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Sample records for bacteriemia por campylobacter

  1. Bacteriemia por Campylobacter fetus aislado mediante métodos convencionales de una paciente inmunocomprometida Bacteremia due to Campylobacter fetus isolated by conventional methods from an immunocompromised patient

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    G. Epifane

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las bacterias del género Campylobacter son bacilos gram-negativos móviles, helicoidales, que presentan morfologías características. Estos microorganismos requieren una baja tensión de oxígeno y un nivel aumentado de CO2 para su desarrollo. Se presenta un caso de bacteriemia por Campylobacter fetus en una paciente con diagnóstico previo de cáncer de mama, metástasis en columna dorso-lumbar y leucemia promielocítica aguda M3 variante de la clasificación FAB. La paciente ingresó al Hospital Italiano de Córdoba por pérdida de conocimiento y proctorragia de 48 h de evolución. Debido a su pancitopenia severa se le realizaron sucesivas transfusiones de sangre. A los 13 días de internación presentó fiebre permanente. Se tomaron muestras para hemocultivo y urocultivo y se comenzó el tratamiento antibiótico con clindamicina y ciprofloxacina. Los hemocultivos se subcultivaron a las 48 h en agar chocolate. A las 24 h de incubación a 35 °C en atmósfera con 5% de CO2 desarrollaron colonias diminutas. La coloración de Gram reveló en ambas muestras bacilos gram-negativos espirilados, posteriormente identificados como Campylobacter fetus por medio de pruebas bioquímicas convencionales. El esquema antibiótico fue rotado a gentamicina más clindamicina. La paciente evolucionó favorablemente y los hemocultivos resultaron negativos luego de 5 días de tratamiento.The genus Campylobacter includes gram-negative, motile, curved rods that can evidence characteristic morphologies. These microorganisms require low oxygen tension and an increased level of CO2 for growing. A case of bacteremia due to Campylobacter fetus in a patient with a previous diagnosis of breast cancer with metastases in dorso-lumbar column and acute promyelocytic leukemia (FAB-M3 variant is presented. The patient was admitted to our institution due to loss of consciousness and a 2 day - history of bloody diarrhea. She received successive blood transfusions on account of

  2. Bacteriemia recurrente por Bordetella bronchiseptica en un paciente con trasplante de medula ósea

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    Lina Echeverri-Toro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta un caso de bacteriemia recurrente por Bordetella bronchiseptica en un paciente inmunocomprometido con antecedentes de trasplante alogénico de medula ósea por síndrome mielodisplásico, quien ingresó al hospital por síndrome febril. Bordetella bronchiseptica es un agente patógeno veterinario poco común en humanos que afecta principalmente a pacientes inmunocomprometidos y es causa poco frecuente de bacteriemia.

  3. Enfoque terapéutico de la bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus

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    Diego Tibavizco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus es un patógeno importante que causa cerca de 11% a 33% de las bacteriemias hospitalarias y un porcentaje importante de las adquiridas en la comunidad, con una tasa de complicaciones cercana a 50%. En la siguiente revisión se destaca la epidemiología de la bacteriemia por S. aureus, con especial referencia a la situación de este patógeno en Colombia, la frecuencia y los mecanismos de resistencia a los medicamentos más frecuentemente usados en este contexto, y se discuten los elementos semiológicos, clínicos y de laboratorio que influyen en el enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico de los pacientes con bacteriemia por este microorganismo.

  4. Factores de riesgo para bacteriemia por Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistente a carbapenémicos adquirida en un hospital colombiano

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    Sandra Liliana Valderrama; Pedro Felipe González; María Alejandra Caro; Natalia Ardila; Beatriz Ariza; Fabián Gil; Carlos Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Introducción. Las bacteriemias por Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistentes a carbapenémicos son un problema de salud pública por las pocas alternativas de tratamiento disponibles, el aumento de la estancia hospitalaria, los costos que genera y el aumento en el riesgo de mortalidad. Objetivo. Evaluar los factores de riesgo de bacteriemia por P. aeruginosa resistente a carbapenémicos adquirida en el Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, durante el periodo comprendido entre enero de 2008 y junio de ...

  5. Bacteriemia relacionada a catéter por Ochrobactrum anthropi Catheter-associated bacteremia caused by Ochrobactrum anthropi

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    Rolando Soloaga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ochrobactrum anthtropi es un bacilo gram negativo aeróbico, no fermentador de la glucosa, anteriormente conocido como Achromobacter sp o CDC grupo Vd. Ha sido aislado del medio ambiente y de infecciones en seres humanos que generalmente presentaban algún tipo de inmunocompromiso. Las infecciones por este microorganismo fueron bacteriemias relacionadas a catéteres y en ocasiones endoftalmitis, infecciones urinarias, meningitis, endocarditis, absceso hepático, osteocondritis, absceso pelviano y absceso pancreático. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino, de 69 años de edad, que consultó a la guardia por hipotensión sostenida y síndrome febril de cuatro días de evolución, escalofrío, sudoración profusa y deterioro del sensorio. El paciente tenía diabetes de tipo 2 y antecedente de accidente cerebrovascular. Debido a insuficiencia renal crónica presentaba un catéter de doble lumen para la diálisis. Se documentó una bacteriemia relacionada a catéter por cultivo de sangre a través de catéter y de vena periférica, utilizando el sistema automatizado de hemocultivos Bact-Alert y la metodología de tiempo diferencial (>120min. La confirmación se realizó, una vez removido el catéter, por la técnica semicuantitativa de Maki (> 15 UFC. El microorganismo fue identificado por API 20NE y Vitek 1 como Ochrobactrum anthropi.Ochrobactrum anthropi is a non-glucose fermentative, aerobic gram-negative bacillus, formerly known as Achromobacter sp or CDC group Vd. It has been isolated from the environment and from infections in usually immunocompromised human beings. The documented infections frequently involved catheter related bacteremia whereas endophthalmitis, urinary infections, meningitis, endocarditis, hepatic abscess, osteochondritis, pelvic abscess and pancreatic abscess were rarely involved. Here it is presented the case of a male patient aged 69 years with sustained hypotension, four day febrile syndrome, chill, lavish

  6. Bacteriemia por Abiotrophia defectiva en un paciente pediátrico neutropénico febril Bacteremia due to Abiotrophia defectiva in a febrile neutropenic pediatric patient

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    H. Lopardo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Un estudio reciente destacó la presencia de Granulicatella spp. en episodios de bacteriemia en pacientes neutropénicos, a diferencia de Abiotrophia defectiva, que sólo se había observado en endocarditis infecciosa. El objetivo de esta presentación es describir un caso de bacteriemia por A. defectiva en un niño leucémico, neutropénico (200 GB/mm³ y febril (40 °C. En una de las muestras de hemocultivo se obtuvo el desarrollo de A. defectiva. A pesar de que el paciente estudiado cursaba una varicela, lo que podría justificar el episodio febril, el hallazgo de A. defectiva en el hemocultivo se interpretó como perteneciente a una bacteriemia verdadera ya que esta especie, según nuestros conocimientos, no forma parte de la flora habitual de la piel. Este caso sugiere que A. defectiva también puede ser responsable de casos de bacteriemia en pacientes inmunocomprometidos.The presence of Granulicatella spp. in bacteremic episodes of neutropenic patients was recently highlighted whereas Abiotrophia defectiva, was only isolated in cases of infectious endocarditis. The aim of this study is to describe a case of A.defectiva bacteremia in a leukemic and febrile (40 °C neutropenic (200 GB/mm³ boy. A.defectiva was only isolated from one of the two processed blood samples . Although the patient was undergoing an episode of varicela which could have accounted as the possible cause of fever, A. defectiva was considered a significant finding because this species is not part of the commensal skin flora. This case suggests that both A. defectiva and Granulicatella spp. should be regarded as possible causes of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients.

  7. Infeções alimentares por Campylobacter

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    Neto, Carlota Duarte Castro

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz Após o isolamento bem-sucedido em fezes na década de setenta do século passado (1972), Campylobacter tornou-se rapidamente a espécie bacteriana mais comumente associada a doenças diarreicas em todo o mundo. A infeção por Campylobacter provoca um espectro de doenças, incluindo enterite aguda, infeções extra-gastrointestinais e complicações pós-infeciosas. A doença gastrointestinal autolimita...

  8. Brote de bacteriemia por Serratia marcescens en pacientes portadores de catéteres tunelizados en hemodiálisis secundario a colonización de la solución antiséptica. Experiencia en 4 centros

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    José L. Merino

    2016-11-01

    Conclusiones: Las bacteriemias por gérmenes no convencionales deben ponernos sobre aviso para investigar posibles brotes. La aplicación de una solución contaminada por S. marcescens en los catéteres en hemodiálisis fue la vía de bacteriemia. El tratamiento antibiótico intravenoso y el sellado de los catéteres permitió una excelente supervivencia tanto de los pacientes como de los catéteres.

  9. Efecto del tratamiento antibiótico inicial adecuado sobre la mortalidad en pacientes en estado crítico con bacteriemia por Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Andrés Leonardo González

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La bacteriemia es una de las infecciones hospitalarias de mayor mortalidad, especialmente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, donde es más frecuente. Pseudomonas aeruginosa es uno de los causantes de bacteriemia más agresivos. Objetivo. Evaluar la asociación entre el tratamiento antibiótico inicial y la mortalidad hospitalaria en estos pacientes. Materiales y métodos. Se trata de un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo multicéntrico realizado entre 2005 y 2008. Se consideró tratamiento adecuado aquel iniciado en las primeras 48 horas del diagnóstico que incluyera, al menos, una dosis de antibiótico intravenoso al que P. aeruginosa fuera sensible y hubiera sido suministrado en la dosis y frecuencia recomendadas. El desenlace principal fue la mortalidad hospitalaria en un lapso de 30 días. Se hizo pareo según grado de exposición usando índices de propensión y, posteriormente, análisis paramétrico de supervivencia. Resultados. Se incluyeron 164 pacientes. La mediana de edad y la clasificación del APACHE II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II fue de 56 y 13, respectivamente. Se identificó la fuente de la bacteriemia en 68,3 % de los casos, y la más frecuente fue el tracto respiratorio; 44 % de los pacientes recibió tratamiento inadecuado, y la resistencia bacteriana fue la principal variable asociada. La proporción de incidencia de sepsis grave, choque séptico, falla orgánica múltiple y muerte en el lapso de 30 días fue de 67,7, 50, 41,5 y 43,9 %, respectivamente. El tratamiento adecuado se asoció a una prolongación del tiempo hasta el evento (razón de tiempo ajustada, 2,95, IC95%, 1,63 a 5,33. Conclusión. El tratamiento antibiótico inicial adecuado es un factor protector contra la mortalidad hospitalaria en pacientes con bacteriemia por P. aeruginosa.

  10. Bacteriemia por Chryseobacterium indologenes em diabético em hemodiálise ambulatorial Bacteremia by Chryseobacterium indologenes in a diabetic patient undergoing ambulatory hemodialysis

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    Marcus Machado Ramos Souza de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chryseobacterium indologenes é uma bactéria de baixa virulência, encontrada no meio ambiente, raramente associada às infecções não hospitalares. A maioria das infecções causadas por ela associa-se ao uso de dispositivos invasivos durante a permanência em hospital. O presente relato trata de paciente renal crônico, diabético, apresentando episódios de bacteriemia durante sessões de hemodiálise ambulatorial por meio de cateter permcath.Chryseobacterium indologenes is a low-virulent bacterium found in the environment, which is rarely associated with non-nosocomial infections. Most infections caused by this pathogen are associated with the use of invasive devices in hospitalized patients. This study reports the case of a diabetic patient with chronic renal disease presenting episodes of bacteremia undergoing ambulatory hemodialysis with permcath catheter.

  11. Bacteriemia por Brucella canis: Aislamiento con el Sistema Bact-Alert Bacteriemia by Brucella canis: Isolation with the Bact-Alert System

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    R. Soloaga

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available B.canis puede causar enfermedad en humanos, pero esto es poco frecuente aún en países donde la infección es común en perros. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 15 años de edad que ingresa por fiebre de quince días de evolución sin foco aparente. El exámen físico mostró dolor hepático a la palpación y adenomegalias axilares, cervicales e inguinales. La ecografía abdominal evidenció esplenomegalia, la radiografía de tóraxy el ecocardiograma transtorácico no presentaron anormalidades. Se tomaron 5 hemocultivos (sistema Bact-Alert, Biomerieux, Marcy, l’Etolie, Francia los cuales resultaron positivos; los mismos correspondieron a 2 botellas estándares (tiempo de positivización de 72 y 64,8 horas y a 3 pediátricas FAN (tiempo de positivización de 74,5; 72 y 67,2 hs. El microorganismo fue identificado en forma presuntiva por pruebas bioquímicascomo B. canis y la identificación fue confirmada en el Instituto Malbrán. Luego de 14 días de tratamiento con ceftriaxona el paciente evolucionó afebril;al tener documentación bacteriológica de B.canis, se realizó tratamiento ambulatorio durante 21 días con doxiciclina (100 mg cada 12 hs y rifampicina (600 mg/día durante 6 semanas. Se descartó compromiso óseo y la evolución fue favorable desapareciendo todos los síntomas.Brucella canis and other species of the genus Brucella can cause human disease. However, this species infrequently cause human disease, including in countries where dogs population is highly infected. A 15 years old male was admitted to the hospital with 15 days history of fever without visible focus. Physical examination revealed pain at liver palpation and axillar, cervical and inguinal lymphoadenomegalies. Abdominal ultrasonography showed spleenomegally, the chest Rx and the trans thoracic echocardiogram were normal. Five blood samples were obtained and cultured in 2 standards bottles (time of positivization 72 - 64,8 hours, and 3 pediatric FAN bottles

  12. Costos económicos de neumonía adquirida en comunidad, meningitis y bacteriemia por Streptococcus pneumoniae en una población adulta que requirió hospitalización en Bogotá, Colombia

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    Claudia Calderón

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae en adultos se relacionan con neumonía, meningitis y bacteriemia. El costo de la atención en personas adultas no está bien documentado en Colombia, pero puede ser significativo. Objetivo. Analizar los costos asociados con la neumonía adquirida en comunidad, meningitis y bacteriemia por S. pneumoniae en adultos hospitalizados en Colombia y estimar el costo de la atención ambulatoria de esta neumonía. Servir de base para futuras evaluaciones económicas. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de costos directos asociados a neumonía adquirida en comunidad, meningitis y bacteriemia por S. pneumoniae confirmado por cultivos. Se tomó una muestra de conveniencia de adultos hospitalizados entre enero de 2010 y junio de 2011 en tres hospitales de tercer nivel de Bogotá. Se analizaron 107 registros y se obtuvieron 60 facturas cobradas al pagador. La información se clasificó por costos de atención y tratamiento. Para los casos ambulatorios de neumonía, el estimativo de costos se hizo utilizando metodología Delphi con expertos clínicos. Resultados. El promedio de los costos directos totales asociados con neumonía fue de Col$ 12’178.949, Col$ 7’533.187 para meningitis y Col$ 9’242.806 para bacteriemia. La neumonía se presentó en 70 % de los hombres y 30 % de las mujeres; la meningitis se distribuyó igual en ambos sexos (50 % y la bacteriemia se presentó en 67 % de los hombres y 33 % de las mujeres. El costo por adulto de la atención ambulatoria de la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad se estimó en Col$ 106.174. Para casos especiales se incrementó a Col$ 164.695. Conclusión. La enfermedad neumocócica en adultos, especialmente mayores de 45 años, representa un alto costo por el empleo de medicamentos y la estancia hospitalaria, que causan un impacto en los recursos del sistema. La prevención y el tratamiento temprano de las neumonías pueden disminuir costos y

  13. Bacteriemia por enterobacterias en adultos en un hospital universitario: análisis de cinco años Bacteremia by enterobacteria in adults from a university hospital: a five year analysis

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    A. V. Ocaña Carrizo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La bacteriemia sigue siendo una de las causas más importantes de morbilidad y mortalidad en pacientes adultos, a pesar de los numerosos antimicrobianos hoy disponibles y del aumento de las medidas de soporte. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar los episodios de bacteriemia por enterobacterias adquiridas en la comunidad y durante la hospitalización registrados durante un período de cinco años, estableciendo la prevalencia de especies, los factores de riesgo y los focos, así como la sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los microorganismos involucrados. Entre enero de 2000 y diciembre de 2004 se registraron en el Hospital Nacional de Clínicas de Córdoba 129 episodios de bacteriemias por enterobacterias: 45 correspondientes a pacientes ambulatorios (35% y 84 a hospitalizados (65%. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron neoplasia (33,3% y diabetes (12,4%; y los focos más habituales el urinario (29,5% y el abdominal (13,9%. La enterobacteria aislada con mayor frecuencia en ambas poblaciones fue E. coli, con una incidencia media del 53,5%, seguida de Klebsiella spp. (21,7% y Enterobacter spp. (12,4%. Las bacteriemias por Klebsiella spp. fueron más comunes en UTI. Esta especie junto con Enterobacter spp. fueron las bacterias más resistentes a los antimicrobianos ensayados.Bacteremia continues to be one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in adult patients despite the existence of numerous antimicrobial agents and an increase in support measures. The aim of this study was to analyze the cases of community and hospital-acquired bacteremia, by evaluating the prevalence of species, risk factors, source of infection and antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganisms involved. From January 2000 to December 2004, 129 cases of bacteremia due to enterobacteria were detected in 45 outpatients (35% and 84 inpatients (65%. The most common risk factors were neoplasia (33.3% and diabetes (12.4%; being urinary (29.5% and

  14. Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Collette

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacter continues to be one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrheal illness in the United States and worldwide. Infection with Campylobacter causes a spectrum of diseases including acute enteritis, extraintestinal infections, and postinfectious complications. The most common species of Campylobacter associated with human illness is Campylobacter jejuni, but other Campylobacter species can also cause human infections. This comprehensive review includes discussion of the taxonomy, clinical manifestations of infection, epidemiology and the different methods of laboratory detection of Campylobacter. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  16. ESTUDIO COMPARADO DE INFECCIÓN POR SALMONELLA Y CAMPYLOBACTER EN HUESCA. 1996-1999

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    Ignacio Pérez Ciordia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Los g neros Salmonella y Campylobacter son los principales agentes bacterianos causantes de enteritis en el hombre en los pa ses desarrollados. El objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar las caracter sticas descriptivas de los casos de infecci n por Salmonella y por Campylobacter y describir su tendencia y variaci n estacional en la provincia de Huesca para el per odo 1996-1999 M todo: Las fuentes de informaci n han sido los Laboratorios Microbiol gicos Hospitalarios (LMH que realizan anal ticas de coprocultivo tanto de enfermos ambulatorios como hospitalarios. Se toma el municipio como unidad de referencia para representar la distribuci n espacial. Para el estudio de la tendencia se utiliza un modelo determinista multiplicativo, agrupando los datos en per odos cuatrisemanales Resultados: Se han recogido un total de 781 casos de infecci n por Salmonella y 654 casos de infecci n por Campylobacter, con unas tasas medias anuales de 95 y 79,5 105 habitantes respectivamente. La enteritis por Campylobacter se presenta mayoritariamente en menores de 5 a os (73,4 %, contra el 35,5 % para la salmonelosis. La situaci n se invierte en el caso de porcentaje de ingreso hospitalario; as , el ingreso por salmonelosis es casi 5 veces superior. Ambos g neros presentan una clara estacionalidad, con un pico pronunciado en el mes de agosto. Conclusiones: Se observa una tendencia ascendente en el n mero de aislamientos positivos para ambos microorganismos y una clara estacionalidad en la poca estival.

  17. Estudio comparado de infección por Salmonella y Campylobacter en Huesca. 1996-1999

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    Pérez-Ciordia Ignacio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Los géneros Salmonella y Campylobacter son los principales agentes bacterianos causantes de enteritis en el hombre en los países desarrollados. El objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar las características descriptivas de los casos de infección por Salmonella y por Campylobacter y describir su tendencia y variación estacional en la provincia de Huesca para el período 1996-1999 Método: Las fuentes de información han sido los Laboratorios Microbiológicos Hospitalarios (LMH que realizan analíticas de coprocultivo tanto de enfermos ambulatorios como hospitalarios. Se toma el municipio como unidad de referencia para representar la distribución espacial. Para el estudio de la tendencia se utiliza un modelo determinista multiplicativo, agrupando los datos en períodos cuatrisemanales Resultados: Se han recogido un total de 781 casos de infección por Salmonella y 654 casos de infección por Campylobacter, con unas tasas medias anuales de 95 y 79,5 × 10(5 habitantes respectivamente. La enteritis por Campylobacter se presenta mayoritariamente en menores de 5 años (73,4 %, contra el 35,5 % para la salmonelosis. La situación se invierte en el caso de porcentaje de ingreso hospitalario; así, el ingreso por salmonelosis es casi 5 veces superior. Ambos géneros presentan una clara estacionalidad, con un pico pronunciado en el mes de agosto. Conclusiones: Se observa una tendencia ascendente en el número de aislamientos positivos para ambos microorganismos y una clara estacionalidad en la época estival.

  18. Bacteriemia por Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139 en un paciente en hemodiálisis crónica Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia in a chronic hemodialysis patient

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    Mariela S. Zárate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139 es un agente poco frecuente como causal de bacteriemias y no hay informes que documenten su presencia en pacientes en hemodiálisis crónica. Se describe el caso de una paciente en hemodiálisis crónica que presentó un cuadro de sepsis, por lo cual inició un tratamiento con vancomicina y ceftacidima. Al cabo de seis horas y media de incubación en el sistema BACT/ALERT de hemocultivo, se evidenció la presencia de bacilos curvos gram negativos, posteriormente identificados como Vibrio cholerae mediante pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y el uso de los kits API 20 NE y VITEK 2. La evaluación del serogrupo y de la presencia de factores de patogenicidad, realizada en el laboratorio de referencia, determinó que el microorganismo hallado pertenecía al serogrupo no-O1, no-O139. No se detectó la toxina de cólera, tampoco el factor de colonización ni la toxina termoestable. El aislamiento presentó sensibilidad frente a ampicilina, trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol, ciprofloxacina, tetraciclina, ceftacidima y cefotaxima por el método de difusión con discos y por VITEK 2. La paciente cumplió 14 días de tratamiento con ceftacidima endovenosa, con evolución favorable.Non-O1, and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae is an infrequent cause of bacteremia. There are no reports of such bacteremia in chronic hemodialysis patients. This work describes the case of a chronic hemodialysis patient that had an episode of septicemia associated with dialysis. Blood cultures were obtained and treatment was begun with vancomycin and ceftazidime. After 6.5 hours of incubation in the Bact/Alert system there is evidence of gram-negative curved bacilli that were identified as Vibrio cholerae by conventional biochemical tests, API 20 NE and the VITEK 2 system. This microorganism was sent to the reference laboratory for evaluation of serogroup and virulence factors and was identified as belonging to the non-O1 and non-O139 serogroup. The cholera

  19. Prevalencia de bacteriemias relacionadas con el catéter de hemodiálisis en una unidad hospitalaria

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    Patricia Arribas Cobo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad ha aumentado el uso de catéteres tunelizados como acceso vascular permanente para los pacientes en hemodiálisis a pesar de las complicaciones que tiene asociadas, como puede ser la bacteriemia relacionada con el catéter. El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar la tasa de prevalencia de bacteriemia relacionada con el catéter para hemodiálisis, obtenida con la aplicación estricta de un protocolo de cuidados del catéter tunelizado por un personal bien entrenado en la unidad de hemodiálisis del Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor entre abril de 2008 y abril de 2013, así como describir las posibles causas de bacteriemia relacionada con el catéter, la relación con alguna de las variables y su evolución en los últimos años. Durante los 5 años de estudio tuvimos 9 episodios de bacteriemia relacionada con el catéter, lo que supone una tasa global de prevalencia de 0,25/1000 días de catéter. La tasa por cada uno de los años fue menor de 1/1000 días de catéter. Los pacientes que tuvieron una bacteriemia relacionada con el catéter tuvieron implantados mayor número de catéteres que los que no la tuvieron, siendo esta diferencia significativa (p=0,027. No se encontraron diferencias con respecto a la edad, el sexo, la diabetes mellitus, el índice de comorbilidad de Charlson y la localización de los catéteres entre los pacientes que padecieron una bacteriemia relacionada con el catéter de los que no.

  20. Mortality among critically ill patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a multicenter cohort study in Colombia Mortalidad en pacientes gravemente enfermos con bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina: un estudio multicéntrico de cohortes en Colombia

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    Juan S. Castillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA bacteremia emergence, its prognosis, and mortality-determining factors in critically ill patients in Colombia. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study conducted in 2005-2008 at 16 public and private reference health care institutions in Bogotá, Colombia, that form part of a national epidemiological surveillance network and a hospital network with 4 469 beds. Methicillin-resistant emergence and mortality were analyzed using descriptive and time-to-event analysis; a multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model was built to test the association between methicillin resistance and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 372 patients were studied: 186 with MRSA bacteremia, randomly matched with 186 with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA bacteremia. Previous surgery, antibiotic exposure, and hospital-acquired infections were independently associated with methicillin resistance. MRSA caused longer hospital stays among survivors (median 24 versus 18 days, P = 0.014. Mortality predictors were: patient age, creatinine level over 1.21mg/dl at ICU admission, severe sepsis, and inotropic requirement. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy and antimicrobial therapy change were independent protective factors, as was male gender. CONCLUSIONS: Methicillin resistance per se was not a mortality-independent prognostic factor. Previous conditions, such as age, baseline renal impairment, severe sepsis, and inotropy demand explained the observed mortality. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy remained a protective factor. A call to improve infection control measures in Colombia is mandatory.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados con la aparición de bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (MRSA, su pronóstico y los factores determinantes de la mortalidad en pacientes gravemente enfermos en Colombia. M

  1. Bacteriemia en pacientes internados con celulitis

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    Juan S. Lasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La celulitis es una inflamación aguda de la dermis y tejido celular subcutáneo de causa bacteriana, que generalmente complica a heridas, úlceras y dermatosis, aunque de manera frecuente no existe sitio de entrada. Se recomienda la realización de cultivo de punción de piel y partes blandas (PPB. Los hemocultivos raramente dan resultados positivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de bacteriemia en pacientes internados en nuestra institución con diagnóstico de celulitis. Se analizaron retrospectivamente los registros clínicos de los pacientes con este diagnóstico al ingreso entre junio de 2007 y marzo de 2010. Se evaluaron los datos poblacionales, presencia de comorbilidades, y resultados de los cultivos. En ese período, se internaron 140 pacientes con diagnóstico de celulitis y a todos ellos se les realizó hemocultivo y cultivos de PPB. Setenta y cuatro eran varones (52.8%. La edad promedio: 47.5 ± 19.7 años (rango 16-94. El 40% tuvo cultivos positivos de PPB, en los que el Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR fue el germen más frecuentemente aislado (35.7%; la prevalencia de bacteriemia fue del 8.6%, en donde el germen más frecuente fue Streptoccocus Beta hemolítico, grupo G (33% del total de hemocultivos positivos. La bacteriemia se asoció significativamente a mayor estadía hospitalaria (10.5 ± 8.9 vs. 4.9 ± 6, p = 0.004. Se asoció con mayor riesgo de hemocultivo positivo a ser diabético, tener cultivo de PPB positivo, consumo de alcohol y/o enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica.

  2. Impacto de la resistencia a la meticilina sobre la mortalidad y vigilancia de la sensibilidad a la vancomicina en bacteriemias causadas por Staphylococcus aureus Impact of methicillin resistance on mortality and surveillance of vancomycin susceptibility in bacteremias caused by Staphylococcus aureus

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    F. Traverso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los principales patógenos nosocomiales y produce una alta morbimortalidad en numerosos hospitales del mundo. Además, la incidencia de bacteriemias por este microorganismo ha aumentado significativamente en las últimas décadas. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron identificar los factores de riesgo que favorecen la aparición de resistencia a la meticilina en aislamientos de S. aureus y los factores que afectan la mortalidad por bacteriemias asociadas a este patógeno, así como evaluar la sensibilidad a la vancomicina de las cepas resistentes a la meticilina. Se estudiaron 39 aislamientos de S. aureus provenientes de hemocultivos de pacientes internados con bacteriemia en la Nueva Clínica Chacabuco de Tandil (Pcia. de Buenos Aires, Argentina en el período 01/2006-12/2008. La mortalidad global fue del 51,3% y estuvo significativamente asociada con la resistencia a la meticilina (OR: 4,20; IC95%: 1,08-16,32; p: 0,05; aunque dicho factor no fue un predictor independiente de mortalidad. La cirugía previa (OR: 17,23; IC95%: 1,80-164,60 y la estancia previa en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (OR: 21,12; IC95%: 2,33-191,30 fueron predictores independientes de la resistencia a la meticilina y la asistencia respiratoria mecánica (OR: 15,99; IC: 3,24-78,86 fue un predictor independiente de la mortalidad. No se detectaron cepas con sensibilidad disminuida a la vancomicina. Todos los aislamientos estudiados fueron sensibles in vitro a la vancomicina, con una CIM50 y una CIM90 de 0,5 μg/ml.Staphylococcus aureus is a major nosocomial pathogen that causes severe morbidity and mortality in many hospitals worldwide. Besides, the incidence of S. aureus bacteremia has significantly increased over the past decades. The aims of this study were to detect the risk factors for methicillin resistance and mortality and to evaluate vancomycin susceptibility in methicillin-resistant isolates. Thus, 39 S. aureus isolates from

  3. Incidencia de bacteriemia y neumonía nosocomial en una unidad de pediatría

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    Martínez-Aguilar Gerardo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la incidencia de bacteriemia relacionada con catéter y neumonía asociada a ventilador en niños hospitalizados. Material y métodos. Estudio prospectivo. En el servicio de Pediatría del Hospital General Regional (HGR No 1 del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, de Durango, México, durante 18 meses, de enero de 1999 a junio del 2000, se implementó un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica activa para identificar episodios de neumonía y bacteriemia nosocomial de acuerdo a las definiciones operacionales de la Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM. A los pacientes hospitalizados que por su patología requirieron de ventilación mecánica o de catéter intravenoso central se les hizo seguimiento desde el primer día de exposición hasta la detección del episodio de infección o su retiro. Se efectuaron hemocultivos y cultivos de aspirado traqueal. Se calcularon tasas de incidencia para la neumonía asociada a ventilador y de bacteriemia/sepsis por 1 000 días de exposición con sus respectivos intervalos de confianza al 95%. También se presenta la tasa mensual de la infección por días de exposición por medio de gráficas de control estadístico. Resultados. Se identificaron 47 episodios de bacteriemia/sepsis relacionada con catéter y 44 de neumonía asociada a ventilador. La tasa de incidencia de neumonía fue de 28 eventos por 1 000 días de exposición a ventilador y la de bacteriemia/sepsis fue de 26 eventos por 1 000 días de exposición a catéter intravenoso central. Los microrganismos gram positivos (61.11% predominaron sobre los gram negativos (38.88%. Conclusiones. Este estudio documentó tasas de neumonía y bacteriemia en niños, sustancialmente más elevadas que en otros informes, lo que hace necesario establecer lineamientos para la prevención de infecciones en niños con catéteres intravasculares y sobre los cuidados que requieren los niños sometidos a ventilación mecánica. El texto completo en ingl

  4. Bacteriemia asociada a neutropenia febril en pacientes hemato-oncológicos, su espectro bacteriano y patrón de susceptibilidad antibiótica

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    Lucy Johanna Hinojosa-Andía

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La neutropenia febril es una de las complicaciones más frecuentes y de mayor morbilidad y mortalidad en los pacientes hematológicos. Su documentación microbiológica es una herramienta invaluable para el manejo; sin embargo, la cambiante tendencia en etiología de la bacteriemia y el patrón de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana comprometen la tasa de respuesta a los esquemas de tratamiento empírico. Objetivo: Determinar la etiología de bacteriemia en pacientes con neoplasias hematológicas y neutropenia febril, su patrón de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y el grado de resistencia vigente a los medicamentos comúnmente utilizados en esquemas empíricos de manejo. Material y métodos: Se revisaron datos microbiológicos de las historias clínicas de pacientes hematológicos, hospitalizados en el HNERM entre diciembre 2010 y marzo 2012; que habían presentado neutropenia febril y bacteriemia concurrente. La información se analizó con el paquete estadístico STATA v. 10 y se empleó estadística descriptiva. Resultados: La bacteriemia fue predominantemente por bacterias gram negativas (75,9% y post consolidación de LMA con Ara-C por gram positivas (63,6%. La mortalidad de pacientes post reinducción con bacteriemia fue 75% y se asoció a Klebsiella pneumoniae BLEE+ en 31,2%. Conclusiones: Gérmenes gram negativos fueron la etiología más frecuente de bacteriemia en la población estudiada, particularmente en pacientes que recibieron quimioterapia de reinducción, donde se vio la mayor frecuencia de bacteriemia con mayor resistencia y asociados a mayor mortalidad. Posterior a quimioterapia de consolidación con Citarabina en altas dosis para LMA, resultó más frecuente la bacteriemia a gram positivos. Carbapenems y Amoxicilina/Clavulánico mostraron considerable menor resistencia que cefalosporinas y fluoroquinolonas.

  5. Bacteriemia fulminante asociada a Capnocytophaga sputigena en un paciente con linfoma no Hodgkin tipo T: Diagnóstico por secuenciación genética del ARNr 16S Fatal bacteremia related to Capnocytophaga sputigena in a hematological patient with type T non- Hodgkin lymphoma: Diagnosis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing

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    Tomás García Lozano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Describimos un caso de bacteriemia fulminante asociada a Capnocytophaga sputigena en un paciente hematológico. El aislamiento fue identificado mediante la secuenciación genética de la subunidad 16S del ARNr.We described a case of fatal bacteremia related to Capnocytophaga sputigena in a hematological patient. The strain was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  6. Double-locus sequence typing using porA and peb1A for epidemiological studies of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Monir U; Dunn, Louise; Valcanis, Mary; Hogg, Geoff; Ivanova, Elena P

    2014-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Bacterial typing schemes play an important role in epidemiological investigations to trace the source and route of transmission of the infectious agent by identifying outbreak and differentiating among sporadic infections. In this study, a double-locus sequence typing (DLST) scheme for C. jejuni based on concatenated partial sequences of porA and peb1A genes is proposed. The DLST scheme was validated using 50 clinical and environmental C. jejuni strains isolated from human (C5, H, H15-H19), chicken (CH1-CH15), water (W2-W17), and ovine samples (OV1-OV6). The scheme was found to be highly discriminatory (discrimination index [DI]=0.964) and epidemiologically concordant based on C. jejuni strains studied. The DLST showed discriminatory power above 0.95 and excellent congruence to multilocus sequence typing and can be recommended as a rapid and low-cost typing scheme for epidemiological investigation of C. jejuni. It is suggested that the DLST scheme is suitable for identification of outbreak strains and differentiation of the sporadic infection strains.

  7. Control de bacteriemia nosocomial pediátrica mediante un programa de cultivo de soluciones parenterales en uso

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    Muñoz Juan M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Dado que Klebsiella, Enterobacter y Serratia se multiplican en soluciones parenterales y son responsables de una elevada proporción de bacteriemias en los hospitales de México, se propone una estrategia de control mediante la vigilancia microbiológica de las soluciones en uso. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Hospital de enseñanza de segundo nivel con 193 camas. Atiende principalmente pacientes de escasos recursos. En 1992 se inició la vigilancia de la esterilidad de las soluciones parenterales en los servicios pediátricos mediante cuatro estrategias: durante la primera etapa se cultivó el total de soluciones en uso. Durante la segunda se cultivaron muestras aleatoriamente elegidas. Tercera y cuarta etapas con muestreo controlado y dirigido, respectivamente. RESULTADOS. Se han cultivado 1940 infusiones. Se ha observado una reducción de la tasa de contaminación (de 29.6% en 1992 a 12.9% en 1997, p< 0.001. Asimismo se redujo la proporción de bacilos gramnegativos aislados en sangre (72.7% vs 40.85%, p< 0.001 y las bacteriemias nosocomiales primarias (BNP (3.12 vs 1.54 por 100 egresos, p< 0.0001. CONCLUSIONES. La detección de contaminantes señala posibles fallas en el manejo parenteral, áreas de riesgo y pacientes potencialmente afectados. El programa permite estudiar el nivel endémico de contaminación de infusiones y limitar los brotes de bacteriemias nosocomiales primarias a un costo bajo.

