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Sample records for bacteriocin as-48 cyclic

  1. Sequence-specific {sup 1}H assignment and secondary structure of the bacteriocin AS-48 cyclic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, G.M.; Bruix, M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, C.S.I.C. (Spain); Galvez, A.; Valdivia, E.; Maqueda, M. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Rico, M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, C.S.I.C. (Spain)

    1998-07-15

    The bacteriocin AS-48 is a cationic peptide (7149 Da) having a broad antimicrobial spectrum, encoded by the 68 kb conjugative plasmid pMB2 from Enterococcus faecalis S-48. It is a unique peptide since it has a cyclic structure, which is achieved by the formation of a tail-head peptide bond after ribosomal synthesis (Galvez et al., 1989; Martinez-Bueno et al., 1994; Samyn et al., 1994). Preliminary CD and calorimetric studies (data not shown) pointed towards a highly helical and very stable three dimensional structure.All the information gathered until now indicates that the target of AS-48 is the cytoplasmic membrane in which it opens channels or pores, leading to dissipation of the proton motive force and cell death, which in some cases is also followed by bacterial lysis (Galvez et al., 1991). This peptide is a suitable tool for studying protein-membrane interactions, and it also offers promising perspectives for biotechnological applications.Knowledge of the 3D structure of AS-48 is a first step in the conduct of further structure-function studies. Here we report the complete{sup 1} H NMR assignment of its proton resonances together with the resulting secondary structure pattern as prerequisites for the determination of a high-resolution 3D solution structure.

  2. AS-48 bacteriocin : close to perfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Cebrián, Rubén; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Maqueda, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriocin AS-48 is an intriguing molecule because of its unique structural characteristics, genetic regulation, broad activity spectrum, and potential biotechnological applications. It was the first reported circular bacteriocin and has been undoubtedly the best characterized for the last 25 years

  3. Bacteriocin AS-48 binding to model membranes and pore formation as revealed by coarse-grained simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, Victor L.; Ramos, Javier; Martinez-Salazar, Javier; Melo, Manuel N.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriocin AS-48 is a membrane-interacting peptide that acts as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Prior Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiments and the high resolution crystal structure of AS-48 have suggested a mechanism for the molecular activity of A

  4. The Cyclic Antibacterial Peptide Enterocin AS-48: Isolation, Mode of Action, and Possible Food Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande Burgos, María José; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; López Aguayo, María del Carmen; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Enterocin AS-48 is a circular bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus. It contains a 70 amino acid-residue chain circularized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The conformation of enterocin AS-48 is arranged into five alpha-helices with a compact globular structure. Enterocin AS-48 has a wide inhibitory spectrum on Gram-positive bacteria. Sensitivity of Gram-negative bacteria increases in combination with outer-membrane permeabilizing treatments. Eukaryotic cells are bacteriocin-resistant. This cationic peptide inserts into bacterial membranes and causes membrane permeabilization, leading ultimately to cell death. Microarray analysis revealed sets of up-regulated and down-regulated genes in Bacillus cereus cells treated with sublethal bacteriocin concentration. Enterocin AS-48 can be purified in two steps or prepared as lyophilized powder from cultures in whey-based substrates. The potential applications of enterocin AS-48 as a food biopreservative have been corroborated against foodborne pathogens and/or toxigenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica) and spoilage bacteria (Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp., Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Staphylococcus carnosus, Lactobacillus sakei and other spoilage lactic acid bacteria). The efficacy of enterocin AS-48 in food systems increases greatly in combination with chemical preservatives, essential oils, phenolic compounds, and physico-chemical treatments such as sublethal heat, high-intensity pulsed-electric fields or high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:25493478

  5. The Cyclic Antibacterial Peptide Enterocin AS-48: Isolation, Mode of Action, and Possible Food Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Grande Burgos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin AS-48 is a circular bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus. It contains a 70 amino acid-residue chain circularized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The conformation of enterocin AS-48 is arranged into five alpha-helices with a compact globular structure. Enterocin AS-48 has a wide inhibitory spectrum on Gram-positive bacteria. Sensitivity of Gram-negative bacteria increases in combination with outer-membrane permeabilizing treatments. Eukaryotic cells are bacteriocin-resistant. This cationic peptide inserts into bacterial membranes and causes membrane permeabilization, leading ultimately to cell death. Microarray analysis revealed sets of up-regulated and down-regulated genes in Bacillus cereus cells treated with sublethal bacteriocin concentration. Enterocin AS-48 can be purified in two steps or prepared as lyophilized powder from cultures in whey-based substrates. The potential applications of enterocin AS-48 as a food biopreservative have been corroborated against foodborne pathogens and/or toxigenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and spoilage bacteria (Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp., Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Staphylococcus carnosus, Lactobacillus sakei and other spoilage lactic acid bacteria. The efficacy of enterocin AS-48 in food systems increases greatly in combination with chemical preservatives, essential oils, phenolic compounds, and physico-chemical treatments such as sublethal heat, high-intensity pulsed-electric fields or high hydrostatic pressure.

  6. Expression of linear permutated variants from circular enterocin AS-48

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalbán-López, Manuel; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Maqueda, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    To confirm whether the head-to-tail circularization could be involved in the stability and activity of the circular bacteriocin AS-48, two permutated linear structural as-48A genes have been constructed by circular permutation. The absence of the leaderless linear AS(23/24) and AS(48/49) proteins in

  7. Stability of enterocin AS-48 in fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maria J; Lucas, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Abriouel, Hikmate; Maqueda, Mercedes; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvezi, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Enterocin AS-48 is a candidate bacteriocin for food biopreservation. Before addressing application of AS-48 to vegetable-based foods, the interaction between AS-48 and vegetable food components and the stability of AS-48 were studied. Enterocin AS-48 had variable interactions with fruit and vegetable juices, with complete, partial, or negligible loss of activity. For some juices, loss of activity was ameliorated by increasing the bacteriocin concentration, diluting the juice, or applying a heat pretreatment. In juices obtained from cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, green beans, celery, and avocado, AS-48 was very stable for the first 24 to 48 h of storage under refrigeration, and decay of activity was markedly influenced by storage temperature. In fresh-made fruit juices (orange, apple, grapefruit, pear, pineapple, and kiwi) and juice mixtures, AS-48 was very stable for at least 15 days at 4 degrees C, and bacteriocin activity was still detectable after 30 days of storage. Gradual and variable loss of activity occurred in juices stored at 15 and 28 degrees C; inactivation was faster at higher temperatures. In commercial fruit juices (orange, apple, peach, and pineapple) stored at 4 degrees C, the bacteriocin was completely stable for up to 120 days, and over 60% of initial activity was still present in juices stored at 15 degrees C for the same period. Commercial fruit juices stored at 28 degrees C for 120 days retained between 31.5% (apple) and 67.71% (peach) of their initial bacteriocin activity. Solutions of AS-48 in sterile distilled water were stable (120 days at 4 to 28 degrees C). Limited loss of activity was observed after mixing AS-48 with some food-grade dyes and thickening agents. Enterocin AS-48 added to lettuce juice incubated at 15 degrees C reduced viable counts of Listeria monocytogenes CECT 4032 and Bacillus cereus LWL1 to below detection limits and markedly reduced viable counts of Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976.

  8. Bacteriocin-based strategies for food biopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; López, Rosario Lucas; Ben Omar, Nabil

    2007-11-30

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity, produced by different groups of bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce bacteriocins with rather broad spectra of inhibition. Several LAB bacteriocins offer potential applications in food preservation, and the use of bacteriocins in the food industry can help to reduce the addition of chemical preservatives as well as the intensity of heat treatments, resulting in foods which are more naturally preserved and richer in organoleptic and nutritional properties. This can be an alternative to satisfy the increasing consumers demands for safe, fresh-tasting, ready-to-eat, minimally-processed foods and also to develop "novel" food products (e.g. less acidic, or with a lower salt content). In addition to the available commercial preparations of nisin and pediocin PA-1/AcH, other bacteriocins (like for example lacticin 3147, enterocin AS-48 or variacin) also offer promising perspectives. Broad-spectrum bacteriocins present potential wider uses, while narrow-spectrum bacteriocins can be used more specifically to selectively inhibit certain high-risk bacteria in foods like Listeria monocytogenes without affecting harmless microbiota. Bacteriocins can be added to foods in the form of concentrated preparations as food preservatives, shelf-life extenders, additives or ingredients, or they can be produced in situ by bacteriocinogenic starters, adjunct or protective cultures. Immobilized bacteriocins can also find application for development of bioactive food packaging. In recent years, application of bacteriocins as part of hurdle technology has gained great attention. Several bacteriocins show additive or synergistic effects when used in combination with other antimicrobial agents, including chemical preservatives, natural phenolic compounds, as well as other antimicrobial proteins. This, as well as the combined use of different bacteriocins may also be an attractive approach to

  9. Analysis of the promoters involved in enterocin AS-48 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cebrián, Rubén; Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Maqueda, Mercedes; Montalbán-López, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The enterocin AS-48 is the best characterized antibacterial circular protein in prokaryotes. It is a hydrophobic and cationic bacteriocin, which is ribosomally synthesized by enterococcal cells and post-translationally cyclized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The production of and immunity towards A

  10. Bacteriocin Inducer Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel peptides produced by bacteriocin-producing bacteria stimulate the production of bacteriocins in vitro. The producer bacteria are cultured in the presence of a novel inducer bacteria and a peptide having a carboxy terminal sequence of VKGLT in order to achieve an increase in bacteriocin produc...

  11. Efficacy of enterocin AS-48 against bacilli in ready-to-eat vegetable soups and purees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maria J; Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas López, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Ben Omar, Nabil; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    The broad-spectrum bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested for biopreservation of ready-to-eat vegetable foods (soups and purees) against aerobic mesophilic endospore-forming bacteria. By adding AS-48 (10 microg/ml), Bacillus cereus LWL1 was completely inhibited in all six vegetable products tested (natural vegetable cream, asparagus cream, traditional soup, homemade-style traditional soup, vegetable soup, and vichyssoise) for up to 30 days at 6, 15, and 22 degrees C. A collection of strains isolated from spoiled purees showed slightly higher resistance to AS-48 in the order Paenibacillus sp. > Bacillus macroides > B. cereus, although they were also completely inhibited in natural vegetable cream by AS-48 at 10 microg/ml. However, cocktails of five or eight strains composed of B. cereus (three strains), B. macroides (two strains), and Paenibacillus sp., Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus showed higher bacteriocin resistance with AS-48 of up to 50 microg/ml required for complete inactivation in natural vegetable cream stored at 22 degrees C. Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) analysis showed that paenibacilli (along with some B. cereus) was the predominant survivor in the cocktails after bacteriocin treatment. To increase the effectiveness of enterocin AS-48, the bacteriocin was tested (at 20 microg/ml) against the eight-strain cocktail in natural vegetable cream in combination with other antimicrobials. The combination of AS-48 and nisin had a slight but significant additive effect. Bactericidal activity was greatly enhanced by phenolic compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, and hydrocinnamic acid), achieving a rapid and complete inactivation of bacilli in the tested puree at 22 degrees C.

  12. Analysis of the promoters involved in enterocin AS-48 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Cebrián

    Full Text Available The enterocin AS-48 is the best characterized antibacterial circular protein in prokaryotes. It is a hydrophobic and cationic bacteriocin, which is ribosomally synthesized by enterococcal cells and post-translationally cyclized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The production of and immunity towards AS-48 depend upon the coordinated expression of ten genes organized in two operons, as-48ABC (where genes encoding enzymes with processing, secretion, and immunity functions are adjacent to the structural as-48A gene and as-48C1DD1EFGH. The current study describes the identification of the promoters involved in AS-48 expression. Seven putative promoters have been here amplified, and separately inserted into the promoter-probe vector pTLR1, to create transcriptional fusions with the mCherry gene used as a reporter. The activity of these promoter regions was assessed measuring the expression of the fluorescent mCherry protein using the constitutive pneumococcal promoter PX as a reference. Our results revealed that only three promoters PA, P2(2 and PD1 were recognized in Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis and Escherichia coli, in the conditions tested. The maximal fluorescence was obtained with PX in all the strains, followed by the P2(2 promoter, which level of fluorescence was 2-fold compared to PA and 4-fold compared to PD1. Analysis of putative factors influencing the promoter activity in single and double transformants in E. faecalis JH2-2 demonstrated that, in general, a better expression was achieved in presence of pAM401-81. In addition, the P2(2 promoter could be regulated in a negative fashion by genes existing in the native pMB-2 plasmid other than those of the as-48 cluster, while the pH seems to affect differently the as-48 promoter expression.

  13. New type non-lantibiotic bacteriocins: circular and leaderless bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y; Zendo, T; Sonomoto, K

    2012-03-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides that are ribosomally synthesised by bacteria. Bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria, are under focus as the next generation of safe natural biopreservatives and as therapeutic alternatives to antibiotics. Recently, two novel types of non-lantibiotic class II bacteriocins have been reported with unique characteristics in their structure and biosynthesis mechanism. One is a circular bacteriocin that contains a head-to-tail structure in the mature form, and the other is a leaderless bacteriocin without an N-terminal extension in the precursor peptide. A circular structure can provide the peptide with remarkable stability against various stresses; indeed, circular bacteriocins are known to possess higher stability than general linear bacteriocins. Leaderless bacteriocins are distinct from general bacteriocins, because they do not contain N-terminal leader sequences, which are responsible for the recognition process during secretion and for inactivation of bacteriocins inside producer cells. Leaderless bacteriocins do not require any post-translational processing for activity. These two novel types of bacteriocins are promising antimicrobial compounds, and their biosynthetic mechanisms are expected to be applied in synthetic biology to design new peptides and for new mass production systems. However, many questions remain about their biosynthesis. In this review, we introduce recent studies on these types of bacteriocins and their potential to open a new world of antimicrobial peptides.

  14. Class IIa Bacteriocins: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

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    Belguesmia, Yanath; Naghmouchi, Karim; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Drider, Djamel

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce antibacterial peptides and small proteins called bacteriocins, which enable them to compete against other bacteria in the environment. Bacteriocins fall structurally and chemically into three different classes, I, II, and III. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides with antagonism against closely related bacteria. This late observation has evolved because bacteriocins active against Gram-negative bacteria have recently been reported. Members of class IIa bacteriocins, referred to as pediocin-like bacteriocins, are among the most studied bacteriocins. This chapter is aimed at providing an updated review on the biology of class IIa bacteriocins.

  15. Inactivation of exopolysaccharide and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde-producing lactic acid bacteria in apple juice and apple cider by enterocin AS-48.

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    Martínez-Viedma, Pilar; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Valdivia, Eva; López, Rosario Lucas; Gálvez, Antonio

    2008-03-01

    The bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested against exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains of Lactobacillus collinoides, Lactobacillus dioliovorans and Pediococcus parvulus as well as two 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA)-producing Lb. collinoides strains causing apple cider spoilage. In fresh-made apple juice, a bacteriocin concentration of 2.5 microg/ml reduced the LAB viable cell counts below detection levels during the course of incubation at 10 and 22 degrees C for most strains tested, except for Lb. collinoides 5 and Lb. dioliovorans 29. These two strains were significantly inhibited at 10 degrees C by 5 microg/ml AS-48 or completely inactivated at 22 degrees C. In a commercial Basque apple cider, the added bacteriocin (2.5 microg/ml for Lb. collinoides strains 9 and 10, and 5 microg/ml for the rest of strains) completely inactivated all LAB strains tested during storage at 10 as well as 22 degrees C. In the commercial Asturian apple cider tested the LAB strains showed a poor capacity for survival, but the added bacteriocin was equally effective in reducing the numbers of survivors. When a cocktail of the five LAB strains was tested in commercial Basque apple cider, viable cell counts were reduced below detection levels after 2 days for a bacteriocin concentration of 12.5 microg/ml regardless of storage temperature. Comparison of RAPD-PCR profiles revealed that strain Lb. dioliovorans 29 was always the predominant survivor detected in bacteriocin-treated samples.

  16. The Continuing Story of Class IIa Bacteriocins

    OpenAIRE

    Drider, Djamel; Fimland, Gunnar; Héchard, Yann; McMullen, Lynn M.; Prévost, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Many bacteria produce antimicrobial peptides, which are also referred to as peptide bacteriocins. The class IIa bacteriocins, often designated pediocin-like bacteriocins, constitute the most dominant group of antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid bacteria. The bacteriocins that belong to this class are structurally related and kill target cells by membrane permeabilization. Despite their structural similarity, class IIa bacteriocins display different target cell specificities. In the...

  17. Inhibition of Bacillus licheniformis LMG 19409 from ropy cider by enterocin AS-48.

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    Grande, M J; Lucas, R; Abriouel, H; Valdivia, E; Ben Omar, N; Maqueda, M; Martínez-Cañamero, M; Gálvez, A

    2006-08-01

    To determine the activity of enterocin AS-48 against ropy-forming Bacillus licheniformis from cider. Enterocin AS-48 was tested on B. licheniformis LMG 19409 from ropy cider in MRS-G broth, fresh-made apple juice and in two commercial apple ciders (A and B). Bacillus licheniformis was rapidly inactivated in MRS-G by 0.5 microg ml(-1)AS-48 and in fresh-made apple juice by 3 microg ml(-1). Concentration-dependent inactivation of this bacterium in two commercial apple ciders (A and B) stored at 4, 15 and 30 degrees C for 15 days was also demonstrated. Counts from heat-activated endospores in cider A plus AS-48 decreased very slowly. Application of combined treatments of heat (95 degrees C) and enterocin AS-48 reduced the time required to achieved complete inactivation of intact spores in cider A to 4 min for 6 microg ml(-1) and to 1 min for 12 microg ml(-1). D and z values also decreased as the bacteriocin concentration increased. Enterocin AS-48 can inhibit ropy-forming B. licheniformis in apple cider and increase the heat sensitivity of spores. Results from this study support the potential use of enterocin AS-48 to control B. licheniformis in apple cider.

  18. Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, J; Montville, T J; Nes, I F; Chikindas, M L

    2001-12-01

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically and genetically, and though there is a basic understanding of their structure-function, biosynthesis, and mode of action, many aspects of these compounds are still unknown. This article gives an overview of bacteriocin applications, and differentiates bacteriocins from antibiotics. A comparison of the synthesis. mode of action, resistance and safety of the two types of molecules is covered. Toxicity data exist for only a few bacteriocins, but research and their long-time intentional use strongly suggest that bacteriocins can be safely used.

  19. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhraj eKaur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies.

  20. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    .... Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines...

  1. Class IIc or Circular Bacteriocins

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    Martin-Visscher, Leah A.; van Belkum, Marco J.; Vederas, John C.

    The circular bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria represent a diverse class of antimicrobial peptides. These bacteriocins display enhanced stability compared to linear bacteriocins, which arises from their characteristic circular backbone. Currently, eight unique circular bacteriocins have been identified, and analysis of their gene clusters indicates that they likely utilize complex mechanisms for maturation and secretion, as well as for immunity. These bacteriocins target the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive cells, leading to pore formation that results in loss of ions, dissipation of membrane potential, and ultimately, cell death. Structural studies suggest that despite variation in their sequences, most of these bacteriocins likely adopt a common three-dimensional architecture, consisting of four or five tightly packed helices encompassing a hydrophobic core. There are many mysteries surrounding the biosynthesis of these peptides, particularly in regard to the mechanism by which they are cyclized. Elucidation of such a mechanism may provide exciting new approaches to the bioengineering of new, stable, and antimicrobially active circular peptides.

  2. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria and their potential in the preservation of fruit products.

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    Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto; Jain, Sona

    2017-11-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well-recognized for their potential as natural food preservatives. These antimicrobial peptides usually do not change the sensorial properties of food products and can be used in combination with traditional preservation methods to ensure microbial stability. In recent years, fruit products are increasingly being associated with food-borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, and bacteriocins are important candidates to preserve these products. Bacteriocins have been extensively studied to preserve foods of animal origin. However, little information is available for their use in vegetable products, especially in minimally processed ready-to-eat fruits. Although, many bacteriocins possess useful characteristics that can be used to preserve fruit products, to date, only nisin, enterocin AS-48, bovicin HC5, enterocin 416K1, pediocin and bificin C6165 have been tested for their activity against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in these products. Among these, only nisin and pediocin are approved to be commercially used as food additives, and their use in fruit products is still limited to certain countries. Considering the increasing demand for fresh-tasting fruit products and concern for public safety, the study of other bacteriocins with biochemical characteristics that make them candidates for the preservation of these products are of great interest. Efforts for their approval as food additives are also important. In this review, we discuss why the study of bacteriocins as an alternative method to preserve fruit products is important; we detail the biotechnological approaches for the use of bacteriocins in fruit products; and describe some bacteriocins that have been tested and have potential to be tested for the preservation of fruit products.

  3. Lactococcal bacteriocins : mode of action and immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, Koen; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria. Some of those synthesized by Lactococcus lactis have been characterized in great detail recently. The lactococcal bacteriocins are hydrophobic cationic peptides, which form pores in the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive cells.

  4. LACTOCOCCAL BACTERIOCINS - MODE OF ACTION AND IMMUNITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VENEMA, K; KOK, J; Venema, Gerhardus

    1995-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria. Some of those synthesized by Lactococcus lactis have been characterized in great detail recently. The lactococcal bacteriocins are hydrophobic cationic peptides, which form pores in the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive cells.

  5. Characteristic of bacteriocines and their application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karpiński, Tomasz M; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna K

    2013-01-01

    .... Until now, a few hundred bacteriocines were described. Classification of bacteriocines undergoes continuous alterations, as new developments regarding their structure, amino acid sequence and recognised mechanism of their action are available...

  6. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    OpenAIRE

    Thonart P.; Destain J.; Tine E.; Ngom A.; Diop MB.; Dubois-Dauphin R.

    2007-01-01

    A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identifi ed from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by L...

  7. Bacteriocins with a broader antimicrobial spectrum prevail in enterococcal symbionts isolated from the hoopoe's uropygial gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Soler, Juan J

    2013-09-01

    The use of compounds produced by symbiotic bacteria against pathogens in animals is one of the most exciting discoveries in ecological immunology. The study of those antibiotic metabolites will enable an understanding of the defensive strategies against pathogenic infections. Here, we explore the role of bacteriocins explaining the antimicrobial properties of symbiotic bacteria isolated from the uropygial gland of the hoopoe (Upupa epops). The antagonistic activity of 187 strains was assayed against eight indicator bacteria, and the presence of six bacteriocin genes was detected in the genomic DNA. The presence of bacteriocin genes correlated with the antimicrobial activity of isolates. The most frequently detected bacteriocin genes were those encoding for the MR10 and AS-48 enterocins, which confer the highest inhibition capacity. All the isolates belonged to the genus Enterococcus, with E. faecalis as the most abundant species, with the broadest antimicrobial spectrum and the highest antagonistic activity. The vast majority of E. faecalis strains carried the genes of MR10 and AS-48 in their genome. Therefore, we suggest that fitness-related benefits for hoopoes associated with harbouring the most bactericidal symbionts cause the highest frequency of strains carrying MR10 and AS-48 genes. The study of mechanisms associated with the acquisition and selection of bacterial symbionts by hoopoes is necessary, however, to reach further conclusions.

  8. Using Bacteriocins in Milk and Dairy Products

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    Evrim Güneş Altuntaş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by bacteria are ribosomally synthesed and antimicrobial peptides. Lots of strains of bacteria can produce bacteriocin. There are lots of researchs on using bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB which are known as safe (GRAS in foods. With this respect bacteriocin experiments have been generally in meat and dairy products where can become spoilage easily. It is allowed to use nisin in cheese a dairy product, and with cheese the experiments about using nisin, pediocin, lacticin, variacin etc. are going on the other dairy products. In this review some experiments on using bacteriocins and their results on milk and dairy products are reported.

  9. Cloning of Two Bacteriocin Genes from a Lactococcal Bacteriocin Plasmid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belkum, Marco J. van; Hayema, Bert Jan; Geis, Arnold; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard

    1989-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 9B4 plasmid p9B4-6 (60 kilobases [kb]), which specifies bacteriocin production and immunity, was analyzed with restriction endonucleases, and fragments of this plasmid were cloned into shuttle vectors based on the broad-host-range plasmid pWVO1. Two regions on p9B4

  10. Natural and Heterologous Production of Bacteriocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Luis M.; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E.

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, and their use as natural and nontoxic food preservatives has been the source of considerable interest for the research community. In addition, bacteriocins have been investigated for their potential use in human and veterinary applications and in the animal production field. In the native bacterial strain, most bacteriocins are synthesized as biologically inactive precursors, with N-terminal extensions, that are cleaved concomitantly during export of the bacteriocin by dedicated ABC transporters, or the general secretory pathway (GSP) or Sec-dependent pathway. However, a few bacteriocins are synthesized without an N-terminal extension, and others are circularized through a head-to-tail peptide bond, complicating the elucidation of their processing and transport across the cytoplasmic membrane. The high cost of synthetic bacteriocin synthesis and their low yields from many natural producers recommends the exploration of recombinant microbial systems for the heterologous production of bacteriocins. Other advantages of such systems include production of bacteriocins in safer hosts, increased bacteriocin production, control of bacteriocin gene expression, production of food ingredients with antimicrobial activity, construction of multibacteriocinogenic strains with a wider antagonistic spectrum, a better adaptation of the selected hosts to food environments, and providing antagonistic properties to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used as starter, protective, or probiotic cultures. The recombinant production of bacteriocins mostly relies on the use of expression vectors that replicate in Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and yeasts, whereas the production of bacteriocins in heterologous LAB hosts may be essentially based on the expression of native biosynthetic genes, by exchanging or replacing leader peptides and/or dedicated processing and secretion systems (ABC transporters

  11. Peptide Bacteriocins--Structure Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etayash, Hashem; Azmi, Sarfuddin; Dangeti, Ramana; Kaur, Kamaljit

    2015-01-01

    With the growing concerns in the scientific and health communities over increasing levels of antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptide bacteriocins have emerged as promising alternatives to conventional small molecule antibiotics. A substantial attention has recently focused on the utilization of bacteriocins in food preservation and health safety. Despite the fact that a large number of bacteriocins have been reported, only a few have been fully characterized and structurally elucidated. Since knowledge of the molecular structure is a key for understanding the mechanism of action and therapeutic effects of peptide, we centered our focus in this review on the structure-activity relationships of bacteriocins with a particular focus in seven bacteriocins, namely, nisin, microcin J25, microcin B17, microcin C, leucocin A, sakacin P, and pediocin PA-1. Significant structural changes responsible for the altered activity of the recent bacteriocin analogues are discussed here.

  12. [Characteristic, properties, prospect of application of bacteriocins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balko, A B

    2012-01-01

    Literary data and own research results dedicated to bacteriocin investigations have been analysed. Bacteriocins as one of the most widespread factors of bacterial antagonism, which are distinguished by the majority of microorganisms and characterized by bactericidal action in respect of representatives of phylogenetically related species have been considered. Allowing for their high lytic activity and narrow action specificity, the prospects for the use of the bacteriocins as possible alternative antibacterial remedies are examined. The basic approaches to bacteriocin classification, their variety, structure, killer properties and mechanisms of lytic action are presented. The perspective trends of the use and possible significance of these antibacterial substances in medicine are indicated.

  13. The activity of bacteriocins from Carnobacterium maltaromaticum UAL307 against gram-negative bacteria in combination with EDTA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Visscher, Leah A; Yoganathan, Sabesan; Sit, Clarissa S; Lohans, Christopher T; Vederas, John C

    2011-04-01

    Bacteriocins from gram-positive bacteria are potent antimicrobial peptides that inhibit pathogenic and food-spoilage bacteria. They are usually ineffective against gram-negative bacteria because they cannot penetrate the outer membrane (OM). Disruption of the OM of some gram-negative bacteria was reported to sensitize them to certain bacteriocins. This study evaluates the activity of three purified bacteriocins [carnocyclin A (CclA), carnobacteriocin BM1 (CbnBM1) and piscicolin 126 (PisA)] produced by Carnobacterium maltaromaticum UAL307, which has been approved for preservation of food in United States and Canada, against three gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli DH5α, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 14207 and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 23564). Their efficacy is compared with bacteriocins of other classes: the lantibiotics nisin A (positive control) and gallidermin, and the cyclic peptide subtilosin A (SubA). In combination with EDTA, CclA inhibited both E. coli and Pseudomonas. PisA inhibited Pseudomonas, but CbnBM1 showed weak activity toward Pseudomonas. In comparison, nisin and gallidermin inhibited the growth of all three strains, whereas SubA was active against E. coli and Pseudomonas only at high concentrations. The results reveal that UAL307 bacteriocins can inhibit gram-negative bacteria if the OM is weakened, and that the different classes of bacteriocins in this study exert unique modes of action toward such bacteria.

  14. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  15. Bacteriocins and Their Applications in Food Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Ramith; Shirahatti, Prithvi S; Devi, Aishwarya T; Prasad, Ashwini; J, Kumuda; M S, Lochana; F, Zameer; B L, Dhananjaya; M N, Nagendra Prasad

    2015-07-20

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized antimicrobial peptides or proteinaceous compounds produced by bacterial strains. They are generally effective in inhibiting the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. A high diversity of various bacteriocins is produced by many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods. Several bacteriocins from LAB extend potential applications in food preservation, thus help foods to be naturally preserved and richer in organoleptic and nutritional properties. Though chemical preservatives for the preservation of food are successful to some extent, their quality is not as satisfying as fresh food. Hence, an alternative is required and bacteriocins serve the purpose. Nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Numerous bacteriocins have been characterized chemically, biochemically, genetically and also at the molecular level to understand their basic mode of action. This article gives an overview of classification of bacteriocins, isolation & characterization, and mode of action. Besides, article highlights the optimized parameters for growth of bacteria in the production of bacteriocins and various bioassays for their determination. Special emphasis has been provided on explaining the beneficial aspects of nisin.

  16. Screening and characterization of novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendo, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are expected to be safe antimicrobial agents. While the best studied LAB bacteriocin, nisin A, is widely utilized as a food preservative, various novel ones are required to control undesirable bacteria more effectively. To discover novel bacteriocins at the early step of the screening process, we developed a rapid screening system that evaluates bacteriocins produced by newly isolated LAB based on their antibacterial spectra and molecular masses. By means of this system, various novel bacteriocins were identified, including a nisin variant, nisin Q, a two-peptide bacteriocin, lactococcin Q, a leaderless bacteriocin, lacticin Q, and a circular bacteriocin, lactocyclicin Q. Moreover, some LAB isolates were found to produce multiple bacteriocins. They were characterized as to their structures, mechanisms of action, and biosynthetic mechanisms. Novel LAB bacteriocins and their biosynthetic mechanisms are expected for applications such as food preservation and peptide engineering.

  17. Circular bacteriocins: biosynthesis and mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Christina; Brede, Dag A; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2014-11-01

    Circular bacteriocins are a group of N-to-C-terminally linked antimicrobial peptides, produced by Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Circular bacteriocins generally exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, including against common food-borne pathogens, such as Clostridium and Listeria spp. These peptides are further known for their high pH and thermal stability, as well as for resistance to many proteolytic enzymes, properties which make this group of bacteriocins highly promising for potential industrial applications and their biosynthesis of particular interest as a possible model system for the synthesis of highly stable bioactive peptides. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on this group of bacteriocins, with emphasis on the recent progress in understanding circular bacteriocin genetics, biosynthesis, and mode of action; in addition, we highlight the current challenges and future perspectives for the application of these peptides.

  18. Structure and genetics of circular bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belkum, Marco J; Martin-Visscher, Leah A; Vederas, John C

    2011-08-01

    Circular bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria. They are part of a growing family of ribosomally synthesized peptides with a head-to-tail cyclization of their backbone that are found in mammals, plants, fungi and bacteria and are exceptionally stable. These bacteriocins permeabilize the membrane of sensitive bacteria, causing loss of ions and dissipation of the membrane potential. Most circular bacteriocins probably adopt a common 3D structure consisting of four or five α-helices encompassing a hydrophobic core. This review compares the various structures, as well as the gene clusters that encode circular bacteriocins, and discusses the biogenesis of this unique class of bacteriocins.

  19. Diversity and applications of Bacillus bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Franz, Charles M A P; Ben Omar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Members of the genus Bacillus are known to produce a wide arsenal of antimicrobial substances, including peptide and lipopeptide antibiotics, and bacteriocins. Many of the Bacillus bacteriocins belong to the lantibiotics, a category of post-translationally modified peptides widely disseminated among different bacterial clades. Lantibiotics are among the best-characterized antimicrobial peptides at the levels of peptide structure, genetic determinants and biosynthesis mechanisms. Members of the genus Bacillus also produce many other nonmodified bacteriocins, some of which resemble the pediocin-like bacteriocins of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), while others show completely novel peptide sequences. Bacillus bacteriocins are increasingly becoming more important due to their sometimes broader spectra of inhibition (as compared with most LAB bacteriocins), which may include Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts or fungi, in addition to Gram-positive species, some of which are known to be pathogenic to humans and/or animals. The present review provides a general overview of Bacillus bacteriocins, including primary structure, biochemical and genetic characterization, classification and potential applications in food preservation as natural preservatives and in human and animal health as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Furthermore, it addresses their environmental applications, such as bioprotection against the pre- and post-harvest decay of vegetables, or as plant growth promoters.

  20. Application of bacteriocins in vegetable food biopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, Luca; Corsetti, Aldo

    2008-01-31

    Bacteriocins are generally recognized as "natural" compounds able to influence the safety and quality of foods. In the past years, a lot of works have been aimed to the detection, purification and characterisation of bacteriocins, as well as to their use in food preservation strategies. A list of review articles dealing with the application of bacteriocins to the protection of foods of animal origin is also available in literature, but it lacks for a summary on the utilization of bacteriocins in vegetable foods. These biopreservatives can be used in a number of ways in food systems and this paper mainly focuses on the state-of-the-art application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to promote the microbial stability of both fermented and non-fermented vegetable food products using bacteriocinogenic strains as starter cultures, protective cultures or co-cultures and the employment of pure bacteriocins as food additives. In addition, applications of bacteriocins from non-LAB are also reviewed. The scopes of future directions of research are summarised.

  1. Bacteriocins: New generation of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Motahari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are used as a first-choice to inhibit microbial growth since the discovery in the first half of the 19th century. Nevertheless, the widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains that is one of our century problems. Concerns about antibiotic resistant is so serious which huge budget is allocated for discovery of alternative drugs in many countries. Bacteriocin is one of these compounds which was first discovered in 1925, released into the medium by E. coli. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides or proteins ribosomally synthesized by many bacterial species. The use of this antimicrobial molecules in food industry obviate consumers need to safe food with least interference of chemical substances. Nisin, the most well-known bacteriocin, is the first bacteriocin found its way to food industry. Despite the widespread application of bacteriocins, resistance is seen in some species. Although it’s exact mechanism is not clear. So according to the today’s world need to find effective methods to control pathogens, studies of bacteriocins as a substitute for antibiotics are so important. The present review has studied the structure and activity of five classes of bacteriocins from gene to function in gram positive bacteria.

  2. Bacteriocins - a viable alternative to antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2013-02-01

    Solutions are urgently required for the growing number of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides produced by certain bacteria, might warrant serious consideration as alternatives to traditional antibiotics. These molecules exhibit significant potency against other bacteria (including antibiotic-resistant strains), are stable and can have narrow or broad activity spectra. Bacteriocins can even be produced in situ in the gut by probiotic bacteria to combat intestinal infections. Although the application of specific bacteriocins might be curtailed by the development of resistance, an understanding of the mechanisms by which such resistance could emerge will enable researchers to develop strategies to minimize this potential problem.

  3. Bacteriocins: Recent Trends and Potential Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Vandana; Panesar, Parmjit S; Bera, Manab B; Kennedy, John F

    2016-01-01

    In the modern era, there is great need for food preservation in both developing and developed countries due to increasing demand for extending shelf life and prevention of spoilage of food material. With the emergence of new pathogens and ability of micro-organisms to undergo changes, exploration of new avenues for the food preservation has gained importance. Moreover, awareness among consumers regarding harmful effects of chemical preservatives has been increased. Globally, altogether there is increasing demand by consumers for chemical-free and minimal processed food products. Potential of bacteriocin and its application in reducing the microbiological spoilages and in the preservation of food is long been recognized. Bacteriocins are normally specific to closely related species without disrupting the growth of other microbial populations. A number of applications of bacteriocin have been reported for humans, live stock, aquaculture etc. This review is focused on recent trends and applications of bacteriocins in different areas in addition to their biopreservative potential.

  4. [Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilková, Andrea; Sepova, Hana Kinová; Bilka, Frantisek; Balázová, Andrea

    2011-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria comprise several genera of gram-positive bacteria that are known for the production of structurally different antimicrobial substances. Among them, bacteriocins are nowadays in the centre of scientific interest. Bacteriocins, proteinaceous antimicrobial substances, are produced ribosomally and have usually a narrow spectrum of bacterial growth inhibition. According to their structure and the target of their activity, they are divided into four classes, although there are some suggestions for a renewed classification. The most interesting and usable class are lantibiotics. They comprise the most widely commercially used and well examined bacteriocin, nisin. The non-pathogenic character of lactic acid bacteria is advantageous for using their bacteriocins in food preservation as well as in feed supplements or in veterinary medicine.

  5. Development of Class IIa Bacteriocins as Therapeutic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lohans, Christopher T.; Vederas, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Class IIa bacteriocins have been primarily explored as natural food preservatives, but there is much interest in exploring the application of these peptides as therapeutic antimicrobial agents. Bacteriocins of this class possess antimicrobial activity against several important human pathogens. Therefore, the therapeutic development of these bacteriocins will be reviewed. Biological and chemical modifications to both stabilize and increase the potency of bacteriocins are discussed, as well as ...

  6. Bacteriocins From Lactic Acid Bacteria: Interest For Food Products Biopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Dortu, C.; Thonart, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: interest for food products biopreservation. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are low molecular weight antimicrobial peptides. They have inhibitory activity against the bacteria that are closed related to the producer strains and a narrow inhibitory spectrum. Nevertheless, most of them have activity against some food-born pathogenic bacteria as Listeria monocytogenes. The application of bacteriocins or bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria in ...

  7. Are bacteriocins underexploited? : Novel applications for old antimicrobials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalbán-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Maqueda, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized (poly)peptides produced by almost all prokaryotic lineages. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bacteriocin-producer probiotic organisms have been thoroughly studied due to their wide spectra of action, the long-term use in food fermentations and

  8. Structural characterization of thioether-bridged bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohans, Christopher T; Vederas, John C

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocins are a group of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, some of which are extensively post-translationally modified. Some bacteriocins, namely the lantibiotics and sactibiotics, contain one or more thioether bridges. However, these modifications complicate the structural elucidation of these bacteriocins using conventional techniques. This review will discuss the techniques and strategies that have been applied to determine the primary structures of lantibiotics and sactibiotics. A major challenge is to identify the topology of thioether bridges in these peptides (i.e., which amino-acid residues are involved in which bridges). Edman degradation, NMR spectroscopy and tandem MS have all been commonly applied to characterize these bacteriocins, but can be incompatible with the post-translational modifications present. Chemical modifications to the modified residues, such as desulfurization and reduction, make the treated bacteriocins more compatible to analysis by these standard peptide analytical techniques. Despite their differences in structure, similar strategies have proved useful to study the structures of both lantibiotics and sactibiotics.

  9. Lactobacillus salivarius: bacteriocin and probiotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, S; Manai, M; Kergourlay, G; Prévost, H; Connil, N; Chobert, J-M; Dousset, X

    2013-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) antimicrobial peptides typically exhibit antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, as well as spoilage bacteria. Therefore, they have attracted the greatest attention as tools for food biopreservation. In some countries LAB are already extensively used as probiotics in food processing and preservation. LAB derived bacteriocins have been utilized as oral, topical antibiotics or disinfectants. Lactobacillus salivarius is a promising probiotic candidate commonly isolated from human, porcine, and avian gastrointestinal tracts (GIT), many of which are producers of unmodified bacteriocins of sub-classes IIa, IIb and IId. It is a well-characterized bacteriocin producer and probiotic organism. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. This review gives an up-to-date overview of all L. salivarius strains, isolated from different origins, known as bacteriocin producing and/or potential probiotic.

  10. Import of periplasmic bacteriocins targeting the murein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Volkmar; Helbig, Stephanie; Patzer, Silke I

    2012-12-01

    Colicins are the only proteins imported by Escherichia coli and thus serve as tools to study the protein import mechanism. Most of the colicins studied degrade DNA, 16S RNA or tRNA in the cytoplasm, or form pores in the cytoplasmic membrane. Two bacteriocins, Cma (colicin M) and Pst (pesticin), affect the murein structure in the periplasm. These two bacteriocins must be imported only across the outer membrane and therefore represent the simplest system for studying protein import. Cma can be reversibly translocated across the outer membrane. Cma and Pst unfold during import. The crystal structure of Pst reveals a phage T4L (T4 lysozyme) fold of the activity domain. Both bacteriocins require energy for import which is translocated from the cytoplasmic membrane into the outer membrane by the Ton system. Cma kills cells only when the periplasmic FkpA PPIase (peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase)/chaperone is present.

  11. Bacteriocins active against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinter, Rhys; Milner, Joel; Walker, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Gram-negative phytopathogens cause significant losses in a diverse range of economically important crop plants. The effectiveness of traditional countermeasures, such as the breeding and introduction of resistant cultivars, is often limited by the dearth of available sources of genetic resistance. An alternative strategy to reduce loss to specific bacterial phytopathogens is to use narrow-spectrum protein antibiotics such as colicin-like bacteriocins as biocontrol agents. A number of colicin-like bacteriocins active against phytopathogenic bacteria have been described previously as have strategies for their application to biocontrol. In the present paper, we discuss these strategies and our own recent work on the identification and characterization of candidate bacteriocins and how these potent and selective antimicrobial agents can be effectively applied to the control of economically important plant disease.

  12. Applications of the bacteriocin, nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delves-Broughton, J; Blackburn, P; Evans, R J; Hugenholtz, J

    1996-02-01

    Nisin was first introduced commercially as a food preservative in the UK approximately 30 years ago. First established use was as a preservative in processed cheese products and since then numerous other applications in foods and beverages have been identified. It is currently recognised as a safe food preservative in approximately 50 countries. The established uses of nisin as a preservative in processed cheese, various pasteurised dairy products, and canned vegetables will be briefly reviewed. More recent applications of nisin include its use as a preservative in high moisture, hot baked flour products (crumpets) and pasteurised liquid egg. Renewed interest is evident in the use of nisin in natural cheese production. Considerable research has been carried out on the antilisterial properties of nisin in foods and a number of applications have been proposed. Uses of nisin to control spoilage lactic acid bacteria have been identified in beer, wine, alcohol production and low pH foods such as salad dressings. Further developments of nisin are likely to include synergistic action of nisin with chelators and other bacteriocins, and its use as an adjunct in novel food processing technology such as higher pressure sterilisation and electroporation. Production of highly purified nisin preparations and enhancement by chelators has led to interest in the use of nisin for human ulcer therapy, and mastitis control in cattle.

  13. Class IIa Bacteriocins: Diversity and New Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Cui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Class IIa bacteriocins are heat-stable, unmodified peptides with a conserved amino acids sequence YGNGV on their N-terminal domains, and have received much attention due to their generally recognized as safe (GRAS status, their high biological activity, and their excellent heat stability. They are promising and attractive agents that could function as biopreservatives in the food industry. This review summarizes the new developments in the area of class IIa bacteriocins and aims to provide uptodate information that can be used in designing future research.

  14. Class IIa bacteriocins: diversity and new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanhua; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Yunfeng; Shi, John; Zhang, Lanwei; Ding, Zhongqing; Qu, Xiaojun; Cui, Hongyu

    2012-12-06

    Class IIa bacteriocins are heat-stable, unmodified peptides with a conserved amino acids sequence YGNGV on their N-terminal domains, and have received much attention due to their generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, their high biological activity, and their excellent heat stability. They are promising and attractive agents that could function as biopreservatives in the food industry. This review summarizes the new developments in the area of class IIa bacteriocins and aims to provide uptodate information that can be used in designing future research.

  15. Class IIa Bacteriocins: Diversity and New Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanhua; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Yunfeng; Shi, John; Zhang, Lanwei; Ding, Zhongqing; Qu, Xiaojun; Cui, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Class IIa bacteriocins are heat-stable, unmodified peptides with a conserved amino acids sequence YGNGV on their N-terminal domains, and have received much attention due to their generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, their high biological activity, and their excellent heat stability. They are promising and attractive agents that could function as biopreservatives in the food industry. This review summarizes the new developments in the area of class IIa bacteriocins and aims to provide uptodate information that can be used in designing future research. PMID:23222636

  16. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus in Oat and Soya Drinks by Enterocin AS-48 in Combination with Other Antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, María José Grande; Aguayo, M Carmen López; Pulido, Rubén Pérez; Gálvez, Antonio; López, Rosario Lucas

    2015-09-01

    The presence of toxicogenic Staphylococcus aureus in foods and the dissemination of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the food chain are matters of concern. In the present study, the circular bacteriocin enterocin AS-48, applied singly or in combination with phenolic compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, and citral) or with 2-nitro-1-propanol (2NPOH), was investigated in the control of a cocktail made from 1 methicillin-sensitive and 1 MRSA strains inoculated on commercial oat and soya drinks. Enterocin AS-48 exhibited low bactericidal activity against staphylococci in the drinks investigated when applied singly. The combinations of sub-inhibitory concentrations of enterocin AS-48 (25 μg/mL) and phenolic compounds or 2NPOH caused complete inactivation of staphylococci in the drinks within 24 h of incubation at 22 °C. When tested in oat and soya drinks stored for 7 d at 10 °C, enterocin AS-48 (25 μg/mL) in combination with 2NPOH (5.5 mM) reduced viable counts rapidly in the case of oat drink (4.2 log cycles after 12 h) or slowly in soya drink (3.8 log cycles after 3 d). The same combined treatment applied on drinks stored at 22 °C achieved a fast inactivation of staphylococci within 12 to 24 h in both drinks, and no viable staphylococci were detected for up to 7 d of storage. Results from the study highlight the potential of enterocin AS-48 in combination with 2NPOH for inactivation of staphylococci. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression in Escherichia coli of lcnB, a Third Bacteriocin Determinant from the Lactococcal Bacteriocin Plasmid p9B4-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belkum, Marco J. van; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerhardus

    1992-01-01

    On the bacteriocin plasmid p9B4-6 of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 9B4, a third bacteriocin determinant was identified. The genes encoding bacteriocin production and immunity resided on a 1.2-kb CelII-ScaI fragment and were located adjacent to one of two previously identified bacteriocin operon

  18. LAB bacteriocin applications in the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Rocío López-Cuellar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early 2000s, the expectations about bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LABs were aimed at food applications. However, the effectiveness of bacteriocins against undesirable micro-organisms opened endless possibilities for innovative research. In the present review, we collected a database including 429 published papers and 245 granted patents (from 2004 to 2015. Based on bibliometric analysis, the progress of bacteriocin research in the last 11 years was discussed in detail. It was found that 164 patents were granted in 2010–2015, which is equivalent to 60% in comparison with previous years (i.e. only 81 patents were granted in 2004–2009. Currently, the research on bacteriocins is still gaining importance. In the realm of therapeutic strategies, about a 37% of the published research was focused on biomedical applications in the last decade. This vein of research is currently seeking for alternative solutions to problems such as cancer, systemic infections, oral-care, vaginal infections, contraception and skincare. On the other hand, food preservation, bio-nanomaterial and veterinary applications represent 29%, 25% and 9%, respectively. All this technology is being applied and will surely grow in the future, since about 31% of the patents granted since 2004 are focused on the biomedical area, 29% on food preservation, 5% on veterinary use; whereas 13% and 16% correspond to patents granted on production–purification systems and recombinant proteins or molecular modifications in the producer strains. This review contributes to the analysis of recent LAB bacteriocin applications and their role in safety, quality and improvement of human health.

  19. Are bacteriocins underexploited? Novel applications for old antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbán-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Maqueda, Mercedes

    2011-08-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized (poly)peptides produced by almost all prokaryotic lineages. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bacteriocin-producer probiotic organisms have been thoroughly studied due to their wide spectra of action, the long-term use in food fermentations and the consideration of these microorganisms as beneficial for human beings. Most of the studies on the biotechnological application of diverse bacteriocins have been focused on their use as food preservatives, nisin being the prototype successfully used in alimentation. However, bacteriocins from LAB have demonstrated a remarkable potential as therapeutics for medical or veterinary uses, alone or in combination with classical antimicrobials. Their interest is even higher now that the resistance to the antibacterials used in therapeutics is growing. In this review we explore exciting opportunities for bacteriocin and probiotic applications, highlighting the possibilities for new and innovative research in order to give the necessary attention to this type of natural molecules that exhibit a great potential.

  20. Anti-infective properties of bacteriocins: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Riadh; Fernandez, Benoit; Lacroix, Christophe; Fliss, Ismail

    2013-08-01

    Bacteriocin production is a widespread phenomenon among bacteria. Bacteriocins hold great promise for the treatment of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria and could be used in the future as alternatives to existing antibiotics. The anti-infective potential of bacteriocins for inhibiting pathogens has been shown in various food matrices including cheese, meat, and vegetables. However, their inhibition of pathogens in vivo remains unclear and needs more investigation, due mainly to difficulties associated with demonstrating their health benefits. Many bacteriocins produced by established or potential probiotic organisms have been evaluated as potential therapeutic agents and interesting findings have been documented in vitro as well as in a few in vivo studies. Some recent in vivo studies point to the efficacy of bacteriocin-based treatments of human and animal infections. While further investigation remains necessary before the possibilities for bacteriocins in clinical practice can be described more fully, this review provides an overview of their potential applications to human and veterinary health.

  1. Classification of Bacteriocins from Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Mary C.; Ross, R. Paul; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesised antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, including many Gram-positive species. The classification of bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria is complicated by their heterogeneity and thus, as the number of Gram-positive bacteriocins identified has continued to increase, classification schemes have had to continuously evolve. Here, we review the various classification approaches, both historical and current, their underlying scientific basis and their relative merit, and suggest a rational scheme given the state of the art.

  2. Class IId or Linear and Non-Pediocin-Like Bacteriocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatani, Shun; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    Class IId bacteriocins are one of the subclasses of class II bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. This class of bacteriocins, however, show a great diversity in their primary structures and modes of action. This chapter focuses on two aspects: (1) the description of those heterogeneous bacteriocins with the concept of three potential subgroups and (2) the modes of action of lactococcin A, lactococcin 972, and lacticin Q, each of which belongs to a different subgroup and is well characterized in its unique mode of action.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Bacteriocins and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Mataragas, Marios; Paramithiotis, Spiros

    Bacteriocins are peptides or proteins that exert an antimicrobial action against a range of microorganisms. Their production can be related to the antagonism within a certain ecological niche, as the producer strain, being itself immune to its action, generally gains a competitive advantage. Many Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms have been found to produce bacteriocins. The former, and especially the ones produced by lactic acid bacteria, has been the field of intensive research during the last decades mainly due to their properties that account for their suitability in food preservation and the benefits arising from that, and secondarily due to the broader inhibitory spectrum compared to the ones produced by Gramnegative microorganisms.

  4. The sactibiotic subclass of bacteriocins: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Harsh; Rea, Mary C; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2015-01-01

    The sactibiotics are a recently designated subclass of bacteriocins that contain characteristic cysteine sulphur to α -carbon linkages mediated through post-translational modifications. They are a relatively small subclass of bacteriocins compared to the most thoroughly studied lantibiotics. The sactibiotics that have been extensively studied thus far are thuricin CD, subtilosin A, thurincin H, and propionicin F. Despite their recent discovery, there have already been significant advances made in the study of sactibiotics, most notably the discovery of the narrow spectrum anti-Clostridium difficile sactibiotic, thuricin CD. In addition, scientists have gained insights into the mechanisms of action of the sactibiotic subtilosin A, which targets Listeria monocytogenes,Gardnerella vaginalis, and other pathogens. Also, the development of heterologous host systems and homologous expression and site-directed mutagenesis systems for the sactibiotic thurincin H have opened up many opportunities for further studies on this sactibiotic. These and other recent studies concerning the molecular biology, 3D structural elucidation, mode of action, self-protection mechanisms, and antimicrobial spectrum of the sactibiotic subgroup of bacteriocins are discussed in this review.

  5. Bacteriocin-mediated competition in cystic fibrosis lung infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoul, Melanie; West, Stuart A.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriocins are toxins produced by bacteria to kill competitors of the same species. Theory and laboratory experiments suggest that bacteriocin production and immunity play a key role in the competitive dynamics of bacterial strains. The extent to which this is the case in natural populations, e...

  6. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ” by Anthony Sikes Wayne Muller and Claire Lee March 2015...From - To) October 2010 – November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ...nisin and pediocin. Whey + yeast extract was the best performing whey fermentation media. The nisin producer strain Lactococcus. lactis ssp. lactis was

  7. Bacteriocins : mechanism of membrane insertion and pore formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Gert N.; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria produce several types of pore forming peptides. Class I bacteriocins are lantibiotics that contain (methyl)lanthionine residues that may form intramolecular thioether rings. These peptides generally have a broad spectrum of activity and form unstable pores. Class II bacteriocins

  8. Resistance to bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire; Coelho, Marcus Lívio Varella; Santos, Olinda Cabral da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Bacteriocins are prokaryotic proteins or peptides with antimicrobial activity. Most of them exhibit a broad spectrum of activity, inhibiting micro-organisms belonging to different genera and species, including many bacterial pathogens which cause human, animal or plant infections. Therefore, these substances have potential biotechnological applications in either food preservation or prevention and control of bacterial infectious diseases. However, there is concern that continuous exposure of bacteria to bacteriocins may select cells resistant to them, as observed for conventional antimicrobials. Based on the models already investigated, bacteriocin resistance may be either innate or acquired and seems to be a complex phenomenon, arising at different frequencies (generally from 10(-9) to 10(-2)) and by different mechanisms, even amongst strains of the same bacterial species. In the present review, we discuss the prevalence, development and molecular mechanisms involved in resistance to bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria. These mechanisms generally involve changes in the bacterial cell envelope, which result in (i) reduction or loss of bacteriocin binding or insertion, (ii) bacteriocin sequestering, (iii) bacteriocin efflux pumping (export) and (iv) bacteriocin degradation, amongst others. Strategies that can be used to overcome this resistance are also addressed.

