of gene expression analysis and genotyping for point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and short tandem repeats (STRs. In addition to the many molecular biological and genomic research uses, this review covers applications of microarray devices and systems for pharmacogenomic research and drug discovery, infectious and genetic disease and cancer diagnostics, and forensic and genetic identification purposes.

  3. Pileup Mitigation Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Matthew Henry; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the ATLAS experiment in developing tools to mitigate the effects of pile-up. Forward pile-up jet tagging techniques, as well as constituent-level pile-up suppression algorithms are discussed in details. The impacts of these approaches on both jet energy and angular resolution, as well as jet substructure and boosted object tagging performance are discussed. Improvements to various physics channels of interest are discussed and the potential future of such algorithms — both online and offline, and both at the current LHC and a future high-luminosity LHC and beyond — is considered in detail

  4. Optical techniques in optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Lakshminarayananan, Vasudevan

    2015-07-01

    Optogenetics is an innovative technique for optical control of cells. This field has exploded over the past decade or so and has given rise to great advances in neuroscience. A variety of applications both from the basic and applied research have emerged, turning the early ideas into a powerful paradigm for cell biology, neuroscience, and medical research. This review aims at highlighting the basic concepts that are essential for a comprehensive understanding of optogenetics and some important biological/biomedical applications. Further, emphasis is placed on advancement in optogenetics-associated light-based methods for controlling gene expression, spatially controlled optogenetic stimulation and detection of cellular activities.

  5. Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubrano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA include radiography, ultrasonography (US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes. US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses and cutaneous (skin and nails involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques.

  6. Techniques de hacking

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Dans cet ouvrage, Jon Erickson présente les bases de la programmation en C du point de vue du hacker et dissèque plusieurs techniques de hacking, passées et actuelles, afin de comprendre comment et pourquoi elles fonctionnent. Même si vous ne savez pas programmer, ce livre vous donnera une vue complète de la programmation, de l'architecture des machines, des communications réseau et des techniques de hacking existantes. Associez ces connaissances à l'environnement Linux fourni et laissez libre cours à votre imagination. Avec ce livre vous apprendrez à : • programmer les ordinateurs en C, en assembleur et avec des scripts shell ; • inspecter les registres du processeur et la mémoire système avec un débogueur afin de comprendre précisément ce qui se passe ; Vous découvrirez comment les hackers parviennent à : • corrompre la mémoire d'un système, en utilisant les débordements de tampons et les chaînes de format, pour exécuter un code quelconque ; • surpasser les mesures de sécurit...

  7. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  8. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved

  9. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  10. Kinetic Actviation Relaxation Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Béland, Laurent Karim; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si, self-interstitial diffusion in Fe and structural relaxation in amorphous silicon.

  11. Phase angle measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madge, R.; Fischer, D.

    1996-01-01

    Real-time measure of the power transfer across a transmission line was discussed. Phase angle measurement techniques, algorithms and applications relevant to power utilities were assessed. Phase-based applications compute the voltage angle difference between two stations, thereby allowing for power transfer calculations and power system control applications. A list of phase angle measurement applications was provided. It includes frequency measurement, state estimation, adaptive relaying, power system control, system restoration, real power flow monitoring and stability assessment, reactive power requirements monitoring, HVDC modulation, subsynchronous resonance, sequence of event recording, and loss reduction and fault location. The optimum timing requirement was determined for each application. Among the timing systems available today, the Global Positioning System (GPS), supported by powerful computers and other custom hardware, is the only tool that can provide the accuracy and coverage needed by today`s power system applications. Commercially available equipment for phase angle measurements was also reviewed. 30 refs., 32 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. [Therapeutic education didactic techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Maite; Vidal, Mercè; Jansa, Margarida

    2012-10-01

    This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective.

  13. Technique for microswitch manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T.; Kiyoyama, S.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step technique for microswitch manufacture is described: (1) A clad board is inlaid with a precious metal and the board is pressed. (2) One end of the fixed contact containing a precious metal inlay section is curved, and this edge of the precious metal inlay section becomes a fixed contact. (3) Inserts are formed in the unit body and terminal strips are placed through the top and bottom of the base and held. (4) The unit body is held by the base and the sequential contact strips are cut off. (5) Movable stripes are attached to the support of the terminal strips on the movable side and movable contacts are placed opposite the fixed contacts.

  14. Percutaneous Sacroiliac Screw Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, John; Cho, Rosa; Reid, J Spence; Boateng, Henry; Copeland, Carol; Sirlin, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Remembering that preoperative planning, surgical indications, and fracture reduction are paramount for this procedure, presented here is our technique for performing percutaneous sacroiliac screws, both transiliac-transsacral and sacral style. A combination of video, still pictures, and fluoroscopy images will guide the viewer through the process we routinely use highlighting specific details. Patient positioning and intraoperative fluoroscopy imaging are critical to a successful procedure. Although inlet and outlet films remain important, we find the procedure best started on the lateral sacral view to reduce the need for start site, trajectory, and imaging position changes during the case. A cannulated pig sticker (drill guide) used with long drill tip guide wires provide improved manual control to both finding a good start site and directing the trajectory. For patient safety, sacral anatomy and safe zones are discussed as well. Using these technical points will help make this a successful procedure. PMID:27441927

  15. Extended Ewald summation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylänpää, Ilkka; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-09-01

    We present a technique to improve the accuracy and to reduce the computational labor in the calculation of long-range interactions in systems with periodic boundary conditions. We extend the well-known Ewald method by using a linear combination of screening Gaussian charge distributions instead of only one. This enables us to find faster converging real-space and reciprocal space summations. The combined simplicity and efficiency of our method is demonstrated, and the scheme is readily applicable to large-scale periodic simulations, classical as well as quantum. Moreover, apart from the required a priori optimization the method is straightforward to include in most routines based on the Ewald method within, e.g., density-functional, molecular dynamics, and quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

  16. Quantitative SPECT techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D D

    1999-07-01

    Quantitative imaging involves first, a set of measurements that characterize an image. There are several variations of technique, but the basic measurements that are used for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion images are reasonably standardized. Quantification currently provides only relative tracer activity within the myocardial regions defined by an individual SPECT acquisition. Absolute quantification is still a work in progress. Quantitative comparison of absolute changes in tracer uptake comparing a stress and rest study or preintervention and postintervention study would be useful and could be done, but most commercial systems do not maintain the data normalization that is necessary for this. Measurements of regional and global function are now possible with electrocardiography (ECG) gating, and this provides clinically useful adjunctive data. Techniques for measuring ventricular function are evolving and promise to provide clinically useful accuracy. The computer can classify images as normal or abnormal by comparison with a normal database. The criteria for this classification involve more than just checking the normal limits. The images should be analyzed to measure how far they deviate from normal, and this information can be used in conjunction with pretest likelihood to indicate the level of statistical certainty that an individual patient has a true positive or true negative test. The interface between the computer and the clinician interpreter is an important part of the process. Especially when both perfusion and function are being determined, the ability of the interpreter to correctly assimilate the data is essential to the use of the quantitative process. As we become more facile with performing and recording objective measurements, the significance of the measurements in terms of risk evaluation, viability assessment, and outcome should be continually enhanced. PMID:10433336

  17. Geological data integration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this Technical Committee are to bring together current knowledge on geological data handling and analysis technologies as developed in the mineral and petroleum industries for geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data that can be applied to uranium exploration and resource appraisal. The recommendation for work on this topic was first made at the meeting of the NEA-IAEA Joint Group of Experts on R and D in Uranium Exploration Techniques (Paris, May 1984). In their report, processing of integrated data sets was considered to be extremely important in view of the very extensive data sets built up over the recent years by large uranium reconnaissance programmes. With the development of large, multidisciplinary data sets which includes geochemical, geophysical, geological and remote sensing data, the ability of the geologist to easily interpret large volumes of information has been largely the result of developments in the field of computer science in the past decade. Advances in data management systems, image processing software, the size and speed of computer systems and significantly reduced processing costs have made large data set integration and analysis practical and affordable. The combined signatures which can be obtained from the different types of data significantly enhance the geologists ability to interpret fundamental geological properties thereby improving the chances of finding a significant ore body. This volume is the product of one of a number of activities related to uranium geology and exploration during the past few years with the intent of bringing new technologies and exploration techniques to the IAEA Member States

  18. Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy. Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction. Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other. Deriving contours for planning teletherapy. Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit. Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs. Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields

  19. Changes in urological surgical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Üçer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, laparoscopic and afterwards robotic techniques have constituted most of urologic surgery procedures. Open surgery may give place to robotic surgery due to possible widespread use of robots in the future. Studies, that compare these two techniques are usually designed about radical prostatectomy, since it is the most common operation performed by using these techniques. In literature,robotic surgery seems more advantageous than other techniques but the most important disadvantage of this technique is cost-effective problems. In present review,history of open, laparoscopic and robotic surgery, and comparison of advantages, disadvantages and cost of these techniques have been discussed with literature.