  8. Tendencia y variaciones estacionales de las gastroenteritis por campylobacter en Valladolid. Serie de cinco años: 2000-2004

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    Francisco Javier Luquero Alcalde

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El Campylobacter es uno de los principales patógenos entéricos, sin embargo algunos aspectos de su epidemiología no se conocen con precisión. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar en la provincia de Valladolid la tendencia y variación estacional de las gastroenteritis que provoca. Métodos: Se realizó un análisis de series temporales mediante un modelo aditivo a partir de las declaraciones realizadas al Sistema de Información Microbiológico por los dos principales hospitales de la provincia de Valladolid. Se consideró como caso a los pacientes que presentaron un coprocultivo con un aislamiento de Campylobacter spp. en el período 2000- 2004. Se determinaron la tendencia, los coeficientes estacionales de la serie de casos, las tasas de incidencia en función de la edad, el sexo y el año de declaración y las razones de tasas. Resultados: Se observó una tendencia descendente en la declaración de casos durante el periodo de estudio y se detectó un coeficiente estacional significativo en la cuatrisemana seis (c=12,854, p=0,023. La tasa de incidencia fue mayor en los menores de cinco años y en los hombres, ascendiendo a 1841,9 casos (IC 95: 1797,2-1889,6 y 99,7 casos (IC 95% 96,9-102,4 por 100.000 habitantes-año respectivamente. Conclusiones: La infección por Campylobacter tiene lugar en mayor medida en la época del final de la primavera, afectando principalmente a los niños. Es necesario profundizar en el conocimiento de la epidemiología de este microorganismo a nivel local con un abordaje multidisciplinar que considere tanto aspectos microbiológicos como epidemiológicos.

  9. Bacteriemia após exodontia unitária, empregando dois métodos de anti-sepsia intrabucal

    OpenAIRE

    ROCHA BARROS Valdemar Mallet da; ITO Izabel Yoko; AZEVEDO Rosa Vitória P.; MORELLO Danielle; ROSATELI Pedro Augusto; FILIPECKI Lara Cappato

    2000-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a freqüência de bacteriemias pós-exodontia utilizando dois métodos de anti-sepsia pré-operatória, identificando os microrganismos isolados de hemoculturas pós-extração e avaliando a sua suscetibilidade a antibióticos. Vinte e seis pacientes tiveram 33 dentes extraídos. Dezesseis casos foram submetidos a anti-sepsia com bochecho com 15 ml de gluconato de clorexidina a 0,12% por um minuto, seguido da fricção das faces dentais com cotonete embebido na mesma sol...

  10. Molecular epidemiology of a nosocomial outbreak due to Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter agglomerans in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Epidemiologia molecular de um surto de bacteriemia por Enterobacter cloacae e Enterobacter agglomerans ocorrido na região de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Célia R. GONÇALVES

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 73 isolates (57 Enterobacter cloacae and 16 Enterobacter agglomerans, recovered during an outbreak of bacteremia in the Campinas area, São Paulo, Brazil, were studied. Of these isolates, 61 were from parenteral nutrition solutions, 9 from blood cultures, 2 from a sealed bottle of parenteral nutrition solution, and one was of unknown origin. Of the 57 E. cloacae isolates, 54 were biotype 26, two were biotype 66 and one was non-typable. Of 39 E. cloacae isolates submitted to ribotyping, 87.2% showed the same banding pattern after cleavage with EcoRI and BamHI. No important differences were observed in the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among E. cloacae isolates exhibiting the same biotype, serotype and ribotype. All E. agglomerans isolates, irrespective of their origin, showed same patterns when cleaved with EcoRI and BamHI. The results of this investigation suggest an intrinsic contamination of parenteral nutrition solutions and incriminate these products as a vehicle of infection in this outbreak.Foram estudadas um total de 73 cepas (57 de E. cloacae e 16 E. agglomerans, isoladas durante um surto de bacteriemia ocorrido na região de Campinas, S. Paulo. Entre estas cepas, 61 foram isoladas de solução de nutrição parenteral, 9 de sangue, 2 de bolsa fechada de solução de nutrição parenteral e uma era de origem desconhecida. Entre as 57 cepas de E. cloacae, a maioria das cepas foram do biotipo 26/sorotipo O3 (39 cepas e do biotipo 26/OR (13. Entre as 39 cepas de E. cloacae ribotipadas, 87,2% apresentaram o mesmo padrão de bandas com EcoRI e BamHI. Cepas de E. cloacae pertencentes ao mesmo biotipo, sorotipo e ribotipo não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação ao padrão de sensibilidade aos agentes antimicrobianos. Todas as cepas de E. agglomerans, independente da origem, pertenciam ao mesmo ribotipo após a clivagem com EcoRI e BamHI. Os resultados obtidos sugerem uma contaminação intrínseca das solu

  11. Characterisation by multilocus sequence and porA and flaA typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from samples of dog faeces collected in one city in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, V; Stevenson, M A; Marshall, J C; French, N P

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in dog faecal material collected from dog walkways in the city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, and to characterise the C. jejuni isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and porA and flaA antigen gene typing. A total of 355 fresh samples of dogs faeces were collected from bins provided for the disposal of dog faeces in 10 walkways in Palmerston North, New Zealand, between August 2008-July 2009. Presumptive Campylobacter colonies, cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate plates, were screened for genus Campylobacter and C. jejuni by PCR. The C. jejuni isolates were subsequently characterised by MLST and porA and flaA typing, and C. jejuni sequence types (ST) were assigned. Of the 355 samples collected, 72 (20 (95% CI=16-25)%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 22 (6 (95% CI=4-9)%) were positive for C. jejuni. Of the 22 C. jejuni isolates, 19 were fully typed by MLST. Ten isolates were assigned to the clonal complex ST-45 and three to ST-52. The allelic combinations of ST-45/flaA 21/porA 44 (n=3), ST-45/flaA 22/porA 53 (n=3) and ST-52/ flaA 57/porA 905 (n=3) were most frequent. The successful isolation of C. jejuni from canine faecal samples collected from faecal bins provides evidence that Campylobacter spp. may survive outside the host for at least several hours despite requiring fastidious growth conditions in culture. The results show that dogs carry C. jejuni genotypes (ST-45, ST-50, ST-52 and ST-696) that have been reported in human clinical cases. Although these results do not provide any evidence either for the direction of infection or for dogs being a potential risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, dog owners are advised to practice good hygiene with respect to their pets to reduce potential exposure to infection.

  12. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... You can also get it from drinking contaminated water or raw milk, or handling infected animal feces ( ...

  13. Survey of chicken abattoir for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Pesquisa de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves

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    Ana L.L. Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhea. These species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. This study investigated the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken abattoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 288 samples of feces, feathers, scald water, evisceration water, chiller water, and the rinse water of eviscerated, not eviscerated and chilled carcasses were collected in six chicken abattoirs. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was performed in Campylobacter spp.-positive isolates using the gene HIP, specific for hippuricase enzyme from Campylobacter jejuni and aspartokinase gene, specific to detect Campylobacter coli. The percentage of positive isolates of Campylobacter jejuni was 4.9% (14/288. Isolation was greater in feces samples (22%, 8/36. One sample was positive for the species C. coli. In conclusion, the results indicate that it is necessary to improve quality control for Campylobacter spp. in chicken abattoirs.O gênero Campylobacter tem grande destaque em saúde pública, principalmente por pertencerem a este gênero várias espécies que podem causar diarréia. Estas espécies podem ser encontradas em amostras de água, alimentos e no trato intestinal das aves. Este estudo investigou a presença de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves no Estado de São Paulo. As 288 amostras foram coletadas em seis estabelecimentos e incluíram: fezes; penas; água de escaldamento, de evisceração e de resfriamento; e água de enxaguadura de carcaça não eviscerada, eviscerada e resfriada. Após o isolamento microbiológico das amostras positivas de Campylobacter spp. foi realizada uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR utilizando o gene HIP, da hipuricase, específico para Campylobacter jejuni e o gene da enzima aspartoquinase, específico para Campylobacter coli. A

  14. Incidence of Fever and Bacteriemia Following Flexible Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy: A Prospective Study

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    Babak Sharif-Kashani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest American Heart Association (AHA statement for preventing infectious endocarditis, has not recommended prophylactic antibiotic therapy prior to fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB except for patients with preexisting predisposing cardiac conditions. Our aim was to determine the incidence of bacteriemia and fever following FB in our experience and compare with those which have been mentioned in AHA guideline as well as other studies. Venous blood of 85 consecutive patients was evaluated for both aerobic and anaerobic cultures before (for detecting possible previous bacteriemia and after FB. None of the patients were treated with antibiotics prior to the procedure. All the patients were examined during the first 24 hours after FB for detecting fever defined as temperature more than 38 °C. Positive hemocultures were noted in 7 (8.2 % patients after FB examination. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, coagulase positive Staphylococcus, beta haemolytic Streptococcus, Citrobacter freundii and Streptococcus viridans were found in 4, 1, 1 and 1 cultures of patients, respectively. By excluding 6 contaminated samples, the rate of bacteriemia reduced to 1 (1.1% patient in whom the identical pathogen (Streptococcus viridans was found both in bronchial lavage and venous blood culture. We also found fever in 9 (10.5 % cases in the first 24 hours following the bronchoscopy. Our results were in consistent with AHA recommendations regarding prevention of infectious endocarditis as a practical gridline in patients who schedule for FB. Besides, transient fever following bronchoscopy is a common self-limited event which does not need medical intervention.

  15. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity ... Body Campylobacter are a type of bacteria that produce infections in the GI tract. They are a major bacterial cause of diarrheal sickness among children in the United States. You may hear ...

  16. Campylobacter fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Ayaka; Hashimoto, Etaro; Ishioka, Haruhiko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Harumi

    2018-01-01

    Meningitis caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus in immunocompetent adults is rare. We report a 48-year-old Japanese woman with no underlying disease who was found to have meningitis caused by C. fetus . Both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid culture. The mode of infection in our patient was considered to be associated with the consumption of raw beef and raw cattle liver on a regular basis. Public awareness and education to avoid the consumption of raw or undercooked meat might help prevent C. fetus meningitis.

  17. Infecciones por enterobacterias productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido tras cirugía cardiaca: su impacto en la mortalidad

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    Francisco F. Rodríguez-Vidigal

    2016-07-01

    Conclusiones: La infección por EP BLEE en la post-cirugía cardiaca puede asociarse a mayor mortalidad, especialmente cuando hay bacteriemia. Ante la sospecha de infección post-quirúrgica por enterobacterias, se debe ajustar el tratamiento empírico según la incidencia local de EP BLEE.

  18. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003530.htm Campylobacter serology test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look ...

  19. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial ...

  20. Bacteriemia during endodontic treatment in relation to the technique of biomechanical preparation: randomized clinical trial Bacteriemia durante o tratamento endodôntico em função da técnica de preparo biomecânico: ensaio clínico randomizado

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    Adriane Tenório Dourado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the frequency of bacteriemia during endodontic treatment, with comparison between two techniques for biomechanical preparation of the root canal system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample comprised 50 patients aged 16 to 52 years, of both genders, which were divided into 2 groups with 25 patients each. Group I underwent biomechanical preparation by the step-back technique, and Group II was treated by the rotary technique with nickel-titanium instruments (K3. Patients were submitted to antisepsis of the oral cavity with chlorhexidine digluconate and three samples of blood were collected for blood culture: preoperatively, immediately after the biomechanical preparation and 10 minutes later. The significance level adopted was 5.0%, and analysis was performed by descriptive and inferential statistics by means of the Fisher's exact test, Fisher-Freeman-Halton test and Student's t test. Data were analyzed on the Statexact and SPSS softwares. RESULTS: All blood cultures achieved before and immediately after preparation were negative. On the other hand, with regard to the blood cultures collected 10 minutes after preparation, one (4% positive case was found for Group I. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.50. CONCLUSION: The frequency of bacteriemia was low and observed just for Group I.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste ensaio clínico randomizado foi avaliar a freqüência de bacteriemia durante o tratamento endodôntico comparando duas técnicas de preparo biomecânico do sistema de canais radiculares. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: A amostra constou de 50 pacientes, com idade variando entre 16 e 52 anos e de ambos os sexos, sendo dividida em 2 grupos de 25 pacientes. No Grupo I, realizou-se o preparo biomecânico através da técnica escalonada com recuo progressivo programado, e, no Grupo II, por meio técnica rotatória, empregando instrumentos de níquel-titânio (K3

  1. PRESENCE OF RESISTANCE IN CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI AND CAMPYLOBACTER COLI

    OpenAIRE

    Branislava Kocić; Biljana Miljković-Selimović; Tatjana Babić; Ljiljana Ristić

    2009-01-01

    There are 18 species belonging to the genus of Campylobacter (rRNK group I), of which thermophilic ones are the following: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis. The aim of our research was to determine the sensitivity of Campylobacter species, isolated from human feces, to antibiotics being used in practice. The study involved 50 human strains of C. jejuni/coli isolated from feces in the Center for Microbiology in the Public Health Insti...

  2. Bacteriemia en pacientes internados con celulitis Bacteremia in patients hospitalized with cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S. Lasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La celulitis es una inflamación aguda de la dermis y tejido celular subcutáneo de causa bacteriana, que generalmente complica a heridas, úlceras y dermatosis, aunque de manera frecuente no existe sitio de entrada. Se recomienda la realización de cultivo de punción de piel y partes blandas (PPB. Los hemocultivos raramente dan resultados positivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de bacteriemia en pacientes internados en nuestra institución con diagnóstico de celulitis. Se analizaron retrospectivamente los registros clínicos de los pacientes con este diagnóstico al ingreso entre junio de 2007 y marzo de 2010. Se evaluaron los datos poblacionales, presencia de comorbilidades, y resultados de los cultivos. En ese período, se internaron 140 pacientes con diagnóstico de celulitis y a todos ellos se les realizó hemocultivo y cultivos de PPB. Setenta y cuatro eran varones (52.8%. La edad promedio: 47.5 ± 19.7 años (rango 16-94. El 40% tuvo cultivos positivos de PPB, en los que el Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR fue el germen más frecuentemente aislado (35.7%; la prevalencia de bacteriemia fue del 8.6%, en donde el germen más frecuente fue Streptoccocus Beta hemolítico, grupo G (33% del total de hemocultivos positivos. La bacteriemia se asoció significativamente a mayor estadía hospitalaria (10.5 ± 8.9 vs. 4.9 ± 6, p = 0.004. Se asoció con mayor riesgo de hemocultivo positivo a ser diabético, tener cultivo de PPB positivo, consumo de alcohol y/o enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica.Cellulitis is an acute inflammation of dermis and subcutaneous tissue, usually complicating wounds, ulcers, or dermatosis. Even though in these cases it is recommended to perform culture from skin and soft tissue samples, the utility of blood cultures remains controversial due to the low frequency of positive results. Here we report the prevalence of bacteremia in patients with cellulitis admitted in our

  3. Bacteriemias de origen comunitario en pacientes adultos que acuden al servicio de urgencias de un hospital universitario Community-acquired bacteremia in adult patients attending the emergency service of a teaching hospital

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    Muriel J Artico

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La bacteriemia es causa importante de morbimortalidad. Nuestro objetivo es describir una serie de episodios de bacteriemia de origen comunitario en adultos, registrados en el hospital de Clínicas de Córdoba. Entre enero de 2005 y diciembre de 2009 se estudiaron 271 episodios. La rentabilidad diagnóstica del hemocultivo fue 13,5 %. El 52 % de los pacientes eran varones y el 48 % mujeres, la edad promedio fue de 60 años. Las comorbilidades prevalentes fueron diabetes (21 %, neoplasia (18 %, cardiopatía (11 % e infección por HIV (8 %. Los focos que se pudieron establecer fueron el respiratorio (21 %, el urinario (15 %, el cutáneo (9 % y otros (13 %. Predominaron las bacterias gram positivas (51,4 %. Los microorganismos más frecuentes fueron Escherichia coli (25 %, Streptococcus pneumoniae (22,9 % y Staphylococcus aureus (12,3 %. La bacteriemia fue polimicrobiana en el 7 % de los casos. El 33 % de los aislamientos de E. coli presentó resistencia a la ciprofloxacina y el 6 % a la ceftacidima. El 14 % de los aislamientos de S. aureus fue resistente a la oxacilina. Solo el 7 % de los aislamientos de S. pneumoniae expresó altos niveles de resistencia a la penicilina según el criterio poblacional, con CIM = 2 ug/ml.Bacteremia is an important cause of morbimortality. This study describes the episodes of community-acquired bacteremia in adult patients registered at our hospital. Between January 2005, and December 2009, 271 episodes were studied. The diagnostic yield of blood cultures was 13.5 %. A total of 52 % of patients were male and 48 % female. The mean age was 60. The most frequent comorbidities were: diabetes (21 %, neoplasia (18 %, cardiopathy (11 %, and HIV infection (8 %. The focus was- respiratory (21 %, urinary (15 %, cutaneous (9 %, and others (13 %. Gram-positive bacteria prevailed (51.4%. The most frequent microorganisms were Escherichia coli (25 %, Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.9 %, and Staphylococcus aureus (12.3 %. Bacteremia

  4. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  5. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  6. Infecciones por bacterias poco comunes y oncogénesis bacteriana

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    Horacio A. Lopardo

    Full Text Available La recuperación de algunos microorganismos de aislamiento esporádico en el laboratorio de microbiología clínica podría significar la existencia de algún defecto inmunitarioespecial en el paciente. Por ejemplo, se ha descrito una importante correlación entre Clostridium septicum y carcinoma de colon, y se han visto relacionadas con leucemias y linfomas a especies que aparecen casi siempre como contaminantes (Bacillus spp., Corynebacterium spp. y a otras raramente aisladas en otros contextos (Capnocytophaga spp.. Hay bacterias que se aíslan casi exclusivamente de pacientes con sida (Rhodococcus equi. Se ha observado una mayor frecuencia de infecciones por Campylobacter spp., Aeromonas spp. y estreptococos del grupo G y del grupo mitis en individuos con algún tipo de cáncer que en el resto de los pacientes. También hay bacterias que son marcadoras de algún cáncer no detectado o que afectan más a pacientes neutropénicos que a individuos normoinmunes. La alteración de la reacción inflamatoria, la linfoproliferación mediada por antígenos bacterianos y la inducción de hormonas que aumentan la proliferación de las células epiteliales podrían ser causas de la oncogénesis bacteriana. Los ejemplos clásicos son el adenocarcinoma gástrico inducido por Helicobacter pylori, la asociación de la bacteriemia por estreptococos del grupo bovis y el cáncer de colon y los linfomas de tejido linfoide asociado a mucosas (MALT en vinculación con especies de Helicobacter (MALT gástricos y con Chlamydophila spp. (MALT oculares. El aislamiento de alguno de estos patógenos debería ser un llamado de atención para inducir al estudio de alguna enfermedad maligna.

  7. [Genetics of Campylobacter phages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Jens A; Jäckel, Claudia; Hertwig, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The application of virulent (lytic) bacteriophages isa promising tool to reduce the number of Campylobacter along the food chain. However, only little is known aboutthe genetics of Campylobacter phages. To date, the nucleotide sequences of nine virulent Campylobacter phages have been published.The analysis of the sequences indicated that at the nucleotide level, phages of the same group (group II or group III) are closely related, but that similarities between the groups only exist at the protein level. Both groups of phages are distantly related to T4-like phages. The genomes of the studied Campylobacter phages contain numerous genes for homing endonucleases and transposases as well as repetitive sequences. These elements could be important for genomic rearrangements.

  8. Epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs - Reitsma, W.

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter , causing human infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, is mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products.

    Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried

  9. Factores de riesgo de la resistencia a meticilina del Staphylococcus aureus causante de bacteriemia: Un estudio multicéntrico de casos y controles emparejados

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    Paola Mariana Arias-Ortiz

    2016-12-01

    Conclusiones. El uso racional de antibióticos y la vigilancia de exposiciones a procedimientos quirúrgicos o al uso de dispositivos invasivos, son intervenciones que podrían mitigar la emergencia de S. aureus meticilino resistente causante de bacteriemia.

  10. Infección por Campylobacter y Shigella como causa de Diarrea Aguda Infecciosa en niños menores de dos años en el Distrito de la Victoria, Lima-Perú

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    María Perales D

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de Campylobacter y Shigella como agentes etiológicos en diarrea aguda acuosa en niños menores de dos años atendidos en 4 centros de salud del distrito de La Victoria (Lima, Perú Materiales y métodos: en este estudio transversal analítico se realizaron coprocultivos bajo técnica microbiológica estándar a los niños menores de dos años con diarrea aguda acuosa atendidos en 4 centros de salud de La Victoria entre abril y octubre de 2001. Fueron excluidos aquellos niños con disentería y aquellos que habían recibido tratamiento antibiótico previo a la atención. Resultados: se estudiaron un total de 248 casos, de los cuales 48 (19,4% coprocultivos fueron positivos: 33 (13.3% a Campylobacter, 12 (4,8% a Shigella y 3 (1,2% a Salmonella. No se identificaron otros patógenos. Las especies de Shigella identificadas fueron: Shigella flexneri en 9 (75,0% casos y Shigella sonnei en 3 (25,0% La única especie de Campylobacter identificada fue Campylobacter jejuni siendo el biotipo I el más frecuente (84,6% Conclusiones: Campylobacter y Shigella juegan un importante papel como agentes etiológicos causantes de diarrea aguda acuosa en niños menores de dos años.

  11. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... period was rather short, as even high doses of Campylobacter remained viable for less than 24 hours in flies, when they were incubated at temperatures from 20 ºC and higher. Lower temperatures are less- or irrelevant, as flies become slow or immobile below 15-20 ºC....

  12. Factores de riesgo para bacteriemia por Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistente a carbapenémicos adquirida en un hospital colombiano

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    Sandra Liliana Valderrama

    2016-04-01

    Conclusión. Para el control de la aparición de P. aeruginosa resistente a carbapenémicos, se deben fortalecer los programas de control de antimicrobianos, promover el uso prudente de carbapenémicos y quinolonas, y vigilar el uso adecuado de la nutrición parenteral.

  13. Campylobacter Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    In several countries quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) have been performed for Campylobacter in chicken meat. The models constructed for this purpose provide a good example of the development of QMRA in general and illustrate the diversity of available methods. Despite...... the differences between the models, the most prominent conclusions of the QMRAs are similar. These conclusions for example relate to the large risk of highly contaminated meat products and the insignificance of contamination from Campylobacter positive flocks to negative flocks during slaughter and processing....... Nonetheless, there seems to be a discrepancy between model predictions and the accumulating microbiological data. For example, a recent study in the Netherlands showed that model predictions on the efficacy of “testing and scheduling” of broiler flocks as a control strategy, could not be confirmed...

  14. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  15. Gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter concisus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, D L J; Pettersson, A M; Rijnsburger, M C; Herbrink, P; van den Berg, H P; Ang, C W

    2012-05-01

    We describe a case of gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter concisus. The pathogenic potential of C. concisus has yet to be elucidated. Recent studies indicate an association with enteric disease in immunocompromised patients and inflammatory bowel disease in children. Molecular identification methods may be necessary for identifying certain Campylobacter species because of phenotypic similarity. © 2012 SGM

  16. PRESENCE OF RESISTANCE IN CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI AND CAMPYLOBACTER COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava Kocić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There are 18 species belonging to the genus of Campylobacter (rRNK group I, of which thermophilic ones are the following: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis. The aim of our research was to determine the sensitivity of Campylobacter species, isolated from human feces, to antibiotics being used in practice. The study involved 50 human strains of C. jejuni/coli isolated from feces in the Center for Microbiology in the Public Health Institute Nis. Sensitivity was tested by applying the disk diffusion method on seven antibiotics (erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, hloramphenicol, cephalexin and nalidixic acid. Our results showed low resistance to erythromycin, gentamicin and tetracycline (2%, which corresponds to the studies conducted in the world. Moreover, these findings indicate that erythromycin may be considered the drug of choice in the treatment of Campylobacter diarrhea in this region. Resistance to fluoroquinolone and nalidixic acid was 44%, and C. coli showed higher resistance compared to C. jejuni, though statistical significance was not proved.

  17. Survival and resuscitation of ten strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli under acid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaveerach, P.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2003-01-01

    The culturability of 10 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was studied after the bacteria were exposed to acid conditions for various periods of time. Campylobacter cells could not survive 2 h under acid conditions (formic acid at pH 4). The 10 Campylobacter strains could not be

  18. Campylobacter bacteriophages and bacteriophage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerton, P L; Timms, A R; Connerton, I F

    2011-08-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease with occasionally very serious outcomes. Much of this disease burden is thought to arise from consumption of contaminated poultry products. More than 80% of poultry in the UK harbour Campylobacter as a part of their intestinal flora. To address this unacceptably high prevalence, various interventions have been suggested and evaluated. Among these is the novel approach of using Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages, which are natural predators of the pathogen. To optimize their use as therapeutic agents, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the bacteriophages that infect Campylobacter, and how they can affect their host bacteria. This review will focus on many aspects of Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages including: their first isolation in the 1960s, their use in bacteriophage typing schemes, their isolation from the different biological sources and genomic characterization. As well as their use as therapeutic agents to reduce Campylobacter in poultry their future potential, including their use in bio-sanitization of food, will be explored. The evolutionary consequences of naturally occurring bacteriophage infection that have come to light through investigations of bacteriophages in the poultry ecosystem will also be discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  1. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a

  2. Anti-Campylobacter Activities and Resistance Mechanisms of Natural Phenolic Compounds in Campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Klan?nik, Anja; Mo?ina, Sonja Smole; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and alternative antimicrobials are needed to prevent or decrease Campylobacter contamination in foods or food producing animals. The objectives of this study are to define the anti-Campylobacter activities of natural phenolic compounds of plant origin and to determine the roles of bacterial drug efflux systems in the resistance to these natural phenolics in Campylobacter jejuni. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anti-Campylobacter activiti...

  3. Specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Oyofo, B A; Thornton, S A; Burr, D H; Trust, T J; Pavlovskis, O R; Guerry, P

    1992-01-01

    Development of a routine detection assay for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in clinical specimens was undertaken by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaA gene of C. coli VC167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by PCR. The primer pair specifically detected 4 strains of C. coli and 47 strains of C. jejuni; but it did not detect strains of Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis, ...

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry are recognized as a main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, longitudinal studies investigating the persistence of Campylobacter on broilers and retail chciekn meat in Tanzania are rare. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. isolated ...

  5. Kip, consument en Campylobacter: infectieziektebestrijding met consumentenvoorlichting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Nauta, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands, Campylobacter is an important bacterial causative agent of gastroenteritis, with poultry as an important source. Measures aiming to reduce the number of Campylobacter on poultry meat however cannot guarantee the production of fresh meat free of Campylobacter. To minimize the

  6. Aspectos gerais das septicemias e bacteriemias estafilocócicas no adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrelirio J. R. Gonçalves

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados 25 casos de infecções sistêmicas por estafilococos por pacientes adultos. Foram incluídos somente os casos em que houve concordância entre os achados bacteriológicos e clínicos. O Staphylccoceus aureus foi o mais encontrado em hemoculturas (17 casos. Dezoito casos comportaram-se verdadeiramente como septicemias caracterizadas por lesões metastáticas principalmente pulmonares, configurando os quadros clássicos de infartos pulmonares sépticos múltiplos. As principais complicações cardiovasculares foram a miocardite, endocardite, choque e o cor pulmonale agudo. As complicações neurológicas mais freqüentes foram meningite, coma e convulsões, tôdas seguidas de óbito. A porta de entrada mais freqüente foi através de infecção cutânea presente em 48% dos casos, seguida do aparelho genital feminino em conseqüência do abôrto provocado (20%. É apresentado estudo anátomo-patológico de 4 casos. Na discussão são apresentadas características biológicas do germe no sentido de facilitar o entendimento da fisiopatologia destas infecções sistêmicas assim como de esclarecer o quadro clínico exibido pelos pacientes. Breves considerações são realizadas no que concerne a patogenia e o quadro clínico nestas infecções e aspectos gerais de conduta terapêutica são assinalados.

  7. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  8. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. PMID:26062576

  9. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Mitchell, Hazel M; Man, Si Ming

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Aplicación de PCR-RFLP para subtipificar Campylobacter jejuni PCR-RFLP for Campylobacter jejuni subtyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giacoboni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diez cepas de Campylobacter jejuni aisladas de fetos porcinos abortados fueron identificadas por pruebas bioquímicas: 8 como C. jejuni biotipo II de Lior, y 2 como C. jejuni biotipo I. Para poder subtipificarlas se utilizó la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR para amplificar el gen flaA y al producto obtenido se lo digirió con la enzima de restricción DdeI (RFLP. Se pudieron obtener 6 subtipos a partir de C. jejuni biotipo II, mientras que los dos aislamientos de biotipo I correspondieron a un mismo subtipo. Aunque existe una amplia variedad de técnicas de biología molecular que son aplicadas con fines epidemiológicos para Campylobacter, PCR-RFLP, demostró ser una técnica simple y accesible, capaz de subtipificar a C. jejuni.Ten Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 8 identified as C. jejuni biotype II of Lior and 2 as C. jejuni biotipe I, were recovered from aborted pig fetuses. In order to discriminate among strains, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP using DdeI of polymerase chain reaction (PCR products of flaA gen was used. C. jejuni biotype II strains could be diferenciated in 6 by PCR-RFLP, and one subtype was obtained from C. jejuni biotype I. Although there is great variability of molecular techniques applied to the Campylobacter epidemiological studies, PCR-RFLP demonstrated to be a simple and accessible technique to discriminate Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...... genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  12. Campylobacter bacteremia: A rare and under-reported event?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Baarlen, van P.; Vliet, van A.H.M.; Belkum, van A.; Hays, J.P.; Endtz, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are

  13. Campylobacter y campylobacteriosis: una mirada desde América del Sur Campylobacter and campylobacteriosis: a view from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Fernández

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Las especies termotolerantes de Campylobacter han adquirido gran importancia en la salud pública, por ser considerados agentes de diarrea infecciosa para el ser humano. En esta breve revisión se presenta información sobre aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y bacteriológicos de campylobacteriosis en América del Sur. Asimismo, se señalan algunas diferencias con relación a su presentación en países industrializados.The thermotolerant species of Campylobacter have become very important in public health, especially as agents of infectious diarrhea in human beings. In this brief revision we present part of the available information generated in South America about epidemiological, clinical and bacteriological aspects of campylobacteriosis and we identify some differences between the observed and documented campylobacteriosis in South America compared to those described in industrialized countries.

  14. Las bacteriemias relacionadas con el catéter tunelizado de hemodiálisis y cuidados de enfermería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Crespo Garrido

    Full Text Available Resumen Introducción: En la actualidad, y debido a su avanzada edad y/o con comorbilidad diabética y cardiovascular asociada, un buen porcentaje de pacientes en hemodiálisis tienen que ser dializados mediante un catéter venoso central tunelizado. Objetivo: Conocer la producción científica existente sobre la bacteriemia relacionada con el catéter venoso central tunelizado de hemodiálisis. Material y Método: Se ha realizado una revisión sistemática mediante una búsqueda en las bases de datos SCOPUS, PubMed y ScieLo. Se incluyeron artículos escritos en inglés y español. Resultados: Fueron revisados 28 artículos, entre los cuáles se incluían guías de práctica clínica, revisiones y estudios de investigación. Tras el análisis de los mismos, se evidenció que la bacteriemia relacionada con el catéter afecta a un número considerable de pacientes que portan un catéter venoso central tunelizado para hemodiálisis y se encontraron diferentes actitudes terapéuticas para abordarla. En cuanto a su prevención, se encontraron numerosas publicaciones sobre la efectividad de diferentes medidas farmacológicas, y aunque fueron menos las publicaciones encontradas acerca de la profilaxis no farmacológica, estas recalcaron la importancia del estricto cumplimiento de medidas de higiene y asepsia, como herramienta principal para prevenir su aparición y situaron a enfermería como elemento fundamental para cumplirlas. Conclusiones: Las medidas de higiene y asepsia constituyen la base de la prevención de la bacteriemia relacionada con el catéter, siendo la enfermería un factor clave para que estas se cumplan; y debido a que la mayor parte de la literatura se centra en las medidas farmacológicas, son necesarios más estudios que evidencien su importancia.

  15. Campylobacter hyoilei Alderton et al. 1995 and Campylobacter coli Veron and Chatelain 1973 are subjective synonyms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, P.; VanDoorn, L.J.; AlRashid, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    The taxonomic affiliation of Campylobacter hyoilei was reevaluated by examining a variety of phenotypic and genotypic criteria. Whole cell protein electrophoresis and a comparison of 66 phenotypic characters revealed that reference strains of C. hyoilei were indistinguishable from Campylobacter...

  16. Dual role of Helicobacter and Campylobacter species in IBD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Lee, Way Seah; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2017-02-01

    To conduct a comprehensive global systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and IBD. As bacterial antigen cross-reactivity has been postulated to be involved in this association, published data on enterohepatic Helicobacter spp (EHS) and Campylobacter spp and IBD was also analysed. Electronic databases were searched up to July 2015 for all case-control studies on H. pylori infection/EHS/Campylobacter spp and IBD. Pooled ORs (P-OR) and 95% CIs were obtained using the random effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity and stratified analyses were performed. Analyses comprising patients with Crohn's disease (CD), UC and IBD unclassified (IBDU), showed a consistent negative association between gastric H. pylori infection and IBD (P-OR: 0.43, p value Campylobacter spp, in particular C. concisus (P-OR: 3.76, p value=0.006) and C. showae (P-OR: 2.39, p value=0.027), increase IBD risk. H. pylori infection is negatively associated with IBD regardless of ethnicity, age, H. pylori detection methods and previous use of aminosalicylates and corticosteroids. Antibiotics influenced the magnitude of this association. Closely related bacteria including EHS and Campylobacter spp increase the risk of IBD. These results infer that H. pylori might exert an immunomodulatory effect in IBD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Empiema por Fusobacterium necrophorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML. Valle Feijoo

    2014-09-01

    Systemic infection by Fusobacerium necrophorum is characterized by the classic triad of thrombosis of the jugular internal vein, bacteriemia and metastatic spread and it is known as Lemiere syndrome (LS, post-amigdalitis sepsis or necrobacillosis. Pulmonary impairement due to septic embolism is very common in LS, but Fusobacterium necrophorum is hardly ever found in empyemas without LS. We report a new case.

  18. Inflammasome activation by Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Lieneke I; de Zoete, Marcel R; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; Flavell, Richard A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. In this study, we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse

  19. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...

  20. Campylobacter pylori. Diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Rauws, E. A.; de Koster, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    There is now a plethora of methods to diagnose colonization of the human stomach with Campylobacter pylori, such as microbiological culture on various media, identification of C. pylori in biopsies or biopsy smears using various stains or neurological methods, serological demonstration of specific

  1. In vitro susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to azithromycin and erythromycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, D E; Chang, N

    1991-01-01

    MICs of azithromycin and erythromycin for 20 Campylobacter coli and 20 Campylobacter jejuni strains were determined. The results demonstrated that, for Campylobacter species, all high-level erythromycin-resistant strains were also resistant to azithromycin and that azithromycin did not exhibit increased potency in comparison with that of erythromycin.

  2. Aeromonas hydrophila and Campylobacter jejuni isolated in fresh tuna (Thunnus spp.) sold in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Moura Costa; Aline Feola Carvalho; Rodrigo César Fredrigo; Patrícia Freitas Kobayashi; Eliana Scarcelli Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila e Campylobacter jejuni são bactérias de importância emergente em saúde pública, porém com escassos trabalhos publicados na área de pescado. O presente estudo investigou a presença de Aeromonas hydrophila e Campylobacter jejuni em amostras de atum (Thunnus spp.) fresco, capturados no litoral de Santa Catarina e distribuídos no comércio atacadista de São Paulo, SP. Foram colhidas 85 amostras de filé de atum e processadas por análises bacteriológicas e PCR. Do total, 11/85 (...