  9. Bacteriocins : mechanism of membrane insertion and pore formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, G.N.; Konings, W.N; Driessen, A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria produce several types of pore forming peptides. Class I bacteriocins are lantibiotics that contain (methyl)lanthionine residues that may form intramolecular thioether rings. These peptides generally have a broad spectrum of activity and form unstable pores. Class II bacteriocins

  10. Bacteriocins: Novel Solutions to Age Old Spore-Related Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kevin; Field, Des; Rea, Mary C; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life. Bacteriocins also show additive/synergistic effects when used in combination with other treatments, such as heating, high pressure, organic compounds, and as part of food packaging. These features are particularly attractive from the perspective of controlling sporeforming bacteria. Bacterial spores are common contaminants of food products, and their outgrowth may cause food spoilage or food-borne illness. They are of particular concern to the food industry due to their thermal and chemical resistance in their dormant state. However, when spores germinate they lose the majority of their resistance traits, making them susceptible to a variety of food processing treatments. Bacteriocins represent one potential treatment as they may inhibit spores in the post-germination/outgrowth phase of the spore cycle. Spore eradication and control in food is critical, as they are able to spoil and in certain cases compromise the safety of food by producing dangerous toxins. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which bacteriocins exert their sporostatic/sporicidal activity against bacterial spores will ultimately facilitate their optimal use in food. This review will focus on the use of bacteriocins alone, or in combination with other innovative processing methods to control spores in food, the current knowledge and gaps therein with regard to bacteriocin-spore interactions and discuss future research approaches to enable spores to be more

  11. Bacteriocins: Novel Solutions to Age Old Spore-Related Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eEgan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural, approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life. Bacteriocins also show additive/synergistic effects when used in combination with other treatments, such as heating, high pressure, organic compounds, and as part of food packaging. These features are particularly attractive from the perspective of controlling sporeforming bacteria. Bacterial spores are common contaminants of food products, and their outgrowth may cause food spoilage or food-borne illness. They are of particular concern to the food industry due to their thermal and chemical resistance in their dormant state. However, when spores germinate they lose the majority of their resistance traits, making them susceptible to a variety of food processing treatments. Bacteriocins represent one potential treatment as they may inhibit spores in the post-germination/outgrowth phase of the spore cycle. Spore eradication and control in food is critical, as they are able to spoil and in certain cases compromise the safety of food by producing dangerous toxins. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which bacteriocins exert their sporostatic/sporicidal activity against bacterial spores will ultimately facilitate their optimal use in food. This review will focus on the use of bacteriocins alone, or in combination with other innovative processing methods to control spores in food, the current knowledge and gaps therein with regard to bacteriocin-spore interactions and discuss future research approaches to enable

  12. Therapeutic enhancement of newly derived bacteriocins against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Eglal I; Mossallam, Shereen F; Mahrous, Hoda

    2014-11-01

    Trials for identifying efficient anti-giardial agents are still ongoing. Nowadays, bacteriocins have attracted the attention as potential antimicrobial compounds. For the first time, the current study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of bacteriocins derived from newly isolated Egyptian strains of probiotics Lactobacilli; L. acidophilus (P106) and L. plantarum (P164) against Giardia lamblia. Bacteriocins' efficacy was evaluated both in vitro; by growth inhibition and adherence assays, and in vivo; through estimation of parasite density, intestinal histopathological examination and ultrastructural analysis of Giardia trophozoites. In vivo bacteriocins' clinical safety was assessed. In vitro results proved that 50 µg of L. acidophilus bacteriocin induced reduction of the mean Giardia lamblia trophozoites by 58.3 ± 4.04%, while at lower concentrations of 10 and 20 µg of both L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, non significant reduction of the mean parasite density was achieved. In vitro trophozoites adherence was susceptible to the tested bacteriocins at all studied concentrations with variable degrees, while the highest adherence reduction was demonstrated using 50 µg of L acidophilus bacteriocin. In vivo, oral inoculation of 50 µg/mouse L. acidophilus bacteriocin for 5 successive days resulted in a noteworthy decline of the intestinal parasite density, along with amelioration of intestinal pathology of infected mice. Ultrastructural examination proved thatfive doses of L. acidophilus bacteriocin showed marked changes in cellular architecture of the trophozoites with evident disorganization of the cell membrane, adhesive disc and cytoplasmic components. This is the first reported study of the safe anti-giardial efficacy of L. acidophilus (P106) derived bacteriocin, hence highlighting its great promise as a potential therapeutic safe alternative to existing commercial drugs.

  13. Bacteriocins: Novel Solutions to Age Old Spore-Related Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kevin; Field, Des; Rea, Mary C.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life. Bacteriocins also show additive/synergistic effects when used in combination with other treatments, such as heating, high pressure, organic compounds, and as part of food packaging. These features are particularly attractive from the perspective of controlling sporeforming bacteria. Bacterial spores are common contaminants of food products, and their outgrowth may cause food spoilage or food-borne illness. They are of particular concern to the food industry due to their thermal and chemical resistance in their dormant state. However, when spores germinate they lose the majority of their resistance traits, making them susceptible to a variety of food processing treatments. Bacteriocins represent one potential treatment as they may inhibit spores in the post-germination/outgrowth phase of the spore cycle. Spore eradication and control in food is critical, as they are able to spoil and in certain cases compromise the safety of food by producing dangerous toxins. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which bacteriocins exert their sporostatic/sporicidal activity against bacterial spores will ultimately facilitate their optimal use in food. This review will focus on the use of bacteriocins alone, or in combination with other innovative processing methods to control spores in food, the current knowledge and gaps therein with regard to bacteriocin-spore interactions and discuss future research approaches to enable spores to be more

  14. Cyclic derangements

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, Sami H

    2010-01-01

    A classic problem in enumerative combinatorics is to count the number of derangements, that is, permutations with no fixed point. Inspired by a recent generalization to facet derangements of the hypercube by Gordon and McMahon, we generalize this problem to enumerating derangements in the wreath product of any finite cyclic group with the symmetric group. We also give q- and (q, t)-analogs for cyclic derangements, generalizing results of Brenti and Gessel.

  15. Identification of Lactococcus-Specific Bacteriocins Produced by Lactococcal Isolates, and the Discovery of a Novel Bacteriocin, Lactococcin Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Naoki; Seto, Hiromi; Koga, Shoko; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria that produce Lactococcus-specific bacteriocins were isolated and identified as Lactococcus lactis from fresh corn or lettuce. Among them, four isolates were identified as lactococcin Q producers. Seven isolates showed antimicrobial activity against a lactococcin Q producer, L. lactis QU 4, as well as against nisin Z and lacticin Q producers belonging to L. lactis. Strain QU 7 was selected as a standard strain and showed no cross-immunity to lactococcin Q or other lactococcal bacteriocins. The bacteriocin produced by strain QU 7 was purified in three chromatographic steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 5041.35 Da. The amino acid sequence analysis revealed that it is a novel class IId bacteriocin, referred to as lactococcin Z. It consisted of 45 amino acid residues. The lczA gene encoding the prepeptide of lactococcin Z showed homology to lactococcins A, B, and M. Thus, this report demonstrates a new example of Lactococcus-specific bacteriocins.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIOCIN FROM PROBIOTIC LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayachitra*, C.M. Sukanya and N. Krithiga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In our study, the sample (cheese was selected for isolation and identification of Lactobacillus species as local probiotic isolate. The strain was subjected to microscopic and macroscopic investigations for probiotic selection. The world health organization criteria (WHO were applied to all Lactobacillus species against E. coli, P. areoginosa, S. aerus, Chromobacterium, Serratia and A. flavus, antibiotic sensitivity test, acid and bile tolerance test, heamolytic activity. Antimicrobial compound called bacteriocin was partially purified. The Lactobacillus species was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and specific catalase gene was also amplified. Data showed that Lactobacillus plantarum has a high inhibitory activity, tolerant to bile and acid, highly resistant to many antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptide was partially purified, characterized and bacteriocin produced by L. plantarum remained constant activity after heating at 121oC for 10 min. L. plantarum may be an alternative and promising way for eradicating many diseases. L. plantarum produces antimicrobial metabolites can give reasonable assurance of the control of pathogenic microorganisms. Increase the number of food-poisoning patients, the inhibition of the bacterial growth or production of enterotoxin such as verotoxins by administrating Lactobacilli bacteriocins would be of great importance. Lactobacillus fulfills the basic criteria required for probiotic strains which survive in in-vitro condition. The experimental strain exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activities against the pathogens. L. plantarum has high probiotic potential for eradicating many diseases, mainly the suppression of A. flavus which produce Aflatoxin. Pharmaceutical and nutritional industries are exploring more natural treatments for health conscious consumers as natural treatments have been effective.

  17. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis: generalities and potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Marroquín, Elma Laura; Galán-Wong, Luis J.; Moreno-Medina, Víctor Ricardo; Reyes-López, Miguel Ángel; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito

    2016-01-01

    The members of the Bacillus thuringiensis group, commonly known as Bt, produce a huge number of metabolites, which show biocidal and antagonistic activity. B. thuringiensis is widely known for synthesizing Cry, Vip and Cyt proteins, active against insects and other parasporins with biocidal activity against certain types of cancerous cells. Nevertheless, B. thuringiensis also synthesizes compounds with antimicrobial activity, especially bacteriocins. Some B. thuringiensis bacteriocins resemble lantibiotics and other small linear peptides (class IIa) from the lactic acid bacteria bacteriocins classification system. Although many bacteriocins produced by Bt have been reported, there is no proper classification for them. In this work, we have grouped these based on molecular weight and functionality. Bacteriocins are small peptides synthesized by bacteria, presenting inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and to a lesser extent against fungi. These molecules represent a good study model in the search for microbial control alternatives. Lactic acid bacteria produces a huge number of these types of molecules with great potential. Nonetheless, members of the Bacillus, cereus group, especially B. thuringiensis, emerge as an attractive alternative for obtaining bacteriocins showing novel activities. This review describes the potential applications of B. thuringiensis bacteriocins in the control of foodborne pathogens, environment and medical area. PMID:27340340

  18. The role of bacteriocins as selfish genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, R Fredrik; Bayramoglu, Bihter; Gillor, Osnat; Ackermann, Martin

    2013-06-23

    Bacteria produce a wide arsenal of toxic compounds in order to kill competing species. Bacteriocins, protein-based toxins produced by nearly all bacteria, have generally been considered a ubiquitous anti-competitor strategy, used to kill competing bacterial strains. Some of these bacteriocins are encoded on plasmids, which also code for closely linked immunity compounds (thereby rendering toxin producing cells immune to their own toxin). However, the production of bacteriocins can also be interpreted as a means to promote plasmid stability by preferentially selecting for cells carrying the plasmid. If, for example, a cell were to lose the plasmid, it would no longer produce the immunity compound and would be killed by its bacteriocin-producing clone mates. In this respect, bacteriocins can be regarded as similar to previously described toxin-antitoxin systems that are able promote the stable transmission of plasmids to daughter cells. In order to test this prediction, we carried out an experimental evolution study using the bacterium Escherichia coli, finding that bacteriocins can indeed select for the stable maintenance of plasmids. This suggests that bacteriocins can act primarily as selfish genetic elements promoting their own transmission in the population, which may help explain their unique ecology and evolution.

  19. Diversity and dynamics of bacteriocins from human microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinshui; Gänzle, Michael G; Lin, Xiaoxi B; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Human commensal microbiota are an important determinant of health and disease of the host. Different human body sites harbour different bacterial microbiota, bacterial communities that maintain a stable balance. However, many of the factors influencing the stabilities of bacterial communities associated with humans remain unknown. In this study, we identified putative bacteriocins produced by human commensal microbiota. Bacteriocins are peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity that contribute to the stability and dynamics of microbial communities. We employed bioinformatic analyses to identify putative bacteriocin sequences in metagenomic sequences obtained from different human body sites. Prevailing bacterial taxa of the putative bacteriocins producers matched the most abundant organisms in each human body site. Remarkably, we found that samples from different body sites contain different density of putative bacteriocin genes, with the highest in samples from the vagina, the airway, and the oral cavity and the lowest in those from gut. Inherent differences of different body sites thus influence the density and types of bacteriocins produced by commensal bacteria. Our results suggest that bacteriocins play important roles to allow different bacteria to occupy several human body sites, and to establish a long-term commensal relationship with human hosts.

  20. Genome level analysis of bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetigyata Pratap; Tiwari, Abhay; Bansal, Ankiti; Thakur, Shruti; Sharma, Garima; Gabrani, Reema

    2015-06-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides which are ribosomally synthesized by mainly all bacterial species. LABs (lactic acid bacteria) are a diverse group of bacteria that include around 20 genera of various species. Though LABs have a tremendous potential for production of anti-microbial peptides, this group of bacteria is still underexplored for bacteriocins. To study the diversity among bacteriocin encoding clusters and the putative bacteriocin precursors, genome mining was performed on 20 different species of LAB not reported to be bacteriocin producers. The phylogenetic tree of gyrB, rpoB, and 16S rRNA were constructed using MEGA6 software to analyze the diversity among strains. Putative bacteriocins operons identified were found to be diverse and were further characterized on the basis of physiochemical properties and the secondary structure. The presence of at least two cysteine residues in most of the observed putative bacteriocins leads to disulphide bond formation and provide stability. Our data suggests that LABs are prolific source of low molecular weight non modified peptides.

  1. Potency Of Bacteriocin For Animal Health And Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria related to animal and public health stresses the importance of decreasing the use of antibiotics in animal production. The reduction of antibiotic application in livestock can only be achieved if alternative antimicrobial strategies are available. A number of strategies have been explored to control microbial pathogens and to improve growth and feed efficiency in livestock without the use of antibiotics. Bacteriocins have been more extensively studied and proposed as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics in animal husbandry. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides ribosomally synthesized by many species of Bacteria and some strains of Archaea. In general, bacteriocins just exhibited bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against other bacteria that are closely related to the producing strain. The main mechanisms of bacteriocin activity vary from pore formation in cytoplasmic membranes to the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis and enzyme activities (RNAse or DNAse in target cells. The use of bacteriocins in probiotic applications, as preservatives, and most excitingly as alternatives to conventional antibiotics is being broadly explored and studied. This review will describe the bacteriocins potency for animal health and food safety, as well as the results of bacteriocin study that had been conducted in Indonesia.

  2. Nanotechnology: A Valuable Strategy to Improve Bacteriocin Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Hazem A.; Khairalla, Ahmed S.; El-Gendy, Ahmed O.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are proteinaceous antibacterial compounds, produced by diverse bacteria, which have been successfully used as: (i) food biopreservative; (ii) anti-biofilm agents; and (iii) additives or alternatives to the currently existing antibiotics, to minimize the risk of emergence of resistant strains. However, there are several limitations that challenge the use of bacteriocins as biopreservatives/antibacterial agents. One of the most promising avenues to overcome these limitations is the use of nanoformulations. This review highlights the practical difficulties with using bacteriocins to control pathogenic microorganisms, and provides an overview on the role of nanotechnology in improving the antimicrobial activity and the physicochemical properties of these peptides. PMID:27695440

  3. Antimicrobial potential of bacteriocins: in therapy, agriculture and food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Varish; Khan, Mohd Sajid; Jamal, Qazi Mohammad Sajid; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Al Karaawi, Mohammad A; Siddiqui, Mughees Uddin

    2017-01-01

    Due to the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the toxicity associated with currently used antibiotics, peptide antibiotics are the need of the hour. Thus, demand for new antimicrobial agents has brought great interest in new technologies to enhance safety. One such antimicrobial molecule is bacteriocin, synthesised by various micro-organisms. Bacteriocins are widely used in agriculture, veterinary medicine as a therapeutic, and as a food preservative agent to control various infectious and food-borne pathogens. In this review, we highlight the potential therapeutic and food preservative applications of bacteriocin.

  4. Cyclic Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dennis H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a simple experiment that has become popular in chemical research because it can provide useful information about redox reactions in a form which is easily obtained and interpreted. Discusses principles of the method and illustrates its use in the study of four electrode reactions. (Author/JN)

  5. Cyclic Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dennis H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a simple experiment that has become popular in chemical research because it can provide useful information about redox reactions in a form which is easily obtained and interpreted. Discusses principles of the method and illustrates its use in the study of four electrode reactions. (Author/JN)

  6. Partial characterization of bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pediococcus acidilactici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nallusamy Sivakumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pediococcus acidilactici were isolated from milk and meat samples, respectively. An attempt was made to produce bacteriocin in a Dairy Based (DB medium using these organisms. Higher bacteriocin activity was shown by L. acidophilus in the DB medium. Bacteriocins of both the organisms were effective against food pathogens. The bacteriocins were stable at pH 3 - 9 up to 24 h and active at 100ºC. The bacteriocins could be stored at -20ºC for at least 45 days, at 4ºC for 20 days and at 37ºC for 5 days.

  7. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria: extending the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Mu, Dongdong; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that produce lactic acid as the major product during the fermentation process. LAB are Gram-positive bacteria with great biotechnological potential in the food industry. They can produce bacteriocins, which are proteinaceous antimicrobial molecules with a diverse genetic origin, posttranslationally modified or not, that can help the producer organism to outcompete other bacterial species. In this review, we focus on the various types of bacteriocins that can be found in LAB and the organization and regulation of the gene clusters responsible for their production and biosynthesis, and consider the food applications of the prototype bacteriocins from LAB. Furthermore, we propose a revised classification of bacteriocins that can accommodate the increasing number of classes reported over the last years.

  8. Bacteriocins and lactic acid bacteria - a minireview | Savadogo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... Fermentation of various foods by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one of the oldest forms of ... scientific research about lactic acid bacteria as probiotics and their bacteriocins for healthy nutrition of fermented food.

  9. New developments and applications of bacteriocins and peptides in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, S; Stanton, C; Hill, C; Ross, R P

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased desire for sophisticated foods, whereby consumers harbor higher expectations of health-promoting benefits above basic nutrition. Moreover, there is a move from the adulteration of foods with chemical preservatives toward biopreservation. Such expectations have led scientists to identify novel approaches to satisfy both demands, which utilize bacteriocin and peptide-based solutions. The best known examples of biopreservation involve bacteriocins. However, with the exception of nisin, bacteriocins have received limited use in the food industry. Peptides can be added to foods to improve consumer health. Some of the best known examples are angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides, which inhibit ACE, a key enzyme involved in blood pressure (BP) regulation. To be effective, these peptides must be bioavailable, but by their nature, peptides are degraded by digestion with proteolytic enzymes. This review critically discusses the use and potential of peptides and bacteriocins in food systems in terms of safety, quality, and improvement of human health.

  10. Potentials for bacteriocin development to control Campylobacter in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dramatically enhanced biosecurity, enhanced fly screen control, competitive exclusion, immunization and phage therapies may hold suggestions to experimentally control flock infections but have yet to be demonstrated as commercially plausible or effective. Alternatively, bacteriocins (BCN) which are...

  11. Bacteriocin formation by dominant aerobic sporeformers isolated from traditional maari

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaboré, Donatien; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2012-01-01

    that the antimicrobial substances produced were heat stable, in-sensitive to catalase, sensitive to protease and trypsin but resistant to the proteolytic action of papain and proteinase K and equally active at pH values ranging from 3 to 11. Bacteriocin secretion started in late exponential growth phase and maximum...... activity was detected during the stationary growth phase. The production of bacteriocin by B. subtilis B3, B122 and B222 was dependent on the aeration conditions. Maximum production of bacteriocin was observed under reduced aeration. Specific primers were used to screen isolates B3, B122 and B222 for genes...... involved in the synthesis of the bacteriocins subtilosin A, subtilin, sublancin and ericin. Amplicons of the expected sizes were detected for iywB, sboA, sboX, albA and spaS involved in the biosynthesis of subtilosin and subtilin, respectively. The translated nucleotide sequences had 100% identity...

  12. Bacteriocin and cellulose production by lactic acid bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... bacteria isolated from West African soft cheese. Adetunji ... bacteriocin by agar well diffusion method using the supernatant of centrifuged test cultures. Four ... which are recalcitrant to traditional food preservation method ...

  13. Cultivation, isolation and characterization of bacteriocin from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation, isolation and characterization of bacteriocin from fresh cow milk and meat samples obtained from Lapai Market in Niger State Nigeria. ... effective against predominant food spoilers (Saccharomyces, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and ...

  14. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis: generalities and potential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Marroquín, Elma Laura; Galán-Wong, Luis J.; Moreno-Medina, Víctor Ricardo; Reyes-López, Miguel Ángel; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito

    2016-01-01

    The members of the Bacillus thuringiensis group, commonly known as Bt, produce a huge number of metabolites, which show biocidal and antagonistic activity. B. thuringiensis is widely known for synthesizing Cry, Vip and Cyt proteins, active against insects and other parasporins with biocidal activity against certain types of cancerous cells. Nevertheless, B. thuringiensis also synthesizes compounds with antimicrobial activity, especially bacteriocins. Some B. thuringiensis bacteriocins resembl...

  15. Mechanisms of resistance to bacteriocins targeting the mannose phosphotransferase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Morten; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2011-05-01

    The membrane proteins IIC and IID of the mannose phosphotransferase system (Man-PTS) together form a membrane-located complex that serves as a receptor for several different bacteriocins, including the pediocin-like class IIa bacteriocins and the class IIc bacteriocin lactococcin A. Bacterial strains sensitive to class IIa bacteriocins readily give rise to resistant mutants upon bacteriocin exposure. In the present study, we have therefore investigated lactococcin A-resistant mutants of Lactococcus lactis as well as natural food isolates of Listeria monocytogenes with different susceptibilities to class IIa bacteriocins. We found two major mechanisms of resistance. The first involves downregulation of Man-PTS gene expression, which takes place both in spontaneous resistant mutants and in natural resistant isolates. The second involves normal expression of the Man-PTS system, but the underlying mechanism of resistance for these cells is unknown. In some cases, the resistant phenotype was linked to a shift in the metabolism; i.e., reduced growth on glucose due to reduction in Man-PTS expression was accompanied by enhanced growth on another sugar, such as galactose. The implications of these findings in terms of metabolic heterogeneity are discussed.

  16. Utilization of bacteriocin-producing bacteria in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Patrovský

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria have been used since ancient times for food preparation and for bio-conservation by fermentation. Selected strains are capable of producing antimicrobial peptides - bacteriocins, which can be natural preservatives, especially in products with short shelf lives. The present study is focused on inhibitory effects of the bacteriocin-producing bacteria strains Enterococcus faecium, Pediococccus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum against Listeria innocua as an indicator microorganism. Freeze-dried preparations of bacterial strains producing particular bacteriocins were tested by agar well-diffusion assay and by the traditional spread plate method. Plantaricin exhibited the highest anti-listerial effect among the tested bacteriocins. Pediocin also demonstrated a distinct inhibitory effect, but enterocin appeared to be heat labile and its efficiency was also suppressed under cold storage conditions. Plantaricin reduced Listeria innocua counts by 1 log in dairy spread made from cheese and quark. The formation of bacteriocins by various Lactobacillus plantarum strains were substantially influenced by the cultivation conditions of the mother culture and by the microbial preparation process before freeze-drying. Bacteriocins introduced into foodstuffs via protective cultures in situ offer new perspectives on enhancing food quality and safety.

  17. Cyclic multiverses

    CERN Document Server

    Marosek, Konrad; Balcerzak, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the idea of regularization of singularities due to the variability of the fundamental constants in cosmology we first study the cyclic universe models. We find two models of oscillating mass density and pressure regularized by varying gravitational constant $G$. Then, we extend this idea onto the multiverse containing cyclic individual universes with either growing or decreasing entropy though leaving the net entropy constant. In order to get the key idea, we consider the doubleverse with the same geometrical evolution of the two "parallel" universes with their physical evolution (physical coupling constants $c(t)$ and $G(t)$) being different. An interesting point is that there is a possibility to exchange the universes at the point of maximum expansion -- the fact which was already noticed in quantum cosmology. Similar scenario is also possible within the framework of Brans-Dicke theory.

  18. BACTERIOCINS AND BACTERIOPHAGE LYTIC PROTEINS AS ALTERNATIVES TO ANTIBIOTICS FROM RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND USA COLLABORATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel anti-microbial peptides (bacteriocins) were isolated and characterized in collaborative research between PMSRU, ARS-USDA scientists and representatives of the State Research Center for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (SRCAMB) in Obolensk, Russian Federation. The bacteriocins are effect...

  19. Purification and partial characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana; Akkoç, Nefise; Akçelik, Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are possessing ability to synthesize antimicrobial compounds (like bacteriocin) during their growth. In this regard, novel bacteriocin compound secreting capability of LAB isolated from Tulum Cheese in Turkey was demonstrated. The synthesized bacteriocin was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration. The molecular weight (≈3.4 kDa) of obtained bacteriocin was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, which revealed single peptide band. Molecular identification of LAB strain isolated from Tulum Cheese was conducted using 16S rDNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171. The amino acid sequences (KKIDTRTGKTMEKTEKKIELSLKNMKTAT) of the bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171 was found unique and novel than reported bacteriocins. Further, the bacteriocin was possessed the thermostable property and active at wide range of pH values from 1 to 11. Thus, bacteriocin reported in this study has the potential applications property as food preservative agent.

  20. A new structure-based classification of gram-positive bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhir, Abdelmajid; Hammami, Riadh; Fliss, Ismail; Hamida, Jeannette Ben

    2010-08-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized peptides or proteins produced by a wide range of bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of this group of natural substances against foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria has raised considerable interest for their application in food preservation. Classifying these bacteriocins in well defined classes according to their biochemical properties is a major step towards characterizing these anti-infective peptides and understanding their mode of action. Actually, the chosen criteria for bacteriocins' classification lack consistency and coherence. So, various classification schemes of bacteriocins resulted various levels of contradiction and sorting inefficiencies leading to bacteriocins belonging to more than one class at the same time and to a general lack of classification of many bacteriocins. Establishing a coherent and adequate classification scheme for these bacteriocins is sought after by several researchers in the field. It is not straightforward to formulate an efficient classification scheme that encompasses all of the existing bacteriocins. In the light of the structural data, here we revisit the previously proposed contradictory classification and we define new structure-based sequence fingerprints that support a subdivision of the bacteriocins into 12 groups. The paper lays down a resourceful and consistent classification approach that resulted in classifying more than 70% of bacteriocins known to date and with potential to identify distinct classes for the remaining unclassified bacteriocins. Identified groups are characterized by the presence of highly conserved short amino acid motifs. Furthermore, unclassified bacteriocins are expected to form an identified group when there will be sufficient sequences.

  1. Potentiated anti-microsporidial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus CH1 bacteriocin using gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossallam, Shereen F; Amer, Eglal I; Diab, Radwa G

    2014-09-01

    Through increased awareness and improved diagnostics, microsporidiosis has now been identified in a broader range of human populations; however current therapies are inconsistently effective. Recently, probiotics were determined as means for the control of intestinal parasitic infections through their secretory products; bacteriocins. This is the first study on the effect of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus CH1 bacteriocin, with or without gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs), against intestinal microsporidiosis in immunosuppressed mice. Fecal and intestinal spore loads, besides viability, extrusion and infectivity of spores from treated animals were assessed. Results showed that the anti-microsporidial effects of bacteriocin were significantly potent. This efficiency was further potentiated upon conjugating bacteriocins with Au-NPs, as it induced a strikingly sustained reduction in fecal spore shedding after cessation of therapy by 1 week (94.26%). Furthermore, reduction in intestinal spore load was highest in bacteriocin/Au-NPs-inoculated mice (89.7%) followed by bacteriocin-inoculated group (73.5%). Spores encountered from stool of bacteriocin/Au-NPs group showed 92.4% viability, versus 93.7% in bacteriocin group. Spore extrusion and infectivity were most inhibited by exposure to bacteriocin/Au-NPs. Safety of bacteriocin/Au-NPs was also verified. Thus, considering the results of the present work, L. acidophilus CH1-derived bacteriocin can present a powerful safe therapy against intestinal microsporidiosis.

  2. Cyclic Vitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Sven

    2014-01-01

    an enthusiastic worshipping of life, one that holds youth, health, strength and beauty as its primary attributes, and which was prevalent in all aspects of cultural life around 1900. But even the post war founders of the Vitalist re-conceptualisation of this era, Wolfdietrich Rasch and Gunter Martens, warned...... that also encompasses notions of destruction, decay and death. “All life symbols in literature around 1900 are at the same time symbols of death”. (Rasch, W. 1967:24) Through the analyses of three poems, this article aims to show concrete examples of how cyclic Vitalist thinking is embedded in poetry...

  3. Harnessing bacteriocin biology as targeted therapy in the GI tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommineni, Sushma; Kristich, Christopher J; Salzman, Nita H

    2016-11-01

    Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that bacteriocins produced by commensal enterococci provide an advantage in niche maintenance in the highly competitive environment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Bacterial production of bacteriocins is a conserved defense strategy to help establish an ecological niche. Bacteriocin-encoding genes in enterococci are often carried on mobile genetic elements, including conjugative plasmids, enabling the transfer of such traits to other community members in a shared niche. Use of a novel mouse model for enterococcal colonization of the GI tract allowed us to investigate enterococcal dynamics and the role of enterococcal bacteriocins in the mouse GI tract. We examined the role of bacteriocin-21, carried on the pPD1 plasmid, in enterococcal colonization of the gut. We discovered that Enterococcus faecalis (EF) harboring pPD1 effectively colonizes the GI tract by using Bac-21 to eliminate its competition. In our study, we also present evidence for active conjugation in the GI tract, a strategy EF uses to enhance the number of bacteriocin producers in a given niche and eliminate bacteriocin-susceptible populations. Using an engineered strain of EF that is capable of producing Bac-21 but impaired in its conjugation ability, we were able to reduce pre-existing colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in the mouse gut. Thus, our results suggest a novel therapeutic strategy to de-colonize antibiotic-resistant enterococci from the GI tract of patients and thereby prevent the emergence of resistant enterococcal infections that are otherwise difficult, or impossible, to treat.

  4. Cyclic multiverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosek, Konrad; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Balcerzak, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Using the idea of regularization of singularities due to the variability of the fundamental constants in cosmology we study the cyclic universe models. We find two models of oscillating and non-singular mass density and pressure (`non-singular' bounce) regularized by varying gravitational constant G despite the scale factor evolution is oscillating and having sharp turning points (`singular' bounce). Both violating (big-bang) and non-violating (phantom) null energy condition models appear. Then, we extend this idea on to the multiverse containing cyclic individual universes with either growing or decreasing entropy though leaving the net entropy constant. In order to get an insight into the key idea, we consider the doubleverse with the same geometrical evolution of the two `parallel' universes with their physical evolution [physical coupling constants c(t) and G(t)] being different. An interesting point is that there is a possibility to exchange the universes at the point of maximum expansion - the fact which was already noticed in quantum cosmology. Similar scenario is also possible within the framework of Brans-Dicke theory where varying G(t) is replaced by the dynamical Brans-Dicke field φ(t) though these theories are slightly different.

  5. Bacteriocins of Non-aureus Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Domonique A; Barkema, Herman W; Naushad, Sohail; De Buck, Jeroen

    2017-09-01

    Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), the bacteria most commonly isolated from the bovine udder, potentially protect the udder against infection by major mastitis pathogens due to bacteriocin production. In this study, we determined the inhibitory capability of 441 bovine NAS isolates (comprising 26 species) against bovine Staphylococcus aureus Furthermore, inhibiting isolates were tested against a human methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate using a cross-streaking method. We determined the presence of bacteriocin clusters in NAS whole genomes using genome mining tools, BLAST, and comparison of genomes of closely related inhibiting and noninhibiting isolates and determined the genetic organization of any identified bacteriocin biosynthetic gene clusters. Forty isolates from 9 species (S. capitis, S. chromogenes, S. epidermidis, S. pasteuri, S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri, S. simulans, S. warneri, and S. xylosus) inhibited growth of S. aureus in vitro, 23 isolates of which, from S. capitis, S. chromogenes, S. epidermidis, S. pasteuri, S. simulans, and S. xylosus, also inhibited MRSA. One hundred five putative bacteriocin gene clusters encompassing 6 different classes (lanthipeptides, sactipeptides, lasso peptides, class IIa, class IIc, and class IId) in 95 whole genomes from 16 species were identified. A total of 25 novel bacteriocin precursors were described. In conclusion, NAS from bovine mammary glands are a source of potential bacteriocins, with >21% being possible producers, representing potential for future characterization and prospective clinical applications.IMPORTANCE Mastitis (particularly infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus) costs Canadian dairy producers $400 million/year and is the leading cause of antibiotic use on dairy farms. With increasing antibiotic resistance and regulations regarding use, there is impetus to explore bacteriocins (bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides) for treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. We

  6. Synthesis of bacteriocins in liquid cultures of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelstrup, J; Funder-Nielsen, T D

    1977-06-01

    Strains of Streptococcus mutans synthesized bacteriocins in agar plates, but synthesis of detectable bacteriocins in liquid media took place only under certain culture conditions. The composition of the medium proved to be crucial. Trypticase Soy Broth with 4% Yeast Extract meeting the requirements. The effect of the Yeast Extract is obscure, for some strains also formed detectable bacteriocins in a special Trypticase medium without this agent. It was noted that the broth should be filter-sterilized rather than autoclaved and only a few days old. Attempts at liberating cell-bound bacteriocins from washed cells were unsuccessful, even when they were treated with ultrasound, EDTA, or various chemicals followed by ultrasound. On the basis of size and sensitivity to heat the bacteriocins could be divided into two groups, while their resistance to ether and chloroform and to trypsin did not follow this pattern. Dependence on plasmids could not be demonstrated by attempts at curing with acridine orange or ethidium bromide; and the involvement of phages was unlikely, since the inhibition was not transmissible and phage-like structures were not observed in the electron microscope.

  7. Cyclic Vitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Sven

    2014-01-01

    of taking such a unilateral view of what constituted a Vitalist concept of life. It could lead to a misunderstanding of Vitalist way of thinking, Rasch said, if the focus were only set upon the enthusiastic surplus, the worshipping of youth and health. To Vitalists, life is more than that. It is a totality...... that also encompasses notions of destruction, decay and death. “All life symbols in literature around 1900 are at the same time symbols of death”. (Rasch, W. 1967:24) Through the analyses of three poems, this article aims to show concrete examples of how cyclic Vitalist thinking is embedded in poetry...... of the era. The analyses include a further sub-categorisation to capture the different types of Life Force dealt with in the texts. By way of an introduction, Vitalism is discussed within the context of the scientific and social developments of the 19th Century....

  8. Current state of purification, isolation and analysis of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaškonienė, Vilma; Stankevičius, Mantas; Bimbiraitė-Survilienė, Kristina; Naujokaitytė, Gintarė; Šernienė, Loreta; Mulkytė, Kristina; Malakauskas, Mindaugas; Maruška, Audrius

    2017-02-01

    The scientific interest for the search of natural means of microbial inhibitors has not faded for several years. A search of natural antibiotics, so-called bacteriocins which are produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), gains a huge attention of the scientists in the last century, in order to reduce the usage of synthetic food additives. Pure bacteriocins with wide spectra of antibacterial activity are promising among the natural biopreservatives. The usage of bacteriocin(s) producing LAB as starter culture for the fermentation of some food products, in order to increase their shelf-life, when synthetic preservatives are not allowable, is also possible. There are a lot of studies focusing on the isolation of new bacteriocins from traditional fermented food, dairy products and other foods or sometimes even from unusual non-food matrices. Bacteriocins producing bacteria have been isolated from different sources with the different antibacterial activity against food-borne microorganisms. This review covers the classification of bacteriocins, diversity of sources of bacteriocin(s) producing LAB, antibacterial spectra of isolated bacteriocins and analytical methods for the bacteriocin purification and analysis within the last 15 years.

  9. Bacteriocin-Mediated Competitive Interactions of Bacterial Populations and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret A.

    Explaining the coexistence of competing species is a major challenge in community ecology. In bacterial systems, competition is often driven by the production of bacteriocins; narrow spectrum proteinaceous toxins that serve to kill closely related species providing the producer better access to limited resources. Bacteriocin producers have been shown to competitively exclude sensitive, nonproducing strains. However, the interaction dynamics between bacteriocin producers, each lethal to its competitor, are largely unknown. Several recent studies have revealed some of the complexity of these interactions, employing a suite of in vitro, in vivo, and in silico bacterial model systems. This chapter describes the current state of knowledge regarding the population and community ecology of this potent family of toxins.

  10. Lantibiotics, class I bacteriocins from the genus Bacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2011-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides exhibit high levels of antimicrobial activity against a broad range of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Compared with bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria, antimicrobial peptides from the genus Bacillus have been relatively less recognized despite their broad antimicrobial spectra. These peptides can be classified into two different groups based on whether they are ribosomally (bacteriocins) or nonribosomally (polymyxins and iturins) synthesized. Because of their broad spectra and high activity, antimicrobial peptides from Bacillus spp. may have great potential for applications in the food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries to prevent or control spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. In this review, we introduce ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, the lantibiotic bacteriocins produced by members of Bacillus. In addition, the biosynthesis, genetic organization, mode of action, and regulation of subtilin, a well-investigated lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis, are discussed.

  11. Bacteriocins from Gram-Negative Bacteria: A Classification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebuffat, Sylvie

    Bacteria produce an arsenal of toxic peptides and proteins, which are termed bacteriocins and play a role in mediating the dynamics of microbial populations and communities. Bacteriocins from Gram-negative bacteria arise mainly from Enterobacteriaceae. They assemble into two main families: high molecular mass modular proteins (30-80 kDa) termed colicins and low molecular mass peptides (between 1 and 10 kDa) termed microcins. The production of colicins is mediated by the SOS response regulon, which plays a role in the response of many bacteria to DNA damages. Microcins are highly stable hydrophobic peptides that are produced under stress conditions, particularly nutrient depletion. Colicins and microcins are found essentially in Escherichia coli, but several other Gram-negative species also produce bacteriocin-like substances. This chapter presents the basis of a classification of colicins and microcins.

  12. Actinomycetemcomitin: a new bacteriocin produced by Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Francisca Lúcia; de Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Apolônio, Ana Carolina Morais; Bemquerer, Marcelo Porto; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Farias, Luiz de Macêdo

    2008-02-01

    Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans P(7-20) strain isolated from a periodontally diseased patient has produced a bacteriocin (named as actinomycetemcomitin) that is active against Peptostreptococcus anaerobius ATCC 27337. Actinomycetemcomitin was produced during exponential and stationary growth phases, and its amount decreased until it disappeared during the decline growth phase. It was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation (30-60% saturation), and further by FPLC (mono-Q ionic exchange and Phenyl Superose hydrophobic interaction) and HPLC (C-18 reversed-phase). This bacteriocin loses its activity after incubation at a pH below 7.0 or above 8.0, following heating for 30 min at 45 degrees C, and after treatment with proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, and papain. Actinomycetemcomitin has a molecular mass of 20.3 KDa and it represents a new bacteriocin from A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  13. Antibacterial peptides "bacteriocins": an overview of their diverse characteristics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishie, Mami; Nagao, Jun-Ichi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2012-03-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antibacterial peptides produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. A number of bacteriocins from a wide variety of bacteria have been discovered, and their diverse structures have been reported. Growing evidence suggests that bacteriocins have diverse structures, modes of action, mechanisms of biosynthesis and self-immunity, and gene regulation. Bacteriocins are considered as an attractive compound in food and pharmaceutical industries to prevent food spoilage and pathogenic bacterial growth. Furthermore, elucidation of their biosynthesis has led to the use of bacteriocin-controlled gene-expression systems and the biosynthetic enzymes of lantibiotics, a class of bacteriocins, as tools to design novel peptides. In this review, we summarize and discuss currently known information on bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria and their applications.

  14. Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have an essential role in the production of fermented products. With their metabolic activity, they influence the ripening processes - leading to desired sensory qualities while at the same time inhibiting the growth of undesired microorganisms. Because of their dominant role during fermentation and because of a long tradition of utilization, Lhave been designated as “safe microbiota”. Biological protection of LAB, as a naturally present and/or selected and intentionally added microflora, is realized through the production of non-specific (lactic acid, acetic acid and other volatile organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl, etc and specific metabolites, bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are extracellularly released proteins or peptides which possess certain antibacterial activity towards certain types of microorganisms, usually related to the producing bacteria. Today, bacteriocins represent a very interesting potential for their application in the food industry. Their application can reduce the use of synthetic preservatives and/or the intensity of thermal treatment during food production consumer’s need for safe, fresh and minimally-processed food. With the intention of realizing this potential to the fullest, it is necessary to understand the nature of bacteriocins, their production mechanisms, regulations and actions, as well as the influence of external factors on the their antimicrobial activity. The composition of food, i.e. its characteristics (pH, temperature, ingredients and additives, types and quantities of epiphytic microbiota and the actual technological process used in production, can all influence the stability and activity of the added bacteriocins. The future research in this field should also aim to clarify this unknown aspect of the application of bacteriocins, to provide the necessary knowledge about the optimization of the external conditions and open up the possibility of discovering their new

  15. Using the overlay assay to qualitatively measure bacterial production of and sensitivity to pneumococcal bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricic, Natalie; Dawid, Suzanne

    2014-09-30

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the highly diverse polymicrobial community of the nasopharynx where it must compete with resident organisms. We have shown that bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) dictate the outcome of these competitive interactions. All fully-sequenced pneumococcal strains harbor a bacteriocin-like peptide (blp) locus. The blp locus encodes for a range of diverse bacteriocins and all of the highly conserved components needed for their regulation, processing, and secretion. The diversity of the bacteriocins found in the bacteriocin immunity region (BIR) of the locus is a major contributor of pneumococcal competition. Along with the bacteriocins, immunity genes are found in the BIR and are needed to protect the producer cell from the effects of its own bacteriocin. The overlay assay is a quick method for examining a large number of strains for competitive interactions mediated by bacteriocins. The overlay assay also allows for the characterization of bacteriocin-specific immunity, and detection of secreted quorum sensing peptides. The assay is performed by pre-inoculating an agar plate with a strain to be tested for bacteriocin production followed by application of a soft agar overlay containing a strain to be tested for bacteriocin sensitivity. A zone of clearance surrounding the stab indicates that the overlay strain is sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the pre-inoculated strain. If no zone of clearance is observed, either the overlay strain is immune to the bacteriocins being produced or the pre-inoculated strain does not produce bacteriocins. To determine if the blp locus is functional in a given strain, the overlay assay can be adapted to evaluate for peptide pheromone secretion by the pre-inoculated strain. In this case, a series of four lacZ-reporter strains with different pheromone specificity are used in the overlay.

  16. Bacteriocins from the rhizosphere microbiome – from an agriculture perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmyalakshmi eSubramanian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria produce and excrete a versatile and dynamic suit of compounds to defend against microbial competitors and mediate local population dynamics. These include a wide range of broad-spectrum non-ribosomally synthesized antibiotics, lytic enzymes, metabolic by-products, proteinaceous exotoxins and ribosomally produced antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins. Most bacteria produce at least one bacteriocin. Bacteriocins are of interest in the food industry as natural preservatives and in the probiotics industry, leading to extensive studies on lactic acid bacteria (colicin produced by Escherichia coli is a model bacteriocin. Recent studies have projected use of bacteriocins in veterinary medicine and in agriculture, as a biostimulants of plant growth and development and as biocontrol agents. For example, bacteriocins such as Cerein 8A, Bac-GM17, putidacin, Bac 14B, amylocyclicin have been studied for their mechanisms of anti-microbial activity. Bac IH7 promotes tomato and musk melon plant growth. Thuricin 17 (Th17 is the only bacteriocin studied extensively for plant growth promotion and at the molecular level. Th17 functions as a bacterial signal compound, promoting plant growth in legumes and non-legumes. In Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max Th17 increased phytohormones IAA and SA at 24 h post treatment. At the proteome level Th17 treatment of 3-week-old A. thaliana rosettes led to > 2-fold changes in activation of the carbon and energy metabolism pathway proteins, 24 h post treatment. At 250 mM NaCl stress, the control plants under osmotic-shock shut down most of carbon-metabolism and activated energy-metabolism and antioxidant pathways. Th17 treated plants, at 250 mM NaCl, retained meaningful levels of the light harvesting complex, photosystem I and II proteins and energy and antioxidant pathways were activated, so that rosettes could better withstand the salt stress. In Glycine max, Th17 helped seeds germinate in the presence of Na

  17. Spontaneous bacteriocin resistance in Listeria monocytogenes as a susceptibility screen for identifying different mechanisms of resistance and modes of action by bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macwana, Sunita; Muriana, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    A practical system was devised for grouping bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) based on mode of action as determined by changes in inhibitory activity to spontaneously-acquired bacteriocin resistance (Bac(R)). Wild type Listeria monocytogenes 39-2 was sensitive to five bacteriocins produced by 3 genera of LAB: pediocin PA-1 and pediocin Bac3 (Pediococcus), lacticin FS97 and lacticin FS56 (Lactococcus), and curvaticin FS47 (Lactobacillus). A spontaneous Bac(R) derivative of L. monocytogenes 39-2 obtained by selective recovery against lacticin FS56 provided complete resistance to the bacteriocin made by Lactococcus lactis FS56. The lacticin FS56-resistant strain of L. monocyotgenes 39-2 was also cross-resistant to curvaticin FS47 and pediocin PA-1, but not to lacticin FS97 or pediocin Bac3. The same pattern of cross-resistance was also observed with Bac(R) isolates obtained with L. monocytogenes Scott A-2. A spontaneous mutation that renders a strain cross-resistant to different bacteriocins indicates that they share a common mechanism of resistance due to similar modes of action of the bacteriocins. Spontaneous resistance was acquired to other bacteriocins (in aggregate) by following the same procedure against which the Bac(R) strain was still sensitive. In subsequent challenge assays, mixtures of bacteriocins of different modes of action provided greater inhibition than mixtures of bacteriocins of the same mode of action (as determined by our screening method). This study identifies a methodical approach to classify bacteriocins into functional groups based on mechanism of resistance (i.e., mode of action) that could be used for identifying the best mixture of bacteriocins for use as biopreservatives.

  18. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria : extending the family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Mu, Dongdong; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that produce lactic acid as the major product during the fermentation process. LAB are Gram-positive bacteria with great biotechnological potential in the food industry. They can produce bacteriocins, which are proteinaceo

  19. Different bacteriocin activities of Streptococcus mutans reflect distinct phylogenetic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balakrishnan, M; Simmonds, RS; Kilian, Mogens;

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by mutans streptococci are known as mutacins. In this study 16 broadly active mutacin-producing Streptococcus mutans strains from New Zealand, North America and Europe were classified into four groups (A-D) on the basis of differences in their activity in deferred antagonism...

  20. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  1. The Circular Bacteriocins Gassericin A and Circularin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawai, Yasushi; Kemperman, Rober; Kok, Jan; Saito, Tadao

    2004-01-01

    Gassericin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, shows antibacterial activity against a number of Gram-positive food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Circularin A produced by Clostridium beijerinckii ATCC25752 is active against C. tyrobutyricum, a known cheese-spoilage bacterium. Both b

  2. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: production, purification, and food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display numerous antimicrobial activities. This is mainly due to the production of organic acids, but also of other compounds, such as bacteriocins and antifungal peptides. Several bacteriocins with industrial potential have been purified and characterized. The kinetics of bacteriocin production by LAB in relation to process factors have been studied in detail through mathematical modeling and positive predictive microbiology. Application of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures in sourdough (to increase competitiveness), in fermented sausage (anti-listerial effect), and in cheese (anti-listerial and anti-clostridial effects), have been studied during in vitro laboratory fermentations as well as on pilot-scale level. The highly promising results of these studies underline the important role that functional, bacteriocinogenic LAB strains may play in the food industry as starter cultures, co-cultures, or bioprotective cultures, to improve food quality and safety. In addition, antimicrobial production by probiotic LAB might play a role during in vivo interactions occurring in the human gastrointestinal tract, hence contributing to gut health.

  3. Production of antilisterial bacteriocins by staphylococci isolated from bovine milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of 111 staphylococcal isolates recovered from healthy cows in 41 dairy herds in Brazil was surveyed for the production of bacteriocins. The group included 94 coagulase positive and 17 coagulase negative strains of staphylococci. All cultures were grown in tryptic soy broth for 18 h at ...

  4. Antimycobacterial activity of bacteriocins and their complexes with liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriocins (Bcn) are natural peptides that are secreted by taxonomically distinct bacteria which exert bactericidal activity against other bacterial species. Their capacity to inhibit growth of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was evaluated in this study. Five Bcn were purified from sel...

  5. Effects of bacteriocins on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Ken-ichi; Zendo, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Shinya; Iwase, Tadayuki; Tajima, Akiko; Yamada, Satomi; Sonomoto, Kenji; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2013-11-01

    Control of biofilms formed by microbial pathogens is an important subject for medical researchers, since the development of biofilms on foreign-body surfaces often causes biofilm-associated infections in patients with indwelling medical devices. The present study examined the effects of different kinds of bacteriocins, which are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by certain bacteria, on biofilms formed by a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The activities and modes of action of three bacteriocins with different structures (nisin A, lacticin Q, and nukacin ISK-1) were evaluated. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic used in the treatment of MRSA infections, showed bactericidal activity against planktonic cells but not against biofilm cells. Among the tested bacteriocins, nisin A showed the highest bactericidal activity against both planktonic cells and biofilm cells. Lacticin Q also showed bactericidal activity against both planktonic cells and biofilm cells, but its activity against biofilm cells was significantly lower than that of nisin A. Nukacin ISK-1 showed bacteriostatic activity against planktonic cells and did not show bactericidal activity against biofilm cells. Mode-of-action studies indicated that pore formation leading to ATP efflux is important for the bactericidal activity against biofilm cells. Our results suggest that bacteriocins that form stable pores on biofilm cells are highly potent for the treatment of MRSA biofilm infections.

  6. Development and stability of bacteriocin resistance 1 in Campylobacter spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Several bacteriocins (BCNs) identified from chicken commensal bacteria dramatically reduced Campylobacter colonization in poultry and aredirected toward on farm control of this important food-borne human pathogen. BCN resistance in C. jejuni is very difficult to develop in vitro. In this study...

  7. Structure and uptake mechanism of bacteriocins targeting peptidoglycan renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeth, Kornelius

    2012-12-01

    Bacteriocins are narrow-spectrum protein antibiotics released to kill related bacteria of the same niche. Uptake of bacteriocins depends critically on the presence of an uptake receptor in the outer membrane, a translocation pore and an energy-dependent activating system of the inner membrane. Most bacteriocins act on the inner membrane as pore-forming toxins or they target cytoplasmic DNA/RNA and ribosomal synthesis respectively. Only two bacteriocins are known to become activated in the periplasmic space and to inhibit the renewal process of the peptidoglycan structure. In Escherichia coli, the Cma (colicin M) phosphatase is activated in the periplasmic space by the FkpA chaperone and subsequently degrades the C55-PP precursor unit of the peptidoglycan. Pst (pesticin) from Yersinia pestis carries a lysozyme homology domain to degrade peptidoglycan. Import of Pst is only achieved if the N-terminal translocation domain can span the outer membrane and if extensive unfolding of the protein during membrane passage is permitted. There is considerable plasticity in the import pathway since a chimaera comprising the activity domain replaced by T4 lysozyme is also translocated and active in killing those bacteria carrying the FyuA receptor.

  8. Prevalence, development, and molecular mechanisms of bacteriocin resistance in Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriocins (BCNs) are antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with narrow or broad spectra of antimicrobial activity. Recently, several unique anti-Campylobacter BCNs have been identified from commensal LAB isolated from chicken intestines. These BCNs dramatically reduced C. ...

  9. Purification of bacteriocins using size-exclusion chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriocin purification involves following main steps. a. Extraction of cell-free-supernatant of bacteria. b. Ammonium sulfate precipitation. c. Dialysis. d. Diafiltration using PVP and e. Size-exclusion chromatography. However, depending on the nature of work, the compound could be further analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC, NMR, mass spectrometry and sequencing.

  10. The Circular Bacteriocins Gassericin A and Circularin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawai, Yasushi; Kemperman, Rober; Kok, Jan; Saito, Tadao

    2004-01-01

    Gassericin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, shows antibacterial activity against a number of Gram-positive food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Circularin A produced by Clostridium beijerinckii ATCC25752 is active against C. tyrobutyricum, a known cheese-spoilage bacterium. Both b

  11. Organization and Nucleotide Sequences of Two Lactococcal Bacteriocin Operons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belkum, Marco J. van; Hayema, Bert Jan; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard

    1991-01-01

    Two distinct regions of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 9B4 plasmid p9B4-6, each of which specified bacteriocin production as well as immunity, have been sequenced and analyzed by deletion and frameshift mutation analyses. On a 1.8-kb ScaI-ClaI fragment specifying low antagonistic activity, t

  12. BAGEL : a web-based bacteriocin genome mining tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Anne; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2006-01-01

    A common problem in the annotation of open reading frames (ORFs) is the identification of genes that are functionally similar but have limited or no sequence homology. This is particularly the case for bacteriocins, a very diverse group of antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria and usually enco

  13. BAGEL: a web-based bacteriocin genome mining tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A; van Hijum, S.A F T; Bijlsma, Jetta; Kok, J.; Kuipers, O.P.

    2006-01-01

    A common problem in the annotation of open reading frames (ORFs) is the identification of genes that are functionally similar but have limited or no sequence homology. This is particularly the case for bacteriocins, a very diverse group of antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria and usually enco

  14. BAGEL : a web-based bacteriocin genome mining tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Anne; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2006-01-01

    A common problem in the annotation of open reading frames (ORFs) is the identification of genes that are functionally similar but have limited or no sequence homology. This is particularly the case for bacteriocins, a very diverse group of antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria and usually

  15. The Circular Bacteriocins Gassericin A and Circularin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawai, Yasushi; Kemperman, Rober; Kok, Jan; Saito, Tadao

    2004-01-01

    Gassericin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, shows antibacterial activity against a number of Gram-positive food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Circularin A produced by Clostridium beijerinckii ATCC25752 is active against C. tyrobutyricum, a known cheese-spoilage bacterium. Both

  16. Different bacteriocin activities of Streptococcus mutans reflect distinct phylogenetic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balakrishnan, M; Simmonds, RS; Kilian, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by mutans streptococci are known as mutacins. In this study 16 broadly active mutacin-producing Streptococcus mutans strains from New Zealand, North America and Europe were classified into four groups (A-D) on the basis of differences in their activity in deferred antagonism...

  17. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria : extending the family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Mu, Dongdong; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that produce lactic acid as the major product during the fermentation process. LAB are Gram-positive bacteria with great biotechnological potential in the food industry. They can produce bacteriocins, which are

  18. The bacteriocin bactofencin A subtly modulates gut microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinane, Caitriona M; Lawton, Elaine M; O'Connor, Paula M; O'Sullivan, Órla; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    The diverse and dynamic microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract represents a vast source of bioactive substances. These include bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides with the potential to modulate gut populations to impact positively on human health. Although several gut-derived bacteriocins have been isolated, there remain only a few exceptional studies in which their influence on microbial populations within the gut has been investigated. To facilitate such investigations, in vitro faecal fermentation systems can be used to simulate the anaerobic environment of the colon. In this instance, such a system was employed to explore the impact of bactofencin A, a novel broad spectrum class IId bacteriocin produced by gut isolates of Lactobacillus salivarius, on intestinal populations and overall microbial diversity. The study reveals that, although bactofencin A is a broad spectrum bacteriocin, it has a relatively subtle influence on intestinal communities, with a potentially positive impact on anaerobic populations such as Bacteroides, Clostridium and Bifidibacterium spp. The strategy taken is an important first step in investigating the merits of using bactofencin A to manipulate the gut microbiota in a beneficial way for health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. BAGEL2 : mining for bacteriocins in genomic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Anne; van Heel, Auke J.; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2010-01-01

    Mining bacterial genomes for bacteriocins is a challenging task due to the substantial structure and sequence diversity, and generally small sizes, of these antimicrobial peptides. Major progress in the research of antimicrobial peptides and the ever-increasing quantities of genomic data, varying fr

  20. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria : extending the family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Mu, Dongdong; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that produce lactic acid as the major product during the fermentation process. LAB are Gram-positive bacteria with great biotechnological potential in the food industry. They can produce bacteriocins, which are proteinaceo

  1. Analysis of the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment and enterocin AS-48 addition on the bacterial communities of cherimoya pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Toledo, Julia; Grande, M José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2015-03-02

    In the present study, pulp obtained from cherimoya pulp (Annona cherimola) was inoculated with epiphytic microbiota collected from cherimoya fruits, and supplemented or not with the circular bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 (50μg/g) and then packed under vacuum. Samples supplemented or not with enterocin were treated by high hydrostatic pressure (600MPa, 8min) and then stored at 5°C for 30days. The single AS-48 treatment only delayed microbial growth non-significantly (p>0.05). HHP treatment reduced microbial counts by five log cycles, but it did not prevent further growth of survivors by day 7. The combined treatment (AS-48+HHP) was the most effective, keeping bacterial cell densities at ≤1.5 log CFU/g for up to 15days. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis was done on amplicon libraries from the growth on TSA plates seeded with ten-fold dilutions of pulp suspensions and incubated at 22°C for 24h. The results obtained are limited by the experimental conditions used in the study, and only concern the bacterial fraction that was selected by the TSA and growth conditions used. Pantoea (Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea vagans) were the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected at highest relative abundance in bacterial biomass grown from control samples for the first 7days of storage, followed by Enterococcus gallinarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides during late storage. The single HHP treatment significantly reduced the relative abundance of OTUs belonging to Pantoea and strongly increased that of endosporeformers (mainly Bacillus firmus and Bacillus stratosphericus) early after treatment, although Pantoea became again the predominant OTUs during storage. Samples singly treated with enterocin AS-48 revealed a strong inhibition of E. gallinarum as well as an early decrease in the relative abundance of Pantoea and an increased relative abundance of OTUs belonging to other Gram-negative species (mainly from genera Serratia and Pseudomonas). The strong microbial

  2. Characterization of putative class II bacteriocins identified from a non-bacteriocin-producing strain Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yang-Cheng; Liu, Cheng-Feng; Lin, Jhao-Fen; Li, An-Chieh; Lo, Ta-Chun; Lin, Thy-Hou

    2013-01-01

    Several putative class II bacteriocin-like genes were identified in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, all of which might encode peptides with a double-glycine leader. Six peptides encoded by these genes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and then partially purified in order to test their bacteriocin activity. The results revealed that the mature LSEI_2163 peptide was a class IId bacteriocin that exhibited antimicrobial activity against some lactobacilli and several Listeria species. Similarly, mature LSEI_2386 was a putative pheromone peptide that also had significant bacteriocin activity against several Listeria species. The activities of both peptides tolerated 121°C for 30 min but not treatment with proteinase K or trypsin. The two Cys residues located at positions 4 and 24 in the mature LSEI_2163 peptide were shown by mass spectrometry to form a disulfide bridge, which was required for optimal antibacterial activity. However, replacement of one or both Cys with Ser would cause significant reduction of the antibacterial activity, the reduction being greater when only one of the Cys residues (C4S) was replaced than when both (C4S/C24S) were replaced.