  20. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  1. Dose Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, L O

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

  2. Specialized financing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

  3. MFIX documentation numerical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamlal, M.

    1998-01-01

    MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges) is a general-purpose hydrodynamic model for describing chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, which typically occur in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. The calculations give time-dependent information on pressure, temperature, composition, and velocity distributions in the reactors. The theoretical basis of the calculations is described in the MFIX Theory Guide. Installation of the code, setting up of a run, and post-processing of results are described in MFIX User`s manual. Work was started in April 1996 to increase the execution speed and accuracy of the code, which has resulted in MFIX 2.0. To improve the speed of the code the old algorithm was replaced by a more implicit algorithm. In different test cases conducted the new version runs 3 to 30 times faster than the old version. To increase the accuracy of the computations, second order accurate discretization schemes were included in MFIX 2.0. Bubbling fluidized bed simulations conducted with a second order scheme show that the predicted bubble shape is rounded, unlike the (unphysical) pointed shape predicted by the first order upwind scheme. This report describes the numerical technique used in MFIX 2.0.

  4. INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE MONITORING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Adi Kayana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Head injury is the most significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality. An estimated 1.4 million head injuries occur each year, with and more than 1.1 million come to the Emergency Unit. On each patient head injury, an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP related to poor outcomes and aggressive therapy to increased ICP can improve the outcomes. ICP monitoring is the most widely used because of the prevention and control of ICP as well as maintain the pressure increase perfusion of cerebral (Cerebral Perfusion Pressure/CPP is the basic purpose of handling head injury. There are two methods of monitoring ICP that is an invasive methods (directly and non-invasive techniques (indirectly. The method commonly used, namely intraventricular and intraparenkimal (microtransducer sensor because it is more accurate but keep attention to the existence of the risk of bleeding and infection resulting from installation. Monitoring of ICT can determine the actions that avoid further brain injury, which can be lethal and irreversibel.

  5. Improved Search Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

  6. Techniques of Electrode Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Li, Xinyong; Chen, Guohua

    Electrochemical applications using many kinds of electrode materials as an advanced oxidation/reduction technique have been a focus of research by a number of groups during the last two decades. The electrochemical approach has been adopted successfully to develop various environmental applications, mainly including water and wastewater treatment, aqueous system monitoring, and solid surface analysis. In this chapter, a number of methods for the fabrication of film-structured electrode materials were selectively reviewed. Firstly, the thermal decomposition method is briefly described, followed by introducing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) strategy. Especially, much attention was focused on introducing the methods to produce diamond novel film electrode owing to its unique physical and chemical properties. The principle and influence factors of hot filament CVD and plasma enhanced CVD preparation were interpreted by refereeing recent reports. Finally, recent developments that address electro-oxidation/reduction issues and novel electrodes such as nano-electrode and boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) are presented in the overview.

  7. Optical techniques for actinide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, substantial gains have been made in the development of spectroscopic techniques for electronic properties studies. These techniques have seen relatively small, but growing, application in the field of actinide research. Photoemission spectroscopies, reflectivity and absorption studies, and x-ray techniques will be discussed and illustrative examples of studies on actinide materials will be presented

  8. [Laparoscopic rectal resection technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthuber, M; Kriening, B; Schrempf, M; Geißler, B; Märkl, B; Rüth, S

    2016-07-01

    The quality of radical oncological operations for patients with rectal cancer determines the rate of local recurrence and long-term survival. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced tumors, a standardized surgical procedure for rectal tumors less than 12 cm from the anus with total mesorectal excision (TME) and preservation of the autonomous nerve system for sexual and bladder function have significantly improved the oncological results and quality of life of patients. The TME procedure for rectal resection has been performed laparoscopically in Germany for almost 20 years; however, no reliable data are available on the frequency of laparoscopic procedures in rectal cancer patients in Germany. The rate of minimally invasive procedures is estimated to be less than 20 %. A prerequisite for using the laparoscopic approach is implicit adherence to the described standards of open surgery. Available data from prospective randomized trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses indicate that in the early postoperative phase the generally well-known positive effects of the minimally invasive approach to the benefit of patients can be realized without any long-term negative impact on the oncological results; however, the results of many of these studies are difficult to interpret because it could not be confirmed whether the hospitals and surgeons involved had successfully completed the learning curve. In this article we would like to present our technique, which we have developed over the past 17 years in more than 1000 patients. Based on our experiences the laparoscopic approach can be highly recommended as a suitable alternative to the open procedure. PMID:27277556

  9. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J

    2004-01-04

    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  10. Dose Reduction Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

  11. Advanced qualification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structure-to-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-kev x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co60 gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SCC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments

  12. [Dissection techniques in liver surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, H G; Schauer, R; Pickelmann, S; Beyer, B C; Angele, M K; Zimmermann, A; Meimarakis, G; Heizmann, O; Schildberg, F W

    2001-02-01

    The first liver resection was performed in 1888. Since then a wide variety of dissection techniques have been introduced. The blunt dissection was replaced by novel methods, i.e. the CUSA technique and the Jet Cutter for major liver resections. These methods represent selective dissection techniques; whereas non-selective methods include the scalpel, scissors, linear stapling cutter, high-frequency coagulation, and the laser technique. The aim of this review article is the comparison of the different resection techniques in liver surgery, focussing on blood loss and resection time. PMID:11253668

  13. Aseptic technique in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuaig, K

    1992-11-01

    Within the next decade, the United States will launch a space station into low Earth orbit as a preliminary step toward a manned mission to Mars. Provision of asepsis in the unique microgravity environment, essential in operative and invasive procedures, is addressed. An assessment of conventional terrestrial aseptic methods and possible modifications for a microgravity environment was done during the microgravity portion of parabolic flight on NASA KC-135 aircraft. During 110 parabolas on three flight days, a "surgical team" (surgeon, scrub nurse and circulating nurse) using a life size mannequin fastened to a prototype surgical "work station" (operating table), evaluated open and closed gloving (ten parabolas), skin preparation (six parabolas), surgical scrub methods (24 parabolas), gowning (22 parabolas) and draping (48 parabolas). Evaluated were povidone iodine solution, 1 percent povidone iodine detergent, Chloroxylenol with detergent, wet prep soap sponge, a water insoluble iodophor polymer (DuraPrep, 3M), disposable towels, disposable and reusable gowns, large and small disposable drapes with and without adhesive edges, disposable latex surgeon's gloves with and without packaging modifications and restraint mechanisms (tether, swiss seat, waist and foot restraint devices, fairfield and wire clamps and clips). Ease of use, provision of restraint for supplies and personnel and waste disposal were assessed. The literature was reviewed and its relevance to the space environment discussed, including risk factors, environmental contamination, immune status and microbiology. The microgravity environment, limited water supply and restricted operating area mandated that modifications of fabrication and packaging of supplies and technique be made to create and preserve asepsis. Material must meet stringent flammability and off-gassing standards. Either a chlorhexidine or povidone iodine detergent prepackaged brush and sponge would provide an adequate scrub plus

  14. ADOPTABLE TECHNIQUE(S FOR MANAGING GHANAIAN SALINE SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwasi Asamoah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available : Salinization of Ghanaian soils is on the rise. Organic matter application has not proved an effective and feasible technique for curbing this rise. Hence this paper seeks to review techniques that Ghana is using to manage its saline soils and further recommend a feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exhaustive research and possible adoption in the future. Halophytes appear to be the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique which could be adopted for the effective management of Ghanaian saline soils. But where halophytes are exotic, care must be taken to avoid competition with native species and allow preservation of agrobiodiversity

  15. Classroom Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2003-12-01

    and the learner should be carefully observed and monitored. Forrest says that Student Portfolios, which document learning in more detail, seldom reveal how teaching contributes to students' progress. Cerbin further indicates that a course portfolio is essentially, a like a manuscript of scholarly work in progress. In this example, it is a work that explains what, how, and why students learn or do not learn in a course. In this paper, the author reports on a dozen techniques that could perhaps be used to document assessment of student learning. References : Cerbin, W. (1993). Fostering a culture of teaching as scholarship. The Teaching Professor, 7(3), 1-2. Edgerton, R., Hutchings, P., & Quinlan, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio: Capturing the scholarship in teaching. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Forrest, A. (1990). Time will tell: Portfolio-assisted assessment of general education. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Linn, R., Baker, E., & Dunbar, S. (1991). Complex, Performance-based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria. Educational Researcher, 20 (8), 15-21. Narayanan, M. (2003). Assessment in Higher Education: Partnerships in Learning. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Miami University, Oxford, OH. Seldin, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio. Bolton, MA: Anker. Young, C. O., Sr., & Young, L. H. (1999). Assessing Learning in Interactive Courses. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 10 (1), 63-76.