  3. Campylobacter spp. en granjas de pollos de engorde: diversidad genética, resistencia antimicrobiana y factores de virulencia

    OpenAIRE

    Cantero Portillo, Juan Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    La campilobacteriosis es la zoonosis de transmisión alimentaria más comúnmente reportada en la Unión Europea (UE) desde 2005. La principal fuente de infección es el consumo o manipulación de carne de pollo contaminada con Campylobacter (principalmente C. jejuni y C. coli). La alta prevalencia de Campylobacter en pollos de engorde en granja supone un elevado riesgo de contaminación del producto final y por ende el riesgo de infección para el consumidor. Es por ello que para la UE es prioritari...

  4. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aeromonas hydrophila and Campylobacter jejuni isolated in fresh tuna (Thunnus spp. sold in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Moura Costa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila e Campylobacter jejuni são bactérias de importância emergente em saúde pública, porém com escassos trabalhos publicados na área de pescado. O presente estudo investigou a presença de Aeromonas hydrophila e Campylobacter jejuni em amostras de atum (Thunnus spp. fresco, capturados no litoral de Santa Catarina e distribuídos no comércio atacadista de São Paulo, SP. Foram colhidas 85 amostras de filé de atum e processadas por análises bacteriológicas e PCR. Do total, 11/85 (13% amostras foram positivas para Aeromonas spp., sendo 10/11 (90,9% confirmadas como Aeromonas hydrophila pela PCR. Para Campylobacter spp., 10/85 (11,7% foram positivas, sendo 10/10 (100% identificadas como Campylobacter jejuni pelas provas bioquímicas tradicionais e PCR ressaltando-se que duas (2/85 - 2,3% amostras de atum albergavam ambos os patógenos. Trata-se do primeiro relato no Brasil de contaminação de atum fresco por Campylobacter jejuni e Aeromonas hydrophila, indicando que este alimento ingerido in natura pode ser um veículo de transmissão de agentes patogênicos, ressaltando-se a importância de estudos adicionais que deem suporte ao controle desses microrganismos em pescado consumido cru.

  6. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  7. Neutrophil activation by Campylobacter concisus

    OpenAIRE

    S?rensen, Nina B; Nielsen, Hans L; Varming, Kim; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter concisus is an emerging enteric pathogen associated with prolonged diarrhoea and possibly inflammatory bowel disease in children as well as adults, but the interaction with cells of the innate immune system is unclear. The magnitude of systemic immunoglobulin response in acute infection is unknown. Methods Neutrophils from healthy volunteers were activated with five faecal isolates of C. concisus from patients with gastroenteritis as well as the oral reference strain ...

  8. Prevalence of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. namely, Campylobacter jejuni and coli cause acute diarrheal diseases in humans worldwide; although these species are known to occur in the intestinal tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Objective: Little is known about the presence of these bacteria in ...

  9. Campylobacter jejuni strategies to evade hostile environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaezirad, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of human bacterial foodborne disease in the western world. Each year hundreds of millions of cases of Campylobacter infection occur worldwide. After a few weeks, the infection may be followed by serious auto-immune diseases like the Guillain-Barre

  10. Integrated approach leads to less Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Hald, Birthe; Borck Høg, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information.......Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information....

  11. Quantifying transmission of Campylobacter spp. among broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.J.; Bouma, A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Broek, van den E.W.F.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter species are frequently identified as a cause of human gastroenteritis, often from eating or mishandling contaminated poultry products. Quantitative knowledge of transmission of Campylobacter in broiler flocks is necessary, as this may help to determine the moment of introduction of

  12. Campylobacter prevalence in retail chicken liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. It is unknown how commonly chicken livers are contaminated with Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken livers available at retail. For each of five weeks, t...

  13. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter ...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  14. Celulitis por Acinetobacter junii-johnsonii adquirida en la comunidad: una presentación de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés F. Henao-Martínez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La infección de piel y tejidos blandos por Acinetobacter no relacionada con trauma es una presentación inusual. La mayoría de los casos descritos presentan enfermedades concomitantes y son causados por Acinetobacter baumanii. Se describe un caso de celulitis no traumática por A. junii-johnsonii con bacteriemia, de inicio en la comunidad y asociado con el tratamiento médico. De acuerdo con nuestro conocimiento, éste sería el primer caso reportado de infección de tejidos blandos y piel por A. juniijohnsonii.La vesícula hemorrágica podría ser una característica clínica de celulitis por Acinetobacter.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i2.652

  15. Campylobacter-Associated Diseases in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Yaeger, Michael; Wu, Zuowei; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-02-08

    Campylobacter includes a group of genetically diverse species causing a range of diseases in animals and humans. The bacterium is frequently associated with two economically important and epidemiologically distinct reproductive diseases in ruminants: enzootic infectious infertility in cattle owing to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and abortions in sheep, goats, and cattle. Septic abortion, usually epizootic in sheep, has been historically associated with C. fetus subsp. fetus and to a lesser extent with Campylobacter jejuni. However, there has been a dramatic species shift in the etiology of Campylobacter abortions in recent years: C. jejuni has now replaced C. fetus subsp. fetus as the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States, which appears to be driven primarily by clonal expansion of a hypervirulent tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone. Here we provide a review on the recent advances in understanding the pathobiology of Campylobacter infections in animals, with an emphasis on the diseases in ruminants, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, genomics, and control measures.

  16. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods...

  17. Campylobacter jejuni - A MONOGRAPHIC STUDY (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. CORCIONIVOSCHI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is the primary cause of bacterial diarrhoeal illness in the developed world with an estimated 2-3 million Campylobacter-related illnesses occurring in the United States per year. Campylobacter jejuni can cause a spectrum of disease including gastroenteritis, proctitis, septicaemia, meningitis, abortion and autoimmune diseases such as Reiter’s arthritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS. The association of Campylobacter with poultry (e.g. chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese has been known for the last 30 years. In this review we will present the biology of this organism as presented for the last two decades and also the connection between Campylobacter jejuni and farm animals.

  18. The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

  19. Epidemiologia molecular de um surto de bacteriemia por Enterobacter cloacae e Enterobacter agglomerans ocorrido na região de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    GONÇALVES, Célia R.; VAZ, Tania M.I.; LEITE, Daniela; PISANI, Beatriz; SIMÕES, Marise; PRANDI, Maria Angela M.; ROCHA, Marilu M.M.; CESAR, Paulo C.; TRABASSO, Plinio; NOWAKONSKI, Angela von; IRINO, Kinue

    2000-01-01

    A total of 73 isolates (57 Enterobacter cloacae and 16 Enterobacter agglomerans), recovered during an outbreak of bacteremia in the Campinas area, São Paulo, Brazil, were studied. Of these isolates, 61 were from parenteral nutrition solutions, 9 from blood cultures, 2 from a sealed bottle of parenteral nutrition solution, and one was of unknown origin. Of the 57 E. cloacae isolates, 54 were biotype 26, two were biotype 66 and one was non-typable. Of 39 E. cloacae isolates submitted to ribotyp...

  20. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Broiler Isolates by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantero, Guillermo; Correa-Fiz, Florencia; Ronco, Troels

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter has been the most commonly reported cause of bacterial diarrheal disease in humans in the European Union since 2005. Most broiler batches at slaughter are colonized with Campylobacter, and the major source of infection is contaminated poultry meat. The aim of this study was to chara......Campylobacter has been the most commonly reported cause of bacterial diarrheal disease in humans in the European Union since 2005. Most broiler batches at slaughter are colonized with Campylobacter, and the major source of infection is contaminated poultry meat. The aim of this study...... was to characterize a selection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from broilers through whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 16 isolates (C. jejuni = 12 and C. coli = 4) from five broiler farms from Catalonia (northeastern Spain) were analyzed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 8420 single...

  1. Cytolethal Distending Toxin Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates: Detection and Analysis by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Eyigor, Aysegul; Dawson, Karl A.; Langlois, Bruce E.; Pickett, Carol L.

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni produces a toxin called cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Knowledge of the prevalence and homogeneity of Campylobacter sp. cdt genes is incomplete. In this work, we identified four PCR primer pairs that collectively amplified cdt genes in all of the C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains tested. Restriction analyses of the cdt PCR products showed clear differences between the cdt genes of these two species, yet there were few heterogeneities noted between members of th...

  2. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  3. Evaluation of 11 PCR assays for species-level identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jordan, Penelope J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity and specificity of 11 PCR assays described for the species identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using 111 type, reference, and field strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and Campylobacter lari. For six assays, an additional 21 type strains...... representing related Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species were also included. PCR tests were initially established in the laboratory by optimizing conditions with respect to five type and reference strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. One PCR test for C. coli failed to give appropriate...

  4. Campylobacter jejuni : An emerging pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne diarrhea in many countries. However, in some countries, a number of cases were undetected because of the inappropriate detection method and ignorance. Although C. jejuni usually does not cause death in health adults, it can be deadly for immunocompromised persons (Pigrau, et al., 1997. Although thought to be very susceptible in several conditions, C. jejuni in fact is quite prevalent in nature. It can easily cause sporadic cases and outbreaks resulting in economic loss. This review covers three major parts: clinical aspects of Campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni reservoirs and transmission, and methods for detection.

  5. Campylobacter ureolyticus: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bullman, Susan

    2011-03-01

    A total of 7194 faecal samples collected over a 1-year period from patients presenting with diarrhoea were screened for Campylobacter spp. using EntericBio(®) , a multiplex-PCR system. Of 349 Campylobacter-positive samples, 23.8% were shown to be Campylobacter ureolyticus, using a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and highly specific primers targeting the HSP60 gene of this organism. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of C. ureolyticus in the faeces of patients presenting with gastroenteritis and may suggest a role for this organism as an emerging enteric pathogen.

  6. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods...

  7. Molecular and Statistical Analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Carriage in Wildlife and Livestock from Ontario Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, M; Pearl, D L; Taboada, E N; Parmley, E J; Mutschall, S; Jardine, C M

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the carriage of Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter among livestock and mammalian wildlife on Ontario farms, and (ii) investigate the potential sharing of Campylobacter subtypes between livestock and wildlife. Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms in 2010, we assessed associations, using mixed logistic regression models, between Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter carriage and the following explanatory variables: animal species (beef, dairy, swine, raccoon, other), farm type (swine, beef, dairy), type of sample (livestock or wildlife) and Campylobacter species (jejuni, coli, other). Models included a random effect to account for clustering by farm where samples were collected. Samples were subtyped using a Campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative fingerprinting assay. A total of 92 livestock and 107 wildlife faecal samples were collected, and 72% and 27% tested positive for Campylobacter, respectively. Pooled faecal samples from livestock were significantly more likely to test positive for Campylobacter than wildlife samples. Relative to dairy cattle, pig samples were at significantly increased odds of testing positive for Campylobacter. The odds of isolating Campylobacter jejuni from beef cattle samples were significantly greater compared to dairy cattle and raccoon samples. Fifty unique subtypes of Campylobacter were identified, and only one subtype was found in both wildlife and livestock samples. Livestock Campylobacter isolates were significantly more likely to exhibit antimicrobial resistance (AMR) compared to wildlife Campylobacter isolates. Campylobacter jejuni was more likely to exhibit AMR when compared to C. coli. However, C. jejuni isolates were only resistant to tetracycline, and C.  coli isolates exhibited multidrug resistance patterns. Based on differences in prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and resistant Campylobacter between

  8. DIAGNÓSTICO MOLECULAR DE Campylobacter EN LA CADENA AVÍCOLA DESTINADA PARA CONSUMO HUMANO EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leana Zumbado-Guti\\u00E9rrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnóstico molecular de Campylobacter en la cadena avícola destinada para consumo humano en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la presencia y la frecuencia de Campylobacter jejuni y Campylobacter coli, en la cadena de producción avícola en Costa Rica. Se evaluaron granjas, planta de proceso y puntos de venta del Gran Área Metropolitana. Para la detección y aislamiento de Campylobacter sp. se analizaron 84 muestras provenientes de la cadena avícola (24 muestras de carne de pollo tomadas en punto de venta, 20 enjuagues de carcasa y 40 de ciegos tomados en planta de beneficio, obtenidas en noviembre de 2012, siguiendo el protocolo ISO 10272- 1:2006 modificado por el Departamento de Agricultura de Estados Unidos (USDA, por sus siglas en inglés. De las 84 muestras analizadas, 36 (42,8% resultaron positivas para C. jejuni, y una (1,2% para C. coli. La cantidad de muestras positivas según la Reacción en Cadena de Polimerasa (PCR, por tipo de muestra fue: para contenido cecal, 16 (n=40, para carcasas, 8 (n=20 y para punto de venta 12 (n=24. Dieciséis de las veinte granjas muestreadas fueron positivas. Hubo una alta frecuencia de Campylobacter en todos los puntos de la cadena muestreados, lo que podría estar asociado a modificaciones de parámetros relacionados con inocuidad en cada eslabón. El enfriamiento rápido y el uso de cloro en el agua en la planta de proceso, disminuyó la frecuencia de muestras positivas de Campylobacter spp.

  9. The clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Si Ming

    2011-10-25

    A growing number of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni and C. coli have been recognized as emerging human and animal pathogens. Although C. jejuni continues to be the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, advances in molecular biology and development of innovative culture methodologies have led to the detection and isolation of a range of under-recognized and nutritionally fastidious Campylobacter spp., including C. concisus, C. upsaliensis and C. ureolyticus. These emerging Campylobacter spp. have been associated with a range of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly gastroenteritis, IBD and periodontitis. In some instances, infection of the gastrointestinal tract by these bacteria can progress to life-threatening extragastrointestinal diseases. Studies have shown that several emerging Campylobacter spp. have the ability to attach to and invade human intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, damage intestinal barrier integrity, secrete toxins and strategically evade host immune responses. Members of the Campylobacter genus naturally colonize a wide range of hosts (including pets, farm animals and wild animals) and are frequently found in contaminated food products, which indicates that these bacteria are at risk of zoonotic transmission to humans. This Review presents the latest information on the role and clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter spp. in gastrointestinal health and disease.

  10. Inaccuracy of routine susceptibility tests for detection of erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.T.; Claas, E.C.J.; Mevius, D.J.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both an increase in and regional differences in erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli have been reported. To determine the accuracy of routine tests for erythromycin resistance, 48 erythromycin-resistant isolates from various laboratories that

  11. Infecciones por Streptococcus agalactiae en un servicio de neonatología abierto Infections due to Streptococcus agalactiae at an open neonatology service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de las infecciones por estreptococo del grupo B en recién nacidos egresados de los hospitales maternos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a recién nacidos consecutivos con infecciones por Streptococcus agalactiae, ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez» entre febrero de 1992 y diciembre del 2007. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas, con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad, así como relación entre variables categóricas. RESULTADOS. Hubo 76 recién nacidos con infección por Streptococcus agalactiae, lo cual constituyó una tasa promedio anual de 1,9 x 100 ingresos. Predominaron las infecciones de inicio tardío y las adquiridas en la comunidad (89,5 % y 93,4 %, respectivamente. La meningitis fue la forma clínica más frecuente, seguida de la bacteriemia aislada. Hubo 56 de 76 recién nacidos con bacteriemia (73,7 %. El Streptococcus agalactiae tuvo elevada sensibilidad ante la penicilina, la eritromicina, la vancomicina, la cefotaxima y el cloranfenicol. Hubo 7 fallecidos (9,2 % y todos fueron pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central. CONCLUSIONES. Streptococcus agalactiae es un agente causal de infecciones que afectan al recién nacido, tanto en la comunidad como en el medio hospitalario. Estas infecciones pueden ser letales en algunos pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central con bacteriemia o sin ella, aún manteniendo un patrón de elevada susceptibilidad a los antibióticos betalactámicos.INTRODUCCIÓN. The objective of the present study was to know the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infections caused by group B Streptococcus in newborns discharged from maternal hospitals. METHODS. A descriptive study that included consecutive infants with

  12. Selective medium for growth of Campylobacter in containers incubated aerobically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Campylobacter are traditionally cultured in primary containers inside of secondary containers filled with microaerobic atmospheres. Recent findings indicated that media supplemented with optimal concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, and bicarbonate support Campylobacter growth ...

  13. Campylobacter bacteremia: a rare and under-reported event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwen, R.; van Baarlen, P.; van Vliet, A. H. M.; van Belkum, A.; Hays, J. P.; Endtz, H. P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with both host factors and bacterial factors being involved in the pathogenesis of bacteremia. In the host, age, gender and immune-compromising conditions may predispose for Campylobacter infections, whilst the most important bacterial determinants mentioned in the literature are cytotoxin production and flagellar motility. The role of sialylated lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) and serum resistance in bacteremia is inconclusive at this time, and the clinical significance of Campylobacter bacteremia is not yet fully understood. More emphasis on the detection of Campylobacter species from blood cultures in susceptible patients at risk for Campylobacter infections will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis and the relevance of Campylobacter bacteremia. PMID:24611124

  14. Influxed insects as Vectors for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coll in Danish Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The vector potential of flies (Diptera: Brachycera) for spread of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on 5 Danish broiler farms was evaluated in a longitudinal field study from April to November 2004. First, the prevalence of C. jejuni- and C. coli-positive flies was determined in 2...... houses was estimated by trapping of insects (n = 5,936) in ventilation vents. In total, 31 flies (28 of which were of the Muscidae family) caught in farm surroundings were Campylobacter spp.-positive (C. jejuni, n = 7; C. coli, n = 23; other Campylobacter spp., n = 1). Musca domestica (L) (house fly...... caesar (L) (green bottle fly) of the Calliphoridae family and 2 flies of unidentified species were also positive. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flies varied from 0.0 in April to a peak of 16.3% in July and decreasing to 2.0% in October on a farm with pig production. On 4 broiler farms...

  15. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  16. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  17. The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is known to occur in the intestinal systems of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cause acute diarrhoeal diseases in humans worldwide, they mostly manifest themselves in an apparently healthy carrier state in ...

  18. The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Abstract. Background: Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is known to occur in the intestinal systems of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cause acute diarrhoeal diseases in humans worldwide, they mostly manifest themselves in an apparently healthy ...

  19. Resistance mechanisms in Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. While mortality is low, morbidity imparted by post-infectious sequelae such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, Reiter syndrome/reactive arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome is significant. In addition, the economic cost is high due to lost productivity. Food animals, particularly poultry, are the main reservoirs of C. jejuni. The over-use of antibiotics in the human population and in animal husbandry has led to an increase in antibiotic-resistant infections, particularly with fluoroquinolones. This is problematic because C. jejuni gastroenteritis is clinically indistinguishable from that caused by other bacterial pathogens, and such illnesses are usually treated empirically with fluoroquinolones. Since C. jejuni is naturally transformable, acquisition of additional genes imparting antibiotic resistance is likely. Therefore, an understanding of the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in C. jejuni is needed to provide proper therapy both to the veterinary and human populations. PMID:23406779

  20. Multi drug resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to tested antibiotics in strains originating from humans, poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter are among the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. Food animals are considered one of the most important sources of Campylobacter causing infections in man. Campylobacter infection is clinically mild and resolves spontaneously. In severe or long-lasting cases, treatment with antibiotics is necessary. Resistance of Campylobacter spp. to drugs used in treatment of infection is a matter of concern. The aim of this paper is to determine presence of multi drug resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from animals and man. Material for testing was obtained by scraping the cecum surface from boilers, pig cecum and colon, and human feces. For isolation Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli microaerophilic conditions, temperature of 42°C and antibiotic supplement were required to inhibit the growth of other intestinal bacteria. In this research, for sensitivity testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli three different methods were used: disc diffusion test, E-test, and dilution agar method. A total of 55 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Out of the total, 24 strains originated from man, 16 from broilers were isolated, and 15 from pigs. Multidrug resistance was determined in cases when the strains were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Applying E-test, we detected that the largest number of Campylobacter jejuni were multi drug resistant to two antibiotics (41.2%, and three antibiotics (11.8%. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 5.9% of Campylobacter jejuni from man was resistant to four tested antibiotics. Applying all three methods, it was detected that the largest number of Campylobacter strains was resistant to two antibiotics and three antibiotics. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 50% of Campylobacter coli strains from pigs were resistant to three tested antibiotics.

  1. Use of Culture, PCR Analysis, and DNA Microarrays for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Chicken Feces

    OpenAIRE

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne; Madsen, Mogens; Bunkenborg, Henrik; Telleman, Pieter; Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2004-01-01

    A DNA microarray for detection of Campylobacter spp. was recently developed and applied to detect Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken feces. Sixty-five pooled chicken cloacal swab samples from 650 individual broiler chickens were included in the study. The results of Campylobacter sp. detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter je...

  2. Characterization of Campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected Campylobacter Penner serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Stanley

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predominant food borne pathogen in the western world today is Campylobacter. Campylobacter specific bacteriophages (phages have been proposed as an alternative agent for reducing the burden of Campylobacter in broilers. One concern in relation to phage biocontrol is the narrow host range often displayed by phages. To identify the potential of phages as a Campylobacter reducing agent we needed to determine their infectivity on a panel of isolates representing the Campylobacter strains found in broilers as well as humans. Results In this study, Campylobacter phages were isolated from the intestines of broilers and ducks and from abattoir sewage. Twelve phages were investigated to determine their ability to infect the Campylobacter Penner serotypes commonly present in Danish poultry and patients with campylobacteriosis. A total of 89% of the Campylobacter jejuni strains and 14% of the Campylobacter coli strains could be infected by at least one of the bacteriophages. The majority of the phages infected the most common serotypes in Danish broilers (O:1,44; O:2; O:4-complex, but showed limited ability to infect 21 of the less frequent Campylobacter serotypes. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA were used to characterize the phage genomes. Three categories of bacteriophages were observed. I: a genome size of ~194 kb and refractory to digestion with HhaI; II: a genome size of ~140 kb and digestible by HhaI; and III: a genome size undeterminable in PFGE. The categorization of the phages correlated with the host range patterns displayed by the phages. Six phages were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM. They all belonged to the family of Myoviridae. Conclusion We have characterized and identified the host range of 12 Danish Campylobacter phages. Due to their ability to infect the majority of the common serotypes in Denmark we suggest the phages can become an effective

  3. Characterization of Campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected Campylobacter Penner serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Vinni Mona; Rosenquist, Hanne; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Brown, Stanley; Christensen, Bjarke Bak

    2007-10-18

    The predominant food borne pathogen in the western world today is Campylobacter. Campylobacter specific bacteriophages (phages) have been proposed as an alternative agent for reducing the burden of Campylobacter in broilers. One concern in relation to phage biocontrol is the narrow host range often displayed by phages. To identify the potential of phages as a Campylobacter reducing agent we needed to determine their infectivity on a panel of isolates representing the Campylobacter strains found in broilers as well as humans. In this study, Campylobacter phages were isolated from the intestines of broilers and ducks and from abattoir sewage. Twelve phages were investigated to determine their ability to infect the Campylobacter Penner serotypes commonly present in Danish poultry and patients with campylobacteriosis. A total of 89% of the Campylobacter jejuni strains and 14% of the Campylobacter coli strains could be infected by at least one of the bacteriophages. The majority of the phages infected the most common serotypes in Danish broilers (O:1,44; O:2; O:4-complex), but showed limited ability to infect 21 of the less frequent Campylobacter serotypes. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) were used to characterize the phage genomes. Three categories of bacteriophages were observed. I: a genome size of approximately 194 kb and refractory to digestion with HhaI; II: a genome size of approximately 140 kb and digestible by HhaI; and III: a genome size undeterminable in PFGE. The categorization of the phages correlated with the host range patterns displayed by the phages. Six phages were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They all belonged to the family of Myoviridae. We have characterized and identified the host range of 12 Danish Campylobacter phages. Due to their ability to infect the majority of the common serotypes in Denmark we suggest the phages can become an effective agent in the effort to reduce

  4. Impact of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy on patients with bacteremia in intensive care units and resistance patterns in Latin America Impacto de la terapia antimicrobiana inapropiada en pacientes con bacteriemia en unidades de cuidado intensivo y patrones de resistencia en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cortés

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Patient care in an intensive care unit (ICU is associated with an increased risk of developing nosocomial infections. Bacteremia is responsible for a great number of cases, 23% of which have attributable mortality in developed countries and can affect up to 52% of ICU patients. The main cause of mortality is inadequate and inappropriate antimicrobial empirical therapy. The incorrect use of antimicrobials is a major risk for identifying multidrug resistant microorganisms, thereby involving increased morbidity, mortality and costs. Implementing several surveillance systems and becoming acquainted with resistance patterns represent a valuable tool for identifying, preventing and treating this infectious complication. There is paucity of data regarding antimicrobial resistance in bacteremic patients in Latin America, and the available data reveals a worrying scenario.El manejo médico en la unidad de cuidado intensivo (UCI se asocia con un mayor riesgo de infecciones intrahospitalarias. Las bacteriemias tienen una alta frecuencia en dichas unidades, se presentan hasta en el 52% de los pacientes allí asistidos y en los países desarrollados se les atribuye una mortalidad del 23%, que se debe fundamentalmente al uso de tratamiento empírico inadecuado o inapropiado. El uso incorrecto de los antimicrobianos es uno de los principales factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de la resistencia bacteriana, que conlleva la selección de microorganismos multirresistentes, el aumento de la morbilidad y la mortalidad y el incremento en los días de estancia hospitalaria y del costo por hospitalización. La implementación de diferentes sistemas de vigilancia y el conocimiento de la variabilidad en la resistencia a los antimicrobianos constituyen valiosas herramientas para identificar y prevenir la resistencia a los antibióticos y para orientar la terapéutica. En América Latina disponemos de pocos datos sobre las tasas de resistencia y aquellos disponibles

  5. Veriflow Campylobacter. Performance tested method 101201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelsson, Adam C; Brown, Ashley S; Puri, Amrita; Keough, Martin P; Pascal, Benjamin J; Gaudioso, Zara E

    2014-01-01

    Veriflow Campylobacter is a molecular based assay for the presumptive and qualitative detection of the most common occurring foodborne Campylobacter species: C. jejuni and C. coli. The assay utilizes a PCR detection method coupled with a rapid, visual, flow-based assay that develops in 3 min post PCR amplification and requires only 24 h of non-specialized enrichment for maximum sensitivity. The Veriflow Campylobacter system eliminates the need for microaerobic chambers, gel electrophoresis or fluorophore based detection of target amplification, and does not require complex data analysis. This Performance Tested Method validation study demonstrated the ability of the Veriflow method to detect naturally occurring Campylobacterfrom chicken carcass rinsates. In the reference comparison study, Chi-square and probability of detection analyses of two unpaired studies indicated that there was no significant difference between the Veriflow Campylobacter method and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) reference method. There was no indication of false positive or false negative detection in the reference comparison study, and all 50 C. jejuni and C. coli strains were detected, while 35 nonspecific organisms were undetected in the exclusivity/ inclusivity study. The study results show that Veriflow Campylobacter is a sensitive, selective and robust assay for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in chicken carcass rinsates.

  6. Characterization of Campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected Campylobacter Penner serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vinni; Rosenquist, Hanne; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2007-01-01

    size undeterminable in PFGE. The categorization of the phages correlated with the host range patterns displayed by the phages. Six phages were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They all belonged to the family of Myoviridae. Conclusion: We have characterized and identified the host......Background: The predominant food borne pathogen in the western world today is Campylobacter. Campylobacter specific bacteriophages (phages) have been proposed as an alternative agent for reducing the burden of Campylobacter in broilers. One concern in relation to phage biocontrol is the narrow host...

  7. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli) isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4?2,048 ?g/mL), roxarsone (4?2048 ?g/mL), arsenate (16?8,192 ?g/mL) and arsenite (4?2,048 ?g/mL). A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campyl...

  9. OCURRENCE OF Campylobacter sp IN BROILER FLOCKSAND CORRESPONDING CARCASSES OCORRÊNCIA DE Campylobacter sp EM LOTES DE FRANGOS DE CORTE E NAS CARCAÇAS CORRESPONDENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Luiz de Souza Moraes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present study was to assess the dissemination and levels of Campylobacter contamination in broiler flocks and related carcasses. Twenty-two flocks aged 3 weeks or older were assessed, and 110 cecal droppings and 96 carcasses (38 carcasses after defeathering and 58 after the last chilling operation were enumerated. Bolton selective enrichment broth was used for enumeration of the organism. Additionally, the carcasses were submitted to pre-enrichment for the detection of the agent at low levels of contamination. Was noted that 18.18% of broiler flocks (4/22 was not colonized by Campylobacter; however, their carcasses were found to be contaminated after defeathering. The mean levels of colonization of positive flocks were 7.00 log10 cfu/g of cecal droppings, 5.15 log10 cfu per carcass after defeathering and 4.24 log cfu per carcass after the last chilling operation. The prevalence of Campylobacter in carcasses after defeathering and chilling were positively correlated, whereas a reduction of around 1 log10 was observed in the contamination initially found in the carcasses, showing that current measures, such as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP and Good Production Practices, are useful but insufficient for thoroughly eliminating Campylobacter from the end product.

     

    Key words: Chicken, contamination, slaughterhouse.

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a ocorrência de Campylobacter em lotes de frango de corte durante a criação e nas carcaças correspondentes após o abate. Foram avaliados 22 lotes a partir das três semanas de idade, com a análise de 110 conteúdos cecais e 96 carcaças (38 após a depenadeira e 58 após o último chiller. Para a enumeração do Campylobacter, utilizou-se o caldo Bolton

  10. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon V. R.; Harvey, Roger B.; Hume, Michael E.; Phillips, Timothy D.; Anderson, Robin C.; Nisbet, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions. PMID:24287853

  11. Campylobacter ureolyticus: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullman, Susan; Corcoran, Daniel; O'Leary, James; Lucey, Brigid; Byrne, Deirdre; Sleator, Roy D

    2011-03-01

    A total of 7194 faecal samples collected over a 1-year period from patients presenting with diarrhoea were screened for Campylobacter spp. using EntericBio(®) , a multiplex-PCR system. Of 349 Campylobacter-positive samples, 23.8% were shown to be Campylobacter ureolyticus, using a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and highly specific primers targeting the HSP60 gene of this organism. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of C. ureolyticus in the faeces of patients presenting with gastroenteritis and may suggest a role for this organism as an emerging enteric pathogen. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of culture, PCR analysis, and DNA microarrays for detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from chicken feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    A DNA microarray for detection of Campylobacter spp. was recently developed and applied to detect Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken feces. Sixty-five pooled chicken cloacal swab samples from 650 individual broiler chickens were included in the study. The results of Campylobacter sp....... detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. By PCR and capillary electrophoresis, 95% of the samples were positive...... for Campylobacter spp., whereas with DNA microarrays all samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. By application of DNA microarray analysis, the isolates in 4 samples (6%) could not be identified to the species level, whereas by PCR-capillary electrophoresis, the isolates in 12 samples (19%) remained...

  13. Campylobacter gastroenteritis associated with Sweet's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sumita; Rytina, Ed; Sterling, Jane; Karas, J A; Aliyu, S H

    2012-10-01

    Sweet's syndrome or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis has been associated with underlying infection, malignancy, inflammatory disease and certain medications. The infection agents associated with this include Streptococcus species, Yersinia species, Chlamydia species, Salmonella species and Helicobacter pylori. We report a case of Sweet's syndrome in a 73-year-old woman following a 2 week course of severe gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter species. Histological examination of skin lesions showed marked inflammatory infiltrate throughout the dermis, composed of neutrophils and histiocytes. The patient was successfully treated with topical and systemic steroids. To date, this is the first case of Sweet's syndrome to be reported linked to Campylobacter species to our knowledge.

  14. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp....... The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119.Results...

  15. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    , fat score, gender, and migration range were not found to be associated with Campylobacter spp. carriage. A correlation was found between the prevalence (%) of C. jejuni in wild birds and the proportions (%) of C. jejuni in both manure on cattle farms (R-2 = 0.92) and poultry farms (R-2 = 0....... The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119.Results...

  16. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from domestic and wild mammals in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosef, O; Gondrosen, B; Kapperud, G; Underdal, B

    1983-10-01

    A total of 1,262 domestic and wild mammals from Norway were surveyed for fecal carriage of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Of the five species of domestic mammals examined, the highest isolation rate was recorded among swine (100.0%), followed by sheep (8.1%) and cows (0.8%). No strains were recovered from horses or goats. Among wild mammals, C. jejuni was isolated from 1 of 23 hares, and no isolated were obtained from three species of cervids and three species of rodents. Of the 133 Campylobacter strains isolated, 114 were classified as C. coli, 18 were C. jejuni biotype 1, and 1 belonged to C. jejuni biotype 2. All 114 strains from swine were C. coli. Milk samples from 113 domestic animals with clinically diagnosed mastitis (106 cows, 5 sheep, 1 horse, and 1 pig) were negative for campylobacters.

  17. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    Living in a household with a dog or cat has previously been identified as a significant risk factor for acquiring campylobacteriosis, in particular, with reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis infection. In a cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark between August and December 1996, 72 healthy...... puppies and 42 healthy kittens, aged between 11 and 17 weeks, were sampled for fecal campylobacter shedding by culture of rectal swab specimens on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 32 mg/liter and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter and on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 8 mg/liter, teicoplanin...... for Campylobacter spp., with a species distribution of 76% C. jejuni, 5% C. coli, and 19% C. upsaliensis, Of the kittens examined, two (5%) excreted campylobacters; both strains were C. upsaliensis, None of the chicken samples examined were found to be positive for C. upsaliensis. We concluded that young puppies...

  18. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Danish broilers at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Wedderkopp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Aims : To investigate the prevalence of quinolone resistance among Campylobacter jejuni and Camp. coli isolates from Danish poultry at the farm level, as well as for the whole country. Methods and Results : Data and isolates were collected from a national surveillance of Campylobacter in poultry......-resistant variant. Conclusions : Overall, quinolone resistance among Campylobacter isolates from Danish broilers was 7.5% in 1998 and 1999; it was higher among Camp. coli than Camp. jejuni . Genetic diversity among resistant isolates was lower than among susceptible isolates, and certain clones existed in both...... a resistant and a susceptible variant. Some resistant clones appeared to persist on the farms and were repeatedly isolated from poultry flocks. Significance and Impact of the Study : The study is important for the understanding of persistence and dynamics of Campylobacter in broiler houses. It also highlights...

  19. National surveillance of Campylobacter in broilers at slaughter in Denmark in 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    was Campylobacter jejuni 86%, Campylobacter coli 11%, Campylobacter lari 1%, other not further diagnosed species 2%. The prevalence was significantly higher in the period from June to October (3.2 abattoir (OR

  20. Prevalence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat in Croatia and Multilocus Sequence Typing of a Small Subset of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Humski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., 241 samples of fresh chicken meat, at retail in Croatia, were analysed according to a standard method, followed by biochemical test and molecular polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis for exact species determination. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 73.86 %. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were isolated from 53.53 and 15.35 % of the samples, respectively. In 4.98 % of isolates thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were not determined. The multi locus sequence typing method was used to evaluate genetic diversity of eight Campylobacter jejuni and four Campylobacter coli isolates. To our knowledge, these results of genotyping provided the first data on the presence of sequence types (STs and clonal complexes (CCs of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates in Croatia. By applying the multilocus sequence typing, a new allele of tkt gene locus was discovered and marked tkt508. The C. jejuni ST 6182 and C. coli ST 6183 genotypes were described for the fi rst time, and all other identified genotypes were clustered in the previously described sequence types and clonal complexes. These findings provide useful information on the prevalence and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Croatia.

  1. Heat-treated Campylobacter spp. and mRNA stability as determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kidon; Hiett, Kelli L; Stern, Norman J

    2005-01-01

    The detection method of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which specifically targets mRNA, was developed and tested for detection of cultivable Campylobacter spp. The expression of four DNA targets- flaA, tkt, porA, and a putative haem-copper oxidase domain-were assayed in heat-inactivated Campylobacter spp. to determine an optimum target for RT-PCR amplification. A diversity of Campylobacter spp. was tested; however, the presented RT-PCR technique was specific for C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. The durability of mRNA species detected by our RT-PCR technique was dependent upon the individual Campylobacter spp. examined, the condition of heat treatment and post-treatment holding time, as well as the transcript targeted. The putative oxidase was determined to be the most stable mRNA species for this assay. The mRNA of the putative oxidase gene was detectable even after Campylobacter spp. had been treated at temperatures of 95-99 degrees C. Using DNA-based PCR, the four DNA targets could be amplified after heat inactivation followed by a 48 h holding time, indicating that the chromosomal DNA was not substantially degraded by the heat treatment. PCR products from the putative oxidase gene were detected at 10(2) to 10(3) C. jejuni CFU per mL, exhibiting the highest level of sensitivity among the genes tested. The results in the present study indicate that mRNA from Campylobacter spp. may persist in a form that is detectable by RT-PCR amplification for an extended period after heat treatment, demonstrating a poor correlation between mRNA detection and cell cultivability. With these results in mind, further investigations are necessary to determine the correlation between RT-PCR amplification and viability.