  3. Purification and Characterization of a Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus lactis Isolated from Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manivasagan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus lactis strain isolated from marine environment, showed broadrange of antibacterial activity against some major food borne pathogens. Maximum bacteriocin production wasobserved at 30°C , pH 6.0 and 1.5% sodium chloride solution. In addition of enzymes, "-amylase, DNase,RNase and lipase were slightly positive effect bacteriocin production. Proteinase K and pepsin were stronglyinhibited bacteriocin production. Among detergents, Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, Tween 80 and TritoneX-100 stimulated bacteriocin production and strongly inhibited by EDTA and urea. The bacteriocin has purifiedby ammonium sulphate precipitate and ion exchange (DEAE cellulose chromatography. Biochemically it waspure protein moiety and the molecular weight was 94 kDa. The study revealed the possibility of usingbacteriocin as a food preservative and the L. lactis strain as probiotic.

  4. Novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB): various structures and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Rodney H; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2014-08-29

    Bacteriocins are heat-stable ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by various bacteria, including food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These antimicrobial peptides have huge potential as both food preservatives, and as next-generation antibiotics targeting the multiple-drug resistant pathogens. The increasing number of reports of new bacteriocins with unique properties indicates that there is still a lot to learn about this family of peptide antibiotics. In this review, we highlight our system of fast tracking the discovery of novel bacteriocins, belonging to different classes, and isolated from various sources. This system employs molecular mass analysis of supernatant from the candidate strain, coupled with a statistical analysis of their antimicrobial spectra that can even discriminate novel variants of known bacteriocins. This review also discusses current updates regarding the structural characterization, mode of antimicrobial action, and biosynthetic mechanisms of various novel bacteriocins. Future perspectives and potential applications of these novel bacteriocins are also discussed.

  5. Demonstration of bacteriocin activity in bovine and bison strains of Pasteurella multocida. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chengappa, M.M.; Carter, G.R.

    1977-08-01

    Of 33 strains of Pasteurella multocida examined, 14 showed bacteriocin activity and 17 were susceptible to bacteriocin. The activity was increased by about twofold if the cultures were induced with ultraviolet radiation; however, no increase in bacteriocin activity was observed if the potential producer strains were induced with mitomycin C. The bacteriocin activity of potential producer strains was increased if CaCl/sub 2/ was incorporated in the medium. The patterns of bacteriocin susceptibility indicate that these substances may ultimately contribute to a typing scheme for the species. An extra-chromosomal genetic element was not detected when a potential producer strain was not detected when a potential producer strain was tested by the dye-buoyant density gradient method. This fact suggests that the genetic material responsible for bacteriocin activity in P multocida is located on the host chromosome proper.

  6. The Two-Peptide (Class-IIb) Bacteriocins: Genetics, Biosynthesis, Structure, and Mode of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen-Meyer, Jon; Oppegård, Camilla; Rogne, Per; Haugen, Helen Sophie; Kristiansen, Per Eugen

    The two-peptide (class-IIb) bacteriocins consist of two different peptides, both of which are required to obtain high antimicrobial activity. These bacteriocins kill target-cells by inducing membrane-leakage and they seem to display some specificity with respect to the molecules they transfer across membranes. The genes encoding the two peptides of two-peptide bacteriocins are next to each other on the same operon. In the same or a nearby operon are genes encoding (i) the immunity protein that protects the bacteriocin-producer from its own bacteriocin, (ii) a dedicated ABC-transporter that exports the bacteriocin from cells and cleaves off the N-terminal bacteriocin leader sequence, and (iii) an accessory protein whose exact function has not been fully clarified. Some two-peptide bacteriocins appear to be produced constitutively, whereas the production of other two-peptide bacteriocins is regulated through a three-component regulatory system that consists of a peptide pheromone, a membrane-associated histidine protein kinase, and response regulators. It has recently been proposed that the two peptides of (some) two-peptide bacteriocins may form a membrane-penetrating helix-helix structure involving helix-helix interacting GxxxG-motifs present in all currently characterized two-peptide bacteriocins. It has also been suggested that the helix-helix structure interacts with an integrated membrane (transport) protein, thus inducing a conformational change in the protein, which in turn causes membrane-leakage. This proposed mode-of-action is similar to that of the pediocin-like (class-IIa) bacteriocins and lactococcin A, which bind to a part of the mannose phosphotransferase permease that is embedded in the cell membrane, thereby altering the conformation of the ­permease in a manner that causes membrane-leakage and cell death.

  7. History, Current Knowledge, and Future Directions on Bacteriocin Research in Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nes, Ingolf F.

    All organisms, both eukaryotic organisms and bacteria, are able to produce ribosomally antimicrobial peptides. In bacteria, such compounds are referred to as bacteriocins. The history of bacteriocins goes back to the early 1920s. One has experienced many disappointments in the efforts how to put these compounds into practical use despite being one of the most promising groups of antimicrobial agents to fight bacterial pathogens. However, today, we see new possibilities how to take advantage of such peptides for the benefit of man and animals. Bacteriocin production has become an important property of probiotic bacteria, and targeted use of bacteriocins to fight certain pathogens may have a future.

  8. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria and their applications in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woraprayote, Weerapong; Malila, Yuwares; Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2016-10-01

    Meat and meat products have always been an important part of human diet, and contain valuable nutrients for growth and health. Nevertheless, they are perishable and susceptible to microbial contamination, leading to an increased health risk for consumers as well as to the economic loss in meat industry. The utilization of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a natural preservative has received a considerable attention. Inoculation of bacteriocin-producing LAB cell as starter or protective cultures is suitable for fermented meats, whilst the direct addition of bacteriocin as food additive is more preferable when live cells of LAB could not produce bacteriocin in the real meat system. The incorporation of bacteriocins in packaging is another way to improve meat safety to avoid direct addition of bacteriocin to meat. Utilization of bacteriocins can effectively contribute to food safety, especially when integrated into hurdle concepts. In this review, LAB bacteriocins and their applications in meat and meat products are revisited. The molecular structure and characteristics of bacteriocins recently discovered, as well as exemplary properties are also discussed.

  9. Native and heterologous production of bacteriocins from gram-positive microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Mabel; Jaramillo, Diana; Melendez, Adelina Del Pilar; J Alméciga-Diaz, Carlos; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2011-12-01

    In nature, microorganisms can present several mechanisms for setting intercommunication and defense. One of these mechanisms is related to the production of bacteriocins, which are peptides with antimicrobial activity. Bacteriocins can be found in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Nevertheless, bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria are of particular interest due to the industrial use of several strains that belong to this group, especially lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which have the status of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganisms. In this work, we will review recent tendencies in the field of invention and state of art related to bacteriocin production by Gram-positive microorganism. Hundred-eight patents related to Gram-positive bacteriocin producers have been disclosed since 1965, from which 57% are related bacteriocins derived from Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Pediococcus strains. Surprisingly, patents regarding heterologous bacteriocins production were mainly presented just in the last decade. Although the major application of bacteriocins is concerned to food industry to control spoilage and foodborne bacteria, during the last years bacteriocin applications have been displacing to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and plant disease resistance and growth promotion.

  10. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or the flu eating certain foods, such as chocolate or cheese, or additives such as caffeine, nitrites— ... people with cyclic vomiting syndrome. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition During the prodrome and vomiting phases of cyclic ...

  11. Superextensions of cyclic semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Gavrylkiv

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a cyclic semigroup $S$ we study right and left zeros,singleton left ideals, the minimal ideal, left cancelable andright cancelable elements of superextensions $lambda(S$ andcharacterize cyclic semigroups whose superextensions arecommutative.

  12. Characterization and Application of Enterocin RM6, a Bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of bacteriocins in food preservation has received great attention in recent years. The goal of this study is to characterize enterocin RM6 from Enterococcus faecalis OSY-RM6 and investigate its efficacy against Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. Enterocin RM6 was purified from E. faecalis culture supernatant using ion exchange column, multiple C18-silica cartridges, followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of enterocin RM6 is 7145.0823 as determined by mass spectrometry (MS. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis revealed that enterocin RM6 is a 70-residue cyclic peptide with a head-to-tail linkage between methionine and tryptophan residues. The peptide sequence of enterocin RM6 was further confirmed by sequencing the structural gene of the peptide. Enterocin RM6 is active against Gram-positive bacteria, including L. monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Enterocin RM6 (final concentration in cottage cheese, 80 AU/mL caused a 4-log reduction in population of L. monocytogenes inoculated in cottage cheese within 30 min of treatment. Therefore, enterocin RM6 has potential applications as a potent antimicrobial peptide against foodborne pathogens in food.

  13. Improved adsorption-desorption extraction applied to the partial characterization of the antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Carnobacterium maltaromaticum C2

    OpenAIRE

    Tulini,F. L; E.C.P De Martinis

    2010-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally produced peptides useful for food biopreservation. An improved adsorption-desorption process is proposed for the partial purification of the bacteriocin produced by the fish isolate Carnobacterium maltaromaticum C2. Analyzis of extract by SDS-PAGE indicated this method may offer an alternative to improve the yield of purification of bacteriocins.

  14. Improved adsorption-desorption extraction applied to the partial characterization of the antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Carnobacterium maltaromaticum C2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulini, F L; De Martinis, E C P

    2010-04-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally produced peptides useful for food biopreservation. An improved adsorption-desorption process is proposed for the partial purification of the bacteriocin produced by the fish isolate Carnobacterium maltaromaticum C2. Analyzis of extract by SDS-PAGE indicated this method may offer an alternative to improve the yield of purification of bacteriocins.

  15. Improved adsorption-desorption extraction applied to the partial characterization of the antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Carnobacterium maltaromaticum C2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L Tulini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are ribosomally produced peptides useful for food biopreservation. An improved adsorption-desorption process is proposed for the partial purification of the bacteriocin produced by the fish isolate Carnobacterium maltaromaticum C2. Analyzis of extract by SDS-PAGE indicated this method may offer an alternative to improve the yield of purification of bacteriocins.

  16. Food biopreservation: Promising strategies using bacteriocins, bacteriophages and endolysins

    OpenAIRE

    García Suárez, María Pilar; Rodríguez,Lorena; Rodríguez González, Ana; Martínez Fernández, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    The interest in biopreservation of food has prompted the quest for new natural antimicrobial compounds from different origins. Bacteriocins have been widely recognized as natural food biopreservatives but lastest advances on bateriocin biology have opened new fields to explore. On the contrary, the use of bacteriophages and endolysins has only been considered in the last five years and recent developments have produced promising perspectives. This review provides an overview of the current an...

  17. Cyclic Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.P. Peeters (Leon)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCyclic Railway Timetable Optimization describes mathematical models and solution methods for constructing high quality cyclic railway timetables. In a cyclic timetable, a train for a certain destination leaves a certain station at the same time every cycle time, say every half an hour,

  18. Recent patents on bacteriocins: food and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Fernandez-No, Inmaculada; Kihal, Mebrouk; Böhme, Karola; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velazquez, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Most types of bacteria produce bacteriocins, which are proteinaceous extracellular compounds that can inhibit the growth of other undesirable microorganisms. Bacteriocins are receiving increasing attention, due to their many applications, ranging from their initial application in strategies for food preservation to more recent proposed uses in biomedical strategies aimed at fighting certain bacterial infections. Thus, while nisin has a long history of use as a safe additive in certain food products for the purpose of food preservation, certain bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria, which are generally recognised as safe microorganisms, or their extracellular extracts are receiving increased attention as protective cultures or antimicrobial extracts in minimally processed food products. More recently, a number of these bacteriocinproducing cultures have been proposed for use in other applications, such as in probiotics, for the inhibition of biofilms in the food industry, or even as coadjuvants of combined therapeutical strategies along with other antimicrobial agents in biomedical applications. This review aims to provide a brief overview of the most relevant recent patents in this field.

  19. Isolation and partial characterization of bacteriocins from Pediococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamuna, M; Jeevaratnam, K

    2004-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have received increased attention as a potential food preservative due to their strong antagonistic activity against many food-spoilage and pathogenic organisms. Three Pediococcus species, P. acidilactici NCIM 2292 , P. pentosaceous. NCIM 2296 and P. cervisiae NCIM 2171, were evaluated for bacteriocin production. Inhibitory substance were produced during the late growth phase and maximum production occurred at 37 degrees after 36-48 h of incubation. Bacteriocins partially purified from these species by cold-acetone precipitation at 0 degrees C and cell adsorption desorption techniques have a broad inhibitory spectrum against microorganisms, including gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas. Proteolytic enzymes inactivated these peptides, but amylase and lipase did not show any effect. The bacteriocins were stable over a wide pH range (3-8) and apparently most active at pH 4.0-5.0. They were heat-stable (1 h at approximately 80 degrees C and autoclaving) at pH 5.0. No loss in activity was observed when stored under refrigeration (4-8 degrees C). Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE revealed the molecular masses of these peptides to be between 3.5 and 5.0 kDa.

  20. Antagonistic activity expressed by Shigella sonnei: identification of a putative new bacteriocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Angela Bernardes Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are antibacterial, proteinaceous substances that mediate microbial dynamics. Bacteriocin production is a highly disseminated property among all major lineages of bacteria, including Shigella. In this paper, we addressed the purification and characterisation of a bacteriocin produced by a Shigella sonnei strain (SS9 isolated from a child with acute diarrhoea. The substance was purified through ammonium-sulphate precipitation and sequential steps of chromatography. The intracellular fraction obtained at 75% ammonium sulphate maintained activity following exposure to pH values from 1-11 and storage at -80ºC for more than two years and was inactivated by high temperatures and proteases. The molecular mass of the purified bacteriocin was determined by mass spectrometry to be 18.56 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the bacteriocin did not match any other antibacterial proteins described. A putative new bacteriocin produced by S. sonnei has been detected. This bacteriocin may represent a newly described protein or a previously described protein with a newly detected function. Considering that SS9 expresses antagonism against other diarrhoeagenic bacteria, the bacteriocin may contribute to S. sonnei virulence and is potentially applicable to either preventing or controlling diarrhoeal disease.

  1. Incidence of Bacteriocins Produced by Food-Related Lactic Acid Bacteria Active towards Oral Pathogens

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    Konstantinos Papadimitriou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the incidence of bacteriocins produced by 236 lactic acid bacteria (LAB food isolates against pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic oral bacteria. This set of LAB contained several strains (≥17% producing bacteriocins active against food-related bacteria. Interestingly only Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, while Lactobacillus fermentum ACA-DC 179 and Lactobacillus plantarun ACA-DC 269 produced bacteriocins solely against Streptococcus oralis. Thus, the percentage of strains that were found to produce bacteriocins against oral bacteria was ~1.3%. The rarity of bacteriocins active against oral LAB pathogens produced by food-related LAB was unexpected given their close phylogenetic relationship. Nevertheless, when tested in inhibition assays, the potency of the bacteriocin(s of S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against the three oral streptococci was high. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis revealed that exposure of the target cells to the antimicrobial compounds caused major alterations of key cellular constituents. Our findings indicate that bacteriocins produced by food-related LAB against oral LAB may be rare, but deserve further investigation since, when discovered, they can be effective antimicrobials.

  2. Production of multiple bacteriocins from a single locus by gastrointestinal strains of Lactobacillus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Eileen F; O'Connor, Paula M; Raftis, Emma J; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2011-12-01

    Bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus salivarius isolates derived from a gastrointestinal origin have previously demonstrated efficacy for in vivo protection against Listeria monocytogenes infection. In this study, comparative genomic analysis was employed to investigate the intraspecies diversity of seven L. salivarius isolates of human and porcine intestinal origin, based on the genome of the well-characterized bacteriocin-producing strain L. salivarius UCC118. This revealed a highly conserved megaplasmid-borne gene cluster in these strains involved in the regulation and secretion of two-component class IIb bacteriocins. However, considerable intraspecific variation was observed in the structural genes encoding the bacteriocin peptides. They ranged from close relatives of abp118, such as salivaricin P, which differs by 2 amino acids, to completely novel bacteriocins, such as salivaricin T, which is characterized in this study. Salivaricin T inhibits closely related lactobacilli and bears little homology to previously characterized salivaricins. Interestingly, the two peptides responsible for salivaricin T activity, SalTα and SalTβ, share considerable identity with the component peptides of thermophilin 13, a bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus thermophilus. Furthermore, the salivaricin locus of strain DPC6488 also encodes an additional novel one-component class IId anti-listerial bacteriocin, salivaricin L. These findings suggest a high level of redundancy in the bacteriocins that can be produced by intestinal L. salivarius isolates using the same enzymatic production and export machinery. Such diversity may contribute to their ability to dominate and compete within the complex microbiota of the mammalian gut.

  3. Method for Rapid Purification of Class IIa Bacteriocins and Comparison of Their Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Guyonnet, D.; Fremaux, C; Cenatiempo, Y; Berjeaud, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    A three-step method was developed for the purification of mesentericin Y105 (60% yield) from the culture supernatant of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Y105. The same procedure was successfully applied to the purification of five other anti-Listeria bacteriocins identified by mass spectrometry. Specific activities of the purified bacteriocins were compared.

  4. Phage Tail-Like (High-Molecular-Weight) Bacteriocins of Budvicia aquatica and Pragia fontium (Enterobacteriaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Šmarda, Jan; Benada, Oldřich

    2005-01-01

    Electron microscopic analysis of contractile phage tail-like bacteriocins of three Pragia fontium strains and one Budvicia aquatica strain was performed. Fonticin and aquaticin are remarkably heat sensitive but trypsin resistant. Simultaneous production of contractile and flexible phage tail-like bacteriocins in the P. fontium 64613 strain is shown for the first time.

  5. Identification, purification and characterization of laterosporulin, a novel bacteriocin produced by Brevibacillus sp. strain GI-9.

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    Pradip Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides that are produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism in complex environments. Identification and characterization of novel bacteriocins in novel strains of bacteria is one of the important fields in bacteriology. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The strain GI-9 was identified as Brevibacillus sp. by 16 S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacteriocin produced by strain GI-9, namely, laterosporulin was purified from supernatant of the culture grown under optimal conditions using hydrophobic interaction chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The bacteriocin was active against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. MALDI-TOF experiments determined the precise molecular mass of the peptide to be of 5.6 kDa and N-terminal sequencing of the thermo-stable peptide revealed low similarity with existing antimicrobial peptides. The putative open reading frame (ORF encoding laterosporulin and its surrounding genomic region was fished out from the draft genome sequence of GI-9. Sequence analysis of the putative bacteriocin gene did not show significant similarity to any reported bacteriocin producing genes in database. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a bacteriocin producing strain GI-9, belonging to the genus Brevibacillus sp. Biochemical and genomic characterization of laterosporulin suggests it as a novel bacteriocin with broad spectrum antibacterial activity.

  6. Antagonistic activity expressed by Shigella sonnei: identification of a putative new bacteriocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mireille Ângela Bernardes; Farias, Luiz de Macêdo; Oliveira, Patrícia Luciana de; Moreira, Jaqueline Silvana; Apolônio, Ana Carolina Morais; Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; Mendes, Edilberto Nogueira; Magalhães, Paula Prazeres

    2013-09-01

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial, proteinaceous substances that mediate microbial dynamics. Bacteriocin production is a highly disseminated property among all major lineages of bacteria, including Shigella. In this paper, we addressed the purification and characterisation of a bacteriocin produced by a Shigella sonnei strain (SS9) isolated from a child with acute diarrhoea. The substance was purified through ammonium-sulphate precipitation and sequential steps of chromatography. The intracellular fraction obtained at 75% ammonium sulphate maintained activity following exposure to pH values from 1-11 and storage at -80ºC for more than two years and was inactivated by high temperatures and proteases. The molecular mass of the purified bacteriocin was determined by mass spectrometry to be 18.56 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the bacteriocin did not match any other antibacterial proteins described. A putative new bacteriocin produced by S. sonnei has been detected. This bacteriocin may represent a newly described protein or a previously described protein with a newly detected function. Considering that SS9 expresses antagonism against other diarrhoeagenic bacteria, the bacteriocin may contribute to S. sonnei virulence and is potentially applicable to either preventing or controlling diarrhoeal disease.

  7. Sec-mediated secretion of bacteriocin enterocin P by Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herranz, C; Driessen, AJM

    2005-01-01

    Most lactic acid bacterium bacteriocins utilize specific leader peptides and dedicated machineries for secretion. In contrast, the enterococcal bacteriocin enterocin P (EntP) contains a typical signal peptide that directs its secretion when heterologously expressed in Lactococcus lactis. Signal pept

  8. Production of Multiple Bacteriocins from a Single Locus by Gastrointestinal Strains of Lactobacillus salivarius▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Eileen F.; O'Connor, Paula M.; Raftis, Emma J.; O'Toole, Paul W.; Stanton, Catherine; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus salivarius isolates derived from a gastrointestinal origin have previously demonstrated efficacy for in vivo protection against Listeria monocytogenes infection. In this study, comparative genomic analysis was employed to investigate the intraspecies diversity of seven L. salivarius isolates of human and porcine intestinal origin, based on the genome of the well-characterized bacteriocin-producing strain L. salivarius UCC118. This revealed a highly conserved megaplasmid-borne gene cluster in these strains involved in the regulation and secretion of two-component class IIb bacteriocins. However, considerable intraspecific variation was observed in the structural genes encoding the bacteriocin peptides. They ranged from close relatives of abp118, such as salivaricin P, which differs by 2 amino acids, to completely novel bacteriocins, such as salivaricin T, which is characterized in this study. Salivaricin T inhibits closely related lactobacilli and bears little homology to previously characterized salivaricins. Interestingly, the two peptides responsible for salivaricin T activity, SalTα and SalTβ, share considerable identity with the component peptides of thermophilin 13, a bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus thermophilus. Furthermore, the salivaricin locus of strain DPC6488 also encodes an additional novel one-component class IId anti-listerial bacteriocin, salivaricin L. These findings suggest a high level of redundancy in the bacteriocins that can be produced by intestinal L. salivarius isolates using the same enzymatic production and export machinery. Such diversity may contribute to their ability to dominate and compete within the complex microbiota of the mammalian gut. PMID:21984788

  9. Genome sequence of the bacteriocin-producing oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius strain M18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Nicholas C K; Haji-Ishak, Nurul S; Kalyan, Alaina; Wong, Andrew Y C; Lovric, Marija; Bridson, Joanna M; Artamonova, Julia; Stanton, Jo-Ann L; Wescombe, Philip A; Burton, Jeremy P; Cullinan, Mary P; Tagg, John R

    2011-11-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a Gram-positive bacterial commensal and pioneer colonizer of the human oral cavity. Many strains produce ribosomally synthesized proteinaceous antibiotics (bacteriocins), and some strains have been developed for use as oral probiotics. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the bacteriocin-producing oral probiotic S. salivarius strain M18.

  10. Characterisation of an antiviral pediocin-like bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Wachsman, Monica; Tomé, Elisabetta; Dousset, Xavier; Destro, Maria Teresa; Dicks, Leon Milner Theodore; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Vaz-Velho, Manuella; Drider, Djamel

    2010-10-01

    The bacteriocin-producing strain Enterococcus faecium ST5Ha was isolated from smoked salmon and identified by biomolecular techniques. Ent. faecium ST5Ha produces a pediocin-like bacteriocin with activity against several lactic acid bacteria, Listeria spp. and some other human and food pathogens, and remarkably against HSV-1 virus. Bacteriocin ST5Ha was produced at high levels in MRS broth at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C, reaching a maximum production of 1.0 x 10(9) AU/ml, checked against Listeria ivanovii ATCC19119 as target strain and surrogate of pathogenic strain Listeria monocytogenes. The molecular weight of bacteriocin ST5Ha was estimated to be 4.5 kDa according to tricine-SDS-PAGE data. Ent. faecium ST5Ha harbors a 1.044 kb chromosomal DNA fragment fitting in size to that of pediocin PA-1/AcH. In addition, the sequencing of bacteriocin ST5Ha gene indicated 99% of DNA homology to pediocin PA-1/AcH. The combined application of low levels (below MIC) of ciprofloxacin and bacteriocin ST5Ha resulted in a synergetic effect in the inhibition of target strain L. ivanovii ATCC19119. Bacteriocin ST5Ha displayed antiviral activity against HSV-1, an important human pathogen, with a selectivity index of 173. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on Ent. faecium as a potential producer of pediocin-like bacteriocin with antiviral activity.

  11. Production, purification and characterization of bacteriocin from Lactobacillus murinus AU06 and its broad antibacterial spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivaramasamy Elayaraja; Neelamegam Annamalai; Packiyam Mayavu; Thangavel Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the production, purification and characterization of bacteriocin fromLactobacillus murinus against fish pathogens.Methods:AU06 isolated from marine sediments and its broad spectrum of inhibition bacteriocin. In addition, purified bacteriocin was tested for its antimicrobial activity against fish pathogens.Results:In the present study, the bacteriocin production was found to be higher at 35 °C, pH The selected strain was used in production, purification and characterized of 6.0 and was purified to 4.74 fold with 55. 38 U/mg of specific activity with the yield of 28.92%. The molecular weight of the purified bacteriocin was estimated as 21 kDa. The purified bacteriocin exhibited complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity when treated with proteinase K, pronase, chymotrypsin, trypsin, pepsin and papain. The purified bacteriocin exhibited broad inhibitory spectrum against both Gram positive and negative bacteria.Conclusions:It is concluded that the ability of bacteriocin in inhibiting a wide-range of pathogenic bacteria is of potential interest for food safety and may have future applications in food preservative.

  12. Examination of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Secretion of Bacteriocins

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    Maira Urazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB have the potential to cover a very broad field of applications, including the food industry and the medical sector. In the food industry, bacteriocinogenic LAB strains can be used as starter cultures, co-cultures, and bioprotective cultures, which would be used to improve food quality and safety. In the medical sector, bacteriocins of probiotic LAB might play a role in interactions, which take place in human gastrointestinal tract, and contribute to gut health. The aim of this study was the examine the effect of LAB antimicrobial activity. Methods: LAB were isolated from different commercial and home made products, such as kazy and sour cream. To screen for bacteriocin producing LAB, we used an agar diffusion bioassay, described in a previous study by Dr. Yang, with three modifications in cell-free supernatant (CFS. First we had a clear supernatant, second we adjusted the CFS to pH 6.0 to eliminate acids antimicrobial effects, and third the CFS pH 6.0 was treated with catalase to exclude the action of H2O2 and confirm action of bacteriocin-like substances. Pathogenic S.marcescens, E. coli, S.aureus cultures were used as indicators. Results: Screening of 95 strains of LAB through deferred antagonism to six indicator cultures showed that all of the selected strains had a high value of antibacterial activity. However, CFS of only 50 strains retained their antimicrobial activity, and 10 of them lost this activity in the second modification of CFS with pH 6.0 to test culture S.marcescens, which confirmed the acidic nature of antimicrobial activity of CFS. Lb.rhamnosus (P-1, Lb.fermentum (N-6, and Lc.lactis (7M lost antibacterial activity in the presence of the catalase. All modifications of CFS of three strains: Lb.pentosus (16al, Lb.pentosus (P-2, and Pediococcusacidilactici (8 retained inhibitory activity to E.coli and S. aureus. Supernatants of only Lactococcusgarvieae (10a and

  13. Characterization of linear forms of the circular enterocin AS-48 obtained by limited proteolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalbán-López, Manuel; Spolaore, Barbara; Pinato, Odra; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Maqueda, Mercedes; Fontana, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    AS-48 is a 70-residue circular peptide from Enterococcus faecalis with a broad antibacterial activity. Here, we produced by limited proteolysis a protein species carrying a single nicking and fragments of 55 and 38 residues. Nicked AS-48 showed a lower helicity by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism

  14. Target recognition, resistance, immunity and genome mining of class II bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Morten; Borrero, Juan; Opsata, Mona; Birri, Dagim J; Holo, Helge; Cintas, Luis M; Snipen, Lars; Hernández, Pablo E; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2011-12-01

    Due to their very potent antimicrobial activity against diverse food-spoiling bacteria and pathogens and their favourable biochemical properties, peptide bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria have long been considered promising for applications in food preservation or medical treatment. To take advantage of bacteriocins in different applications, it is crucial to have detailed knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which these peptides recognize and kill target cells, how producer cells protect themselves from their own bacteriocin (self-immunity) and how target cells may develop resistance. In this review we discuss some important recent progress in these areas for the non-lantibiotic (class II) bacteriocins. We also discuss some examples of how the current wealth of genome sequences provides an invaluable source in the search for novel class II bacteriocins.

  15. Bacteriocins and their position in the next wave of conventional antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavera, Veronica L; Arthur, Timothy D; Kashtanov, Dimitri; Chikindas, Michael L

    2015-11-01

    Micro-organisms are capable of producing a range of defence mechanisms, including antibiotics, bacteriocins, lytic agents, protein exotoxins, etc. Such mechanisms have been identified in nearly 99% of studied bacteria. The multiplicity and diversity of bacteriocins and the resultant effects of their interactions with targeted bacteria on microbial ecology has been thoroughly studied and remains an area of investigation attracting many researchers. However, the incorporation of bacteriocins into drug delivery systems used in conjunction with, or as potential alternatives to, conventional antibiotics is only a recent, although rapidly expanding, field. The extensive array of bacteriocins positions them as one of the most promising options in the next wave of antibiotics. The goal of this review was to explore bacteriocins as novel antimicrobials, alone and in combination with established antibiotics, and thus position them as a potential tool for addressing the current antibiotic crisis.

  16. Structure of the atypical bacteriocin pectocin M2 implies a novel mechanism of protein uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Zeth, Kornelius; Roszak, Aleksander W; McCaughey, Laura C; Cogdell, Richard J; Milner, Joel J; Kelly, Sharon M; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    The colicin-like bacteriocins are potent protein antibiotics that have evolved to efficiently cross the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria by parasitizing nutrient uptake systems. We have structurally characterized the colicin M-like bacteriocin, pectocin M2, which is active against strains of Pectobacterium spp. This unusual bacteriocin lacks the intrinsically unstructured translocation domain that usually mediates translocation of these bacteriocins across the outer membrane, containing only a single globular ferredoxin domain connected to its cytotoxic domain by a flexible α-helix, which allows it to adopt two distinct conformations in solution. The ferredoxin domain of pectocin M2 is homologous to plant ferredoxins and allows pectocin M2 to parasitize a system utilized by Pectobacterium to obtain iron during infection of plants. Furthermore, we identify a novel ferredoxin-containing bacteriocin pectocin P, which possesses a cytotoxic domain homologous to lysozyme, illustrating that the ferredoxin domain acts as a generic delivery module for cytotoxic domains in Pectobacterium.

  17. Antilisterial Activity of Bacteriocin Isolated from Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides IMAU:10231 in the Production of Sremska Sausages: Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolation, Bacteriocin Identification and Meat Application Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Škrinjar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have an essential role in the production of fermented meat products. The metabolic activity of LAB affects the ripening process, leading to the formation of the desired sensory characteristics of the products, while inhibiting the growth of undesirable microorganisms. Bacteriocins are extracellular peptides or protein molecules, produced by some LAB, which possess bactericidal properties against specific species or genera of microorganisms, usually related bacteria. Bacteriocin production by LAB can act in a selective and competitive way against the surrounding microbiota, which may contain spoilage bacteria or pathogenic microorganisms including Listeria monocytogenes. This pathogen is widely distributed in raw products, it survives in different production areas, and human infections have a high mortality rate, all of which makes the control of this microorganism important in food production. The aim of this work is to determine the possibilities of utilizing a novel bacteriocin isolated from Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides IMAU:10231 in order to prevent the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in the production of traditional Serbian Sremska sausages. The bacteriocin-producing strain of Leuconostoc originated from the same sausage, which had been produced in the traditional manner. Bacteriocin was isolated using precipitation procedures with ammonium sulphate, and then its properties (strength and range of activities, relationship to high temperatures and proteolytic enzymes were determined under laboratory conditions. Also, based on the obtained laboratory results, the antilisterial effect of bacteriocin, included as an additive, was examined in the production of traditional Sremska sausages. Expressed antilisterial activity of bacteriocin has an interesting food safety potential which can be used in the meat industry in the production of fermented sausages. Further research will contribute to a better

  18. Detection, partial purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus brevis FPTLB3 isolated from freshwater fish: Bacteriocin from Lb. brevis FPTLB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shiba Prosad; Dora, Krushna Chandra; Chowdhury, Supratim

    2013-02-01

    Lactobacillus brevis FPTLB3 was isolated from freshwater fish, capable of producing bacteriocin that had broad spectrum of inhibition (3200 AU/ml) against Escherichia coli MTCC 1563, Enterococcus faecalis MTCC 2729, Lactobacillus casei MTCC 1423, Lactobacillus sakei ATCC 15521 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The antimicrobial activity of crude supernatant fluid was stable after heating at 121 °C for 60 min and declined thereafter. Stability of antimicrobial activity was observed at pH range of 2.0 to 8.0. Its active principle was proteinaceous in nature since the bacteriocin was inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, but not by other non-proteolytic enzymes. Mitomycin C and UV light did not affect the activity of the bacteriocin, while chloroform extraction completely destroyed their activity. Exposure to surfactant resulted in an increase in titre, except Nonidet P-40, which led to total loss of activity. No bacteriocin adsorption was detected at pH 1 to 2, whereas 100% bacteriocin adsorption was found at pH 6.5. Based on Tricine SDS-PAGE the estimated molecular mass of bacteriocin was 54 kDa. No plasmid was found to present in the isolate.

  19. Antibacterial activity and genotypic-phenotypic characteristics of bacteriocin-producing Bacillus subtilis KKU213: potential as a probiotic strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khochamit, Nalisa; Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Sukon, Peerapol; Siripornadulsil, Wilailak

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity and probiotic properties of Bacillus subtilis strain KKU213, isolated from local soil, were investigated. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) of a KKU213 culture containing crude bacteriocins exhibited inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity of the CFS precipitated with 40% ammonium sulfate (AS) remained even after treatment at 60 and 100 °C, at pH 4 and 10 and with proteolytic enzymes, detergents and heavy metals. When analyzed by SDS-PAGE and overlaid with the indicator strains B. cereus and S. aureus, the 40% AS precipitate exhibited inhibitory activity on proteins smaller than 10 kDa. However, proteins larger than 25 kDa and smaller than 10 kDa were still observed on a native protein gel. Purified subtilosin A was prepared by Amberlite XAD-16 bead extraction and HPLC and analyzed by Nano-LC-QTOF-MS. Its molecular mass was found to be 3.4 kDa, and it retained its antibacterial activity. These results are consistent with the detection of the anti-listerial subtilosin A gene of the sbo/alb cluster in the KKU213 strain, which is 100% identical to that of B. subtilis subsp. subtilis 168. In addition to stable and cyclic subtilosin A, a mixture of many extracellular antibacterial peptides was also detected in the KKU213 culture. The KKU213 strain produced extracellular amylase, cellulase, lipase and protease, is highly acid-resistant (pH 2) when cultured in inulin and promotes health and reduces infection of intestinally colonized broiler chickens. Therefore, we propose that bacteriocin-producing B. subtilis KKU213 could be used as a potential probiotic strain or protective culture.

  20. Cyclic phosphonium ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon I. Lall-Ramnarine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs incorporating cyclic phosphonium cations are a novel category of materials. We report here on the synthesis and characterization of four new cyclic phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylamide ILs with aliphatic and aromatic pendant groups. In addition to the syntheses of these novel materials, we report on a comparison of their properties with their ammonium congeners. These exemplars are slightly less conductive and have slightly smaller self-diffusion coefficients than their cyclic ammonium congeners.

  1. Bacteriocin activity against various pathogens produced by Pediococcus pentosaceus VJ13 isolated from Idly batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhyasagar, Venkatasubramanian; Jeevaratnam, Kadirvelu

    2013-11-01

    Bacteriocins, an antimicrobial peptide, is known to have wide spectrum antimicrobial activity against various pathogens. Because they are easily digested in the intestine, they are considered as safe and are widely used as food preservatives. Hence their purification and characterization have attracted considerable attraction, especially for those having activity against human pathogens. In this study, the bacteriocin produced by Pediococcus pentosaceus VJ13 was precipitated with cold acetone and purified by gel permeation chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The bacteriocin exhibited antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, like Mycobacterium smegmatis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The activity of bacteriocin was lost completely after treatment with protease, which revealed its proteinaceous nature. The bacteriocin was stable up to 100°C and exhibited antilisterial property which is a characteristic feature of class IIa bacteriocins. It was active within the pH range of 2-8 and stable against various chemicals and denaturants. Tricine SDS-PAGE revealed its molecular weight to be 4.0 kDa, where the corresponding activity against Listeria monocytogenes was also noted. Treatment of L. monocytogenes with bacteriocin decreased the viable cell count, and scanning electron microscope analysis revealed membrane pore formation that resulted in the release of intracellular content, suggesting its bactericidal effect. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Lactococcus lactis LMG2081 Produces Two Bacteriocins, a Nonlantibiotic and a Novel Lantibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Nemanja; Polovic, Natalija; Vukotic, Goran; Jovcic, Branko; Miljkovic, Marija; Radulovic, Zorica; Diep, Dzung B; Kojic, Milan

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriocin producers normally possess dedicated immunity systems to protect themselves from their own bacteriocins.Lactococcus lactis strains LMG2081 and BGBM50 are known as lactococcin G producers. However, BGBM50 was sensitive to LMG2081, which indicated that LMG2081 might produce additional bacteriocins that are not present in BGBM50. Therefore, whole-genome sequencing of the two strains was performed, and a lantibiotic operon (called lctLMG) was identified in LMG2081 but not in BGBM50. The lctLMG operon contains six open reading frames; the first three genes,lmgA ,lmgM, and lmgT, are involved in the biosynthesis and export of bacteriocin, while the other three genes,lmgF,lmgE, and lmgG, are involved in lantibiotic immunity. Mutational analysis confirmed that the lctLMG operon is responsible for the additional antimicrobial activity. Specifically, site-directed mutation within this operon rendered LMG2081 inactive toward BGBM50. Subsequent purification and electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometric analysis confirmed that the lantibiotic bacteriocin called lacticin LMG is exported as a 25-amino-acid peptide. Lacticin LMG is highly similar to the lacticin 481 group. It is interesting that a bacteriocin producer produces two different classes of bacteriocins, whose operons are located in the chromosome and a plasmid.

  3. Characterization of some bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu-Tudor, Silvia-Simona; Stancu, Mihaela-Marilena; Pelinescu, Diana; Zamfir, Medana

    2014-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from different sources (dairy products, fruits, fresh and fermented vegetables, fermented cereals) were screened for antimicrobial activity against other bacteria, including potential pathogens and food spoiling bacteria. Six strains have been shown to produce bacteriocins: Lactococcus lactis 19.3, Lactobacillus plantarum 26.1, Enterococcus durans 41.2, isolated from dairy products and Lactobacillus amylolyticus P40 and P50, and Lactobacillus oris P49, isolated from bors. Among the six bacteriocins, there were both heat stable, low molecular mass polypeptides, with a broad inhibitory spectrum, probably belonging to class II bacteriocins, and heat labile, high molecular mass proteins, with a very narrow inhibitory spectrum, most probably belonging to class III bacteriocins. A synergistic effect of some bacteriocins mixtures was observed. We can conclude that fermented foods are still important sources of new functional LAB. Among the six characterized bacteriocins, there might be some novel compounds with interesting features. Moreover, the bacteriocin-producing strains isolated in our study may find applications as protective cultures.

  4. Novel Immunity Proteins Associated with Colicin M-like Bacteriocins Exhibit Promiscuous Protection in Pseudomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghequire, Maarten G. K.; Kemland, Lieselore; De Mot, René

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriocins related to colicin M, acting via cleavage of the cell wall precursor lipid II, have been characterized in γ- and β-proteobacteria. Depending on the species, immunity is provided by either an inner membrane-anchored periplasmic protein or by an integral membrane protein. In Pseudomonas however, the immunity partner of colicin M-like bacteriocins remains unknown. Based on an in silico analysis in pseudomonad genomes, we here identify a gene encoding a putative immunity partner that represents a novel type of integral membrane protein (PmiA, Pseudomonas colicin M-like immunity type A). By heterologous expression of pmiA genes in susceptible strains, we show that immunity to colicin M-like bacteriocins is indeed provided by the cognate PmiA. Sequence homology among PmiA proteins is essentially absent, except for a short motif with a conserved periplasm-exposed aspartate residue. However, PmiA's protective function is not abolished by changing this acidic residue to the uncharged alanine. Immunity by PmiAs appears promiscuous to the extent that PmiA homologs from a clade sharing bacteriocin linked to the original PmiA. This study shows that multiple immunity factors have evolved independently to silence lipid II-targeting enzymatic bacteriocins. Their relaxed bacteriocin immunization capacity contrasts to the strict specificity of immunity proteins shielding the enzymatic domain of nuclease bacteriocins. The nature of associated immune functions needs consideration when using such natural protein antibiotics or designing novel variants. PMID:28194143

  5. Nisin and class IIa bacteriocin resistance among Listeria and other foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Malik, Ravinder Kumar; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Tejinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arun; Singroha, Garima; Vij, Shilpa; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-06-01

    Food safety has been an important issue globally due to increasing foodborne diseases and change in food habits. To inactivate foodborne pathogens, various novel technologies such as biopreservation systems have been studied. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity produced by different groups of bacteria, but the bacteriocins produced by many lactic acid bacteria offer potential applications in food preservation. The use of bacteriocins in the food industry can help reduce the addition of chemical preservatives as well as the intensity of heat treatments, resulting in foods that are more naturally preserved. However, the development of highly tolerant and/or resistant strains may decrease the efficiency of bacteriocins as biopreservatives. Several mechanisms of bacteriocin resistance development have been proposed among various foodborne pathogens. The acquiring of resistance to bacteriocins can significantly affect physiological activity profile of bacteria, alter cell-envelope lipid composition, and also modify the antibiotic susceptibility/resistance profile of bacteria. This article presents a brief review on the scientific research about the various possible mechanisms involved in the development of resistance to nisin and Class IIa bacteriocins among the foodborne pathogens.

  6. Effects of the bacteriocin PsVP-10 produced by Pseudomonas sp. on sensitive bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Carlos; Lobos, Olga; Brevis, Pedro; Abaca, Paulina; Hubert, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    The bacteriocin PsVP-10 is a 2.6 Kda peptide which was isolated and purified from Pseudomonas sp. This bacteriocin possesses lethal activity over Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri. The experimental assays showed that the bacteriocin is able to be adsorbed by all cells of these bacterial species and also by their isolated cell walls. It was observed that the resistant mutants and their respective cell walls are unable to adsorb the bacteriocin. Assays performed with spheroplasts obtained from sensitive bacterial species and their resistant mutants show a rapid lethal effect of the bacteriocin PsVP-10. This results indicated furthermore, it is also shown that the optimal pH and temperature for the adsorption were 7.2 and 37 degrees C, respectively. The study carried out with organic solvents like methanol, ethanol, isopropanol and the detergents sodium dodecyl sulfate and triton X-100 showed a moderate inhibition of the bacteriocin lethal action for the Gram negative cells. The enzymes lysozime, protease XIV and trypsine type III-S did not present any effect over the adsorption capacity of the bacteriocin with any of the bacterial species studied.

  7. Bacteriocins: exploring alternatives to antibiotics in mastitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneé Pieterse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIOCINS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing consumer demand for food products which are free of chemical additives, reduced in salt and processed as little as possible. These minimally processed foods require special application to assure their microbiological safety. The use of microorganisms and enzymes for food preservatives is called biopreservation. The most important group of microorganisms with antimicrobial effect used in the production of foods is the lactic acid bacteria. In meats although lactic acid bacteria constitue apart of the initial microflora, they become dominant during the processing of meats. In this research bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and their usage in meat and meat products for biopreservation are discussed.

  9. Bacteriocins - exploring alternatives to antibiotics in mastitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Reneé; Todorov, Svetoslav D

    2010-07-01

    Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  10. Isolation of Lactobacillus salivarius from Children and Purification of Bacteriocin to Inhibition Cancer Cell in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed K. M. Al-Tememy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria being used to make anticancer agents could provide an extra source of lead compounds for the pharmaceutical industry.  Bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius produce compounds that selectively inhibit growth of human cancer cells Lactobacillus salivarius naturally produces a compound called Bacteriocins.  Bacteriocins are bacterial proteins produced to prevent the growth of competing microorganisms in a particular biological niche and we can use it as antineoplastic. The aim of this study was to isolate bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria. A preparation of bacteriocin from a strain Lactobacillus salivarius has long been shown to have antineoplastic activity against a variety of human tumor and animal tumor cell lines in vitro. A total of 60 LAB  were isolated from children stool 45 isolate showed a clear antimicrobial activity against indicator strain Streptococcus aureus and by used sodium phosphate buffer (pH8 from an 80% ammonium sulfate precipitate. The inhibition  activity was determent by well diffusion assay method technique, Bacteriocin purification processes were carried out by using ion-exchange (Trisacryl SP and gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl – S300. The apparent molecular mass of partially purified bacteriocin was 15. 848 kDa,  Cell Culture was maintained in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% (vol/vol fetal calf serum,  Cytotoxicity of bacteriocin was assessed on human cell line (RD and animal cell line (MDCK cell viability after incubation for 48 h in medium containing 500AU/ml (1.15 mg/ml. Both cell types used in this study were sensitive to bacteriocin and the bacteriocin appeared to inhibit proliferation of tumor cell line. The animal cell line was more sensitivity than human cell line.

  11. Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Fermented Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormin, Salasiah; Rusul, Gulam; Radu, Son; Ling, Foo Hooi

    2001-01-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from several traditional fermented foods such as “tempeh”, “tempoyak” and “tapai” were screened for the production of bacteriocin. One strain isolated from “tempeh” gives an inhibitory activity against several LAB. The strain was later identified as Lactobacillus plantarum BS2. Study shows that the inhibitory activity was not caused by hydrogen peroxide, organic acids or bacteriophage. The bacteriocin production was maximum after 10 hours of incubation with an activity of 200 AU/ml. The bacteriocin was found to be sensitive towards trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, β-chymotrypsin, α-amylase and lysozyme. PMID:22973159

  12. Lactobacillus farciminis MD, a newer strain with potential for bacteriocin and antibiotic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halami, P M; Chandrashekar, A; Nand, K

    2000-03-01

    A native isolate Lactobacillus farciminis MD isolated from fermenting mushroom exhibited a high degree of sensitivity to the majority of the bacteriocins produced by strains of lactobacilli, leuconostoc and pediococci. Also, the efficacy of Lact. farciminis MD as a sensitive strain for antibiotic assay was established against different antibiotics including ampicillin, cefazoline, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin at concentrations of 30 microg each, showing an inhibition zone of 30 mm diameter. The high degree of sensitivity towards bacteriocins and antibiotics provide potential for the exploitation of Lact. farciminis MD in establishing very well-defined bacteriocin producers.

  13. Affordable Cyclic Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Greg; Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Amend, John R.; Collins, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is an important component of the undergraduate chemical curriculum. Unfortunately, undergraduate students rarely have the opportunity to conduct experiments in cyclic voltammetry owing to the high cost of potentiostats, which are required to control these experiments. By using MicroLab data acquisition interfaces in conjunction…

  14. Affordable Cyclic Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Greg; Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Amend, John R.; Collins, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is an important component of the undergraduate chemical curriculum. Unfortunately, undergraduate students rarely have the opportunity to conduct experiments in cyclic voltammetry owing to the high cost of potentiostats, which are required to control these experiments. By using MicroLab data acquisition interfaces in conjunction…

  15. An evaluation and partial characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ST1 isolated from goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Taheri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance producing Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis strain, ST1, isolated from goat milk of Iranian origin and with broad spectrum of activity and desirable technical properties was used for evaluating some futures of bacteriocin inhibitory activity. Cell growth and bacteriocin production studies were carried out in MRS medium incubated statically under uncontrolled pH condition. The antibacterial activity presented a primary metabolite pattern and showed a rapid decrease at the stationary phase. Microaerobiosis and capnophily growth conditions resulted in higher bacteriocin production while aerobiosis showed negative effect on both cell growth and bacteriocin production. Bacteriocin production, on the other hand, was favored in MRS broth (pH; 6.5 inoculated with 0.1 ml l-1 fresh culture when incubation was carried out at 30 °C. This indicated that the conditions resulted in higher levels of growth were frequently favoring bacteriocin production by ST1 as well. Decrease in activity, at the stationary growth phase, was much pronounced in favored growth condition. Nutrient depletion, deferent effect of low pH on bacteriocin production and/or protein degradation seemed more responsible for this phenomenon. The study also provided further data on new method for bacteriocin release from the cell wall of producer. It was clearly shown that both heating and ultrasound shock for 5 min at pH 2 could increase bacteriocin activity significantly. The release was more pronounced in the presence of 0.5% Tween80.

  16. Enterococcus faecium isolated from Lombo, a Portuguese traditional meat product: characterisation of antibacterial compounds and factors affecting bacteriocin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, S D; Favaro, L; Gibbs, P; Vaz-Velho, M

    2012-12-01

    Strain ST211CH, identified as a strain of Enterococcus faecium, isolated from Lombo produced a bacteriocin that inhibited the growth of Enterococcus spp., Listeria spp., Klebsiella spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. The mode of action of the bacteriocin named as bacteriocin ST211Ch was bactericidal against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC19443. As determined by Tricine-SDS-PAGE, the approximate molecular mass of the bacteriocin was 8.0 kDa. Loss in antimicrobial activity was recorded after treatment with proteolytic enzymes. Maximum activity of bacteriocin ST211Ch was measured in broth cultures of E. faecium strain ST211Ch after 24 h; thereafter, the activity was reduced. Bacteriocin ST211Ch remained active after exposure to various temperatures and pHs, as well as to Triton X-100, Tween-80, Tween-20, sodium dodecyl sulfate, NaCl, urea and EDTA. Effect of media components on production of bacteriocin ST211Ch was also studied. On the basis of PCR reactions targeting different bacteriocin genes, i.e. enterocins, curvacins and sakacins, no evidences for the presence of these genes in the total DNA of E. faecium strain ST211Ch was obtained. The bacterium most probably produced a bacteriocin different from those mentioned above. Based on the antimicrobial spectrum, stability and mode of action of bacteriocin ST211CH, E. faecium strain ST211Ch might be considered as a potential candidate with beneficial properties for use in biopreservation to control food spoilage bacteria.

  17. In vitro Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Nem Chua, a Traditional Vietnamese Fermented Pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilasombut, Komkhae; Rumjuankiat, Kittaporn; Ngamyeesoon, Nualphan; Duy, Le Nguyen Doan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and In vitro characterize the properties of bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Vietnamese fermented pork (Nem chua). One hundred and fifty LAB were isolated from ten samples of Nem chua and screened for bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin was carried out by spot on lawn method against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. One isolate, assigned as KL-1, produced bacteriocin and showed inhibitory activity against Lactobacillus sakei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Enterococcus faecalis. To characterize the bacteriocin-producing strain, optimum temperature, incubation period for maximum bacteriocin production and identification of bacteriocin-producing strain were determined. It was found that the optimum cultivation temperature of the strain to produce the maximum bacteriocin activity (12,800 AU/mL) was obtained at 30℃. Meanwhile, bacteriocin production at 6,400 AU/mL was found when culturing the strain at 37℃ and 42℃. The isolate KL-1 was identified as L. plantarum. Antimicrobial activity of cell-free supernatant was completely inhibited by proteolytic enzyme of trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin and proteinase K. Bacteriocin activity was stable at high temperature up to 100℃ for 10 min and at 4℃ storage for 2 d. However, the longer heating at 100℃ and 4℃ storage, its activity was reduced.

  18. Enterococcus faecium RZS C5, an interesting bacteriocin producer to be used as a co-culture in food fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, F; Foulquié Moreno, M R; De Vuyst, L

    2003-12-01

    Enterocins, bacteriocins produced by enterococci, are gaining interest because of their industrial potential. Due to its bacteriocin production, Enterococcus faecium RZS C5, a natural cheese isolate, has a strong activity towards Listeria monocytogenes. For this reason, the strain may be applicable as a bacteriocin-producing co-culture in food fermentation in order to reduce the risk on Listeria outgrowth. The strain displays remarkable bacteriocin production kinetics. Whereas most lactic acid bacteria produce bacteriocin in a growth-associated way until the beginning of the stationary phase, bacteriocin production by E. faecium RZS C5 in MRS broth at controlled pH values below 7.5 is characterised by a boost of bacteriocin activity levels in the very early growth phase. In addition, bacteriocin production kinetics are closely linked to the environmental and cultural conditions. However, no straightforward statement about the effect of environmental stress on bacteriocin production can be made since the effect is dependent on the type of stress applied. Kinetic experiments in milk and on pilot scale, applying Cheddar cheese-making conditions, have indicated that the strain may be effective as a bacteriocin-producing co-culture. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of E. faecium RZS C5 as a co-culture for the production of fermented sausage.

  19. Cyclic anamorphic cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ijjas, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic models of the universe have the advantage of avoiding initial conditions problems related to postulating any sort of beginning in time. To date, the only known viable examples of cyclic models have been ekpyrotic. In this paper, we show that the recently proposed anamorphic scenario can also be made cyclic. The key to the cyclic completion is a classically stable, non-singular bounce. Remarkably, even though the bounce construction was originally developed to connect a period of contraction with a period of expansion both described by Einstein gravity, we show here that it can naturally be modified to connect an ordinary contracting phase described by Einstein gravity with a phase of anamorphic smoothing. The paper will present the basic principles and steps in constructing cyclic anamorphic models.

  20. Pediocins: The bacteriocins of Pediococci. Sources, production, properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiadou Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Class IIa bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are small, cationic proteins with antilisterial activity. Within this class, the pediocins are those bacteriocins that share a highly conserved hydrophilic and charged N-terminal part harboring the consensus sequence -YGNGV- and a more variable hydrophobic and/or amphiphilic C-terminal part. Several pediocins have been isolated and characterized. Despite the structural similarities, their molecular weight varies, as well as their spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They exhibit important technological properties, e.g. thermostability and retaining of activity at a wide pH range, which along with the bactericidal action against Gram-positive food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, make them an important class of biopreservatives. Much new information regarding the pediocins has emerged during the last years. In this review, we summarize and discuss all the available information regarding the sources of pediocins, the characteristics of their biosynthesis and production in fermentation systems, the characteristics of the known pediocin molecules, and their antibacterial action. The advances made by genetic engineering in improving the features of pediocins are also discussed, as well as their perspectives for future applications.

  1. Encapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum 423 and its Bacteriocin in Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunis, T D J; Botes, M; Dicks, L M T

    2010-03-01

    Plantaricin 423, produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 423, was encapsulated in nanofibers that were produced by the electrospinning of 18% (w/v) polyethylene oxide (200 000 Da). The average diameter of the nanofibers was 288 nm. Plantaricin 423 activity decreased from 51 200 AU/ml to 25 600 AU/ml and from 204 800 AU/ml to 51 200 AU/ml after electrospinning, as determined against Lactobacillus sakei DSM 20017 and Enterococcus faecium HKLHS, respectively. Cells of L. plantarum 423 encapsulated in nanofibers decreased from 2.3 × 10(10) cfu/ml before electrospinning to 4.7 × 10(8) cfu/ml thereafter. Cells entrapped in the nanofibers continued to produce plantaricin 423. This is the first report on the encapsulation of a bacteriocin and cells of L. plantarum in nanofibers. The method may be used to design a drug delivery system for bacteriocins and the encapsulation of probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The technology is currently being optimized.