  16. Tuberculose pulmonar: achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax em pacientes com doença em atividade comprovada bacteriologicamente Pulmonary tuberculosis: findings on high resolution computerized tomography of active disease on patients with bacteriological confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANE ALÓ CAMPOS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever os achados em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar em atividade na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução e o padrão de distribuição das lesões pelo parênquima pulmonar. Casuística e método: Foram analisadas retrospectivamente as tomografias de alta resolução de 42 pacientes com diagnóstico bacteriológico de tuberculose pulmonar ou forte suspeita clínica, com posterior confirmação bacteriológica. Resultados: Os principais sinais sugestivos de atividade encontrados foram nódulos do espaço aéreo (83%, nódulos centrolobulares (74%, aspecto de árvore em brotamento (67%, cavitações (67%, espessamento das paredes brônquicas (55%, consolidações (48%, opacidade em vidro fosco (21%, e espessamento do interstício pulmonar (9%. Conclusão: A tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax pode sugerir fortemente atividade da doença, sendo particularmente útil nos pacientes com baciloscopias negativas e/ou radiografias indeterminadas, permitindo a instituição de tratamento adequado, antes mesmo do crescimento da micobactéria em meio de cultura.Background: The aim of this study was to describe the signs of active tuberculosis in patients submitted to high resolution computerized tomography and the distribution of lesions along the pulmonary parenchyma. Material and methods: The high resolution CTs performed on 42 patients with tuberculosis either bacteriologically diagnosed or clinical suspected and later confirmed by bacteriological tests were studied. Results: The signs of disease activity observed were airspace nodule (83%, centrilobular nodule (74%, tree-in-bud pattern (67%, cavitations (67%, bronchial thickening (55%, parenchymal consolidations (48%, ground glass opacity (21% and thickening of the inter and intralobular septa (9%. Conclusion: High resolution computed tomography can be strongly suggestive of disease activity, is particularly helpful in patients with negative smear and

  17. Practical hacking techniques and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Examining computer security from the hacker''s perspective, Practical Hacking Techniques and Countermeasures employs virtual computers to illustrate how an attack is executed, including the script, compilation, and results. It provides detailed screen shots in each lab for the reader to follow along in a step-by-step process in order to duplicate and understand how the attack works. It enables experimenting with hacking techniques without fear of corrupting computers or violating any laws.Written in a lab manual style, the book begins with the installation of the VMware® Workstation product and guides the users through detailed hacking labs enabling them to experience what a hacker actually does during an attack. It covers social engineering techniques, footprinting techniques, and scanning tools. Later chapters examine spoofing techniques, sniffing techniques, password cracking, and attack tools. Identifying wireless attacks, the book also explores Trojans, Man-in-the-Middle (MTM) attacks, and Denial of S...

  18. Search Techniques for Code Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gvero, Tihomir

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation explores techniques that synthesize and generate program fragments and test inputs. The main goal of these techniques is to improve and support automation in program synthesis and test input generation. This is important because performing those processes manually is often tedious, time consuming and error prone. The main challenge that these techniques face is exploring the search space in efficient and scalable ways. In the first part of the dissertation, we present tools ...

  19. Optical pulses, lasers, measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology: Volume II: Optical Pulses - Lasers - Measuring Techniques focuses on the theoretical and engineering problems that result from the capacitor discharge technique.This book is organized into three main topics: light flash production from a capacitive energy storage; signal transmission and ranging systems by capacitor discharges and lasers; and impulse measuring technique. This text specifically discusses the air spark under atmospheric conditions, industrial equipment for laser flashing, and claims for light transmitting system. The application of light impulse sign

  20. Detection Techniques of Femtosecond Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-peng; ZHOU Ming; DAI Qi-xun; CAI Lan

    2004-01-01

    The measurement techniques of femtosecond spectroscopy are effective method to investigate ultrafast dynamics, they are widely used in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. In this paper, the principle, experiment setup and the approaches to deal with the experiment data were presented. Then different measurement techniques such as transient absorption spectroscopy, photon echoes, optical Kerr effect and degenerate four-wave mixing were explained with special examples. At last, the application prospect of measurement techniques of femtosecond spectroscopy was forecasted.

  1. Luminescence techniques: Instrumentation and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used...... luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the stale of the art in luminescence measurements and analysis. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kampes, Bert M

    2006-01-01

    Only book on Permanent Scatterer technique of radar interferometryExplains the Permanent Scatterer technique in detail, possible pitfalls, and details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS techniqueThe use of Permanent Scatterer allows very precise measurements of the displacement of hundreds of points per square kilometerDescribes the only technique currently able to perform displacement measurements in the past, utilizing the ERS satellite data archive using data acquired from 1992-prese

  3. Optical techniques in regenerative medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, tissue engineers largely rely on destructive and time-consuming techniques that do not allow in situ and spatial monitoring of tissue growth. Furthermore, once the therapy is implanted in the patient, clinicians are often unable to monitor what is happening in the body. To tackle these barriers, optical techniques have been developed to image and characterize many tissue properties, fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds, and characterize the properties of the scaffolds. Optical Techniques in Regenerative Medicine illustrates how to use optical imaging techniques and

  4. Developing Fighting Technique Through Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lajcik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visualization is a training technique that involves creating a detailed mental “movie” of successful performance. This article describes a type of visualization called “mental rehearsal” and explains how it can be used to reinforce the neuromuscular pattern of proper fighting technique. Drawing on his experience as a professional fighter and college coach, his studies in sport psychology as a college student, and his exposure to mental training techniques at the U.S. Olympic Training Center, the author reveals how to use mental imagery to facilitate the mastery of martial art technique.    

  5. Common Tuina Techniques in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editor

    2004-01-01

    @@ Tuina techniques in children are similar to those in adults. Some are same in name, but different in methods,such as pushing technique. Some techniques are just applied to children rather than to adults, such as pushing method. In clinical practice, such intense Tuina techniques as nailing, grasping, and pinching are practiced as the ending manipulations, so as not to hurt children and affect treatment. Such media as ginger juice,Talcum powder and egg white are commonly used to prevent from skin abrasion and improve therapeutic effects.

  6. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  7. GPU Pro advanced rendering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book covers essential tools and techniques for programming the graphics processing unit. Brought to you by Wolfgang Engel and the same team of editors who made the ShaderX series a success, this volume covers advanced rendering techniques, engine design, GPGPU techniques, related mathematical techniques, and game postmortems. A special emphasis is placed on handheld programming to account for the increased importance of graphics on mobile devices, especially the iPhone and iPod touch.Example programs and source code can be downloaded from the book's CRC Press web page. 

  8. Algorithms Design Techniques and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alsuwaiyel, M H

    1999-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential part of every scientific discipline. It has two components: (1) problem identification and formulation, and (2) solution of the formulated problem. One can solve a problem on its own using ad hoc techniques or follow those techniques that have produced efficient solutions to similar problems. This requires the understanding of various algorithm design techniques, how and when to use them to formulate solutions and the context appropriate for each of them. This book advocates the study of algorithm design techniques by presenting most of the useful algorithm desi

  9. Spare Roof Technique: A Middle Third New Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Miguel Gonçalves; Monteiro, Daniel; Reis, Claudia; Almeida e Sousa, Cecilia

    2016-02-01

    To our knowledge, the spare roof technique (SRT) is the first technique that is based on a complete skeletonization/preservation of the upper lateral cartilages. This technique is used to keep the natural roof of the nose's middle third, while dehumping and/or correcting the crooked septum. From January 2014 till March 2015, a total of 40 rhinoplasties were performed through the SRT: 28 reduction rhinoplasties, 6 complex crooked noses (with extracorporeal septoplasty), and 6 mixed cases. The SRT is an excellent middle third technique. The natural roof was kept and fitted the accurate new position in almost all cases with no surgical complexity. It is an easy technique with many applications and it is also very useful in the classical humpectomy of the Caucasian nose and correction of the crooked nose. PMID:26862972

  10. Techniques to Bring Up Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us More COPD: Lifestyle Management Avoiding Infections Breathing Retraining Techniques to Bring Up Mucus Exercises Giving Up Smoking ... mucus is allowed to collect in the airways, breathing may become difficult and infection may occur. Techniques to remove mucus are often done after using ...

  11. Software Testing Techniques and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Isha,; Sunita Sangwan

    2014-01-01

    Software testing provides a means to reduce errors, cut maintenance and overall software costs. Numerous software development and testing methodologies, tools, and techniques have emerged over the last few decades promising to enhance software quality. This paper describes Software testing, need for software testing, Software testing goals and principles. Further it describe about different Software testing techniques and different software testing strategies.

  12. A disposition of interpolation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knotters, M.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    A large collection of interpolation techniques is available for application in environmental research. To help environmental scientists in choosing an appropriate technique a disposition is made, based on 1) applicability in space, time and space-time, 2) quantification of accuracy of interpolated v

  13. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  14. A numerical grid generation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilding, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes a technique for the generation of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems for the numerical solution of partial differential equations in two space dimensions. The technique is algebraic, has a transfinite character, and is based on the blending of shearing transformations

  15. Exponential Finite-Difference Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses use of explicit exponential finite-difference technique to solve various diffusion-type partial differential equations. Study extends technique to transient-heat-transfer problems in one dimensional cylindrical coordinates and two and three dimensional Cartesian coordinates and to some nonlinear problems in one or two Cartesian coordinates.