  2. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  3. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  4. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  5. Growth of non-Campylobacter, oxidase-positive bacteria on selective Campylobacter agar.

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, L B; Chester, B

    1982-01-01

    A total of 67 oxidase-positive, gram-negative bacteria were tested for growth on selective Campylobacter agar (Blaser formulation, BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) at 42 degrees C under microaerophilic conditions. Although the growth of most of these bacteria was prevented, all strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes grew as well as Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

  6. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Resistance in Peru: A Ten-year Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    Miller WG, Konkel ME: Differentiation of Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter upsaliensis by a multiplex PCR ...van Pelt W, Wagenaar JA, Kuijper EJ: Inaccuracy of routine susceptibility tests for detection of erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni...available soon. Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance in Peru: a ten-year observational study BMC Infectious Diseases 2012, 12:193 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12

  7. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Boer, Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-09-15

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    However, antimicrobial resistance to clinically important drugs used for treatment (especially macrolides and fluoroquinolones) is increasingly reported for campylobacters (9). There is growing scientific evidence that the use of antibiotics in food animals, particularly in developed countries, leads to the development of.

  9. Studies on the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Oosterom (Johannes)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractOver the last few years the bacterial species Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as an important cause of acute enteritis in man. Investigations in several countries have shown that infections caused by C. jejuni may be as serious as those due to Salmonella spp., both in prevalence

  10. Campylobacter enteritis among children in Dembia District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven villages found in the outskirts of Kolla Diba town were covered. The town is located 35 kilometres away from Gondar teaching hospital. Participants: Stool specimens were ...

  11. CAMPYLOBACTER ENTERITIS AMONG CHILDREN IN DEMBIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-12

    Dec 12, 2000 ... Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven villages found in the outskirts of Kolla Diba town were covered. The town is located 35 kilometres away from Gondar teaching hospital. Participants: Stool ...

  12. Molecular characterization of thermophilic Campylobacter species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We identified two species of thermophilic Campylobacter in companion dogs in Jos. Majority of C. jejuni were isolated from mucoid faeces while mixed infections of the two species were more common among diarrhoeic dogs. Pet owners should observe strict hand hygiene especially after handling dogs or their faeces to ...

  13. Isolation and molecular characterization of Campylobacter coli

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campylobacter coli is prevalent among trade pigs in Kafanchan, Nigeria and is distributed across four of the five states from which trade pigs were sourced. Adequate hand hygiene is recommended for farmers, traders and Veterinary professionals handling pigs to prevent the transmission of this zoonosis to humans.

  14. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Though Campylobacter enteritis is a self-limiting disease, antimicrobial agents are recommended for extraintestinal infections and for treating immunocompromised persons. Erythromycin and ciprofloxacin are drugs of choice. The rate of resistance to these drugs is increasing in both developed and developing ...

  15. Prevalence of Campylobacter foetus and Trichomonas foetus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis are diseases caused by Trichomonas foetus and Campylobacter foetus respectively. These diseases pose economic losses due to infertility and abortion. The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of C. foetus and T. foetus among southern African cattle.

  16. Campylobacter Spp. Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation rate of Campylobacter was 2.3%,comprising of the following species C. jejuni (51.8%), C. coli (13.8%), and C. upsaliensis (3.5%). However, 30.9% of the isolates were unidentified. No resistant strain was found to gentamicin. The resistance to amoxicillin+clavulanic acid (3.4%) was lower than those ...

  17. Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea model in infant chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanyal, S. C.; Islam, K. M.; Neogy, P. K.; Islam, M.; Speelman, P.; Huq, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    To study the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni infection, 36- to 72-h-old chickens were fed 10(3) to 10(6) live cells, using strains isolated from 40 patients with watery diarrhea and 6 with bloody mucoid diarrhea from whom no other known enteropathogen was detected. Chickens of Starbro

  18. Detection of Campylobacter concisus and other Campylobacter species in colonic biopsies from adults with ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Mukhopadhya

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The critical role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC is well recognized, but an individual causative microorganism has not been singled out so far. Campylobacter concisus and other non-jejuni species of Campylobacter have been implicated as putative aetiological agents in inflammatory bowel disease in children, but such studies have not been addressed in adults. This study investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter species in colonic biopsy samples from adults with UC and healthy controls. METHODS: Adult patients who were undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were recruited for the study, which included 69 patients with histologically proven UC and 65 healthy controls. DNA was extracted from the biopsy samples and subjected to Campylobacter genus specific and Campylobacter concisus specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. RESULTS: Detection of all Campylobacter DNA utilising genus specific primers was significantly higher in cases of UC, with a prevalence of 73.9% (51/69 compared to 23.1% (15/65 in controls (p = 0.0001. Nested PCR for C. concisus DNA was positive in 33.3% (23/69 of biopsy samples from subjects with UC, which was significantly higher than the prevalence rate of 10.8% (7/65 from controls (p = 0.0019. Sequencing of the remaining Campylobacter positive samples revealed that Campylobacter ureolyticus was positive in 21.7% (15/69 of samples from UC subjects as opposed to 3.1% (2/65 in controls (p = 0.0013. Mixed Campylobacter species were more common in UC patients, 20.3% (14/69 as compared to controls 4.6% (3/65 (p = 0.0084. CONCLUSION: The higher prevalence of Campylobacter genus and more specifically C. concisus and C. ureolyticus in biopsy samples from adults with UC suggests these genera of bacteria may be involved in the chronic inflammation that is characteristically seen in UC. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of this association of C. concisus

  19. Detection of Campylobacter concisus and Other Campylobacter Species in Colonic Biopsies from Adults with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Thomson, John M.; Hansen, Richard; Berry, Susan H.; El-Omar, Emad M.; Hold, Georgina L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The critical role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is well recognized, but an individual causative microorganism has not been singled out so far. Campylobacter concisus and other non-jejuni species of Campylobacter have been implicated as putative aetiological agents in inflammatory bowel disease in children, but such studies have not been addressed in adults. This study investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter species in colonic biopsy samples from adults with UC and healthy controls. Methods Adult patients who were undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were recruited for the study, which included 69 patients with histologically proven UC and 65 healthy controls. DNA was extracted from the biopsy samples and subjected to Campylobacter genus specific and Campylobacter concisus specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Results Detection of all Campylobacter DNA utilising genus specific primers was significantly higher in cases of UC, with a prevalence of 73.9% (51/69) compared to 23.1% (15/65) in controls (p = 0.0001). Nested PCR for C. concisus DNA was positive in 33.3% (23/69) of biopsy samples from subjects with UC, which was significantly higher than the prevalence rate of 10.8% (7/65) from controls (p = 0.0019). Sequencing of the remaining Campylobacter positive samples revealed that Campylobacter ureolyticus was positive in 21.7% (15/69) of samples from UC subjects as opposed to 3.1% (2/65) in controls (p = 0.0013). Mixed Campylobacter species were more common in UC patients, 20.3% (14/69) as compared to controls 4.6% (3/65) (p = 0.0084). Conclusion The higher prevalence of Campylobacter genus and more specifically C. concisus and C. ureolyticus in biopsy samples from adults with UC suggests these genera of bacteria may be involved in the chronic inflammation that is characteristically seen in UC. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of this association of C. concisus and C

  20. Update on Campylobacter jejuni vaccine development for preventing human campylobacteriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elzbieta Katarzyna; Łaniewski, Paweł; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka

    2009-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis constitutes a serious medical and socioeconomic problem worldwide. Rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains compels us to develop alternative therapeutic strategies and to search for efficient immunoprophylactic methods. The vast majority of Campylobacter infections in developed countries occur as sporadic cases, mainly caused by eating undercooked Campylobacter-contaminated poultry. The most efficient strategy of decreasing the number of human Campylobacter infections is by implementing protective vaccinations for humans and/or chickens. Despite more than 10 years of research, an effective anti-Campylobacter vaccine has not been developed. This review highlights our increasing knowledge of Campylobacter interaction with host cells and focuses on recently published data describing the efficacy of anti-Campylobacter vaccine prototypes.

  1. [Evaluation of usefulness of commercial recomwell Campylobacter enzyme--linked immunosorbent assays for routine serodiagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Jagielski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    The commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA recomWell Campylobacter) from Mikrogen was evaluated for the diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections. Serum samples from 20 healthy controls, 44 persons with symptoms of primary Campylobacter infection and 24 serum samples from patients with Yersinia enterocolitica or Salmonella infections were tested. This ELISA assay detects IgA and IgG antibodies against three recombinant antigens of the Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli: OMP 18 (18 kDa), PEB4 (31 kDa) and P39 (39 kDa). The healthy controls showed significantly lower antibody titers in all two immunoglobulin classes. The IgA antibodies were diagnosed only in 2 (18.2%) serum samples obtained from patients with bacteriologically confirmed campylobacteriosis. The presence of IgG antibodies was confirmed in 82% of serum samples. Furthermore, we showed that 66.7% of the 33 serum samples obtained from the patients suspected for campylobacteriosis not confirmed by isolation, were positive for IgG and 15.2% for IgA antibodies. We observed also not specific reactions in ELISA recom Well Campylobacter with sera obtained form patients with yersiniosis and salmonelosis. This study demonstrates the usefulness of commercially available assay for the routine diagnosis of Campylobacter infection but with some limitations.

  2. Longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Campylobacter excretion patterns of 26 domestic pet dogs were described in a longitudinal study. The dogs entered the study between 3 and 8 months of age and were monitored until 2 years of age. They were tested monthly for Campylobacter carriage in stool samples that were cultured...... on the Campylobacter-selective media CAT and modified CCDA agar at 37 and 42 C. This study comprised 366 fecal swab samples, of which 278 (76.2%) were found to be Campylobacter positive, with the following distribution of species: 75.0% Campylobacter upsaliensis, 19.4% Campylobacter jejuni, 2.1% Campylobacter lari, 0.......7% Campylobacter coli, and 2.8% Campylobacter spp. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to elucidate the strain excretion pattern. All study dogs excreted Campylobacter spp. during the study period. At 3 months of age, 60% of the dogs carried Campylobacter, increasing to nearly 100...

  3. Campylobacter in the environment: A major threat to public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Hasan Abulreesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data suggest that Campylobacter remains a worldwide leading cause of gastrointestinal infections. Improperly prepared meat products, unpasteurized milk as well as non chlorinated drinking water were shown to be the main sources of campylobacteriosis. The Campylobacter survival mechanism in various environments facilitated the transmission of Campylobacter-associated infections; however the exact mode of transmission remains to be elucidated. This review aims to summarize recent insights on the incidence and survival of Campylobacter in the environment. Besides, methods of detection and risk assessment for public health safety are also addressed.

  4. High-resolution genomic fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; On, Stephen L.W.

    1999-01-01

    A method for high-resolution genomic fingerprinting of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, based on the determination of amplified fragment length polymorphism, is described. The potential of this method for molecular epidemiological studies of these species...... to available epidemiological data. We conclude that this amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting method may be a highly effective tool for molecular epidemiological studies of Campylobacter spp....

  5. The Prevalence of Antibiotic and Biocide Resistance Among Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni from Different Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mavri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance among foodborne bacteria are recognised as an important emerging public health problem. Reduced susceptibility to biocides also appears to be increasing. A potential concern is the possibility that the widespread use of biocides is responsible for the selection and maintenance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Here, we examine the prevalence of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate, cetylpyridinium chloride, trisodium phosphate and sodium dodecyl sulphate resistance among 27 isolates of Campylobacter coli and 15 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni from food, animal, human and environmental water sources. These antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the broth microdilution method. In the 42 Campylobacter strains studied, different antibiotic resistance levels were seen. The resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin was observed in 14.3 % of Campylobacter strains. A higher rate of erythromycin resistance and multi-resistance was observed among isolated C. coli than among C. jejuni strains. Similar situations were seen for triclosan. Conversely, the level of benzalkonium chloride resistance was higher in C. jejuni than in C. coli. No correlation between biocide and antibiotic resistance was observed. This study does not provide evidence to confirm that tolerance to biocides is connected to antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter.

  6. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli among broilers in Bareilly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Malik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli among broilers at the time of slaughter in and around Bareilly, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 chicken caecal samples were screened by conventional plating in modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar with incubation at 42°C for 48 h under microaerophilic conditions. The characteristic colonies were confirmed by morphological and biochemical characteristics and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR assay targeting lpxA gene. Results: Out of 100 chicken caecal samples, 32 yielded isolates with typical phenotypic of Campylobacter species. The hippurate hydrolysis test found to be positive for 2 isolates, categorized as C. jejuni and negative for 30 isolates. The mPCR assay targeting lpxA gene also confirmed 2 (6.25% isolates as C. jejuni, and 30 (93.75% isolates as C. coli. Conclusion: The present study showed broilers to an important source of Campylobacter in the region with predominance of C. coli than C. jejuni indicating a shift in the prevalence of important species of Campylobacter. To understand the variation in pattern of occurrence of species with high prevalence of organisms, detail studies on the ecology of campylobacteriosis are suggested.

  7. Rapid detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari in food, using multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A M; Lick, S; Bauer, J; Thärigen, D; Busch, U; Huber, I

    2010-02-01

    A multiplex real-time PCR assay based on four differently labeled TaqMan probes for detection and differentiation of the thermophilic Campylobacter species C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari was established and validated in food products. This assay combines two previously published PCR assays for C. jejuni and C. coli with a newly developed detection assay for C. lari and an internal amplification control system. The selectivity of the method was determined by analyzing 70 Campylobacter strains and 43 strains of other bacteria. The sensitivity was 50 fg of C. jejuni and C. lari DNA and 500 fg of C. coli DNA per PCR. It was possible to detect 1 to 10 CFU/25 g of food before preenrichment of all three species. More than 400 samples of various foods (poultry, seafood, and meat) were analyzed after 48 h of preenrichment parallel to the conventional diagnostic method of culture and biochemical identification. Using the established real-time PCR assay, 55.4% of the samples were recognized as positive for thermophilic Campylobacter species, whereas with the conventional method only 40.3% of the samples were positive. The real-time PCR assay also detected contaminations with two different Campylobacter species in 32.6% of the analyzed poultry samples, a finding of epidemiological interest. Compared with the original PCR method, which was established for the differentiation of bacterial isolates of C. jejuni and C. coli, this new method also detects and distinguishes C. lari, was validated as an analytical tool for food analysis, and provides reliable and extensive results within 2 days.

  8. Reduction of thermotolerant Campylobacter species on broiler carcasses following physical decontamination at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the incidences of human Campylobacter infections, a number of countries are investigating methods for reducing human exposure to Campylobacter from broiler meat. In addition to implementing biosecurity measures at the farm, Campylobacter may be controlled by reducing Campylobacter counts...

  9. Microbiological aspects of Helicobacter pylori (Campylobacter pylori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C S; Armstrong, J A

    1990-01-01

    The human gastric pathogen Campylobacter pylori has recently been reclassified as Helicobacter pylori, and a related spiral bacterium found in the stomach of ferrets has been designated Helicobacter mustelae. The general microbiological features of Helicobacter pylori are delineated here, with details of phenotypic differences between Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae; comparisons are made with Wolinella succinogenes and Campylobacter jejuni. The Helicobacter organisms possess an external glycocalyx which can be visualised by electron microscopy, and which may be involved in bacterial adherence. The finding of soluble and cell-associated haemagglutinins of Helicobacter pylori is reported. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in clinical specimens, susceptibility of the organism to antibacterial agents, and other aspects of practical and clinical significance are briefly reviewed.

  10. Higiene alimentaria para la prevención de trastornos digestivos infecciosos y por toxinas

    OpenAIRE

    G. Manuel Moreno, Dr.; Alarcón Alejandra, Nut.

    2010-01-01

    El principal factor que interviene en el origen y prevención de las enfermedades trasmitidas por los alimentos es la higiene alimentaria. Dichas enfermedades son causadas por la ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados con microorganismos patógenos ocasionando una infección o por la ingestión de alimentos contaminados con toxinas. Los principales agentes involucrados son Escherichia Coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria Monocytogenes, Norovirus, virus Hepatitis A, Astrovirus, ...

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  13. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda C. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, bem como 21 amostras de isolados clínicos de C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Os testes foram realizados conforme o método de Kirby-Bauer. A amostra padrão de C. fetus subsp. fetus demonstrou-se resistente à lincomicina, penicilina e ácido nalidíxico, enquanto a de C. fetus subsp. venerealis apresentou susceptibilidade a todos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção do ácido nalidíxico. Todas as amostras de C. fetus subsp. venerealis foram susceptíveis à amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, penicilina e tetraciclina. Foi observada resistência de 42,86% à lincomicina e 4,76 % a enrofloxacina, e de 100% ao ácido nalidíxico. Ainda, 4,76% apresentaram susceptibilidade intermediária à enrofloxacina, neomicina e polimixina B e 9,52% à lincomicina. Os resultados evidenciaram a sensibilidade das amostras analisadas aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e do sêmen.Venereal campylobacteriosis is associated with infection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The etiological agent is transmitted by natural bull breeding or artificial insemination using contaminated semen. The present study aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility of C. fetus subsp. venerealis isolates to antimicrobial drugs generally used in clinical and semen treatment. Reference strains of C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 21 C. fetus

  14. Campylobacter jejuni seroepidemiology in native chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Rosyidi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for about 90% of cases of Campylobacteriosis in humans with gastroenteritis. Healthy chickens can carry Campylobacter spp. in the intestinal tract. Efforts to reduce exposure to Campylobacteriosis by humans may be enhanced by knowledge of its prevalence in poultry. This study aimed to identify factors associated with seropositive response to C. jejuni in native chickens in Mataram. Detection of C. jejuni was accomplished using an immunochromatographic serological method. Association between Campylobacter jejuni seropositive response as the dependent variable with various independent variables was analyzed using χ² (Chi square and Odds Ratio (OR. A total of 216 chicken samples were examined and 44 chicken owners were interviewed and their farms examined. Results showed the prevalence of serological response to C. jejuni in chicken samples to be as high as 35.6% and that as many as 70.5% of farms had affected chickens. Age of the chicken was the variable most closely associated with incidence of seropositive response, birds older than 3 months more likely to be affected. Variables at the farm level associated with variation in seropositive response were cage type, cage floor material, and origin of drinking water, surface water sources being less desirable.

  15. Molecular Diagnosis of Shigella, Salmonella and Campylobacter by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infections, enteric bacteria such as Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella are impor- tant because of the frequency and severity of the symptoms they could cause. Thus,. Campylobacter is currently considered the leading cause of intestinal bacterial infec- tions in humans worldwide with an increasing incidence in ...

  16. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks...... broiler chicken flocks....

  17. Campylobacter: animal reservoirs, human infections, and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap; Newell, D.G.; Kalupahana, R.S.; Mughini Gras, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  18. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, van der J.

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  19. Host-pathogen interactions in Campylobacter infections: the host perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Cawthraw, S.A.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Owen, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. This study was aimed at summarizing the current understanding of host mechanisms involved in the defense against Campylobacter by evaluating data available from three sources: (i) epidemiological observations, (ii)

  20. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  1. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdt...

  2. Campylobacter and Toll-like receptors : implications for vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zoete, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative highly motile bacterium that colonizes the intestinal tract of humans, leading to inflammation of the intestinal mucosal layer. Campylobacter-induced enteritis causes (bloody) diarrhea, cramps, malaise and fever, which resolves within two weeks. In a small

  3. Campylobacter pylori as possible factor in peptic ulcer recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, E. A.

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews the literature up to 1988 about the close association of Campylobacter pylori with chronic active gastritis, duodenitis and peptic ulcer disease. No firm data however demonstrate that Campylobacter pylori causes duodenal ulcer but long term eradication of this bacterium prevents

  4. Cellular response of Campylobacter jejuni to trisodium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Cohn, M. T.; Stabler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The highly alkaline compound trisodium phosphate (TSP) is used as an intervention to reduce the load of Campylobacter on poultry meat in U.S. poultry slaughter plants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular responses of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 when exposed to sublethal...

  5. Effect of Noradrenaline on the Virulence Properties of Campylobacter Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree V. Aroori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species cause a spectrum of illnesses in humans. The type of illness and the outcome is dependent on the virulence of the infecting pathogen strain and host immune status. Acute stress can seriously compromise host immunity and increase susceptibility to infection. Noradrenaline (NA is a stress hormone. Several studies have shown that it stimulated growth and increased the pathogenicity of organisms including E. coli and Campylobacter jejuni. However, the effect of NA on other Campylobacter species is unknown. We have examined the effect of NA on growth rate, motility, invasion of T84 epithelial cells, and colonisation of chickens by diverse Campylobacter species. Campylobacter cultures grown with NA had reduced lag phases, increased growth rates, and higher final optical densities than controls. The motility of Campylobacter was also significantly increased in the presence of noradrenaline. Some of the Campylobacter strains tested also showed increased invasion of T84 epithelial cells, greater breakdown of tight junctions, and an enhanced potential to colonise chickens. Our results show that noradrenaline-induced enhancement of virulence of Campylobacter can influence the outcome of infection.

  6. Generation of Campylobacter jejuni genetic diversity in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Achterberg, R.P.; Putten, van J.P.M.; Schouls, L.M.; Duim, B.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology studies suggest that horizontal genetic exchange is a major cause of pathogen biodiversity. We tested this concept for the bacterial enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni by seeking direct in vivo evidence for the exchange of genetic material among Campylobacter strains. For

  7. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. Objective: The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with ...

  8. Preventing Campylobacter at the Source: Why Is It So Difficult?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; French, N.P.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis in humans, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is the most common recognized bacterial zoonosis in the European Union and the United States. The acute phase is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. The long-term sequelae (Guillain-Barre syndrome, reactive

  9. Quantifying Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in Commercial Broiler Flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.; Miflin, J.K.; Templeton, J.M.; Bouma, A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Stegeman, A.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2009-01-01

    Since meat from poultry colonized with Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, human exposure should be reduced by, among other things, prevention of colonization of broiler flocks. To obtain more insight into possible sources of introduction of Campylobacter into broiler

  10. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna K; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J; Jones, Trevor R; Wigley, Paul; O'Brien, Sarah J; Cross, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs' ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public's preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%-52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%-98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter: susceptibility testing methods and resistance trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Beilei; Wang, Fei; Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2013-10-01

    Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., macrolides, fluoroquinolones) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. Susceptibility testing continues to play a critical role in guiding therapy and epidemiological monitoring of resistance. The methods of choice for Campylobacter recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are agar dilution and broth microdilution, while a disk diffusion method was recently standardized by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Macrolides, quinolones, and tetracyclines are among the common antimicrobials recommended for testing. Molecular determination of Campylobacter resistance via DNA sequencing or PCR-based methods has been performed. High levels of resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin are frequently reported by many national surveillance programs, but resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin in Campylobacter jejuni remains low. Nonetheless, variations in susceptibility observed over time underscore the need for continued public health monitoring of Campylobacter resistance from humans, animals, and food. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Risk factors for indigenous Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections in The Netherlands: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduyn, Y.; Brandhof, van den W.E.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.H.P.; Breukink, B.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Pelt, van W.

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study comprising 1315 Campylobacter jejuni cases, 121 Campylobacter coli cases and 3409 frequency-matched controls was conducted in The Netherlands in 2002-2003. Risk factors for both C. jejuni and C. coli enteritis were consumption of undercooked meat and barbecued meat, ownership of

  13. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the ...

  14. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. ...

  15. Tight junction changes in epithelial cells by Campylobacter jejuni and non-jejuni Campylobacter species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bücker, Roland; Nielsen, Hans Linde; Krüg, S

    Campylobacter concisus infections of the gastrointestinal tract can be accompanied by diarrhea and inflammation, whereas colonization of the human oral cavity might have a commensal nature. We focus on the pathophysiology of C. concisus and the effects of different clinical oral and fecal C...

  16. Computer-assisted analysis and epidemiological value of genotyping methods for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Duim, B.; Rigter, A.; Plas, J. van der; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    For epidemiological tracing of the thermotolerant Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli, reliable and highly discriminatory typing techniques are necessary. In this study the genotyping techniques of flagellin typing (flaA typing), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), automated ribotyping,

  17. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M.; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Boer, de Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; Pelt, Van Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water

  18. Higher resistance of Campylobacter coli compared to Campylobacter jejuni at chicken slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralbo, Alicia; Borge, Carmen; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Méric, Guillaume; Perea, Anselmo; Carbonero, Alfonso

    2015-04-01

    In order to compare the prevalence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni during the processing of broilers at slaughterhouse a total of 848 samples were analyzed during 2012 in southern Spain. Four hundred and seventy six samples were collected from cloaca, carcass surfaces and quartered carcasses. Moreover, 372 environmental swabs from equipment and scalding water were collected. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and gentamicin was determined for isolates from chicken meat. The general prevalence of Campylobacter was 68.8% (40.2% of C. coli and 28.5% of C. jejuni). The relative prevalence of C. coli increased from loading dock area (41.5%) to packing area (64.6%). In contrast, the relative prevalence of C. jejuni decreased from 58.5% to 35.4%. These differences between species from initial to final area were significant (p=0.02). The highest antimicrobial resistance for C. jejuni and C. coli was detected to tetracycline (100%) and ciprofloxacin (100%), respectively. Campylobacter coli showed an antimicrobial resistance significantly higher than C. jejuni to streptomycin (p=0.002) and erythromycin (p<0.0001). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Campylobacter jejuni: exposure assessment and hazard characterization : growth, survival and infectivity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a small, curved or spirally shaped highly motile microorganism, is identified as a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Serious complications such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis might occasionally follow infection. In this

  20. Detection and quantification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using real-time multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, N; Kovač, M; Piskernik, S; Možina, S Smole; Jeršek, B

    2012-04-01

    We describe a real-time quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction (qmPCR) assay to identify and discriminate between isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Two novel sets of primers and hydrolysis probes were designed to amplify the unique DNA sequences within the hipO, ccoN and cadF genes that are specific to Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli. Using the designed optimized qmPCR assay conditions, the amplification efficiency is in range from 108 to 116%. These qmPCR assays are highly specific for Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli, as seen through testing of 40 Campylobacter strains and 17 non-Campylobacter strains. In chicken juice and tap water models spiked with known quantities of Camp. jejuni, qmPCR detected 10(2) -10(3) CFU ml(-1) within 4 h. The qmPCR assays developed in this study provide reliable and simultaneous detection and quantification of Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli, with good amplification reaction parameters. Following further validation, the qmPCR assay reported here has the potential to be applied to various sample types as an alternative and rapid methodology. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Comparative genomic fingerprinting for the subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Thermophilic campylobacters, especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli (C. coli, are the most important causes of bacterial diarrhea in developed and developing countries. The disease can occur as a sporadic infection or as large and small outbreaks. Phenotyping and genotyping methods are in use to determine similarities between strains as well their possible common origin. The goal of the study was to compare discriminatory power of biotyping tests and comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF 40 (100%, as well as a combination of the two tests in detection of clonality or epidemiological relatedness between the studied strains. Methods. We investigated 23 Campylobacter strains using biotyping and CGF typing. Results. We found that biotyping was a more discriminatory method for C. coli, and CGF for C. jejuni strains. In the discrimination of C. jejuni strains, CGF had better discriminatory power [Simpson’s index of diversity (ID was 0.879] over the discrimination of C. coli strains (Simpson’s ID was 0.389. Conclusion. Biotyping and CGF can be complementary methods in detection of similarity, relatedness and possible common origin between strains since the combination of biotyping and CGF methods gives more precise data about diversity within C. coli and C. jejuni strains. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR34008

  2. Campylobacter jejuni: exposure assessment and hazard characterization : growth, survival and infectivity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a small, curved or spirally shaped highly motile microorganism, is identified as a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Serious complications such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis might occasionally follow infection.

  3. Diagnóstico molecular de Campylobacter en la cadena avícola destinada para consumo humano en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leana Zumbado-Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la presencia y la frecuencia de Campylobacter jejuni y Campylobacter coli, en la cadena de producción avícola en Costa Rica. Se evaluaron granjas, planta de proceso y puntos de venta del Gran Área Metropolitana. Para la detección y aislamiento de Campylobacter sp. se analizaron 84 muestras provenientes de la cadena avícola (24 muestras de carne de pollo tomadas en punto de venta, 20 enjuagues de carcasa y 40 de ciegos tomados en planta de beneficio, obtenidas en noviembre de 2012, siguiendo el protocolo ISO 10272-1:2006 modificado por el Departamento de Agricultura de Estados Unidos (USDA, por sus siglas en inglés. De las 84 muestras analizadas, 36 (42,8% resultaron positivas para C. jejuni, y una (1,2% para C. coli. La cantidad de muestras positivas según la Reacción en Cadena de Polimerasa (PCR, por tipo de muestra fue: para contenido cecal, 16 (n=40, para carcasas, 8 (n=20 y para punto de venta 12 (n=24. Dieciséis de las veinte granjas muestreadas fueron positivas. Hubo una alta frecuencia de Campylobacter en todos los puntos de la cadena muestreados, lo que podría estar asociado a modificaciones de parámetros relacionados con inocuidad en cada eslabón. El enfriamiento rápido y el uso de cloro en el agua en la planta de proceso, disminuyó la frecuencia de muestras positivas de Campylobacter spp.

  4. Participation of some campylobacter species in the etiology of enterocolitis

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    Otašević Marica M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of Campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. Nowdays, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological differences of the infections caused by Campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. Due to the specificity, and the demanding features of Campylobacter, as well as poorly equipped microbiological laboratories, campylobacteriosis is insufficiently studied in our country. This investigation aimed to determine the participation of some Campylobacter species in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in our population. Methods. The four-years continuous monitoring of Campylobacter presence was performed in the faeces of 12 605 patients with enterocolitis. The control group included 5 774 examinees of healthy children and youth. Faeces samples were cultivated on Skirrow's selective medium, and further incubated according to effective methodology for Campylobacter. Identification of strains was based on morphological, cultural and physiologic features of strains (oxidase test, catalase test, susceptibility to nalidixic acid, and hypurate hydrolysis. As a statistical method, for data processing, c2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used. Results. Campylobacter was proven in 3.86% of enterocolitis patients, and in 0.71% of healthy population. Out of 518 Campylobacter isolates, 86.48% belonged to enterocolitis outpatients, and 13,51% to inpatients. Predominant symptoms of the disease were diarrhea (81.83%, increased temperature (34.71%, vomiting (19.77%, and stomach pain (15.17%. The diseased were predominantly infants in the first year of life. Out of 300 Campylobacter isolates, 75% were identified as Campylobacer jejuni, 23% as Campylobacter coli (C. coli, and 2% as Campylobacter lari

  5. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Martina; Salata, Cristiano; Martini, Marco; Montesissa, Clara; Piccirillo, Alessandra

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Campylobacter isolates from broilers and turkeys reared in industrial farms in Northern Italy, given the public health concern represented by resistant campylobacters in food-producing animals and the paucity of data about this topic in our country. Thirty-six Campylobacter jejuni and 24 Campylobacter coli isolated from broilers and 68 C. jejuni and 32 C. coli from turkeys were tested by disk diffusion for their susceptibility to apramycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, cefuroxime, ampicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, tiamulin, clindamycin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, chloramphenicol. Depending on the drug, breakpoints provided by Comité de l'antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and the manufacturer were followed. All broiler strains and 92% turkey strains were multidrug resistant. Very high resistance rates were detected for quinolones, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, ranging from 65% to 100% in broilers and from 74% to 96% in turkeys. Prevalence of resistance was observed also against ampicillin (97% in broilers, 88% in turkeys) and at least three cephalosporins (93-100% in broilers, 100% in turkeys). Conversely, no isolates showed resistance to chloramphenicol and tiamulin. Susceptibility prevailed for amoxicillin+clavulanic acid and aminoglycosides in both poultry species, and for macrolides and clindamycin among turkey strains and among C. jejuni from broilers, whereas most C. coli strains from broilers (87.5%) were resistant. Other differences between C. jejuni and C. coli were observed markedly in broiler isolates, with the overall predominance of resistance in C. coli compared to C. jejuni. This study provides updates and novel data on the AMR of broiler and

  6. Rapid and Specific Methods to Differentiate Foodborne Pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and the New Species Causing Spotty Liver Disease in Chickens, Campylobacter hepaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Anwar, Arif; Scott, Peter C; Moore, Robert J

    2018-01-22

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli play a major role in bacteria-related foodborne illness in humans. Recently, a newly identified species, Campylobacter hepaticus, was shown to be the causative agent of spotty liver disease in chickens. The pathogenic potential of C. hepaticus in humans is unknown. This new species contains genes usually used to detect C. jejuni and C. coli in DNA-based detection methods, such as the hippuricase (hipO) gene and the glyA (serine hydroxymethyltransferase) gene, with a high degree of similarity. Therefore, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers used to detect these species need to be evaluated carefully to prevent misidentification of these important Campylobacter species. A multiplex PCR was developed and optimized to simultaneously and specifically identify the presence of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. hepaticus in chicken samples containing high-complexity microbiota. The assay represents a new diagnostic tool for investigating the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in poultry and environmental samples. It may also be applicable to the investigation of Campylobacter contamination in food and in outbreaks of campylobacteriosis.

  7. Campylobacter fetus subespécie fetus: abortamento e natimortalidade em ovinos Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus: abortion and stillbirths in sheep

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    Letícia Trevisan Gressler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria do gênero Campylobacter está comumente envolvida em surtos de abortos ovinos em muitos países. No Brasil, até o presente momento, ainda não houve relato sobre a ocorrência de aborto em ovinos causado pelo C. fetus, subespécie fetus (C. fetus ssp. fetus. No presente trabalho, relata-se a detecção deste agente em fetos e natimortos ovinos naturalmente infectados. Desse modo, alerta-se para a possibilidade de novos casos de aborto em ovinos causados por C. fetus ssp. fetus.The bacteria of genus Campylobacter spp, is commonly involved in outbreaks of ovine abortion in many countries. In Brazil, until now, there has been no report on the occurrence of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus. In this paper, we report the detection this bacteria in ovine fetuses naturally infected. Thus, alert for possible cases of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus.

  8. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

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    Mohamed K. Fakhr

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (4–2048 μg/mL, arsenate (16–8,192 μg/mL and arsenite (4–2,048 μg/mL. A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campylobacter coli were further analyzed for the presence of five arsenic resistance genes (arsP, arsR, arsC, acr3, and arsB by PCR. Most of the 552 Campylobacter isolates were able to survive at higher concentrations of arsanilic acid (512–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (512–2,048 μg/mL, and arsenate (128–1,024 μg/mL, but at lower concentrations for arsenite (4–16 μg/mL. Ninety seven percent of the isolates tested by PCR showed the presence of arsP and arsR genes. While 95% of the Campylobacter coli isolates contained a larger arsenic resistance operon that has all of the four genes (arsP, arsR, arsC and acr3, 85% of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates carried the short operon (arsP, and arsR. The presence of arsC and acr3 did not significantly increase arsenic resistance with the exception of conferring resistance to higher concentrations of arsenate to some Campylobacter isolates. arsB was prevalent in 98% of the tested Campylobacter jejuni isolates, regardless of the presence or absence of arsC and acr3, but was completely absent in Campylobacter coli. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine arsenic resistance and the prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in such a large number of Campylobacter isolates.