  2. Virulence factors and bacteriocins in faecal enterococci of wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Patricia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Costa, Daniela; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Jorge; Torres, Carmen

    2008-10-01

    The production of antimicrobial, haemolytic and gelatinase activities was tested in 67 enterococci (39 E. faecium, 24 E. hirae, 2 E. faecalis, and 2 Enterococcus spp.), recovered from faecal samples of wild boars. In addition, the presence of genes encoding bacteriocin and virulence factors was also analysed by PCR and sequencing. Production of antimicrobial activity was checked in all enterococci against 9 indicator bacteria and it was detected in 11 E. faecium isolates (16.5%); eight and two of them harboured the genes encoding enterocin A + enterocin B and enterocin L50A/B, respectively. Sixty-seven per cent of our enterococci harboured different combinations of genes of the cyl operon, but none of them contained the complete cyl L(L)L(S)ABM operon, necessary for cytolysin expression. The presence of gel E gene, associated with the fsr ABC locus, was identified in 4 E. faecium and two E. faecalis isolates, exhibiting all of them gelatinase activity. beta -hemolytic activity was not found in our isolates. Both cpd and ace genes, encoding respectively the accessory colonisation factor and pheromone, were detected in two E. faecalis isolates, and the hyl gene, encoding hyalorunidase, in two E. faecium isolates, one of them gelatinase-positive. Genes encoding bacteriocins and virulence factors are widely disseminated among faecal enterococci of wild boars and more studies should be carried out to know the global distribution of these determinants in enterococci of different ecosystems.

  3. Isolation of a bacteriocin-producing lactococcus lactis and application of its bacteriocin to manage spoilage bacteria in high-value marine fish under different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarika, A R; Lipton, A P; Aishwarya, M S; Dhivya, R S

    2012-07-01

    The bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria have considerable potential for biopreservation. The Lactococcus lactis strain PSY2 (GenBank account no. JF703669) isolated from the surface of marine perch Perca flavescens produced antibacterial activity against pathogenic and spoilage-causing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria viz. Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and possessed broad inhibitory spectrum. The biopreservative efficacy of the bacteriocin PSY2 was evaluated using fillets of reef cod, Epinephelus diacanthus. The fillets (10 g) were sprayed with 2.0 ml of 1,600 AU/ml bacteriocin, wrapped and kept under different storage temperatures viz., 4, 0 and -18 °C. The biopreservative extended the shelf-life of fillets stored at 4 °C to >21 days as against bacteriocin-treated samples stored for 21 days at 4 °C while the untreated samples became unacceptable by the 14th day. The biopreservative gave no significant effect at -18 °C. Thus, the bacteriocin derived from L. lactis PSY2 gave increased protection against spoilage bacteria and offers an alternative for the preservation of high-value sea foods.

  4. Importance in dairy technology of bacteriocins produced by dairy starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia Şimşek

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB and propionic acid bacteria (PAB are heterogeneous group of peptide inhibitors which include lantibiotics (class I, e. g. nisin, small heat-stable peptides (class II, e. g. pediocin PA-1 and large heat-labile proteins (class III, e. g. helveticin J. Many bacteriocins belonging to the first two groups can be successfully used to inhibit undesirable microorganisms in foods, but only nisin is produced industrially and is used as a food preservative. LAB and PAB develops easily in milk and milk products. LAB and PAB growth in dairy products can cause microbial interference to spoilage and pathogenic bacteria through several metabolits, specially bacteriocins. The review deals with the description of milk-borne bacteriocins and their application in milk and milk products either to extend the shelf life or to inhibit milk pathogens.

  5. Purification Techniques of Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Lucila; Sesma, Fernando

    The search for new antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid ­bacteria and other Gram-positive microorganisms has become an interesting field of research in the past decades. The fact that bacteriocins are active against numerous foodborne and human pathogens, are produced by generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms, and are readily degraded by proteolytic host systems makes them attractive candidates for biotechnological applications. However, before suggesting or choosing a new bacteriocin for future technology developments, it is necessary to elucidate its biochemical structure and its mode of action, which may be carried out once the bacteriocin is purified to homogeneity. This chapter focuses on describing the main strategies used for the purification of numerous bacteriocins.

  6. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: characterization of the bacteriocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Danielle N; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi) was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its antimicrobial activity. The bacteriocin presented a broad spectrum of activity, was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and pH extremes, and not affected by the presence of SDS, Tween 20, Tween 80, EDTA or NaCl. Bacteriocin production was dependent on the components of the culture media, especially nitrogen source and salts. When tested by PCR, the bacteriocin gene presented 100% homology to nisin Z gene. These properties indicate that this L. lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality.

  7. Inducer bacteria, unique signal peptides and nutrient limitation stimulate in-vitro bacteriocin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriocins (BCN) provide enormous potential for controlling bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine, in feedstuffs and human foods, and in cosmetic applications. To successfully apply such antimicrobial proteins, adequate commercial quantities of these valuable BCN must be efficient...

  8. Lyophilized Carnobacterium divergens AS7 bacteriocin preparation improves performance of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Sip, A; Rutkowski, A;

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Carnobacterium divergens AS7 bacteriocin (divercin AS7) on growth performance, digestibility, fermentation processes, selected microbial populations, and histomorphology in broiler chickens challenged with a mixture of 3 Clostridium perfringens...

  9. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: characterization of the bacteriocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its antimicrobial activity. The bacteriocin presented a broad spectrum of activity, was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and pH extremes, and not affected by the presence of SDS, Tween 20, Tween 80, EDTA or NaCl. Bacteriocin production was dependent on the components of the culture media, especially nitrogen source and salts. When tested by PCR, the bacteriocin gene presented 100% homology to nisin Z gene. These properties indicate that this L. lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality.

  10. Production, purification and characterization of bacteriocin from Lactobacillus murinus AU06 and its broad antibacterial spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramasamy Elayaraja

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: It is concluded that the ability of bacteriocin in inhibiting a wide-range of pathogenic bacteria is of potential interest for food safety and may have future applications in food preservative.

  11. Genetic analysis of acidocin B : a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, R.J.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Giezen, M. van; Noort, J.M. van; Pouwels, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The genes encoding the production of acidocin B, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus strain M46 which is active against Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium sporogenes, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, but inactive aga

  12. Production, Purification, Stability and Efficacy of Bacteriocin from Isolates of Natural Lactic Acid Fermentation of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Joshi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of partially purified bacteriocin produced during natural lactic acid fermentation of carrot, radish and cucumber was assessed and characterized. Out of ten strains, the isolated strain CA 44 of Lactobacillus genus from carrot fermentation produced bacteriocin with maximum antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, though it was more effective against E. coli than others. Bacteriocin was stable at up to 100 °C but its activity declined compared to that at 68 °C and was completely lost at 121 °C. The maximum antimicrobial activity was retained within the pH range of 4–5, but it was adversely affected by the addition of papain. Bacteriocin was also effective against B. cereus in different fruit products (pulp, juice and wine indicating its potential application as a biopreservative in fruit products.

  13. Enhancing the antilisterial effect of Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 in pork meat and cocultures by limiting bacteriocin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouakou, Privat; Ghalfi, Hakim; Destain, Jacqueline; Duboisdauphin, Robin; Evrard, Pol; Thonart, Philippe

    2008-11-01

    This work focused on Listeria monocytogenes growth inhibition and growth rebound in raw and cooked pork meat inoculated with Lactobacillus curvatus strains. During storage of raw meat homogenates in the presence of the bacteriocin-producing strain Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28wt, the Listeria monocytogenes cfu count was initially reduced to an undetectable level, but a growth rebound occurred after two weeks, coinciding with loss of 70% of the bacteriocin activity present at the end of week 2. The Listeria growth rebound was suppressed when proteolysis of bacteriocin was countered by the absence of proteases (bacteriocin addition to cooked meat) or the presence of 1% soy flour (added to provide competing substrates). Further experiments confirmed that bacteriocin is sensitive to the action of proteolytic enzymes isolated from both Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28wt and the meat matrix. Bacteriocin proteolysis thus emerges as a cause of Listeria growth rebound.

  14. Isolation and characterization of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from ready-to-eat food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, W J; Asmundson, R V; Huang, C M

    1996-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from a range of foods sold in ready-to-eat form were screened for bacteriocin production. Twenty-two bacteriocin-producing cultures were isolated from 14 of the 41 foods sampled. Bacteriocin-producing isolates from meat, fish and dairy products were Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc species typically found associated with these products. Most of these isolates gave only a narrow inhibitory spectrum although two showed activity against Listeria monocytogenes. Fruit and vegetable products gave a broader range of organisms but most of the bacteriocin-producing cultures were found to be strains of Lactococcus. Several lactococci produced a nisin-like activity, and showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against the indicator strains tested. The ease with which bacteriocin-producing strains could be isolated implies that they are already being safely consumed in food, and highlights the potential for using bacteriocin-producing cultures for biopreservation, especially in association with minimally processed products.

  15. Diverse Ecological Strategies Are Encoded by Streptococcus pneumoniae Bacteriocin-Like Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric L; Abrudan, Monica I; Roberts, Ian S; Rozen, Daniel E

    2016-04-13

    The opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is commonly carried asymptomatically in the human nasopharynx. Due to high rates of cocolonization with other pneumococcus strains, intraspecific competitive interactions partly determine the carriage duration of strains and thereby their potential to cause disease. These interactions may be mediated by bacteriocins, such as the type IIb bacteriocins encoded by the blp (bacteriocin-like peptide) locus. To understand blp diversity and evolution, we undertook a bioinformatic analysis of 4,418 pneumococcal genomes, including 168 newly sequenced genomes. We describe immense variation at all levels of genomic organization: Gene presence/absence, gene order, and allelic diversity. If we make the extreme and naive hypothesis that assumes all genes in this operon can assort randomly, this variation could lead to 10(15) distinct bacteriocin-related phenotypes, each potentially representing a unique ecological strategy; however, we provide several explanations for why this extreme is not realized. Although rarefaction analysis indicates that the number of unique strategies is not saturated, even after sampling thousands of genomes, we show that the variation is neither unbounded nor random. We delimit three bacteriocin groups, which contain group-specific bacteriocins, immunity genes, and blp operon gene order, and argue that this organization places a constraint on realized ecological strategies. We additionally show that ecological strategy diversity is significantly constrained by pneumococcal phylogeny and clonal structure. By examining patterns of association between alleles within the blp operon, we show that bacteriocin genes, which were believed to function in pairs, can be found with a broad diversity of partner alleles and immunity genes; this overall lack of allelic fidelity likely contributes to the fluid structure of this operon. Our results clarify the diversity of antagonistic ecological strategies in the

  16. Surface glycosaminoglycans protect eukaryotic cells against membrane-driven peptide bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Rebeca; Escobedo, Susana; Martín, Carla; Crespo, Ainara; Quiros, Luis M; Suarez, Juan E

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic elimination of surface glycosaminoglycans or inhibition of their sulfation provokes sensitizing of HT-29 and HeLa cells toward the peptide bacteriocins nisin A, plantaricin C, and pediocin PA-1/AcH. The effect can be partially reversed by heparin, which also lowers the susceptibility of Lactococcus lactis to nisin A. These data indicate that the negative charge of the glycosaminoglycan sulfate residues binds the positively charged bacteriocins, thus protecting eukaryotic cells from plasma membrane damage.

  17. Growth-inhibition of hiochi bacteria in namazake (raw sake) by bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masayuki; Ishiyama, Yohei; Takata, Takeomi; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kaneoke, Mitsuoki; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Yanagida, Fujitoshi; Chen, Yi-sheng; Kouya, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Takaaki

    2010-06-01

    The bacteriocins produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis C101910 (C101910) and NBRC 12007 (NBRC 12007) were used to prevent the growth of sake spoiling hiochi bacteria (Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus fructivorans, and Lactobacillus paracasei) in namazake, which is raw (unpasteurized) sake. The bacteriocin concentrations required for decreasing the viable cell concentrations of L. hilgardii and L. fructivorans below the detection limit (1.0 x 10(2) cells/ml) in 24 h from the initial concentration of 4.0-9.5 x 10(5) cells/ml in the namazake at pH 4.5 and at 4 degrees C, were 18-35 U/ml and 5.6 U/ml for the bacteriocin from C101910 and NBRC 12007, respectively. To decrease the viable cell concentration of L. paracasei from the initial concentration of 7.5 x 10(5) cells/ml to below the detection limit (1.0 x 10(2) cells/ml) in 24 h, 350 U/ml bacteriocin from C101910 and 140 U/ml bacteriocin from NBRC 12007 were required. In experiments using McIlvaine buffer (pH 4.5) with 15% ethanol instead of namazake as the medium, the viable cell concentrations of L. hilgardii and L. paracasei decreased to less than 1.0 x 10(2) cells/ml, whereas those of L. fructivorans decreased to less than 1.0 x 10(3) cells/ml, when bacteriocins were added at the concentrations that had proven effective in namazake. The membrane depolarization assay using a fluorescent probe showed that the presence of ethanol stimulated the collapse of the membrane potential induced by bacteriocins. The ethanol induced collapse of the membrane potential suggests that the application of bacteriocins at the storage stage of namazake is more beneficial than when used in other stages of the sake brewing process.

  18. Microcins from Enterobacteria: On the Edge Between Gram-Positive Bacteriocins and Colicins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebuffat, Sylvie

    Most bacteria and archaea produce gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides/proteins called bacteriocins, which are secreted by the producing bacteria to compete against other microorganisms in a given niche. They are considered important mediators of intra- and interspecies interactions and therefore a factor in ­maintaining the microbial diversity and stability. They are ribosomally synthesized, and most of them are produced as inactive precursor proteins, which in some cases are further enzymatically modified. Bacteriocins generally exert potent antibacterial activities directed against bacterial species closely related to the producing bacteria. Bacteriocins are abundant and diverse in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. This chapter focuses on colicins and microcins from enterobacteria (mainly Escherichia coli) and on bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Microcins are the lower-molecular-mass bacteriocins produced by Gram-negative bacteria with a repertoire of only 14 representatives. They form a very restricted family of bacteriocins, compared to the huge family of LAB bacteriocins that is constituted of several hundreds of peptides, with which microcins share common characteristics. Nevertheless, microcins also show similarities, particularly in their uptake mechanisms, with the higher-molecular-mass colicins, also produced by E. coli strains. On the edge between LAB bacteriocins and colicins, microcins appear to combine highly efficient strategies developed by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at different levels, including uptake, translocation, killing of target cells, and immunity of the producing bacteria, making them important actors of bacterial competitions and fascinating models for novel concepts toward antimicrobial strategies and against resistance mechanisms.

  19. Interactions between Oral Bacteria: Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Bacteriocin Production by Streptococcus gordonii

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bing-Yan; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been recognized as an important etiological agent in human dental caries. Some strains of S. mutans also produce bacteriocins. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that bacteriocin production by S. mutans strains GS5 and BM71 was mediated by quorum sensing, which is dependent on a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) signaling system encoded by the com genes. We also demonstrated that interactions with some other oral streptococci interfered with S. mutans bacterio...

  20. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassays carried out on solid and liquid substrates: assessing the factor "indicator microorganism"

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosiadis Ioannis; Dasiou Despina; Filioussis George; Avramidis Nicholaos; Papagianni Maria

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Successful application of growth inhibition techniques for quantitative determination of bacteriocins relies on the sensitivity of the applied indicator microorganism to the bacteriocin to which is exposed. However, information on indicator microorganisms' performance and comparisons in bacteriocin determination with bioassays is almost non-existing in the literature. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the parameter "indicator microorganism" in bioassays carried o...

  1. Comparison of antibacterial effects between antimicrobial peptide and bacteriocins isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum on three common pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Liu; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Le; Huang, Jian-An

    2015-01-01

    New strategies for the prevention or treatment of infections are required. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of antimicrobial peptides and bacteriocins isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum on growth and biofilm formation of three common pathogenic microbes. The antibacterial properties of the antimicrobial peptide Tet213 and bacteriocins were tested by the disc diffusion method. Tet213 and bacteriocins showed inhibitory effects on biofilm formation for the three organisms,...

  2. Optimization and partial characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus bulgaricus -TLBFT06 isolated from Dahi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Talat; Masud, Tariq; Ali, Sartaj; Abbasi, Kashif Sarfraz; Liaquat, Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus is one of the predominant lactic acid bacteria of dahi, conferring technological and functional attributes. In the present study thirty dahi samples were investigated for bacteriocin producing L. bulgaricus. Fourteen different isolates were obtained and five were scrutinized for antibacterial activities against food born pathogens. Amongst, a strain TLB06FT was found to have a wide array of antibacterial activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria was selected for further characterization. Growth media optimization for this strain revealed maximum bacteriocin production on MRS media supplemented with glucose (2%), sodium chloride (1%), Tween-80 (0.5%) and yeast extract (1 %). In addition, optimization of growth conditions revealed maximum bacteriocin production at pH 5.5 and temperature of 30-37°C. Bacteriocin showed thermo stability at 90°C and remained highly active in the pH range of 3.5-7.5, inactive by protein catalyzing enzymes and showed no change in activity (800AumL(-1)) when treated with organic solvents and surfactants. The obtained bacteriocin was purified to 1600AU mL(-1) by ammonium sulfate precipitation (80%) by using dialyzing tubing. In the same way, a single peak was obtained by RP-HPLC having antibacterial activity of 6400AU mL(-1). Thus, wild strains of L. bulgaricus have great potential for the production new and novel type of bacteriocins.

  3. Elimination of Listeria monocytogenes in sausage meat by combination treatment: Radiation and radiation-resistant bacteriocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, Mélanie; Stotz, Viviane; Dupont, Claude; Salmieri, Stéphane; Khan, Ruhul A.; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-08-01

    Two new bacteria were isolated from human feces and were designated MT 104 and MT 162. They were able to produce bacteriocins that are active against five strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocins produced by these isolated strains had 100% and 82.35% residual activity when they were treated by gamma radiation at doses of 4 and 40 kGy, respectively. A reduction of 1.0, 1.5 and 3 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes was observed in sausage meat when treated with bacteriocins from MT 104, MT 162, and nisin, respectively. For synergic effect, the D10 value in presence of the bacteriocins produced by MT 104 showed a 1.08 fold increased relative sensitivity of L. monocytogenes as compared to control after 5 days. The highest synergic effect was observed in presence of nisin which led to 1.61 fold increased relative sensitivity. Combined treatments with nisin and γ-irradiation showed a synergic antimicrobial effect in meat after 24 h and 5 days of storage. A synergic effect was observed only after 5 days at 4 °C for the bacteriocin from MT 104, as compared to the bacteriocin produced by MT 162 that had only an additive antimicrobial effect in all conditions.

  4. Improving safety of salami by application of bacteriocins produced by an autochthonous Lactobacillus curvatus isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Barbosa, Matheus; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Ivanova, Iskra; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to isolate LAB with anti-Listeria activity from salami samples, characterize the bacteriocin/s produced by selected isolates, semi-purify them and evaluate their effectiveness for the control of Listeria monocytogenes during manufacturing of salami in a pilot scale. Two isolates (differentiated by RAPD-PCR) presented activity against 22 out of 23 L. monocytogenes strains for bacteriocin MBSa2, while the bacteriocin MBSa3 inhibited all 23 strains in addition to several other Gram-positive bacteria for both antimicrobials and were identified as Lactobacillus curvatus based on 16S rRNA sequencing. A three-step purification procedure indicated that both strains produced the same two active peptides (4457.9 Da and 4360.1 Da), homlogous to sakacins P and X, respectively. Addition of the semi-purified bacteriocins produced by Lb. curvatus MBSa2 to the batter for production of salami, experimentally contaminated with L. monocytogenes (10(4)-10(5) CFU/g), caused 2 log and 1.5 log reductions in the counts of the pathogen in the product after 10 and 20 days respectively, highlighting the interest for application of these bacteriocins to improve safety of salami during its manufacture.

  5. Bacteriocin from Bacillus subtilis as a novel drug against diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baby Joseph; Berlina Dhas; Vimalin Hena; Justin Raj

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and identify Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) from soil and to characterize and partially purify the bacteriocin. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity against four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens. Methods:Genotypic identification was done based on Bergey’s manual of systemic bacteriology. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Colonies were identified by colony morphology and biochemical characterization and also compared with MTCC 121 strain. Further identification was done by 16S rRNA sequencing. Inhibitory activities of partially purified bacteriocin on all the DFU isolates were done by agar well diffusion method. The strain was identified to produce bacteriocin by stab overlay assay. Bacteriocin was extracted by organic solvent extraction using chloroform, further purified by HPLC and physical, and chemical characterization was performed. Results: The four isolates showed high level of resistance to amoxyclav and sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. HPLC purification revealed that the extracts are bacteriocin. The phylogenetic tree analysis results showed that the isolate was 99%related to B. subtilis BSF01. The results reveled activity to all the four isolates and high level of activity was seen in case of Klebsiella sp. Conclusions:Partially purified bacteriocin was found to have antimicrobial activity against the four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens, which can thus be applied as a better drug molecule on further studies. The strain B. subtilis are found to be safe for use and these antimicrobial peptides can be used as an antimicrobial in humans to treat DFU bacterial pathogens.

  6. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis sensitivity to bacteriocins produced by two Lactobacilli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, M; Ruiz, F; Pascual, L; Barberis, L

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the inhibitory activities of two bacteriocins, produced by lactobacilli, against genital mycoplasmas. In this study, infections produced by genital mycoplasmas were studied; of these, 1.3% were caused by Mycoplasma hominis, 10.7% by Ureaplasma urealyticum and 5.6% by U. urealyticum + M. hominis. U. urealyticum was isolated from 75 out of 123 patients with genital mycoplasmas, while M. hominis was isolated from 9 patients (7.3%) and both U. urealyticum and M. hominis from 39 patients (31.7%). Bacteriocins, L23 and L60, produced by Lactobacillus fermentum and L. rhamnosus, respectively, appear to be two novel inhibitors of bacterial infection with potential antibacterial activity. Both bacteriocins proved to be active against 100% of strains tested; MICs of bacteriocin L23 ranged between 320 and 160 UA ml(-1) for 78% of the M. hominis strains and between 320 and 80 UA ml(-1) for 95% of the U. urealyticum strains. In addition, bacteriocin L60 was still active at 160 UA ml(-1) for a high percentage (56%) of M. hominis strains, and at 80 UA ml(-1) for 53% of the U. urealyticum strains. Interestingly, these antimicrobial substances produced by lactobacilli showed an inhibitory activity against genital mycoplasmas even when diluted. Altogether, our study indicates that the bacteriocins, L23 and L60, are good candidates for the treatment or prevention of genital infections in women.

  7. Production and Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus Viridescence(NICM 2167

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sure KP

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the production optimization of bacteriocin by Lactobacillus viridescence NICM 2167 followed by its purification and characterization. The bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by many Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.The bacteriocin produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria received attention in recent years due to their potential application as natural preservatives in food. Bacteriocinproduced by Lactobacillus viridescence showed broad range of antimicrobial activity against food borne pathogens. Production parameters were optimized showing highest production of bacteriocinin MRS broth with pH= 7.0 incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Bacteriocin was purified in two steps involving ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by gel filtration using Sephadex G-100. Purified bacteriocin with single band on SDS-PAGE showed molecular weight of 8.3 kDa. This purified bacteriocin was stable over wide range of pH (4-10 as well as temperatures (4°C-121°C suggesting it as a potent candidate for preservation of various foods.

  8. Isolation and biochemical characterisation of a bacteriocin-like substance produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Hanen Ben; Maalej, Hana; Hmidet, Noomen; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the isolation and characterisation of a peptide with bacteriocin-like properties from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6. Incubation conditions were optimised, and the effects of the incubation period and of carbon and nitrogen sources were investigated. The produced bacteriocin was partially purified with ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and ultrafiltration and was then biochemically characterised. Maximum bacteriocin production was achieved after 48h of incubation in a culture medium containing 20g/L starch and 10g/L yeast extract, with an initial pH 8.0 at 30°C under continuous agitation at 200rpm. The bacteriocin was sequentially purified and its molecular weight was determined to be 11kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The bacteriocin was relatively heat-resistant and was not sensitive to acid and alkaline conditions (pH 4.0-10.0). Its inhibitory activity was sensitive to proteinase K but was resistant to the proteolytic action of alcalase, trypsin, chymotrypsin and pepsin. In conclusion, bacteriocin An6, owing its wide spectrum of activity as well as its high tolerance to acidic and alkaline pH values, temperature and proteases shows great potential for use as a food biopreservative.

  9. The study of effect bacteriocin producing Lactoco ccus lactis on Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirhossieni, M.Sc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Dairy products often associated with problems such as short shelf life and poor hygiene control. A novel approach is to utilize bacteriocin or bacteriocin producer strains, to control undesirable micro flora as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus in foods. Hence, we studied the effect of nisin like producing Lactococcus lactis against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus, in order to compare the isolated strain within different countries.Materials and Methods: In this research we studied the effect of nisin like producing Lactococcus lactis, with producer spot test method. We also used supernatant from 24 h culture of Lactoccus lactis. Moreover, we studied the effect of bacteriocin on Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus growth curves.Results: The growth of both strains was inhibited by the bacteriocin. Conclusion: According to our results, the bacteriocin could be used in liquid food with bacteriocin added directly or as a starter culture in fermentation. This would inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes; furthermore, Bacillus cereus is used to reduce food poisoning for fermented food products.

  10. Expression of bacteriocin divercin AS7 in Escherichia coli and its functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Schmidt, Marcin T; Sip, Anna; Szablewski, Tomasz; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocins are small peptides with antimicrobial activity, that are produced by bacteria. Four classes of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria have been defined. Class IIa bacteriocins are promising candidates for industrial applications due to their high biological activity and their physicochemical properties. Divercin AS7 is a class IIa bacteriocin produced by Carnobacterium divergens AS7. It shows antibacterial activity against pathogens and food spoilage flora including Listeria spp. Little is known about the impact of class IIa bacteriocins upon eukaryotic cells. The safe use of bacteriocins as food biopreservatives requires the absence of cytotoxicity to human cells. To analyze the impact of divercin AS7 on human enterocytes, we expressed the recombinant divercin AS7 in the Escherichia coli BL21DE3pLys strain and conducted in vitro studies to evaluate the safety of recombinant divercin AS7. No cytotoxic effect on differentiated monolayer Caco-2 cells and no apoptotic appearance were observed when recombinant divercin AS7 was used at a concentration of 2 μg ml(-1). In our study, divercin AS7 also did not interfere with differentiated Caco-2 cells monolayer integrity. The obtained results suggest that divercin AS7 is a promising peptide for the food industry.

  11. Bacteriocins produced by L. fermentum and L .acidophilus can inhibit cephalosporin resistant E .coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Riaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Reemerging infections occur due to resistant bacteria. Such infections create restrictions for clinicians and microbiologists in drug selection. Such problems demand new strategies for solution. Use of bacteriocins for this purpose may be fruitful. In the present research work, the inhibitory effects of bactericins on cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli are used as model system for the control of antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria. Cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli strain was isolated from pus by using conventional methodology. For bacteriocin production, Lactobacilli strains were selected by using selective media. Out of seventy two strains isolated from yogurt, fecal materials of human, chick, parrot and cat, only two strains (strain 45 and strain 52 were found to produce bacteriocins having antimicrobial potential against cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli. Biochemical characterization showed that strain 45 belonged to group of Lactobacillus fermentum and strain 52 to Lactobacillus acidophilus. Both strains showed maximum growth at 25°C and 35°C respectively. Suitable pH was 5.5 and 6.0 for Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus acidophilus respectively. Bacteriocins produced by both strains were found stable at 50, 75 and 100°C for 60min. Function of bacteriocin was also not disturbed due to change in pH. These findings suggest that bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus acidophilus can be used for the infection control of cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli.

  12. Streptococcal bacteriocins and the case for Streptococcus salivarius as model oral probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wescombe, Philip A; Heng, Nicholas C K; Burton, Jeremy P; Chilcott, Chris N; Tagg, John R

    2009-09-01

    Members of the Gram-positive bacterial genus Streptococcus are a diverse collection of species inhabiting many body sites and range from benign, nonpathogenic species to those causing life-threatening infections. The streptococci are also prolific producers of bacteriocins, which are ribosomally synthesized proteinaceous antibiotics that kill or inhibit species closely related to the producer bacterium. With the emergence of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics, there is an impetus to discover, and implement, new and preferably 'natural' antibiotics to treat or prevent bacterial infections, a niche that bacterial interference therapy mediated by bacteriocins could easily fill. This review focuses on describing the diversity of bacteriocins produced by streptococci and also puts forth a case for Streptococcus salivarius, a nonpathogenic and numerically predominant oral species, as an ideal candidate for development as the model probiotic for the oral cavity. S. salivarius is a safe species that not only produces broad-spectrum bacteriocins but harbors bacteriocin-encoding (and bacteriocin-inducing) transmissible DNA entities (megaplasmids).

  13. Influence of media and temperature on bacteriocin production by Bacillus cereus 8A during batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizani, D; Brandelli, A

    2004-08-01

    Cerein 8A is a bacteriocin produced by the soil bacterium Bacillus cereus 8A, isolated from native woodlands of Brazil. The influence of temperature and media on the growth of B. cereus 8A and the production of this bacteriocin was studied during batch cultivation. Maximum activity was detected by cultivation in brain/heart infusion broth, reaching 3200 activity units ml(-1). Bacteriocin was also produced in peptone, MRS, Mueller-Hinton and nutrient broth, while no activity was observed during cultivation in thioglycollate or tryptic soy broth. Temperature had a strong influence on bacteriocin production, which was higher at 30 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. An important decrease in bacteriocin activity was observed at 37 degrees C. The relationship between growth and specific production rates, as a function of the temperature, showed different kinetics of production and there were several peaks in the specific production rates during growth. Bacteriocin was produced at the stationary phase, indicating it is synthesized as a secondary metabolite.

  14. Real Topological Cyclic Homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgenhaven, Amalie

    The main topics of this thesis are real topological Hochschild homology and real topological cyclic homology. If a ring or a ring spectrum is equipped with an anti-involution, then it induces additional structure on the topological Hochschild homology spectrum. The group O(2) acts on the spectrum......, where O(2) is the semi-direct product of T, the multiplicative group of complex number of modulus 1, by the group G=Gal(C/R). We refer to this O(2)-spectrum as the real topological Hochschild homology. This generalization leads to a G-equivariant version of topological cyclic homology, which we call...... real topological cyclic homology. The first part of the thesis computes the G-equivariant homotopy type of the real topological cyclic homology of spherical group rings at a prime p with anti-involution induced by taking inverses in the group. The second part of the thesis investigates the derived G...

  15. Cup products in Hopf cyclic cohomology via cyclic modules I

    CERN Document Server

    Rangipour, Bahram

    2007-01-01

    This is the first one in a series of two papers on the continuation of our study in cup products in Hopf cyclic cohomology. In this note we construct cyclic cocycles of algebras out of Hopf cyclic cocycles of algebras and coalgebras. In the next paper we consider producing Hopf cyclic cocycle from "equivariant" Hopf cyclic cocycles. Our approach in both situations is based on (co)cyclic modules and bi(co)cyclic modules together with Eilenberg-Zilber theorem which is different from the old definition of cup products defined via traces and cotraces on DG algebras and coalgebras.

  16. Cyclic polymers from alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Christopher D.; Li, Hong; Abboud, Khalil A.; Wagener, Kenneth B.; Veige, Adam S.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic polymers have dramatically different physical properties compared with those of their equivalent linear counterparts. However, the exploration of cyclic polymers is limited because of the inherent challenges associated with their synthesis. Conjugated linear polyacetylenes are important materials for electrical conductivity, paramagnetic susceptibility, optical nonlinearity, photoconductivity, gas permeability, liquid crystallinity and chain helicity. However, their cyclic analogues are unknown, and therefore the ability to examine how a cyclic topology influences their properties is currently not possible. We have solved this challenge and now report a tungsten catalyst supported by a tetraanionic pincer ligand that can rapidly polymerize alkynes to form conjugated macrocycles in high yield. The catalyst works by tethering the ends of the polymer to the metal centre to overcome the inherent entropic penalty of cyclization. Gel-permeation chromatography, dynamic and static light scattering, viscometry and chemical tests are all consistent with theoretical predictions and provide unambiguous confirmation of a cyclic topology. Access to a wide variety of new cyclic polymers is now possible by simply choosing the appropriate alkyne monomer.

  17. Antiviral potential of lactic acid bacteria and their bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kassaa, I; Hober, D; Hamze, M; Chihib, N E; Drider, D

    2014-12-01

    Emerging resistance to antiviral agents is a growing public health concern worldwide as it was reported for respiratory, sexually transmitted and enteric viruses. Therefore, there is a growing demand for new, unconventional antiviral agents which may serve as an alternative to the currently used drugs. Meanwhile, published literature continues shedding the light on the potency of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their bacteriocins as antiviral agents. Health-promoting LAB probiotics may exert their antiviral activity by (1) direct probiotic-virus interaction; (2) production of antiviral inhibitory metabolites; and/or (3) via stimulation of the immune system. The aim of this review was to highlight the antiviral activity of LAB and substances they produce with antiviral activity.

  18. Response of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 to challenges with sublethal concentrations of enterocin AS-48

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grande Burgos, M.J.; Kovács, Á.T.; Mirończuk, A.M.; Abriouel, H.; Gálvez, A.; Kuipers, O.P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Enterocin AS-48 is produced by Enterococcus faecalis S48 to compete with other bacteria in their environment. Due to its activity against various Gram positive and some Gram negative bacteria it has clear potential for use as a food preservative. Here, we studied the effect of enterocin

  19. A Natural Chimeric Pseudomonas Bacteriocin with Novel Pore-Forming Activity Parasitizes the Ferrichrome Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; Kemland, Lieselore; Anoz-Carbonell, Ernesto; Buchanan, Susan K; De Mot, René

    2017-02-21

    Modular bacteriocins represent a major group of secreted protein toxins with a narrow spectrum of activity, involved in interference competition between Gram-negative bacteria. These antibacterial proteins include a domain for binding to the target cell and a toxin module at the carboxy terminus. Self-inhibition of producers is provided by coexpression of linked immunity genes that transiently inhibit the toxin's activity through formation of bacteriocin-immunity complexes or by insertion in the inner membrane, depending on the type of toxin module. We demonstrate strain-specific inhibitory activity for PmnH, a Pseudomonas bacteriocin with an unprecedented dual-toxin architecture, hosting both a colicin M domain, potentially interfering with peptidoglycan synthesis, and a novel colicin N-type domain, a pore-forming module distinct from the colicin Ia-type domain in Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocin S5. A downstream-linked gene product confers PmnH immunity upon susceptible strains. This protein, ImnH, has a transmembrane topology similar to that of Pseudomonas colicin M-like and pore-forming immunity proteins, although homology with either of these is essentially absent. The enhanced killing activity of PmnH under iron-limited growth conditions reflects parasitism of the ferrichrome-type transporter for entry into target cells, a strategy shown here to be used as well by monodomain colicin M-like bacteriocins from pseudomonads. The integration of a second type of toxin module in a bacteriocin gene could offer a competitive advantage against bacteria displaying immunity against only one of both toxic activities.IMPORTANCE In their continuous struggle for ecological space, bacteria face a huge load of contenders, including phylogenetically related strains that compete for the same niche. One important group of secreted antibacterial proteins assisting in eliminating these rivals are modular bacteriocins of Gram-negative bacteria, comprising a domain for docking onto the

  20. Factors affecting production of an antilisterial bacteriocin by Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b in laboratory media and model fish systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Himelbloom, B.; Nilsson, Lilian; Gram, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To investigate factors influencing bacteriocin production and bacteriocin stability of the bioprotective culture Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b. Methods and Results: Maximum activity was obtained in MRS7 broth (MRS adjusted to pH 7.2), with or without glucose. No bacteriocin was produc....... Significance and Impact of the Study: The influence of NaCl on bacteriocin production may negate the inhibitory effect of C. piscicola A9b against Listeria monocytogenes in salty foods....

  1. Sensitivity to the two-peptide bacteriocin lactococcin G is dependent on UppP, an enzyme involved in cell-wall synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjos, Morten; Oppegård, Camilla; Diep, Dzung B; Nes, Ingolf F; Veening, Jan-Willem; Nissen-Meyer, Jon; Kristensen, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Most bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) are thought to kill target cells by a receptor-mediated mechanism. However, for most bacteriocins the receptor is unknown. For instance, no target receptor has been identified for the two-peptide bacteriocins (class IIb), whose activity

  2. The structure of pyogenecin immunity protein, a novel bacteriocin-like immunity protein from streptococcus pyogenes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Coggill, P.; Bateman, A.; Finn, R.; Cymborowski, M.; Otwinowski, Z.; Minor, W.; Volkart, L.; Joachimiak, A.; Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst.; Univ. of Virginia; UT Southwestern Medical Center

    2009-12-17

    Many Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce anti-bacterial peptides and small proteins called bacteriocins, which enable them to compete against other bacteria in the environment. These peptides fall structurally into three different classes, I, II, III, with class IIa being pediocin-like single entities and class IIb being two-peptide bacteriocins. Self-protective cognate immunity proteins are usually co-transcribed with these toxins. Several examples of cognates for IIa have already been solved structurally. Streptococcus pyogenes, closely related to LAB, is one of the most common human pathogens, so knowledge of how it competes against other LAB species is likely to prove invaluable. We have solved the crystal structure of the gene-product of locus Spy-2152 from S. pyogenes, (PDB: 2fu2), and found it to comprise an anti-parallel four-helix bundle that is structurally similar to other bacteriocin immunity proteins. Sequence analyses indicate this protein to be a possible immunity protein protective against class IIa or IIb bacteriocins. However, given that S. pyogenes appears to lack any IIa pediocin-like proteins but does possess class IIb bacteriocins, we suggest this protein confers immunity to IIb-like peptides. Combined structural, genomic and proteomic analyses have allowed the identification and in silico characterization of a new putative immunity protein from S. pyogenes, possibly the first structure of an immunity protein protective against potential class IIb two-peptide bacteriocins. We have named the two pairs of putative bacteriocins found in S. pyogenes pyogenecin 1, 2, 3 and 4.

  3. The structure of pyogenecin immunity protein, a novel bacteriocin-like immunity protein from Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkart Lour

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB produce anti-bacterial peptides and small proteins called bacteriocins, which enable them to compete against other bacteria in the environment. These peptides fall structurally into three different classes, I, II, III, with class IIa being pediocin-like single entities and class IIb being two-peptide bacteriocins. Self-protective cognate immunity proteins are usually co-transcribed with these toxins. Several examples of cognates for IIa have already been solved structurally. Streptococcus pyogenes, closely related to LAB, is one of the most common human pathogens, so knowledge of how it competes against other LAB species is likely to prove invaluable. Results We have solved the crystal structure of the gene-product of locus Spy_2152 from S. pyogenes, (PDB:2fu2, and found it to comprise an anti-parallel four-helix bundle that is structurally similar to other bacteriocin immunity proteins. Sequence analyses indicate this protein to be a possible immunity protein protective against class IIa or IIb bacteriocins. However, given that S. pyogenes appears to lack any IIa pediocin-like proteins but does possess class IIb bacteriocins, we suggest this protein confers immunity to IIb-like peptides. Conclusions Combined structural, genomic and proteomic analyses have allowed the identification and in silico characterization of a new putative immunity protein from S. pyogenes, possibly the first structure of an immunity protein protective against potential class IIb two-peptide bacteriocins. We have named the two pairs of putative bacteriocins found in S. pyogenes pyogenecin 1, 2, 3 and 4.

  4. Generalized Wideband Cyclic MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Meng Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of Spectral Correlation-Signal Subspace Fitting (SC-SSF fails to separate wideband cyclostationary signals with coherent second-order cyclic statistics (SOCS. Averaged Cyclic MUSIC (ACM method made up for the drawback to some degree via temporally averaging the cyclic cross-correlation of the array output. This paper interprets ACM from another perspective and proposes a new DOA estimation method by generalizing ACM for wideband cyclostationary signals. The proposed method successfully makes up for the aforementioned drawback of SC-SSF and obtains a more satisfying performance than ACM. It is also demonstrated that ACM is a simplified form of the proposed method when only a single spectral frequency is exploited, and the integration of the frequencies within the signal bandwidth helps the new method to outperform ACM.

  5. The cyclic reduction algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Dario; Meini, Beatrice

    2009-05-01

    Cyclic reduction is an algorithm invented by G.H. Golub and R. W. Hockney in the mid 1960s for solving linear systems related to the finite differences discretization of the Poisson equation over a rectangle. Among the algorithms of Gene Golub, it is one of the most versatile and powerful ever created. Recently, it has been applied to solve different problems from different applicative areas. In this paper we survey the main features of cyclic reduction, relate it to properties of analytic functions, recall its extension to solving more general finite and infinite linear systems, and different kinds of nonlinear matrix equations, including algebraic Riccati equations, with applications to Markov chains, queueing models and transport theory. Some new results concerning the convergence properties of cyclic reduction and its applicability are proved under very weak assumptions. New formulae for overcoming breakdown are provided.

  6. Bioprotective potential of bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus gallinarum strains isolated from some Nigerian fermented foods, and of their bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladipo, Iyabo C; Sanni, Abiodun I; Writachit, Chakraborty; Chakravorty, Somnath; Jana, Sayantan; Rudra, Deep S; Gacchui, Ratan; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus gallinarum strains isolated from some Nigerian fermented foods were found to produce bacteriocins. The bacteriocins had a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and negative bacteria. The effects of the bacteriocins and bacteriocinogenic organ- isms on Staphylococcus aureus infections in rats were evaluated. Sprague-Dawley rats were infected with S. aureus MTCC 737 and treated with E. gallinarum T71 and different concentrations of the bacteriocins from E. gallinarum W211 and T71. Staphylococcus aureus infection caused significant upregulation of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in sera of the infected rats. Moreover, gelatin zymography revealed that infected gastric tissues showed elevated matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity. Bacteriocin treatments reduced the MMP-9 activity and inhibited the expressions of both Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-1 Beta (IL-1β) dose dependently, pointing to a potential role of the bacteriocins in attenuating inflammatory responses to Staphylococcus aureus infec- tion. Gastric and GIT damage caused by staphylococcal infection were reduced in the Enterococcus gallinarum T71 and bacteriocin-treated groups also dose dependently. We conclude that these bacteriocins may have useful biomedical applications.

  7. Characterization of Partially Purified Bacteriocin Like Substance (BLIS Produced by Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ismail Khanian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing interest in search for antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins and bacteriocin-like compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB because of their potential to be used as antimicrobial agents for improving the safety of food products. Objectives: The main objective of study was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of locally isolated Lactic Acid bacteria (LAB and determine their bacteriocin producing ability in in-vitro conditions. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of 77 isolated LAB strains was tested against a number of pathogens by well-diffusion method. The isolates demonstrating antimicrobial potential were selected and tested for the production of bacteriocin or bacteriocin like substance. The bacteriocin produced by two of the isolates were partially purified and characterized. Results: The results indicated the neutralized supernatant fluid of two of the isolates identified as L. brevis LB32 and L. pentosus LP05, were active against the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Additionally, L. brevis LB32 was able to inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, while, S. pnuemoniae and L. monocytogenes appeared to be the most sensitive strain as apparent by highest zone of inhibition against these pathogens, respectively. The antimicrobial activity in the supernatant fluids of the mentioned strains remained unaffected after treating with enzymes catalase, lipase and lysozyme, while were strongly sensitive to the action of proteolytic enzymes, suggesting the presence of bacteriocin like inhibitory substance (BLIS in the two isolates. The inhibitory substance produced by the two isolates appeared heat resistant and tolerated 100˚C and 121˚C for 55 minutes and 20 minutes, respectively. Partial purification of the concentrated culture supernatant fluids of L. brevis LB32 and L

  8. Streptococcus thermophilus 580 produces a bacteriocin potentially suitable for inhibition of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in hard cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathot, A G; Beliard, E; Thuault, D

    2003-10-01

    A strain of Streptococcus thermophilus that inhibits Clostridium tyrobutyricum has been isolated from raw milk. The active compound produced disappears after a treatment with protease. However, unlike most bacteriocins, it is not thermoresistant, and the activity is completely lost after 1 h at 60 degrees C. Its inhibitory spectrum is limited to other thermophilic streptococci, Brochothrix, and sporulated gram-positive rods. So this bacteriocin could be different from those already described. This bacteriocin-producing strain could be used in thermophilic starter for hard cheese making because the bacteriocin is not active against thermophilic lactobacilli. It is produced in M17 medium during the decreasing temperature phase of the hard cheese-making process temperature cycle and is also produced in milk. Moreover, when Streptococcus thermophilus was cocultured with a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis starter strain, it seems to enhance the bacteriocin production. However the level of activity always decreases drastically during the stationary phase. But inhibition of Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores can be obtained in small-scale curds.

  9. [Characteristics and identification of bacteriocins produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 194-K].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustiugova, E A; Timofeeva, A V; Stoianova, L G; Netrusov, A I; Katrukha, G S

    2012-01-01

    The Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 194-K strain has been established to be able to produce two bacteriocins, one of which was identified as the known lantibiotic nisin A, and the other 194-D bacteriocin represents a polypeptide with a 2589-Da molecular mass and comprises 20 amino acid residues. Both bacteriocins were produced in varying proportions in all of the studied nutrient media, which support the growth of the producer. Depending on the cultivation medium, the nisin A content was 380- to 1123-fold lower in the 194-K stain culture fluid than that of the 194-D peptide. In comparision to to nisin A Bacteriocin 194-D possessed a wide range of antibacterial activity and suppressed the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. An optimal medium for 194-D bacteriocin synthesis was shown to be a fermentation medium which contained yeast extract, casein hydrolysate, and potassium phosphate. The biosynthesis ofbacteriocin 194-D by the 194-K strain in these media occurred parallel to producer growth, and its maximal accumulation in the culture fluid was observed at 14-20 h of the strain's growth.

  10. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms by bacteriocin-producing bacteria isolated from mushroom substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolocan, A S; Pennone, V; O'Connor, P M; Coffey, A; Nicolau, A I; McAuliffe, O; Jordan, K

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the ability of naturally occurring bacteria isolated from mushroom substrate to prevent biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes or to remove existing biofilms in mushroom production facilities. It is generally recognized that L. monocytogenes forms biofilms that can facilitate its survival in food-processing environments. Eleven bacteriocin-producing isolates were identified and the bacteriocins characterized based on heat and enzyme inactivation studies. Further characterization was undertaken by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, PCR and sequencing. Production of nisin Z (by Lactococcus lactis isolates), subtilomycin (by Bacillus subtilis isolates) and lichenicidin (by Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus sonorensis isolates) was detected. In co-culture with L. monocytogenes, the bacteriocin-producing strains could prevent biofilm formation and reduce pre-formed biofilms. Mushroom substrate can be a source of bacteriocin-producing bacteria that can antagonize L. monocytogenes. The results highlight the potential of bacteriocin-producing strains from mushroom substrate to reduce L. monocytogenes biofilm in food production environments, contributing to a reduction in the risk of food contamination from the environment. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Influence of Growth Medium on Hydrogen Peroxide and Bacteriocin Production of Lactobacillus Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Németh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of bacteriocin and the production of hydrogen peroxide by four non-starter lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum 2142, Lactobacillus curvatus 2770, Lactobacillus curvatus 2775, Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum 2750 and the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota, propagated in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS and tomato juice (TJ broth. The methods were a commonly used agar diffusion technique and a microtiter assay method. The best peroxide-producing Lactobacillus strain was selected for screening the inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and the activity of bacteriocins against Lactobacillus sakei and Candida glabrata. All of the investigated lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains grown in MRS broth produced the highest concentration of hydrogen peroxide ranging from 2–6 g/mL after 72 h of storage. L. plantarum 2142 produced enough hydrogen peroxide already after 24 h at 5 °C in phosphate buffer to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes and B. cereus. Crude bacteriocin suspension from the investigated LAB inhibited only slightly the growth of L. sakei, however, the same suspension from MRS completely inhibited the 6-fold diluted yeast suspension. The concentrated bacteriocin suspensions from the both broths inhibited the growth of L. sakei completely. Among the strains, L. plantarum 2142 seemed to be the best peroxide and bacteriocin producer, and the antimicrobial metabolite production was better in MRS than in TJ broth.

  12. Purification and Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Weissella confusa A3 of Dairy Origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hweh Fen Goh

    Full Text Available A dramatic increase in bacterial resistance towards currently available antibiotics has raised worldwide concerns for public health. Therefore, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have emerged as a promisingly new group of therapeutic agents for managing infectious diseases. The present investigation focusses on the isolation and purification of a novel bacteriocin from an indigenous sample of cow milk and it's mode of action. The bacteriocin was isolated from Weissella confusa A3 that was isolated from the sample and was shown to have inhibitory activity towards pathogenic bacteria namely Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Micrococcus luteus. The bacteriocin was shown to be heat stable and functioned well at low pH (2 to 6. Reduction of activity was shown after treatment with proteinase K, trypsin and peptidase that confirmed the proteinaceous nature of the compound. MALDI-TOF analysis of the sample gave a mass approximating 2.7 kDa. The membrane of the bacteria was disrupted by the bacteriocin causing SYTOX® green dye to enter the cell and bind to the bacterial DNA giving fluorescence signal. Bacterial cell treated with the bacteriocin also showed significant morphological changes under transmission electron microscope. No virulence and disease related genes can be detected from the genome of the strain.

  13. Purification and Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Weissella confusa A3 of Dairy Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Hweh Fen; Philip, Koshy

    2015-01-01

    A dramatic increase in bacterial resistance towards currently available antibiotics has raised worldwide concerns for public health. Therefore, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a promisingly new group of therapeutic agents for managing infectious diseases. The present investigation focusses on the isolation and purification of a novel bacteriocin from an indigenous sample of cow milk and it’s mode of action. The bacteriocin was isolated from Weissella confusa A3 that was isolated from the sample and was shown to have inhibitory activity towards pathogenic bacteria namely Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Micrococcus luteus. The bacteriocin was shown to be heat stable and functioned well at low pH (2 to 6). Reduction of activity was shown after treatment with proteinase K, trypsin and peptidase that confirmed the proteinaceous nature of the compound. MALDI-TOF analysis of the sample gave a mass approximating 2.7 kDa. The membrane of the bacteria was disrupted by the bacteriocin causing SYTOX® green dye to enter the cell and bind to the bacterial DNA giving fluorescence signal. Bacterial cell treated with the bacteriocin also showed significant morphological changes under transmission electron microscope. No virulence and disease related genes can be detected from the genome of the strain. PMID:26474074

  14. Use of synthetic genes for cloning, production and functional expression of the bacteriocins enterocin A and bacteriocin E 50-52 by Pichia pastoris and Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan J; Borrero, Juan; Gútiez, Loreto; Arbulu, Sara; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Hernández, Pablo E

    2014-06-01

    The use of synthetic genes may constitute a successful approach for the heterologous production and functional expression of bacterial antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) by recombinant yeasts. In this work, synthetic genes with adapted codon usage designed from the mature amino acid sequence of the bacteriocin enterocin A (EntA), produced by Enterococcus faecium T136, and the mature bacteriocin E 50-52 (BacE50-52), produced by E. faecium NRRL B-32746, were synthesized. The synthetic entA and bacE50-52 were cloned into the protein expression vectors pPICZαA and pKLAC2 for transformation of derived vectors into Pichia pastoris X-33 and Kluyveromyces lactis GG799, respectively. The recombinant vectors were linearized and transformed into competent cells selecting for P. pastoris X-33EAS (entA), P. pastoris X-33BE50-52S (bacE50-52), K. lactis GG799EAS (entA), and K. lactis GG799BE50-52S (bacE50-52). P. pastoris X-33EAS and K. lactis GG799EAS, but not P. pastoris X-33BE50-52S and K. lactis GG799BE50-52S, showed antimicrobial activity in their supernatants. However, purification of the supernatants of the producer yeasts permitted recovery of the bacteriocins EntA and BacE50-52. Both purified bacteriocins were active against Gram-positive bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes but not against Gram-negative bacteria, including Campylobacter jejuni.

  15. Characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis N1-33 and its application as a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tomomi; Alemu, Melaku; Kobayashi, Miho; Suzuki, Chise; Nitisinprasert, Sunee; Ohmomo, Sadahiro

    2009-03-01

    A bacteriocin-producing strain, N1-33, isolated from fermented bamboo shoot was identified as Enterococcus faecalis. The pH-adjusted culture supernatant of this strain consisted of several peptides with bacteriocin activity, and the supernatant inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. The major peptide with bacteriocin activity was purified, and the first 39 amino acid residues of the bacteriocin were found to be identical to enterocin MR10A produced by E. faecalis MRR10-3. Addition of the pH-adjusted and concentrated culture supernatant of strain N1-33 caused a marked reduction in the growth of Bacillus cereus in custard cream and L. monocytogenes in pickled cucumber. These results suggest the potential use of the bacteriocin produced by strain N1-33 in food biopreservation.

  16. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digestive diseases specialist (gastroenterologist). If you or your child is in the middle of a severe vomiting episode, the doctor may ... system disorders There's no cure for cyclic vomiting syndrome, so treatment ... may be prescribed: Anti-nausea drugs Sedatives Medications ...

  17. Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables…

  18. On Expanded Cyclic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yingquan

    2008-01-01

    The paper has a threefold purpose. The first purpose is to present an explicit description of expanded cyclic codes defined in $\\GF(q^m)$. The proposed explicit construction of expanded generator matrix and expanded parity check matrix maintains the symbol-wise algebraic structure and thus keeps many important original characteristics. The second purpose of this paper is to identify a class of constant-weight cyclic codes. Specifically, we show that a well-known class of $q$-ary BCH codes excluding the all-zero codeword are constant-weight cyclic codes. Moreover, we show this class of codes achieve the Plotkin bound. The last purpose of the paper is to characterize expanded cyclic codes utilizing the proposed expanded generator matrix and parity check matrix. We analyze the properties of component codewords of a codeword and particularly establish the precise conditions under which a codeword can be represented by a subbasis. With the new insights, we present an improved lower bound on the minimum distance of...

  19. Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables…

  20. Cysteine S-glycosylation, a new post-translational modification found in glycopeptide bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepper, Judith; Shastri, Shilpa; Loo, Trevor S; Preston, Joanne C; Novak, Petr; Man, Petr; Moore, Christopher H; Havlíček, Vladimír; Patchett, Mark L; Norris, Gillian E

    2011-02-18

    O-Glycosylation is a ubiquitous eukaryotic post-translational modification, whereas early reports of S-linked glycopeptides have never been verified. Prokaryotes also glycosylate proteins, but there are no confirmed examples of sidechain glycosylation in ribosomal antimicrobial polypeptides collectively known as bacteriocins. Here we show that glycocin F, a bacteriocin secreted by Lactobacillus plantarum KW30, is modified by an N-acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to Ser18, and an N-acetylhexosamine S-linked to C-terminal Cys43. The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine is essential for bacteriostatic activity, and the C-terminus is required for full potency (IC(50) 2 nM). Genomic context analysis identified diverse putative glycopeptide bacteriocins in Firmicutes. One of these, the reputed lantibiotic sublancin, was shown to contain a hexose S-linked to Cys22.

  1. Chemical and genetic characterization of bacteriocins: antimicrobial peptides for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B; Worobo, Randy W

    2014-01-15

    Antimicrobial peptides are produced across all domains of life. Among these diverse compounds, those produced by bacteria have been most successfully applied as agents of biocontrol in food and agriculture. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized, proteinaceous compounds that inhibit the growth of closely related bacteria. Even within the subcategory of bacteriocins, the peptides vary significantly in terms of the gene cluster responsible for expression, and chemical and structural composition. The polycistronic gene cluster generally includes a structural gene and various combinations of immunity, secretion, and regulatory genes and modifying enzymes. Chemical variation can exist in amino acid identity, chain length, secondary and tertiary structural features, as well as specificity of active sites. This diversity posits bacteriocins as potential antimicrobial agents with a range of functions and applications. Those produced by food-grade bacteria and applied in normally occurring concentrations can be used as GRAS-status food additives. However, successful application requires thorough characterization.

  2. Bacteriocins active against multi-resistant gram negative bacteria implicated in nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodhbane, Hanen; Elaidi, Sabrine; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Achour, Sami; Benhmida, Jeannette; Regaya, Imed

    2015-01-01

    Multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria are the prime mover of nosocomial infections. Some are naturally resistant to antibiotics, their genetic makes them insensitive to certain families of antibiotics and they transmit these resistors to their offspring. Moreover, when bacteria are subjected to antibiotics, they eventually develop resistance against drugs to which they were previously sensitive. In recent years, many bacteriocins active against gram-negative bacteria have been identified proving their efficacy in treating infections. While further investigation remains necessary before the possibilities for bacteriocins in clinical practice can be described more fully, this review provides an overview of bacteriocins acting on the most common infectious gram negative bacteria (Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli).