  16. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  17. Presentation-Oriented Visualization Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosara, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Data visualization research focuses on data exploration and analysis, yet the vast majority of visualizations people see were created for a different purpose: presentation. Whether we are talking about charts showing data to help make a presenter's point, data visuals created to accompany a news story, or the ubiquitous infographics, many more people consume charts than make them. Traditional visualization techniques treat presentation as an afterthought, but are there techniques uniquely suited to data presentation but not necessarily ideal for exploration and analysis? This article focuses on presentation-oriented techniques, considering their usefulness for presentation first and any other purposes as secondary. PMID:26780762

  18. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  19. Underwater YAG laser welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When planning preventive maintenance of reactor components using welding, it is necessary to consider special environments such as narrow space or difficult accessibility while minimizing exposure to radiation in the reactor pressure vessel. Toshiba has developed an underwater neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd: YAG) laser welding technique. The features of this welding technique are low-heat-input welding and compact welding machine dimensions for welding in narrow spaces. This paper provides a summary of the new welding technique as a reliable welding technology. (author)

  20. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  1. Food Physics and Radiation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics. Detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in Hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. INAA) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  2. PIGE technique implementation at ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policroniades, R., E-mail: rafael.policroniades@inin.gob.mx; Martínez-Quiroz, E.; Méndez-Garrido, B.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P. [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Carr. México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, México CP 52750 (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    In this work, we present a general overview about the implementation at ININ of a Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analysis technique, based on the bombardment of samples by protons and deuterons at different energies within our tandem accelerator facility. As it is well known, this technique is based on the detection of γ-rays emitted by nuclei in a target following a charged particle irradiation. The main feature of this technique, apart from being non-destructive and low time consuming, is that it allows a multi-elemental analysis of a sample, permitting an isotopic identification of many nuclides. Advances and some preliminary results are presented.

  3. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  4. New techniques on embryo manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribá, M J; Valbuena, D; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Simón, C

    2002-01-01

    For many years, experience has been accumulated on embryo and gamete manipulation in livestock animals. The present work is a review of these techniques and their possible application in human embryology in specific cases. It is possible to manipulate gametes at different levels, producing paternal or maternal haploid embryos (hemicloning), using different techniques including nuclear transfer. At the embryonic stage, considering practical, ethical and legal issues, techniques will be reviewed that include cloning and embryo splitting at the cleavage stage, morula, or blastocyst stage.

  5. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  6. Food physics and radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  7. Bayesian estimation of test characteristics of real-time PCR, bacteriological culture and California mastitis test for diagnosis of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle at routine milk recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser; Toft, Nils; Katholm, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    Danish farmers can order a real-time PCR mastitis diagnostic test on routinely takencow-level samples from milk recordings. Validation of its performance in comparison toconventional mastitis diagnostics under field conditions is essential for efficient control ofintramammary infections (IMI...... higher than test estimates of BCand CMT. SeCMTwas higher than SeBChowever, SpBCwas higher than SpCMT. SePCRwas 91%,while SeBCwas 53%, and SeCMTwas 61%. SpPCRwas 99%, while SpBCwas 89%, and SpCMTwas65%.In conclusion, PCR has a higher performance than the conventional diagnostic tests (BCand CMT......) suggesting its usefulness as a routine test for accurate diagnosis of S. aureus IMIfrom dairy cows at routine milk recordings. The use of LCA provided estimates of the testcharacteristics for two currently diagnostic tests (BC, CMT) and a novel technique (real-time PCR) for diagnosing S. aureus IMI under...

  8. Modern techniques of surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Woodruff, D Phil

    2016-01-01

    This fully revised, updated and reorganised third edition provides a thorough introduction to the characterisation techniques used in surface science and nanoscience today. Each chapter brings together and compares the different techniques used to address a particular research question, including how to determine the surface composition, surface structure, surface electronic structure, surface microstructure at different length scales (down to sub-molecular), and the molecular character of adsorbates and their adsorption or reaction properties. Readers will easily understand the relative strengths and limitations of the techniques available to them and, ultimately, will be able to select the most suitable techniques for their own particular research purposes. This is an essential resource for researchers and practitioners performing materials analysis, and for senior undergraduate students looking to gain a clear understanding of the underlying principles and applications of the different characterisation tec...

  9. SECURING WMN USING HONEYPOT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Gupta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available WMN has been a field of active research in the recent years. Lot of research has focused various routing mechanism but very little effort has been made towards attack detection or intrusion detection. Inthis paper, we propose an attack detection approach for wireless mesh network using Honeypot technique. A Honeypot is a security resource whose value lies in being probed, attacked or compromised. A honeypot is designed to interact with attackers to collect attack techniques and behaviors. A collection of such Honeypots laid to effectively trap the attacker is called a Honeynet. In our paper, we propose ahoneynet, that is able to trap the attackers by analyzing their attacking techniques and thereby sending the logs to a centralized repository to analyze those logs so as to better understand the technique used for attacking.

  10. Discovering the Botnet Detection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Aneel; Bin Muhaya, Fahad T.

    Botnet is a network of compromised computers. It just fellow the master slave concept. Bots are comprised computers and do the tasks what ever their master orders them. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is used for the communication between the master and bots. Information is also encrypted to avoid the effect of third party. In this paper we discuss the Botnets detection techniques and comparative analysis of these techniques on the basis of DNS query, History data and group activity.

  11. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision)

    OpenAIRE

    Rogalski A.; Chrzanowski K.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems,...

  12. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  13. Indirect bonding technique in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Yıldırım

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Direct Bonding Technique’ which allows the fixed orthodontic appliances to be directly bonded to teeth without using bands decreased the clinic time for bracket bonding and increased esthetics and oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. However, mistakes in bracket positioning were observed due to decreased direct visual sight and access to posterior teeth. ‘Indirect Bonding Technique’ was developed for eliminating these problems. Initially, decreased bond strength, higher bond failure rate, periodontal tissue irritation, compromised oral hygiene and increased laboratory time were the main disadvantages of this technique when compared to direct bonding. The newly developed materials and modified techniques help to eliminate these negative consequences. Today, the brackets bonded with indirect technique have similar bond strength with brackets bonded directly. Moreover, indirect and direct bonding techniques have similar effects on periodontal tissues. However, indirect bonding technique requires more attention and precision in laboratory and clinical stage, and has higher cost. Orthodontist's preference between these two bonding techniques may differ according to time spent in laboratory and clinic, cost, patient comfort and personal opinion.

  14. Review of advanced imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images ("optical biopsies" at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These advanced imaging modalities have exciting diagnostic potential and introduce new opportunities in pathology. Therefore, it is important that pathology informaticists understand these advanced imaging techniques and the impact they have on pathology. This paper reviews several recently developed microscopic techniques, including diffraction-limited methods (e.g., confocal microscopy, 2-photon microscopy, 4Pi microscopy, and spatially modulated illumination microscopy and subdiffraction techniques (e.g., photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. This article serves as a primer for pathology informaticists, highlighting the fundamentals and applications of advanced optical imaging techniques.

  15. Genetic techniques for the archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Joel A; Picking, Jonathan W; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Genetic techniques for the Archaea have undergone a rapid expansion in complexity, resulting in increased exploration of the role of Archaea in the environment and detailed analyses of the molecular physiology and information-processing systems in the third domain of life. Complementary gains in describing the ever-increasing diversity of archaeal organisms have allowed these techniques to be leveraged in new and imaginative ways to elucidate shared and unique aspects of archaeal diversity and metabolism. In this review, we introduce the four archaeal clades for which advanced genetic techniques are available--the methanogens, halophiles, Sulfolobales, and Thermococcales--with the aim of providing an overall profile of the advantages and disadvantages of working within each clade, as essentially all of the genetically accessible archaeal organisms require unique culturing techniques that present real challenges. We discuss the full repertoire of techniques possible within these clades while highlighting the recent advances that have been made by taking advantage of the most prominent techniques and approaches.

  16. Analytical applications of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions from some of the world's leading nuclear analysts included in this book describe a variety of nuclear techniques and applications, such as those in the fields of environment and health, industrial processes, non-destructive testing, forensic and archaeological investigations and cosmochemistry, and in method validation. The descriptive articles demonstrate the advantages of nuclear techniques in, for example, analysing trace elements in submilligram samples in a single strand of hair or in kilogram samples of municipal waste. Halogenated organic compounds as well as major and trace inorganic constituents are analysed in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. Several different techniques are applied to investigate the authenticity of art objects and the origin of extraterrestrial material. Many applications of nuclear analytical techniques in industrial process control or in the production of high-tech materials are described, highlighting the socioeconomic benefit of these techniques in our daily lives. The book is intended to stimulate students, teachers and non-nuclear scientists to take the 'nuclear' option into consideration when deciding on a new field of study or an alternative analytical technique

  17. PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punia Supriya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation of modified release dosage forms. Pelletization leads to an improvement in flowability, appearance and mixing properties thus avoiding generation of excessive dust and reducing segregation, and, generally, eliminating undesirable properties and improving the physical and chemical properties of fine powders. Pellets are produced by various techniques, such as, extrusion/ spheronization, layering, cryopelletization, freeze pelletization, spray congealing, spray drying and compression. Amongst various techniques, Extrusion/Spheronization technique is the most widely utilized technique due to its high efficiency and simple and fast processing. The aim of this paper is to review some general aspects about pellets and pelletization and some common techniques being utilized in the pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Nontraditional manufacturing technique-Nano machining technique based on SPM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Shen; YAN Yongda; SUN Tao; LIANG Yingchun; CHENG Kai

    2004-01-01

    Nano machining based on SPM is a novel, nontraditional advanced manufacturing technique. There are three main machining methods based on SPM, i.e.single atom manipulation, surface modification using physical or chemical actions and mechanical scratching. The current development of this technique is summarized. Based on the analysis of mechanical scratching mechanism, a 5 μm micro inflation hole is fabricated on the surface of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target. The processing technique is optimized. The machining properties of brittle material, single crystal Ge, are investigated. A micro machining system combining SPM and a high accuracy stage is developed. Some 2D and 3D microstructures are fabricated using the system. This method has broad applications in the field of nano machining.