  9. Características clínicas y epidemiológicas de las infecciones por enterococos en el niño Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Enterococcus infections in children

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    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de la infección por enterococos en niños ingresados en nuestro hospital pediátrico. Se estudiaron los niños con infecciones por enterococos, que estuvieron ingresados en distintos servicios del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez», desde febrero de 1991 hasta diciembre de 2000. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas, con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad, así como análisis de tendencia. Hubo 116 niños con infección por enterococos, lo cual representa una tasa de incidencia anual promedio de 8,97 por 10 000 ingresos (IC 95 %: 7,41 - 10,53, con tendencia ascendente y significación estadística (X2 = 14,54; p = 0001. Según la definición utilizada, el 40,5 % de estas infecciones fueron den origen nosocomial. Las formas clínicas más frecuentes fueron la bronconeumonía y otras infecciones respiratorias agudas con bacteriemia (21,5 %, y les siguió la infección del tracto urinario y la infección de tejidos blandos (14,7 %, respectivamente; las bacteriemias sin foco (11,2 % y la infección de herida quirúrgica (10,3 %. Los enterococos mostraron una elevada resistencia in vitro a la mayoría de los antibióticos probados. Hubo 2 pacientes fallecidos (tasa de letalidad de 1,7 %; ambos presentaron bacteriemia. Las infecciones por enterococos afectan al niño en su ambiente comunitario y de manera notable en el medio hospitalario como infección nosocomial. Se constató en muchas cepas una elevada resistencia in vitro a la mayoría de los antibióticos probados. Existe variedad de formas clínicas y puede ser letal en algunos pacientes con infección sistémica.

  10. Host-Pathogen Interactions in Campylobacter Infections: the Host Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Riny; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Cawthraw, Shaun A.; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Owen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. This study was aimed at summarizing the current understanding of host mechanisms involved in the defense against Campylobacter by evaluating data available from three sources: (i) epidemiological observations, (ii) observations of patients, and (iii) experimental observations including observations of animal models and human volunteer studies. Analysis of available data clearly indicates that an effective immune system is crucial for the host defense against Campylobacter infection. Innate, cell-mediated, and humoral immune responses are induced during Campylobacter infection, but the relative importance of these mechanisms in conferring protective immunity against reinfection is unclear. Frequent exposure to Campylobacter does lead to the induction of short-term protection against disease but most probably not against colonization. Recent progress in the development of more suitable animal models for studying Campylobacter infection has opened up possibilities to study the importance of innate and adaptive immunity during infection and in protection against reinfection. In addition, advances in genomics and proteomics technologies will enable more detailed molecular studies. Such studies combined with better integration of host and pathogen research driven by epidemiological findings may truly advance our understanding of Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:18625685

  11. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  12. Campylobacter spp.: prevalencia y caracterización feno-genotípica de aislamientos de pacientes con diarrea y de sus mascotas en la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Tamborini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la prevalencia de Campylobacter spp. en 327 pacientes con diarrea y en 36 animales (perros, gatos y pollos que convivían con pacientes en los que se detectó este patógeno; el estudio se llevó a cabo en Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Se aisló Campylobacter spp. en 50/327 pacientes y en 12/36 animales, Campylobacter jejuni fue la especie más frecuente. Se detectó resistencia a ciprofoxacina (65 % y a tetraciclina (32 % en una selección de 35 aislamientos de origen humano. En el análisis por electroforesis de campo pulsado de 13 aislamientos de C. jejuni se identificaron siete subtipos genéticos. Dos subtipos agruparon aislamientos de pacientes y de sus respectivos perros, y un tercer subtipo agrupó 1 aislamiento humano y 2 de pollos de ese paciente. Si bien las aves son reconocidas como el principal reservorio, es importante fortalecer la vigilancia de Campylobacter spp. en mascotas, las cuales pueden ser portadores asintomáticos del patógeno.The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofoxacin (65 % and tetracycline (32 % was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed feld gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient´s chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the

  13. Prevalence of Campylobacter concisus in diarrhoea of immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Permin, Henrik; On, Stephen L W

    2002-01-01

    The importance of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni/coli in diarrhoeal disease is largely unknown. We wished to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of C. concisus infection in patients with enteric disease in a tertiary hospital. Stool specimens were routinely tested...... for the presence of Campylobacter species, by use of the filter isolation method. The medical records of the C. concisus-positive patients were reviewed. Of 224 Campylobacter isolates obtained, 110 were identified as C. concisus. Concomitant infection occurred in only 27% of cases. By means of protein profiling we...

  14. Prevalence of Campylobacter concisus in diarrhoea of immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Permin, Henrik; On, Stephen L.W.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni/coli in diarrhoeal disease is largely unknown. We wished to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of C. concisus infection in patients with enteric disease in a tertiary hospital. Stool specimens were routinely tested...... for the presence of Campylobacter species, by use of the filter isolation method. The medical records of the C. concisus-positive patients were reviewed. Of 224 Campylobacter isolates obtained, 110 were identified as C. concisus. Concomitant infection occurred in only 27% of cases. 13 means of protein profiling we...

  15. Current methods for molecular typing of Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Eduardo N; Clark, Clifford G; Sproston, Emma L; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2013-10-01

    Campylobacter remains one of the most common bacterial causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. Tracking sources of this organism is challenging due to the large numbers of human cases, and the prevalence of this organism throughout the environment due to growth in a wide range of animal species. Many molecular subtyping methods have been developed to characterize Campylobacter species, but only a few are commonly used in molecular epidemiology studies. This review examines the applicability of these methods, as well as the role that emerging whole genome sequencing technologies will play in tracking sources of Campylobacter spp. infection. © 2013.

  16. Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eSilva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, causing mild to severe symptoms including serious infections of the extremities and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry, where the intestine is colonized resulting in healthy animals as carriers. This review aims to elucidate and discuss the i genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; ii detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; iii campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors and iv colonization of poultry and control strategies.

  17. A Quantitative Real-Time PCR Approach for Assessing Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Colonization in Broiler Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Katrin; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is a major public health concern in developed countries, with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry recognized as the main source of human infection. Identification of Campylobacter-positive broiler herds before slaughter is essential for implementing measures to avoid carryover of pathogens via the slaughter process into the food chain. However, appropriate methods that have been validated for testing poultry flocks antemortem are lacking for Campylobacter. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) that allows simultaneous detection and quantification of C. jejuni and C. coli was adapted and optimized to be applied on boot socks. The adjusted qPCR serves as an easy, sensitive, and quantitative method for Campylobacter detection in poultry flocks antemortem by analysis of boot socks. An adequate correlation was found between qPCR and culture, as well as between boot socks and cecal samples, which are regarded as the "gold standard." Therefore, boot sock sampling followed by qPCR analysis provides a reliable and simple method for assessing Campylobacter load within a flock prior to slaughter. The approach allows categorization of broiler herds into negative, low, moderate, or high Campylobacter colonization. Based on the results of this new approach, risk assessment models, such as evaluating the possible effect of sorting flocks before slaughter, can be easily implemented. Similarly, targeted identification of highly colonized flocks for improvement of biosecurity measures at the farm level will become feasible, presenting an opportunity to increase food safety.

  18. Molecular Typing ofCampylobacter jejuniandCampylobacter coliIsolated from Various Retail Meats by MLST and PFGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2014-01-08

    Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of foodborne disease in the United States. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two main species of concern to human health and cause approximately 95% of human infections. Molecular typing methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are often used to source track foodborne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to compare PFGE and MLST in typing strains of C. jejuni and C. coli that were isolated from different Oklahoma retail meat sources. A total of 47 Campylobacter isolates (28 C. jejuni and 19 C. coli ) isolated from various retail meat samples (beef, beef livers, pork, chicken, turkey, chicken livers, and chicken gizzards) were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PFGE was able to group the 47 Campylobacter isolates into two major clusters (one for C. jejuni and one for C. coli ) but failed to differentiate the isolates according to their source. MLST revealed 21 different sequence types (STs) that belonged to eight different clonal complexes. Twelve of the screened Campylobacter isolates (8 C. jejuni and 4 C. coli ) did not show any defined STs. All the defined STs of C. coli isolates belonged to ST-828 complex. The majority of C. jejuni isolates belonged to ST-353, ST-607, ST-52, ST-61, and ST-21 complexes. It is worthy to mention that, while the majority of Campylobacter isolates in this study showed STs that are commonly associated with human infections along with other sources, most of the STs from chicken livers were solely reported in human cases. In conclusion, retail meat Campylobacter isolates tested in this study particularly those from chicken livers showed relatedness to STs commonly associated with humans. Molecular typing, particularly MLST, proved to be a helpful tool in suggesting this relatedness to Campylobacter human isolates.

  19. Campylobacter fetus infections in humans : exposure and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Blaser, Martin J; Tauxe, Robert V; Newell, Diane G; van Putten, Jos P M

    Campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. Infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. Outbreaks are infrequent but have provided

  20. Spondylodiscitis and an aortic aneurysm due to Campylobacter coli

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    Bournet Béatrice

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Campylobacter coli is a rare cause of bacteremia. We report here the first case of C.coli spondylodiscitis complicated by an aortic aneurysm. Outcome was favourable with surgery and antibiotic therapy.

  1. Salmonella and Campylobacter: Antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Hashem, Fawzy; Parveen, Salina

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. Many of the isolated Salmonella and Campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter strains still persist. One method of bio-control, that is producing promising results, is the use of lytic bacteriophages. This review will highlight the current emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter recovered from poultry as well as bacteriophage research interventions and limitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Methods for Initial Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Brøndsted, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity.

  3. Biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of Campylobacter in reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Species of the Epsilonproteobacteria genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter are frequently isolated from endothermic mammals and birds. However, little information was available about the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria in ectothermic reptiles and no comprehensive studies had been

  4. Sensitivity of Campylobacter spp. to irradiation in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    The sensitivity of Campylobacter jejuni (three strains), Camp. coli (three strains), Camp. fetus (one strain) and Camp. lari (one strain) to irradiation in poultry meat was investigated. There was no significant difference in the counts obtained on Blood or Skirrows agar. Preston agar gave a significantly lower recovery of the pathogens after irradiation so these results were not included in calculations of D10 values. The D10 values ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 kGy and there was a significant difference in the radiation sensitivity between different Campylobacter spp. and within strains of the same species. These values indicate that Campylobacter spp. are more radiation-sensitive than Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes irradiated under similar conditions. Therefore irradiation treatments suggested to eliminate the latter from poultry carcasses would also be sufficient to remove Campylobacter

  5. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  6. Occurrence and genotypes of Campylobacter species in broilers during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yin, Tiantian; Du, Xueqing; Yang, Wenbin; Huang, Jinlin; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-04-01

    Poultry are the main source of Campylobacter infection worldwide. To obtain information on Campylobacter-infected flocks and create a reference for preventing and controlling Campylobacter at farm level, Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broilers and the environments of nine chicken flocks in two farms during growth. The genetic relationship between the Campylobacter isolates was determined using multilocus sequence typing. Flocks were colonized as early as 3 weeks after introduction to the farm. The highest colonization rate was more than 90% and occurred 4-6 weeks after introduction to the farm. Quantitative data showed that the highest Campylobacter loads appeared at 1-2 weeks after initial colonization. Campylobacter loads in cloacal swabs in four flocks were significantly higher at 5 weeks than at 3 weeks (P Campylobacter jejuni and eight for Campylobacter coli isolates. The STs of the Campylobacter isolates recovered from farm 1 were more diversified than those from farm 2. The STs of environmental samples were highly consistent with those of the cloacal swab samples. The consistency between Campylobacter STs in the environmental and cloacal swab samples suggested that the environment might be one of the main sources of infection. Thus, our study highlights the prevalence and contamination load of Campylobacter in broilers during their rearing period and emphasizes the need for control and prevention measures for Campylobacter infection in broilers, which is also important for human health.

  7. Investigation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from broilers susceptibility to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work sensitivity to eritromycine, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin was investigated on 16 (sixteen strains Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli originated from broilers’ coecum by use of dics-diffussion method and E-test. Out of 10 (ten examined strains of C. jejuni, 1 strain (10% was resistant to erithromycin, 5 (five examined strains (50% to tetracycline and 4 (four examined strains (40% to ciprofloxacine. Out of 6 investigated strains of C. coli, 1 strain was resistant to erithromycin (16,7%, 5 of investigated strains to tetracycline and ciprofloxacine (83,3% (table 1 and 2, graph 3. Out of 16 (sixteen investigated strains of C. jejuni and C. coli, 9 (nine strains were resistant to ciprofloxacine (56,2%, 2 (two strains to erythromycine (12,5% and 10 of investigated strains to tetracycline (62,5%.

  8. Real Time PCR to detect and differentiate Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, A; Chanter, J; Gale, S; Parr, J; Toszeghy, M; Line, K

    2013-09-01

    Bovine venereal campylobacter infection, caused by Campylobacter fetus venerealis, is of significant economic importance to the livestock industry. Unfortunately, the successful detection and discrimination of C. fetus venerealis from C. fetus fetus continue to be a limitation throughout the world. There are several publications warning of the problem with biotyping methods as well as with recent molecular based assays. In this study, assessed on 1071 isolates, we report on the successful development of two Real Time SYBR® Green PCR assays that will allow for the detection and discrimination of C. fetus fetus and C. fetus venerealis. The sensitivity reported here for the C. fetus (CampF4/R4) and the C. fetus venerealis (CampF7/R7) specific PCR assays are 100% and 98.7% respectively. The specificity for these same PCR assays are 99.6% and 99.8% respectively. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. "Campylobacter upsaliensis" isolated from blood cultures of pediatric patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Lastovica, A J; Le Roux, E; Penner, J L

    1989-01-01

    Seventeen campylobacters isolated from cultures of blood samples of 16 bacteremic patients were susceptible to cephalothin and were either catalase negative or had only weak catalase activity (CNW strains) and were classified as "Campylobacter upsaliensis" (K. Sandstedt and J. Ursing, XIV Int. Congr. Microbiol., p. B8-17, 1986). All of the patients had predisposing conditions, and 10 patients were less than or equal to 12 months old, indicating that "C. upsaliensis" is an opportunistic pathog...

  10. Clinical aspects of Campylobacter jejuni infections in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, M C

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an almost ubiquitous, microaerophilic, gram-negative rod. Outbreaks have been associated with drinking raw milk or contaminated water and eating poultry. Campylobacter jejuni accounts for 3.2% to 6.1% of cases of diarrheal illness in the general population of the United States, and infected patients frequently present with abdominal pain and fever. Less frequently, C jejuni is responsible for bacteremia, septic arthritis, septic abortion, and other extraintestinal infe...

  11. Methods for initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Brøndsted, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity.......Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity....

  12. Detection and survival of Campylobacter in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, O; Kobalka, P; Zhang, Q

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a food-borne human pathogen, is widespread in poultry; however, the sources of infection and modes of transmission of this organism on chicken farms are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine if vertical transmission of C. jejuni occurs via eggs. Using a temperature differential method, it was shown that Campylobacter had limited ability to penetrate the eggshell. When C. jejuni was directly inoculated into the egg yolk and the eggs were stored at 18 degrees C, the organism was able to survive for up to 14 days. However, viability of C. jejuni was dramatically shortened when injected into the albumen or the air sac. When freshly laid eggs from Campylobacter-inoculated specific pathogen-free (SPF) layers were tested, C. jejuni-contamination was detected in three of 65 pooled whole eggs (5-10 eggs in each pool) via culture and PCR. However, the organism was not detected from any of the 800 eggs (80 pools), collected from the same SPF flock, but kept at 18 degrees C for 7 days before testing. Likewise, Campylobacter was not recovered from any of 500 fresh eggs obtained from commercial broiler-breeder flocks that were actively shedding Campylobacter in faeces. Also, none of the 1000 eggs from broiler breeders obtained from a commercial hatchery were positive for Campylobacter. These results suggest that vertical transmission of C. jejuni through the egg is probably a rare event and does not play a major role in the introduction of Campylobacter to chicken flocks. Control of Campylobacter transmission to chicken flocks should focus on sources of infection that are not related to eggs.

  13. Development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli adapted to biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavri, Ana; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    The potential for adaptive resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli after step-wise exposure to increasing sub-inhibitory concentrations of five biocides as triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate and trisodium phosphate, was investigated, to identify the mechanisms underlying resistance. The biocide resistance and cross-resistance to the antimicrobials erythromycin and ciprofloxacin, and to sodium dodecyl sulphate, were examined according to the broth microdilution method. The presence of active efflux was studied on the basis of restored sensitivity in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitors phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphthylamide, 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine, cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone, verapamil and reserpine. Changes in the outer membrane protein profiles and morphological changes in adapted strains were studied, as compared with the parent strains. Repeated exposure of C. jejuni and C. coli to biocides resulted in partial increases in tolerance to biocides itself, to other biocides and antimicrobial compounds. The developed resistance was stable for up to 10 passages in biocide-free medium. More than one type of active efflux was identified in adapted strains. These adapted strains showed different alterations to their outer membrane protein profiles, along with morphological changes. The data presented here suggest that different mechanisms are involved in adaptation to biocides and that this adaptation is unique to each strain of Campylobacter and does not result from a single species-specific mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Wołkowicz, Tomasz

    2014-01-22

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  15. Effects of short-chain nitrocompounds against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, S M; Jung, Y S; Huwe, J K; Harvey, R B; Ricke, S C; Carstens, G E; Callaway, T R; Anderson, R C; Ramlachan, N; Nisbet, D J

    2007-03-01

    Effects of 2-nitro-1-propanol, 2-nitroethanol, nitroethane, and 2-nitro-methyl-propionate (0, 10, and 20 mM) on growth of Campylobacter jejuni were tested during culture in Bolton broth adjusted to pH 5.6, 7.0, or 8.2. The nitrocompounds were similarly tested against C. coli but at pH 8.2 only. Viable cell counts measured during incubation revealed main effects (P nitrocompounds on the survivability of C. jejuni. An effect of pH (P nitrocompounds was observed, with greater inhibition observed at pH 8.2 than at pH 5.6 or 7.0 for nitroethane, 2-nitro-l-propanol, and 2-nitroethanol, but not for 2-nitro-methyl-propionate, which showed greatest inhibition at pH 5.6. Except for 2-nitro-methyl-propionate, which was ineffective, all nitrocompounds elicited similar effects on C. coli. The effect of nitroethane and 2-nitro-l-propanol (10 mM) on naturally occurring Campylobacter was investigated during incubation of porcine fecal suspensions, where Campylobacter concentrations decreased more rapidly (P < 0.05) in suspensions with added 2-nitro-l-propanol than in unsupplemented or nitroethane-supplemented suspensions, thus reiterating the superior inhibitory effect of 2-nitro-l-propanol.

  16. Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rokosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  17. [A nutrient medium for the isolation and cultivation of Campylobacter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temirkhanova, Z U; Gashimova, P Sh; Safonova, N V; Moroz, A F; Khazenson, L V

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter agar, nutrient medium intended for the isolation of bacteria of the genus Campylobacter from clinical material, has been developed. The composition of the medium includes sprat hydrolysate, aerotolerant additive (ferric sulfate--oxide, sodium pyruvate, sodium pyrosulfite), sodium glutaminate, agar. The selective properties of the medium are ensured by introducing the mixture of antibiotics consisting of polymyxin B, rifampicin, amphotericin B, ristomycin. The balanced composition of Campylobacter agar ensures the aerotolerance of Campylobacter organisms and gives the optimal conditions for their growth when the inoculated material is cultivated in the atmosphere made up of the mixture of three gases (5% of oxygen, 10% of carbon dioxide, 85% of nitrogen), as well as under the conditions of a "candle vessel". The medium suppresses the development of the associative microflora diluted 10(-1). As shown in the trial of the quality of Campylobacter agar by the inoculation of material taken from patients with acute enteric infections, agricultural animals and monkeys, the medium has pronounced selective, properties with regard to extraneous microflora, while ensuring the isolation of Campylobacter on the level of the control medium.

  18. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; hide

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  19. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni for Food Safety and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Cakmak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are microorganisms that can be found in nature in the entire domestic and wild animal’s intestinal flora including the poultry and the sea animals. Campylobacter can better colonize in the poultry than the other animals. Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen among the thermophilic Campylobacter spp. whose growth temperature’s are different than the other Campylobacter spp. and can cause serious gastroenteritis in human beings which in some cases ended up with death. Human beings are generally infected with C. jejuni mainly because of the poultry meat and products and rarely because of the red meat which are contaminated during preparation and serving stages. Inadequate cooking, consumption of poorly chlorinated drinking water or unpasteurized milk are other infection sources of C. jejuni. Campylobacteriosis especially affect children under 5 years of age and reported to be a zoonotic illness that cause acute gastroenteritis in human. In many countries, food sourced C. jejuni infections were reported to occur more frequently than Salmonella spp. infections. In order to avoid Campylobacter infections, it is very important to enforce food security programmes and HACCP like systems during growth, slaughterhouses and point of sales stages. Also adequate cooking of the products, hygiene of the kitchen and personnel are important. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 157-166

  20. Antibiotic resistance trends and mechanisms in the foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yizhi; Fang, Liangxing; Xu, Changyun; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-11-23

    Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and is commonly present in food producing animals. This pathogenic organism is highly adaptable and has become increasingly resistant to various antibiotics. Recently, both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization have designated antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter as a serious threat to public health. For the past decade, multiple mechanisms conferring resistance to clinically important antibiotics have been described in Campylobacter, and new resistance mechanisms constantly emerge in the pathogen. Some of the recent examples include the erm(B) gene conferring macrolide resistance, the cfr(C) genes mediating resistance to florfenicol and other antimicrobials, and a functionally enhanced variant of the multidrug resistance efflux pump, CmeABC. The continued emergence of new resistance mechanisms illustrates the extraordinary adaptability of Campylobacter to antibiotic selection pressure and demonstrate the need for innovative strategies to control antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter. In this review, we will briefly summarize the trends of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter and discuss the mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics used for animal production and important for clinical therapy in humans. A special emphasis will be given to the newly discovered antibiotic resistance.

  1. Detection of Campylobacter in human faecal samples in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Aruna; Wilkinson, Jenny; Mahony, Timothy; Vanniasinkam, Thiru

    2014-01-01

    Data on campylobacteriosis in developed countries are well documented; in contrast, few studies on campylobacteriosis have been conducted in developing countries. This study was undertaken to test for Campylobacter in human faecal samples sent to the two major pathology laboratories in Fiji. A total of 408 diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from the two major hospital pathology laboratories in Central Fiji (Suva) and Western Fiji (Lautoka) between December 2012 and February 2013 and from June to July 2013. Samples were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Campylobacter was detected in 241/408 (59.1%) of samples tested using PCR. Samples from children aged less than five accounted for 21.6% of positive cases. Campylobacter was detected in 59.1% of diarrhoeal samples collected from the two main laboratories in Fiji. A high proportion of children under five years with Campylobacter has been reported in other countries and could be due to parents being more likely to seek medical attention. Further studies are required to confirm the species of Campylobacter that are predominantly associated with gastroenteritis in Fiji.

  2. Detection of Campylobacter in human faecal samples in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Devi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data on campylobacteriosis in developed countries are well documented; in contrast, few studies on campylobacteriosis have been conducted in developing countries. This study was undertaken to test for Campylobacter in human faecal samples sent to the two major pathology laboratories in Fiji. Methods: A total of 408 diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from the two major hospital pathology laboratories in Central Fiji (Suva and Western Fiji (Lautoka between December 2012 and February 2013 and from June to July 2013. Samples were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter using polymerase chain reaction (PCR based methods. Results: Campylobacter was detected in 241/408 (59.1% of samples tested using PCR. Samples from children aged less than five accounted for 21.6% of positive cases. Discussion: Campylobacter was detected in 59.1% of diarrhoeal samples collected from the two main laboratories in Fiji. A high proportion of children under five years with Campylobacter has been reported in other countries and could be due to parents being more likely to seek medical attention. Further studies are required to confirm the species of Campylobacter that are predominantly associated with gastroenteritis in Fiji.

  3. 76 FR 15282 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments... young chicken (broiler) and turkey slaughter establishments. The new performance standards were... Salmonella and new Campylobacter performance standards for young chickens and turkeys will take effect with...

  4. A comparison of molecular technologies and genomotyping for tracing and strain characterization of Campylobacter isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, J. van der; Keijser, B.; Schuren, F.; Nocker, A.; Montijn, R.

    2011-01-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter species are the most common cause of gastroenteritis in developed countries. Campylobacter spp. are ubiquitous in nature and widespread in livestock. Infections occur sporadically, and are believed to occur through consumption of contaminated meat products and from

  5. Characterization and subgrouping of Campylobacter concisus strains using protein profiles, conventional biochemical testing and antibiotic susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Permin, Henrik; Andersen, Leif P

    2005-01-01

    To characterize and subgroup clinical strains of Campylobacter concisus isolated from patients with gastrointestinal disease.......To characterize and subgroup clinical strains of Campylobacter concisus isolated from patients with gastrointestinal disease....

  6. Evaluation of PCR for detection of Campylobacter in a national broiler surveillance programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Wedderkopp, A; Wainø, M

    2003-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a rapid and sensitive PCR method for detection of Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken faeces.......To develop and evaluate a rapid and sensitive PCR method for detection of Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken faeces....

  7. Enumeração de Campylobacter spp. e presença de Campylobacter jejuni em carcaças de frango no estado de Minas Gerais Enumeration of Campylobacter spp. and presence of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler carcasses in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso de Liguori Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Campilobacteriose é uma zoonose de distribuição mundial, com repercussões importantes na saúde pública e um grande impacto socioeconômico. As rotas de transmissão ao homem das espécies de Campylobacter são o contato direto com animais portadores, água ou alimentos contaminados e é mais comumente associado ao consumo de carne de frango. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar e enumerar Campylobacter spp. por um método rápido (SimPlate® e pelo método convencional (plaqueamento direto em ágar mCCD, determinando a frequência e o nível de contaminação em 75 amostras de carcaças de frangos (25 Pré-chiller e 25 Pós-chiller obtidos em abatedouros sob inspeção federal no Estado de Minas Gerais e 25 amostras congeladas, coletadas no comércio verejista. As amostras avaliadas, independentemente do método utilizado, apresentaram Campylobacter spp. em 56,0% das carcaças antes do chiller e 44,0% após o chiller. A contagem das amostras congeladas se apresentou abaixo do limite de detecção do método. Das 75 amostras testadas, 34,7% foram positivas para Campylobacter spp. Das amostras positivas, 38,5% foram identificadas como C. jejuni e, entre estas, o maior número de C. jejuni foi obtido nas carcaças de frango antes do chiller (42,9%, seguido de carcaça de frango após o chiller (36,4%. O estudo mostrou que a detecção e enumeração é variável, embora em nenhuma das amostras destinadas ao comércio foram obtidas contagens acima da dose infectante estabelecida. O uso do SimPlate® foi adequado e equivalente ao plaqueamento direto em ágar mCCD e apresentou uma melhor taxa de recuperação de células de Campylobacter spp.Campylobacteriosis is a worldwide distribution zoonosis, with significant repercussions on public health and with a high socioeconomic impact. Routes of transmission of Campylobacter species to man are direct contact with carrier animals, contaminated water or food and it is most commonly associated with

  8. PESQUISA DE CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. EM CARNES DE FRANGO COMERCIALIZADAS NA CIDADE DE CAMPO MOURÃO-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina de Oliveira GONÇALVES

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose causa um grande impacto na saúde pública em todo o mundo, sendo em muitos pa- íses a causa mais frequente de gastroenterite em humanos causada por alimentos. A principal fonte de Campylobacter são as aves, dessa forma, pode haver infecção pelo consumo de carne crua, mal cozida, contaminação cruzada no preparo dos alimentos ou por outros alimentos, como água e leite. O despreparo de muitos manipuladores de alimentos em relação a cuidados higiênicos é um dos fatores que favorece a contaminação dos alimentos, afetando principalmente ambientes como restaurantes, hospitais e indústrias de alimentos. Como o congelamento e a refrigeração têm o papel de conservar a carne em bom estado para o consumo, à detecção de bactérias viáveis nesta etapa é muito importante. Diante do exposto acima, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência de Campylobacter spp. em frangos refrigerados comercializados na cidade de Campo Mourão-PR por meio do teste imunoenzimático pelo método ELFA (Enzime Linked Fluorescent Assay com o sistema automatizado VIDAS® campy. Dessa maneira, foi possível detectar uma contaminação de 79,16% em 24 frangos, confirmando a grande incidência de Campylobacter em carnes de aves destinadas ao consumo humano.

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on Campylobacter jejuni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation resistance of Campylobacter jejuni in broth, ground beef, and ground turkey meat was determined using dose levels from 0-200 Krad at -30 +/- 10 0 C, at 0-5 0 C, and at 30 +/- 10 0 C. Irradiation at -30 0 C increased radiation resistance of cultures in ground meats; broth cultures were not greatly influenced by temperature. The effect of culture age on radiation resistance was also evaluated using cells in various physiological phases. Age did not have a pronounced effect on radiation resistance. The largest D 10 value for C. jejuni was 32 Krad, which was less than D 10 values commonly reported for salmonellae. 20 references, 4 figures

  10. Utilização das metodologias imunoenzimática e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para detecção e caracterização de Campylobacter spp. em carcaças de frango de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Pimenta Reis

    2014-01-01

    As Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos (DTA) são consideradas um grande problema de saúde pública mundial e dentre os micro-organismos que podem ser veiculados destacam-se as bactérias do gênero Campylobacter spp. Com o objetivo de detectar, caracterizar e avaliar a incidência de Campylobacter spp. em carcaças de frango de corte congeladas e resfriadas foram analisadas, por três metodologias distintas (ensaio imunoenzimático, reação em cadeia da polimerase - PCR e PCR em tempo real ), 86 amost...

  11. Impact of technical and economic performance on costs of campylobacter spp. interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. is one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide and human Campylobacter spp. infections can result in severe sequelae. Because broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter spp. infections, it is relevant to control Campylobacter spp.

  12. Detection of Campylobacter species and Arcobacter butzleri in stool samples by use of real-time multiplex PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. de Boer (Richard); A. Ott (Alewijn); P. Güren (Pinar); E. van Zanten; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); A.M.D. Kooistra-Smid

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of Campylobacter (or Campylobacter-like) species in stools from patients suspected of infectious gastroenteritis (n = 493) was investigated using real-time PCR for detection of Arcobacter butzleri (hsp60 gene), Campylobacter coli (ceuE gene), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA),

  13. Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler batches and of Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses in the EU, 2008, Part A: Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    A European Union-wide baseline survey on Campylobacter in broiler batches and on Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses was carried out in 2008. A total of 10,132 broiler batches were sampled from 561 slaughterhouses in 26 European Union Member States and two countries not belonging......-contaminated broiler carcasses was 75.8%. The Member State prevalence varied from 2.0% to 100.0% and from 4.9% to 100.0%, for caecal contents and carcasses, respectively. The results of the counts of Campylobacter on broiler carcasses showed substantial variation among the countries in contamination levels. About two......-thirds of the Campylobacter isolates from the pooled caecal contents as well as from the broiler carcasses were identified as Campylobacter jejuni, while one-third was Campylobacter coli. Twenty-two Member States and one non-Member State isolated Salmonella on the broiler carcasses, with a Community prevalence of 15...

  14. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Genetic Characterization of Campylobacter Jejuni and C. coli Isolated From Broilers Using flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khoshbakht, Rahem; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Seifi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thermophilic campylobacters, particularly Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the main agents of human campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter contaminated chicken products is the most important source of foodborne gastroenteritis. Evaluation of genetic diversity among Campylobacter population is critical for understanding the epidemiology of this bacterium and developing effective control strategies against Campylobacter infections and other related disorders. Objectives: The aim of t...

  16. Bibliometric analysis of publications on Campylobacter: (2000-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F; AbuTaha, Adham S; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2016-11-29

    Campylobacter species are widespread zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni causes a form of gastroenteritis called campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter drug resistance is considered a serious threat. In order to better understand national and international research output on Campylobacter, we conducted this bibliometric overview of publications on Campylobacter. This study can be used to assess extent of interaction and response of researchers, food regulators, and health policy makers to global burden of campylobacateriosis. Scopus database was used to retrieve publications with the following keywords (Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni, C. coli). The study period was set from 2000 to 2015. All types of journal documents, excluding errata, were considered. Bibliometric indicators such as annual growth of publications, country contribution, international collaboration, and citation analysis were presented. The quality of retrieved data was indirectly assessed by Hirsch index and impact factor of journals. A total of 5522 documents were retrieved with median (Q1-Q3) citations of 9 (2-23) and h-index of 113. Annual number of publications showed a fluctuating increase. The core leading journals were Applied and Environmental Microbiology journal and Journal of Food Protection with 246 (4.46%) publications for each. The USA (1309; 23.6%) was the most productive country while Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (150; 2.7%) was the most productive institution. Half of the top ten productive countries were European. France had the lowest percentage (33.5%) of articles with international collaboration while Netherlands (57.7%) had the highest percentage of articles with international collaboration. Approximately half (50.1%) of retrieved articles were published in journals under the subject area of "immunology/microbiology". Main themes in highly cited articles were molecular biology/genetics and public health burden of campylobacteriosis. There were 728 (13

  17. Development of a PCR assay suitable for Campylobacter spp. mass screening programs in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    culture techniques since 1998. However, using conventional culture methods is time consuming and laborious, and therefore a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Campylobacter detection assay suitable for mass screening of cloacal swab samples from broilers was developed. By comparing the PCR detection...... with conventional culture methods, significantly more samples were found positive for Campylobacter with the PCR method. The PCR method is rapid, sensitive and suitable for mass screening for Campylobacter in poultry. Using this PCR method Campylobacter can be detected within 15 h. Notably, the method can...... be applied to detect Campylobacter directly from chicken feces at the species level....

  18. Antibiotic Resistance and Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Poultry Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saadatmand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Campylobacter is a common type of bacteria in humans and poultry, which generally accounts for various diseases in humans, such as gastroenteritis. The poultry digestive system contains a high level of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli in the poultry liver packed for marketing and determine the antibiotic resistance of the isolates. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the spring of 2016 in the city of Hamadan, Iran. A total of 80 samples of packed chicken liver were collected from the stores supplying meat and poultry products in Hamadan. The enrichment of the liver samples was performed in brucella broth; subsequently, separation was carried out on Campylobacter selective agar. The presence of bacteria was confirmed by the implementation of chemical diagnostic tests and direct microscopic observation. Finally, the antibiotic resistance of the isolates was tested using disk diffusion method. Results: According to the results, Campylobacter had a prevalence rate of 90%, 73.61% and 26.39% of which were C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Out of the 12 antibiotic discs used in this study, the highest resistance (79% and sensitivity (99% rates were observed for cotrimoxazole (10 µg and gentamycin (10 µg, respectively. Conclusion: The packed poultry liver in Hamadan had a relatively high prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli. Therefore, the consumers should be careful about the cooking time and using this food. Accordingly, they can prevent the dissemination of this bacteria by cooking the liver at a temperature of above 70°C for 20 min and properly washing the devices before cooking this product. Additionally, the elderly, children, and those with immunodeficiency are recommended to avoid eating poultry liver.

  19. Evaluation of fecal calprotectin in Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter jejuni/coli gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-05-01

    Calprotectin (CP) is a calcium-binding cytosolic neutrophil protein and the concentration in feces reflects the migration of neutrophils into the gut lumen. Testing for fecal CP (f-CP) in patients with negative cultures for enteric pathogens is widely accepted as a useful screening tool for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from endoscopy for suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with the assumption that a negative f-CP is compatible with a functional disorder. Campylobacter concisus has recently been reported to have a high incidence in the Danish population almost equal to Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and has been reported to cause prolonged watery diarrhea. However, isolation of C. concisus from feces requires the filter method in a hydrogen-enriched microaerobic atmosphere, which is not commonly used in the laboratory, and the diagnosis may consequently be missed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the f-CP levels, as a marker for the intestinal inflammation in C. jejuni/coli- and C. concisus-infected patients. The authors found a high concentration of f-CP (median 631: IQR 221-1274) among 140 patients with C. jejuni/coli infection, whereas the f-CP level among 99 C. concisus-infected patients was significantly lower (median 53: IQR 20-169). The data correlate to the severe inflammatory gastroenteritis seen in patients infected with C. jejuni/coli, whereas C. concisus-infected patients have a much lower intestinal inflammation which could be compared with viral gastroenteritis. Nevertheless, clinicians should be aware of C. concisus infection, especially in patients with prolonged mild diarrhea, in the differential diagnosis to IBD.