  3. Partial purification and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium 130 isolated from mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Luiz Tulini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are important in foods as potential probiotics and also due to the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds that can contribute for biopreservation. In this work, the bacteriocin produced by the food isolate Enterococcus faecium 130 was partially purified and characterized. The compound was active against Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes. It was produced after 4 days of storage at a broad temperature range (4 to 37 °C; it was stable at pH ranging from 2 to 10 with no loss of activity after heating at 100 °C for 15 minutes. Bacteriocin was partially purified by the adsorption-desorption technique, and the analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed a molecular mass of 3.5 to 6.5 kDa. These data encourage studies on application of this bacteriocin in food systems as an additional hurdle to microbial growth.

  4. Bacteriocin formation by dominant aerobic sporeformers isolated from traditional maari

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaboré, Donatien; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2012-01-01

    that the antimicrobial substances produced were heat stable, in-sensitive to catalase, sensitive to protease and trypsin but resistant to the proteolytic action of papain and proteinase K and equally active at pH values ranging from 3 to 11. Bacteriocin secretion started in late exponential growth phase and maximum...... of 31 indicator organisms representing various Gram-negative and positive pathogens. The screening showed that 3 Bacillus subtilis strains (B3, B122 and B222) in particular had antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive organisms and were selected for further studies. It was found...... activity was detected during the stationary growth phase. The production of bacteriocin by B. subtilis B3, B122 and B222 was dependent on the aeration conditions. Maximum production of bacteriocin was observed under reduced aeration. Specific primers were used to screen isolates B3, B122 and B222 for genes...

  5. Cyclic Voltammograms from First Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas; Skulason, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a fundamental experimental tool for characterizing electrochemical surfaces. Whereas cyclic voltammetry is widely used within the field of electrochemistry, a way to quantitatively and directly relate the cyclic voltammogram to ab initio calculations has been lacking, even f...

  6. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius bacteriocin Abp118 on the mouse and pig intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliette Riboulet-Bisson

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are gram-positive bacteria that are a subdominant element in the human gastrointestinal microbiota, and which are commonly used in the food industry. Some lactobacilli are considered probiotic, and have been associated with health benefits. However, there is very little culture-independent information on how consumed probiotic microorganisms might affect the entire intestinal microbiota. We therefore studied the impact of the administration of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118, a microorganism well characterized for its probiotic properties, on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in two model animals. UCC118 has anti-infective activity due to production of the bacteriocin Abp118, a broad-spectrum class IIb bacteriocin, which we hypothesized could impact the microbiota. Mice and pigs were administered wild-type (WT L. salivarius UCC118 cells, or a mutant lacking bacteriocin production. The microbiota composition was determined by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from faeces. The data show that L. salivarius UCC118 administration had no significant effect on proportions of major phyla comprising the mouse microbiota, whether the strain was producing bacteriocin or not. However, L. salivarius UCC118 WT administration led to a significant decrease in Spirochaetes levels, the third major phylum in the untreated pig microbiota. In both pigs and mice, L. salivarius UCC118 administration had an effect on Firmicutes genus members. This effect was not observed when the mutant strain was administered, and was thus associated with bacteriocin production. Surprisingly, in both models, L. salivarius UCC118 administration and production of Abp118 had an effect on gram-negative microorganisms, even though Abp118 is normally not active in vitro against this group of microorganisms. Thus L. salivarius UCC118 administration has a significant but subtle impact on mouse and pig microbiota, by a mechanism that seems at least partially

  7. Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Kos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3, with special focus on their bacteriocinogenic activity directed towards representatives of the same or related bacterial species, and towards distant microorganisms including potential food contaminants or causative agents of gut infections. In order to induce bacteriocin production, probiotic cells were cocultivated with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450, one of the most important starter cultures in cheese production. The presence of bacteriocin coding genes was investigated by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers for helveticin and was confirmed for probiotic strain L. helveticus M92. All examined probiotic strains have shown bacteriocinogenic activity against Staphylococcus aureus 3048, Staphylococcus aureus K-144, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus TM2, which is an important functional treat of probiotic strains significant in competitive exclusion mechanism which provides selective advantage of probiotic strains against undesirable microorganisms in gastrointestinal tract of the host. According to obtained results, living cells of starter culture Lc. lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450 induced bacteriocin production by examined probiotic strains but starter culture itself was not sensitive to bacteriocin activity.

  8. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: purification, properties and use as biopreservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Parada

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Biopreservation systems in foods are of increasing interest for industry and consumers. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria and/or their isolated bacteriocins are considered safe additives (GRAS, useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoiling microorganisms in foods and feed. The spreading of bacterial antibiotic resistance and the demand for products with fewer chemicals create the necessity of exploring new alternatives, in order to reduce the abusive use of therapeutic antibiotics. In this context, bacteriocins are indicated to prevent the growth of undesirable bacteria in a food-grade and more natural way, which is convenient for health and accepted by the community. According to their properties, structure, molecular weight (MW, and antimicrobial spectrum, bacteriocins are classified in three different groups: lantibiotics and non-lantibiotics of low MW, and those of higher MW. Several strategies for isolation and purification of bacteriocins from complex cultivation broths to final products were described. Biotechnological procedures including salting-out, solvent extraction, ultrafiltration, adsorption-desortion, ion-exchange, and size exclusion chromatography are among the most usual methods. Peptide structure-function studies of bacteriocins and bacterial genetic advances will help to understand the molecular basis of their specificity and mode of action. Nisin is a good example of commercial success, and a good perspective is open to continue the study and development of new bacteriocins and their biotechnological applications. These substances in appropriate concentrations may be used in veterinary medicine and as animal growth promoter instead usual antibiotics, as well as an additional hurdle factor for increasing the shelf life of minimal processed foods.

  9. The Potential of Class II Bacteriocins to Modify Gut Microbiota to Improve Host Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umu, Özgün C. O.; Bäuerl, Christine; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B.; Hernández, Pablo E.; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Diep, Dzung B.

    2016-01-01

    Production of bacteriocins is a potential probiotic feature of many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as it can help prevent the growth of pathogens in gut environments. However, knowledge on bacteriocin producers in situ and their function in the gut of healthy animals is still limited. In this study, we investigated five bacteriocin-producing strains of LAB and their isogenic non-producing mutants for probiotic values. The LAB bacteriocins, sakacin A (SakA), pediocin PA-1 (PedPA-1), enterocins P, Q and L50 (enterocins), plantaricins EF and JK (plantaricins) and garvicin ML (GarML), are all class II bacteriocins, but they differ greatly from each other in terms of inhibition spectrum and physicochemical properties. The strains were supplemented to mice through drinking water and changes on the gut microbiota composition were interpreted using 16S rRNA gene analysis. In general, we observed that overall structure of the gut microbiota remained largely unaffected by the treatments. However, at lower taxonomic levels, some transient but advantageous changes were observed. Some potentially problematic bacteria were inhibited (e.g., Staphylococcus by enterocins, Enterococcaceae by GarML, and Clostridium by plantaricins) and the proportion of LAB was increased in the presence of SakA-, plantaricins- and GarML-producing bacteria. Moreover, the treatment with GarML-producing bacteria co-occurred with decreased triglyceride levels in the host mice. Taken together, our results indicate that several of these bacteriocin producers have potential probiotic properties at diverse levels as they promote favorable changes in the host without major disturbance in gut microbiota, which is important for normal gut functioning. PMID:27695121

  10. Analysis of natural isolates of Lactobacilli resistant to bacteriocin nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strahinić Ivana D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The collection of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was made by isolation of microorganisms from fermented products traditionally manufactured in different geographical regions (high mountains, river valleys, seaside, etc. Among collected LAB, 51 isolates were identified as Lactobacillus sp. Results showed that all isolated lactobacilli were mesophilic strains, since they grew at 15°C and 30°C but not at 45°C. Testing the ability of isolated lactobacilli to grow in the presence of nisin revealed that Lactobacillus sp. isolates designed BGCGK4, BGHN40, BGBUK2-8, BGBUK2-7 and BGBUK2-16 were resistant to nisin. Determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC for nisin revealed that the most resistant isolate was Lactobacillus sp. BGCGK4. Isolate BGBUK2-16, determined as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, produces bacteriocin, named Bac217 and showed a resistance to 8000 IU/ml of nisin. Plasmid curing of BGBUK2-16 resulted in derivatives BGBUK2-16/K2 and BGBUK2-16/K4. Derivative BGBUK2-16/K2 retained resistance to Bac217 and nisin, but lost the ability to synthesise Bac217. Derivative BGBUK2-16/K4 lost concomitantly the resistance to both Bac217 and nisin.

  11. Production of Antilisterial Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria in Dairy-Based Media: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Gülhan; Nielsen, Barbara; Ionita, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    One hundred and eight strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened for bacteriocin production by the modified deferred antagonism and agar well diffusion methods. When the modified deferred antagonism method was employed, 82 LAB strains showed inhibitory action against Listeria monocytogenes v7 ½a, whereas 26 LAB strains expressed no inhibition. Only 12 LAB strains exhibited inhibitory activity when the agar well diffusion method was used, 11 of which had been previously recognized as bacteriocin production positive (Bac(+)). Lactobacillus viridescens NRRL B-1951 was determined, for the first time, to produce an inhibitory compound with a proteinaceous nature. The inhibitory activity was observed in the presence of lipase, α-chymotrypsin, and trypsin, but no inhibition zone could be detected in the presence of proteinase K, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitory compound. The inhibitory compound was active against Lact. sake ATCC 15521 and Lact. plantarum NCDO 995. Bacteriocin production by the Bac(+) LAB strains was assessed in Lactobacillus MRS Broth as well as in dairy-based media such as nonfat milk, demineralized whey powder, and cheddar cheese whey supplemented with complex nutrient sources that are rich in nitrogen. Lact. sake ATCC 15521 and L. monocytogenes CWD 1002, CWD 1092, CWD 1157, CWD 1198, and v7 ½a were used as indicators. The inhibitory activities of the bacteriocins varied depending on the indicator strains and the growth media used. The LAB indicator strains were found to be more sensitive to inhibition by bacteriocins when compared to the listerial indicator strains. Among the listerial indicators, L. monocytogenes CWD 1002 and CWD 1198 were the most sensitive strains to the bacteriocins investigated in this study. Media composition had a significant influence on bacteriocin production and activity. When compared to demineralized whey powder medium and cheddar cheese whey medium supplemented with whey protein concentrate

  12. Purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by strain of Lactobacillus brevis MTCC 7539.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Neha; Sharma, Nivedita

    2009-08-01

    Bacteriocin, an antimicrobial agent having potential for food biopreservation was purified from Lactobacillus brevis (a safe food-grade bacteria isolated from Vari Kandal, a traditional fermented food of Himachal Pradesh by adopting a novel repeated washing method. Its purity was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Native-PAGE. The relative molecular mass of bacteriocin was 93.74 kD, while specific activity and recovery were 35.52 folds and 17.13%, respectively. It showed high thermal stability and was active over wide range of pH and exhibited sensitivity to trypsin.

  13. [Enterocin-35, a bacteriocin with activity against Listeria monocytogenes. Possible use in the food industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, R; Farías, M E; Kümmerlin, R; Sesma, F

    1999-01-01

    The in vitro inhibitory activity of enterocin-35 produced by Enterococcus faecium CRL 35, was studied against Listeria monocytogenes, isolated from seafoods. Optimal growth conditions of the enterocin-35 producing strain, for higher bacteriocin production and improve the extraction and purification of these peptides, were applied. A crude extract of enterocin-35 was assayed in a frozen seafood artificially contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes isolate, simulating at laboratory scale an eventual application of this biopreservant in a routine production process at factory level. The feasibility of biopreservation of seafoods by means of bacteriocins is proposed and discussed.

  14. Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes by Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substances (BLIS) Produced by Streptococcus Salivarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Whitney P.; Filip, Jennifer C.; DiRienzo, Joseph M.; Volgina, Alla; Margolis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the in vitro inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) by a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS-like substance) produced by Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius). Bacteriocins are proteinaceous substances produced by bacteria that are capable of inhibiting the growth of similar bacterial strains. Unlike classical antibiotics, they have a relatively narrow spectrum of killing activity, resulting in a reduction in the intensity of selection for resistance. These findings suggest that BLIS may potentially be used for its anti-P. acnes activity in the treatment of acne. PMID:17039652

  15. Dynamics of cyclic machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vulfson, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on modern methods of oscillation analysis in machines, including cyclic action mechanisms (linkages, cams, steppers, etc.). It presents schematization techniques and mathematical descriptions of oscillating systems, taking into account the variability of the parameters and nonlinearities, engineering evaluations of dynamic errors, and oscillation suppression methods. The majority of the book is devoted to the development of new methods of dynamic analysis and synthesis for cyclic machines that form regular oscillatory systems with multiple duplicate modules.  There are also sections examining aspects of general engineering interest (nonlinear dissipative forces, systems with non-stationary constraints, impacts and pseudo-impacts in clearances, etc.)  The examples in the book are based on the widely used results of theoretical and experimental studies as well as engineering calculations carried out in relation to machines used in the textile, light, polygraphic and other industries. Particu...

  16. The Cyclic Model Simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhardt, P J; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2004-01-01

    The Cyclic Model attempts to resolve the homogeneity, isotropy, and flatness problems and generate a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of fluctuations during a period of slow contraction that precedes a bounce to an expanding phase. Here we describe at a conceptual level the recent developments that have greatly simplified our understanding of the contraction phase and the Cyclic Model overall. The answers to many past questions and criticisms are now understood. In particular, we show that the contraction phase has equation of state w>1 and that contraction with w>1 has a surprisingly similar properties to inflation with w < -1/3. At one stroke, this shows how the model is different from inflation and why it may work just as well as inflation in resolving cosmological problems.

  17. Diagnosis of Cyclic Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In a study at Children’s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI, and Children’s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, designed primarily to compare cost-effectiveness of three methods of management of cyclic vomiting cases, one group of patients received an extensive diagnostic evaluation, a second was treated with empiric antimigraine drugs for 2 months, and a third an upper GI series with small-bowel follow-through (UGI-SBFT plus empiric therapy.

  18. Geometry of Cyclic Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-18

    analysis of the equilibria based on linearization of the shape dynamics. In [10], the authors extend their analysis to incorporate feedback control...differentiable curves in R2, deriving our dynamics from the natural Frenet frame equations (see, e.g., [5] for details). (A three- dimensional analysis of...cyclic pursuit formulated in terms of the natural Frenet frame equations is a topic of ongoing work.) As is depicted in figure 1, we let ri denote the

  19. The partial characterization of the antibacterial peptide bacteriocin G2 produced by the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum G2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVETLANA L. ŠEATOVIĆ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the partial characterization of the antimicrobial peptide bacteriocin G2 produced by probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum G2, which was isolated from a clinical sample of a healthy person. Antimicrobial substance was secreted in the supernatant of an L. plantarum G2 culture, and showed a diverse spectrum of antimicrobial activity of all the tested strains of the genera Lactobacillus and the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella аbony. Isoelectric focusing revealed that bacteriocin G2 is a cationic peptide (pI about 10 with a molecular mass of 2.2 kDa according to tricine–sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE. The antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin G2 was diminished by the proteolytic action of trypsin and proteinase K. Bacteriocin G2 preserved its biological activity in the temperature range 40–60 °C (15 min, which was lost at 80 °C. Bacteriocin G2 was stable in the pH range 2–9, while treatment with 1 % Tween 80 and 1 % urea resulted in increased antimicrobial activity. The probiotic strain L. plantarum G2 produces the antimicrobial substance proteinaceous in nature with bacteriocin characteristics. Bacteriocin production is one of the key properties of probiotic bacteria with clinical potential as anti-infective agents, which will increase the likelihood of its in vivo efficacy.

  20. Physical chemical and biological characterization of a new bacteriocin produced byBacillus cereusNS02

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senbagam D; Gurusamy R; Senthilkumar B

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To screen the bacteriocinogenic isolate from buffalo milk and to characterize it on physical, chemical and biological aspects for the application in biopreservation.Methods:Bacillus cereus(B. cereus) was isolated and assessed for its baceteriocinogenic activity. Bacteriocin was produced and purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration chromatography.Purified bacteriocin was used to check its antimicrobial activity against food borne bacteria.Effect and stability of bacteriocin was determined with the respect to temperature, pH, enzymes, organic solvents and chemicals.Bacteriocin was also subjected toSDSPAGE analysis to determine its molecular weight.In addition, functional groups exist in the bacteriocin was determined byFTIR analysis.Results:B. cereus was identified by16S rRNA sequence analysis.Bacteriocin showed increased activity against all the bacteria used and its activity unit was found to be51,200AU/mL.It was stable to high temperature(100 ℃) and wide range of pH(3-10), sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and resistant to nonproteolytic enzymes.It was low molecular weight(3.5 -6KDa) protein andFTIR study revealed the presence of amide group andNH stretching.Conclusions:Bacteriocin produced in this study possesses the highest antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria thereby it has immense application as biopreservative agent.FTIR proved its peptide nature.

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BACTERIOCIN FROM INDIGENOUS Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 AND ITS APPLICATION ON BEEF MEATBALL AS BIOPRESERVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Suryati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One purpose of food preservation is to extend the shelf life of foods. Biological preservations can be conducted by adding antimicrobial substances, such as bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria and has been characterized as biopreservatives. The aims of this research were to evaluate antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin produced by indigenous lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 isolated from local beef and to study the quality of beef meatball with 0.3% bacteriocin as biopreservative at different storage times (0, 3, and 6 days in cold temperature (4oC, compared to 0.3% nitrite and control (without preservative. The results showed that bacteriocin from L. plantarum 2C12 could inhibit pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Bacteriocin was effective as well as nitrite as biopreservatives of meatballs by inhibiting the growth of total microbes and E. coli. The addition of bacteriocin did not lead the physical and nutritional changes in the meatballs. The quality of meatball with bacteriocin treatment conformed with Indonesia National Standard of meatball.

  2. Isolation and purification of two bacteriocins 3D produced by Enterococcus faecium with inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoub, Kaoutar; Mardad, Ilham; Ammar, Emna; Serrano, Aurelio; Soukri, Abdelaziz

    2011-02-01

    Strain 3D, isolated from fermented traditional Moroccan dairy product, and identified as Enterococcus faecium, was studied for its capability to produce two bacteriocins acting against Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocins 3 Da and 3Db were heat stable inactivated by proteinase K, pepsin, and trypsin but not when treated with catalase. The evidenced bacteriocins were stable in a wide pH range from 2 to 11 and bactericidal activity was kept during storage at 4°C. However, the combination of temperature and pH exhibited a stability of the bacteriocins. RP-HPLC purification of the anti-microbial compounds shows two active fractions eluted at 16 and 30.5 min, respectively. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that E. faecium 3D produce two bacteriocins Enterocin 3 Da (3893.080 Da) and Enterocin 3Db (4203.350 Da). This strain is food-grade organism and its bacteriocins were heat-stable peptides at basic, neutral, and acid pH: such bacteriocins may be of interest as food preservatives.

  3. Two-Component Regulatory Systems – implication in the quorum sensing mechanisms and bacteriocin production in lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia–Mara Ditu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available For lactic acid bacteria, the mechanisms of quorum sensing and response are mediated by peptides or pheromones that interfere with the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMP called bacteriocins, when these molecules reach a certain critical level of concentration. Generally, the synthesis and activity of pheromones is adjusted by means of a two-component regulatory system. The observation that some microorganisms, in particular lactic acid bacteria, produce bacteriocins according to the cell density, has led to the discovery of the involvement of QS mechanisms in the synthesis of these peptides. Bacteriocins synthesis is inducible, the process requiring the extracellular accumulation of peptides that functions as chemical messengers activators of bacteriocins synthesis. This minireview presents the molecular architecture and functions of two-component regulatory systems and ABC transporters implicated in the synthesis and secretion of nisin, one of the most studied bacteriocin. The elucidation of the intimate mechanisms of bacteriocins synthesis is equally of biotechnological and medical importance, opening interesting perspectives for the development of improved technologies for the production of bacteriocins with good yields, and also, for increasing the beneficial anti-infective roles of probiotic bacteria when administered in vivo.

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BACTERIOCIN FROM INDIGENOUS Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 AND ITS APPLICATION ON BEEF MEATBALL AS BIOPRESERVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Arief

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One purpose of food preservation is to extend the shelf life of foods. Biological preservations canbe conducted by adding antimicrobial substances, such as bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteriaand has been characterized as biopreservatives. The aims of this research were to evaluate antimicrobialactivity of bacteriocin produced by indigenous lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12isolated from local beef and to study the quality of beef meatball with 0.3% bacteriocin asbiopreservative at different storage times (0, 3, and 6 days in cold temperature (4oC, compared to 0.3%nitrite and control (without preservative. The results showed that bacteriocin from L. plantarum 2C12could inhibit pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and SalmonellaTyphimurium. Bacteriocin was effective as well as nitrite as biopreservatives of meatballs by inhibitingthe growth of total microbes and E. coli. The addition of bacteriocin did not lead the physical andnutritional changes in the meatballs. The quality of meatball with bacteriocin treatment conformed withIndonesia National Standard of meatball.

  5. Development of Freeze-Dried Bacteriocin-Containing Preparations from Lactic Acid Bacteria to Inhibit Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrieva-Moats, Galina Yu; Ünlü, Gülhan

    2012-03-01

    There has been a recent movement to produce and consume "minimally processed" and more "natural" foods through the use of fewer chemical preservatives. The shift to more "natural" foods has resulted in a great interest in the use of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria as natural biopreservatives. The objective of this comparative study was to identify bacteriocins that can be produced in low-cost or no-cost dairy-based media (DBM), concentrated using freeze-drying, and applied to Cheddar cheese samples to concurrently inhibit Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Select bacteriocin producers were grown in DBM, their cell-free supernatants (CFS) were frozen, and the frozen CFS samples were freeze-dried to produce bacteriocin-containing powders. Cheddar cheese samples were challenged with L. monocytogenes or Staph. aureus cells. The challenged samples were exposed to buffered solutions of freeze-dried powders containing bacteriocins, incubated at 4 °C for 24-72 h, and plated onto appropriate selective media. All freeze-dried bacteriocin-containing powders tested were active against L. monocytogenes and Staph. aureus. Our research findings indicated that low-cost or no-cost DBM could successfully be used for production of bacteriocin-containing preparations. In addition, freeze-drying was determined to be a feasible approach to prepare concentrated and stable bacteriocin-containing powders for prospective food applications. The prevention of even a very small percentage of foodborne illnesses via the use of bacteriocins as natural biopreservatives would help reduce the number of foodborne illness-related hospitalizations, deaths, and financial loss due to medical expenses, lost income/productivity, cost of litigation/penalties, and loss of trade.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZS9, a probiotic starter producing class II bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Pinglan

    2016-03-20

    Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZS9 is a probiotic starter isolated from fermented sausage and it is a great producer of class II bacteriocins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete sequenced genome of L. paraplantarum deposited in GenBank database. The size of the complete genome of L. paraplantarum L-ZS9 is 3,139,729 bp. The genomic sequence revealed that this strain includes 19 genes involved in class II bacteriocins production and regulation. The information fill the gaps of the L. paraplantarum genome information and contribute to the improvement of class II bacteriocins research.

  7. Coordinated Bacteriocin Expression and Competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae Contributes to Genetic Adaptation through Neighbor Predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yun Wholey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus has remained a persistent cause of invasive and mucosal disease in humans despite the widespread use of antibiotics and vaccines. The resilience of this organism is due to its capacity for adaptation through the uptake and incorporation of new genetic material from the surrounding microbial community. DNA uptake and recombination is controlled by a tightly regulated quorum sensing system that is triggered by the extracellular accumulation of competence stimulating peptide (CSP. In this study, we demonstrate that CSP can stimulate the production of a diverse array of blp bacteriocins. This cross stimulation occurs through increased production and secretion of the bacteriocin pheromone, BlpC, and requires a functional competence regulatory system. We show that a highly conserved motif in the promoter of the operon encoding BlpC and its transporter mediates the upregulation by CSP. The accumulation of BlpC following CSP stimulation results in augmented activation of the entire blp locus. Using biofilm-grown organisms as a model for competition and genetic exchange on the mucosal surface, we demonstrate that DNA exchange is enhanced by bacteriocin secretion suggesting that co-stimulation of bacteriocins with competence provides an adaptive advantage. The blp and com regulatory pathways are believed to have diverged and specialized in a remote ancestor of pneumococcus. Despite this, the two systems have maintained a regulatory connection that promotes competition and adaptation by targeting for lysis a wide array of potential competitors while simultaneously providing the means for incorporation of their DNA.

  8. Identification and characterization of two novel clostridial bacteriocins, circularin A and closticin 574

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, R; Kuipers, A; Karsens, H; Nauta, A; Kuipers, O; Kok, J

    2003-01-01

    Two novel antibacterial peptides of clostridiall species were purified, N-terminally sequenced, and characterized. Moreover, their structural genes were identified. Closticin 574 is an 82-amino-acid bacteriocin produced by Clostridium tyrobutyricum ADRIAT 932. The supernatant of the producing strain

  9. Novel mechanism of bacteriocin secretion and immunity carried out by lactococcal multidrug resistance proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajic, O; Buist, G; Kojic, M; Topisirovic, L; Kuipers, OP; Kok, J

    2003-01-01

    A natural isolate of Lactococcus lactis was shown to produce two narrow spectrum class II bacteriocins, designated LsbA and LsbB. The cognate genes are located on a 5.6-kb plasmid within a gene cluster specifying LmrB, an ATP-binding cassette-type multidrug resistance transporter protein. LsbA is a

  10. Identification and characterization of two novel clostridial bacteriocins, circularin A and closticin 574

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, R; Kuipers, A; Karsens, H; Nauta, A; Kuipers, O; Kok, J

    2003-01-01

    Two novel antibacterial peptides of clostridiall species were purified, N-terminally sequenced, and characterized. Moreover, their structural genes were identified. Closticin 574 is an 82-amino-acid bacteriocin produced by Clostridium tyrobutyricum ADRIAT 932. The supernatant of the producing strain

  11. Genetic features of circular bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maqueda, Mercedes; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Fernández, Matilde; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This review highlights the main genetic features of circular bacteriocins, which require the co-ordinated expression of several genetic determinants. In general terms, it has been demonstrated that the expression of such structural genes must be combined with the activity of proteins involved in mat

  12. Pediocin PA-1, a wide-spectrum bacteriocin from lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, JM; Martinez, MI; Kok, J

    2002-01-01

    Pediocin PA-1 is a broad-spectrum lactic acid bacteria bacteriocin that shows a particularly strong activity against Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen of special concern among the food industries. This antimicrobial peptide is the most extensively studied class IIa (or pediocin family)

  13. Coordinated Bacteriocin Expression and Competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae Contributes to Genetic Adaptation through Neighbor Predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, Wei-Yun; Kochan, Travis J; Storck, David N; Dawid, Suzanne

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) has remained a persistent cause of invasive and mucosal disease in humans despite the widespread use of antibiotics and vaccines. The resilience of this organism is due to its capacity for adaptation through the uptake and incorporation of new genetic material from the surrounding microbial community. DNA uptake and recombination is controlled by a tightly regulated quorum sensing system that is triggered by the extracellular accumulation of competence stimulating peptide (CSP). In this study, we demonstrate that CSP can stimulate the production of a diverse array of blp bacteriocins. This cross stimulation occurs through increased production and secretion of the bacteriocin pheromone, BlpC, and requires a functional competence regulatory system. We show that a highly conserved motif in the promoter of the operon encoding BlpC and its transporter mediates the upregulation by CSP. The accumulation of BlpC following CSP stimulation results in augmented activation of the entire blp locus. Using biofilm-grown organisms as a model for competition and genetic exchange on the mucosal surface, we demonstrate that DNA exchange is enhanced by bacteriocin secretion suggesting that co-stimulation of bacteriocins with competence provides an adaptive advantage. The blp and com regulatory pathways are believed to have diverged and specialized in a remote ancestor of pneumococcus. Despite this, the two systems have maintained a regulatory connection that promotes competition and adaptation by targeting for lysis a wide array of potential competitors while simultaneously providing the means for incorporation of their DNA.

  14. Topology of LcnD, a protein implicated in the transport of bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Christian M.; Leenhouts, Kees J.; Haandrikman, Alfred J.; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard; Venema, Koen

    1996-01-01

    Four in-frame translational fusions to both the reporter proteins beta-galactosidase and alkaline phosphatase support a topological model of LcnD, a protein implicated in the transport of several bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis, in which the N-terminal part is located intracellularly and one tr

  15. Biochemical characterisation and genetic analysis of aureocin A53, a new, atypical bacteriocin from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netz, Daili Jacqueline Aguilar; Pohl, Regula; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Selmer, Thorsten; Pierik, Antonio J; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2002-06-07

    Aureocin A53 is produced by Staphylococcus aureus A53. It is encoded on a 10.4 kb plasmid, pRJ9, and is active against Listeria monocytogenes. Aureocin A53 is a highly cationic 51-residue peptide containing ten lysine and five tryptophan residues. Aureocin A53 was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic-interaction, cation-exchange, and reverse-phase chromatography. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry yielded a molecular mass of 6012.5 Da, which was 28 Da higher than predicted from the structural gene sequence of the bacteriocin. The mass increment resulted from an N-formylmethionine residue, indicating that the aureocin A53 is synthesised and secreted without a typical bacteriocin leader sequence or sec-dependent signal peptide. The structural identity of aureocin A53 was verified by Edman sequencing after de-blocking with cyanogen bromide and extensive mass spectrometry analysis of enzymatically and laser-generated fragments. The complete sequence of pRJ9 was determined and none of the open reading frames identified in the vicinity of the structural gene aucA showed similarity to genes that are typically found in bacteriocin gene clusters. Thus, neither a dedicated protease or transporter, nor modifying enzymes and regulatory elements seemed to be involved in the production of aureocin A53. Further unique features that distinguish aureocin A53 from other peptide bacteriocins include remarkable protease stability and a defined, rigid structure in aqueous solution.

  16. Bacteriocins and other bioactive substances of probiotic lactobacilli as biological weapons against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz, Francisco O; Pascual, Liliana; Giordano, Walter; Barberis, Lucila

    2015-04-01

    In the search of new antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacteriocins-producing probiotic lactobacilli deserve special attention. The inhibitory effects of biosubstances such as organic acids, hydrogen peroxide and each bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) L23 and L60 on the growth of different gonococcal strains were investigated. Different non-treated and treated cell-free supernatants of two probiotic lactobacilli containing these metabolites were used. The aims of this work were (i) to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the biosubstances produced by two probiotic lactobacilli, estimating the proportion in which each of them is responsible for the inhibitory effect, (ii) to define their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and, (iii) to determine the potential interactions between these biosubstances against N. gonorrhoeae. The main antimicrobial metabolites were the BLIS-es L23 and L60 in comparison with other biosubstances. Proportionally, their contributions to the inhibition on the gonococcal growth were 87.28% and 80.66%, respectively. The MIC values of bacteriocins were promising since these substances, when diluted, showed considerable inhibitory activity for all gonococci. In the interaction between bacteriocins, 100% of synergism was found on the gonococcal growth. In summary, this study indicates that both L23 and L60 could potentially serve to design new bioproducts against N. gonorrhoeae.

  17. Genetic features of circular bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maqueda, Mercedes; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Fernández, Matilde; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This review highlights the main genetic features of circular bacteriocins, which require the co-ordinated expression of several genetic determinants. In general terms, it has been demonstrated that the expression of such structural genes must be combined with the activity of proteins involved in mat

  18. Applications of Bacteriocins in Broiler Chickens to Reduce Carriage of Campylobacter and Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper will review studies which have used a variety of bacteriocins to treat Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enteritidis colonized broiler chickens. Antagonistic bacteria were chosen by selecting those isolates which produced zones of inhibition among confluent C. jejuni growth. From the...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Carnobacterium divergens V41, a Bacteriocin-Producing Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenant, Benoît; Borges, Frédéric; Cailliez-Grimal, Catherine; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie; Marché, Laurent; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present the draft genome sequence of Carnobacterium divergens V41. This strain was previously reported as producing divercin V41, a bacteriocin of interest for food biopreservation. Its genome revealed also the presence of a gene cluster putatively involved in polyketide production, which is unique in lactic acid bacteria. PMID:27738030

  20. Diversity of Streptococcus thermophilus in bacteriocin production; inhibitory spectrum and occurrence of thermophilin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franca; Marzotto, Marta; Cremonese, Silvia; Rizzotti, Lucia; Torriani, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    The bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus thermophilus strains that can dominate in natural dairy ecosystems, may also enhance safety in products obtained from natural cultures. In this study, we sought to identify bacteriocin production and bacteriocin genes in 75 strains of dairy and plant origin. The strains were tested for antimicrobial activity against pathogens or pathogen models, spoiling bacteria, and lactic acid bacteria associated with dairy products. All strains moderately inhibited Staphylococcus aureus P310, none inhibited Listeria innocua LMG 11387(T) or Clostridium tyrobutyricum LMG 1285(T). In addition, 14 were active against one or more indicators in addition to S. aureus P310. Inhibition of other starter bacteria was more common than the inhibition of unwanted microorganisms. The involvement of a proteinaceous compound was ascertained in all cases. Results suggested that the selection of bacteriocinogenic S. thermophilus strains for use in biopreservation must take into account the effects exerted on other lactic acid bacteria. PCR detection of thermophilin genes proved unreliable in predicting antimicrobial activity. For S. thermophilus PRI36 and PRI45, with relevant inhibitory features, the identity of the bacteriocin genes present in the thermophilin 9 cluster was defined, thus revealing novel variants for this genome region.

  1. Novel mechanism of bacteriocin secretion and immunity carried out by lactococcal multidrug resistance proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajic, O; Buist, G; Kojic, M; Topisirovic, L; Kuipers, OP; Kok, J

    2003-01-01

    A natural isolate of Lactococcus lactis was shown to produce two narrow spectrum class II bacteriocins, designated LsbA and LsbB. The cognate genes are located on a 5.6-kb plasmid within a gene cluster specifying LmrB, an ATP-binding cassette-type multidrug resistance transporter protein. LsbA is a

  2. Variable Characteristics of Bacteriocin-Producing Streptococcus salivarius Strains Isolated from Malaysian Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelahhad Barbour; Koshy Philip

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Salivaricins are bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus salivarius, some strains of which can have significant probiotic effects. S. salivarius strains were isolated from Malaysian subjects showing variable antimicrobial activity, metabolic profile, antibiotic susceptibility and lantibiotic production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report new S. salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects with potential as probiotics. Safety assessment of these strains i...

  3. Genome mining demonstrates the widespread occurrence of gene clusters encoding bacteriocins in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Fewer, David P; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are a rich source of natural products with interesting biological activities. Many of these are peptides and the end products of a non-ribosomal pathway. However, several cyanobacterial peptide classes were recently shown to be produced through the proteolytic cleavage and post-translational modification of short precursor peptides. A new class of bacteriocins produced through the proteolytic cleavage and heterocyclization of precursor proteins was recently identified from marine cyanobacteria. Here we show the widespread occurrence of bacteriocin gene clusters in cyanobacteria through comparative analysis of 58 cyanobacterial genomes. A total of 145 bacteriocin gene clusters were discovered through genome mining. These clusters encoded 290 putative bacteriocin precursors. They ranged in length from 28 to 164 amino acids with very little sequence conservation of the core peptide. The gene clusters could be classified into seven groups according to their gene organization and domain composition. This classification is supported by phylogenetic analysis, which further indicated independent evolutionary trajectories of gene clusters in different groups. Our data suggests that cyanobacteria are a prolific source of low-molecular weight post-translationally modified peptides.

  4. Genome mining demonstrates the widespread occurrence of gene clusters encoding bacteriocins in cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are a rich source of natural products with interesting biological activities. Many of these are peptides and the end products of a non-ribosomal pathway. However, several cyanobacterial peptide classes were recently shown to be produced through the proteolytic cleavage and post-translational modification of short precursor peptides. A new class of bacteriocins produced through the proteolytic cleavage and heterocyclization of precursor proteins was recently identified from marine cyanobacteria. Here we show the widespread occurrence of bacteriocin gene clusters in cyanobacteria through comparative analysis of 58 cyanobacterial genomes. A total of 145 bacteriocin gene clusters were discovered through genome mining. These clusters encoded 290 putative bacteriocin precursors. They ranged in length from 28 to 164 amino acids with very little sequence conservation of the core peptide. The gene clusters could be classified into seven groups according to their gene organization and domain composition. This classification is supported by phylogenetic analysis, which further indicated independent evolutionary trajectories of gene clusters in different groups. Our data suggests that cyanobacteria are a prolific source of low-molecular weight post-translationally modified peptides.

  5. Pediocin PA-1, a wide-spectrum bacteriocin from lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, JM; Martinez, MI; Kok, J

    2002-01-01

    Pediocin PA-1 is a broad-spectrum lactic acid bacteria bacteriocin that shows a particularly strong activity against Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen of special concern among the food industries. This antimicrobial peptide is the most extensively studied class IIa (or pediocin family) ba

  6. Relationships between MDR proteins, bacteriocin production and proteolysis in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajic, Olivera

    2003-01-01

    The Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis can harbour a wide variety of circular extrachromosomal DNA molecules, so-called plasmids. Many of the traits that make them useful for manufacturing of fermented food products (e.g. bacteriophage resistance, bacteriocin and proteinase produ

  7. Complementary and Overlapping Selectivity of the Two-Peptide Bacteriocins Plantaricin EF and JK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Gert N.; Akker, Emile van den; Hauge, Håvard H.; Nissen-Meyer, Jon; Nes, Ingolf F.; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Plantaricin EF and JK are both two-peptide bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum C11. The mechanism of plantaricin EF and JK action was studied on L. plantarum 965 cells. Both plantaricins form pores in the membranes of target cells and dissipate the transmembrane electrical potential (Δψ

  8. Genetic features of circular bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maqueda, Mercedes; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Fernández, Matilde; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    This review highlights the main genetic features of circular bacteriocins, which require the co-ordinated expression of several genetic determinants. In general terms, it has been demonstrated that the expression of such structural genes must be combined with the activity of proteins involved in

  9. Complementary and Overlapping Selectivity of the Two-Peptide Bacteriocins Plantaricin EF and JK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Gert N.; Akker, Emile van den; Hauge, Håvard H.; Nissen-Meyer, Jon; Nes, Ingolf F.; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Plantaricin EF and JK are both two-peptide bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum C11. The mechanism of plantaricin EF and JK action was studied on L. plantarum 965 cells. Both plantaricins form pores in the membranes of target cells and dissipate the transmembrane electrical potential

  10. Topology of a type I secretion system for bacteriocins of Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Christian Marc

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes the analysis of a number of aspects of the secretion and muturation machinery of the bacteriocin lactococcin A (LcnA) from Lactococcus lactis, whick is initially synthesized as a precursor protein (preLcnA), containing an N-terminal extension of 20 amino acids (the leader)....

  11. Topology of LcnD, a protein implicated in the transport of bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, Christian M.; Leenhouts, Kees J.; Haandrikman, Alfred J.; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard; Venema, Koen

    Four in-frame translational fusions to both the reporter proteins beta-galactosidase and alkaline phosphatase support a topological model of LcnD, a protein implicated in the transport of several bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis, in which the N-terminal part is located intracellularly and one

  12. Identification and characterization of two novel clostridial bacteriocins, circularin A and closticin 574

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, R; Kuipers, A; Karsens, H; Nauta, A; Kuipers, O; Kok, J

    Two novel antibacterial peptides of clostridiall species were purified, N-terminally sequenced, and characterized. Moreover, their structural genes were identified. Closticin 574 is an 82-amino-acid bacteriocin produced by Clostridium tyrobutyricum ADRIAT 932. The supernatant of the producing strain

  13. Genotyping by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, John Adeolu; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike

    2015-01-01

    Yogurt and starter culture producers are still searching strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus to produce healthier yogurt with a longer shelf life and better texture, taste, and quality. This study determined the genotyping of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains recovered from Nigerian yogurts. Yogurt samples were collected from four different states of South West regions of Nigeria. Isolates were obtained from MRS Medium and biochemically characterized. This was further confirmed by API50CH. The bacteriocin positivity and activity was determined. Genomic characterization of our Lactobacillus acidophilus strains was done with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR. All yogurt samples containing Lactobacillus acidophilus strains meet the probiotic requirement of ≥10(6) cfu/mL. The gel picture revealed 6 RAPD clonal types of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains with RAPD type C observed to be more common. Significant differences existed in the mean growth inhibition zone (t = -7.32, P 0.05 Staphylococcus aureus). No correlation between the bacteriocin production, activity, and their RAPD clonal division (X(2) = 7.49, P = 0.1610, df = 5). In conclusion, L. acidophilus isolated in Nigeria samples met the probiotic requirements of ≥10(6) cfu/mL and produce bacteriocins with good spectrum of activity.

  14. Strategies for the use of bacteriocins in Gram-negative bacteria: relevance in food microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudêncio, Cláudia Vieira; Dos Santos, Miriam Teresinha; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides that have bacteriostatic or bactericidal effects on other bacteria. The use of bacteriocins has emerged as an important strategy to increase food security and to minimize the incidence of foodborne diseases, due to its minimal impact on the nutritional and sensory properties of food products. Gram-negative bacteria are naturally resistant to the action of bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria, which are widely explored in foods. However, these microorganisms can be sensitized by mild treatments, such as the use of chelating agents, by treatment with plant essential oils or by physical treatments such as heating, freezing or high pressure processing. This sensitization is important in food microbiology, because most pathogens that cause foodborne diseases are Gram-negative bacteria. However, the effectiveness of these treatments is influenced by several factors, such as pH, temperature, the composition of the food and target microbiota. In this review, we comment on the main methods used for the sensitization of Gram-negative bacteria, especially Salmonella, to improve the action of bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria.

  15. Pediocin PA-1, a wide-spectrum bacteriocin from lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, JM; Martinez, MI; Kok, J

    2002-01-01

    Pediocin PA-1 is a broad-spectrum lactic acid bacteria bacteriocin that shows a particularly strong activity against Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen of special concern among the food industries. This antimicrobial peptide is the most extensively studied class IIa (or pediocin family) ba

  16. New bacteriocin from Bacillus clausii strainGM17: purification, characterization, and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouloud, Ghadbane; Daoud, Harzallah; Bassem, Jaouadi; Laribi Atef, Ibn; Hani, Belhadj

    2013-12-01

    A bacteriocin-producing strain (9,000 AU/ml) was isolated from the rhizosphere of Algerian healthy plants Ononis angustissima Lam. and identified as Bacillus clausii strain GM17. The bacteriocin, called Bac-GM17, was purified from the culture supernatant after heat treatment, ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-50 chromatography and Mono Q fast-performance liquid chromatography (FPLC). Based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis, the purified Bac-GM17 is a monomer protein with a molecular mass of 5,158.11 Da. The N-terminal sequencing allowed for the straightforward identification of its first 20 residues, which were of pure bacteriocin. It also revealed that this bacteriocin contained a unique sequence, namely DWTCSKWSCLVCDDCSVELT, which suggests the identification of a novel compound. Bac-GM17 was extremely heat stable (20 min at 120 °C) and was stable within the pH range (3-9). It was found to be resistant to the proteolytic action of trypsin, pepsin, papain, pronase E, and proteinase K. It was also noted to display a bactericidal mode of action against Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 and a fungistatic mode of action against Candida tropicalis R2 CIP203.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of a Broad Spectrum Bacteriocin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RX7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kong Boon; Balolong, Marilen P; Kim, Sang Hoon; Oh, Ju Kyoung; Lee, Ji Yoon; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    We isolated a Bacillus strain, RX7, with inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes from soil and identified it as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The inhibitory activity was stable over a wide range of pH and was fully retained after 30 min at 80°C, after which it decreased gradually at higher temperatures. The activity was sensitive to the proteolytic action of α-chymotrypsin, proteinase-K, and trypsin, indicating its proteinaceous nature. This bacteriocin was active against a broad spectrum of bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans. Direct detection of antimicrobial activity on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel suggested an apparent molecular mass of approximately 5 kDa. Ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography integrated with reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography were used for bacteriocin purification. Automated N-terminal Edman degradation of the purified RX7 bacteriocin recognized the first 15 amino acids as NH2-X-Ala-Trp-Tyr-Asp-Ile-Arg-Lys-Leu-Gly-Asn-Lys-Gly-Ala, where the letter X in the sequence indicates an unknown or nonstandard amino acid. Based on BLAST similarity search and multiple alignment analysis, the obtained partial sequence showed high homology with the two-peptide lantibiotic haloduracin (HalA1) from Bacillus halodurans, although at least two amino acids differed between the sequences. A time-kill study demonstrated a bactericidal mode of action of RX7 bacteriocin.

  18. Partial purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis DU10 and its probiotic attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Venkatesh; Repally, Ayyanna; Dasari, Ankaiah; Venkatesan, Arul

    2016-10-01

    A novel bacteriocin produced by avian duck isolated lactic acid bacterium Enterococcus faecalis DU10 was isolated. This bacteriocin showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against important food-borne pathogens and was purified by size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in a C-18 column. Tricine-SDS PAGE revealed the presence of a band with an estimated molecular mass of 6.3 kDa. The zymogram clearly linked the antimicrobial activity with this band. This result was further confirmed by mass-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, since a sharp peak corresponding to 6.313 kDa was detected and the functional groups were revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Bacteriocin DU10 activity was found sensitive to proteinase-K and pepsin and partially affected by trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. The activity of bacteriocin DU10 was partially resistant to heat treatments ranging from 30 to 90°C for 30 min. It also withstood a treatment at 121°C for 10 min. Cytotoxicity of bacteriocin DU10 by methyl-thiazolyl-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay showed that the viability of HT-29 and HeLa cells decreased 60 ± 0.7% and 43 ± 4.8%, respectively, in the presence of 3,200 AU/mL of bacteriocin. The strain withstood 0.3% w/v of bile oxgall and pH 2 affected the bacterial growth between 2 and 4 hr of incubation. Adhesion properties examined with HT-29 cell line showed 69.85% initial population of strain E. faecalis DU10, which was found to be strongly adhered to this cell line. These results conclude bacteriocin DU10 may be used as a potential biopreservative and E. faecalis DU10 may be used as a potential probiont to control Salmonella infections.

  19. Variable characteristics of bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelahhad Barbour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salivaricins are bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus salivarius, some strains of which can have significant probiotic effects. S. salivarius strains were isolated from Malaysian subjects showing variable antimicrobial activity, metabolic profile, antibiotic susceptibility and lantibiotic production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report new S. salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects with potential as probiotics. Safety assessment of these strains included their antibiotic susceptibility and metabolic profiles. Genome sequencing using Illumina's MiSeq system was performed for both strains NU10 and YU10 and demonstrating the absence of any known streptococcal virulence determinants indicating that these strains are safe for subsequent use as probiotics. Strain NU10 was found to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A and 9 while strain YU10 was shown to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A3, G32, streptin and slnA1 lantibiotic-like protein. Strain GT2 was shown to harbour genes encoding a large non-lantibiotic bacteriocin (salivaricin-MPS. A new medium for maximum biomass production buffered with 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid (MES was developed and showed better biomass accumulation compared with other commercial media. Furthermore, we extracted and purified salivaricin 9 (by strain NU10 and salivaricin G32 (by strain YU10 from S. salivarius cells grown aerobically in this medium. In addition to bacteriocin production, S. salivarius strains produced levan-sucrase which was detected by a specific ESI-LC-MS/MS method which indicates additional health benefits from the developed strains. CONCLUSION: The current study established the bacteriocin, levan-sucrase production and basic safety features of S. salivarius strains isolated from healthy Malaysian subjects demonstrating their potential for use as probiotics. A new bacteriocin-production medium was developed with potential scale up application for

  20. Cloning, purification, and functional characterization of Carocin S2, a ribonuclease bacteriocin produced by Pectobacterium carotovorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng Kuo-Ching

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most isolates of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc produce bacteriocins. In this study, we have determined that Pcc strain F-rif-18 has a chromosomal gene encoding the low-molecular-weight bacteriocin, Carocin S2, and that this bacteriocin inhibits the growth of a closely related strain. Carocin S2 is inducible by ultraviolet radiation but not by mutagenic agents such as mitomycin C. Results A carocin S2-defective mutant, TF1-2, was obtained by Tn5 insertional mutagenesis using F-rif-18. A 5706-bp DNA fragment was detected by Southern blotting, selected from a genomic DNA library, and cloned to the vector, pMS2KI. Two adjacent complete open reading frames within pMS2KI were sequenced, characterized, and identified as caroS2K and caroS2I, which respectively encode the killing protein and immunity protein. Notably, carocin S2 could be expressed not only in the mutant TF1-2 but also in Escherichia coli DH5α after entry of the plasmid pMS2KI. Furthermore, the C-terminal domain of CaroS2K was homologous to the nuclease domains of colicin D and klebicin D. Moreover, SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the relative mass of CaroS2K was 85 kDa and that of CaroS2I was 10 kDa. Conclusion This study shown that another nuclease type of bacteriocin was found in Pectobacterium carotovorum. This new type of bacteriocin, Carocin S2, has the ribonuclease activity of CaroS2K and the immunity protein activity of CaroS2I.

  1. Variable characteristics of bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Abdelahhad; Philip, Koshy

    2014-01-01

    Salivaricins are bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus salivarius, some strains of which can have significant probiotic effects. S. salivarius strains were isolated from Malaysian subjects showing variable antimicrobial activity, metabolic profile, antibiotic susceptibility and lantibiotic production. In this study we report new S. salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects with potential as probiotics. Safety assessment of these strains included their antibiotic susceptibility and metabolic profiles. Genome sequencing using Illumina's MiSeq system was performed for both strains NU10 and YU10 and demonstrating the absence of any known streptococcal virulence determinants indicating that these strains are safe for subsequent use as probiotics. Strain NU10 was found to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A and 9 while strain YU10 was shown to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A3, G32, streptin and slnA1 lantibiotic-like protein. Strain GT2 was shown to harbour genes encoding a large non-lantibiotic bacteriocin (salivaricin-MPS). A new medium for maximum biomass production buffered with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) was developed and showed better biomass accumulation compared with other commercial media. Furthermore, we extracted and purified salivaricin 9 (by strain NU10) and salivaricin G32 (by strain YU10) from S. salivarius cells grown aerobically in this medium. In addition to bacteriocin production, S. salivarius strains produced levan-sucrase which was detected by a specific ESI-LC-MS/MS method which indicates additional health benefits from the developed strains. The current study established the bacteriocin, levan-sucrase production and basic safety features of S. salivarius strains isolated from healthy Malaysian subjects demonstrating their potential for use as probiotics. A new bacteriocin-production medium was developed with potential scale up application for pharmaceuticals and probiotics from S. salivarius generating different

  2. Ekpyrotic and Cyclic Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lehners, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/rho >> 1 (where P is the average pressure and rho the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, thei...

  3. Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: jlehners@princeton.edu

    2008-09-15

    Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/({rho}) >>1 (where P is the average pressure and {rho} the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-Gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in M-theory and their viability, with an emphasis on open issues and observational signatures.

  4. [Asthma and cyclic neutropenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Cabrera, A N; Berrón Pérez, R; Ortega Martell, J A; Onuma Takane, E

    1996-01-01

    We report a male with history of recurrent infections (recurrent oral aphtous disease [ROAD], middle ear infections and pharyngo amigdalitis) every 3 weeks since he was 7 months old. At the age of 3 years cyclic neutropenia was diagnosed with cyclic fall in the total neutrophil count in blood smear every 21 days and prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was indicated. Episodic events every 3 weeks of acute asthma and allergic rhinitis were detected at the age of 6 years old and specific immunotherapy to Bermuda grass was given during 3 years with markedly improvement in his allergic condition but not in the ROAD. He came back until the age of 16 with episodic acute asthma and ROAD. The total neutrophil count failed to 0 every 21 days and surprisingly the total eosinophil count increased up to 2,000 at the same time, with elevation of serum IgE (412 Ul/mL). Specific immunotherapy to D.pt. and Aller.a. and therapy with timomodulin was indicated. After 3 months we observed clinical improvement in the asthmatic condition and the ROAD disappeared, but the total neutrophil count did not improve. We present this case as a rare association between 2 diseases with probably no etiological relationship but may be physiopatological that could help to understand more the pathogenesis of asthma.

  5. Streptococcus rattus strain BHT produces both a class I two-component lantibiotic and a class II bacteriocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyink, Otto; Balakrishnan, Mayooran; Tagg, John R

    2005-11-15

    Streptococcus rattus strain BHT is a species representative and strong bacteriocin producer. Here we report that S. rattus BHT produces two quite different types of bacteriocin activity, named BHT-A and BHT-B. The two bacteriocins were purified and analysed for activity and by MALDI-TOF mass spectrophotometry. BHT-A was found to be a variant of the two-component lantibiotic, Smb. BHT-B is a non-modified 5195Da peptide with some similarity to the tryptophan-rich Staphylococcus aureus bacteriocin, aureocin A53. Six S. rattus and two S. mutans strains were found to contain both the BHT-A and BHT-B genetic loci.

  6. Rapid and efficient purification method for small, hydrophobic, cationic bacteriocins : Purification of lactococcin B and pediocin PA-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, Koen; Chikindas, Michael L.; Seegers, Jos F.M.L.; Haandrikman, Alfred J.; Leenhouts, Kees J.; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan

    1997-01-01

    The bacteriocins lactococcin B and pediocin PA 1 were purified by ethanol precipitation, preparative isoelectric focusing, and ultrafiltration. The procedure reproducibly leads to high final yields in comparison to the generally low yields obtained by column chromatography. Specifically, during isoe

  7. Rapid and efficient purification method for small, hydrophobic, cationic bacteriocins : Purification of lactococcin B and pediocin PA-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, Koen; Chikindas, Michael L.; Seegers, Jos F.M.L.; Haandrikman, Alfred J.; Leenhouts, Kees J.; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan

    The bacteriocins lactococcin B and pediocin PA 1 were purified by ethanol precipitation, preparative isoelectric focusing, and ultrafiltration. The procedure reproducibly leads to high final yields in comparison to the generally low yields obtained by column chromatography. Specifically, during

  8. Expression of mptC of Listeria monocytogenes induces sensitivity to class IIa bacteriocins in Lactococcus lactis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramnath, Manilduth; Arous, Safia; Gravesen, Anne; Hastings, John W; Hechard, Yann

    2004-01-01

    ..., Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark Correspondence Yann Héchard yann.hechard{at}univ-poitiers.fr Sensitivity to class IIa bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria was recently associated with the mannose phosphotransferase system...

  9. Factors affecting production of an antilisterial bacteriocin by Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b in laboratory media and model fish systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Himelbloom, B.; Nilsson, Lilian; Gram, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To investigate factors influencing bacteriocin production and bacteriocin stability of the bioprotective culture Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b. Methods and Results: Maximum activity was obtained in MRS7 broth (MRS adjusted to pH 7.2), with or without glucose. No bacteriocin was produced...... in APT broth when a low inoculum level (0.001%) was used. In contrast, inoculum level did not influence bacteriocin production in BHI and MRS7 without glucose. Bacteriocin production in APT was induced by the presence of an extracellular compound present in the sterile, filtered, cell- free supernatant...... fluid of a stationary-phase culture. Increasing concentrations of NaCl (2-7%) reduced bacteriocin production and maximum cell density of C. piscicola A9b when grown in cooked fish juice at VC. Conclusions: Media composition, inoculum level and sodium chloride concentration affected production...

  10. The effect of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum strains on the intracellular pH of sessile and planktonic Listeria monocytongenes single cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Hanak, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    A wide range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce bacteriocins mainly active against other closely related LAB, but some bacteriocins are also active against the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. With the aim of increasing food safety it has thus been considered to utilise bacteriocins...... and/or bacteriocin-producing LAB as “natural” food preservatives in foods such as cheese, meat and ready-to-eat products. Some strains of Lactobacillus plantarum produce bacteriocins termed plantaricins. Using a single-cell based approach, the effect on the intracellular pH as a measure...... to plantaricins and organic acids. In conclusion, the present study represents the first demonstration of the ability of a bacteriocin-producing LAB to dissipate the proton gradient of sessile and planktonic L. monocytogenes....