  19. Review of uranium bioassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of analytical techniques is available for evaluating uranium in excreta and tissues at levels appropriate for occupational exposure control and evaluation. A few (fluorometry, kinetic phosphorescence analysis, α-particle spectrometry, neutron irradiation techniques, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have also been demonstrated as capable of determining uranium in these materials at levels comparable to those which occur naturally. Sample preparation requirements and isotopic sensitivities vary widely among these techniques and should be considered carefully when choosing a method. This report discusses analytical techniques used for evaluating uranium in biological matrices (primarily urine) and limits of detection reported in the literature. No cost comparison is attempted, although references are cited which address cost. Techniques discussed include: α-particle spectrometry; liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorometry, phosphorometry, neutron activation analysis, fission-track counting, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A summary table of reported limits of detection and of the more important experimental conditions associated with these reported limits is also provided

  20. LANDING TECHNIQUES IN BEACH VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Tilp

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ²(2 = 18.19, p < 0.01 but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ²(2 = 161.4, p < 0.01 and women (χ²(2 = 84.91, p < 0.01. Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball

  1. Caracterização química e bacteriológica de polpa e surimi obtidos do espinhaço residual da filetagem de tilápia Chemical and bacteriological characterization of minced fish and surimi obtained from fillet frames of tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Conceição Reis Pereira Mello

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar rendimentos, composição centesimal e características bacteriológicas da polpa e do surimi de tilápia obtidos a partir da desossa mecânica de espinhaços residuais da filetagem de peixes de 400 a 650 gramas e oriundos de unidade de processamento oficial. As amostras foram divididas em quatro lotes, com intervalos de prazo de coleta de dois meses. As análises realizadas foram determinação do rendimento, composição centesimal (umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinzas e análises bacteriológicas: contagem de Bactérias Heterotróficas Aeróbias Mesófilas (CBHAM e Psicrotróficas (CBHAP; isolamento e identificação de Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e Escherichia coli. Os rendimentos obtidos para a polpa e o surimi em relação aos espinhaços foram, respectivamente, de 17,96 e 13,61%, observando-se diferença significativa (PThe aim of this study was to assess the yields, proximate composition and bacteriological characteristics of minced fish and surimi obtained from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from 400 to 650 grams, recovered from fillet frames, after mechanical deboning. The samples were divided in four lots, collected each two months. The percentage yields were determined and the chemical analysis carried out included moisture, protein, lipids and ashes. Bacteriological analysis considered Heterotrophic Aerobics Mesophilics and Psychrotrophics bacteria count, isolation and identification of Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli. The yields obtained from minced fish and surimi, in relation with fillet frames, were 17.96% and 13.61% with significant gaps (P<0.05 between samples. The moisture, proteins, lipids and ashes percentage rate were for the minced fish: 80.69, 16.5, 3.14 and 0.50 and for the surimi: 80.82, 14.6, 0.27, and 0.98, with significant gaps (P<0.05 for lipids and ashes. The counted Mesophilics and Psychrotrophics Bacteria in the

  2. Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Mark M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of standard watermarking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Enrico; Autrusseau, Florent; Le Callet, Patrick; Campisi, Patrizio

    2007-02-01

    In the last decade digital watermarking techniques have been devised to answer the ever-growing need to protect the intellectual property of digital still images, video sequences or audio from piracy attacks. Because of the proliferation of watermarking algorithms and their applications some benchmarks have been created in order to help watermarkers comparing their algorithms in terms of robustness against various attacks (i.e. Stirmark, Checkmark). However, no equal attention has been devoted to the proposition of benchmarks tailored to assess the watermark perceptual transparency. In this work, we study several watermarking techniques in terms of the mark invisibility through subjective experiments. Moreover, we test the ability of several objective metrics, used in the literature mainly to evaluate distortions due to the coding process, to be correlated with subjective scores. The conclusions drawn in the paper are supported by extensive experimentations using both several watermarking techniques and objective metrics.

  4. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalski A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems, thermal imaging systems, to space-based systems. In this section are also described active and passive smart weapon seekers. Finally, other important infrared techniques and devices are shortly described, among them being: non-contact thermometers, radiometers, LIDAR, and infrared gas sensors.

  5. Aseptic technique for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, R J

    2001-05-01

    This unit describes some of the ways that a laboratory can deal with the constant threat of microbial contamination in cell cultures. A protocol on aseptic technique is described first. This catch-all term universally appears in any set of instructions pertaining to procedures in which noncontaminating conditions must be maintained. In reality, aseptic technique encompasses all aspects of environmental control, personal hygiene, equipment and media sterilization, and associated quality control procedures needed to ensure that a procedure is, indeed, performed with aseptic, noncontaminating technique. Although cell culture can theoretically be carried out on an open bench in a low-traffic area, most cell culture work is carried out using a horizontal laminar-flow clean bench or a vertical laminar-flow biosafety cabinet. Both are described here. PMID:18228291

  6. Diversity imaging techniques in lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, K. I.

    1992-01-01

    Diversity imaging techniques have been successfully employed in conventional microwave range-Doppler imaging radars to obtain high resolution images of both natural and man-made targets. These techniques allow microwave radars to achieve image resolution which would otherwise require excessively large antennas. Recent advances in coherent laser radar techniques and signal processing have led to the development of range-Doppler imaging laser radars. While much of the theory and signal processing techniques used in microwave radars can be brought to bear on laser radars, the significant difference in wavelength results in issues peculiar to laser radar systems. Both the fundamental concepts and specific applications of diversity imaging techniques applied to laser radar imaging systems will be discussed. Angle, frequency, and bistatic angle degrees of freedom can be employed in a coherent laser radar imaging system to achieve image resolution which exceeds the traditional Rayleigh criterion associated with the receive aperture. In diversity imaging, angle and frequency degrees of freedom can be used to synthesize an effective aperture providing range and Doppler target information. The ability to vary the bistatic angle provides an additional means of synthesizing an effective aperture. Both simulated and experimentally obtained laser radar images of spinning and/or tumbling objects utilizing both angular and frequency diversity will be presented. In coherent laser radar systems, image quality can be dominated by laser speckle effects. In particular, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a coherent laser radar image is at most unity in the presence of fully developed speckle. Diversity techniques can be utilized to improve the image SNR; simple incoherent averaging of images utilizing temporal and polarization degrees of freedom can significantly improve image SNR. Both the SNR and image resolution (as defined by the synthetic aperture) contribute to image quality. The

  7. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  8. Reactor vital equipment determination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Vital Equipment Determination Techniques program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is discussed. The purpose of the program is to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with technical support in identifying vital areas at nuclear power plants using a fault-tree technique. A reexamination of some system modeling assumptions is being performed for the Vital Area Analysis Program. A short description of the vital area analysis and supporting research on modeling assumptions is presented. Perceptions of program modifications based on the research are outlined, and the status of high-priority research topics is discussed

  9. CLEAN Technique for Polarimetric ISAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martorella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR images are often used for classifying and recognising targets. To reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, scattering centres are extracted from the ISAR image and used for classifying and recognising targets. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the position and the scattering vector of target scattering centres from polarimetric ISAR images. The proposed technique is obtained by extending the CLEAN technique, which was introduced in radar imaging for extracting scattering centres from single-polarisation ISAR images. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, namely, the Polarimetric CLEAN (Pol-CLEAN is tested on simulated and real data.

  10. Computerized proof techniques for undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-12-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete mathematics. We demonstrate by examples how one can use these computerized proof techniques to raise students' interests in the discovery and proof of mathematical identities and enhance their problem-solving skills.

  11. Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs

  12. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  13. Physics aids new medical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays, fundamental physics has been a source of ideas for radiography and medical imaging. A new imaging method firmly rooted in particle physics was chosen by Time magazine as one of its "Inventions of the Year 2000". The award-winning invention in the medical science category was a scanner that combined the advantages of computer tomography with positron emission tomography. The use of these techniques, which depend on detecting and analysing electromagnetic radiation (X-rays or gamma rays respectively), show that detection techniques from particle physics have made, and continue to make, essential contributions to medical science. (0 refs).

  14. Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin V. Phade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies.

  15. Test Case Reduction Techniques - Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Alian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regression testing is considered to be the most expensive phase in software testing. Therefore, regression testing reduction eliminates the redundant test cases in the regression testing suite and saves cost of this phase. In order to validate the correctness of the new version software project that resulted from maintenance phase, Regression testing reruns the regression testing suite to ensure that the new version. Several techniques are used to deal with the problem of regression testing reduction. This research is going to classify these techniques regression testing reduction problem.