  20. Prevalencia de microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias y fungemias en pacientes oncológicos pediátricos: Patrones de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of microorganisms causing bacteremia and fungemia in pediatric oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Cheguirián

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la distribución y frecuencia de los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias y fungemias en los pacientes oncológicos internados en el Hospital de Niños de Córdoba, así como describir sus patrones de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos. Se estudiaron 59 episodios de bacteriemias y fungemias ocurridos entre enero de 2006 y abril de 2007 en 44 pacientes. Del total de los aislamientos recuperados, el 45,8% fueron bacilos gram-negativos, el 35,6% cocos gram-positivos y el 18,6% levaduras. La distribución global de los microorganismos más prevalentes fue: Klebsiella spp. 15,3%; Staphylococcus aureus 11,9%; Candida parapsilosis 11,9%; estafilococos coagulasa negativos 10,2%; Escherichia coli 8,5% y Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6,8%. El 41,2% de las enterobacterias aisladas presentó un fenotipo compatible con la presencia de alguna b-lactamasa de espectro extendido, y el 20,0% de los bacilos gram-negativos no fermentadores presentó multirresistencia a los antibióticos ensayados. En cuanto a los cocos gram-positivos, el 38,5% de los Staphylococcus spp. fue resistente a meticilina. Se puede concluir que los microorganismos más prevalentes en la población estudiada fueron los bacilos gram-negativos; dentro de este grupo las enterobacterias fueron las que presentaron mayor porcentaje de resistencia a los antibióticos ensayados.The purpose of our research was to know the frequency of microorganisms causing bacteremia and/or fungemia in oncology patients from Hospital de Niños de Córdoba, as well as to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from January 2006 to April 2007. A total of 59 bacteremia and fungemia cases in 44 patients were studied. From the total number of isolations, 45.8% were gram-negative bacilli, 35.6% were gram-positive cocci, and 18.6% were yeasts. The global distribution of the most prevalent microorganisms was the following: Klebsiella spp. 15

  1. Aplicación del protocolo de adecuación hospitalaria en la determinación de los días de estancia atribuibles a la bacteriemia nosocomial por "Staphylococcus aureus"

    OpenAIRE

    Vilella i Morató, Anna

    1994-01-01

    I.- INTRODUCCIÓN: Los países desarrollados han experimentado un progresivo crecimiento del gasto sanitario en los últimos años, a expensas fundamentalmente de la asistencia sanitaria. El análisis de los recursos económicos consumidos en asistencia sanitaria señala que el porcentaje más importante corresponde, con un 63 %, a la asistencia hospitalaria. Si la asignación de los recursos econ6micos públicos destinados a la sanidad tiene un límite, y la capacidad de crecimiento del sector es poten...

  2. Molecular subtyping and erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A; Song, L; Liang, H; Gu, Y; Zhang, C; Liu, X; Zhang, J; Zhang, M

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the erythromycin resistance patterns and mechanism for Campylobacter isolates in China. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of erythromycin on 858 Chinese Campylobacter isolates were analysed. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to identify mutations in the 23S rRNA and the presence of the ermB gene in the 158 erythromycin resistance isolates (18·4%). About 83% (131/158) had A2075G mutation in their 23S rRNA; no A2074C/G mutants were found. The ermB gene was identified in 30 Campylobacter coli isolates (19%). Four types of multidrug-resistant gene islands (MDRGIs) were found. Fifty-three types were identified by multilocus sequence typing among the resistant isolates. All isolates of STs 6322 and 1145 had the ermB gene. The erythromycin resistance rate of Camp. coli (58·56%) was much higher than Campylobacter jejuni (0·67%). The insertion sites between cadF and CCO1582 and between nfsB and cinA on the chromosome might be hot spots for MDRGI transformation. Point mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA and the ermB gene accounted for 100% of the erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter in China. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Survival with a helping hand: Campylobacter and microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eIndikova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especially in food and agricultural environments and also resist the innate and humoral immune responses inside the host. In this paper we hypothesize that other microorganisms in mixed populations with Campylobacter may act to improve survival outside the host and may also protect the pathogen against the intestinal immune system. Our evidence for this hypothesis is based on: 1. newly generated microbial community analysis; 2. the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in mixed species biofilms and in co-culture with environmental bacteria; 3. improved survival in amoebae and rumen fluid; 4. sulphur release and iron uptake systems within the intestinal lumen. This would make Campylobacter an exceptional food-borne pathogen. With this in mind, new strategies are necessary to combat Campylobacter along the total food chain.

  4. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  5. [Campylobacter and Salmonella acute gastroenteritis: epidemiology and health care utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala Farré, Maria Rosa; Osorio Sánchez, Dimelza; Arias Varela, Cesar; Simó Sanahuja, Maria; Recasens Recasens, Assumpta; Pérez Jové, Josefa

    2015-10-05

    In Catalonia the current surveillance systems do not allow to know the true incidence or the health care utilization of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. The aim of this study is to analyze these characteristics. Descriptive study of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections reported in 2002 and 2012 in Catalonia, Spain. We included cases isolated and reported by the laboratory to a regional Surveillance Unit. The estimated incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter AGE decreased by almost 50% and 20% respectively in 2012. Children between one and 4 years old were the most affected in both years. Significant differences in the clinical characteristics and disease duration were observed between Campylobacter and Salmonella. Visits to the Emergency Department and hospitalization rates were 63.7% and 15%, being more frequent among salmonellosis cases. The estimated incidence of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections has decreased, however rates are still important, as well as it is the health care utilization in both diseases. Current surveillance systems need appropriateness improvements to reach a better control of these infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapidly decreased serum IgG to Campylobacter pylori following elimination of Campylobacter in histological chronic biopsy Campylobacter-positive gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bohemen, C. G.; Langenberg, M. L.; Rauws, E. A.; Oudbier, J.; Weterings, E.; Zanen, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    The anaerobic bacterium Campylobacter pylori (Cp) is thought to be associated with chronic gastritis. This paper presents clinical data underpinning this view. Five patients with histological chronic gastritis as determined by diagnostic endoscopy, which was associated with Cp as determined by

  7. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter spp. on Ham in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Yoon, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of illness from Campylobacter spp. on ham. To identify the hazards of Campylobacter spp. on ham, the general characteristics and microbial criteria for Campylobacter spp., and campylobacteriosis outbreaks were investigated. In the exposure assessment, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on ham was evaluated, and the probabilistic distributions for the temperature of ham surfaces in retail markets and home refrigerators were prepared. In addition, the raw data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) 2012 were used to estimate the consumption amount and frequency of ham. In the hazard characterization, the Beta-Poisson model for Campylobacter spp. infection was used. For risk characterization, a simulation model was developed using the collected data, and the risk of Campylobacter spp. on ham was estimated with @RISK. The Campylobacter spp. cell counts on ham samples were below the detection limit (ham was 23.93 g per person, and the consumption frequency was 11.57%. The simulated mean value of the initial contamination level of Campylobacter spp. on ham was -3.95 Log CFU/g, and the mean value of ham for probable risk per person per day was 2.20×10(-12). It is considered that the risk of foodborne illness for Campylobacter spp. was low. Furthermore, these results indicate that the microbial risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in this study should be useful in providing scientific evidence to set up the criteria of Campylobacter spp..

  8. Polymerase chain reaction detection of naturally occurring Campylobacter in commercial broiler chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiett, K L; Cox, N A; Rothrock, M J

    2013-04-01

    Campylobacter, a foodborne pathogen closely associated with poultry, is recognized as a leading bacterial etiologic agent of human gastroenteritis in the United States. In this investigation, 2 trials were performed where tissues from 7-, 14/15-, and 19-d-old commercial broiler chicken embryos were tested for the presence of Campylobacter using both culturing methodology and PCR. Conventional culturing methods failed to detect Campylobacter from any samples tested during this investigation. Using a set of primers specific for the Campylobacter flagellinA short variable region (flaA SVR), Campylobacter DNA was amplified in 100, 80, and 100% of gastrointestinal tracts from 7-, 15-, and 19-d-old embryos, respectively, in the first trial. Similarly, Campylobacter DNA was detected in 100, 70, and 60% of gastrointestinal tracts of 7-, 14-, and 18-d-old embryos, respectively, in the second trial. In both trials, yolk sac, albumin, and liver/gallbladder samples from 19-d-old embryos all failed to produce amplicons indicative of Campylobacter DNA. Subsequent DNA sequence analyses of the flaA SVR PCR products were consistent with the amplicon arising from Campylobacter. Although a determination of whether the Campylobacter was living or dead within the embryos could not be made, these results demonstrate that Campylobacter-specific DNA is present within the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chicken embryos; however, the means by which it is present and the relative contribution to subsequent Campylobacter contamination of poultry flocks requires further investigation.

  9. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Isohanni, P.; Katzav, M.

    2009-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been...... identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods: Samples (N = 456) were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture...... and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143) were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results: No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal...

  10. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...... to the production of chilled products, and consumer information campaigns. From 2002 to 2007, the percentage of Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks at slaughter decreased from 43% to 27%. After processing, Campylobacter-positive samples of chilled broiler meat fell from 18% in 2004 to 8% in 2007. Furthermore......, the number of registered human Campylobacter cases decreased by 12%; from 4379 cases in 2002 to 3865 cases in 2007. We believe that the observed decrease in the occurrence of Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat and the coincidental fall in the number of registered human cases is, in part, a result...

  11. Campylobacter ornithocola sp. nov., a novel member of the Campylobacter lari group isolated from wild bird faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Alberto; Muñoz, Ivo; Iraola, Gregorio; Díaz-Viraqué, Florencia; Collado, Luis

    2017-06-01

    During a study on the prevalence and diversity of campylobacteria in wild birds faecal samples from the city of Valdivia (southern Chile) 17 Gram-stain-negative, curved-rod-shaped isolates, were initially identified as Campylobacter lari by PCR-RFLP. Further identification by 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that they formed a distinct group in the genus Campylobacter. This unique position was confirmed by the results of analysis of rpoB, atpA and cpn60 gene sequences. The average nucleotide identity between the representative strain WBE38T and the type strain of the most closely related taxon C. larisubsp.concheus (LMG 11760) was 90.8 %. The oxidase and urease activity of the novel isolates enabled them to be phenotypically differentiated from species of the genus Campylobacter with validly published names. Therefore, on the basis of phenotypic, genetic and genomic characterizations, the results of this study clearly indicate that these strains represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter ornithocola sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain WBE38T (=CECT 9147T=LMG 29815T).

  12. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banya Banowary

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR and high resolution melt (HRM curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  14. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  15. Isolation and polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrado, P A; Garcia, M M; Raymundo, A K

    2001-10-22

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the conventional culture method of detecting thermophilic Campylobacter species in duck and chicken samples from two locations in the province of Laguna, Philippines, were compared. Three Campylobacter jejuni and five C. coli strains were isolated from a total of 135 duck and chicken samples from both methods. The PCR technique, however, was found to be more sensitive, accurate and rapid than the conventional culture method. The specificity of two sets of published primers, C442-C490 (specific for C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari) and CL2-CR3 (specific for C. jejuni) were confirmed with reference and field strains. To improve detection, a lysate was prepared by boiling cells in Triton X-100, and then used as template for PCR to detect Campylobacter from spiked and naturally contaminated chicken rinse. For spiked chicken samples, a 17-h Meuller-Hinton Broth enrichment for the chicken rinse resulted in an improved sensitivity at 31.7 CFU/g using C442-C490. This enrichment-PCR tandem also detected thermophilic Campylobacter from 1 out of 21 native chicken samples from a wet market. To our knowledge, this is the first report of thermophilic Campylobacter isolation from poultry in the Philippines. The approaches described here could serve as a basis for future surveillance and/or epidemiological studies on this emerging foodborne pathogen.

  16. Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Leger, Judy St; Chapman, Mary H; Timmerman, Arjen J; Duim, Birgitta; Foster, Geoffrey; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (USA) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established taxa of the genus Campylobacter, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of these six isolates. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene and AtpA sequence analysis and by conventional phenotypic testing. The whole-genome sequences were determined for all isolates, and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) was determined. The isolates formed a separate phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other taxa of the genus Campylobacter and most closely related to Campylobactermucosalis. Although all isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, AtpA and ANI analyses indicated divergence between the otariid isolates from California and the phocid isolates from Scotland, which warrants subspecies status for each clade. The two subspecies could also be distinguished phenotypically on the basis of catalase activity. This study shows clearly that the isolates obtained from pinnipeds represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov. is proposed. Within this novel species, the Californian isolates represent a separate subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for both this novel species and subspecies is RM17260T (=LMG 29472T=CCUG 69570T). The Scottish isolates represent another subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is M302/10/6T (=LMG 29473T=CCUG 68650T).

  17. Incidence and antimicrobial resistance profiling of Campylobacter in retail chicken livers and gizzards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2012-07-01

    Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of foodborne disease in the United States. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two main species that are of concern to human health, and they cause approximately 95% of human infections. The number of studies investigating Campylobacter in chicken livers and gizzards is very limited in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail chicken livers and gizzards purchased from grocery stores in the Tulsa, Oklahoma, area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 202 retail chilled chicken livers and gizzards (159 livers and 43 gizzards) were purchased on a weekly basis from several grocery stores. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken livers and gizzards was 136/202 (67%), where 69/202 (34%) of the samples were contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and 66/202 (33%) with Campylobacter coli. While the prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken livers was 77%, its prevalence in chicken gizzards was lower at 33%. The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni was slightly higher in chicken livers (36%) than gizzards (26%), while the prevalence of Campylobacter coli was significantly higher in the chicken livers (40%) than chicken gizzards (7%). The prevalence of resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates recovered against 16 antimicrobials were as follows: amoxicillin (98%, 99%), ampicillin (32%, 55%), azithromycin (10%, 25%), cephalothin (92%, 99%), chloramphenicol (4%, 12%), ciprofloxacin (58%, 48%), clindamycin (5%, 19%), doxycycline (39%, 66%), erythromycin (6%, 32%), gentamicin (9%, 43%), kanamycin (11%, 43%), nalidixic acid (50%, 43%), oxytetracycline (99%, 100%), streptomycin (3%, 18%), tetracycline (37%, 60%), and tilmicosin (9%, 16%). Multidrug resistance was higher among Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

  18. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Hill, Andy; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    In recent years. several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial...... to contaminated broiler meat, but more importantly for analyses of the effects of control measures at different stages in the broiler meat production chain. This review paper provides a comparative overview of models developed in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany, and aims to identify...... the variability in Campylobacter concentrations between meat products and meals determine the risks, not the mean values of those distributions. Although a unified model for risk assessment of Campylobacter in the broiler meat production would be desirable in order to promote a European harmonized approach...

  19. Clinical Manifestations of Campylobacter concisus Infection in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: There is only sparse information about the clinical impact of Campylobacter concisus infections in children. METHODS:: A study was performed during a two-year period to determine the clinical manifestations in C. concisus positive children with gastroenteritis. A case patient...... with Campylobacter jejuni/coli infection. RESULTS:: Two thousand three hundred and seventy-two diarrheic stool samples from 1,867 children were cultured for pathogenic enteric bacteria during the study period, and 85 and 109 children with C. concisus and C. jejuni/coli, respectively, were identified. Comparison...... for more than two weeks and two-thirds of all children with C. concisus reported loose stools after six month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:: Campylobacter concisus infection in children seems to have a milder course of acute gastroenteritis compared with C. jejuni/coli infection, but is associated with more...

  20. [Campylobacteriosis of man : livestock as reservoir for Campylobacter species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, T; Bereswill, S; Glünder, G; Haag, L-M; Hänel, I; Heimesaat, M M; Lugert, R; Rautenschlein, S; Weber, R M; Zautner, A E; Gross, U

    2011-06-01

    Over the last few years, infections with Campylobacter have significantly increased in Europe and Germany and these bacteria have even surpassed Salmonella as the most prevalent bacteria, causing gastroenteritis. Especially contamination during the handling and consumption of meat products seems to be the most important risk factor which plays a prominent role for transmission to man. In addition, contact with pets and other animals, drinking raw or improperly pasteurized milk, and the tenacity of Campylobacter in different environments, especially water, have also to be considered for an adequate risk assessment. Besides gastroenteritis, arthralgia, and Guillain-Barré syndrome are important clinical complications of Campylobacter infections in man. At the same time, it is mostly unclear why the course of infection in man and in reservoir animals differs significantly, especially as only a few classical bacterial virulence factors have been identified so far. For these reasons, the development of efficient prevention strategies is of utmost importance in order to control campylobacteriosis.

  1. Vaccination of poultry against Campylobacter in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2013-01-01

    in the food chain, from farm-to-fork, where poultry meat is considered to be one of the major vehicles of Campylobacter infections in humans, accounting for 50–80% of reported cases. One way to reduce this economic loss to society is perhaps the introduction of a new Campylobacter vaccine, which could...... be administered to one-day old chicks. This would effectively reduce the outbreak of illness among the general population, enhancing general well-being, and increase the efficiency of the employed labor force. In the present paper, we assess the potential economic benefits of a mandatory vaccination program...... at the EU27 level. In this study, benefits are mainly assumed to comprise lower risk of illness due to Campylobacter infections, and hence increased labor productivity. In the modeled analysis presented in this paper, the possible price of the vaccine is estimated when it is assumed that: (i) the number...

  2. Molecular Tracking, through Processing, of Campylobacter Strains Colonizing Broiler Flocks▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvers, Karen T.; Morris, Victoria K.; Newell, Diane G.; Allen, Vivien M.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the poultry flocks produced in the United Kingdom are colonized with Campylobacter, and the intensive nature of poultry processing usually results in contaminated carcasses. In this study, a previously reported molecular oligonucleotide probe method was used to track a specific flock-colonizing strain(s) on broiler carcasses during processing in two United Kingdom commercial poultry processing plants. Five Campylobacter-positive flocks were sampled at four points along the processing line, postbleed, postpluck, prechill, and postchill, and two Campylobacter-negative flocks processed immediately after positive flocks were sampled prechill. flaA was sequenced from Campylobacter strains isolated from these flocks, and strain-specific probes were synthesized. Skin and cecal samples were plated onto selective agar to give individual colonies, which were transferred onto membranes. These were then hybridized with the strain- and genus-specific probes. For all the 5 positive flocks, there was a significant reduction in campylobacters postbleed compared to postpluck but no subsequent fall on sampling pre- and postchill, and the strain(s) predominating on the carcasses throughout processing came from the flock being processed. This indicates that strains from the abattoir environment were not a significant cause of carcass contamination in flocks with well-established campylobacter colonization. However, negative flocks that were preceded by positive flocks were contaminated by strains that did not generally originate from the predominating strains recovered from the ceca of the previous positive flocks. This suggests that the abattoir environment has a significant role in the contamination of carcasses from negative but not fully colonized flocks. PMID:21705532

  3. Composition of human faecal microbiota in resistance to Campylobacter infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, C; Dicksved, J; Engstrand, L; Rautelin, H

    2016-01-01

    In mice, specific species composition of gut microbiota enhances susceptibility to Campylobacter jejuni but little is known about the specific composition of the human gut microbiota in providing protection from infections caused by enteropathogens. Healthy adult individuals, who travelled in groups from Sweden to destinations with an estimated high risk for acquisition of Campylobacter infection, were enrolled. Faecal samples, collected before travelling and after returning home, were cultured for bacterial enteropathogens, and analysed for Campylobacter by PCR and for the species composition of the microbiota by 16S amplicon massive parallel sequencing. The microbiota compositions were compared between persons who became infected during their travel and those who did not. A total of 63 participants completed the study; 14 became infected with Campylobacter, two with Salmonella and 47 remained negative for the enteropathogens tested. After exclusion of samples taken after antimicrobial treatment, 49 individuals were included in the final analyses. Intra-individual stability of the microbiota was demonstrated for samples taken before travelling. The original diversity of the faecal microbiota was significantly lower among individuals who later became infected compared with those who remained uninfected. The relative abundances of bacteria belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae, and more specifically its two genera Dorea and Coprococcus, were significantly higher among those who remained uninfected. The travel-related infection did not significantly modify the faecal microbiota composition. Species composition of human gut microbiota is important for colonization resistance to Campylobacter infection. Especially individuals with a lower diversity are more susceptible to Campylobacter infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Enterite da Campylobacter upsaliensis: un paradigma della microbiologia clinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia D’Annibale

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Authors describe a case of acute enteritis in a adult woman with severe hepatitis C infection caused by a strain of Campylobacter upsaliensis.The clinical isolate was obtained only on blood agar because filter membrane technique was performed. In fact for this strain it was no growth on selective Campy agar, which include cephalotin too; C. upsaliensis is sensitive to this antibiotic molecule. So, the use of filter membrane on blood agar or charcoal agar at 37°C in microaerophilic atmosphere is recommended for isolation of all campylobacters responsible of human enteritis.

  5. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution with a signific......The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...

  6. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  7. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in adult Crohn's disease and the preferential colonization sites of Campylobacter species in the human intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikneswari Mahendran

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. A high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus was previously detected in paediatric CD and adult UC. Currently, the prevalence of C. concisus in adult CD and the preferential colonization sites of Campylobacter species in the human intestine are unknown. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter species in biopsies collected from multiple anatomic sites of adult patients with IBD and controls. METHODS: Three hundred and one biopsies collected from ileum, caecum, descending colon and rectum of 28 patients IBD (15 CD and 13 UC and 33 controls were studied. Biopsies were used for DNA extraction and detection of Campylobacter species by PCR-sequencing and Campylobacter cultivation. RESULTS: A significantly higher prevalence of C. concisus in colonic biopsies of patients with CD (53% was detected as compared with the controls (18%. Campylobacter genus-PCR positivity and C. concisus positivity in patients with UC were 85% and 77% respectively, being significantly higher than that in the controls (48% and 36%. C. concisus was more often detected in descending colonic and rectal biopsies from patients with IBD in comparison to the controls. C. concisus was isolated from patients with IBD. CONCLUSION: The high intestinal prevalence of C. concisus in patients with IBD, particularly in the proximal large intestine, suggests that future studies are needed to investigate the possible involvement of C. concisus in a subgroup of human IBD. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the association between adult CD and C. concisus as well as the first study of the preferential colonization sites of C. concisus in the human intestine.

  8. Prevalence of Campylobacter Species in Adult Crohn's Disease and the Preferential Colonization Sites of Campylobacter Species in the Human Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Vikneswari; Riordan, Stephen M.; Grimm, Michael C.; Tran, Thi Anh Tuyet; Major, Joelene; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Mitchell, Hazel; Zhang, Li

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus was previously detected in paediatric CD and adult UC. Currently, the prevalence of C. concisus in adult CD and the preferential colonization sites of Campylobacter species in the human intestine are unknown. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter species in biopsies collected from multiple anatomic sites of adult patients with IBD and controls. Methods Three hundred and one biopsies collected from ileum, caecum, descending colon and rectum of 28 patients IBD (15 CD and 13 UC) and 33 controls were studied. Biopsies were used for DNA extraction and detection of Campylobacter species by PCR-sequencing and Campylobacter cultivation. Results A significantly higher prevalence of C. concisus in colonic biopsies of patients with CD (53%) was detected as compared with the controls (18%). Campylobacter genus-PCR positivity and C. concisus positivity in patients with UC were 85% and 77% respectively, being significantly higher than that in the controls (48% and 36%). C. concisus was more often detected in descending colonic and rectal biopsies from patients with IBD in comparison to the controls. C. concisus was isolated from patients with IBD. Conclusion The high intestinal prevalence of C. concisus in patients with IBD, particularly in the proximal large intestine, suggests that future studies are needed to investigate the possible involvement of C. concisus in a subgroup of human IBD. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the association between adult CD and C. concisus as well as the first study of the preferential colonization sites of C. concisus in the human intestine. PMID:21966525

  9. A Higher Prevalence Rate of Campylobacter in Retail Beef Livers Compared to Other Beef and Pork Meat Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698

  10. Prevalence and types of Campylobacter on poultry farms and in their direct environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schets, Franciska M; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F; van der Plaats, Rozemarijn Q J; Heer, Lianne Kerkhof-De; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaak, Hetty

    2017-10-01

    To study whether broiler and layer farms contribute to the environmental Campylobacter load, environmental matrices at or close to farms, and caecal material from chickens, were examined. Similarity between Campylobacter from poultry and environment was tested based on species identification and Multilocus Sequence Typing. Campylobacter prevalence in caecal samples was 97% at layer farms (n = 5), and 93% at broiler farms with Campylobacter-positive flocks (n = 2/3). Campylobacter prevalence in environmental samples was 24% at layer farms, and 29% at broiler farms with Campylobacter-positive flocks. Campylobacter was detected in soil and surface water, not in dust and flies. Campylobacter prevalence in adjacent and remote surface waters was not significantly (P > 0.1) different. Detected species were C. coli (52%), C. jejuni (40%) and C. lari (7%) in layers, and C. jejuni (100%) in broilers. Identical sequence types (STs) were detected in caecal material and soil. A deviating species distribution in surface water adjacent to farms indicated a high background level of environmental Campylobacter. STs from layer farms were completely deviant from surface water STs. The occasional detection of identical STs in broilers, wastewater at broiler farms and surface water in the farm environment suggested a possible contribution of broiler farms to the aquatic environmental Campylobacter load.

  11. Impaired Fitness and Transmission of Macrolide-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni in Its Natural Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangtongkum, Taradon; Shen, Zhangqi; Seng, Virginia W.; Sahin, Orhan; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Liu, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans via the food chain and is prevalent in chickens, a natural reservoir for this pathogenic organism. Due to the importance of macrolide antibiotics in clinical therapy of human campylobacteriosis, development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand if macrolide resistance affects the fitness and transmission of Campylobacter in its natural host. In this study we conducted pairwise competitions and comingling experiments in chickens using clonally related and isogenic C. jejuni strains, which are either susceptible or resistant to erythromycin (Ery). In every competition pair, Ery-resistant (Eryr) Campylobacter was consistently outcompeted by the Ery-susceptible (Erys) strain. In the comingling experiments, Eryr Campylobacter failed to transmit to chickens precolonized by Erys Campylobacter, while isogenic Erys Campylobacter was able to transmit to and establish dominance in chickens precolonized by Eryr Campylobacter. The fitness disadvantage was linked to the resistance-conferring mutations in the 23S rRNA. These findings clearly indicate that acquisition of macrolide resistance impairs the fitness and transmission of Campylobacter in chickens, suggesting that the prevalence of macrolide-resistant C. jejuni will likely decrease in the absence of antibiotic selection pressure. PMID:22183170

  12. Milk modulates campylobacter invasion into caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Neerven, van R.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to

  13. Campylobacter pylori and its role in peptic ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Rauws, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    In almost all patients with genuine nondrug-induced duodenal or gastric ulcer there is evidence of gastric Campylobacter pylori colonization and concomitant inflammation. C. pylori is only demonstrable in the duodenal cap when there is "gastric mucus metaplasia." Suppression or eradication of C.

  14. Molecular Mechanisms Influencing Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important food-borne pathogen, causing human bacterial gastroenteritis. Throughout the years several methods have been developed for typing C. jejuni. These methods uncovered the existence of enormous genetic diversity within the species. Stable lineages of C. jejuni are

  15. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    identified by a genus and taxon-specific PCR assay, and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis was carried out. All isolates exhibited the typical Campylobacter characteristics of being non-fermentative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and Gram-negative. Unusually, however, they were straight rods lacking...

  16. Campylobacter jejuni in Duck Faeces around Drinking Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from 192 ducks feeding around 10 wells and 6 ponds in peri-urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2006 to March, 2007. The samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, followed by characterisation of positive samples. The overall ...

  17. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168...

  18. Molecular diagnosis of Shigella , Salmonella and Campylobacter by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacteriological diagnosis of Campylobacter spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp could be necessary in case of infectious gastroenteritis syndrome. The objective of this study was to diagnose concomitantly the three enteropathogenic bacteria by multiplex Real-Time PCR in stool culture samples in ...

  19. Phage therapy reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Mueller, M.A.; Wassenaar, T.M.; Carlton, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phage therapy in the control of Campylobacter jejuni colonization in young broilers, either as a preventive or a therapeutic measure, was tested. A prevention group was infected with C. jejuni at day 4 of a 10-day phage treatment. A therapeutic group was phage treated for 6 days,

  20. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be

  1. Unsaturated fatty acids and viability of Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazell, S L; Graham, D Y

    1990-01-01

    Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori was found to be sensitive to the toxic effects of an unsaturated fatty acid (arachidonic acid). Data are presented that support the hypothesis that exogenous catalase added to basal media enhances the growth of H. pylori by preventing the formation of toxic peroxidation products from long-chain unsaturated fatty acids.

  2. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain...

  3. Clonal Distribution and Virulence of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Caroline P.A.; Ellström, Patrik; Sarna, Seppo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni bacteria are highly diverse enteropathogens. Seventy-three C. jejuni isolates from blood collected in Finland were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing and serum resistance. Approximately half of the isolates belonged to the otherwise uncommon sequence type 677 clonal complex. Isolates of this clonal complex were more resistant than other isolates to human serum. PMID:24047729

  4. Optimal interventions to control campylobacter in broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Bodil Hald, Anna

    In a multi disciplinary project we have evaluated interventions against Campylobacter in the broiler production chain. Taking into account risk reduction, costs, practicability and public acceptance of decontamination, it was concluded that at present the optimal control measure for the Danish...

  5. Salmonella og Campylobacter i økologisk svineproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2005-01-01

    De mere ekstensive systemer i økologisk svineproduktion formodes at have en positiv effekt på dyrenes robusthed f.eks. over for infektioner. Der er dog ingen dokumentation for, at økologiske svin har et lavere indhold af de almindelige zoonotiske bakterier som f.eks. Salmonella og Campylobacter end...

  6. Identification of Campylobacter pyloridis isolates by restriction endonuclease DNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, W.; Rauws, E. A.; Widjojokusumo, A.; Tytgat, G. N.; Zanen, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Campylobacter pyloridis isolates recovered from gastric biopsy specimens of 16 patients were examined by restriction endonuclease DNA analysis with HindIII. For 8 of these 16 patients two different isolates were compared to study the persistence of the colonizing strains and the stability of their

  7. Genomic Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strain M1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Carsten; Wassenaar, Gertrude Maria; Javed, Muhammad A.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni strain M1 (laboratory designation 99/308) is a rarely documented case of direct transmission of C. jejuni from chicken to a person, resulting in enteritis. We have sequenced the genome of C. jejuni strain M1, and compared this to 12 other C. jejuni sequenced genomes currently...

  8. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in different gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Knochel, Susanne; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni in fresh chilled chicken meat is known to be a major risk factor for human gastrointestinal disease. In the present study, the survival under chilled conditions of different C. jejuni strains exposed to different gas mixtures usually used for gas packaging of food was examined...

  9. First attempt to produce experimental Campylobacter concisus infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; Stenram, U.; Andersen, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) for the first time. METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C. concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize...

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in duck faeces around drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from one hundred and ninety-two ducks feeding around ten wells and six ponds in peri urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2004 to March, 2005. In total, one hundred and ninety-two samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, ...

  11. Cytotoxity of cell free filtrates of campylobacter jejuni isolated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture filtrates of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from clinical specimens in Lagos Nigeria were tested for toxic activity. Two out of five filtrates tested manifested cytopathic effect on BHK cells. The effects were mainly cytotoxic and cytotonic. Toxic activity of C. jejuni filtrates was much lower than toxic activity elicited by ...

  12. Reactions of Chicken Sera to Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Flagellar Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative rod bacterium and is the leading but under-reported bacterial food-borne pathogen that causes human campylobacteriosis worldwide. Raw or undercooked poultry products are regarded as a major source for human infection. C. jejuni flagella have been implicated ...

  13. A Risk Assessment Model for Campylobacter in Broiler Meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.J.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative microbiological risk assessment model describes the transmission of Campylobacter through the broiler meat production chain and at home, from entering the processing plant until consumption of a chicken breast fillet meal. The exposure model is linked to a dose-response model to allow

  14. The aroA gene of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.S.M. Wösten (M. M S M); H.J. Dubbink (Erik Jan); B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe gene for 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (aroA) cloned from Campylobacter jejuni (Cj) strain 81116 was identified by complementation of an Escherichia coli (Ec) auxotrophic aroA mutant. The Cj aroA gene has been sequenced. It encodes an enzyme of 428 amino acids

  15. Immunocapture and real-time PCR to detect Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rayas, Rocío; Wolffs, Petra F G; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2008-12-01

    In this work, the feasibility of using a large-volume immunocapture system as a sample pretreatment before detection of Campylobacter was studied. Real-time PCR was used for detection of captured cells after immunocapture. This immunocapture system is able to process high-volume samples by recirculation, increasing the possibility of capturing cells in low numbers. After 30 min of recirculation, the sample is concentrated from 250 ml to 200 microl. In this study, different parameters were compared in order to improve cell capture. The analysis of inoculated chicken skin showed that detection of Campylobacter at levels of 10(3) CFU/25 g was possible after 8 h of enrichment. The low recovery of Campylobacter cells (detection limit of the entire protocol was increased due to the low cell recovery of the sample pretreatment. Therefore, this immunoseparation is able to recover cells present in high concentration after enrichment but not cells present in low concentration. Isolation of Campylobacter cells is achievable using this separation method rather than rapid detection.

  16. Cepas de Campylobacter jejuni resistentes a quinolonas aisladas de humanos, gallinas y pollos Quinolone resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans and from poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Notario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon 8 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni provenientes de humanos con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con 23 aislamientos de cloaca de gallinas y pollos obtenidos de zonas próximas a la ciudad de Rosario, todos resistentes a la ciprofloxacina. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo y se incubaron en microaerofilia a 42 °C. Las colonias se identificaron con el método tradicional. Los aislamientos se conservaron a -70 °C en caldo cerebro corazón con 17% v/v de glicerina. La clonalidad se determinó por RAPD-PCR, utilizando el primer 1254 (Stern NJ. Se interpretaron los aislamientos como clones distintos cuando diferían en una banda de amplificación. Se obtuvieron 5 clones diferentes. Los patrones I, II y V fueron aislados en criaderos industriales de pollos y en humanos (el II también en un establecimiento de gallinas ponedoras de huevos. En un gallinero familiar se obtuvo el patrón I. El patrón III sólo se obtuvo de humanos. El patrón IV se halló en uno de los criaderos pero no en humanos. Se pudo determinar que 93.5% de las cepas se aislaron tanto de animales como de humanos, por lo que se considera posible que la colonización de criaderos con cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos pudiera ser el origen de la infección de humanos.Eight quinolone resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans with diarrheal disease were compared with 23 isolates from chicken and from laying hens. Samples were cultured on selective agar in microaerophilia, identified by conventional tests, and conserved in 17% glycerol at -70 °C. Clones were determined by RAPD-PCR employing the 1254 primer (Stern NJ. Five patterns were obtained. Patterns I, II, and V were found in both poultry and human isolates. Pattern I was obtained from poultry in a domestic henhouse. Pattern III was only obtained from humans whereas pattern IV was only obtained from poultry. A 95.3% of clones were found in both, humans and poultry. According to these

  17. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka : Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-01-01

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on

  18. Complete Genome Sequences of Plasmid-Bearing Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Strains with Type VI Secretion Systems, Isolated from Retail Turkey and Pork

    OpenAIRE

    Marasini, Daya; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report the complete genome sequences of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from retail turkey and pork, respectively. The chromosomes of these two isolates contained type VI secretion system genes. The two isolates also harbored large plasmids with antimicrobial resistance genes possibly contributing to their multidrug resistance.

  19. Cell wall anchoring of the Campylobacter antigens to Lactococcus lactis

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    Patrycja Anna Kobierecka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein – CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type Campylobacter jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analysed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered

  20. Campylobacter polysaccharide capsules: virulence and vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eGuerry

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barre Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS. These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types.