  11. Bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus plantarum AMA-K isolated from Amasi, a Zimbabwean fermented milk product and study of the adsorption of bacteriocin AMA-K TO Listeria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Svetoslav D

    2008-01-01

    Bacteriocin AMA-K produced by Lactobacillus plantarum AMA-K inhibits the growth of Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Listeria spp. Growth of strain AMA-K in BHI, M17, soy milk and molasses was similar to growth in MRS. The effect of organic nitrogen sources, carbohydrates, glycerol, K2HPO4 and KH2PO4, MgSO4, MnSO4, tri-ammonium citrate, Tween 80, vitamins and initial pH on bacteriocin AMA-K was determined. The mode of action of bacteriocin AMA-K was studied. The effect of bacteriocin AMA-K to actively growing Listeria innocua LMG13568, L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii ATCC19119 and L. monocytogenes ScottA was determined. Adsorption of bacteriocin AMA-K to target cells at different temperatures, pH and in presence of Tween 20, Tween 80, ascorbic acid, potassium sorbate, sodium nitrate and sodium chloride were studied. Bacteriocin AMA-K shares high homology to pediocin PA-1.

  12. Fragmentations of protonated cyclic-glycylglycine and cyclic-alanylalanine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shek, P. Y. I.; Lau, J. K. C.; Zhao, J. F.; Grzetic, J.; Verkerk, U. H.; Oomens, J.; Hopkinson, A. C.; Siu, K. W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Collision-induced dissociation has been used to study the fragmentations of two protonated diketopiperazines, protonated cyclic-glycylglycine and cyclic-alanylalanine. Protonated cyclo-AA lost CO and (CO + NH3) at low collision energies, channels attributed to dissociation of the O-protonated

  13. Antistaphylococcal effect of enterocin AS-48 in bakery ingredients of vegetable origin, alone and in combination with selected antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Pilar Martinez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; López, Rosario Lucas; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of enterocin AS-48 against Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in various types of bakery ingredients. Antibacterial activity greatly depended on the food substrate, ranging from complete inactivation of S. aureus in liquid caramel (in which the bacterium survived poorly) to no significant inhibition (as in vanilla or chocolate creams). Significant reductions of viable counts in the range of 1.8 to 2.7 log units (P chocolate substrates, enterocin AS-48 was tested in combination with other antimicrobials. Bactericidal activity increased markedly for the combinations of AS-48 and 0.1% eugenol (v/v), 0.5% 2-nitropropanol (v/v), or 3% Nisaplin (w/v). Enterocin AS-48 could be applied in combination with other antimicrobials for preservation of bakery ingredients against S. aureus.

  14. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of a raw bacteriocin extract in combination with chemical preservatives employed in meat industry

    OpenAIRE

    Luis A. Aguado Bautista; Yenizey M. Álvarez Cisneros; Edith Ponce Alquicira

    2010-01-01

    Biopreservation can be defined as the foods shelf life extension employing antibacterial products like bacteriocins. The objective of this work was to determinate the efficacy of E. faecium MXVK29 bacteriocin in combination with chemical preservatives against spoilage and pathogens microorganisms. Bacteriocin raw extrac antimicrobial activity was 46.34 UA/g of protein. Growth of Pseudomonas putida was not affected by the preservatives employed at the conditions employed. Antimicrobial respon...

  15. Characterization of a heat stable anti-listerial bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium isolated from idli batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayendra, S V N; Rajashree, K; Halami, Prakash M

    2010-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce various types of bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized polypeptides, which have antibacterial spectrum against many food borne pathogens. Listeria monocytogenes, a pathogenic bacterium, is of particular concern to the food industry because of its ability to grow even at refrigeration temperatures and its tolerance to preservative agents. Some of the bacteriocins of LAB are known to have anti-listerial property. In the present study, the bacteriocin produced by vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus faecium El and J4 isolated from idli batter samples was characterized. The isolates were found to tolerate high temperatures of 60°C for 15 and 30 min and 70°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin was found to be heat stable and had anti-listerial activity. The bacteriocin did not lost anti-listerial activity when treated at 100°C for 30 min or at 121°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin lost its antimicrobial activity after treating with trypsin, protinase-K, protease and peptidase.

  16. EFFECT OF CULTURE MEDIUM ON BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION BY LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS HN001 AND LACTOBACILLUS REUTERI ATCC 53608

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Uscanga B. R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of media on bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 using three different media: YPM, YPF and MRS supplemented with glucose and K2HPO4. The optimum temperature was 37°C and initial pH 6.5. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by tested bacteria in MRS medium supplemented with glucose and K2HPO4 exhibited a broad antimicrobial spectrum determined by well diffusion assay against indicator bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Lactobacillus sakei, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, but no antimicrobial spectrum against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus was detected. Bacteriocin was sensitive to protease IV, trypsin, pepsin and -amylases, but resistant to lipase. It was also resistant to detergents such as Tween 80, Triton-X and SDS. This bacteriocin was thermo-stable (resistant at 60°C, 90°C and 100°C for 30 min. Tested bacteria showed the best antimicrobial (bacteriocin-like activity after growth in MRS medium. Bacteriocin substances produced by tested bacteria showed promising thermo-stable technological properties.

  17. The Non-Lantibiotic Bacteriocin Garvicin Q Targets Man-PTS in a Broad Spectrum of Sensitive Bacterial Genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoszewska, Aleksandra; Diep, Dzung B; Wirtek, Paulina; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara

    2017-08-21

    Mannose phosphotransferase system (Man-PTS) is the main mannose permease in bacteria but it is also a known receptor for subclass IIa bacteriocins (pediocin-like group) as well as subclass IId lactococcin A (LcnA) and lactococcin B (LcnB) (LcnA-like group). Subclass IIa bacteriocins exhibit a strong activity against Listeria spp. but they are not against Lactococcus spp. In contrast, the LcnA-like bacteriocins act only against Lactococcus lactis strains. Garvicin Q (GarQ) is a subclass IId bacteriocin with minor similarity to LcnA-like bacteriocins and a relatively broad antimicrobial spectrum including, among others, Listeria and Lactococcus spp. To identify the GarQ receptor, we obtained GarQ-resistant mutants of Lactococcus garvieae IBB3403 and L. lactis IL1403 and sequenced their genomes that revealed mutations in genes encoding the membrane-bound Man-PTS IIC or IID subunits encoded by ptnCD in L. lactis and manCD in L. garvieae. This is the first time that a bacteriocin outside the pediocin- and LcnA-like groups is shown to target Man-PTS. The interaction between GarQ and Man-PTS may occur through a new binding pattern involving specific amino acids highly conserved among the GarQ-sensitive bacterial species located in the N-terminal part and extracellular loops of subunit IID and in transmembrane region of IIC.

  18. Inhibitory effect of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria against histamine-forming bacteria isolated from Myeolchi-jeot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Seo Lim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this study were to identify the histamine-forming bacteria and bacteriocin- producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from Myeolchi-jeot according to sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, to evaluate the inhibitory effects of the bacteriocin on the growth and histamine accumulation of histamine-forming bacteria, and to assess the physico-chemical properties of the bacteriocin. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, histamine-forming bacteria were identified as Bacillus licheniformis MCH01, Serratia marcescens MCH02, Staphylococcus xylosus MCH03, Aeromonas hydrophila MCH04, and Morganella morganii MCH05. The five LAB strains identified as Pediococcus acidilactici MCL11, Leuconostoc mesenteroides MCL12, Enterococcus faecium MCL13, Lactobacillus sakei MCL14, and Lactobacillus acidophilus MCL15 were found to produce an antibacterial compound with inhibitory activity against the tested histamine-producing bacteria. The inhibitory activity of these bacteriocins obtained from the five LAB remained stable after incubation at pH 4.0–8.0 and heating for 10 min at 80 °C; however, the bacteriocin activity was destroyed after treatment with papain, pepsin, proteinase K, α-chymotrypsin, or trypsin. Meanwhile, these bacteriocins produced by the tested LAB strains also exhibited histamine-degradation ability. Therefore, these antimicrobial substances may play a role in inhibiting histamine formation in the fermented fish products and preventing seafood-related food-borne disease caused by bacterially generated histamine.

  19. Solution structures of the linear leaderless bacteriocins enterocin 7A and 7B resemble carnocyclin A, a circular antimicrobial peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohans, Christopher T; Towle, Kaitlyn M; Miskolzie, Mark; McKay, Ryan T; van Belkum, Marco J; McMullen, Lynn M; Vederas, John C

    2013-06-11

    Leaderless bacteriocins are a class of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that are produced by certain Gram-positive bacteria without an N-terminal leader section. These bacteriocins are of great interest due to their potent inhibition of many Gram-positive organisms, including food-borne pathogens such as Listeria and Clostridium spp. We now report the NMR solution structures of enterocins 7A and 7B, leaderless bacteriocins recently isolated from Enterococcus faecalis 710C. These are the first three-dimensional structures to be reported for bacteriocins of this class. Unlike most other linear Gram-positive bacteriocins, enterocins 7A and 7B are highly structured in aqueous conditions. Both peptides are primarily α-helical, adopting a similar overall fold. The structures can be divided into three separate α-helical regions: the N- and C-termini are both α-helical, separated by a central kinked α-helix. The overall structures bear an unexpected resemblance to carnocyclin A, a 60-residue peptide that is cyclized via an amide bond between the C- and N-termini and has a saposin fold. Because of synergism observed for other two-peptide leaderless bacteriocins, it was of interest to probe possible binding interactions between enterocins 7A and 7B. However, despite synergistic activity observed between these peptides, no significant binding interaction was observed based on NMR and isothermal calorimetry.

  20. Effect of Exogenous Factors on Bacteriocin Production from Lactobacillus paracasei J23 by Using a Resting Cell System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxi Yi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A resting cell system was developed for bacteriocin Lac-B23 production from Lactobacillus paracasei J23. The resting cell medium contained (g/L: Glucose 20, Sodium acetate 5.0, MnSO4 0.25 MgSO4 0.5, Ammoniumhydrogencitrate 1.0, KH2PO4 1.0. The resting cell incubation time and temperature were 20 h and 37 °C and the effects of exogenous factors, including amino acids, glycerol, pyruvic acid, and α-ketoglutaric acid were investigated. Cys and Gly could stimulate the production of bacteriocin, while no stimulus effect was observed for Glu, Tyr and Ala. Glycerol and pyruvic acid increased bacteriocin production and the optimum concentrations were 1% and 30 g/L, respectively. Bacteriocin could act as an inducer of its own biosynthesis. These findings are of importance for the further study of bacteriocin biosynthesis regulation and for the improvement of bacteriocin production yields.

  1. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  2. Cyclic cohomology of Hopf algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.

    2001-01-01

    We give a construction of ConnesMoscovicis cyclic cohomology for any Hopf algebra equipped with a character Furthermore we introduce a noncommutative Weil complex which connects the work of Gelfand and Smirnov with cyclic cohomology We show how the Weil complex arises naturally when looking at Hopf

  3. Persistence of the Oral Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 Is Dose Dependent and Megaplasmid Transfer Can Augment Their Bacteriocin Production and Adhesion Characteristics: e65991

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeremy P Burton; Philip A Wescombe; Jean M Macklaim; Melissa H C Chai; Kyle MacDonald; John D F Hale; John Tagg; Gregor Reid; Gregory B Gloor; Peter A Cadieux

    2013-01-01

      Bacteriocin-producing probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 offers beneficial modulatory capabilities within the oral microbiome, apparently through potent inhibitory activity against potentially...

  4. The Crystal Structure of the Lipid II-degrading Bacteriocin Syringacin M Suggests Unexpected Evolutionary Relationships between Colicin M-like Bacteriocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinter, Rhys; Roszak, Aleksander W.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Milner, Joel J.; Walker, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Colicin-like bacteriocins show potential as next generation antibiotics with clinical and agricultural applications. Key to these potential applications is their high potency and species specificity that enables a single pathogenic species to be targeted with minimal disturbance of the wider microbial community. Here we present the structure and function of the colicin M-like bacteriocin, syringacin M from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Syringacin M kills susceptible cells through a highly specific phosphatase activity that targets lipid II, ultimately inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. Comparison of the structures of syringacin M and colicin M reveals that, in addition to the expected similarity between the homologous C-terminal catalytic domains, the receptor binding domains of these proteins, which share no discernible sequence homology, share a striking structural similarity. This indicates that the generation of the novel receptor binding and species specificities of these bacteriocins has been driven by diversifying selection rather than diversifying recombination as suggested previously. Additionally, the structure of syringacin M reveals the presence of an active site calcium ion that is coordinated by a conserved aspartic acid side chain and is essential for catalytic activity. We show that mutation of this residue to alanine inactivates syringacin M and that the metal ion is absent from the structure of the mutant protein. Consistent with the presence of Ca2+ in the active site, we show that syringacin M activity is supported by Ca2+, along with Mg2+ and Mn2+, and the protein is catalytically inactive in the absence of these ions. PMID:22995910

  5. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant’Anna, Voltaire; Quadros, Deoni A.F.; Motta, Amanda S.; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g−1) previously inoculated with a suspension of 102 cfu g−1 of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe) against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products. PMID:24688506

  6. Application of anti-listerial bacteriocins: monitoring enterocin expression by multiplex relative reverse transcription-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D Ross; Chanos, Panagiotis

    2012-12-01

    Listeriosis is a deadly food-borne disease, and its incidence may be limited through the biotechnological exploitation of a number of anti-listerial biocontrol agents. The most widely used of these agents are bacteriocins and the Class II enterocins are characterized by their activity against Listeria. Enterocins are primarily produced by enterococci, particularly Enterococcus faecium and many strains have been described, often encoding multiple bacteriocins. The use of these strains in food will require that they are free of virulence functions and that they exhibit a high level expression of anti-listerial enterocins in fermentation conditions. Multiplex relative RT (reverse transcription)-PCR is a technique that is useful in the discovery of advantageous expression characteristics among enterocin-producing strains. It allows the levels of individual enterocin gene expression to be monitored and determination of how expression is altered under different growth conditions.

  7. Trends in utilization of agro-industrial byproducts for production of bacteriocins and their biopreservative applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Vandana; Panesar, Parmjit S; Bera, Manab B

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are proteinaceous, ribosomally synthesized bio-molecules having major roles in food preservation due to their antimicrobial action against food spoilage microorganisms. These have gained importance in the last decades because of increasing interest in natural products and their applications in the field of biopreservation, pharmaceutical, aquaculture, livestock, etc. Their production is quite expensive which includes the cost of synthetic media and downstream processing of which 30% of the total production cost relies on synthetic media and nutritional supplements used for growth of microorganisms. The low cost agro-industrial by-products, rich in nutritional supplements, can act as a good substitute for high valued synthetic media. This review provides comprehensive information on the use of cost effective, renewable agro-industrial by-products as substrates for the production of bacteriocins and their application in food as biopreservatives.

  8. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltaire Sant'Anna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g-1 previously inoculated with a suspension of 10² cfu g-1 of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products.

  9. Isolation, screening and characterization of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafei, H A; Abd-El-Sabour, H; Ibrahim, N; Mostafa, Y A

    2000-03-01

    100 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented foods (yoghurt, milk cream, sour dough and milk) were screened for bacteriocin production. Twenty six strains producing a nisin-like bacteriocin were selected. Most of these isolates gave only a narrow inhibitory spectrum, although one showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against the indicator strains tested, this strain was determined as Lactococcus lactis. The influence of several parameters on the fermentative production of nisin by Lactococcus lactis was studied. Production of nisin was optimal at 30 degrees C and in the pH range 5.5-6.3. The effect of different sulphur and nitrogen sources on Lactococcus lactis growth and nisin production was studied. Magnesium sulfate and manganese sulfate were found to be the best sulphur sources while triammonium citrate was the best inorganic nitrogen source and meat extract, peptone and yeast extract were the best organic nitrogen source for nisin production.

  10. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Voltaire; Quadros, Deoni A F; Motta, Amanda S; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g(-1)) previously inoculated with a suspension of 10(2) cfu g(-1) of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe) against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products.

  11. C55 bacteriocin produced by ETB-plasmid positive Staphylococcus aureus strains is a key factor for competition with S. aureus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Shammi, Fariha; Oogai, Yuichi; Nakamura, Norifumi; Sugai, Motoyuki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Exfoliative toxin (ET) produced by Staphylococcus aureus is closely associated with the onset of bullous impetigo. To date, three ETs (ETA, ETB and ETD) have been identified. The gene encoding ETB is located in a plasmid designated pETB. Bacteriocin synthesis genes are also located in this plasmid and pETB-positive strains reportedly produce the C55 bacteriocin. In this study, the antibacterial activity against S. aureus strains of the bacteriocin produced by the pETB-positive strain TY4 was investigated. This bacteriocin demonstrated antibacterial activity against all pETB-negative but not pETB-positive strains, including TY4. Additionally, a TY4- strain from which the pETB plasmid had been deleted exhibited susceptibility to the bacteriocin. Further experiments revealed that two immunity factors (orf 46-47 and orf 48) downstream of the bacteriocin synthesis genes in the pETB plasmid are associated with immunity against the bacteriocin produced by TY4. The TY4- with orf46-47 strain exhibited complete resistance to bacteriocin, whereas the TY4- with orf48 strain exhibited partial resistance. Whether bacteriocin affects the proportion of each strain when co-cultured with S. aureus strains was also investigated. When TY4 or TY4- was co-cultured with 209P strain, which is susceptible to the bacteriocin, the proportion of 209P co-cultured with TY4 was significantly less than when 209P was co-cultured with TY4-, whereas the proportion of TY4- with orf46-48 co-cultured with TY4 was greater than with TY4-. These results suggest that the C55 bacteriocin produced by pETB-positive strains affects the proportion of each strain when pETB-positive and -negative strains co-exist. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Cyclic $n$-gonal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, S Allen

    2010-01-01

    A cyclic $n$-gonal surface is a compact Riemann surface $X$ of genus $g\\geq 2$ admitting a cyclic group of conformal automorphisms $C$ of order $n$ such that the quotient space $X/C$ has genus 0. In this paper, we provide an overview of ongoing research into automorphism groups of cyclic $n$-gonal surfaces. Much of the paper is expository or will appear in forthcoming papers, so proofs are usually omitted. Numerous explicit examples are presented illustrating the computational methods currently being used to study these surfaces.

  13. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Cold Shock Protein-Like Bacteriocin Synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianpei; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Pan, Jieru; Su, Xiaoyu; Jin, Xin; Guan, Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), one of the most successful biopesticides, may expand its potential by producing bacteriocins (thuricins). The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of a novel Bt bacteriocin, thuricin BtCspB, produced by Bt BRC-ZYR2. The results showed that this bacteriocin has a high similarity with cold-shock protein B (CspB). BtCspB lost its activity after proteinase K treatment; however it was active at 60 °C for 30 min and was stable in the pH range 5–7. The partial loss of activity after the treatments of lipase II and catalase were likely due to the change in BtCspB structure and the partial degradation of BtCspB, respectively. The loss of activity at high temperatures and the activity variation at different pHs were not due to degradation or large conformational change. BtCspB did not inhibit four probiotics. It was only active against B. cereus strains 0938 and ATCC 10987 with MIC values of 3.125 μg/mL and 0.781 μg/mL, and MBC values of 12.5 μg/mL and 6.25 μg/mL, respectively. Taken together, these results provide new insights into a novel cold shock protein-like bacteriocin, BtCspB, which displayed promise for its use in food preservation and treatment of B. cereus-associated diseases. PMID:27762322

  14. Active polymers containing Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 bacteriocins: effectiveness assessment in Wieners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Massani, M; Molina, V; Sanchez, M; Renaud, V; Eisenberg, P; Vignolo, G

    2014-05-16

    Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria have potential as natural food preservatives. In this study two active (synthetic and gluten) films were obtained by the incorporation of lactocin 705 and lactocin AL705, bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 with antimicrobial activity against spoilage lactic acid bacteria and Listeria. Antimicrobial film effectiveness was determined in Wieners inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum CRL691 and Listeria innocua 7 (10(4)CFU/g) stored at 5°C during 45days. Active and control (absence of bacteriocins) packages were prepared and bacterial counts in selective media were carried out. Visual inspection and pH measurement of Wieners were also performed. Typical growth of both inoculated microorganisms was observed in control packages which reached 10(6)-10(7)CFU/g at the end of storage period. In the active packages, L. innocua 7 was effectively inhibited (2.5 log cycles reduction at day 45), while L. plantarum CRL691 was only slightly inhibited (0.5 log cycles) up to the second week of storage, then counts around 10(6)-10(7)CFU/g were reached. Changes in pH values from 6.3 to 5.8 were produced and gas formation was observed in active and control packages. The low inhibitory effectiveness against lactic acid bacteria is in correlation with the low activity observed for lactocin 705 in the presence of fat; Wieners fat content (20-30%) may adversely affect antimicrobial activity. This study supports the feasibility of using polymers activated with L. curvatus CRL705 bacteriocins to control Listeria on the surface of Wieners and highlights the importance of evaluating antimicrobial packaging systems for each particular food application.

  15. Pediocin SA-1: A selective bacteriocin for controlling Listeria monocytogenes in maize silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Isabel R; Fuciños, Clara; Fajardo, Paula; Pastrana, Lorenzo

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we assessed the potential as silage additive of a bacteriocin produced by Pediococcus acidilactici Northern Regional Research Laboratory (NRRL) B-5627 (pediocin SA-1). Maize was inoculated either with a bacterial starter alone (I) or in combination with the bacteriocin (IP), and untreated silage served as control. We monitored the products of fermentation (ethanol, and lactic and acetic acids), the microbial population, and the presence of the indicator strain Listeria monocytogenes Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (CECT) 4032 (1×10(5) cfu/g) after 1, 2, 5, 8, 16, and 30d of ensiling. Our results indicated antilisterial activity of the bacteriocin, anticipating the disappearance of L. monocytogenes in IP compared with I and control silages. The PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed the addition of the bacteriocin did not affect the bacterial communities of the spontaneous fermentation, and the inoculant-containing bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Enterococcus faecium) were found in addition to the bacterial communities of untreated maize silages in I and IP silages. Both treatments increased the concentration of antimicrobial compounds (acetic acid, ethanol, and 1,2-propanodiol) and led to lower residual sugar contents compared with the control, which would provide enhanced aerobic stability. The fact that the identified species L. plantarum, L. buchneri, and E. faecium produce some of these inhibitory compounds, together with their persistence throughout the 30d of fermentation, suggest these bacteria could actively participate in the ensiling process. According to these results, pediocin SA-1 could be used as an additive to control the presence of L. monocytogenes in maize silages selectively, while improving their fermentative quality and eventually their aerobic stability.

  16. Analysis of Lactobacillus Products for Phages and Bacteriocins That Inhibit Vaginal Lactobacilli

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    Lin Tao

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bacterial vaginosis is associated with an unexplained loss of vaginal lactobacilli. Previously, we have identified certain vaginal lactobacilli-released phages that can inhibit in vitro other vaginal lactobacilli. However, there is no apparent route for phages to be transmitted among women. The purpose of this study was to identify whether certain Lactobacillus products commonly used by women release phages or bacteriocins that can inhibit vaginal lactobacilli.

  17. Frequency of bacteriocin resistance development and associated fitness costs in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, A; Jydegaard Axelsen, A-M; Mendes da Silva, J; Hansen, T B; Knøchel, S

    2002-02-01

    Bacteriocin-producing starter cultures have been suggested as natural food preservatives; however, development of resistance in the target organism is a major concern. We investigated the development of resistance in Listeria monocytogenes to the two major bacteriocins pediocin PA-1 and nisin A, with a focus on the variations between strains and the influence of environmental conditions. While considerable strain-specific variations in the frequency of resistance development and associated fitness costs were observed, the influence of environmental stress seemed to be bacteriocin specific. Pediocin resistance frequencies were determined for 20 strains and were in most cases ca. 10(-6). However, two strains with intermediate pediocin sensitivity had 100-fold-higher pediocin resistance frequencies. Nisin resistance frequencies (14 strains) were in the range of 10(-7) to 10(-2). Strains with intermediate nisin sensitivity were among those with the highest frequencies. Environmental stress in the form of low temperature (10 degrees C), reduced pH (5.5), or the presence of NaCl (6.5%) did not influence the frequency of pediocin resistance development; in contrast, the nisin resistance frequency was considerably reduced (<5 x 10(-8)). Pediocin resistance in all spontaneous mutants was very stable, but the stability of nisin resistance varied. Pediocin-resistant mutants had fitness costs in the form of reduction down to 44% of the maximum specific growth rate of the wild-type strain. Nisin-resistant mutants had fewer and less-pronounced growth rate reductions. The fitness costs were not increased upon applying environmental stress (5 degrees C, 6.5% NaCl, or pH 5.5), indicating that the bacteriocin-resistant mutants were not more stress sensitive than the wild-type strains. In a saveloy-type meat model at 5 degrees C, however, the growth differences seemed to be negligible. The applicational perspectives of the results are discussed.

  18. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: purification, properties and use as biopreservatives

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Parada; Carolina Ricoy Caron; Medeiros,Adriane Bianchi P.; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2007-01-01

    Biopreservation systems in foods are of increasing interest for industry and consumers. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria and/or their isolated bacteriocins are considered safe additives (GRAS), useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoiling microorganisms in foods and feed. The spreading of bacterial antibiotic resistance and the demand for products with fewer chemicals create the necessity of exploring new alternatives, in order to reduce the abusive use of therap...

  19. Isolation and Characterization of a Broad Spectrum Bacteriocin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RX7

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    Kong Boon Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We isolated a Bacillus strain, RX7, with inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes from soil and identified it as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The inhibitory activity was stable over a wide range of pH and was fully retained after 30 min at 80°C, after which it decreased gradually at higher temperatures. The activity was sensitive to the proteolytic action of α-chymotrypsin, proteinase-K, and trypsin, indicating its proteinaceous nature. This bacteriocin was active against a broad spectrum of bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans. Direct detection of antimicrobial activity on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel suggested an apparent molecular mass of approximately 5 kDa. Ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography integrated with reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography were used for bacteriocin purification. Automated N-terminal Edman degradation of the purified RX7 bacteriocin recognized the first 15 amino acids as NH2-X-Ala-Trp-Tyr-Asp-Ile-Arg-Lys-Leu-Gly-Asn-Lys-Gly-Ala, where the letter X in the sequence indicates an unknown or nonstandard amino acid. Based on BLAST similarity search and multiple alignment analysis, the obtained partial sequence showed high homology with the two-peptide lantibiotic haloduracin (HalA1 from Bacillus halodurans, although at least two amino acids differed between the sequences. A time-kill study demonstrated a bactericidal mode of action of RX7 bacteriocin.

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Selected Standard Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria Producing Bacteriocins – Pilot Study

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    Malgorzata Bodaszewska-Lubas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction:In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the antibacterial potential of standard strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB producing bacteriocins of various classes, thus demonstrating various mechanisms of cell membrane damages against the Streptococcus agalactiae strains (Group B Streptococcus, GBS, depending on surface polysaccharides and surface alpha-like protein genes.Materials/Methods:Antimicrobial property of the strains of L. plantarum C 11, L. sakei DSMZ 6333, and L. lactis ATCC 11454 producing bacteriocins: JK and EF plantaricins, sakacin and nisin, respectively, against the GBS strains was evaluated. The chosen to the study GBS strains were represented by serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, V and they had bca, epsilon, rib, alp2 or alp3 alpha-like protein genes. The experiment was conducted by means of suspension culture and the bacteria count was determined using the serial dilution method.Results:A great ability of L. plantarum C 11 strain was proven to inhibit the GBS growth. The strain of L. sakei DSMZ 6333 did not demonstrate any ability to inhibit the growth of GBS, whereas L. lactis ATCC 11454 inhibited the growth of S. agalactiae indicator strains to a minor extent. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between the GBS strains representing various serotypes against the antimicrobial activity of model LAB strains. The least sensitive to the activity of bacteriocins were the strains representing serotypes Ib and III, whereas the strains representing serotype II were the most sensitive. The sensitivity of the GBS strains to the antimicrobial activity of LAB was not dependent on alpha-like protein genes.Discussion:Among the LAB standard strains producing bacteriocins, the strongest antimicrobial property was observed in the strain of L. plantarum C 11. Because of the generally known and verified strong antagonistic property of the strains of L. plantarum species against indicator bacteria, it is necessary

  1. Solution structure of acidocin B, a circular bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus M46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, Jeella Z; van Belkum, Marco J; Lohans, Christopher T; McKay, Ryan T; Miskolzie, Mark; Vederas, John C

    2015-04-01

    Acidocin B, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus M46, was originally reported to be a linear peptide composed of 59 amino acid residues. However, its high sequence similarity to gassericin A, a circular bacteriocin from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, suggested that acidocin B might be circular as well. Acidocin B was purified from culture supernatant by a series of hydrophobic interaction chromatographic steps. Its circular nature was ascertained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) sequencing. The peptide sequence was found to consist of 58 amino acids with a molecular mass of 5,621.5 Da. The sequence of the acidocin B biosynthetic gene cluster was also determined and showed high nucleotide sequence similarity to that of gassericin A. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution structure of acidocin B in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles was elucidated, revealing that it is composed of four α-helices of similar length that are folded to form a compact, globular bundle with a central pore. This is a three-dimensional structure for a member of subgroup II circular bacteriocins, which are classified based on their isoelectric points of ∼7 or lower. Comparison of acidocin B with carnocyclin A, a subgroup I circular bacteriocin with four α-helices and a pI of 10, revealed differences in the overall folding. The observed variations could be attributed to inherent diversity in their physical properties, which also required the use of different solvent systems for three-dimensional structural elucidation.

  2. A Microplate Growth Inhibition Assay for Screening Bacteriocins against Listeria monocytogenes to Differentiate Their Mode-of-Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Paul Priyesh; Muriana, Peter M

    2015-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have historically been used in food fermentations to preserve foods and are generally-recognized-as-safe (GRAS) by the FDA for use as food ingredients. In addition to lactic acid; some strains also produce bacteriocins that have been proposed for use as food preservatives. In this study we examined the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes 39-2 by neutralized and non-neutralized bacteriocin preparations (Bac+ preps) produced by Lactobacillus curvatus FS47; Lb. curvatus Beef3; Pediococcus acidilactici Bac3; Lactococcus lactis FLS1; Enterococcus faecium FS56-1; and Enterococcus thailandicus FS92. Activity differences between non-neutralized and neutralized Bac+ preps in agar spot assays could not readily be attributed to acid because a bacteriocin-negative control strain was not inhibitory to Listeria in these assays. When neutralized and non-neutralized Bac+ preps were used in microplate growth inhibition assays against L. monocytogenes 39-2 we observed some differences attributed to acid inhibition. A microplate growth inhibition assay was used to compare inhibitory reactions of wild-type and bacteriocin-resistant variants of L. monocytogenes to differentiate bacteriocins with different modes-of-action (MOA) whereby curvaticins FS47 and Beef3, and pediocin Bac3 were categorized to be in MOA1; enterocins FS92 and FS56-1 in MOA2; and lacticin FLS1 in MOA3. The microplate bacteriocin MOA assay establishes a platform to evaluate the best combination of bacteriocin preparations for use in food applications as biopreservatives against L. monocytogenes.

  3. Improved antimicrobial activities of synthetic-hybrid bacteriocins designed from enterocin E50-52 and pediocin PA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Santosh Kumar; Sutyak Noll, Katia; Cavera, Veronica L; Chikindas, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Two hybrid bacteriocins, enterocin E50-52/pediocin PA-1 (EP) and pediocin PA-1/enterocin E50-52 (PE), were designed by combining the N terminus of enterocin E50-52 and the C terminus of pediocin PA-1 and by combining the C terminus of pediocin PA-1 and the N terminus of enterocin E50-52, respectively. Both hybrid bacteriocins showed reduced MICs compared to those of their natural counterparts. The MICs of hybrid PE and EP were 64- and 32-fold lower, respectively, than the MIC of pediocin PA-1 and 8- and 4-fold lower, respectively, than the MIC of enterocin E50-52. In this study, the effect of hybrid as well as wild-type (WT) bacteriocins on the transmembrane electrical potential (ΔΨ) and their ability to induce the efflux of intracellular ATP were investigated. Enterocin E50-52, pediocin PA-1, and hybrid bacteriocin PE were able to dissipate ΔΨ, but EP was unable to deplete this component. Both hybrid bacteriocins caused a loss of the intracellular concentration of ATP. EP, however, caused a faster efflux than PE and enterocin E50-52. Enterocin E50-52 and hybrids PE and EP were active against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested, such as Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis 20E1090, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The hybrid bacteriocins designed and described herein are antimicrobial peptides with MICs lower those of their natural counterparts. Both hybrid peptides induce the loss of intracellular ATP and are capable of inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria, and PE dissipates the electrical potential. In this study, the MIC of hybrid bacteriocin PE decreased 64-fold compared to the MIC of its natural peptide counterpart, pediocin PA-1. Inhibition of Gram-negative pathogens confers an additional advantage for the application of these peptides in therapeutics.

  4. Purification and genetic characterisation of the novel bacteriocin LS2 produced by the human oral strain Lactobacillus salivarius BGHO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busarcevic, Milos; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of Lactobacillus salivarius BGHO1, a human oral strain with probiotic characteristics and a broad inhibitory spectrum both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Here we present the bacteriocin LS2, an extremely pH- and heat-stable peptide with antilisterial activity. LS2 is a novel member of the class IId bacteriocins, unique among all currently characterised bacteriocins. It is somewhat similar to putative bacteriocins from several oral streptococci, including the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. LS2 is a 41-amino-acid, highly hydrophobic cationic peptide of 4115.1Da that is sensitive to proteolytic enzymes. LS2 was purified from cells of strain BGHO1 by solvent extraction and reverse-phase chromatography. Mass spectrometry was used to determine the molecular mass of the purified peptide. N-terminal amino acid sequencing enabled identification of the LS2 structural gene bacls2 by a reverse genetics approach. Downstream of the bacls2 gene, two bacteriocin-like genes were found, named blp1a and blp1b, and one putative bacteriocin immunity gene named bimlp. We also present the identification of the 242-kb megaplasmid pMPHO1 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, which harbours the genes bacls2, blp1a, blp1b and bimlp. Two peptides with antimicrobial activity, whose approximate sizes corresponded to those of blp1a and blp1b, were identified only after culturing strain BGHO1 in a chemically defined medium. This study demonstrated the capacity of Lactobacillus salivarius BGHO1 to produce multiple bacteriocins and further established this strain as a promising probiotic candidate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  5. Quorum Sensing Regulation of Competence and Bacteriocins in Streptococcus pneumoniae and mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Erin; Federle, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the production of bacteriocins and the entry into the competent state, a requirement for natural transformation. Natural transformation provides bacteria with a mechanism to repair damaged genes or as a source of new advantageous traits. In S. pneumoniae, the competence pathway is controlled by the two-component signal transduction pathway ComCDE, which directly regulates SigX, the alternative sigma factor required for the initiation into competence. Over the past two decades, effectors of cellular killing (i.e., fratricides) have been recognized as important targets of the pneumococcal competence QS pathway. Recently, direct interactions between the ComCDE and the paralogous BlpRH pathway, regulating bacteriocin production, were identified, further strengthening the interconnections between these two QS systems. Interestingly, a similar theme is being revealed in S. mutans, the primary etiological agent of dental caries. This review compares the relationship between the bacteriocin and the competence QS pathways in both S. pneumoniae and S. mutans, and hopes to provide clues to regulatory pathways across the genus Streptococcus as a potential tool to efficiently investigate putative competence pathways in nontransformable streptococci. PMID:28067778

  6. Simultaneous Production of Biosurfactants and Bacteriocins by Probiotic Lactobacillus casei MRTL3

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    Deepansh Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are ubiquitous and well-known commensal bacteria in the human and animal microflora. LAB are extensively studied and used in a variety of industrial and food fermentations. They are widely used for humans and animals as adjuvants, probiotic formulation, and dietary supplements and in other food fermentation applications. In the present investigation, LAB were isolated from raw milk samples collected from local dairy farms of Haryana, India. Further, the isolates were screened for simultaneous production of biosurfactants and bacteriocins. Biosurfactant produced was found to be a mixture of lipid and sugar similar to glycolipids. The bacteriocin obtained was found to be heat stable (5 min at 100°C. Further, DNA of the strain was extracted and amplified by the 16S rRNA sequencing using universal primers. The isolate Lactobacillus casei MRTL3 was found to be a potent biosurfactant and bacteriocin producer. It seems to have huge potential for food industry as a biopreservative and/or food ingredient.

  7. Partial characterization of bacteriocins produced by two Lactobacilus strains with probiotic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uymaz, Başar; Akkoç, Nefise; Akçelik, M

    2011-03-01

    The probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus brevis BG18 and Lb. plantarum BG33, isolated from traditional Turkish Tulum cheese were assessed. These two bacteriocinproducer strains exhibited good probiotic characteristics such as resistance in media containing 0.3% bile salt, pepsin (3 mg mL⁻¹), and pancreatine (1 mg mL⁻¹) as well as acid resistance at pH 2. They were also adhered to Caco-2 epithelial cells in a manner comparable to Escherichia coli LMG3083 (ETEC) and Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344. The strains produced a heat-stable antimicrobial compound that was shown to be proteinaceous in nature, and therefore, referred to as bacteriocins. The bacteriocins were able to inhibit growth of a number grampositive bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Tricine-SDS-PAGE of the active fraction resulted in single bands with estimated molecular masses of 2.5 kDA and 2.7 kDA for Lb. brevis BG18 and Lb. plantarum BG33 bacteriocins, respectively.

  8. BAGEL3: Automated identification of genes encoding bacteriocins and (non-)bactericidal posttranslationally modified peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heel, Auke J; de Jong, Anne; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2013-07-01

    Identifying genes encoding bacteriocins and ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) can be a challenging task. Especially those peptides that do not have strong homology to previously identified peptides can easily be overlooked. Extensive use of BAGEL2 and user feedback has led us to develop BAGEL3. BAGEL3 features genome mining of prokaryotes, which is largely independent of open reading frame (ORF) predictions and has been extended to cover more (novel) classes of posttranslationally modified peptides. BAGEL3 uses an identification approach that combines direct mining for the gene and indirect mining via context genes. Especially for heavily modified peptides like lanthipeptides, sactipeptides, glycocins and others, this genetic context harbors valuable information that is used for mining purposes. The bacteriocin and context protein databases have been updated and it is now easy for users to submit novel bacteriocins or RiPPs. The output has been simplified to allow user-friendly analysis of the results, in particular for large (meta-genomic) datasets. The genetic context of identified candidate genes is fully annotated. As input, BAGEL3 uses FASTA DNA sequences or folders containing multiple FASTA formatted files. BAGEL3 is freely accessible at http://bagel.molgenrug.nl.

  9. Purification and characterization of Plantaricin ZJ5, a new bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ5.

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    Da-Feng Song

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial potential of Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ5, a strain isolated from fermented mustard with a broad range of inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Here we present the peptide plantaricin ZJ5 (PZJ5, which is an extreme pH and heat-stable. However, it can be digested by pepsin and proteinase K. This peptide has strong activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PZJ5 has been purified using a multi-step process, including ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interactions and reverse-phase chromatography. The molecular mass of the peptide was found to be 2572.9 Da using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. The primary structure of this peptide was determined using amino acid sequencing and DNA sequencing, and these analyses revealed that the DNA sequence translated as a 44-residue precursor containing a 22-amino-acid N-terminal extension that was of the double-glycine type. The bacteriocin sequence exhibited no homology with known bacteriocins when compared with those available in the database, indicating that it was a new class IId bacteriocin. PZJ5 from a food-borne strain may be useful as a promising probiotic candidate.

  10. Partial Characterisation of Bacteriocins Produced by Bacillus cereus Isolates from Milk and Milk Products

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    Bojana Bogović Matijašić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one (19.2 % out of 161 Bacillus cereus isolates from raw milk and milk products were found to produce proteinaceous substances which inhibit the growth of other B. cereus isolates. The detection of antibacterial activity depended on medium and method used. Bactericidal activity was detected in 23 (14 % or 19 (12 % of the tested strains on the triptic soya agar and brain-heart infusion with glucose, respectively, while 11 (7 % of the strains produced bactericidal substances on both media. Nineteen percent of isolates from raw milk and 20 % of isolates from milk products were found to produce bacteriocins. Four B. cereus isolates inhibited the growth of individual test strains belonging to B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus helveticus and L. casei species. The bacteriocins of four B. cereus isolates were studied in more detail. The production and activity of these substances were detected in stationary- phase of bacterial culture. Two of them were stable after heating at 60 °C, while only one was stable after heating at 75 °C for 15 minutes. All of them were active over a range of pH=3–10. The apparent molecular weights of four bacteriocins detected by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis were in the range of 1 to 8 kDa.

  11. Prognosis of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

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    J. Gordon Millichap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, evaluated the clinical features, prognosis, and prophylaxis of cyclic vomiting syndrome and the relationship between the syndrome and levels of adrenocorticotropic/antidiuretic hormones (ACTH/ADH.

  12. Design of a cyclic multiverse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piao, Yun-Song

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has been noticed that the amplification of the amplitude of curvature perturbation cycle by cycle can lead to a cyclic multiverse scenario, in which the number of universes increases cycle by cycle...

  13. Algebraic curves of maximal cyclicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubergh, Magdalena; Dumortier, Freddy

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with analytic families of planar vector fields, studying methods to detect the cyclicity of a non-isolated closed orbit, i.e. the maximum number of limit cycles that can locally bifurcate from it. It is known that this multi-parameter problem can be reduced to a single-parameter one, in the sense that there exist analytic curves in parameter space along which the maximal cyclicity can be attained. In that case one speaks about a maximal cyclicity curve (mcc) in case only the number is considered and of a maximal multiplicity curve (mmc) in case the multiplicity is also taken into account. In view of obtaining efficient algorithms for detecting the cyclicity, we investigate whether such mcc or mmc can be algebraic or even linear depending on certain general properties of the families or of their associated Bautin ideal. In any case by well chosen examples we show that prudence is appropriate.

  14. Cyclic Cushing's syndrome: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiger, Nora Maria Elvira; Scaroni, Carla M; Mantero, Franco

    2007-11-01

    Cyclic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a disorder in which glucocorticoid levels are alternately normal and high, the latter occurring in episodes that can last from a few days to several months. It is more common in children than in adults. Cyclic CS may be either of the two different forms of CS (ACTH-dependent or -independent CS). Clinically, it may present with one or many symptoms, depending on the duration of disease activity and the timing of the fluctuations. A serotoninergic influence, cyclic changes in central dopaminergic tone, spontaneous episodic hemorrhage in the tumor, and the action of inflammatory cytokines with antitumor properties are some of the mechanisms suggested to explain the physiopathology of this phenomenon but the exact mechanism remains to be clarified. The cyclic pattern of hypercortisolism can delay the final diagnosis of CS and make it difficult to interpret the results of dynamic tests. Patients may have paradoxical responses to dexamethasone that can reflect increasing or decreasing levels of endogenous activity. Hormone assessments have to be repeated periodically when a diagnosis of CS is suspected. The cyclic pattern can also interfere with medical treatment because patients may show unexpected clinical and biochemical signs of hypocortisolism when cortisol secretion cyclically returns to normal, so an accurate follow-up is mandatory in these patients.

  15. Isolation and partial characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum BM-1 isolated from a traditionally fermented Chinese meat product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxing; Liu, Li; Hao, Yanling; Zhong, Siqiong; Liu, Hui; Han, Tao; Xie, Yuanhong

    2013-11-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum BM-1 isolated from a traditionally fermented Chinese meat product was found to produce a novel bacteriocin that is active against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Production of the bacteriocin BM-1 started early in the exponential phase and its maximum activity (5120 AU/mL) was recorded early during the stationary phase (16 hr). Bacteriocin BM-1 is sensitive to proteolytic enzymes but stable in the pH range of 2.0-10.0 and heat-resistant (15 min at 121°C). This bacteriocin was purified through pH-mediated cell adsorption-desorption and cation-exchange chromatography on an SP Sepharose Fast Flow column. The molecular weight of the purified bacteriocin BM-1 was determined to be 4638.142 Da by electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid sequence was obtained through automated Edman degradation and found to comprise the following 15 amino acid residues: H2 N-Lys-Tyr-Tyr-Gly-Asn-Gly-Val-Tyr-Val-Gly-Lys-His-Ser-Cys-Ser. Comparison of this sequence with that of other bacteriocins revealed that bacteriocin BM-1 contains the consensus YGNGV amino acid motif near the N-terminus. Based on its physicochemical characteristics, molecular weight, and N-terminal amino acid sequence, plantaricin BM-1 is a novel class IIa bacteriocin.

  16. Development of an active wheat gluten film with Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 bacteriocins and a study of its antimicrobial performance during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Massani, Mariana; Botana, Adrián; Eisenberg, Patricia; Vignolo, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial wheat gluten film was obtained at pilot scale by Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 bacteriocins inclusion in the film-forming solution. Bacteriocins' minimum inhibitory concentration for the film activation was 2133 AU cm(-3) (lactocin AL705) and 267 AU cm(-3) (lactocin 705). Mechanical and barrier properties as well as film ageing kinetics were not significantly affected by the addition of bacteriocins. The antimicrobial film performance during ageing was assessed. Film activity against Listeria innocua 7 and Lactobacillus plantarum CRL691 was observed over 50 days of ageing. Even when the release of bacteriocins from the film upon water contact was observed for both bacteriocins at the beginning of the ageing period, and anti-Listeria activity was delivered to the simulant up to the 15th day of ageing, film residual activity for both bacteriocins was observed over 50 days. The results confirm the potential of a gluten film doped with L. curvatus CRL705 bacteriocins as a carrier of bacteriocins to avoid Listeria and lactic acid bacterial growth, thus enhancing quality and safety in foods.

  17. Synthesis of lactococcin 972, a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis IPLA 972, depends on the expression of a plasmid-encoded bicistronic operon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, B.; Fernández, M.; Suárez, J.E.; Rodríguez, A.

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of lactococcin 972 is plasmid-encoded. An operon composed of two genes that encode pre-bacteriocin and a putative immunity protein has been identified. The first gene encodes a 91-residue polypeptide that is exported via a sec-dependent system to give the mature 66-aa bacteriocin. The immu

  18. Heterologous Processing and Export of the Bacteriocins Pediocin PA-1 and Lactococcin A in Lactococcus Lactis : A Study with Leader Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikindas, M.; Emond, E.; Haandrikman, A.J.; Kok, J.; Leenhouts, K.; Pandian, S.; Venema, Gerhardus; Venema, K.

    2010-01-01

    The bacteriocins pediocin PA-1 and lactococcin A are synthesized as precursors carrying N-terminal extensions with a conserved cleavage site preceded by two glycine residues in positions -2 and -1. Each bacteriocin is translocated through the cytoplasmic membrane by an integral membrane protein of

  19. Synthesis of lactococcin 972, a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis IPLA 972, depends on the expression of a plasmid-encoded bicistronic operon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, B.; Fernández, M.; Suárez, J.E.; Rodríguez, A.

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of lactococcin 972 is plasmid-encoded. An operon composed of two genes that encode pre-bacteriocin and a putative immunity protein has been identified. The first gene encodes a 91-residue polypeptide that is exported via a sec-dependent system to give the mature 66-aa bacteriocin. The immu

  20. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassays carried out on solid and liquid substrates: assessing the factor "indicator microorganism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosiadis Ioannis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful application of growth inhibition techniques for quantitative determination of bacteriocins relies on the sensitivity of the applied indicator microorganism to the bacteriocin to which is exposed. However, information on indicator microorganisms' performance and comparisons in bacteriocin determination with bioassays is almost non-existing in the literature. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the parameter "indicator microorganism" in bioassays carried out on solid -agar diffusion assay- and liquid -turbidometric assay- substrates, applied in the quantification of the most studied bacteriocin nisin. Results The performance of characterized microorganisms of known sources, belonging to the genera of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Micrococcus and Leuconostoc, has been assessed in this work in the assays of plate agar diffusion and turbidometry. Dose responses and sensitivities were examined and compared over a range of assay variables in standard bacteriocin solutions, fermentation broth filtrates and processed food samples. Measurements on inhibition zones produced on agar plates were made by means of digital image analysis. The data produced were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA technique and pairwise comparisons tests. Sensitivity limits and linearity of responses to bacteriocin varied significantly among different test-microorganisms in both applied methods, the lower sensitivity limits depending on both the test-microorganism and the applied method. In both methods, however, only two of the nine tested microorganisms (Lactobacillus curvatus ATCC 51436 and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 25740 were sensitive to very low concentrations of the bacteriocin and produced a linear-type of response in all kinds of samples used in this work. In all cases, very low bacteriocin concentrations, e.g. 1 IU/ml nisin, were more accurately determined in the turbidometric assay. Conclusion The present work shows that in

  1. Sequence analysis of a bacteriocinogenic plasmid of Clostridium butyricum and expression of the bacteriocin gene in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Shusuke; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2010-06-01

    A small cryptic plasmid, namely, pCBM588, was obtained from Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 (CBM588)--a bacterium used in probiotics. The complete sequence of pCBM588 was determined. The size of pCBM588 was 8060 bp and the G + C content was 24.3%. Nine open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted, and ORF3 showed significant homologies with a structural bacteriocin gene of Clostridium tyrobutyricum. The putative bacteriocin gene was inserted into the pET21d expression vector in frame; it was expressed as a His-tagged recombinant protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). A total of 10240AU of the recombinant bacteriocin were purified from 100 ml of E. coli culture. The bacteriocin was cleaved into 2 portions, and the small C-terminal polypeptide consisting of 83 amino acids possessed bactericidal activity. These results demonstrated that the ORF3 of pCBM588 encoded a bacteriocin, which is identical or very similar to the previously reported butyricin 7423.

  2. 细菌素编码基因的定位分析%Primary genetic analysis of the bacteriocin locus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 孟祥晨

    2012-01-01

    The genes related to the production of bacteriocins always emerge in clusters: the operon structure is composed of structure genes, self-immunoreaction genes and genes encoding auxiliary protein. The structure genes encoding bacteriocins may be located in the plas-maids or genome DNA, in order to make sure the location of the genes encoding bacteriocins primarily, this paper introduced the methods of locating the genes encoding bacteriocins primarily, which formed the foundation of the further study of bacteriocins.%细菌素生物合成相关的基因经常成簇出现:结构基因、对自身产生免疫的基因及产生辅助蛋白质的基因组成操纵子结构,其中结构基因是细菌素编码基因,它可能在质粒上也可能在染色体上,为了初步定位细菌素编码基因是在质粒上还是染色体上,综述细菌素编码基因的初步定位方法,为深入研究细菌素提供依据.

  3. LIKE IT ACID AND POOR: A STUDY OF ABIOTIC FACTORS INFLUENCING Streptococcus bovis HC5 GROWTH AND BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andréa Teixeira Barbosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of pH, temperature, growth atmosphere and nutrient availability on bovicin HC5 production by Streptococcus bovis HC5. S. bovis HC5 grew well in complex and basal media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, but greater bacteriocin yields were recovered from anaerobic cultures. Lactate production and glucose consumption increased if S. bovis HC5 cells were cultivated at pH 7.0 and at 45 ºC, but higher bovicin HC5 activity was recovered from cells grown in acidic conditions and at lower temperatures (39 ºC. Cultures maintained under continuous CO2 flow showed faster growth rates in basal media, but bacteriocin production was always higher if S. bovis was cultivated in anaerobic sealed tubes. These results suggest that acidic pH and anoxic conditions favor bovicin HC5 production by S. bovis HC5. S. bovis HC5 is a unique lactic acid bacterium in its ability to grow and produce high amounts of a potentially useful bacteriocin in simple media. Considering the constrains for bacteriocin production at commercial scale, it appears that bovicin HC5 production could be achieved at lower costs compared to other bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

  4. Bacteriocins produced by wild Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from traditional, starter-free cheeses made of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, Angel; Delgado, Susana; Roces, Clara; López, Belén; Mayo, Baltasar

    2010-09-30

    Sixty bacterial strains were encountered by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) typing in a series of 306 Lactococcus lactis isolates collected during the manufacturing and ripening stages of five traditional, starter-free cheeses made from raw milk. Among the 60 strains, 17 were shown to produce bacteriocin-like compounds in both solid and liquid media. At a genotypic level, 16 of the strains were identified by molecular methods as belonging to L. lactis subsp. lactis and one to L. lactis subsp. cremoris. Among the L. lactis subsp. lactis strains, phenotypic and genetic data determined that eleven produced either nisin A (nine strains) or nisin Z (two strains), and that five produced lactococcin 972. Variable levels of the two bacteriocins were produced by different strains. In addition, nisin was shown to be produced in inexpensive, dairy- and meat-based media, which will allow the practical application of its producing strains in industrial processes. Specific PCR and nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analysis identified the inhibitor produced by the single L. lactis subsp. cremoris isolate as a lactococcin G-like bacteriocin. Beyond the use of bacteriocins as functional ingredients for the biopreservation of foods, the newly identified bacteriocin-producing L. lactis strains from traditional cheeses may also be useful for designing starter cultures with protective properties and/or adjunct cultures for accelerating cheese ripening.

  5. Purification and Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Bacillus subtilis R75 Isolated from Fermented Chunks of Mung Bean (Phaseolus radiatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riti Kapoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Food-grade bacteria capable of producing bacteriocin with desirable preservation attributes have been isolated from traditional Indian fermented food dal vari, which has not been investigated so far. Among different isolates, Bacillus subtilis R75, isolated on MRS agar, exhibited antagonism against a wide range of foodborne pathogens that cause serious spoilage. Extracellularly produced bacteriocin was purified by single step gel exclusion column chromatography. The purity rate and molecular mass of 12 kDa of this compound were determined using SDS-PAGE. Activity units (AU of bacteriocin were increased in each step of purification, reaching up to 5·10^6 AU/mL. The increase in the activity units directly affected the antimicrobial activity of purified bacteriocin, resulting in an increase up to 200, 333 and 175 % of the inhibition zones against indicator bacteria. Continuous decrease in the number of viable cells of microorganisms within 10 h after adding purified bacteriocin proved its bactericidal action. It withstood very high temperature, up to 121 °C, for 10 min, wider pH range, from 4.0 to 11.0, complete inactivation in the presence of proteolytic enzymes and storage stability up to 2.5 months.

  6. Role of acetate in production of an autoinducible Class IIa Bacteriocin in Carnobacterium piscicola A9b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lilian; Nielsen, Michael Krogsgaard; Ng, Yin

    2002-01-01

    was to purify the compound and describe factors affecting its production, with particular emphasis on food-relevant factors. Amino acid sequencing showed that the compound is a class IIa bacteriocin with an N-terminal amino acid sequence identical to that of carnobacteriocin B2. The production...... of the bacteriocin was autoinducible, and the threshold level for induction was 9.6 x 10(-10) M. We also report, for the first time, that acetate acts as an induction factor, with a threshold concentration of 0.3 to 12 mM. Acetate could not act as an inducer during the late exponential phase of C. piscicola A9b....... The induction of bacteriocin production showed a dose-dependent relationship at acetate concentrations of up to 10 to 20 mM (depending on the growth medium) and at a concentration of 1.9 x 10(-8) M for the bacteriocin itself; a saturation level of bacteriocin specific activity was reached...

  7. Characterization, N-terminal sequencing and classification of Tolworthcin 524: A bacteriocin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Cano, Rubén D; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Salcedo-Hernández, Rubén; León-Galván, M Fabiola; Bideshi, Dennis K; Hernández-Guzmán, Gustavo; Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar

    2014-12-01

    Bacteriocins synthesized by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis are gaining attention owing to their inhibitory effects against a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we purified and characterized Tolworthcin 524, a bacteriocin synthesized by B. thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi, and compared it with other bacteriocins synthesized by B. thuringiensis. Tolworthcin 524 was separated and purified from the secretome of B. thuringiensis by fast protein liquid chromatography with a gel filtration column to obtain yields of 17% and a specific activity of ∼3600U/mgprotein. The purified product showed two peptides of ∼9 and 6kDa with antimicrobial activity in a gel-screening assay. The purified product was analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the resolved peptides of ∼9 and 6kDa with isoelectric points of ∼8 were sequenced. Partial sequences (METPVVQPR and DWTCWSCLVCAACS) were obtained suggesting that the ∼9 and 6kDa correspond to the prebacteriocin and mature Tolworthcin 524, respectively. Sequences showed high identity with Thurincin H and Thuricin 17 and had a conserved motif with other bacteriocins of B. thuringiensis. Based on sequence data, Tolworthcin 524 was classified in subclass II.2 (Thuricin-like peptides) of the Bacillus bacteriocin classification scheme. The larger peptide did not harbor a sequence suggestive of a signal peptide neither did it contain the double-glycine (GG) motif characteristic of the secretion leader recognized by the ABC transport system. Implications of these properties in Tolworthcin 524 secretion are discussed.