  16. Computer animation algorithms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Parent, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the demands of research and the entertainment industry, the techniques of animation are pushed to render increasingly complex objects with ever-greater life-like appearance and motion. This rapid progression of knowledge and technique impacts professional developers, as well as students. Developers must maintain their understanding of conceptual foundations, while their animation tools become ever more complex and specialized. The second edition of Rick Parent's Computer Animation is an excellent resource for the designers who must meet this challenge. The first edition establ

  17. High-speed pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Coekin, J A

    1975-01-01

    High-Speed Pulse Techniques covers the many aspects of technique in digital electronics and encompass some of the more fundamental factors that apply to all digital systems. The book describes the nature of pulse signals and their deliberate or inadvertent processing in networks, transmission lines and transformers, and then examines the characteristics and transient performance of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Some of the problems associated with the assembly of these into viable systems operating at ultra high speed are also looked at. The book examines the transients and w

  18. Multiple frequency atmospheric radar techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Gary Richard

    The use of multiple frequency coding to improve the vertical resolution of pulsed-Doppler very high frequency atmospheric radars, especially with regards to the two-frequency techniques known as frequency domain interferometry (FDI), is presented. This technique consists of transmitting alternate pulses on two distinct carrier frequencies. The two resulting time series are used to evaluate the normalized cross-correlation function, whose magnitude and phase are related to the thickness and position of a scattering layer. These same time series are also used to evaluate cross-spectra, which yield magnitude and phase values for each Doppler frequency component of the return signal.

  19. EDITORIAL: Imaging Systems and Techniques Imaging Systems and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakos, George; Yang, Wuqiang; Petrou, M.; Nikita, K. S.; Pastorino, M.; Amanatiadis, A.; Zentai, G.

    2011-10-01

    This special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques comprises 27 technical papers, covering essential facets in imaging systems and techniques both in theory and applications, from research groups spanning three different continents. It mainly contains peer-reviewed articles from the IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST 2011), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, as well a number of articles relevant to the scope of this issue. The multifaceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment, and the technological revolution; there is an urgent need to address and propose dynamic and innovative solutions to problems that tend to be either complex and static or rapidly evolving with a lot of unknowns. For instance, exploration of the engineering and physical principles of new imaging systems and techniques for medical applications, remote sensing, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, exploration and management of natural resources, and environmental monitoring, are some of the areas that need to be addressed with urgency. Similarly, the development of efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level is another important area of research. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, using high resolution and high selectivity nanoimaging techniques, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as provide efficient drug-delivery imaging solutions for disease treatment with increased sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, technical advances in the development of efficient digital imaging systems and techniques and tomographic devices operating on electric impedance tomography, computed tomography, single-photon emission and positron emission tomography detection principles are anticipated to have a significant impact on a

  20. Bayesian estimation of test characteristics of real-time PCR, bacteriological culture and California mastitis test for diagnosis of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle at routine milk recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Toft, Nils; Katholm, Jørgen; Grønbæk, Carsten; Klaas, Ilka C

    2013-11-01

    Danish farmers can order a real-time PCR mastitis diagnostic test on routinely taken cow-level samples from milk recordings. Validation of its performance in comparison to conventional mastitis diagnostics under field conditions is essential for efficient control of intramammary infections (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time PCR, bacterial culture (BC) and California mastitis test (CMT) for the diagnosis of the naturally occurring IMI with S. aureus in routinely collected milk samples using latent class analysis (LCA) to avoid the assumption of a perfect reference test. Using systematic random sampling, a total of 609 lactating dairy cows were selected from 6 dairy herds with bulk tank milk PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value ≤39 for S. aureus. At routine milk recordings, automatically obtained cow-level (composite) milk samples were analyzed by PCR and at the same milking, 2436 quarter milk samples were collected aseptically for BC and CMT. Results showed that 140 cows (23%) were positive for S. aureus IMI by BC while 170 cows (28%) were positive by PCR. Estimates of Se and Sp for PCR were higher than test estimates of BC and CMT. SeCMT was higher than SeBC however, SpBC was higher than SpCMT. SePCR was 91%, while SeBC was 53%, and SeCMT was 61%. SpPCR was 99%, while SpBC was 89%, and SpCMT was 65%. In conclusion, PCR has a higher performance than the conventional diagnostic tests (BC and CMT) suggesting its usefulness as a routine test for accurate diagnosis of S. aureus IMI from dairy cows at routine milk recordings. The use of LCA provided estimates of the test characteristics for two currently diagnostic tests (BC, CMT) and a novel technique (real-time PCR) for diagnosing S. aureus IMI under field conditions at routine milk recordings in Denmark.

  1. Bayesian estimation of test characteristics of real-time PCR, bacteriological culture and California mastitis test for diagnosis of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle at routine milk recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Toft, Nils; Katholm, Jørgen; Grønbæk, Carsten; Klaas, Ilka C

    2013-11-01

    Danish farmers can order a real-time PCR mastitis diagnostic test on routinely taken cow-level samples from milk recordings. Validation of its performance in comparison to conventional mastitis diagnostics under field conditions is essential for efficient control of intramammary infections (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time PCR, bacterial culture (BC) and California mastitis test (CMT) for the diagnosis of the naturally occurring IMI with S. aureus in routinely collected milk samples using latent class analysis (LCA) to avoid the assumption of a perfect reference test. Using systematic random sampling, a total of 609 lactating dairy cows were selected from 6 dairy herds with bulk tank milk PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value ≤39 for S. aureus. At routine milk recordings, automatically obtained cow-level (composite) milk samples were analyzed by PCR and at the same milking, 2436 quarter milk samples were collected aseptically for BC and CMT. Results showed that 140 cows (23%) were positive for S. aureus IMI by BC while 170 cows (28%) were positive by PCR. Estimates of Se and Sp for PCR were higher than test estimates of BC and CMT. SeCMT was higher than SeBC however, SpBC was higher than SpCMT. SePCR was 91%, while SeBC was 53%, and SeCMT was 61%. SpPCR was 99%, while SpBC was 89%, and SpCMT was 65%. In conclusion, PCR has a higher performance than the conventional diagnostic tests (BC and CMT) suggesting its usefulness as a routine test for accurate diagnosis of S. aureus IMI from dairy cows at routine milk recordings. The use of LCA provided estimates of the test characteristics for two currently diagnostic tests (BC, CMT) and a novel technique (real-time PCR) for diagnosing S. aureus IMI under field conditions at routine milk recordings in Denmark. PMID:23992955

  2. Biomedical engineering and rehabilitation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, G.; Jouve, B.; Laizier, J. (Office des Rayonnements Ionisants, CEN Saclay (France))

    The authors outline the programmes set up by the ORIS for the development of biomaterials and rehabilitation products using the radiochemical techniques. They then discuss the development of instruments designed to make the handling and use of radioactive isotopes easier for users.

  3. DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    . Ramageri; Bharati M.

    2010-01-01

    Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The paper discusses few of the data mining techniques, algorithms and some of the organizations which have adapted data mining technology to improve their businesses and found excellent results.

  4. Identifying Major Techniques of Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makosky, Vivian Parker

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this class exercise is to increase undergraduate psychology students' awareness of common persuasion techniques used in advertising, including the appeal to or creation of needs, social and prestige suggestion, and the use of emotionally loaded words and images. Television commercials and magazine advertisements are used as…

  5. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous, suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies.

  6. Laparoscopic pyelolithotomy: optimizing surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadó, José A; Guzmán, Sergio; Trucco, Cristian A; Parra, Claudio A

    2009-04-01

    The classic approach to renal stone disease includes shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy or percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, and, in some cases, a combination of both. The usefulness of laparoscopy in this regard remains debated. In this report and video, we present our technique of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy assisted by flexible instrumentation to achieve maximal stone clearance in a selected group of patients. PMID:19358685

  7. Spline techniques for magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an overview of B-spline techniques, oriented toward magnetic field computation. These techniques form a powerful mathematical approximating method for many physics and engineering calculations. In section 1, the concept of a polynomial spline is introduced. Section 2 shows how a particular spline with well chosen properties, the B-spline, can be used to build any spline. In section 3, the description of how to solve a simple spline approximation problem is completed, and some practical examples of using splines are shown. All these sections deal exclusively in scalar functions of one variable for simplicity. Section 4 is partly digression. Techniques that are not B-spline techniques, but are closely related, are covered. These methods are not needed for what follows, until the last section on errors. Sections 5, 6, and 7 form a second group which work toward the final goal of using B-splines to approximate a magnetic field. Section 5 demonstrates how to approximate a scalar function of many variables. The necessary mathematics is completed in section 6, where the problems of approximating a vector function in general, and a magnetic field in particular, are examined. Finally some algorithms and data organization are shown in section 7. Section 8 deals with error analysis

  8. Uranium Detection - Technique Validation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Lujan, Elmer J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Mechler-Hickson, Alexandra Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); May, Iain [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-04-14

    As a LANL activity for DOE/NNSA in support of SHINE Medical Technologies™ ‘Accelerator Technology’ we have been investigating the application of UV-vis spectroscopy for uranium analysis in solution. While the technique has been developed specifically for sulfate solutions, the proposed SHINE target solutions, it can be adapted to a range of different solution matrixes. The FY15 work scope incorporated technical development that would improve accuracy, specificity, linearity & range, precision & ruggedness, and comparative analysis. Significant progress was achieved throughout FY 15 addressing these technical challenges, as is summarized in this report. In addition, comparative analysis of unknown samples using the Davies-Gray titration technique highlighted the importance of controlling temperature during analysis (impacting both technique accuracy and linearity/range). To fully understand the impact of temperature, additional experimentation and data analyses were performed during FY16. The results from this FY15/FY16 work were presented in a detailed presentation, LA-UR-16-21310, and an update of this presentation is included with this short report summarizing the key findings. The technique is based on analysis of the most intense U(VI) absorbance band in the visible region of the uranium spectra in 1 M H2SO4, at λmax = 419.5 nm.