  1. Control de bacteriemia nosocomial pediátrica mediante un programa de cultivo de soluciones parenterales en uso Pediatric nosocomial bacteremia control program based on culturing in use parenteral infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Muñoz

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Dado que Klebsiella, Enterobacter y Serratia se multiplican en soluciones parenterales y son responsables de una elevada proporción de bacteriemias en los hospitales de México, se propone una estrategia de control mediante la vigilancia microbiológica de las soluciones en uso. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Hospital de enseñanza de segundo nivel con 193 camas. Atiende principalmente pacientes de escasos recursos. En 1992 se inició la vigilancia de la esterilidad de las soluciones parenterales en los servicios pediátricos mediante cuatro estrategias: durante la primera etapa se cultivó el total de soluciones en uso. Durante la segunda se cultivaron muestras aleatoriamente elegidas. Tercera y cuarta etapas con muestreo controlado y dirigido, respectivamente. RESULTADOS. Se han cultivado 1940 infusiones. Se ha observado una reducción de la tasa de contaminación (de 29.6% en 1992 a 12.9% en 1997, pOBJECTIVES. As Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Serratia are capable of growth in IV fluids and these bacteria are commonly implicated in nosocomial bacteremia, a control strategy through microbiological surveilance of in-use parenteral solutions is proposed. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A second level general teaching hospital, serving low-income patients. Through four consecutive strategies, a continous surveillance program of IV fluids sterility in pediatric wards was stablished in 1992. During the first stage all of the in -use solutions were cultured. During the second stage randomly selected samples were studied. Third stage was designed as a case-control study. The last stage included samples drawn in convenience. Positive cultures point out eventual infusion mishandling, as well as high-risk areas and patients. RESULTS. After culturing 1940 parenteral solutions, infusion contamination rates decreased from 29.6% in 1992 to 12.9% in 1997 (p< 0.001. The proportion of Gram-negative rods isolated from blood cultures went from 72.7% to 40.85% (p< 0

  2. Bacteriophage receptor binding protein based assays for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Javed

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis which is occasionally followed by a debilitating neuropathy known as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Rapid and specific detection of these pathogens is very important for effective control and quick treatment of infection. Most of the diagnostics available for these organisms are time consuming and require technical expertise with expensive instruments and reagents to perform. Bacteriophages bind to their host specifically through their receptor binding proteins (RBPs, which can be exploited for pathogen detection. We recently sequenced the genome of C. jejuni phage NCTC12673 and identified its putative host receptor binding protein, Gp047. In the current study, we localized the receptor binding domain to the C-terminal quarter of Gp047. CC-Gp047 could be produced recombinantly and was capable of agglutinating both C. jejuni and C. coli cells unlike the host range of the parent phage which is limited to a subset of C. jejuni isolates. The agglutination procedure could be performed within minutes on a glass slide at room temperature and was not hindered by the presence of buffers or nutrient media. This agglutination assay showed 100% specificity and the sensitivity was 95% for C. jejuni (n = 40 and 90% for C. coli (n = 19. CC-Gp047 was also expressed as a fusion with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. Chimeric EGFP_CC-Gp047 was able to specifically label C. jejuni and C. coli cells in mixed cultures allowing for the detection of these pathogens by fluorescent microscopy. This study describes a simple and rapid method for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli using engineered phage RBPs and offers a promising new diagnostics platform for healthcare and surveillance laboratories.

  3. Reduction of thermotolerant Campylobacter species on broiler carcasses following physical decontamination at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    through physical decontamination of the meat. The current study was conducted to compare the Campylobacter-reducing ability of three physical decontamination techniques, forced air chilling, crust freezing, and steam-ultrasound, performed in the plant with naturally contaminated broiler chickens......To reduce the incidences of human Campylobacter infections, a number of countries are investigating methods for reducing human exposure to Campylobacter from broiler meat. In addition to implementing biosecurity measures at the farm, Campylobacter may be controlled by reducing Campylobacter counts...... in an increase of 0.9 log CFU per carcass, suggesting that Campylobacter counts also may be reduced by optimizing the hygienic design of equipment or by physical removal of fecal contamination....

  4. Identification of taxonomic and epidemiological relationships among Campylobacter species by numerical analysis of AFLP profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ona, Stephen L.W.; Harringtona, Clare S.

    2000-01-01

    at higher S-levels. All outbreak or 'genetically identical' strains of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, Campylobacter coli, C. hyointestinalis and C. sputorum clustered at S-levels > 92% and were distinguished from unrelated strains. Numerical analysis of AFLP profiles is useful for concurrent identification......Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based profiling was performed on 138 strains representing all named Campylobacter species and subspecies. Profiles of 15/16 species comprised 6 to greater than 100 fragments and were subjected to numerical analysis. The mean similarity of 48 duplicate......, outbreak and/or 'identical' strain profiles exceeded 94%. Species were clearly distinguished at the 17.90% similarity (S-) level in the dendrogram. Subspecies of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter. hyointestinalis, and biovars of Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter sputorum were distinguished...

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To determine the flock prevalence and to estimate the within flock prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks from different rearing systems, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to selected antimicrobial substances. Methods and Results: One hundred...... and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp. were...... isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special characteristics...

  6. PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav, Marianne; Isohanni, Pauliina; Lund, Marianne; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2008-10-01

    During a period of 9 months, 194 marinated and non-marinated poultry products were collected from retail shops in a defined area in Western Finland and tested for Campylobacter spp. using a conventional enrichment culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. For marinated poultry products, the study involved modification of a commercial DNA isolation method. Using either a conventional culture or PCR method, a total of 25 (12.9%) of all investigated samples were Campylobacter positive. In marinated poultry products, Campylobacter was detected at a prevalence of 21.1% and 9.5% in turkey and chicken products, respectively. In August, there was a peak with 28.9% positive Campylobacter samples. Campylobacter inoculation tests were carried out to test the detection limit of both methods. The PCR method used is faster than microbiological analyses. However, enrichment of the samples is necessary due to the low occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in retail Finnish poultry products.

  7. Evaluation of a new chromogenic medium for direct enumeration of Campylobacter in poultry meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Verhaegen, Bavo; Uyttendaele, Mieke; de Zutter, Lieven

    2014-12-01

    The present study was conducted to compare Campylobacter counts obtained by three selective media: modified charcoal cefoperazonedeoxycholate agar (mCCDA), Campy Food agar (CFA), and a novel agar RAPID' Campylobacter agar. Analysis of 12 artificially and 36 naturally contaminated samples indicated no significant differences in Campylobacter counts obtained with all three selective media. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and the Bland-Altman plot revealed a high level of agreement between Campylobacter counts when evaluating RAPID versus mCCDA and CFA plates. RAPID agar was the only medium tested that could effectively suppress the growth of the background microflora with naturally contaminated samples. Results of this study clearly indicated that RAPID agar is highly selective without loss of sensitivity for recovering Campylobacter. Results obtained are in agreement with those for other commonly used media; therefore, RAPID medium is suitable for Campylobacter enumeration in poultry meat samples.

  8. Description and sources of contamination by Campylobacter spp. of river water destined for human consumption in Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; M Tanguy; Chidaine, B; Laisney, M-J; Mégraud, F; Fravalo, P

    2011-10-01

    Presence or absence of Campylobacter spp. in water of five rivers upstream from an intake point for drinking water production was investigated, and isolates genetically compared with human, pig and poultry isolates in order to determine their source. River water and drinking water obtained from these rivers were sampled one time per month, over a period of one year, and tested for Campylobacter. Isolates were typed by PFGE. Campylobacter was not detected in treated drinking water, but 50% of the river samples were contaminated. Contamination was observed on the four seasons. In total, 297 Campylobacter isolates were collected and generated 46 PFGE profiles. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently detected species in samples (74.1% of the isolates), followed by Campylobacter coli (17.8%) and Campylobacter lari (8.1%). Forty-two of the 46 PFGE profiles were unique. Only one genotype was detected three times in a river during the year and four genotypes in two different rivers. When compared to animal and human Campylobacter PFGE profiles, 14, 11 and one Campylobacter genotypes from water were genetically closed to human, poultry, and pig Campylobacter genotypes, respectively. The Campylobacter population displayed a high level of genetic diversity, suggesting that contamination originated from various origins. Human, poultry and pig were sources of contamination of the river by Campylobacter. Finally, no Campylobacter were detected in drinking water, indicating that the risk of outbreaks due to consumption of drinking water is low. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in white stork Ciconia ciconia in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Bernadeta; Kamiński, Piotr; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Śpica, Dorota; Kartanas, Edmund; Ulrich, Werner; Jerzak, Leszek; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Bocheński, Marcin; Klawe, Jacek J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of white stork Ciconia ciconia as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Antimicrobial resistance and the presence of putative virulence genes of the isolates were also examined. A total of 398 white stork chicks sampled in Western Poland in habitats with high density of breeding were examined. Rectal swabs were collected during breeding season 2009-2012 from storks developing in a relatively pure environment (Odra meadows), in polluted areas (a copper mining-smelting complex), and in suburbs. Of the anal swabs collected, 7.6% were positive for Campylobacter among chicks (5.3% samples positive for C. jejuni and 2.3% samples positive for C. coli). Samples from polluted areas had the highest prevalence of Campylobacter (12.2%). The prevalence of resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from young storks was as follows: to ciprofloxacin (52.4%, 44.4%), and to tetracycline (19%, 77.8%). All of the analyzed isolates were susceptible to macrolides. The resistance to both classes of antibiotics was found in the 23.3% of Campylobacter spp. All Campylobacter spp. isolates had cadF gene and flaA gene responsible for adherence and motility. CdtB gene associated with toxin production was present in 88.9% of C. coli isolates and 57.1% of C. jejuni isolates. The iam marker was found more often in C. coli strains (55.6%) compared to C. jejuni isolates (42.9%). Our results confirm the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the white stork in natural conditions and, because it lives in open farmlands with access to marshy wetlands, the environmental sources such as water reservoirs and soil-water can be contaminated from white stork feces and the pathogens can be widely disseminated. We can thus conclude that Campylobacter spp. may easily be transmitted to waterfowl, other birds, and humans via its environmental sources and/or by immediate contact.

  10. Discrimination of Major Capsular Types of Campylobacter jejuni by Multiplex PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Discrimination of Major Capsular Types of Campylobacter jejuni by Multiplex PCR’Vt Frederic Poly...two PCRs with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 90 tn 100% using 244 strains of knnwn Penner type. Campylobacter jejwzi is one of the...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Discrimination of Major Capsular Types of Campylobacter jejuni

  11. Distribution of Flagella Secreted Protein and Integral Membrane Protein Among Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    secreted protein and integral membrane protein among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Thailand Piyarat Pootong 1·, Oralak Serichantalergs...Ladaporn Bodhidatta \\ Frederic Poly2, Patricia Guerry2 and Carl J Mason 1 Abstract Background: Campylobacter jejuni, a gram-negative bacterium, is a...groups of integral membrane protein. The significance of these different FspA variants to virulence requires further study. Background Campylobacter

  12. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko-Mäkelä, Päivikki; Isohanni, Pauliina; Katzav, Marianne; Lund, Marianne; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2009-04-07

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Samples (N = 456) were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143) were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of Campylobacter in the Finnish turkey production chain

  13. Laboratorní diagnostika infekcí způsobených Campylobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    MRKVIČKOVÁ, Renáta

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor´s thesis deals with problematics of bacterial Campylobacter species, their distribution, and increase in resistence to antibiotics. It also deals with campylobacteriosis prevention, diagnosis and identification of individual species of bacteria. The theoretical part focuses on the general characteristics of the genus Campylobacter, resources, and transmission of infection and possible prevention. This section comprises methods for the identification and diagnosis of Campylobacter spp...

  14. Impaired Fitness and Transmission of Macrolide-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni in Its Natural Host

    OpenAIRE

    Luangtongkum, Taradon; Shen, Zhangqi; Seng, Virginia W.; Sahin, Orhan; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans via the food chain and is prevalent in chickens, a natural reservoir for this pathogenic organism. Due to the importance of macrolide antibiotics in clinical therapy of human campylobacteriosis, development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand if macrolide resistance affects the fitness...

  15. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Patients with Diarrhea in Shunyi, Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens have been confirmed as the major cause of acute diarrhea among outpatients in China. In this study, 370 stool samples from the patients aged from 15 to 87 years old with diarrhea were collected over 12 months (from May 2016 to April 2017 in two hospitals in Shunyi, Beijing. Bacterial isolation was performed for the common enteric pathogens: Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus for 370 samples. The filtration method was used for the Campylobacter isolation in this study. The prevalence and molecular characterization of the Campylobacter were investigated. The isolation ratio for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Diarrheagenic E. coli, and V. parahaemolyticus was 7.0% (26/370, 6.2% (23/370, 0.3% (1/370, 7.3% (27/370, and 10.3% (38/370, respectively. Based on the isolation result, Campylobacter positive cases presented in almost every month of the whole year and the isolation ratio was the highest among the tested pathogens during October to March. There was no significant difference between genders of Campylobacter positive cases. More Campylobacter positive cases presented dehydration compared with those who were positive for Salmonella. Twenty-six Campylobacter isolates were obtained in this study and 24 of these were Campylobacter jejuni. The antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that 83.3% (20/24 of the isolates exhibited resistance to three or more types of antibiotic. Twenty STs were identified for the 26 Campylobacter isolates and four novel STs were identified in this study. No clonal cluster was found among these isolates. This is the first study for Campylobacter isolated using the filtration method in China which indicated the Campylobacter infection might be seriously under-ascertained in the diarrheal patients in China.

  16. Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Alexander P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Sodhi, Nidhi; Merif, Juan; Seah Lee, Way; Riordan, Stephen M; Rawlinson, William D; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-03-01

    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae.

  17. Systematic serotyping and riboprinting of Campylobacter spp. improves surveillance: experiences from two Danish counties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Møller Nielsen, E.; Neimann, J.

    2007-01-01

    In order to monitor the distribution of subtypes of Campylobacter and to identify clusters, 975 isolates of Campylobacter spp., obtained from human infections occurring in two Danish counties, were studied during a 1-year period. The isolates were characterised by Penner serotyping and automated ...... the validity of selected clusters identified by serotyping and ribotyping. The observed clustering of Campylobacter isolates, with identical types in time and place, indicates that common-source outbreaks of campylobacteriosis are more common than is usually thought....

  18. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänninen Marja-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Samples (N = 456 were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143 were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of

  19. The pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms; external and internal sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, T; Whyte, P; Bolton, D J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the most sensitive molecular techniques in combination with culture-based methods to characterize broiler farms in terms of the timeline ('appearance' and 'pattern') of Campylobacter contamination prior to and post detection in the birds. Faecal and environmental samples were collected from three broiler farms (two flocks per farm). Real-time PCR was used to test for the presence of Campylobacter. Culture-based methods (enrichment and direct plating) were also applied and isolates were subject to a range of confirmatory tests before speciation (multiplex PCR). All flocks were colonized by Campylobacter before first thin and a similar pattern of Campylobacter contamination was observed; (day -1) a range of external and internal samples real-time PCR positive but culture negative; (day 0) chicks negative; (6-9 days pre-detection in the birds) internal samples (feeders, drinkers, barrier and/or bird weigh) culture positive and (post broiler infection) increasing concentrations of Campylobacter in internal samples but also on the tarmac apron and anteroom. It was concluded that; (i) vertical transmission did not occur; (ii) the environment was a potential source of Campylobacter; (iii) testing areas frequented by all birds (e.g. feeders and drinkers), may offer an opportunity for early Campylobacter detection and (iv) once the broilers are infected with Campylobacter, these bacteria are spread from the birds, through the anteroom to the areas surrounding the broiler house, highlighting the need for improved biosecurity. This study has established the pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms, identified an early detection opportunity, highlighted the need to better understand the role of viable but nonculturable Campylobacter in the ecology of Campylobacter on broiler farms and demonstrated the need for improved biosecurity to prevent the spread of Campylobacter from within the house to the surrounding environment.

  20. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Evaluation of its Sensitivity and Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Razei A; Sorouri R; Aghamollaei H; Mousavi SL

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food poising in humans. Rapid and specific detection of these bacteria has an important role in diagnosis and treatment of infection. The aim of this study was to design a specific PCR for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: In this experimental study, oxidoreductase gene from the Campylobacter jejuni was selected for rapid and specific detection. For this purpose, specific primers were designed and charecte...

  1. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of 2 immunochromatographic tests detecting campylobacter in stools and their role in campylobacter infection diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessède, Emilie; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Valdenaire, Guillaume; Richer, Olivier; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis

    2018-02-07

    The detection of campylobacters in stools is performed essentially by culture, but this technique has a low sensitivity. New detection methods are now available. Among them, immunochromatography tests (ICTs) are very attractive in that they offer a result within 15 minutes. However, previous studies suggest that these tests have a relatively low specificity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of these tests.During the study period, all patients who consulted the emergency units and had a stool culture were included. Their stool samples were tested with 2 ICTs, RIDA®QUICK Campylobacter and ImmunoCardSTAT!Campy. Stools were also tested by a home-made PCR and 2 commercially available ELISAs when one of the ICTs was positive. The composite reference standard (CRS) was defined as positive if the culture was positive or, in case of a negative culture, if the PCR and one of the ELISAs were positive simultaneously.Three hundred and five patients were included. Among the 50 positive specimens with RIDA®QUICK Campylobacter, 47 were considered as true positives by the CRS, corresponding to a positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.0%. Among the 52 positive specimens with ImmunoCardSTAT!Campy, 44 were considered as true positives by the CRS, corresponding to a PPV of 84.6%. The negative predictive values (NPV) were estimated at 94.9% and 92.4% for RIDA®QUICK and ImmunoCardSTAT!Campy, respectively.ICTs appear to be very efficient and allow a very rapid detection of campylobacters which is important to treat early campylobacter infection with an adapted antibiotherapy. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and enteric Helicobacter in domestic and free living birds in North-Western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, P; Tomassone, L; Tramuta, C; Rodo, M; Giammarino, M; Vaschetti, G; Nebbia, P

    2010-09-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of some thermophilic Campylobacter (C. jejuni and C. coli) and enteric Helicobacter (H. pullorum and H. canadensis) in domestic and wild birds, a total of 278 bird caecal samples were analyzed over a 2 year period in North-Western Italy. Samples were collected from poultry raised in intensive farming at the slaughterhouse (n=102, group A) and in small scale rural farms (n=60, group B) as well as from wild birds (n=116, group C). PCR amplifications were carried out on DNA extracted from caecal samples. Molecular assays targeted the hipO gene for C. jejuni, the asp gene for C. coli and the 16S rRNA gene of H. pullorum/H. canadensis. To differentiate H. pullorum from H. canadensis, PCR products were subjected to an ApaLI digestion assay. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter and enteric Helicobacter was significantly different among groups (p<0.0001). Campylobacter infections were detected in all three bird groups (78.4% group A, 18.3% group B and 38.8% group C, respectively), Helicobacter infections were only detected in poultry, with H. pullorum infecting 68.6% of group A and 21.7% of group B birds. H. canadensis was detected in Guinea fowls (group A) and for the first time in pheasants (group B). Mixed infections by enteric Campylobacter and Helicobacter were shown in 53.9% of group A and in 5.0 % of group B. Our results show that both microorganisms commonly infect poultry, especially intensive farming animals. Only hooded crows among the wild bird group (group C), proved to be highly sensitive to Campylobacter infection.

  3. Meningitis bacteriémica por Pasteurella multocida Pasteurella multocida bacteremic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soloaga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por Pasteurella multocida en seres humanos habitualmente están relacionadas con mordeduras o arañazos de perros y gatos. Muchas de ellas se acompañan de otros microorganismos de la orofaringe de estos animales. Se presenta un caso de meningitis bacteriémica por P. multocida en una mujer de 86 años que convivía con siete gatos. Si bien no se documentó una infección de piel o de partes blandas, es posible que ésta haya pasado inadvertida inicialmente y que fuera la causa de la bacteriemia con impacto en meninges, o bien que la meningitis se haya producido luego de la colonización nasofaríngea (no demostrada. Los aislamientos de hemocultivos y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron identificados como P. multocida por medio de API 20NE, API 20E y Vitek 1. La cepa aislada presentó sensibilidad a penicilina, cefotaxima, levofloxacina y tetraciclinas, en coincidencia con lo descrito en la literatura.Human infections by Pasteurella multocida are usually associated with bites or scratches from dogs and cats. Many of them are accompanied by other oropharyngeal microorganisms of these animals. We herein present a case of bacteremic meningitis by P. multocida in an 86-year-old woman who was living with seven cats. Even though no skin or soft tissue infection was recorded, it is possible that a mild infection had gone undetected and a subsequent bacteremia had impacted on the meninges, or that meningitis could have occurred after nasopharyngeal colonization (not demonstrated. The isolates obtained from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid were identified as P. multocida by API 20NE, API 20E, and Vitek 1. In agreement with findings in the literature, this strain was susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, levofloxacin and tetracyclines.

  4. Climatic factors and prevalence of Campylobacter in commercial broiler flocks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, S; Charununtakorn, P; Muangnoicharoen, S; Hankla, L; Techawal, N; Chaveerach, P; Tuitemwong, P; Chokesajjawatee, N; Williams, N; Humphrey, T; Luangtongkum, T

    2017-04-01

    Campylobacter are bacteria associated with human foodborne disease worldwide. Poultry and poultry products are generally considered as a main source of these organisms. Compared to temperate zones, baseline information on Campylobacter in tropical regions is limited. Thus, the objectives of the present study were 1) to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in Thai broiler flocks and 2) to investigate the association between climatic factors (i.e., rainfall, ambient temperature, and relative humidity) and Campylobacter colonization status of broiler flocks in Thailand. A total of 442 commercial broiler flocks reared in the central and northeastern regions of Thailand during 2012 to 2014 were investigated. Campylobacter positive status was identified in 252 examined flocks (57.01%; 95% CI 52.39 to 61.63%). Prevalence of Campylobacter in the northeastern region (54.46%; 95% CI 44.76 to 63.83%) was slightly lower than that of the central region (57.77%; 95% CI 52.47 to 62.90%). More than 65% of Campylobacter positive flocks in the central and northeastern regions had within-flock prevalence higher than 75%. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) revealed that the increased rainfall and relative humidity were associated with the increase of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks (P ≤ 0.05), while no relationship between ambient temperature and Campylobacter colonization status was identified. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Variation in Campylobacter Multilocus Sequence Typing Subtypes from Chickens as Detected on Three Plating Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Ladely, S R; Meinersmann, R J; Line, J E; Oakley, B B; Cox, N A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli detected on three selective Campylobacter plating media to determine whether each medium selected for different subtypes. Fifty ceca and 50 carcasses (representing 50 flocks) were collected from the evisceration line in a commercial broiler processing plant. Campylobacter was cultured and isolated from cecal contents and carcass rinses on Campy-Cefex, Campy Line, and RF Campylobacter jejuni/coli agars. When a positive result was obtained with all three media, one colony of the most prevalent morphology on each medium was selected for further analysis by full genome sequencing and multilocus sequence typing. Sequence types were assigned according to PubMLST. A total of 49 samples were positive for Campylobacter on all three media. Forty samples contained only C. jejuni , three had only C. coli , and both species were detected in six samples. From 71% of samples, Campylobacter isolates of the same sequence type were recovered on all three media. From 81.6% of samples, isolates were all from the same clonal complex. From significantly fewer samples (26%, P Campylobacter jejuni/coli . From one sample, three sequence types were detected. In most cases, all three plating media allowed detection of the same type of Campylobacter from complex naturally contaminated chicken samples.

  6. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece. Faecal specimens were collected from 181 dogs and 132 cats. Culture methods were applied to detect Campylobacter spp. and a multiplex PCR assay to identify the isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 3.8% in dogs and 12.1% in cats. The most frequently identified Campylobacter species in dogs was C. jejuni (57.1% followed by C. coli (42.9%. All feline isolates were identified as C. jejuni apart from one isolate that was characterised as Campylobacter-like organism. Gender, age, breed, life style, diarrhoea and type of diet of dogs and cats did not significantly correlate (P>0.05 with Campylobacter isolation. Possible predictors regarding Campylobacter presence in dogs and cats were assessed by binary logistic regression. A tendency towards higher risk for Campylobacter contamination was observed in dogs consuming a homemade diet and in outdoor cats. Disk diffusion method revealed that all Campylobacter isolates exhibited susceptibility to erythromycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. Contrariwise, 66.7% of canine isolates were resistant concurrently to tetracycline and quinolones and 59.0%, 13.6% and 4.5% of feline isolates were resistant to quinolones, quinolones along with tetracycline and tetracycline alone, respectively

  7. A prospective follow-up study on transmission of Campylobacter from poultry to abattoir workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellström, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-09-01

    Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter.

  8. Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter in Organically and Conventionally Raised Layer Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Issmat I; Kehinde, Olugbenga; Kumar, Anand; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-01-01

    Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens. Here, we showed that the prevalence of Campylobacter on organic and conventional layer farms was statistically similar (p > 0.05). However, the average number of Campylobacter jejuni-positive organically grown hens was lower (p Campylobacter isolated from both production systems carried antimicrobial resistance genes. The tet(O) and cmeB were the most frequently detected genes, while the occurrence of aph-3-1 and blaOXA-61 was significantly lower (p Campylobacter were isolated. We conclude that organic farming can potentially impact the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter. Nevertheless, this impact should be regularly monitored to avoid potential relapses.

  9. A Prospective Follow-Up Study on Transmission of Campylobacter from Poultry to Abattoir Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

  10. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early...... colonization or to reduce the Campylobacter colonization level may be a viable intervention strategy in the future; however, no commercial Campylobacter vaccine is currently available. This case considers the rationale for such a strategy, the forms it could take and the challenges it would involve....

  11. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Bhunia, Arun K; Gehring, Andrew; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Irwin, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Lack of evidence for vertical transmission of Campylobacter spp. in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicott, Kenneth A; Friethriksdóttir, Vala; Reiersen, Jarle; Lowman, Ruff; Bisaillon, Jean-Robert; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Berndtson, Eva; Hiett, Kelli L; Needleman, David S; Stern, Norman J

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial food-borne infection in the industrial world. There is evidence that C. jejuni is present in eggs and hatchery fluff, opening the possibility for vertical transmission from hens to progeny. Poultry operations in Iceland provide an excellent opportunity to study this possibility, since breeding flocks are established solely from eggs imported from grandparent flocks in Sweden. This leaves limited opportunity for grandparents and their progeny to share isolates through horizontal transmission. While Campylobacter was not detected in all grandparent flocks, 13 of the 16 egg import lots consisted of eggs gathered from one or more Campylobacter-positive grandparent flocks. No evidence of Campylobacter was found by PCR in any of the 10 relevant quarantine hatchery fluff samples examined, and no Campylobacter was isolated from the parent birds through 8 weeks, while they were still in quarantine rearing facilities. After the birds were moved to less biosecure rearing facilities, Campylobacter was isolated, and 29 alleles were observed among the 224 isolates studied. While three alleles were found in both Sweden and Iceland, in no case was the same allele found both in a particular grandparent flock and in its progeny. We could find no evidence for vertical transmission of Campylobacter to the approximately 60,000 progeny parent breeders that were hatched from eggs coming from Campylobacter-positive grandparent flocks. If vertical transmission is occurring, it is not a significant source for the contamination of chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp.

  13. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. infection in Senegalese broiler-chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, E; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Cisse, M; Salvat, G

    2004-06-10

    Our objective was to identify the risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Senegalese broiler flocks. Seventy broiler farms were studied around Dakar from January 2000 to December 2001 around Dakar. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers, and samples of fresh droppings were taken to assess the flocks' Campylobacter status. About 63% of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.; Campylobacter jejuni was the most-prevalent species (P hatchery to the farm as feed plates (rather than specifically designed feed plates). Alternatively, thorough cleaning and disinfection of poultry-house surroundings and manure disposal outside the farm were associated with decreased flock risk.

  14. Explanatory variables associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses during processing in two slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Lipman, Len J.A.; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover,

  15. Explanatory Variables Associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli Concentrations on Broiler Chicken Carcasses during Processing in Two Slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Lipman, Len J.A.; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover,

  16. Evaluation of a PCR/DNA Probe Colorimetric Membrane Assay for Identification of Campylobacter spp. in Human Stool Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Evelyn; Glennon, Maura; Hanley, Shirley; Murray, Anne-Marie; Cormican, Martin; Smith, Terry; Maher, Majella

    2001-01-01

    DNA was extracted from 50 human stool specimens using the QIAamp DNA stool minikit. PCR amplification was followed by post-PCR hybridization to DNA probes specific for the Campylobacter genus, Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli in a colorimetric membrane assay. Thirty-two of 38 culture-positive specimens were PCR/DNA probe positive for C. jejuni. The assay is rapid and simple and can be applied to stool specimens for the detection of Campylobacter.

  17. Nachweis und Differenzierung von Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli und C. lari in Lebensmitteln mittels Quadruplex real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Anja Maria

    2009-01-01

    Es wurde ein Quadruplex real-time PCR-Verfahren zum parallelen Nachweis und zur Differenzierung der lebensmittelrelevanten thermophilen Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli und Campylobacter lari in Geflügel, Fleisch, Fisch und Muscheln etabliert. Das Nachweissystem wurde hinsichtlich seiner Selektivität, Sensitivität, Effizienz, Präzision und Robustheit überprüft und im Vergleich zur konventionellen Diagnostik (kultureller Nachweis) anhand von 464 Feldproben validiert....

  18. High Prevalence and Predominance of the aph(2″)-If Gene Conferring Aminoglycoside Resistance in Campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Hong; Liu, Dejun; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Qijing; Shen, Zhangqi

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen, and previous studies revealed that Campylobacter isolates from food-producing animals are increasingly resistant to gentamicin in China. The molecular epidemiology and genetic mechanisms responsible for gentamicin resistance in China have not been well understood. In this study, 607 Campylobacter isolates of chicken and swine origins collected in 2014 were analyzed, revealing that 15.6% (25/160) of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 79.9% (357/4...

  19. First case report of myopericarditis linked to Campylobacter coli enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Cameron R M; Moloi, Soniah B; Kennedy, Karina J

    2017-01-05

    Campylobacter spp. are a common cause of mostly self-limiting enterocolitis. Although rare, pericarditis and myopericarditis have been increasingly documented as complications following campylobacteriosis. Such cases have occurred predominantly in younger males, and involved a single causative species, namely Campylobacter jejuni. We report the first case of myopericarditis following Campylobacter coli enterocolitis, with illness occurring in an immunocompetent middle-aged female. A 51-yo female was admitted to a cardiology unit with a 3-days history of chest pain. The woman had no significant medical history or risk factors for cardiac disease, nor did she report any recent overseas travel. Four days prior to the commencement of chest pain the woman had reported onset of an acute gastrointestinal illness, passing 3-4 loose stools daily, a situation that persisted at the time of presentation. Physical examination showed the woman's vital signs to be essentially stable, although she was noted to be mildly tachycardic. Laboratory testing showed mildly elevated C-reactive protein and a raised troponin I in the absence of elevation of the serum creatinine kinase. Electrocardiography (ECG) demonstrated concave ST segment elevations, and PR elevation in aVR and depression in lead II. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) revealed normal biventricular size and function with no significant valvular abnormalities. There were no left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities. No pericardial effusion was present but the pericardium appeared echodense. A diagnosis of myopericarditis was made on the basis of chest pain, typical ECG changes and troponin rise. The chest pain resolved and she was discharged from hospital after 2-days of observation, but with ongoing diarrhoea. Following discharge, a faecal sample taken during the admission, cultured Campylobacter spp. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (Bruker) confirmed the cultured isolate as C. coli

  20. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottawattage S. A. Kottawatta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102 and wet markets (n = 25. From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37 was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33 of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8 became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  1. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; Van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-11-29

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants ( n = 102) and wet markets ( n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter . Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets ( n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter -free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni . Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  2. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chicken in farms and at time of slaughter in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, S; Franciosini, M P; Comitini, F; Ciani, M; De Luca, S; Bellucci, S; Menchetti, L; Casagrande Proietti, P

    2017-05-01

    Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni were investigated along the broiler chicken production chain in central Italy. Campylobacter sp. isolated from cloacal swabs in farms (n = 116) and from the neck skin of chilled and eviscerated carcasses at slaughter (n = 24) were identified as C. coli (n = 99) and C. jejuni (n = 41) by multiplex PCR. Characterization by single amplified fragment length polymorphism (s-AFLP) revealed a specific genotype of Campylobacter for each farm. Minimal inhibitory concentration showed high prevalence of fluoroquinolones (70%), tetracycline (70%) and erythromycin (30%) resistance among C. coli isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolates showed lower prevalence of fluoroquinolone (39%) and tetracycline (10%) resistance, and all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin. The S-AFLP types of the C. coli and C. jejuni isolates were associated with their antimicrobial resistance profiles (P Campylobacter isolates suggested that a specific genotype was harboured in each farm. A considerable number of C. coli isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Campylobacter coli was detected more frequently than C. jejuni in contrast to common findings for poultry. The high prevalence of 30% resistance to erythromycin in C. coli strains isolated from poultry is worrisome, as this is the first antibiotic of choice to treat human campylobacteriosis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S. A.; Van Bergen, Marcel A. P.; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Veldman, Kees T.; Kalupahana, Ruwani S.

    2017-01-01

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102) and wet markets (n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance. PMID:29186018

  4. Assess the prevalence rate of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni species in raw milk collected from the Amol City by Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.

  5. Prevalence of virulence genes and cytolethal distending toxin production in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukder, Kaisar A.; Aslam, Mohammad; Islam, Zhahirul; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Dutta, Dilip K.; Hossain, Sabir; Nur-E-Kamal, Alam; Nair, Gopinath B.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Sack, David A.; Endtz, Hubert P.

    From 300 stool samples, 58 Campylobacter strains were isolated by standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Of these, 40 strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 5 as Campylobacter coli. The presence of flaA (100%), cadF (100%), racR (100%), dnaJ (100%), pldA (100%), ciaB (95%),

  6. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 o C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 o C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: → Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. → Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. → No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. → First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  7. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, Amol D. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India); Shashidhar, Ravindranath [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.in [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kapadnis, Balu P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 {sup o}C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D{sub 10} values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: > Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. > Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. > No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. > First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  8. Veiculação de Campylobacter spp. através de carne e miúdos de frangos comercializados no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil | Transmission of Campylobacter spp. through chicken meat and organs sold in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Martins Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O consumo da carne de frango é comum no Brasil por ser um alimento proteico de alto valor biológico e baixo custo, sendo acessível a toda população. Uma causa comum de infecções alimentares tem sido a ingestão de produtos avícolas contaminados, crus ou insuficientemente cozidos, fazendo da contaminação de cortes de frango fontes potenciais de Campylobacter spp. para o homem. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de Campylobacter e verificar a possível veiculação da campilobacteriose através de cortes e miúdos de frangos resfriados e comercializados para consumo em supermercados de grande porte no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para isso, foram coletadas 40 amostras resfriadas de frango, das quais 19 foram embaladas pela indústria e 21 manipuladas pelos supermercados, submetendo-as a três metodologias distintas denominadas: in natura, enriquecimento e incubação da água de lavagem. Os resultados obtidos revelaram a presença de espécies de Campylobacter zoonóticas resistentes a antimicrobianos em cortes de frango comercializados para consumo humano, indicando que pedaços e miúdos de frango crus ou insuficientemente cozidos são fontes potenciais de campilobacteriose para a população. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The consumption of chicken meat is common in Brazil because this protein-rich food is low cost, has high nutritional value, and is accessible to the entire population. A common cause of foodborne illness has been the ingestion of contaminated, raw, or undercooked poultry products, making contaminated chicken meat a potential source of Campylobacter spp. to humans. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of Campylobacter and assess the potential transmission of campylobacteriosis through refrigerated chicken meat and organs sold for consumption in large supermarkets in the state of Rio de Janeiro. For this purpose, 40 samples of

  9. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Sandberg, M; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Data from the Quality Assurance System in Danish Broiler Production (KIK system) were analyzed to identify within farm biosecurity- and management-related risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler flocks. In the study, data from 2,835 flocks originating from 187 farms in the time...... period of December 2009 to November 2010 were included. The PCR test results of fecal samples collected on socks revealed that 14% of the Danish broiler flocks were positive to Campylobacter during the study period. Of the positive flocks, 55% were positive during summer time and the positive flocks...... during summer time were related to areas where clustering of infected farms was identified in previous conducted studies. The median number of people working in or entering broiler houses was 2 (from 1 to 7). The median slaughter age of Danish broiler flocks was 35 d (from 31–61 d). A multivariable...