  8. Transitive oriented 3-Hypergraphs of cyclic orders

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the definition of transitivity for oriented 3-hypergraphs in order to study partial and complete cyclic orders. This definition allow us to give sufficient conditions on a partial cyclic order to be totally extendable. Furthermore, we introduce the 3-hypergraph associated to a cyclic permutation and characterize it in terms of cyclic comparability 3-hypergraphs.

  9. Evidence for production of a bacteriocin-like substance by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, inhibitory to Staphylococcus aureus from foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Taiz Siqueira; de Oliveira, Cybelle Pereira; da Costa, Ana Carolina Vieira; Lima, Catiana Oliveira; Barreto, Humberto Medeiros; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Siqueira-Junior, José Pinto

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the production of a bacteriocin-like substance by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius S28, and evaluates its inhibitory effect against isolates of S. aureus from foods. All indicator isolates were sensitive to the substance produced from S. pseudintermedius S28, showing growth inhibition zones ranging from 14.2 to 28.3 mm. The inhibitory substance has no effect against the producer strain. The inhibitory substance was affected by proteolytic enzymes, while glycolytic and lipolytic enzymes had no effect, suggesting that the active substance could be considered as a bacteriocin-like substance. From these results, S. pseudintermedius S28 could be an interesting producer of a bacteriocin-like substance capable of strongly inhibiting S. aureus.

  10. Partial Characterization of an Anti-Candida albicans Bacteriocin Produced by a Marine Strain of Bacillus sp., Sh10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shayesteh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriocin-producing strain Bacillus sp., Sh10, isolated from the marine environment, exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against different food spoilage and human pathogens, with a maximum inhibitory activity against Candida albicans. The inhibitory compound was sensitive to trypsin but resistant to proteinase K, lysozyme, lipase and &alpha-amylase. It was heat-stable and remained its activity after autoclaving. In addition, the antimicrobial substance demonstrated striking stability at low temperatures (4 and -20°C for up to one year and retained its activity in a wide pH range from 2 to 11. It was also stable and active in the presence of different surfactants, solvents and heavy metals. Analysis of the partially purified bacteriocin by SDS-PAGE showed an apparent molecular weight of ~11 KDa. This study reveals a remarkable potential of this bacteriocin to be used as a food preservative.

  11. Expression of mptC of Listeria monocytogenes induces sensitivity to class IIa bacteriocins in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnath, Manilduth; Arous, Safia; Gravesen, Anne; Hastings, John W; Héchard, Yann

    2004-08-01

    Sensitivity to class IIa bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria was recently associated with the mannose phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease, in Listeria monocytogenes. To assess the involvement of this protein complex in class IIa bacteriocin activity, the mptACD operon, encoding, was heterologously expressed in an insensitive species, namely Lactococcus lactis, using the NICE double plasmid system. Upon induction of the cloned operon, the recombinant Lc. lactis became sensitive to leucocin A. Pediocin PA-1 and enterocin A also showed inhibitory activity against Lc. lactis cultures expressing mptACD. Furthermore, the role of the three genes of the mptACD operon was investigated. Derivative plasmids containing various combinations of these three genes were made from the parental mptACD plasmid by divergent PCR. The results showed that expression of mptC alone is sufficient to confer sensitivity to class IIa bacteriocins in Lc. lactis.

  12. A strain-variable bacteriocin in Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus with repeated Cys-Xaa-Xaa motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haft Daniel H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteriocins are peptide antibiotics from ribosomally translated precursors, produced by bacteria often through extensive post-translational modification. Minimal sequence conservation, short gene lengths, and low complexity sequence can hinder bacteriocin identification, even during gene calling, so they are often discovered by proximity to accessory genes encoding maturation, immunity, and export functions. This work reports a new subfamily of putative thiazole-containing heterocyclic bacteriocins. It appears universal in all strains of Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus, but has gone unrecognized because it is always encoded far from its maturation protein operon. Patterns of insertions and deletions among twenty-four variants suggest a repeating functional unit of Cys-Xaa-Xaa. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Andrei Osterman and Lakshminarayan Iyer.

  13. Large scale preparation and application of bacteriocins%细菌素的制备及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方佳琪; 别怀周; 陈晓琳; 张明

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, bacteriocins that can inhibit or kill the growth of some bacteria have a wide range of practical application in food preservation, disease treatment and many other related aspects were found, and the preparation methods of bacteriocin were widely reported. This article outlines the preparation methods of bacteriocins and its application in many fields.%近年来,具有抑菌活性的细菌素被发现在食品防腐保鲜、疾病治疗和其他许多相关方面有着广泛的应用价值,各种制备细菌素的方法 也被广泛报道.本文概述了细菌素的制备方法 以及其在诸多领域中的应用.

  14. Bacteriocin as Weapons in the Marine Animal-Associated Bacteria Warfare: Inventory and Potential Applications as an Aquaculture Probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florie Desriac

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As the association of marine animals with bacteria has become more commonly recognized, researchers have increasingly questioned whether these animals actually produce many of the bioactive compounds originally isolated from them. Bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized antibiotic peptides, constitute one of the most potent weapons to fight against pathogen infections. Indeed, bacteriocinogenic bacteria may prevent pathogen dissemination by occupying the same ecological niche. Bacteriocinogenic strains associated with marine animals are a relevant source for isolation of probiotics. This review draws up an inventory of the marine bacteriocinogenic strains isolated from animal-associated microbial communities, known to date. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS and fully-characterized bacteriocins are described. Finally, their applications as probiotics in aquaculture are discussed.

  15. Bacteriocin as Weapons in the Marine Animal-Associated Bacteria Warfare: Inventory and Potential Applications as an Aquaculture Probiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desriac, Florie; Defer, Diane; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2010-01-01

    As the association of marine animals with bacteria has become more commonly recognized, researchers have increasingly questioned whether these animals actually produce many of the bioactive compounds originally isolated from them. Bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized antibiotic peptides, constitute one of the most potent weapons to fight against pathogen infections. Indeed, bacteriocinogenic bacteria may prevent pathogen dissemination by occupying the same ecological niche. Bacteriocinogenic strains associated with marine animals are a relevant source for isolation of probiotics. This review draws up an inventory of the marine bacteriocinogenic strains isolated from animal-associated microbial communities, known to date. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) and fully-characterized bacteriocins are described. Finally, their applications as probiotics in aquaculture are discussed. PMID:20479972

  16. Purification and partial characterization of bacillocin 490, a novel bacteriocin produced by a thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Felice Maurilio

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of bacteriocins as food preservatives have been so far limited, principally because of their low antimicrobial activity in foods. Nisin is the only bacteriocin of significant use, but applications are restricted principally because of its very low activity at neutral or alkaline pH. Thus the isolation of new bacteriocins active in foods is desirable. Results We isolated a Bacillus licheniformis thermophilic strain producing a bacteriocin with some novel features, named here bacillocin 490. This bacteriocin was inactivated by pronase E and proteinase K and was active against closely related Bacillus spp. both in aerobic and in anaerobic conditions. Bactericidal activity was kept during storage at 4°C and was remarkably stable in a wide pH range. The bacteriocin was partially purified by elution after adhesion to cells of the food-isolated strain Bacillus smithii and had a rather low mass (2 KDa. Antimicrobial activity against B. smithii was observed also when this organism was grown in water buffalo milk. Conclusions Bacillocin 490 is a novel candidate as a food anti-microbial agent since it displays its activity in milk, is stable to heat treatment and during storage, is active in a wide pH range and has bactericidal activity also at high temperature. These features may allow the use of bacillocin 490 during processes performed at high temperature and as a complementary antimicrobial agent of nisin against some Bacillus spp. in non-acidic foods. The small size suggests its use on solid foods.

  17. Purification and amino acid sequence of a bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus salivarius K7 isolated from chicken intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Sonomoto

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactobacillus K7, was isolated from a chicken intestine. The inhibitory activity was determined by spot-on-lawn technique. Identification of the strain was performed by morphological, biochemical (API 50 CH kit and molecular genetic (16S rDNA basis. Bacteriocin purification processes were carried out by amberlite adsorption, cation exchange and reverse-phase high perform- ance liquid chromatography. N-terminal amino acid sequences were performed by Edman degradation. Molecular mass was determined by electrospray-ionization (ESI mass spectrometry (MS. Lactobacillus K7 showed inhibitory activity against Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei JCM 1157T, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides JCM 6124T and Bacillus coagulans JCM 2257T. This strain was identified as Lb. salivarius. The antimicrobial substance was destroyed by proteolytic enzymes, indicating its proteinaceous structure designated as a bacteriocin type. The purification of bacteriocin by amberlite adsorption, cation exchange, and reverse-phase chromatography resulted in only one single active peak, which was designated FK22. Molecular weight of this fraction was 4331.70 Da. By amino acid sequence, this peptide was homology to Abp 118 beta produced by Lb. salivarius UCC118. In addition, Lb. salivarius UCC118 produced 2-peptide bacteriocin, which was Abp 118 alpha and beta. Based on the partial amino acid sequences of Abp 118 beta, specific primers were designed from nucleotide sequences according to data from GenBank. The result showed that the deduced peptide was high homology to 2-peptide bacteriocin, Abp 118 alpha and beta.

  18. Screening of marine bacteria with bacteriocin-like activities and probiotic potential for ornate spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Duy; Pham, Thu Thuy; Nguyen, Thi Hai Thanh; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Xuan; Hoj, Lone

    2014-09-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, which have been found in diverse bacterial species of terrestrial origins and some from the sea. New bacteriocins with new characteristics, new origins and new applications are likely still awaiting discovery. The present study screened bacteria isolated from marine animals of interest to the aquaculture industry for antimicrobial and bacteriocin-like activities in order to uncover biodiversity of bacteriocin producers, and explore the potential application in aquaculture. In total, 24 of 100 screened isolates showed antimicrobial activities and 7 of these exerted bacteriocin-like activities. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes identified the isolates as members of the six genera Proteus, Providencia, Klebsiella, Alcaligenes, Bacillus and Enterococcus. In some cases, further analysis of housekeeping genes, rpoB for Proteus and recA for Klebsiella, as well as biochemical tests was necessary for identification to species level, and some of the Proteus isolates may represent novel species. The seven bacteriocinogenic isolates showed a wide antimicrobial spectrum against foodborne and animal pathogens, which opens the way to their potential use as marine drugs and probiotics in food, aquaculture, livestock and clinical settings. As a case study, the protective effect of shortlisted bacteriocinogenic isolates were tested in aquaculture-raised spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) juveniles. A single-strain (Bacillus pumilus B3.10.2B) and a three-strain (B. pumilus B3.10.2B, Bacillus cereus D9, Lactobacillus plantarum T13) probiotic preparation were added to the feed of Panulirus ornatus juveniles, which were subsequently challenged with the pathogen Vibrio owensii DY05. Juveniles in the probiotic treatments displayed increased growth and reduced feed conversion rates after 60 days, and increased survival rate after pathogen challenge relative to the control. This study represents the first evidence of bacteriocin

  19. Purification and genetic characterization of gassericin E, a novel co-culture inducible bacteriocin from Lactobacillus gasseri EV1461 isolated from the vagina of a healthy woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Caballero-Guerrero, Belén; Martín, Virginia; Ruiz-Barba, José Luis; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel

    2016-03-12

    Lactobacillus gasseri is one of the dominant Lactobacillus species in the vaginal ecosystem. Some strains of this species have a high potential for being used as probiotics in order to maintain vaginal homeostasis, since they may confer colonization resistance against pathogens in the vagina by direct inhibition through production of antimicrobial compounds, as bacteriocins. In this work we have studied bacteriocin production of gassericin E (GasE), a novel bacteriocin produced by L. gasseri EV1461, a strain isolated from the vagina of a healthy woman, and whose production was shown to be promoted by the presence of certain specific bacteria in co-culture. Biochemical and genetic characterization of this novel bacteriocin are addressed. We found that the inhibitory spectrum of L. gasseri EV1461 was broad, being directed to species both related and non-related to the producing strain. Interestingly, L. gasseri EV1461 inhibited the grown of pathogens usually associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV). The antimicrobial activity was due to the production of a novel bacteriocin, gassericin E (GasE). Production of this bacteriocin in broth medium only was achieved at high cell densities. At low cell densities, bacteriocin production ceased and only was restored after the addition of a supernatant from a previous bacteriocin-producing EV1461 culture (autoinduction), or through co-cultivation with several other Gram-positive strains (inducing bacteria). DNA sequence of the GasE locus revealed the presence of two putative operons which could be involved in biosynthesis and immunity of this bacteriocin (gaeAXI), and in regulation, transport and processing (gaePKRTC). The gaePKR encodes a putative three-component regulatory system, involving an autoinducer peptide (GaeP), a histidine protein kinase (GaeK) and a response regulator (GaeR), while the gaeTC encodes for an ABC transporter (GaeT) and their accessory protein (GaeC), involved in transport and processing of the

  20. Manual for Cyclic Triaxial Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    /dynamic triaxial cell is overall constructed in the same way as the static triaxial cell at Aalborg University, but with the ability to apply any kind of load sequence to the test sample. When conducting cyclic triaxial tests, it is recommended that the manual is followed very tediously since there are many steps...... and if they are done improperly or in the wrong order there is a risk of destroying the test sample or obtaining invalid results.......This manual describes the different steps that is included in the procedure for conducting a cyclic triaxial test at the geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. Furthermore it contains a chapter concerning some of the background theory for the static triaxial tests. The cyclic...

  1. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95, a potential probiotic strain producing bacteriocins and B-group vitamin riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Gu, Qing

    2016-07-10

    Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95 is a potential probiotic isolated from newborn infant fecal and it is identified to produce riboflavin with great antimicrobial activity. The complete genome sequence of this strain was reported in the present study. The genome contains a 3,261,418-bp chromosome and two plasmids. Genes, related to the biosynthesis of bacteriocins and riboflavin, were identified. This work will facilitate to reveal the biosynthetic mechanism of bacteriocins and B-group vitamins in lactic acid bacteria and provide evidence for its potential application in food industry.

  2. Characterization of anti-Listeria bacteriocins isolated from shellfish: potential antimicrobials to control non-fermented seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Luísa; Fernandes, Melissa; Pinto, Cristina; Albano, Helena; Castilho, Fernanda; Teixeira, Paula; Gibbs, Paul A

    2009-01-31

    This work had as main objectives to characterize two bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) previously isolated from non-fermented seafood, in order to evaluate their potential as new food protective agents. The two bacteriocinogenic isolates were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using genus- and species-specific primers, and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing, as Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus pentosaceus. The antimicrobial spectrum of each strain included several indicator microorganisms, some of them also isolated from seafood. Growth of Listeria innocua, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and other LAB species were inhibited, although no inhibition of Gram-negative microorganisms was observed. Proteolytic, but not lipolytic or glycolytic enzymes, completely inactivated the antimicrobial effect of both cell-free supernatants confirming the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitors. The antimicrobial activity was maintained after treatment with NaCl, SDS, Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 80 and EDTA after 2 h or 5 h of exposure and both bacteriocins were stable over a wide range of pH and temperatures. Production of bacteriocin by E. faecium (bacALP7) was detected initially at exponential phase and reached a maximum activity of 25,600 AU/ml in the early stationary phase, whereas bacteriocin production by P. pentosaceus ALP57 (bacALP57) reached the maximum at exponential phase with 12,800 AU/ml. The bacteriocins did not kill L. monocytogenes ESB54 nor L. innocua 2030c however, cellular growth was reduced. The partially purified bacteriocins, bacALP7 and bacALP57, were below 6.5 kDa in size as determined by Tricine-SDS gel electrophoresis. E. faecium and P. pentosaceus contained DNA fragments corresponding in size to those recorded for enterocin B and pediocin PA-1, respectively. Sequencing of the fragments from both bacteriocins confirmed the homology. To our knowledge, for the first time two LAB producing bacteriocins

  3. Hopf cyclic cohomology and transverse characteristic classes

    CERN Document Server

    Moscovici, Henri

    2010-01-01

    By refining the cyclic cohomological apparatus for computing the Hopf cyclic cohomology of the Hopf algebras associated to infinite primitive Cartan-Lie pseudogroup, we explicitly identify, as a Hopf cyclic complex, the image of the canonical homomorphism from the Gelfand-Fuks complex to the Bott complex for equivariant cohomology. Distinct from the original realization due to A. Connes and the first named author of the cyclic cohomology of such Hopf algebras as differentiable cyclic cohomology, this construction provides a convenient front-end model for their Hopf cyclic cohomology. Relying on it, we produce characteristic homomorphisms from newly developed models for Hopf cyclic characteristic classes to the cyclic cohomology of the convolution algebras of \\'etale holonomy groupoids, which in particular work in the relative case with no compactness restriction. As an illustration, we apply the latter feature to transfer the universal Hopf cyclic Chern classes found by us in a previous paper, and produce in ...

  4. Design of a cyclic multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong, E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.c [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-08-09

    Recently, it has been noticed that the amplification of the amplitude of curvature perturbation cycle by cycle can lead to a cyclic multiverse scenario, in which the number of universes increases cycle by cycle. However, this amplification will also inevitably induce either the ultimate end of corresponding cycle, or the resulting spectrum of perturbations inside corresponding universe is not scale invariant, which baffles the existence of observable universes. In this Letter, we propose a design of a cyclic multiverse, in which the observable universe can emerges naturally. The significance of a long period of dark energy before the turnaround of each cycle for this implementing is shown.

  5. Recursive processing of cyclic graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Monica; Gori, Marco; Sarti, Lorenzo; Scarselli, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Recursive neural networks are a powerful tool for processing structured data. According to the recursive learning paradigm, the input information consists of directed positional acyclic graphs (DPAGs). In fact, recursive networks are fed following the partial order defined by the links of the graph. Unfortunately, the hypothesis of processing DPAGs is sometimes too restrictive, being the nature of some real-world problems intrinsically cyclic. In this paper, a methodology is proposed, which allows us to process any cyclic directed graph. Therefore, the computational power of recursive networks is definitely established, also clarifying the underlying limitations of the model.

  6. Escherichia coli bacteriocins: antimicrobial efficacy and prevalence among isolates from patients with bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budič, Maruška; Rijavec, Matija; Petkovšek, Ziva; Zgur-Bertok, Darja

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides generally active against bacteria closely related to the producer. Escherichia coli produces two types of bacteriocins, colicins and microcins. The in vitro efficacy of isolated colicins E1, E6, E7, K and M, was assessed against Escherichia coli strains from patients with bacteraemia of urinary tract origin. Colicin E7 was most effective, as only 13% of the tested strains were resistant. On the other hand, 32%, 33%, 43% and 53% of the tested strains exhibited resistance to colicins E6, K, M and E1. Moreover, the inhibitory activity of individual colicins E1, E6, E7, K and M and combinations of colicins K, M, E7 and E1, E6, E7, K, M were followed in liquid broth for 24 hours. Resistance against individual colicins developed after 9 hours of treatment. On the contrary, resistance development against the combined action of 5 colicins was not observed. One hundred and five E. coli strains from patients with bacteraemia were screened by PCR for the presence of 5 colicins and 7 microcins. Sixty-six percent of the strains encoded at least one bacteriocin, 43% one or more colicins, and 54% one or more microcins. Microcins were found to co-occur with toxins, siderophores, adhesins and with the Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing protein involved in suppression of innate immunity, and were significantly more prevalent among strains from non-immunocompromised patients. In addition, microcins were highly prevalent among non-multidrug-resistant strains compared to multidrug-resistant strains. Our results indicate that microcins contribute to virulence of E. coli instigating bacteraemia of urinary tract origin.

  7. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacteriocins Activity Against Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Anderson Carlos; de Paula, Otávio Almeida Lino; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to assess the activity of cell-free supernatant (CFS) containing bacteriocins on the formation and maintenance of biofilms developed by Listeria monocytogenes, and the associated effect of bacteriocins and ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on the formed biofilm. CFS from 9 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains was tested for inhibitory activity against 85 L. monocytogenes isolates and 21 LAB strains. Then, 12 L. monocytogenes strains were selected based on genetic profiles and sensitivity to CFS and were subjected to an in vitro assay to assess biofilm formation in microtiter plates, considering different culture media and incubation conditions. Based on these results, 6 L. monocytogenes strains were subjected to the same in vitro procedure to assess biofilm formation, being co-inoculated with CFS. In addition, these strains were subjected to the same in vitro procedure, modified by adding the CFS after biofilm formation. Relevant decrease in biofilm formation was observed in the first experiment, but CFS added after biofilm formation did not eliminate them. CFS from Lactobacillus curvatus ET31 were selected due to its anti-biofilm activity, being associated to EDTA at different concentrations and tested for biofilm control of three strains of L. monocytogenes, using the same in vitro procedure described previously. Concentrated bacteriocin presented poor performance in eliminating formed biofilms, and EDTA concentration presented no evident interference on biofilm elimination. Twelve selected L. monocytogenes strains were positive for investigated virulence makers and negative for luxS gene, recognized as being involved in biofilm formation. Selected L. monocytogenes strains were able to produce biofilms under different conditions. CFSs have the potential to prevent biofilm formation, but they were not able to destroy already formed biofilms. Nevertheless, low concentrations of CFS combined with EDTA caused a relevant reduction in

  8. Ferredoxin containing bacteriocins suggest a novel mechanism of iron uptake in Pectobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinter, Rhys; Milner, Joel; Walker, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In order to kill competing strains of the same or closely related bacterial species, many bacteria produce potent narrow-spectrum protein antibiotics known as bacteriocins. Two sequenced strains of the phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum carry genes encoding putative bacteriocins which have seemingly evolved through a recombination event to encode proteins containing an N-terminal domain with extensive similarity to a [2Fe-2S] plant ferredoxin and a C-terminal colicin M-like catalytic domain. In this work, we show that these genes encode active bacteriocins, pectocin M1 and M2, which target strains of Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum with increased potency under iron limiting conditions. The activity of pectocin M1 and M2 can be inhibited by the addition of spinach ferredoxin, indicating that the ferredoxin domain of these proteins acts as a receptor binding domain. This effect is not observed with the mammalian ferredoxin protein adrenodoxin, indicating that Pectobacterium spp. carries a specific receptor for plant ferredoxins and that these plant pathogens may acquire iron from the host through the uptake of ferredoxin. In further support of this hypothesis we show that the growth of strains of Pectobacterium carotovorum and atrosepticum that are not sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of pectocin M1 is enhanced in the presence of pectocin M1 and M2 under iron limiting conditions. A similar growth enhancement under iron limiting conditions is observed with spinach ferrodoxin, but not with adrenodoxin. Our data indicate that pectocin M1 and M2 have evolved to parasitise an existing iron uptake pathway by using a ferredoxin-containing receptor binding domain as a Trojan horse to gain entry into susceptible cells.

  9. In vitro evaluation of the probiotic potential of bacteriocin producer Lactobacillus sakei 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Bruna C; Rodrigues, Marina R; Winkelströter, Lizziane K; Nomizo, Auro; de Martinis, Elaine C P

    2012-06-01

    Lactobacillus sakei 1 is a food isolate that produces a heat-stable antimicrobial peptide (sakacin 1, a class IIa bacteriocin) inhibitory to the opportunistic pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Bacterial isolates with antimicrobial activity may be useful for food biopreservation and also for developing probiotics. To evaluate the probiotic potential of L. sakei 1, it was tested for (i) in vitro gastric resistance (with synthetic gastric juice adjusted to pH 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0); (ii) survival and bacteriocin production in the presence of bile salts and commercial prebiotics (inulin and oligofructose); (iii) adhesion to Caco-2 cells; and (iv) effect on the adhesion of L. monocytogenes to Caco-2 cells and invasion of these cells by the organism. The results showed that L. sakei 1 survival in gastric environment varied according to pH, with the maximum survival achieved at pH 3.0, despite a 4-log reduction of the population after 3 h. Regarding the bile salt tolerance and influence of prebiotics, it was observed that L. sakei 1 survival rates were similar (P > 0.05) for all de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth formulations when tests were done after 4 h of incubation. However, after incubation for 24 h, the survival of L. sakei 1 in MRS broth was reduced by 1.8 log (P bacteriocin production was observed in MRS broth when inulin (3,200 AU/ml) or oligofructose (2,400 AU/ml) was used instead of glucose (6,400 AU/ml). L. sakei 1 adhered to Caco-2 cells, and its cell-free pH-neutralized supernatant containing sakacin 1 led to a significant reduction of in vitro listerial invasion of human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

  10. Ferredoxin containing bacteriocins suggest a novel mechanism of iron uptake in Pectobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Grinter

    Full Text Available In order to kill competing strains of the same or closely related bacterial species, many bacteria produce potent narrow-spectrum protein antibiotics known as bacteriocins. Two sequenced strains of the phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum carry genes encoding putative bacteriocins which have seemingly evolved through a recombination event to encode proteins containing an N-terminal domain with extensive similarity to a [2Fe-2S] plant ferredoxin and a C-terminal colicin M-like catalytic domain. In this work, we show that these genes encode active bacteriocins, pectocin M1 and M2, which target strains of Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum with increased potency under iron limiting conditions. The activity of pectocin M1 and M2 can be inhibited by the addition of spinach ferredoxin, indicating that the ferredoxin domain of these proteins acts as a receptor binding domain. This effect is not observed with the mammalian ferredoxin protein adrenodoxin, indicating that Pectobacterium spp. carries a specific receptor for plant ferredoxins and that these plant pathogens may acquire iron from the host through the uptake of ferredoxin. In further support of this hypothesis we show that the growth of strains of Pectobacterium carotovorum and atrosepticum that are not sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of pectocin M1 is enhanced in the presence of pectocin M1 and M2 under iron limiting conditions. A similar growth enhancement under iron limiting conditions is observed with spinach ferrodoxin, but not with adrenodoxin. Our data indicate that pectocin M1 and M2 have evolved to parasitise an existing iron uptake pathway by using a ferredoxin-containing receptor binding domain as a Trojan horse to gain entry into susceptible cells.

  11. Characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sakei R1333 isolated from smoked salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Svetoslav D; Rachman, Cinta; Fourrier, Angélique; Dicks, Leon M T; van Reenen, Carol A; Prévost, Herve; Dousset, Xavier

    2011-02-01

    Strain R1333, isolated from commercially available smoked salmon, was identified as Lactobacillus sakei based on biochemical tests, sugar fermentation reactions (API 50 CHL), PCR with species-specific primers and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Strain R1333 produces a 3811 kDa class IIa bacteriocin, active against Streptococcus caprinus, Streptococcus macedonicus, Streptococcus spp., L. sakei, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii subsp. ivanovii and Listeria monocytogenes. The mode of activity against L. innocua 2030C and L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii ATCC 19119 was bactericidal, resulting in cell lysis and enzyme- and DNA-leakage. The highest level of activity (1600 AU/mL) was recorded when cells were grown at 30°C in MRS broth (initial pH 6.5). Only 800 AU/mL was recorded when strain R1333 was grown in MRS without Tween 80. Lower levels of bacteriocin production were recorded when strain R1333 was grown in MRS at 20°C. Peptide R1333 adsorbs at low levels (200 AU/mL) to producer cells. Purification of bacteriocin R1333 was performed by 60% ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by separation on a SepPak C(18) column and reverse-phase HPLC on a Nucleosil C(18) column with a linear gradient from 0.1% TFA to 90% acetonitryl. A molecular mass of 3811 kDa was determined by mass spectrometry. Based on mass spectrometry and sequencing of the PCR amplified fragment targeting the sakG gene, L. sakei R1333 is a potential producer of sakacin G. This is the first report of the identification of sakacin G produced by L. sakei isolated from smoked salmon.

  12. Antibacterial efficacy of Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 against Listeria monocytogenes and cross resistance of its bacteriocin resistant variants to common food preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antilisterial efficiency of three bacteriocins, viz, Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 was tested individually and in combination against Listeria mononcytogenes ATCC 53135. A greater antibacterial effect was observed when the bacteriocins were combined in pairs, indicating that the use of more than one LAB bacteriocin in combination have a higher antibacterial action than when used individually. Variants of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 53135 resistant to Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 were developed. Bacteriocin cross-resistance of wild type and their corresponding resistant variants were assessed and results showed that resistance to a bacteriocin may extend to other bacteriocins within the same class. Resistance to Pediocin 34 conferred cross resistance to Enterocin FH 99 but not to Nisin. Similarly resistance to Enterocin FH99 conferred cross resistance to Pediocin 34 but not to Nisin. Also, the sensitivity of Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes to low pH, salt, sodium nitrite, and potassium sorbate was assayed in broth and compared to the parental wild-type strain. The Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 resistant variants did not have intrinsic resistance to low pH, sodium chloride, potassium sorbate, or sodium nitrite. In no case were the bacteriocin resistant Listeria monocytogenes variants examined were more resistant to inhibitors than the parental strains.

  13. Combined effect of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ST8SH and vancomycin, propolis or EDTA for controlling biofilm development by Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Svetoslav D; de Paula, Otávio A L; Camargo, Anderson C; Lopes, Danilo A; Nero, Luís A

    2017-09-22

    The Listeria monocytogenes strains selected in the present study exhibited similar behavior in biofilm formation, independently of the tested conditions (bacteriocin from L. plantarum ST8SH, vancomycin, propolis (a natural antimicrobial product) and EDTA (chelating agent)), individual or in associations. The individual application of vancomycin had better inhibitory activity than that of propolis and EDTA; however, the association of the previously mentioned antimicrobial agents with bacteriocins resulted in better performance. However, when we compared the effects of vancomycin, propolis and EDTA, we could clearly observe that the combined application of bacteriocin and vancomycin was more effective than the combination of bacteriocin and propolis, and bacteriocin and EDTA. Considering the current need to reduce the use of antimicrobials and chemical substances in food processing, propolis can represent an alternative to improve the inhibitory effect of bacteriocins against L. monocytogenes biofilm formation, based on the obtained results. In general, high concentrations of bacteriocin produced by L. plantarum ST8SH were more effective in biofilm inhibition, and similar results were observed for vancomycin and propolis; however, all tested EDTA concentrations had similar effect on biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Discovery of Azurin-Like Anticancer Bacteriocins from Human Gut Microbiome through Homology Modeling and Molecular Docking against the Tumor Suppressor p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chuong; Nguyen, Van Duy

    2016-01-01

    Azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known anticancer bacteriocin, which can specifically penetrate human cancer cells and induce apoptosis. We hypothesized that pathogenic and commensal bacteria with long term residence in human body can produce azurin-like bacteriocins as a weapon against the invasion of cancers. In our previous work, putative bacteriocins have been screened from complete genomes of 66 dominant bacteria species in human gut microbiota and subsequently characterized by subjecting them as functional annotation algorithms with azurin as control. We have qualitatively predicted 14 putative bacteriocins that possessed functional properties very similar to those of azurin. In this work, we perform a number of quantitative and structure-based analyses including hydrophobic percentage calculation, structural modeling, and molecular docking study of bacteriocins of interest against protein p53, a cancer target. Finally, we have identified 8 putative bacteriocins that bind p53 in a same manner as p28-azurin and azurin, in which 3 peptides (p1seq16, p2seq20, and p3seq24) shared with our previous study and 5 novel ones (p1seq09, p2seq05, p2seq08, p3seq02, and p3seq17) discovered in the first time. These bacteriocins are suggested for further in vitro tests in different neoplastic line cells.

  15. Discovery of Azurin-Like Anticancer Bacteriocins from Human Gut Microbiome through Homology Modeling and Molecular Docking against the Tumor Suppressor p53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuong Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known anticancer bacteriocin, which can specifically penetrate human cancer cells and induce apoptosis. We hypothesized that pathogenic and commensal bacteria with long term residence in human body can produce azurin-like bacteriocins as a weapon against the invasion of cancers. In our previous work, putative bacteriocins have been screened from complete genomes of 66 dominant bacteria species in human gut microbiota and subsequently characterized by subjecting them as functional annotation algorithms with azurin as control. We have qualitatively predicted 14 putative bacteriocins that possessed functional properties very similar to those of azurin. In this work, we perform a number of quantitative and structure-based analyses including hydrophobic percentage calculation, structural modeling, and molecular docking study of bacteriocins of interest against protein p53, a cancer target. Finally, we have identified 8 putative bacteriocins that bind p53 in a same manner as p28-azurin and azurin, in which 3 peptides (p1seq16, p2seq20, and p3seq24 shared with our previous study and 5 novel ones (p1seq09, p2seq05, p2seq08, p3seq02, and p3seq17 discovered in the first time. These bacteriocins are suggested for further in vitro tests in different neoplastic line cells.

  16. Temperature and pH conditions that prevail during fermentation of sausages are optimal for production of the antilisterial bacteriocin sakacin K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, F; de Vuyst, L

    1999-03-01

    Sakacin K is an antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake CTC 494, a strain isolated from Spanish dry fermented sausages. The biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production of L. sake CTC 494 in vitro during laboratory fermentations were investigated by making use of MRS broth. The data obtained from the fermentations was used to set up a predictive model to describe the influence of the physical factors temperature and pH on microbial behavior. The model was validated successfully for all components. However, the specific bacteriocin production rate seemed to have an upper limit. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were very much influenced by changes in temperature and pH. The production of biomass was closely related to bacteriocin activity, indicating primary metabolite kinetics, but was not the only factor of importance. Acidity dramatically influenced both the production and the inactivation of sakacin K; the optimal pH for cell growth did not correspond to the pH for maximal sakacin K activity. Furthermore, cells grew well at 35 degrees C but no bacteriocin production could be detected at this temperature. L. sake CTC 494 shows special promise for implementation as a novel bacteriocin-producing sausage starter culture with antilisterial properties, considering the fact that the temperature and acidity conditions that prevail during the fermentation process of dry fermented sausages are optimal for the production of sakacin K.

  17. The effectiveness of novel bacteriocin derived from Escherichia coli colonized in the fermented pineapple Ananas comosus (L. Merr. against pathogenic bacteria isolated from aquaculture sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate antimicrobial property of bacteriocin isolated from Escherichia coli against pathogenic bacteria from aquaculture sites. Materials and Methods: E. coli was isolated from fermented pineapple Ananas comosus using eosin methylene blue agar. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated E. coli was screened using hole-plate diffusion method. The bacterial strain that showed the widest inhibition zone was selected and grown in tryptic soy broth, followed by partial purification of bacteriocin by using ammonium sulphate. Bacteriocin derived from the E. coli was subjected to the antimicrobial test against 55 bacteria strains namely Aeromonas hydrophila (n=10, Citrobacter freundii (n=5, Edwardsiella tarda (n=10, Flavobacterium spp. (n=10, Pseudomonas spp. (n=10, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (n=5 and Vibrio alginolyticus (n=5 by using twofold broth microdilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the bacteriocin against the tested bacteria. Results: The results of the present study showed that the MIC values of the partially purified bacteriocin against present pathogenic bacteria isolates ranged from 7.81 to 31.25 ppm whereas the MIC values of kanamycin (positive control ranged from 15.63 to 125 ppm. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed the bacteriocin derived from E. coli can control all the present bacterial isolates indicating the huge potential of the bacteriocin as a new antimicrobial agent for aquaculture uses.

  18. Bacteriocin production: a relatively unharnessed probiotic trait? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Hegarty

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are “live microorganisms which, when consumed in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host”. A number of attributes are highly sought after among these microorganisms, including immunomodulation, epithelial barrier maintenance, competitive exclusion, production of short-chain fatty acids, and bile salt metabolism. Bacteriocin production is also generally regarded as a probiotic trait, but it can be argued that, in contrast to other traits, it is often considered a feature that is desirable, rather than a key probiotic trait. As such, the true potential of these antimicrobials has yet to be realised.

  19. Effects of nitrogen sources on bacteriocin production by Enterococcus faecium A 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantev, A; Kabadjova, P; Valcheva, R; Danova, S; Dousset, X; Haertlé, T; Chobert, J M; Ivanova, I

    2002-01-01

    The production of a novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide enterococcin A 2000, active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms including Listeria subsp. and Escherichia coli, by Enterococcus faecium strain A 2000 isolated from the surface of traditional Bulgarian yellow cheese "kash-kaval" is considerably influenced by complex nitrogen sources in the production medium. Medium components, especially peptone and yeast extract, and their concentration contributed to the increase in bacteriocin production during the stationary phase (16-46 h) of cultivation even in the absence of one of the components present in the basal cultivation MRS medium.

  20. Dynamics of a Model of Allelopathy and Bacteriocin with a Single Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lan; Chen, Xingwu; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Weinian

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we discuss a model of allelopathy and bacteriocin in the chemostat with a wild-type organism and a single mutant. Dynamical properties of this model show the basic competition between two microorganisms. A qualitative analysis about the boundary equilibrium, a state that microorganisms both vanish, is carried out. The existence and uniqueness of the interior equilibrium are proved by a technical reduction to the singularity of a matrix. Its dynamical properties are given by using the index theory of equilibria. We further discuss its bifurcations. Our results are demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  1. Color visualization of cyclic magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Alfredo; Estupiñán, Viviana

    2014-02-01

    We exploit the perceptual, circular ordering of the hues in a technique for the visualization of cyclic variables. The hue is thus meaningfully used for the indication of variables such as the azimuth and the units of the measurement of time. The cyclic (or circular) variables may be both of the continuous type or the discrete type; among the first there is azimuth and among the last you find the musical notes and the days of the week. A correspondence between the values of a cyclic variable and the chromatic hues, where the natural circular ordering of the variable is respected, is called a color code for the variable. We base such a choice of hues on an assignment of of the unique hues red, yellow, green and blue, or one of the 8 even permutations of this ordered list, to 4 cardinal values of the cyclic variable, suitably ordered; color codes based on only 3 cardinal points are also possible. Color codes, being intuitive, are easy to remember. A possible low accuracy when reading instruments that use this technique is compensated by fast, ludic and intuitive readings; also, the use of a referential frame makes readings precise. An achromatic version of the technique, that can be used by dichromatic people, is proposed.

  2. Cyclic Codes of Length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manju Pruthi

    2001-11-01

    In this paper explicit expressions of + 1 idempotents in the ring $R = F_q[X]/\\langle X^{2^m}-1\\rangle$ are given. Cyclic codes of length 2 over the finite field , of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained.

  3. Effect of yeast with bacteriocin from rumen bacteria on laying performance, blood biochemistry, faecal microbiota and egg quality of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H T; Shih, W Y; Chen, S W; Wang, S Y

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yeast with bacteriocin from Ruminococcus albus 7 (albusin B) on physiological state and production performance of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 26-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn (Hyline) laying hens were assigned into five groups including: (i) control group, (ii) yeast control (YC), (iii) 0.125% yeast with bacteriocin (0.125B), (iv) 0.25% yeast with bacteriocin (0.25B) and (v) 0.5% yeast with bacteriocin (0.5B). All supplements were added to the experimental diets of the hens from 26 to 46 weeks of age. Samples were collected every 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from the wing vein for blood biochemical parameters assay, and faecal samples were collected by swab for the microbiota test. The egg production performance was recorded daily, and fresh eggs were collected for quality test. The blood biochemical assay results indicated that the addition of yeast with bacteriocin decreased the AST (aspartate aminotransferase) activity and it also affects the lactate concentration in laying hen blood. The result of egg quality indicated that yeast with bacteriocin supplementation had no effect on the mass of yolk and the strength of eggshell, but it had positive effect on the laying performance under hot environment. Low concentration bacteriocin (0.125B) supplementation could decrease total yolk cholesterol. The faecal microbiota result indicated that the supplementation of bacteriocin increased the lactobacilli counts. The yeast with bacteriocin supplementation significantly decreased the clostridia counts under hot environment condition, especially in hens receiving 0.25B. Combining the data from clinic chemistry, faecal microbiota, egg production and egg quality, the 0.25B supplementation may result in the best physiological parameter and egg production performance of laying hen.

  4. EKSTRAKSI DAN KARAKTERISASI BAKTERIOSIN YANG DIHASILKAN OLEH Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM 22 [Extraction and Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM 22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darnawan Ari Nugroho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria has potential as food biopreservative due to their capability to control spoilage and pathogenic food borne bacteria. Previous studies showed that extraction of bacteriocin produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM 22 using adsorption-desorption method was not optimal. The objectives of this research were (1 to increase the effectiveness of bacteriocin extraction using adsorption-desorption method by the addition of heated biomass of Leuconostoc SM 22 in various concentration during adsorbtion (2 to characterize the bacteriocin of Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM 22 on it's stability during heat treatment, during cool storage and it's spectrum activity againts pathogenic bacteria. Result of this research showed that bacteriocin activity obtained from extraction with no addition of heated biomass was 1000 AU/ml, while by addition of heated biomass of 2 to 3 times of original concentration (OD were 2000 AU/ml. Therefore it was suggested that addition of heated biomass of Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM 22 during adsorption-desorption with 2 times of original concentration (OD was able to increase the bacteriocin obtained. Bacteriocin with original activity of 2000 AU/ml, was stable (no reduction activity after heated at 100oC for 30 minutes, but slightly decrease after heated at 121oC for 5 minutes and 121oC for 15 minutes, that were 1600 AU/ml and 800 AU/ml respectively. Bacteriocin of Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM 22 was stable during 8 weeks storage at refrigerator (4oC, freezer -20oC and -40oC. This bacteriocin has a wide spectrum of activity showed by it's ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella thypimurium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Shigella and psychrophilic bacteria isolated from milk and isolated from meat.

  5. Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 has the potential for use as a protective culture for vacuum-packed meats: culture isolation, bacteriocin identification, and meat application experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budde, B.B.; Hornbæk, T.; Jacobsen, T.

    2003-01-01

    A new culture, Leuconostoc carnosum 4010, for biopreservation of vacuum-packed meats is described. The culture originated from bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) naturally present in vacuum-packed meat products. Approximately, 72,000 colonies were isolated from 48 different vacuum...... culture for cold-stored, cooked, sliced, and vacuum-packed meat products.......-packed meat products and examined for antibacterial activity. Bacteriocin-producing colonies were isolated from 46% of the packages examined. Leuc. carnosum was the predominant bacteriocin-producing strain and Leuc. carnosum 4010 was selected for further experiments because it showed strong antilisterial...

  6. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of a raw bacteriocin extract in combination with chemical preservatives employed in meat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Aguado Bautista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biopreservation can be defined as the foods shelf life extension employing antibacterial products like bacteriocins. The objective of this work was to determinate the efficacy of E. faecium MXVK29 bacteriocin in combination with chemical preservatives against spoilage and pathogens microorganisms. Bacteriocin raw extrac antimicrobial activity was 46.34 UA/g of protein. Growth of Pseudomonas putida was not affected by the preservatives employed at the conditions employed. Antimicrobial response was different for other microorganisms since a synergetic effect of the preservatives combination inhibited Brochothrix thermosphacta and Escherichia coli growth. Sodium lactate had additive effect only against Listeria innocua.

  7. Powers of Convex-Cyclic Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando León-Saavedra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A bounded operator T on a Banach space X is convex cyclic if there exists a vector x such that the convex hull generated by the orbit Tnxn≥0 is dense in X. In this note we study some questions concerned with convex-cyclic operators. We provide an example of a convex-cyclic operator T such that the power Tn fails to be convex cyclic. Using this result we solve three questions posed by Rezaei (2013.

  8. CYCLIC CODES OVER FORMAL POWER SERIES RINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dougherty Steven T.; Liu Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    In this article, cyclic codes and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings are studied. The structure of cyclic codes over this class of rings is given, and the relationship between these codes and cyclic codes over finite chain rings is obtained. Using an isomorphism between cyclic and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings, the structure of negacyclic codes over the formal power series rings is obtained.

  9. Characterization of Bacteriocin like inhibitory substance produced by a new Strain Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 Isolated from 'Marcha'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nivedita; Gupta, Anupama; Gautam, Neha

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a bacterium isolated from Marcha- a herbal cake used as traditional starter culture to ferment local wine in North East India, was evaluated for bacteriocin like inhibitory substance production and was tested against six food borne/spoilage causing pathogens viz. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC 839, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121, Clostridium perfringens MTCC 450, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 107 by using bit/disc method followed by well diffusion method. The bacterial isolate was identified as Brevibacillus borstelensis on the basis of phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characteristics using 16Sr RNA gene technique. Bacteriocin like inhibitory substance produced by Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 was purified by gel exclusion chromatography. The molecular mass of the Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 was found to be 12 kDa. Purified bacteriocin like inhibitory substance of Brevibacillus borstelensis was further characterized by studying the effect of temperature, pH, proteolytic enzyme and stability. Bacteriocin like inhibitory substance was found to be thermostable upto 100 °C, active at neutral pH, sensitive to trypsin, and partially stable till third week of storage thus showing a bright prospective to be used as a potential food biopreservative.

  10. Characterization of Bacteriocin like inhibitory substance produced by a new Strain Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 Isolated from ‘Marcha’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nivedita; Gupta, Anupama; Gautam, Neha

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a bacterium isolated from Marcha- a herbal cake used as traditional starter culture to ferment local wine in North East India, was evaluated for bacteriocin like inhibitory substance production and was tested against six food borne/spoilage causing pathogens viz. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC 839, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121, Clostridium perfringens MTCC 450, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 107 by using bit/disc method followed by well diffusion method. The bacterial isolate was identified as Brevibacillus borstelensis on the basis of phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characteristics using 16Sr RNA gene technique. Bacteriocin like inhibitory substance produced by Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 was purified by gel exclusion chromatography. The molecular mass of the Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 was found to be 12 kDa. Purified bacteriocin like inhibitory substance of Brevibacillus borstelensis was further characterized by studying the effect of temperature, pH, proteolytic enzyme and stability. Bacteriocin like inhibitory substance was found to be thermostable upto 100 °C, active at neutral pH, sensitive to trypsin, and partially stable till third week of storage thus showing a bright prospective to be used as a potential food biopreservative. PMID:25477937

  11. Outgrowth inhibition of Clostridium beijerinckii spores by a bacteriocin-producing lactic culture in ovine milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Sonia; Avila, Marta; Arias, Ramón; Gaya, Pilar; Nuñez, Manuel

    2011-10-17

    In the manufacture of model cheeses, ovine milk was deliberately contaminated with spores of Clostridium beijerinckii INIA 63, a wild isolate from Manchego cheese with late blowing defect, and inoculated with nisin- and lacticin 481-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415 as starter, to test its potential to prevent the late blowing defect, or with L. lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415-2, a spontaneous mutant not producing bacteriocins. Cheeses made individually with the lactococcal strains, without clostridial spores, served as controls. Cheese made with clostridial spores and L. lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415-2 showed late blowing defect after 120days of ripening. Spoilt cheese also showed lower concentrations of lactic acid, and higher levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids, and of other volatile compounds such as 2-propanol and 1-butanol, than control cheese. In addition, cheese made with the bacteriocin producer did not show any late blowing symptoms, despite its spore counts similar to those of blown cheese, pointing to outgrowth inhibition of C. beijerinckii spores by bacteriocins. Besides, cheese made with the bacteriocin producer showed similar concentrations of lactic acid and volatile compounds than control cheese. Inclusion of L. lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415 in starter cultures seems a feasible method to prevent late blowing defect in cheese without altering its sensory characteristics.

  12. Bacteriocin protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis is a peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jun; Hayashi, Ikue; Sugai, Motoyuki; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2013-12-27

    Enterococcus faecalis strains are commensal bacteria in humans and other animals, and they are also the causative agent of opportunistic infectious diseases. Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced by certain E. faecalis clinical isolates, and it is active against other E. faecalis strains. Our genetic analyses demonstrated that the extracellular products of the bacL1 and bacA genes, which are encoded in the Bac41 operon, coordinately express the bacteriocin activity against E. faecalis. In this study, we investigated the molecular functions of the BacL1 and BacA proteins. Immunoblotting and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed that BacL1 and BacA are secreted without any processing. The coincidental treatment with the recombinant BacL1 and BacA showed complete bacteriocin activity against E. faecalis, but neither BacL1 nor BacA protein alone showed the bacteriocin activity. Interestingly, BacL1 alone demonstrated substantial degrading activity against the cell wall fraction of E. faecalis in the absence of BacA. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed that BacL1 has a peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase activity via a NlpC/P60 homology domain. These results collectively suggest that BacL1 serves as a peptidoglycan hydrolase and, when BacA is present, results in the lysis of viable E. faecalis cells.

  13. Potential use of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteriocins to control antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with mastitis in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Chávez, A J; Martínez-Ortega, E A; Valencia-Posadas, M; León-Galván, M F; de la Fuente-Salcido, N M; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis caused by microbial infections in dairy goats reduces milk yield, modifies milk composition, and potentially contributes to morbidity in herds and consumers of dairy products. Microorganisms associated with mastitis in dairy goats are commonly controlled with antibiotics, but it is known that continued use of these chemical agents promotes antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations. Recently, it has been shown that bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis inhibit growth of food-borne pathogens and also bacteria associated with bovine mastitis. However, there is no report on their ability to inhibit microorganisms linked to mastitis in dairy goats. In this study, using 16S rDNA and ITS regions of rDNA, we identified nine bacterial isolates and an encapsulated yeast associated with mastitis in dairy goats. Enterococcus durans, Brevibacillus sp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis 2 were resistant to, respectively, 75, ~67, ~42, and ~42 % of the antibiotics screened. In addition, 60 % of the bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and dicloxacillin. Importantly, 60 % of the isolates were inhibited by the bacteriocins, but S. epidermidis 1, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia vulneris, and Cryptococcus neoformans were not susceptible to these antimicrobial peptides. Using Brevibacillus sp. and Staphylococcus chromogenes as indicator bacteria, we show that peptides of ~10 kDa that correspond to the molecular mass of bacteriocins used in this study are responsible for the inhibitory activity. Our results demonstrate that multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy goats from Guanajuato, Mexico, are susceptible to bacteriocins produced by B. thuringiensis.

  14. In vitro evaluation of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated during traditional Sicilian cheese making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusi Macaluso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods. The antagonistic activity of LAB and its proteinaceous nature were evaluated using the spot-on-the-lawn and the well-diffusion assay (WDA and the sensitivity to proteolytic (proteinase K, protease B and trypsin, amylolytic (α-amylase and lipolytic (lipase enzymes. The indicator strains used were: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis. A total of 223 strains (belonging to the species Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus lactis were found to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes by using the spot-on-the-lawn method; only 37 of these were confirmed by using the WDA. The direct addition of bacteriocin-producing cultures into dairy products can be a more practical and economic option for the improvement of the safety and quality of the final product.

  15. Characterization of Bacteriocin like inhibitory substance produced by a new Strain Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 Isolated from 'Marcha'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Sharma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a bacterium isolated from Marcha- a herbal cake used as traditional starter culture to ferment local wine in North East India, was evaluated for bacteriocin like inhibitory substance production and was tested against six food borne/spoilage causing pathogens viz. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC 839, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121, Clostridium perfringens MTCC 450, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 107 by using bit/disc method followed by well diffusion method. The bacterial isolate was identified as Brevibacillus borstelensis on the basis of phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characteristics using 16Sr RNA gene technique. Bacteriocin like inhibitory substance produced by Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 was purified by gel exclusion chromatography. The molecular mass of the Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 was found to be 12 kDa. Purified bacteriocin like inhibitory substance of Brevibacillus borstelensis was further characterized by studying the effect of temperature, pH, proteolytic enzyme and stability. Bacteriocin like inhibitory substance was found to be thermostable upto 100 °C, active at neutral pH, sensitive to trypsin, and partially stable till third week of storage thus showing a bright prospective to be used as a potential food biopreservative.

  16. Purification and characterization of plantaricin 163, a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 163 isolated from traditional Chinese fermented vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meizhong; Zhao, Haizhen; Zhang, Chong; Yu, Jiansheng; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2013-11-27

    Presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from traditional Chinese fermented vegetables were screened for bacteriocin production. A novel bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactobacillus plantarum 163, was identified on the basis of its physiobiochemical characteristics and characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing. The novel bacteriocin, plantaricin 163, produced by Lb. plantarum 163 was purified by salt precipitation, gel filtration, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of plantaricin 163 revealed the molecular weight to be 3553.2 Da. The complete amino acid sequence showed VFHAYSARGNYYGNCPANWPSCRNNYKSAGGK, and no similarity to known bacteriocins was found. Plantaricin 163 was highly thermostable (20 min, 121 °C), active in the presence of acidic pH (3-5), sensitive to protease, and exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against LAB and other tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results suggest that plantaricin 163 may be employed as a biopreservative in the food industry.

  17. Antimicrobial activities of bacteriocins E 50-52 and B 602 against antobiotic resistant strains involved in nosocomial infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antimicrobial spectra of previously published bacteriocins (BCN) E 50-52 and B 602 was determined. The amino acid sequences, molecular weights and the isoelectric points of both E 50-52 and B 602 BCN were consistent with class IIa characteristics, contained 39 and 29 amino acid residues, molecul...

  18. Lectin-like bacteriocins from Pseudomonas spp. utilise D-rhamnose containing lipopolysaccharide as a cellular receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Laura C; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Roszak, Aleksander W; Waløen, Kai I; Cogdell, Richard J; Milner, Joel; Evans, Tom; Kelly, Sharon; Tucker, Nicholas P; Byron, Olwyn; Smith, Brian; Walker, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Lectin-like bacteriocins consist of tandem monocot mannose-binding domains and display a genus-specific killing activity. Here we show that pyocin L1, a novel member of this family from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, targets susceptible strains of this species through recognition of the common polysaccharide antigen (CPA) of P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide that is predominantly a homopolymer of D-rhamnose. Structural and biophysical analyses show that recognition of CPA occurs through the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding domain of pyocin L1 and that this interaction is a prerequisite for bactericidal activity. Further to this, we show that the previously described lectin-like bacteriocin putidacin L1 shows a similar carbohydrate-binding specificity, indicating that oligosaccharides containing D-rhamnose and not D-mannose, as was previously thought, are the physiologically relevant ligands for this group of bacteriocins. The widespread inclusion of d-rhamnose in the lipopolysaccharide of members of the genus Pseudomonas explains the unusual genus-specific activity of the lectin-like bacteriocins.

  19. Antimicrobial activities of bacteriocins E50-52 and B602 against MRSA and other nosocomial infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the antimicrobial activities of previously published bacteriocins E50-52 and B602 against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other prominent nosocomial bacterial infections. methods: Several Russian hospitals were enlisted into the study from 2003 ...

  20. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substances Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated During Traditional Sicilian Cheese Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Giusi; Fiorenza, Gerlando; Gaglio, Raimondo; Mancuso, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods. The antagonistic activity of LAB and its proteinaceous nature were evaluated using the spot-on-the-lawn and the well-diffusion assay (WDA) and the sensitivity to proteolytic (proteinase K, protease B and trypsin), amylolytic (a-amylase) and lipolytic (lipase) enzymes. The indicator strains used were: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis. A total of 223 strains (belonging to the species Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus lactis) were found to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes by using the spot-on-the-lawn method; only 37 of these were confirmed by using the WDA. The direct addition of bacteriocin-producing cultures into dairy products can be a more practical and economic option for the improvement of the safety and quality of the final product.

  1. Mutational analysis and chemical modification of Cys24 of lactococcin B, a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, K; Dost, MHR; Kok, J; Dost, Michiel H.R.; Venema, Gerhardus

    1996-01-01

    Using site-directed mutagenesis the single cysteine residue at position 24 of lactococcin B was replaced by all other possible amino acids. Most of these mutant molecules retained bacteriocin activity, with the exception of those in which cysteine was replaced by a positively charged amino acid. Thi

  2. Something Old and Something New: An Update on the Amazing Repertoire of Bacteriocins Produced by Streptococcus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wescombe, Philip A; Heng, Nicholas C K; Burton, Jeremy P; Tagg, John R

    2010-03-01

    Streptococcus salivarius has an exclusive and intimate association with humans. We are its sole natural host, and its contribution to the relationship appears overwhelmingly benevolent. Beautifully adapted to its preferred habitat, the human tongue, it only rarely ventures far from this location in the healthy host and indeed appears ill-equipped to become invasive due to a scarcity of virulence attributes. We consider that its strategically advantageous lingual location and numerical predominance allow S. salivarius to carry out a population surveillance and modulation role within the oral microbiota. Some strains are armed with complex arrays of targeted antibiotic weaponry, much of which belongs to the lantibiotic class of bacteriocins and a key to their ability to assemble and utilize this armament is their possession of transmissible multi-bacteriocin-encoding megaplasmid DNA. This review traces the origins of research into S. salivarius bacteriocins and bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, showcases some of the inhibitory activities that we currently have knowledge of, and speculates about potential directions for ongoing investigation and probiotic application of this previously under-rated human commensal.