  9. DEMINERALIZATION AND REMINERALIZATION EVALUATION TECHNIQUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARENDS, J; TENBOSCH, JJ

    1992-01-01

    This paper compares the experimental techniques utilized to assess the de- or remineralization of enamel or dentin in intra-oral studies. In in situ studies, it is important for one to know how much mineral has been lost or gained, and where the loss or gain occurred. The main emphasis in this paper

  10. New techniques in digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art presentation of important advances in the field of digital holography, detailing advances related to fundamentals of digital holography, in-line holography applied to fluid mechanics, digital color holography, digital holographic microscopy, infrared holography, special techniques in full field vibrometry and inverse problems in digital holography

  11. Survey of Biochemical Separation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Melanie R.

    2007-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is illustrated that exposes students to wide range of separation techniques in one laboratory program and provides a nice complement to a project-oriented program. Students have learned the basic principles of syringe filtration, centricon, dialysis, gel filtration and solid-phase extraction methodologies and have got…

  12. Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Diane

    This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

  13. Developments in functional neuroimaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent review of neuroimaging techniques indicates that new developments have primarily occurred in the area of data acquisition hardware/software technology. For example, new pulse sequences on standard clinical imagers and high-powered, rapidly oscillating magnetic field gradients used in echo planar imaging (EPI) have advanced MRI into the functional imaging arena. Significant developments in tomograph design have also been achieved for monitoring the distribution of positron-emitting radioactive tracers in the body (PET). Detector sizes, which pose a limit on spatial resolution, have become smaller (e.g., 3--5 mm wide) and a new emphasis on volumetric imaging has emerged which affords greater sensitivity for determining locations of positron annihilations and permits smaller doses to be utilized. Electromagnetic techniques have also witnessed growth in the ability to acquire data from the whole head simultaneously. EEG techniques have increased their electrode coverage (e.g., 128 channels rather than 16 or 32) and new whole-head systems are now in use for MEG. But the real challenge now is in the design and implementation of more sophisticated analyses to effectively handle the tremendous amount of physiological/anatomical data that can be acquired. Furthermore, such analyses will be necessary for integrating data across techniques in order to provide a truly comprehensive understanding of the functional organization of the human brain

  14. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-06-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  15. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... devised a way to successfully treat symptoms resembling multiple sclerosis in a mouse model. With further development, the technique might be ... better, at inducing T-cell tolerance in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. The particles both prevented symptoms and slowed their ...

  16. Techniques of English Textbooks Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婧雯; 杨竞欧

    2014-01-01

    This essay attempts to aim English teachers to evaluate and adapt the current English textbooks.According to different levels and majors of the students,English teachers can enhance the teaching materials and their teaching skills.This paper would provide several useful techniques for teachers to make evaluations and adaptations of using teaching materials.

  17. Practical Techniques for Achieving Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, John A.

    Consensus is important in the making of a policy decision. If a decision is reached without consensus, morale and unit satisfaction may both suffer. With genuine consensus, a unit tends to willingly support and implement the new policy. After analyzing how observed small groups had actually reached consensus, the following ten techniques were…

  18. Advances of the IBIC technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breese, M.B.H.; Laird, J.S.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    The ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique has been used for a wide variety of analytical applications in the study of semiconductor materials. This paper briefly reviews these uses and identifies those areas which require further development in order to facilitate the more widespread use of the IBIC method. Progress towards implementing these improvements is discussed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Microprocessor Simulation: A Training Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscarson, David J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the design and application of a microprocessor simulation using BASIC for formal training of technicians and managers and as a management tool. Illustrates the utility of the modular approach for the instruction and practice of decision-making techniques. (SK)

  20. Techniques in Advanced Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, D. E.

    1967-01-01

    For ease of presentation, advanced grammar teaching techniques are briefly considered under the headings of structuralism (belief in the effectiveness of presenting grammar rules) and contextualism (belief in the maximum use by students of what they know in the target language). The structuralist's problem of establishing a syllabus is discussed…

  1. Nuclear techniques and human behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear energy discovery and utilization is introduce briefly. It is dissertated the necessity of developing nuclear power and the essentiality of strengthening environment monitoring. It is brought forward that nuclear techniques can bring civilization and progress, but it can bring disaster if not correct uses

  2. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave;

    1997-01-01

    interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  3. Brain Friendly Techniques: Mind Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Cristine

    2004-01-01

    Mind Mapping can be called the Swiss Army Knife for the brain, a total visual thinking tool or a multi-handed thought catcher. Invented by Tony Buzan in the early 1970s and used by millions around the world, it is a method that can be a part of a techniques repertoire when teaching information literacy, planning, presenting, thinking, and so…

  4. Functional Techniques in Classical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gozzi, E

    2001-01-01

    In 1931 Koopman and von Neumann extended previous work of Liouville and provided an operatorial version of Classical Mechanics (CM). In this talk we will review a path-integral formulation of this operatorial version of CM. In particular we will study the geometrical nature of the many auxiliary variables present and of the unexpected universal symmetries generated by the functional technique.

  5. Digital synchronization and communication techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Information on digital synchronization and communication techniques is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include phase shift keying, modems, characteristics of open loop digital synchronizers, an open loop phase and frequency estimator, and a digital receiver structure using an open loop estimator in a decision directed architecture.

  6. Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Graglia, Roberto D

    2016-01-01

    Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.

  7. Techniques for Quantifying Phytoplankton Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zackary I.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    The biodiversity of phytoplankton is a core measurement of the state and activity of marine ecosystems. In the context of historical approaches, we review recent major advances in the technologies that have enabled deeper characterization of the biodiversity of phytoplankton. In particular, high-throughput sequencing of single loci/genes, genomes, and communities (metagenomics) has revealed exceptional phylogenetic and genomic diversity whose breadth is not fully constrained. Other molecular tools—such as fingerprinting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization—have provided additional insight into the dynamics of this diversity in the context of environmental variability. Techniques for characterizing the functional diversity of community structure through targeted or untargeted approaches based on RNA or protein have also greatly advanced. A wide range of techniques is now available for characterizing phytoplankton communities, and these tools will continue to advance through ongoing improvements in both technology and data interpretation.

  8. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  9. Graph partitioning advance clustering technique

    CERN Document Server

    Madhulatha, T Soni

    2012-01-01

    Clustering is a common technique for statistical data analysis, Clustering is the process of grouping the data into classes or clusters so that objects within a cluster have high similarity in comparison to one another, but are very dissimilar to objects in other clusters. Dissimilarities are assessed based on the attribute values describing the objects. Often, distance measures are used. Clustering is an unsupervised learning technique, where interesting patterns and structures can be found directly from very large data sets with little or none of the background knowledge. This paper also considers the partitioning of m-dimensional lattice graphs using Fiedler's approach, which requires the determination of the eigenvector belonging to the second smallest Eigenvalue of the Laplacian with K-means partitioning algorithm.

  10. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  11. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception. PMID:27247675

  12. UML-ising formal techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; George, Chris W.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth;

    2004-01-01

    This invited paper presents a number of correlated specifications of example railway system problems. They use a variety of partially or fully integrated formal specification. The paper thus represents a mere repository of what we consider interesting case studies. The existence of the Unified...... these different UML views are unified, integrated, correlated or merely co-located is for others to dispute. We also seek to support multiple views, but are also in no doubt that there must be sound, well defined relations between such views. We thus report on ways and means of integrating formal techniques...... techniques, one that can be believably deployed for as wide a spectrum, or even a wider spectrum of software (and hardware) development, as, respectively than UML....

  13. Apoptosis Evaluation by Electrochemical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Miao, Peng

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis has close relevance to pathology, pharmacology, and toxicology. Accurate and convenient detection of apoptosis would be beneficial for biological study, clinical diagnosis, and drug development. Based on distinct features of apoptotic cells, a diversity of analytical techniques have been exploited for sensitive analysis of apoptosis, such as surface plasmon resonance, electrochemical methods, flow cytometry, and some imaging assays. Among them, the features of simplicity, easy operation, low cost, and high sensitivity make electrochemical techniques powerful tools to investigate electron-transfer processes of in vitro biological systems. In this contribution, a general overview of current knowledge on various technical approaches for apoptosis evaluation is provided. Furthermore, recently developed electrochemical biosensors for detecting apoptotic cells and their advantages over traditional methods are summarized. One of the main considerations focuses on designing the recognition elements based on various biochemical events during apoptosis.