  3. Bacteriocin production and resistance to drugs are advantageous features for Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14, a potential probiotic strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Furtado, Danielle Nader; Saad, Susana Marta Isay; Gombossy de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora

    2011-10-01

    L. acidophilus La-14 produces bacteriocin active against L. monocytogenes ScottA (1600 AU/ml) in MRS broth at 30°C or 37°C. The bacteriocin proved inhibitory to different serological types of Listeria spp. Antimicrobial activity was completely lost after treatment of the cell-free supernatant with proteolytic enzymes. Addition of bacteriocin produced by L. acidophilus La-14 to a 3 h-old culture of L. monocytogenes ScottA repressed cell growth in the following 8h. Treatment of stationary phase cells of L. monocytogenes ScottA (107-108 CFU/ml) by the bacteriocin resulted in growth inhibition. Growth of L. acidophilus La-14 was not inhibited by commercial drugs from different generic groups, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) containing diclofenac potassium or ibuprofen arginine. Only one non-antibiotic drug tested, Atlansil (an antiarrhythmic agent), had an inhibitory effect on L. acidophilus La-14 with MIC of 2.5 mg/ml. L. acidophilus La-14 was not affected by drugs containing sodium or potassium diclofenac. L. acidophilus La-14 shows a good resistance to several drugs and may be applied in combination for therapeutic use.

  4. Lectin-like bacteriocins from Pseudomonas spp. utilise D-rhamnose containing lipopolysaccharide as a cellular receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C McCaughey

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lectin-like bacteriocins consist of tandem monocot mannose-binding domains and display a genus-specific killing activity. Here we show that pyocin L1, a novel member of this family from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, targets susceptible strains of this species through recognition of the common polysaccharide antigen (CPA of P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide that is predominantly a homopolymer of D-rhamnose. Structural and biophysical analyses show that recognition of CPA occurs through the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding domain of pyocin L1 and that this interaction is a prerequisite for bactericidal activity. Further to this, we show that the previously described lectin-like bacteriocin putidacin L1 shows a similar carbohydrate-binding specificity, indicating that oligosaccharides containing D-rhamnose and not D-mannose, as was previously thought, are the physiologically relevant ligands for this group of bacteriocins. The widespread inclusion of d-rhamnose in the lipopolysaccharide of members of the genus Pseudomonas explains the unusual genus-specific activity of the lectin-like bacteriocins.

  5. Antimicrobial and Anti-Swarming Effects of Bacteriocins and Biosurfactants from Probiotic Bacterial Strains against Proteus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Goudarzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Proteus spp. belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. These bacteria are Gram-negative and motile microorganisms and known as the third most common causes of urinary tract infections. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of some secondary metabolites from probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp. on swarming and growth of Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris. Methods:   After determination of optimal conditions for the growth and production of antimicrobials, bacteriocins and biosurfactants were partially purified from Lactobacillus culture supernatants. Then, effects of the purified compounds on growth and swarming migration of Proteus spp. were examined in the presence of various concentrations of semi-purified compounds. Results:  Results showed that the partially purified bacteriocins inhibited Proteus spp. swarming distance and had a significant reduction on the bacterial growth curves. Biosurfactants in a solvent form did not have any considerable effects on factors produced by Proteus spp. Conclusion:  According to the results, the secondary metabolites, especially bacteriocins or bacteriocin-like substances derived from Lactobacillus strains, can inhibit or reduce growth and swarming migration of Proteus spp. which are considered as the bacteria major virulence factors.

  6. The Lcn972 Bacteriocin-Encoding Plasmid pBL1 Impairs Cellobiose Metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campelo, Ana B.; Gaspar, Paula; Roces, Clara; Rodriguez, Ana; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Neves, Ana Rute; Martinez, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    pBL1 is a Lactococcus lactis theta-replicating 10.9-kbp plasmid that encodes the synthetic machinery of the bacteriocin Lcn972. In this work, the transcriptomes of exponentially growing L. lactis strains with and without pBL1 were compared. A discrete response was observed, with a total of 10 genes

  7. PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN EC2 AND ITS INTERFERENCE IN THE GROWTH OF SALMONELLA TYPHI IN A MILK MATRIX

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    Yuri de Jesus Lopes de Abreu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial interference can occur through various mechanisms, including the production of peroxides, acids, ammonia, bacteriolytic enzymes or bacteriocins. The strain Escherichia coli EC2 produces the antimicrobial substance (AMS EC2, able to inhibit different strains of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from food, as E. coli and Salmonella sp. The activity of AMS EC2 was lost after treatment with proteolytic enzymes, indicating the presence of an active proteinaceous compound, suggesting that it is a bacteriocin. The substance, renamed bacteriocin EC2, has its better production when the producer strain is grown on Casoy medium, at 37ºC and pH 6.0, without NaCl addition, but it is also able to be produced in milk. When co-cultivated in UHT milk with the producer strain E. coli EC2, the growth of the indicator strain Salmonella Typhi is totally inhibited within the first 4 hours of incubation, suggesting a potential application of bacteriocin EC2 in the control of Salmonella sp. e.g. in foods.

  8. A rapid turbidometric microplate bioassay for accurate quantification of lactic acid bacteria bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Carl; Lacroix, Christophe; Kheadr, Ehab; Grignon, Louis; Fliss, Ismaïl

    2004-02-01

    A 1 day turbidometric microplate bioassay (TMB) was developed for the rapid, accurate and precise quantification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) bacteriocins (nisin Z and pediocin PA-1). Parameters such as the concentration of the indicator strains and the incubation time were optimized for each bacteriocin. A high correlation coefficient (r(2)=0.992+/-0.004) was obtained for the exponential regression in the nisin Z concentration range of 20-120 ng/ml with 1 x 10(7) CFU indicator strain (Pediococcus acidilactici UL5) and an incubation time of 3 h. Using these parameters, the detection limit was estimated at 80 ng/ml (3.2 IU/ml), compared to 300 ng/ml for the agar diffusion assay (ADA). High precision (<7%) and accuracy (10%) were obtained for all nisin Z concentrations tested. Similar results were obtained with pediocin PA-1 with r(2)=0.993+/-0.005, a precision (8.2%) and an accuracy lower than 15%.

  9. A peptide factor secreted by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius exhibits properties of both bacteriocins and virulence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wladyka, Benedykt; Piejko, Marcin; Bzowska, Monika; Pieta, Piotr; Krzysik, Monika; Mazurek, Łukasz; Guevara-Lora, Ibeth; Bukowski, Michał; Sabat, Artur J.; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Bonar, Emilia; Międzobrodzki, Jacek; Dubin, Adam; Mak, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a common commensal bacterium colonizing the skin and mucosal surfaces of household animals. However, it has recently emerged as a dangerous opportunistic pathogen, comparable to S. aureus for humans. The epidemiological situation is further complicated by the increasing number of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius infections and evidence of gene transmission driving antibiotic resistance between staphylococci colonizing human and zoonotic hosts. In the present study, we describe a unique peptide, BacSp222, that possesses features characteristic of both bacteriocins and virulence factors. BacSp222 is secreted in high quantities by S. pseudintermedius strain 222 isolated from dog skin lesions. This linear, fifty-amino-acid highly cationic peptide is plasmid-encoded and does not exhibit significant sequence similarities to any other known peptides or proteins. BacSp222 kills gram-positive bacteria (at doses ranging from 0.1 to several micromol/l) but also demonstrates significant cytotoxic activities towards eukaryotic cells at slightly higher concentrations. Moreover, at nanomolar concentrations, the peptide also possesses modulatory properties, efficiently enhancing interferon gamma-induced nitric oxide release in murine macrophage-like cell lines. BacSp222 appears to be one of the first examples of multifunctional peptides that breaks the convention of splitting bacteriocins and virulence factors into two unrelated groups. PMID:26411997

  10. Production of bacteriocin by Virgibacillus salexigens isolated from "terasi": a traditionally fermented shrimp paste in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Agustini, Tri Winarni; Ibrahim, Ratna; Kamei, Kaeko; Kondo, Akihiro; Kajiwara, Michika; Ooka, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Terahara, Takeshi; Imada, Chiaki

    2016-03-01

    A natural antibacterial-substance-producing gram-positive bacterium was isolated from terasi shrimp paste, a popular fermented product in Indonesia. This strain, a spore-forming and strictly aerobic bacterium, was identified as Virgibacillus salexigens by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The antibacterial substance purified from the precipitated product in the culture supernatant of the strain using ammonium sulfate showed a broad inhibition spectrum against gram-positive bacteria, including a typical foodborne bacterium, namely, Listeria monocytogenes. The antibacterial activity of the substance was inactivated by treatments with various proteolytic enzymes. It was stable after heating or pH treatment, and approximately 60% of the initial activity remained even after heating at 121 °C for 15 min. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis indicated that its monoisotopic mass weight was 5318.4 Da (M+H)(+). On the basis of the results obtained by the automated Edman degradation technique and MALDI-TOF MS analysis, the substance can be classified as a member of Class IId bacteriocins, but it could not be identified as any of the previously purified substances except for the putative bacteriocin predicted from the draft genome sequence data of gram-positive bacteria such as Virgibacillus and Bacillus strains.

  11. Antagonistic Potential of Lactobacillus Spp against Enteropathogenic Bacteria; Purification and Characterization of their Bacteriocins

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    Asha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Lactobacillus (160 isolates were isolated from curd sample. The isolates were aimed to analyze the antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae sub sp., ogawa, V. cholerae sub sp., inaba, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp. and Shigella dysenteriae. All the isolates were inhibiting the tested Enteropathogenic bacteria except S. dysenteriae. Lactobacillus isolates produced highest inhibition zone (30 to 37 mm against V. cholerae sub sp., inaba and Klebsiella sp., of the 160 isolates only ten Lactobacillus isolates (L1- L10 were used for the production of bacteriocins, purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and ion exchange (DEAE cellulose chromatography. Maximum bacteriocin activity has been observed with Lf3 against V. cholerae ssp Inaba at 30°C, pH 6.0, 1.5 to 2.0% Na Cl/18 h in addition to L8, L9 and L10 (MW 100 to 106 KDa and Lf3 was found to be the most prominent potential isolate.

  12. Genotypic and Phylogenic Analysis of Lactobacilli Producing Bacteriocin Isolated from Traditional Dairy Products and Food

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    Frazaneh Tafvizi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are a group of Gram-positive, non-spore forming, cocci or rod shaped, catalase negative organisms, considered as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS organisms. These bacteria are used for thousands of years for production of fermented foods because of their ability to produce desirable changes in taste, flavor and texture. Different antimicrobial molecules such as bacteriocins produced by these bacteria that can inhibit food pathogens, so enhancing the shelf life and improving the safety of food products. Because of important role of LAB to improving the human health, molecular identification and phylogenic analysis of these bacteria based on 16S rRNA sequencing play the critical role in investigation of local sources of LAB in Iran. Materials & Methods: 5 isolates were selected from 20 isolates for molecular identification. These strains produced the high level of bacteriocin. Total genomic DNA was extracted by lysosyme extraction protocol. PCR-mediated amplification was carried out by degenerate primers. Sequencing was performed after purification of PCR product. Results: Isolates were deposited as novel strains of Lactobacillus casei and Entrococcus facium in GenBank. Conclusion: Because of high potential of local probiotic bacteria in Iran, these strains may be useful and could be used in the food industry.

  13. Production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance by Bifidobacterium lactis in skim milk supplemented with additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Fabio Andres Castillo; Domínguez, José Manuel; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Bacteriocins are natural compounds used as food biopreservatives instead of chemical preservatives. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bifid. lactis) was shown to produce a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) able to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes selected as an indicator microorganism. To enhance this production by the strain Bifid. lactis BL 04, skim milk (SM) was used as a fermentation medium either in the presence or in the absence of yeast extract, Tween 80 or inulin as stimulating additives, and the results in terms of bacterial growth and BLIS production were compared with those obtained in a traditional high cost complex medium such as Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS). To this purpose, all the cultivations were carried out in flasks at 200 rpm under anaerobic conditions ensured by a nitrogen flowrate of 1.0 L/min for 48 h, and BLIS production was quantified by means of a modified agar diffusion assay at low values of both temperature and concentration of List. monocytogenes. Although all these ingredients were shown to exert positive influence on BLIS production in both media, yeast extract and SM were by far the best ingredient and the best medium, respectively, allowing for a BLIS production at the late exponential phase of 2000 AU/ml.

  14. A peptide factor secreted by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius exhibits properties of both bacteriocins and virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wladyka, Benedykt; Piejko, Marcin; Bzowska, Monika; Pieta, Piotr; Krzysik, Monika; Mazurek, Łukasz; Guevara-Lora, Ibeth; Bukowski, Michał; Sabat, Artur J; Friedrich, Alexander W; Bonar, Emilia; Międzobrodzki, Jacek; Dubin, Adam; Mak, Paweł

    2015-09-28

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a common commensal bacterium colonizing the skin and mucosal surfaces of household animals. However, it has recently emerged as a dangerous opportunistic pathogen, comparable to S. aureus for humans. The epidemiological situation is further complicated by the increasing number of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius infections and evidence of gene transmission driving antibiotic resistance between staphylococci colonizing human and zoonotic hosts. In the present study, we describe a unique peptide, BacSp222, that possesses features characteristic of both bacteriocins and virulence factors. BacSp222 is secreted in high quantities by S. pseudintermedius strain 222 isolated from dog skin lesions. This linear, fifty-amino-acid highly cationic peptide is plasmid-encoded and does not exhibit significant sequence similarities to any other known peptides or proteins. BacSp222 kills gram-positive bacteria (at doses ranging from 0.1 to several micromol/l) but also demonstrates significant cytotoxic activities towards eukaryotic cells at slightly higher concentrations. Moreover, at nanomolar concentrations, the peptide also possesses modulatory properties, efficiently enhancing interferon gamma-induced nitric oxide release in murine macrophage-like cell lines. BacSp222 appears to be one of the first examples of multifunctional peptides that breaks the convention of splitting bacteriocins and virulence factors into two unrelated groups.

  15. Biopreservation of Brined Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) by Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, H; Lauzon, H L

    1995-02-01

    In brined shrimp (ca. 3% NaCl), the effects of three different lactic acid bacteria bacteriocins (crude [6.54 x 10(sup10) U of bacteriocin activity {BU}/g] and purified [8.13 x 10(sup23) BU/g] nisin Z, carnocin UI49 [2.32 x 10(sup4) BU/g], and crude bavaricin A [2.78 BU/g]) on bacterial growth and shelf life were compared with those of a benzoate-sorbate solution (0.1% each [wt/wt]) and a control with no preservatives. The shelf life of shrimp subjected to the control treatment was found to be 10 days. Carnocin UI49 did not extend the shelf life, while crude bavaricin A (a cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus bavaricus MI 401) resulted in a shelf life of 16 days, as opposed to 31 days with nisin Z for both its crude and purified forms. The benzoate-sorbate solution preserved the brined shrimp for the whole storage period (59 days). In the control, carnocin UI49, and crude bavaricin A treatments, a gram-positive flora dominated towards the end of the storage period while in the nisin Z treatment a gram-negative flora was more pronounced.

  16. Bacteriocin-Producing Enterococcus faecium LCW 44: A High Potential Probiotic Candidate from Raw Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Vimont

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from raw camel milk were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion assay. Ten isolates selected for their inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by 16S sequencing as Enterococcus faecium or durans. An isolate named E. faecium LCW 44 exhibited the broadest antibacterial spectrum with an inhibitory activity against several Gram-positive strains belonging to the genera Clostridium, Listeria, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus. E. faecium LCW 44 was shown to produce N-formylated enterocins L50A and L50B, as revealed by mass spectrometry and PCR analyses. This isolate did not harbor any of the virulence factors tested and was shown to be sensitive to all tested antibiotics. It showed high resistance to gastric and intestinal conditions (78 ± 4% survival. Its adhesion index was evaluated at 176 ± 86 and 24 ± 86 on Caco-2 cells and HT-29 cells, respectively, and it significantly reduced adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes by 65 and 49%, respectively. In Macfarlane broth (simulating the nutrient content of the colon, counts of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 2 log10 cycles after 24 h in co-culture with E. faecium LCW 44, compared to the increase of 4 log10 cycles when cultured alone. Comparison with a bacteriocin-non-producing mutant of E. faecium LCW 44 strongly suggests that inhibition of L. monocytogenes was due to bacteriocin production. Altogether, E. faecium LCW 44 thus has potential for use as a probiotic for humans and veterinary medicine.

  17. Development of bioactive food packaging materials using immobilised bacteriocins lacticin 3147 and nisaplin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell, A G; Hill, C; Ross, R P; Marx, S; Hartmeier, W; Elke; Arendt, K

    2000-09-25

    Immobilisation of the bacteriocins nisin and lacticin 3147 to packaging materials was investigated. Stability of both cellulose-based bioactive inserts and anti-microbial polyethylene/polyamide pouches was examined over time. Anti-microbial activity against the indicator strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis HP, in addition to Listeria innocua DPC 1770 and Staphylococcus aureus MMPR3 was observed for all bacteriocin-adsorbed materials. Activity retention of the inserts showed an initial decrease in the first week of storage but remained stable for the remaining 3 months of the trial. However, adsorption of lacticin 3147 to plastic film was unsuccessful, nisin bound well and the resulting film maintained its activity for 3-month period, both at room temperature and under refrigeration. When applied to food systems, the anti-microbial packaging reduced the population of lactic acid bacteria in sliced cheese and ham stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at refrigeration temperatures, thus extending the shelf life. Nisin-adsorbed bioactive inserts reduced levels of Listeria innocua by > or = 2 log units in both products, and Staphylococcus aureus by approximately 1.5 log units in cheese, and approximately 2.8 log units in ham. Similar reductions were observed in cheese vacuum-packaged in nisin-adsorbed pouches.

  18. Sonorensin: A new bacteriocin with potential of an anti-biofilm agent and a food biopreservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Lipsy; Singh, Gurdeep; Kumar Jena, Kautilya; Sahoo, Debendra K

    2015-08-21

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has led to exploration of alternative therapeutic agents such as ribosomally synthesized bacterial peptides known as bacteriocins. Biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. Bacteria in biofilm can be upto thousand times more resistant to antibiotics than the same bacteria circulating in a planktonic state. In this study, sonorensin, predicted to belong to the heterocycloanthracin subfamily of bacteriocins, was found to be effectively killing active and non-multiplying cells of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Sonorensin showed marked inhibition activity against biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence and electron microscopy suggested that growth inhibition occurred because of increased membrane permeability. Low density polyethylene film coated with sonorensin was found to effectively control the growth of food spoilage bacteria like Listeria monocytogenes and S. aureus. The biopreservative effect of sonorensin coated film showing growth inhibition of spoilage bacteria in chicken meat and tomato samples demonstrated the potential of sonorensin as an alternative to current antibiotics/ preservatives.

  19. SCREENING OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM SUDANESE FERMENTED FOODS FOR BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Y. A. Elyas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from different types of fermented foods consumed in Sudan. Phenotypic tests revealed that all isolates were homofermentative LAB. Twenty-four isolates produced inhibitory substances primarily active against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 2818 and Escherichia coli ATCC 29522. The inhibitory activity of 88% of enterococci and 58% of lactobacilli was recorded from meat isolates, whereas all activity of pediococcal isolates came from fermented milk isolates. The cell-free cultures of 18 isolates exhibiting inhibitory activity was chosen for further investigation such as sensitivity to proteolytic enzyme (pepsin, effect of heat treatment (60°C for 60min, 100°C for 20min and 121°C for 15min and effect of pH ( pH 2.0, pH 6.5, and pH 9.0. The inhibitory activity was eliminated upon treatment with pepsin. The bacteriocin-like substances lost their activity after heating at all temperatures used and at alkaline pH (9.0, whereas they were active at acidic pH (2.0. The antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin-like substances produced by the isolated LAB could prevent spoilage and/or pathogenic microorganism in Sudanese fermented food. Further study should be related with species identification of the producer strains and with the purification and characterization of these becteriocin-like substances in order to explore them in food industry.

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF BACTERIOCIN BA28 PRODUCED BY Pediococcus acidilactici BA28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Baljinder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcers are produced by an imbalance between gastro-duodenal mucosal defense mechanisms and damaging forces of gastric acid and pepsin, combined with superimposed injury from environmental or immunologic agents. Most common symptoms of peptic ulcer disease are abdominal discomfort, gnawing ache, occurs 2 to 3 hours after meal, other symptoms includes weight loss, poor appetite, bloating, nausea, vomiting etc. Some time duodenal wall perforates; bleeding due to the ulcer breaks blood vessels and obstructs the path of food trying to leave the stomach. Various studies have shown the association of Helicobacter pylori with peptic ulcers. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are proposed to cure peptic ulcers by reducing colonization of H. pylori with stomach wall and by eradicating already established infection. A bacteriocin producing probiotic strain of P. acidilactici BA28 was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Bacteriocin BA28 was partially purificated and characterized following in vitro assays. Preliminary investigations against H. plyori have suggested its effectiveness against peptic ulcer disease and therefore could be exploited to develop novel therapeutics.

  1. 40 CFR 721.2120 - Cyclic amide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cyclic amide. 721.2120 Section 721... Cyclic amide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a cyclic amide (PMN P-92-131) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. The cyclic theory of Hopf algebroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalzig, N.; Posthuma, H.

    2011-01-01

    We give a systematic description of the cyclic cohomology theory of Hopf alge\\-broids in terms of its associated category of modules. Then we introduce a dual cyclic homology theory by applying cyclic duality to the underlying cocyclic object. We derive general structure theorems for these theories

  3. The Cyclic Graph of a Finite Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Long Ma

    2013-01-01

    and characterize certain finite groups whose cyclic graphs have some properties. Then, we present some properties of the cyclic graphs of the dihedral groups D2n and the generalized quaternion groups Q4n for some n. Finally, we present some parameters about the cyclic graphs of finite noncyclic groups of order up to 14.

  4. Characterization of Xanthomonas spp. strains by bacteriocins Caracterização de isolados de Xanthomonas spp. por bacterocinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Bonini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and 14 strains of Xanthomonas spp. were tested for bacteriocin production. X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae strains were sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the 25 X. axonopodis pv. citri strains evaluated in this study while strains of X. axonopodis pv. manihotis and X. campestris pv. campestris showed variable sensitivity. Only five of the 25 X. axonopodis pv. citri strains were not inhibited by the bacteriocins produced by the two X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae strains. The bacteriocins produced by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (FDC-806 and X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae (Mar-2850 A strains were thermolabile, resistant to lysozyme and sensitive to DNAse. The bacteriocin produced by X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae was resistant to the action of proteinase K, trypsin and RNAse while the bacteriocin produced by X. axonopodis pv. citri was sensitive to these enzymes. The bacteriocins produced by X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae and X. axonopodis pv. citri were called passifloricin and citricin, respectively.Vinte e cinco isolados de Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri e 14 isolados de Xanthomonas spp. foram comparados a fim de verificar a capacidade de produção de bacteriocina e a sua sensibilidade. Isolados de X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae foram sensíveis às bacteriocinas produzidas por 25 isolados de X. axonopodis pv. citri avaliados e os isolados de X. axonopodis pv. manihotis e X. campestris pv. campestris apresentaram sensibilidade variável. Dos 25 isolados de X. axonopodis pv. citri apenas cinco não foram inibidos pelas bacteriocinas produzidas por dois isolados de X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae. As bacteriocinas produzidas pelos isolados de X. axonopodis pv. citri (FDC-806 e de X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae (Mar-2850 A foram termolábeis e resistentes à lisozima e sensíveis a DNAse. A bacteriocina produzida pelo isolado de X. axonopodis pv. passiflorae foi resistente à a

  5. Use of Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10, a Bacteriocin Producer, as a Starter Culture in Spanish-Style Green Olive Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Barba, J. L.; Cathcart, D. P.; Warner, P. J.; Jiménez-Díaz, R.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10 and its non-bacteriocin-producing, bacteriocinimmune derivative, L. plantarum 55-1, were evaluated separately for growth and persistence in natural Spanish-style green olive fermentations. Both strains were genetically marked and selectively enumerated using antibiotic-containing media. Plasmid profile and bacteriocin production (bac+) were used as additional markers. When olive brines were inoculated at 105 CFU/ml, the parent strain, LPCO10, proliferated to dominate the epiphytic microflora, sharing high population levels with other spontaneously occurring lactobacilli and persisting throughout the fermentation (12 weeks). In contrast, the derivative strain could not be isolated after 7 weeks. Stability of both plasmid profile and bac+ (LPCO10 strain) or bac- (55-1 strain) phenotype was shown by L. plantarum LPCO10 and L. plantarum 55-1 isolated throughout the fermentation. Bacteriocin activity could be found in the L. plantarum LPCO10-inoculated brines only after ammonium sulfate precipitation and concentration (20 times) of the final brine. Spontaneously occurring lactobacilli and lactic coccus populations, which were isolated from each of the fermenting brines studied during this investigation, were shown to be sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by L. plantarum LPCO10 when tested by the drop diffusion test. The declines in both pH and glucose levels throughout the fermentative process were similar in L. plantarum LPCO10- and in L. plantarum 55-1-inoculated brines and were comparable to the declines in the uninoculated brines. However, the final concentration of lactic acid in L. plantarum LPCO10-inoculated brines was higher than in the L. plantarum 55-1-inoculated brines and uninoculated brines. These results indicated that L. plantarum LPCO10 may be useful as a starter culture to control the lactic acid fermentation of Spanish-style green olives. PMID:16349291

  6. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in yogurt fermented with a bacteriocin-producing thermophilic starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkerroum, Noreddine; Oubel, Hafida; Mimoun, Lamiae Ben

    2002-05-01

    Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus B producing a bacteriocin active against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and Staphylococcus aureus SAD 30 was isolated from bakery yeast. The bacteriocin was partially purified by an adsorption/desorption technique, and its spectrum of action was compared to that of a neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS). Although the CFS inhibited a number of gram-positive and -negative bacteria of health and spoilage significance, the spectrum of action of the partially purified bacteriocin was limited to gram-positive bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to both preparations. The bacteriocin-producing streptococcal strain was used in combination with a Bac- Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CY strain isolated from commercial yogurt to assess the effectiveness of the resulting thermophilic starter in controlling L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in yogurt during fermentation and storage at refrigeration (ca. 7 degrees C) or abuse (ca. 22 degrees C) temperature. Yogurt samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes or S. aureus to the approximate levels of 10(3) and 10(6) CFU/ml of milk, respectively. The results showed that in situ bacteriocin production was more active against L. monocytogenes than against S. aureus in vitro and in contaminated samples. While L. monocytogenes leveled off below the detectable limit in a 1-ml sample of yogurt within 24 h of processing, S. aureus survived in Bac+ and Bac- samples during 10 days of storage at room temperature (ca. 22 degrees C). Use of a Bac+ starter resulted in a 5-day extension of the shelf life.

  7. Exploration and conservation of bacterial genetic resources as bacteriocin producing inhibitory microorganisms to pathogen bacteria in livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotiah S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and conservation of microorganisms producing bacteriocin was done as the primary study towards the collection of potential bacteria and its application in improving livestock health condition and inhibit food borne pathogens. Diferent kinds of samples such as beef cattle rectal swab, rumen fluids, cow’s milk, chicken gut content, goat’s milk were collected at Bogor cattle slaughter houses, poultry slaughter houses, dairy cattle and goat farms. A total of 452 bacterial isolates consisted of 73 Gram negative bacteria and 379 Gram positive bacteria were isolated from samples collected and screened for bacteriocin activity. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassay using agar spot tests were carried out on liquid and semisolid medium assessing 8 kins of indicators of pathogenic bacteria and food borne pathogens. A total of 51 bacteriocin producing strains were collected and some of the strains had high inhibitory zone such as Lactobacillus casei SS14C (26 mm, Enterobacter cloacae SRUT (24mm, Enterococcus faecalis SK39 (21mm and Bifidobacterium dentium SS14T (20mm respectively, to Salmonella typhimurium BCC B0046/ATCC 13311, E. coli O157 hemolytic BCC B2717, Listeria monocytogenes BCC B2767/ATCC 7764 and Escherichia coli VTEC O157 BCC B2687. Evaluation after conservation ex situ to all bacterocin producing strain at 5oC for 1 year in freeze drying ampoules in vacuum and dry condition revealed the decreasing viability starting from log 0.8 CFU/ml for Lactococcus and Leuconostoc to log 2.2. CFU/ml for Streptococcus. Result of the study showed that the bacteriocin producing strains obtained were offered a potential resource for preventing disease of livestock and food borne diseases.

  8. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; J. C. VAN OURS

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  9. Supramolecular nesting of cyclic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratuk, Dmitry V; Perdigão, Luís M A; Esmail, Ayad M S; O'Shea, James N; Beton, Peter H; Anderson, Harry L

    2015-04-01

    Advances in template-directed synthesis make it possible to create artificial molecules with protein-like dimensions, directly from simple components. These synthetic macromolecules have a proclivity for self-organization that is reminiscent of biopolymers. Here, we report the synthesis of monodisperse cyclic porphyrin polymers, with diameters of up to 21 nm (750 C–C bonds). The ratio of the intrinsic viscosities for cyclic and linear topologies is 0.72, indicating that these polymers behave as almost ideal flexible chains in solution. When deposited on gold surfaces, the cyclic polymers display a new mode of two-dimensional supramolecular organization, combining encapsulation and nesting; one nanoring adopts a near-circular conformation, thus allowing a second nanoring to be captured within its perimeter, in a tightly folded conformation. Scanning tunnelling microscopy reveals that nesting occurs in combination with stacking when nanorings are deposited under vacuum, whereas when they are deposited directly from solution under ambient conditions there is stacking or nesting, but not a combination of both.

  10. Detection and Biochemical Characterization of Microorganisms in Milk and Cocoa powder samples by FTIR and subsequent production of Bacteriocin from Lactobacillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam C

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa and milk powder samples were taken from a confectionery and tested for presence of microbes (harmful and pathogenic.Biochemical characterization of isolated microbes was carried out for confirmation. Lactobacillus was isolated from milk powder. When a culture of Lactobacillus sp. was inoculated into milk and incubated at room temperature, it multiplies and converts lactose to lactic acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the variation of functional group peaks in milk by the action of Lactobacillus sp. The spectral changes were also observed. Our main aim of this project is the production of bacteriocin from isolated lactobacillus species; it showed broad range of antibacterial activity against some food borne pathogens like staphyloccus, Ecoli, streptococcus, Enterococcus etc. The bacteriocin is purified by ammonium sulfate precipitate and dialysis. Biochemically it was pure protein moiety. Maximum bacteriocin concentration was found after dialysis. Project revealed the possibility of using bacteriocin as food preservative.

  11. 乳酸菌细菌素作用机理的研究%Overview of the Mechanism of Action of Lactis Acid Bacteria Bacteriocins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞胜; 别怀周; 张明

    2012-01-01

    Lactis acid bacteria bacteriocin acts as a natural food preservative to inhibit or kill the pathogenic bacteria and spoilage microorganism of food. The research about the mechanism of bacteriocin has laid a foundation for ihe application of bacteriocin in food* In this paper, the mechanism of class I and class II bacteriocins were reviewed.%乳酸茵细菌素可抑制或杀死食品中的病原菌和腐败茵,是天然的食品防腐剂对乳酸菌细菌素作用机理的研究可为其在食品工业中的应用奠定基础,就Ⅰ类和Ⅱ类细菌素的作用机理进行了综述.

  12. A new hybrid bacteriocin, Ent35–MccV, displays antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Leonardo; Picariello, Gianluca; Sesma, Fernando; Morero, Roberto D.; Bellomio, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriocins and microcins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that are usually active against phylogenetically related bacteria. Thus, bacteriocins are active against Gram-positive while microcins are active against Gram-negative bacteria. The narrow spectrum of action generally displayed by bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria represents an important limitation for the application of these peptides as clinical drugs or as food biopreservatives. The present study describes the design and expression of a novel recombinant hybrid peptide combining enterocin CRL35 and microcin V named Ent35–MccV. The chimerical bacteriocin displayed antimicrobial activity against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes clinical isolates, among other pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, Ent35–MccV may find important applications in food or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23650575

  13. Bacteriocins from Lactobacillus plantarum - production, genetic organization and mode of action: produção, organização genética e modo de ação.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Svetoslav D

    2009-04-01

    Bacteriocins are biologically active proteins or protein complexes that display a bactericidal mode of action towards usually closely related species. Numerous strains of bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus plantarum have been isolated in the last two decades from different ecological niches including meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, and milk and cereal products. Several of these plantaricins have been characterized and the aminoacid sequence determined. Different aspects of the mode of action, fermentation optimization and genetic organization of the bacteriocin operon have been studied. However, numerous of bacteriocins produced by different Lactobacillus plantarum strains have not been fully characterized. In this article, a brief overview of the classification, genetics, characterization, including mode of action and production optimization for bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria in general, and where appropriate, with focus on bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, is presented.

  14. Cyclic modular beta-sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S

    2007-03-07

    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (

  15. Quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in dairy-free probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus by nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Renu; Talapatra, Kesh

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocins are a heterogeneous group of ribosomally synthesized peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity, produced predominantly by lactic acid bacteria, with potential applications as biopreservatives and probiotics. We describe here a novel strategy based on a bottom-up, shotgun proteomic approach using nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) with multiple fragmentation techniques for the quantitative profiling of bacteriocins present in the probiotic preparations of Lactobacillus acidophilus. A direct LC-MS/MS analysis with alternate collision-induced dissociation, high-energy collision dissociation, and electron-transfer dissociation fragmentation following a filter-assisted size-exclusion sample prefractionation has resulted in the identification of peptides belonging to 37 bacteriocins or related proteins. Peptides from lactacin F, helveticin J, lysin, avicin A, acidocin M, curvaticin FS47, and carocin D were predominant. The process of freeze drying under vacuum was observed to affect both the diversity and abundance of bacteriocins. Data acquisition using alternating complementary peptide fragmentation modes, especially electron-transfer dissociation, has significantly enhanced the peptide sequence coverage and number of bacteriocin peptides identified. Multi-enzyme proteolytic digestion was observed to increase the sample complexity and dynamic range, lowering the chances of detection of low-abundant bacteriocin peptides by LC-MS/MS. An analytical platform integrating size exclusion prefractionation, nanoLC-MS/MS analysis with multiple fragmentation techniques, and data-dependent decision tree-driven bioinformatic data analysis is novel in bacteriocin research and suitable for the comprehensive bioanalysis of diverse, low-abundant bacteriocins in complex samples.

  16. Combined effect of enterocin AS-48 and high hydrostatic pressure to control food-borne pathogens inoculated in low acid fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananou, Samir; Garriga, Margarita; Jofré, Anna; Aymerich, Teresa; Gálvez, Antonio; Maqueda, Mercedes; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva

    2010-04-01

    The single and combined effects of enterocin AS-48 and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonellaenterica, and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in fuet (a low acid fermented sausage) during ripening and storage at 7 degrees C or at room temperature. AS-48 (148 AU g(-1)) caused a drastic 5.5 log cfu g(-1) decrease in L. monocytogenes (Ppressurization (400 MPa) and storage Listeria counts remained below 5 cfu g(-1) in all fuets containing AS-48 (pressurized or not). HHP alone had no anti-Listeria effect. HHP treatment significantly reduced Salmonella counts, with lowest levels in pressurized fuets with AS-48. S. aureus showed similar growth for all treatments and storage conditions. These results indicate that AS-48 can be applied alone to control L. monocytogenes and combined with HHP treatment to control Salmonella in fuets.

  17. Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rogerson

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations This paper studies a two sector real business cycle model in which the sectors experience different trend rates of growth and labor mobility is costly. Predictions are derived concerning the correlation between sectoral reallocation of workers and the cycle. This correlation may be positive or negative depending upon whether the growing sector displays larger or smaller fluctuations than the shrinking sector. The post- World War II period has witnessed two major patterns of sectoral change in industrialized countries: movement out of agriculture and movement out of the industrial sector. The model's basic prediction is shown to be consistent with the observed pattern of reallocation.

  18. Purification and Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus brevis UN Isolated from Dhulliachar: a Traditional Food Product of North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Neha; Sharma, Nivedita; Ahlawat, O P

    2014-06-01

    A bacteriocin producing strain Lactobacillus brevis UN isolated from Dulliachar-a salted pickle and identified by biochemical and molecular methods. L. brevis UN was found to produce bacteriocin with broad spectrum activity against spoilage causing/food borne pathogens viz. L. monocytogenes, C. perfringens, S. aureus, L. mesenteroides, L. plantarum and B. cereus. Bacteriocin production was optimized through classical one variable at a time method. The isolate showed maximum bacteriocin production at early stationary phase, pH 4.0, temperature 35 °C and with an inoculum size of 1.5 OD @ 10 %. Bacteriocin produced by L. brevis UN was purified to homogeneity by single step gel exclusion chromatography and was most active at pH 6.0 and 7.0, stable up to 100 °C and was proteinaceous in nature. The results of NMR revealed the presence of proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine, isoleucine and serine in its peptide structure. PCR amplification analysis determined that bacteriocin encoded gene in L. brevis UN was plasmid bound.

  19. Cell-surface alterations in class IIa bacteriocin-resistant Listeria monocytogenes strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadyvaloo, Viveka; Arous, Safia; Gravesen, Anne; Héchard, Yann; Chauhan-Haubrock, Ramola; Hastings, John W; Rautenbach, Marina

    2004-09-01

    Strains of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, showing either intermediate or high-level resistance to class IIa bacteriocins, were investigated to determine characteristics that correlated with their sensitivity levels. Two intermediate and one highly resistant spontaneous mutant of L. monocytogenes B73, a highly resistant mutant of L. monocytogenes 412, and a highly resistant, defined (mptA) mutant of L. monocytogenes EGDe were compared with their respective wild-type strains in order to investigate the contribution of different factors to resistance. Decreased mannose-specific phosphotransferase system gene expression (mptA, EIIAB(Man) component) was implicated in all levels of resistance, confirming previous studies by the authors' group. However, a clear correlation between d-alanine content in teichoic acid (TA), in particular the alanine : phosphorus ratio, and a more positive cell surface, as determined by cytochrome c binding, were found for the highly resistant strains. Furthermore, two of the three highly resistant strains showed a significant increase in sensitivity towards d-cycloserine (DCS). However, real-time PCR of the dltA (d-alanine esterification), and dal and ddlA genes (peptidoglycan biosynthesis) showed no change in transcriptional levels. The link between DCS sensitivity and increased d-alanine esterification of TA may be that DCS competes with alanine for transport via the alanine transporter. A possible tendency towards increased lysinylation of membrane phospholipid in the highly resistant strains was also found. A previous study reported that cell membranes of all the resistant strains, including the intermediate resistant strains, contained more unsaturated phosphatidylglycerol, which is an indication of a more fluid cell membrane. The results of that study correlate with the possible lysinylation, decreased mptA expression, d-alanine esterification of TA and more positive cell surface charge found in this study for

  20. Bacteriocins: molecules of fundamental impact on the microbial ecology and potential food biopreservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are proteic molecules synthesized for various lineages of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria when exposed to stressful conditions. Bacteriocins have been characterized as molecules of high antimicrobial property even at low concentrations, provoking the microbial survival inhibition by antibiosis. These substances have their synthesis mediated for genetic mechanisms and develop their lethal action on the microbial cell by multiples mechanisms that can act of isolated or concomitant way culminating with microbial cell killing. This molecules class presents characteristic of stability to heat, low pH, refrigeration and freezing, and resistance to weak organics solvents, salts and enzymes. On the other hand, they are very sensitive to proteolytic enzymes action. Bacteriocins could appear as potential agents to be applied in food conservation systems in order to provide microbiologically stable foods.Bacteriocinas são moléculas protéicas sintetizadas por várias linhagens de bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas quando submetidas a condições de stress. São ainda caracterizadas como moléculas de alto poder antimicrobiano mesmo em baixas concentrações, provocando a inibição da sobrevivência microbiana através de uma ação de antibiose. As bacteriocinas têm seu processo de síntese mediado por mecanismos genéticos, e desenvolvem sua ação letal sobre a célula microbiana por intermédio de múltiplos mecanismos que podem agir de forma isolada ou concomitante culminando com a morte da célula microbiana. Estas moléculas apresentam características de estabilidade ao calor, baixo pH, refrigeração, congelamento, resistência a ácidos orgânicos fracos, sais e enzimas, porém são muito sensíveis à enzimas proteolíticas. Assim, as bacteriocinas podem aparecer como potenciais agentes para serem aplicados em sistemas de conservação de alimentos com objetivo de prover alimentos microbiologicamente estáveis.

  1. Effect of Leuconostoc mesenteroides 11 bacteriocin in the multiplication control of Listeria monocytogenes 4b Efeito da bacteriocina de Leuconostoc mesenteroides 11 no controle da multiplicação de Listeria monocytogenes 4b

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael C.R. Martinez; Martinis,Elaine C. P. De

    2006-01-01

    The activity of a crude preparation of bacteriocin produced by the chicken meat isolate Leuconostoc mesenteroides 11, was evaluated at 8ºC and 15ºC against Listeria monocytogenes. The pathogen was inoculated in a crude preparation of the bacteriocin and its population was enumerated after 0.5 and 10 days. The title of the bacteriocin in the preparation was determined immediately before inoculation and after 10 days of incubation at both temperatures. As a negative control, a non-bacteriocin p...

  2. The cyclical component factor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Hansen, Henrik; Smidt, John

    Forecasting using factor models based on large data sets have received ample attention due to the models' ability to increase forecast accuracy with respect to a range of key macroeconomic variables in the US and the UK. However, forecasts based on such factor models do not uniformly outperform...... the simple autoregressive model when using data from other countries. In this paper we propose to estimate the factors based on the pure cyclical components of the series entering the large data set. Monte Carlo evidence and an empirical illustration using Danish data shows that this procedure can indeed...

  3. Cyclic voltammetry of supported BLMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgasova, Renata; Sabo, Jan; Ottova, Angelica L.; Tien, H. T.

    1996-06-01

    The transfer of an electron across a bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) is one of the BLMs most exciting processes. A number of well known electron mediators have been investigated using the method of cyclic voltammetry on a Teflon coated platinum wire, the tip of which has been modified by a self-assembled bilayer lipid membrane (s-BLM). The electrical capacitance of the s-BLM system was measured as a function of frequency. The results are discussed in terms of electron transfer and redox reactions.

  4. Gut solutions to a gut problem: bacteriocins, probiotics and bacteriophage for control of Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Mary C; Alemayehu, Debebe; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients and imposes a considerable financial burden on health service providers in both Europe and the USA. The incidence of CDI has dramatically increased in recent years, partly due to the emergence of a number of hypervirulent strains. The most commonly documented risk factors associated with CDIs are antibiotic usage leading to alterations of the gut microbiota, age >65 years and long-term hospital stay. Since standard therapies for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and CDI have limited efficacy, there is now an urgent need for alternative therapeutics. In this review, we outline the current state of play with regard to the potential of gut-derived bacteriocins, probiotics and phage to act as antimicrobial agents against CDI in the human gut.

  5. Medical and Personal Care Applications of Bacteriocins Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, L. M. T.; Heunis, T. D. J.; van Staden, D. A.; Brand, A.; Noll, K. Sutyak; Chikindas, M. L.

    The frequent use of antibiotics has led to a crisis in the antibiotic ­resistance of pathogens associated with humans and animals. Antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multiresistant bacterial pathogens have led to the investigation of alternative antimicrobial agents to treat and prevent infections in both humans and animals. Research on antimicrobial peptides, with a special interest on bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria, is entering a new era with novel applications other than food preservation. Many scientists are now focusing on the application of these peptides in medicinal and personal care products. However, it is difficult to assess the success of such ventures due to the dearth of information that has been published and the lack of clinical trials.

  6. Bacteriocin-like substance from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens shows remarkable inhibition of Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Lisianne Brittes; Caumo, Karin; Brandelli, Adriano; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2011-03-01

    The effectiveness of a bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was tested against Acanthamoeba polyphaga strains, and its cytotoxic potential on Vero cells was investigated. Amebicidal activity of the purified BLS was tested by plate bioassays with concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 6,400 AU mL(-1). Damage to A. pholyphaga cells was monitored using an inverted microscope and counted in a Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber after 24, 48, and 72 h. According to the results obtained, the BLS showed remarkable amebicidal and amebostatic effect on A. polyphaga and showed no cytotoxicity on the Vero cells. These results may have great relevance in the development of new acanthamoebicidal compounds.

  7. Biological preservation of foods with reference to protective cultures, bacteriocins and food-grade enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, W H; Geisen, R; Schillinger, U

    1995-01-01

    A review is presented on the present status of biological preservation of foods. Recent developments are discussed with respect to underlying mechanisms of inhibition by 'protective' cultures, and special reference is made to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their 'food-grade' safety. The role of bacteriocins, their limitations and potentiating role in biological systems, is also addressed. The use of enzymes (e.g. lysozyme) for food preservation is mainly restricted by economic factors, their inactivation by endogenous food components and their limited activity spectrum. Practical applications of protective cultures refer to particular food commodities that either constitute novel systems with respect to packaging and/or composition, or represent special hygienic risks. It is concluded that biological preservation cannot substitute GMP; it, however, offers an additional (and acceptable) processing parameter for improving the safety and assuring the quality of a given food.

  8. Using a bacteriocin structure to engineer a phage lysin that targets Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacik, Petra; Barnard, Travis J; Buchanan, Susan K

    2012-12-01

    Purified phage lysins present an alternative to traditional antibiotics and work by hydrolysing peptidoglycan. Phage lysins have been developed against Gram-positive pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, where the peptidoglycan layer is exposed on the cell surface. Addition of the lysin to a bacterial culture results in rapid death of the organism. Gram-negative bacteria are resistant to phage lysins because they contain an outer membrane that protects the peptidoglycan from degradation. We solved crystal structures of a Yersinia pestis outer-membrane protein and the bacteriocin that targets it, which informed engineering of a bacterial-phage hybrid lysin that can be transported across the outer membrane to kill specific Gram-negative bacteria. This work provides a template for engineering phage lysins against a wide variety of bacterial pathogens.

  9. Transcription activation of a UV-inducible Clostridium perfringens bacteriocin gene by a novel sigma factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Bruno; Mani, Nagraj; Katayama, Seiichi; Sonenshein, Abraham L

    2005-02-01

    Expression of the plasmid-encoded Clostridium perfringens gene for bacteriocin BCN5 was shown to depend in vivo and in vitro on the activity of UviA protein. UviA, also plasmid-encoded, proved to be an RNA polymerase sigma factor and was also partly autoregulatory. The uviA gene has two promoters; one provided a UviA-independent, basal level of gene expression while the stronger, UviA-dependent promoter was only utilized after the cell experienced DNA damage. As a result, BCN5 synthesis is induced by treatment with UV light or mitomycin C. UviA is related to a special class of sigma factors found to date only in Clostridium species and responsible for activating transcription of toxin genes in Clostridium difficile, Clostridium tetani, and Clostridium botulinum.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated from cheeses and yogurts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The biopreservation of foods using bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated directly from foods is an innovative approach. The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify bacteriocinogenic LAB from various cheeses and yogurts and evaluate their antimicrobial effects on selected spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in vitro as well as on a food commodity. LAB were isolated using MRS and M17 media. The agar diffusion bioassay was used to screen for bacteriocin or bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) producing LAB using Lactobacillus sakei and Listeria innocua as indicator organisms. Out of 138 LAB isolates, 28 were found to inhibit these bacteria and were identified as strains of Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Eight isolates were tested for antimicrobial activity at 5°C and 20°C against L. innocua, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia carotovora, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides using the agar diffusion bioassay, and also against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia frucitcola using the microdilution plate method. The effect of selected LAB strains on L. innocua inoculated onto fresh-cut onions was also investigated. Twenty percent of our isolates produced BLS inhibiting the growth of L. innocua and/or Lact. sakei. Organic acids and/or H2O2 produced by LAB and not the BLS had strong antimicrobial effects on all microorganisms tested with the exception of E. coli. Ent. faecium, Strep. thermophilus and Lact. casei effectively inhibited the growth of natural microflora and L. innocua inoculated onto fresh-cut onions. Bacteriocinogenic LAB present in cheeses and yogurts may have potential to be used as biopreservatives in foods. PMID:22963659

  11. Colostrum of healthy Slovenian mothers: microbiota composition and bacteriocin gene prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermajer, Tanja; Lipoglavšek, Luka; Tompa, Gorazd; Treven, Primož; Lorbeg, Petra Mohar; Matijašić, Bojana Bogovič; Rogelj, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities inhabiting the breast milk microenvironment are essential in supporting mammary gland health in lactating women and in providing gut-colonizing bacterial 'inoculum' for their infants' gastro-intestinal development. Bacterial DNA was extracted from colostrum samples of 45 healthy Slovenian mothers. Characteristics of the communities in the samples were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). PCR screening for the prevalence of bacteriocin genes was performed on DNA of culturable and total colostrum bacteria. DGGE profiling revealed the presence of Staphylococcus and Gemella in most of the samples and exposed 4 clusters based on the abundance of 3 bands: Staphylococcus epidermidis/Gemella, Streptococcus oralis/pneumonia and Streptococcus salivarius. Bacilli represented the largest proportion of the communities. High prevalence in samples at relatively low quantities was confirmed by qPCR for enterobacteria (100%), Clostridia (95.6%), Bacteroides-Prevotella group (62.2%) and bifidobacteria (53.3%). Bacterial quantities (genome equivalents ml-1) varied greatly among the samples; Staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococci varied in the range of 4 logs, streptococci and all bacteria varied in the range of 2 logs, and other researched groups varied in the range of 1 log. The quantity of most bacterial groups was correlated with the amount of all bacteria. The majority of the genus Staphylococcus was represented by the species Staphylococcus epidermidis (on average 61%), and their abundances were linearly correlated. Determinants of salivaricin A, salivaricin B, streptin and cytolysin were found in single samples. This work provides knowledge on the colostrum microbial community composition of healthy lactating Slovenian mothers and reports bacteriocin gene prevalence.

  12. Colostrum of healthy Slovenian mothers: microbiota composition and bacteriocin gene prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Obermajer

    Full Text Available Microbial communities inhabiting the breast milk microenvironment are essential in supporting mammary gland health in lactating women and in providing gut-colonizing bacterial 'inoculum' for their infants' gastro-intestinal development. Bacterial DNA was extracted from colostrum samples of 45 healthy Slovenian mothers. Characteristics of the communities in the samples were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR coupled with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. PCR screening for the prevalence of bacteriocin genes was performed on DNA of culturable and total colostrum bacteria. DGGE profiling revealed the presence of Staphylococcus and Gemella in most of the samples and exposed 4 clusters based on the abundance of 3 bands: Staphylococcus epidermidis/Gemella, Streptococcus oralis/pneumonia and Streptococcus salivarius. Bacilli represented the largest proportion of the communities. High prevalence in samples at relatively low quantities was confirmed by qPCR for enterobacteria (100%, Clostridia (95.6%, Bacteroides-Prevotella group (62.2% and bifidobacteria (53.3%. Bacterial quantities (genome equivalents ml-1 varied greatly among the samples; Staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococci varied in the range of 4 logs, streptococci and all bacteria varied in the range of 2 logs, and other researched groups varied in the range of 1 log. The quantity of most bacterial groups was correlated with the amount of all bacteria. The majority of the genus Staphylococcus was represented by the species Staphylococcus epidermidis (on average 61%, and their abundances were linearly correlated. Determinants of salivaricin A, salivaricin B, streptin and cytolysin were found in single samples. This work provides knowledge on the colostrum microbial community composition of healthy lactating Slovenian mothers and reports bacteriocin gene prevalence.

  13. The biosynthesis of cyclic carotenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R J; Britton, G; Goodwin, T W

    1967-10-01

    1. The incorporation of (3RS)-[2-(14)C,(4R)-4-(3)H(1)]mevalonic acid into various cyclic carotenes in the fruit of the tomato mutant delta has been studied. The results confirm our previous view that the alpha-ionone ring of alpha-carotene does not arise by isomerization of a beta-ionone residue, and show that the same is also true for the alpha-ionone ring of delta- and in-carotene and alpha-zeacarotene. 2. The incorporation of (3RS)-[2-(14)C,2-(3)H(2)]mevalonic acid into alpha- and beta-carotene in carrot roots has been studied. The results show that the beta-ionone ring of beta-carotene does not arise by isomerization of the alpha-ionone residue of alpha-carotene. 3. These experiments show that alpha- and beta-ionone rings in cyclic carotenes are formed independently, probably by elimination of different protons from the same carbonium ion intermediates.

  14. [Cyclic Cushing's Syndrome - rare or rarely recognized].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Doroszewska, Katarzyna; Mrozińska, Sandra; Milewicz, Tomasz; Stochmal, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic Cushing's syndrome is a type of Cushing's disease which is characterized by alternating periods of increasing and decreasing levels of cortisol in the blood. The diagnostic criteria for cyclic Cushing's syndrome are at least three periods of hypercortisolism alternating with at least two episodes of normal levels of serum cortisol concentration. The epidemiology, signs, symptoms, pathogenesis and treatment of cyclic Cushing's syndrome have been discussed.

  15. Cyclic Cohomology of the Weyl Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Willwacher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We give an explicit formula for symplectically basic representatives of the cyclic cohomology of the Weyl algebra. This paper can be seen as cyclic addendum to the paper by Feigin, Felder and Shoikhet, where the analogous Hochschild case was treated. As an application, we prove a generalization of a Theorem of Nest and Tsygan concerning the relation of the Todd class and the cyclic cohomology of the differential operators on a complex manifold.

  16. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    CERN Document Server

    Voicu, Razvan

    2011-01-01

    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive calculi.

  17. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan VOICU; Li, Mengran

    2011-01-01

    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive...

  18. Production of two bacteriocins in various growth conditions produced by gram-positive bacteria isolated from chicken cecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuju; Cui, Yizhe; Wang, Wenmei; Xu, Jili; Xu, Li

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum CLP29 and Enterococcus faecium CLE34 isolated from the cecal contents of young broiler chicks were identified based on physiological and biochemical characteristics, and identification was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Both bacteria showed a broad range of inhibitory action against bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli and produced two peptides, plantaricin CLP29 and enterocin CLE34. Treatment with proteinase K, trypase, or benase resulted in the loss of activity of the two peptides, confirming their proteinaceous nature. The highest activity levels for both bacteria were recorded in de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe agar at pH 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0, at 37 °C. Carbon and nitrogen sources affected the antibacterial activities of the two bacteriocins in different combinations, which suggested that the antibacterial abilities of different bacteriocins produced in nutrient sources were various.

  19. Isolation and Characterisation of Bacteriocin and Aggregation-Promoting Factor Production in Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis BGBM50 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Mirkovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis BGBM50, a producer of lactococcin G and aggregation-promoting factor, was isolated from selected lactic acid bacteria taken from semi-hard cheese traditionally produced in the village Žanjic, Montenegro. Strain BGBM50 harbours a number of plasmids of diff erent sizes. Plasmid curing experiments showed that genes for bacteriocin production are located on pBM140, a plasmid 140 kb in length. PCR analysis with primers specifi c for lactococcin Q and G genes gave fragment of the expected size. In addition, after plasmid curing of strain BGBM50, different derivatives with altered phenotypes were obtained, among them BGBM50-34 strain, which retained bacteriocin synthesis but had enhanced aggregation ability.

  20. Partial Characterization of an Anti-Candida albicans Bacteriocin Produced by a Marine Strain of Bacillus sp., Sh10

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Shayesteh; Asmat Ahmad; Gires Usup

    2015-01-01

    The bacteriocin-producing strain Bacillus sp., Sh10, isolated from the marine environment, exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against different food spoilage and human pathogens, with a maximum inhibitory activity against Candida albicans. The inhibitory compound was sensitive to trypsin but resistant to proteinase K, lysozyme, lipase and &alpha-amylase. It was heat-stable and remained its activity after autoclaving. In addition, the antimicrobial substance demonstrated stri...