  14. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vicianova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God’s judgment in Europe. The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System, functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  15. CT colonography: techniques, indications, findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Thomas; Graser, Anno; Schima, Wolfgang; Maier, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions. PMID:17224254

  16. CT colonography: Techniques, indications, findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions

  17. CT colonography: Techniques, indications, findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mang, Thomas [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: thomas.mang@meduniwien.ac.at; Graser, Anno [Department of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Campus, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Schima, Wolfgang [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Maier, Andrea [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions.

  18. Simulation techniques for cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dolag, K; Schindler, S; Diaferio, A; Bykov, A M

    2008-01-01

    Modern cosmological observations allow us to study in great detail the evolution and history of the large scale structure hierarchy. The fundamental problem of accurate constraints on the cosmological parameters, within a given cosmological model, requires precise modelling of the observed structure. In this paper we briefly review the current most effective techniques of large scale structure simulations, emphasising both their advantages and shortcomings. Starting with basics of the direct N-body simulations appropriate to modelling cold dark matter evolution, we then discuss the direct-sum technique GRAPE, particle-mesh (PM) and hybrid methods, combining the PM and the tree algorithms. Simulations of baryonic matter in the Universe often use hydrodynamic codes based on both particle methods that discretise mass, and grid-based methods. We briefly describe Eulerian grid methods, and also some variants of Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods.

  19. Data mining concepts and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jiawei

    2005-01-01

    Our ability to generate and collect data has been increasing rapidly. Not only are all of our business, scientific, and government transactions now computerized, but the widespread use of digital cameras, publication tools, and bar codes also generate data. On the collection side, scanned text and image platforms, satellite remote sensing systems, and the World Wide Web have flooded us with a tremendous amount of data. This explosive growth has generated an even more urgent need for new techniques and automated tools that can help us transform this data into useful information and knowledge.Like the first edition, voted the most popular data mining book by KD Nuggets readers, this book explores concepts and techniques for the discovery of patterns hidden in large data sets, focusing on issues relating to their feasibility, usefulness, effectiveness, and scalability. However, since the publication of the first edition, great progress has been made in the development of new data mining methods, systems, and app...

  20. Digital Fourier analysis advanced techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to advanced digital Fourier analysis for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Assuming knowledge of the Fast Fourier Transform, this book covers advanced topics including the Hilbert transform, cepstrum analysis, and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices. As a central feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations. These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. The applet source code in Visual Basic is provided online, enabling advanced students to tweak and change the programs for more sophisticated results. A complete, intuitive guide, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" is an essential reference for students in science and engineering.

  1. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  2. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  3. VLBI Techniques in Pulsar Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Brisken, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) provides the resolution needed to make precision measurements of a pulsar's parallax and proper motion. In making these measurements, the astronomer is faced with difficult calibration problems and a paucity of strong point-like calibrators that ultimately limit the accuracy of parallax measurements of even the brightest pulsars. A new technique to calibrate away the effects of the ionosphere, the dominant source of phase error at frequencies below 5 G...

  4. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Neeraj; Aggarwal Lalit

    2010-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT) and Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits ...

  5. Techniques for multiple database integration

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, Barron D

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited There are several graphic client/server application development tools which can be used to easily develop powerful relational database applications. However, they do not provide a direct means of performing queries which require relational joins across multiple database boundaries. This thesis studies ways to access multiple databases. Specifically, it examines how a 'cross-database join' can be performed. A case study of techniques us...

  6. Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobara H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hideki Kobara,1 Hirohito Mori,1 Kazi Rafiq,2 Shintaro Fujihara,1 Noriko Nishiyama,1 Maki Ayaki,1 Tatsuo Yachida,1 Tae Matsunaga,1 Johji Tani,1 Hisaaki Miyoshi,1 Hirohito Yoneyama,1 Asahiro Morishita,1 Makoto Oryu,1 Hisakazu Iwama,3 Tsutomu Masaki1 1Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Life Science Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-Gun, Kagawa, Japan Abstract: Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. Keywords: submucosal endoscopy, submucosal tunneling method, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, peroral endoscopic myotomy, gastrointestinal subepithelial tumor, functional and motility disorders

  7. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Markus; Breuer, Felix; Koopmans, Peter J.; Norris, David G.; Poser, Benedikt A.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in‐plane parallel imaging this can have only a marginal intrinsic signal‐to‐noise ratio penalty, and the full acceleration is attainable at fixed echo time, as is required for many echo planar imaging applications. Furthermore, for some ...

  8. TECHNIQUE OF THINKING STYLE EVALUATING

    OpenAIRE

    Alla Belousova; Vlada Pishchik

    2015-01-01

    The results of psychometric analysis of the new technique of thinking styles diagnostics are presented. The fundamental principles of thinking style concept by A. Belousova, according to which the thinking style is determined by the dominance of a person’s function in the structure of thinking activity during the problem solving, are covered. In accordance with A. Belousova’s ideas that the collaborative thinking activity as a self-organizing system is carried out by means of functions assume...

  9. Recent Developments in Tolerancing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Purohit

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical tolerances are specified in conjunction with part geometry, material type andother technical specifications during the design of mechanical components and assemblies., These tolerances ensure the expected design function, and provide guidelines for the manufactureof designed parts. However, assigning proper tolerances for a design is a non-trivial task. Thispaper reviews the recent developments in the field of tolerancing techniques, particularly withreference to the use of computers, cost tolerance relationship and tolerance design for qualityimprovement of the product.

  10. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  11. Techniques in Facial Expression Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Prakash Pandhare; Umesh Balkrishna Chavan

    2016-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is gaining widespread importance as the applications related to Human – Computer interactions are increasing. This paper mentions various techniques and approaches that have been used in the field of facial expression recognition. Facial expression recognition takes place in various stages and these stages have been implemented by various approaches. Viola and Jones for face detection, Gabor filters for feature extraction, SVM classifiers for classifi...

  12. Electromigration techniques theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Szumski, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The book provides the broad knowledge on electromigration techniques including: theory of CE, description of instrumentation, theory and practice in micellar electrokinetic chromatography, isotachophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing, capillary and planar electrochromatography (including description of instrumentation and packed and monolithic column preparation), 2D-gel electrophoresis (including sample preparation) and lab-on-a-chip systems. The book also provides the most recent examples of applications including food, environmental, pharmaceutical analysis as well as proteomics.

  13. A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Sharif; Sajjad Mohsin; Muhammad Younas Javed

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures), Hidden Markov Model (HMM), geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and proce...

  14. Adjustment techniques for experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To carry through numerically the different adjustment of experimental data planned by National Institute of Nuclear Research investigators. It is presented the different adjustment techniques of experimental data which are fundamentally for: linear least squares, non linear with restrictions. Methodology: Lineal least squares - Orthogonal decomposition via Householder reflections. No lineal - Method of general lowering and quasi Newton; Levenberg-Marquardt modified - More version. No lineal with restrictions - Quadratic sequential programming method (In process). (Author)

  15. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  16. An Effective Fingerprint Verification Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gogoi, Minakshi; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an effective method for fingerprint verification based on a data mining technique called minutiae clustering and a graph-theoretic approach to analyze the process of fingerprint comparison to give a feature space representation of minutiae and to produce a lower bound on the number of detectably distinct fingerprints. The method also proving the invariance of each individual fingerprint by using both the topological behavior of the minutiae graph and also using a distance ...

  17. PELLETIZATION TECHNIQUES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Punia Supriya; Bala Rajni; Rana A. C.

    2012-01-01

    In present times, the pelletization technologies are gaining much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of oral drug delivery systems. This is due to the reason that pellets offer many therapeutic, technological as well as biopharmaceutical advantages over the conventional oral dosage forms. Pelletization technique enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm which can be eventually coated for preparation o...

  18. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M

    2011-01-01

    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  19. AINV AND BILUM PRECONDITIONING TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷同祥; 迟学斌; 刘兴平

    2004-01-01

    It was proposed that a robust and efficient parallelizable preconditioner for solving general sparse linear systems of equations, in which the use of sparse approximate inverse (AINV) techniques in a multi-level block ILU (BILUM) preconditioner were investigated. The resulting preconditioner retains robustness of BILUM preconditioner and has two advantages over the standard BILUM preconditioner: the ability to control sparsity and increased parallelism. Numerical experiments are used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new preconditioner.

  20. Microirradiation techniques in radiobiological research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guido A Drexler; Miguel J Ruiz-Gómez

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to review the uses of laser microirradiation and ion microbeam techniques within the scope of radiobiological research. Laser microirradiation techniques can be used for many different purposes. In a specific condition, through the use of pulsed lasers, cell lysis can be produced for subsequent separation of different analytes. Microsurgery allows for the identification and isolation of tissue sections, single cells and subcellular components, using different types of lasers. The generation of different types of DNA damage, via this type of microirradiation, allows for the investigation of DNA dynamics. Ion microbeams are important tools in radiobiological research. There are only a limited number of facilities worldwide where radiobiological experiments can be performed. In the beginning, research was mostly focused on the bystander effect. Nowadays, with more sophisticated molecular and cellular biological techniques, ion microirradiation is used to unravel molecular processes in the field of radiobiology. These include DNA repair protein kinetics or chromatin modifications at the site of DNA damage. With the increasing relevance of charged particles in tumour therapy and new concepts on how to generate them, ion microbeam facilities are able to address unresolved questions concerning particle tumour therapy.