  10. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant...... Campylobacter spp. on Danish produced and imported chilled and frozen broiler meat were the basis for the investigation. The aim was to explore if the risk from the different meat categories had changed over time as a consequence of implemented intervention strategies. The results showed a slight decrease from...... 2005 to 2008 in the human risk from Danish produced broiler meat, and a decrease from 2005 to 2010 in the risk from imported chilled meat. This risk reduction coincides with control measures implemented to reduce Campylobacter in Danish and imported chilled broiler meat. The human risk...

  11. Survival and Virulence of Campylobacter spp. in the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan

    the epidemiology of recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases from vegetables. During transmission and infection, C. jejuni may encounter many different stresses but little is known about how this bacterium survives and interacts with the protozoa under these conditions. I have investigated the impacts......Campylobacter is the most common cause of food-borne illness in Europe, and this important zoonotic pathogen has been the focus of many research projects and scientific publications in recent years. However, we know less about the biology and pathogenicity of this pathogen than we know about many...... less prevalent pathogens. In this PhD project, I have investigated the survival and virulence of Campylobacter spp. in various matrices such as chicken faeces, swine manure and in co-culture with protozoa. In the first study, using bacterial culture and RT-qPCR methods, I found that viable C. jejuni...

  12. Comparison of the SimPlate™ Campylobacter CI-System with the cultural standard method for the detection of Campylobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Manopas, Aranya Sira Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of the SimPlate™ Campylobacter CI-System as a rapid test for Campylobacter spp. detection was investigated in comparison with the ISO-MPN-method as stipulated in ISO 10272:1995(E). 116 turkey and chicken meat samples were used for both, preliminary and main experiments. With the ISO-MPN-method system 24 out of 116 meat samples were identified as Campylobacter positive whereas SimPlate™ detected only 6 Campylobacterpositive samples, partly reasoned by the high detection limit o...

  13. Demonstration of Polysaccharide Capsule in Campylobacter jejuni Using Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; McCrossan, Maria V.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Campylobacter jejuni, an important gastrointestinal pathogen, has the genetic determinants to produce a capsular polysaccharide (Karlyshev et al., Mol. Microbiol. 35:529–541, 2000). Despite these data, the presence of a capsule in these bacteria has remained controversial. In this study we stain C. jejuni cells with the cationic dye Alcian blue and demonstrate for the first time by electron microscopy that C. jejuni cells produce a polysaccharide capsule that is ret...

  14. Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni contamination on chicken carcasses in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duqué, Benjamin; Daviaud, Samuel; Guillou, Sandrine; Haddad, Nabila; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Highly prevalent in poultry, Campylobacter is a foodborne pathogen which remains the primary cause of enteritis in humans. Several studies have determined prevalence and contamination level of this pathogen throughout the food chain. However it is generally performed in a deterministic way without considering heterogeneity of contamination level. The purpose of this study was to quantify, using probabilistic tools, the contamination level of Campylobacter spp. on chicken carcasses after air-chilling step in several slaughterhouses in France. From a dataset (530 data) containing censored data (concentration contamination level (3 log 10 or more), strengthening the probabilistic analysis and facilitating result interpretation. The sampling period and sampling area (neck/leg) had a significant effect on Campylobacter contamination level. More precisely, two "seasons" were distinguished: one from January to May, another one from June to December. During the June-to-December season, the mean Campylobacter concentration was estimated to 2.6 [2.4; 2.8] log 10 (CFU/g) and 1.8 [1.5; 2.0] log 10 (CFU/g) for neck and leg, respectively. The probability of having >1000CFU/g (higher limit of European microbial criterion) was estimated to 35.3% and 12.6%, for neck and leg, respectively. In contrast, during January-to-May season, the mean contamination level was estimated to 1.0 [0.6; 1.3] log 10 (CFU/g) and 0.6 [0.3; 0.9] log 10 (CFU/g) for neck and leg, respectively. The probability of having >1000CFU/g was estimated to 13.5% and 2.0% for neck and leg, respectively. An accurate quantification of contamination level enables industrials to better adapt their processing and hygiene practices. These results will also help in refining exposure assessment models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative Proteomics of Intracellular Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Metabolic Reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoyun; Gao, Beile; Novik, Veronica; Galán, Jorge E.

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food-borne illness in the United States and a major cause of diarrheal diseases in developing countries. This pathogen can invade intestinal epithelial cells, which is very important for its ability to cause disease. Once it gains access to epithelial cells, C. jejuni becomes unable to grow under standard growth conditions, although it can grow if pre-incubated under oxygen limiting conditions. This study compares the pro...

  16. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...... with a significant proportion of metronidazole-resistant isolates among C. jejuni from raw broiler and turkey meat. Metronidazole resistance occurred most frequently among turkey meat isolates (P resistance....

  18. Retrospective Study of Campylobacter Infection in a Zoological Collection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Taema, Maged M.; Bull, James C.; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Flach, Edmund J.; Boardman, Wayne S.; Routh, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in wild animal populations. However, zoological collections can provide valuable insights. Using records from the Zoological Society of London Whipsnade Zoo compiled between 1990 and 2003, the roles of a range of biotic and abiotic factors associated with the occurrence of campylobacteriosis were investigated. The occurrence of campylobacteriosis varied widely across host taxonomic orders. Furthermore, in mammals, a combination of c...

  19. Surveillance for action – managing foodborne Campylobacter in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Hathaway

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, information gathered by the human disease surveillance system has been used to inform its well-documented, science-based Food Safety Risk Management Framework and response to an increasing national public health problem–campylobacteriosis. This paper discusses the use of surveillance data in initial prioritization, goal setting, source attribution and monitoring and review for Campylobacter infection in New Zealand.

  20. [Campylobacter and campylobacteriosis: a view from South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Heriberto

    2011-03-01

    The thermotolerant species of Campylobacter have become very important in public health, especially as agents of infectious diarrhea in human beings. In this brief revision we present part of the available information generated in South America about epidemiological, clinical and bacteriological aspects of campylobacteriosis and we identify some differences between the observed and documented campylobacteriosis in South America compared to those described in industrialized countries.

  1. Raw milk - boiling protects against infection with Campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2016-01-01

    It is known that raw milk can contain microorganisms that are harmful to health. In light of the increasing number of machines where raw milk is sold via raw milk vending systems, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) has assessed the risk for food infections with the Campylobacter bacterium resulting from the milk dispensed from these raw milk vending machines. The assessment also addresses the question of whether the more frequent occurrence of outbreaks of illness due to Campylob...

  2. Campylobacter jejuni Bacteremia in a Patient With Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvarinejad, Mojtaba; Amin Shahidi, Maneli; Pouladfar, Gholam Reza; Dehyadegari, Mohammad Ali; Mardaneh, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacter jejuni is a slender, motile, non-spore-forming, helical-shaped, gram-negative bacterium. It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. The aim of this study was to present a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), who was infected with Campylobacter jejuni. Case Presentation We describe the medical records of a pediatric ALL patient with bacteremia caused by C. jejuni, who was diagnosed at Amir hospital, Shiraz, Iran. This 14-year-old male visited the emergency department of Amir hospital with night sweats, severe polar high-grade fever, reduced appetite, and nausea in August 2013. Given the suspected presence of an anaerobic or microaerophilic microorganism, aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures were performed using an automated blood cultivator, the BACTEC 9240 system. In order to characterize the isolate, diagnostic biochemical tests were used. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done with the disk diffusion method. The primary culture was found to be positive for Campylobacter, and the subculture of the solid plate yielded a confluent growth of colonies typical for Campylobacter, which was identified as C. jejuni by morphological and biochemical tests. The isolate was resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, piperacillin/tazobactam, nalidixic acid, aztreonam, cefuroxime, cefixime, ceftazidime, and tobramycin. Conclusions C. jejuni should be considered in the differential diagnosis as a potential cause of bacteremia in immunosuppressed patients. In cases where the BACTEC result is positive in aerobic conditions but the organism cannot be isolated, an anaerobic culture medium is suggested, especially in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27621914

  3. Methods to Study Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Shen, Zhangqi; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide and is increasingly resistant to clinically important antibiotics. Detection of antibiotic resistance in C. jejuni can be performed with both phenotypic and genotypic methods. In this chapter, we describe the most commonly used molecular biology methods for detection of resistance to clinically important antibiotics. These methods can be employed in both clinical and research settings to facilitate clinical therapy and to monitor the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant C. jejuni.

  4. Promising new vaccine candidates against Campylobacter in broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the European Union. Birds represent the main reservoir of the bacteria, and human campylobacteriosis mainly occurs after consuming and/or handling poultry meat. Reducing avian intestinal Campylobacter loads should impact the incidence of human diseases. At the primary production level, several measures have been identified to reach this goal, including vaccination of poultry. Despite many studies, however, no efficient vaccine is currently available. We have recently identified new vaccine candidates using the reverse vaccinology strategy. This study assessed the in vivo immune and protective potential of six newly-identified vaccine antigens. Among the candidates tested on Ross broiler chickens, four (YP_001000437.1, YP_001000562.1, YP_999817.1, and YP_999838.1 significantly reduced cecal Campylobacter loads by between 2 and 4.2 log10 CFU/g, with the concomitant development of a specific humoral immune response. In a second trial, cecal load reductions results were not statistically confirmed despite the induction of a strong immune response. These vaccine candidates need to be further investigated since they present promising features.

  5. Campylobacter bacteraemia: 16 years of experience in a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Khetam; Raz-Pasteur, Ayelet; Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Geffen, Yuval; Oren, Ilana; Paul, Mical; Kassis, Imad

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteraemia (CB) is rare and usually occurs in immune-compromised patients. In this study we examined the incidence and epidemiology of CB in one institution over 15.5 years. The medical records of all the consecutive patients with CB admitted to our hospital from 2000 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical characteristics, microbiologic and outcome data were collected. During the study period, 65 patients with CB were identified. The majority of the patients were middle aged and immune-compromised. Campylobacter jejuni was the most commonly identified species (33/47, 70%). The main underlying conditions were haematological malignancies (43%) and chronic liver disease (14%). Fifty-seven percent of the patients were receiving immunosuppressive therapy at the time of bacteraemia. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (85%), diarrhoea (40%), abdominal pain (40%), and nausea and vomiting (40%). Of the isolates tested, 97% were susceptible to macrolides, and only 35% were susceptible to quinolones. Susceptibility to quinolones decreased over the years. Most patients did not receive adequate empiric antibiotic treatment (81.5%) and about 20% never received directed therapy. Mortality and relapse rates were low (5% each). There was no association between adequate empirical or definitive antibiotic therapy and adverse outcomes. The main predisposing factor for Campylobacter bacteraemia in our cohort was immunosuppression. Prognosis was generally favourable regardless of appropriateness of antibiotic therapy.

  6. Promising new vaccine candidates against Campylobacter in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Vigouroux, Estelle; Poezevara, Typhaine; Beven, Véronique; Quesne, S.; Bigault, Lionel; Amelot, Michel; Dory, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the European Union. Birds represent the main reservoir of the bacteria, and human campylobacteriosis mainly occurs after consuming and/or handling poultry meat. Reducing avian intestinal Campylobacter loads should impact the incidence of human diseases. At the primary production level, several measures have been identified to reach this goal, including vaccination of poultry. Despite many studies, however, no efficient vaccine is currently available. We have recently identified new vaccine candidates using the reverse vaccinology strategy. This study assessed the in vivo immune and protective potential of six newly-identified vaccine antigens. Among the candidates tested on Ross broiler chickens, four (YP_001000437.1, YP_001000562.1, YP_999817.1, and YP_999838.1) significantly reduced cecal Campylobacter loads by between 2 and 4.2 log10 CFU/g, with the concomitant development of a specific humoral immune response. In a second trial, cecal load reductions results were not statistically confirmed despite the induction of a strong immune response. These vaccine candidates need to be further investigated since they present promising features. PMID:29176789

  7. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria’s main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens.

  8. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Connerton, Ian F

    2014-03-26

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle (CSLC), where bacteria and bacteriophages remain associated in equilibrium. Significant phenotypic changes include improved aerotolerance under nutrient-limited conditions that would confer an advantage to survive in extra-intestinal environments, but a lack in motility eliminated their ability to colonize chickens. Under these circumstances, phages can remain associated with a compatible host and continue to produce free virions to prospect for new hosts. Moreover, we demonstrate that CSLC host bacteria can act as expendable vehicles for the delivery of bacteriophages to new host bacteria within pre-colonized chickens. The CSLC represents an important phase in the ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophage.

  9. Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Kiil, Kristoffer; Harder, Christoffer Bugge

    2017-01-01

    of the challenges in diagnostic metagenomics are, that it requires a great next-generation sequencing depth and unautomated data analysis. DNA from human fecal samples spiked with 7.75 × 101-7.75 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml Campylobacter jejuni and chicken fecal samples spiked with 1 × 102-1 × 106 CFU....../g Campylobacter jejuni was sequenced and data analysis was done by the metagenomic tools Kraken and CLARK. More hits were obtained at higher spiking levels, however with no significant linear correlations (human samples p = 0.12, chicken samples p = 0.10). Therefore, no definite detection limit could...... be determined, but the lowest spiking levels found positive were 7.75 × 104 CFU/ml in human feces and 103 CFU/g in chicken feces. Eight human clinical fecal samples with estimated Campylobacter infection loads from 9.2 × 104-1.0 × 109 CFU/ml were analyzed using the same methods. It was possible to detect...

  10. Sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni using nanoparticles enhanced QCM sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdor, Noor Azlina; Altintas, Zeynep; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2016-04-15

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor platform was used to develop an immunosensor for the detection of food pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies and commercially available mouse monoclonal antibodies against C. jejuni were investigated to construct direct, sandwich and gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) amplified sandwich assays. The performance of the QCM immunosensor developed using sandwich assay by utilising the rabbit polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and conjugated to AuNPs as the detection antibody gave the highest sensitivity. This sensor achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 150 colony forming unit (CFU)mL(-1) of C. jejuni in solution. The QCM sensor showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for Campylobacter detection with low cross reactivity for other foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, (7%) Listeria monocytogenes (3%) and Escherichia coli (0%). The development of this biosensor would help in the sensitive detection of Campylobacter which can result in reducing pre-enrichment steps; hence, reducing assay time. This work demonstrates the potential of this technology for the development of a rapid and sensitive detection method for C. jejuni. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalenza di Campylobacter termotolleranti nel pollo da ingrasso in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italia, nel periodo 5 febbraio-15 dicembre 2008, in applicazione della Decisione 516/2007/CE, sono state eseguite le attività di campionamento e analisi previste dal relativo Piano di sorveglianza. Tra gli obiettivi, la rilevazione dell’entità di contaminazione da Campylobacter termotolleranti nel pollo da ingrasso allevato in Italia. Sono stati selezionati 48 mattatoi avicoli, distribuiti in undici regioni italiane, in cui sono stati prelevati intestini ciechi e carcasse di pollo da ingrasso appartenenti a 393 lotti di macellazione. In 284 lotti (72,3% è stato isolato Campylobacter spp.: il 52,1% è risultato contaminato da C. jejuni, il 55,6% da C. coli e l’1,1% da C. lari. Nel 13,0% di quelli positivi (37 lotti sono stati rilevati contemporaneamente C. jejuni e C. coli. Dall’esame degli intestini ciechi, Campylobacter spp. è risultato presente in 251 lotti di macellazione (63,9%, in particolare, C. jejuni nel 48,2%, C. coli nel 50,6% e C. lari nell’1,2%. Le carcasse appartenenti a 182 lotti (46,3% sono risultate contaminate da C. jejuni nel 40,7% e C. coli nel 57,7% dei lotti positivi, C. lari non è stato isolato. I livelli di contaminazione riscontrati nelle carcasse sono risultati compresi tra 10 e 1,6 × 107 UFC/g.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni infection in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, A Singh; Shivaprasad, H L; Schaberg, D; Wier, F; Weber, S; Bandli, D

    2006-03-01

    Day-old, straight-run broiler chickens were procured from a hatchery located in the Pacific Northwest. The chickens were subdivided individually into nine groups of 20 chickens. The chickens were tagged, housed in isolation chambers on wire, fed commercial broiler feed, and given water ad libitum. Three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni of poultry origin and one of human origin were tested in this study. Various C. jejuni cultures were inoculated into 9-day-old chickens by crop gavage. Four groups of 20 chickens were inoculated at a dose level of 0.5 ml of 1 x 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The other four groups were inoculated with 0.5 ml of 1 X 10(4) CFU/ml. One group of 20 chickens was kept as an uninoculated control group. Four randomly selected chickens from each of the inoculated and uninoculated groups were necropsied at 5, 12, and 19 days postinoculation (DPI). The C. jejuni was cultured and enumerated from a composite of the upper and midintestine and the cecum. Body weights of all chicken groups at 7 days of age and at 5, 12, and 19 DPI were measured and statistically analyzed. No significant differences were present in the mean body weights (MBWs) of 7-day-old, 5 DPI, and 12 DPI male and female broiler chickens inoculated with C. jejuni at both dose levels compared with uninoculated controls. Differences in MBWs of the male and female broilers at 19 DPI were observed in some of the groups. Results of the C. jejuni culture enumeration mean (CEM) of composite intestine samples at 5 DPI from all inoculated chicken groups, irrespective of the dose level, ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(2) to (2.8 +/- 4.8) x 10(5) CFU/g (mean +/- SD). Results of cecum C. jejuni CEM at 5 DPI inoculated at both dose levels ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(6) to (1 +/- 0.0) x 10(7) CFU/g in all treatment groups irrespective of the dose level. CEM results from the composite intestine samples at 12 and 19 DPI increased by 1 log unit, or sometimes more. Results of cecum C. jejuni

  13. A case of defibrillator-associated infective endocarditis due to Campylobacter fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sękowska, A; Fabiszak, T; Mikucka, A; Andrzejewska, M; Kruszyńska, E; Gospodarek, E; Klawe, J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. are Gram-negative, spiral motile bacteria. Infections caused by Campylobacter fetus are frequently of invasive character, but they are very rare. The described case of infection of a cardioverter defibrillator implantation site was effectively cured with antibiotics, but it required removal of the cardioverter defibrillator.

  14. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  15. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Campylobacter species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dabiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and beef meat, and determine the drug susceptibility of strains, 450 samples in Tehran, Iran were investigated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of entropathogenic Campylobacter strains ,especially C. jejuni isolated from raw chicken and beef meat in Tehran- Iran. Materials and Methods: Out of 250 chickens and 200 beef meats, 121(26.8 % contaminated cases with Campylobacter strains were isolated. Campylobacter was isolated from a significantly larger number of chickens (44% than beef meats (5.5 % (P < 0.05. Results: From all isolated Campylobacter organisms, 93 (76.8% species were identified as C. jejuni and 28 cases (23.1% as C. coli. Susceptibilities of 121 strains (93 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli were determined against 12 antimicrobial drugs using the disk agar diffusion method. Resistance to nalidixic acid (75% and ciprofloxacin (50% was an alarming finding, moreover, 32.6% of isolates was resistant to tetracycline, 10.8% to ampicillin, 29.3% to colisitin and 26.1% to amoxicillin. The highest sensitivity was seen to erythromycin (95 % and gentamicin (96%. Conclusions: These results showed that a high proportion of chicken and beef meat in Iran is contaminated with Campylobacter, particularly with Campylobacter jejuni. The high rate of contamination, especially chicken is a significant public health concern. Most of the isolates were resistant; therefore, human infection with Campylobacter spp. via consumption of these products is possible.

  16. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved.

  17. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in human population in all parts of the world. In most of the cases infection with Campylobacter spp. in humans originate from contaminated poultry meat and poultry meat products. This study was designed to estimate prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia. During the period of 8 months (January-August 2008 we tested 56 samples of meat and meat products (poultry meat, MDM, pork meat, beef meat and smoked beef. Samples were submitted to analysis for detection of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. according to ISO 10272:1995. We determined among the analyzed samples highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in MDM with 84% positive samples, poultry meat with 81,8%, pork meat with 10%. We didn.t detect any positive samples in beef meat and smoked beef. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in all tested samples was 55,36%. This study shows that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in tested samples and in correlation with severe symptoms in humans are reasons good enough for the producing and processing poultry meat industry and food business operators so they should take in consideration Campylobacter spp. in their risk assessment and preparation of HACCP plan.

  18. Improved toluidine blue-DNA agar for detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters.

    OpenAIRE

    Lior, H; Patel, A

    1987-01-01

    Our improved toluidine blue-DNA agar was compared with methyl green DNase test agar for the detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters. The toluidine blue-DNA agar gave clear-cut positive and negative reactions with campylobacter strains belonging to several species.

  19. 75 FR 27288 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments... micro-organisms Salmonella and Campylobacter for use in young chicken and turkey slaughter... Collection Programs: The Young Chicken Survey and the Young Turkey Survey. The Agency invites comments on the...

  20. Beta-resorcylic acid, a phytophenolic compound, reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading foodborne illness globally, has been linked with the high prevalence of this bacterium on raw retail chicken products. Reduction of Campylobacter counts on poultry products would greatly reduce the risk of subsequent infections in humans. To this end, this s...

  1. Passage of Campylobacter subtypes through 0.45 and 0.65 µm filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A 0.45 or 0.65 µm filter can be used as a means to separate Campylobacter from complex samples allowing detection on solid plating media. It is unclear what percentage of cells in a Campylobacter suspension pass through a filter and result in visible colonies. Purpose The objective o...

  2. Complete genome sequence of the hippuricase-positive Campylobacter avium type strain LMG 24591

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter avium is a hippurate-positive, thermotolerant campylobacter that has been isolated from poultry. Here we present the genome sequences of two C. avium strains isolated from broiler chickens: strains LMG 24591T (complete genome) and LMG 24592 (draft genome). The C. avium type strain geno...

  3. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royden, A.; Wedley, A.; Merga, J. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran...

  4. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  5. Identification, Purification and Characterization of Major Antigenic Proteins of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    ptrepairaitiiin was dtttrdhhiiit 2i8)fu5mt.itltlt’tiltt’dIitwtt lI opiltliIized atid reco nst itutited with Itdist ilIledI water andtc desalt ec usinrg...proteins within the membrane intestinal Campylobacters. through electrostatic interaction with negatively charged li- Campylobacter are microaerophilic

  6. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Fels, van der H.J.; Thissen, J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages

  7. Establishing a campylobacter-free pig population through a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    Fattening pigs are often infected with campylobacter. To eliminate campylobacter from the pig population, a top-down approach, involving the breeding and reproduction farms, seems appropriate. In order to investigate the effectiveness of a top-down approach, sows' faeces from the following farms

  8. Real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp.: A comparison toclassic culturing and enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Rahaoui, H.; Leer, R.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    The major disadvantage of the current gold standard for detection of the food pathogen Campylobacter, i.e. culturing, is the lengthy procedure. In this study we assessed the use of real-time PCR for detection of Campylobacter. To this end, 926 poultry samples, taken from transport containers and

  9. Prevalence and types of Campylobacter on poultry farms and in their direct environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets, Franciska M; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F; van der Plaats, Rozemarijn Q J; Heer, Lianne Kerkhof-De; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaak, Hetty

    2017-01-01

    To study whether broiler and layer farms contribute to the environmental Campylobacter load, environmental matrices at or close to farms, and caecal material from chickens, were examined. Similarity between Campylobacter from poultry and environment was tested based on species identification and

  10. Risk factors associated with Campylobacter jejuni infections in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Endtz (Hubert); L. de Haan (Lidewij); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); Y. Halabi; N.P.W.C.J. van den Braak (Nicole); B.I. Kesztyus; C.W. Ang (Wim); I. Gerstenbluth; E. Leyde; A. Ott (Alewijn); F.G. Rodgers; R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); D.L. Woodward; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); L.J. Price; H. West; P.C.R. Godschalk (Peggy)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA steady increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) with a seasonal preponderance, almost exclusively related to Campylobacter jejuni, and a rise in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter enteritis have been reported from Curacao,

  11. Detection of Resistance to Macrolides in Thermotolerant Campylobacter Species by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization▿

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Michaela; Essig, Andreas; Bartelt, Edda; Poppert, Sven

    2008-01-01

    The resistance of enteritis-causing Campylobacter strains to erythromycin is an emerging problem. We therefore evaluated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the rapid detection of resistance using 74 campylobacter isolates. FISH showed specificity and sensitivity of 100% for the detection of high-level resistance.

  12. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Food Samples and Patients with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Bita; Naseri, Amin; Alebouyeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter infections may lead to serious conditions, including septicemia or other invasive forms of the disease, which require rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis and subsequently appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from patients and food samples. Biochemical identification was performed on 15 clinical and 30 food isolates of Campylobacter recovered onto Brucella agar containing 5% sheep blood. PCR was carried out to confirm the identity of Campylobacter spp. using primers for cadF, hipO, and asp genes of Campylobacter. To determine antibiotic sensitivity of isolates, Kirby-Bauer assay was carried out using 16 different antibiotic discs. PCR assay and biochemical tests confirmed all 45 isolates as Campylobacter: 20 (44.44%) as C. jujeni, 10 (22.22%) as C. coli, and 15 (33.34%) as other Campylobacter strains. The maximum resistance was observed to cefotaxime and imipenem (each 86.49%) and the maximum sensitivity to erythromycin (48.65%). C. jujeni is dominant among isolates from clinical and food samples. In addition, tetracycline remains the first-line therapeutic agent against Campylobacter infections in Iran.

  13. Clinical relevance of infections with zoonotic and human oral species of Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Choi, Yukyung; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Genus Campylobacter has been recognized as a causative bacterial agent of animal and human diseases. Human Campylobacter infections have caused more concern. Campylobacters can be classified into two groups in terms of their original host: zoonotic and human oral species. The major zoonotic species are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, which mostly reside in the intestines of avian species and are transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated poultry products, thus causing human gastroenteritis and other diseases as sequelae. The other campylobacters, human oral species, include C. concisus, C. showae, C. gracilis, C. ureolyticus, C. curvus, and C. rectus. These species are isolated from the oral cavity, natural colonization site, but have potential clinical relevance in the periodontal region to varying extent. Two species, C. jejuni and C. coli, are believed to be mainly associated with intestinal diseases, but recent studies suggested that oral Campylobacter species also play a significant role in intestinal diseases. This review offers an outline of the two Campylobacter groups (zoonotic and human oral), their virulence traits, and the associated illnesses including gastroenteritis.

  14. Current and Potential Treatments for Reducing Campylobacter Colonization in Animal Hosts and Disease in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J.; Shank, Janette M.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance, emergence of post-infectious diseases, and economic burden associated with Campylobacter increases, it is becoming urgent that novel treatments are developed to reduce Campylobacter numbers in commercial poultry and campylobacteriosis in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide the current status of present and proposed treatments to combat Campylobacter infection in humans and colonization in animal reservoirs. These treatments include anti-Campylobacter compounds, probiotics, bacteriophage, vaccines, and anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins, all of which may be successful at reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans and/or colonization loads in poultry. In addition to reviewing treatments, we will also address several proposed targets that may be used in future development of novel anti-Campylobacter treatments. PMID:28386253

  15. The efficacy of the natural plant extracts, thymol and carvacrol against campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the world and consumption of poultry products are a major cause of human infections. The ability to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter colonization in chickens would greatly reduce the risk of human campylobacteriosis. Unfortunately, ...

  16. Campylobacter multi-locus sequence typing subtypes detected on chicken livers available at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been traced to undercooked chicken liver. It is not known what prevalence of Campylobacter to expect on fresh chicken livers available at retail. The objectives of this study were to measure prevalence of Campylobacter associated with chicken livers at retail and d...

  17. Seasonal influence on the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in retail broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Vigre, Håkan; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark, the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, as well as the Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, is strongly influenced by season with a summer peak in July–August. Therefore, it was considered that the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler meat sold at retail in Denmark...

  18. Expanded MLST genotyping and comparative genomic hybridization evidence for host preferred groups in Campylobacter coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of previous work on campylobacteriosis has centered on the species Campylobacter jejuni, however, Campylobacter coli, the sister group to C. jejuni, is also a significant problem, but remains a much less studied organism. The purpose of this work was to develop and apply an expanded 16 ...

  19. Contamination of poultry environment with campylobacter Spp. and significance for colonisation of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lydekaitiene, Viktorija Legaudaite; Malakauskas, Mindangas; Kudirkiene, Egle

    2016-01-01

    polymorphism analysis of PCR amplified portion of the flagellin-A (flaA) gene. The results revealed that 28.5% out of 752 samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The flaA-RFLP analysis of 263 C. jejuni isolates revealed 21 different flaA genotypes. Each broiler flock had specific Campylobacter...

  20. TIME OF ENTRY OF SALMONELLA AND CAMPYLOBACTER INTO THE TURKEY BROODER HOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier we reported the prevalence of Campylobacter (> 90%) and Salmonella (33%) in turkeys at slaughter. Herein we describe studies to estimate the time of entry of Campylobacter and Salmonella into the brooder house, which is the first stage of commercial turkey production. In Trial 1, birds (10...

  1. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  2. Rapid and sensitive detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken products by using the polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Quint, W G; Henkens, M H; Stegeman, H; Huf, F A; Niesters, H G

    1992-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after a short enrichment culture was used to detect Campylobacter spp. in chicken products. After the 16S rRNA gene sequence of Campylobacter jejuni was determined and compared with known sequences from other enterobacteria, a primer and probe combination was

  3. Detection of Campylobacter in human and animal field samples in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbjer, Kristina; Tano, Eva; Chhayheng, Leang; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa Olivia; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Ellström, Patrik; Sokerya, Seng; Sokheng, Choup; Mom, Veng; Chheng, Kannarath; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Boqvist, Sofia; Rautelin, Hilpi; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic bacteria and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli being the most commonly detected species. The aim of this study was to detect Campylobacter in humans and livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle, water buffalo, quail, pigeons and geese) in rural households by routine culturing and multiplex PCR in faecal samples frozen before analysis. Of 681 human samples, 82 (12%) tested positive by PCR (C. jejuni in 66 samples and C. coli in 16), but none by routine culture. Children were more commonly Campylobacter positive (19%) than adult males (8%) and females (7%). Of 853 livestock samples, 106 (12%) tested positive by routine culture and 352 (41%) by PCR. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequent in chickens and ducks and C. coli in pigs. In conclusion, Campylobacter proved to be highly prevalent by PCR in children (19%), ducks (24%), chickens (56%) and pigs (72%). Routine culturing was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. These findings suggest that PCR should be the preferred diagnostic method for detection of Campylobacter in humans and livestock where timely culture is not feasible. © 2016 The Authors. APMIS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Societies for Medical Microbiology and Pathology.

  4. Contact with poultry and animals increases risk of Campylobacter infections in adults of Ardabil province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ranjbar

    2017-04-01

    Detection of Campylobacter infections by PCR was more sensitive in adults. Investigation of Campylobacter prevalence in Ardabil showed this bacterium should be viewed as one of the possible pathogens in inflammatory diarrheal cases. People having habitual contact with animals should check the health of the animals regularly and not consume food from suspected sources.

  5. Detection of airborne Campylobacter with three bioaerosol samplers for alarming bacteria transmission in broilers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Katsma, W.E.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In an airborne transmission experiment, Campylobacter in the air was sampled by three types of bioaerosol samplers (all-glass impinger AGI-30, Andersen six-stage impactor, and OMNI-3000) in four broiler rooms. In each room, five 14-day- old broilers inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni were kept in

  6. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Lizard Faeces from Central Australia Using Quantitative PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Whiley, Harriet; McLean, Ryan; Ross, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, Campylobacter is a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness. It is predominately considered a foodborne pathogen, with human exposure via non-food transmission routes generally overlooked. Current literature has been exploring environmental reservoirs of campylobacteriosis including potential wildlife reservoirs. Given the close proximity between lizards and human habitats in Central Australia, this study examined the presence of Campylobacter jejuni from lizard faeces collect...

  7. Prevalence of Campylobacter-associated diarrhea among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, F.; Kuijper, E. J.; de Wever, B.; van der Hoek, L.; Danner, S. A.; Dankert, J.

    1997-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study at an outpatient AIDS clinic to assess the prevalence of Campylobacter species in stool specimens from 201 consecutive patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We characterized campylobacters phenotypically and genetically by using primers for

  8. An investigation of sources of Campylobacter in a poultry production and packing operation in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Suzanne N; Mathison, George E; Lavoie, Marc C

    2008-01-15

    Chicken meat is frequently contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and is thought to be the major source of organisms causing human Campylobacter enteritis. Genotypic similarities between Campylobacter isolates from chicken meat at retail outlets and patients with gastroenteritis in Barbados suggested that it is a vehicle for infection of humans on the island and prompted this investigation of transmission of Campylobacter in a local poultry operation. Campylobacter testing was conducted at the hatchery, on the broiler farm and in the processing plant for two consecutive production cycles. The genetic relatedness of Campylobacter isolates was determined by RAPD typing with primer OPA 11. Hatchery samples and week-old chicks were negative for Campylobacter. Flocks became colonized as early as three weeks after introduction to the farm. Ten distinct RAPD genotypes were identified among isolates. Some genotypes were similar and may be of clonal origin. There was no evidence of vertical transmission of Campylobacter. The results suggest that the broiler flock was infected from more than one source in the farm environment.

  9. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari in Fresh Chicken Meat and By-Products in Bangkok, Thailand, Using Modified Multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyudthong, S; Phusri, K; Buates, S

    2015-07-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari was developed and validated to assess the occurrence of these bacteria in fresh chicken meat and by-products in Bangkok, Thailand, by using a new combination of four previously published PCR primers for C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and a universal 16S rDNA gene as an internal control. The specificity was determined by using 13 strains of other bacteria. With pure culture DNA, the detection limit was 0.017 ng/PCR for C. jejuni and C. coli and was 0.016 ng/PCR for C. lari. It can detect 10 CFU of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in 2 g of chicken meat within a 16-h enrichment time. Our multiplex PCR assay was applied for identification of Campylobacter spp. in 122 supermarket samples and 108 fresh market samples. Of the 230 samples evaluated by multiplex PCR, 54.0, 3.3, and 10.7% of supermarket samples were positive for C. jejuni, C. coli, and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, and 56.5 and 33.3% of fresh market samples were positive for C. jejuni and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. No sample was positive for C. lari. Fresh market samples had significantly higher C. jejuni and C. coli contamination than those from supermarkets (relative risk: 1.3; P = 0.0001). Compared with the culture method (a gold standard), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of multiplex PCR were 97.7, 86.8, 96.1, 92.0, and 95.2%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between results from two methods (P = 0.55). Therefore, the established multiplex PCR was not only rapid and easy to perform but had a high sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, even in samples containing mixed contamination. Our study indicated that fresh chicken meat and by-products from fresh markets were significantly less hygienic than those

  10. [Enumeration and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species from retail chicken carcasses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Bai, Yao; Xu, Xiao; Cui, Shenghui

    2014-10-01

    To determine Campylobacter contamination level and antimicrobial resistance patterns from chicken carcasses in supermarkets and farmer's markets of 9 districts in Beijing. From August 2012 to July 2013, whole chicken carcasses (n = 240) were collected from 27 supermarkets and 18 farmer's markets of nine districts in Beijing. The level of Campylobacter contamination was enumerated by plate counting method using the modified Karmali and modified Preston agar. Presumptive Campylobacter isolates were identified and characterized by gram stain, agglumination test and a multiplex PCR method. The level of Campylobacter contamination was calculated following the USDA/FSIS Campylobacter enumeration method. Selected 151 Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by minimal inhibitory concentrations(MICs) of eight antimicrobials. A total of 26.3% (63/240) of the retail whole chicken carcasses were contaminated by Campylobacter and 151 Campylobacter isolates were recovered, including 85 Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 66 Campylobacter coli isolates. The P25, P50, P75 of Campylobacter contamination concentration were 7.5, 45.0 and 350.0 CFU/g, respectively. The antimicrobial resistance rate of C. jejuni and C. coli were as the following: azithromycin(AZI, 13% (11/85), 82% (54/85)), chloramphenicol (CHL, 33% (28/85), 42% (28/85)), ciprofloxacin (CIP, 95% (81/85), 100% (85/85)), doxycycline (DOX, 38% (32/85), 80% (53/85)), erythromycin (ERY, 12% (10/85), 82% (54/85)), gentamicin (GEN, 25% (21/85), 68% (45/85)), tetracycline (TET, 67% (57/85), 73% (62/85)), all isolates were susceptible to meropenem (MEP). The multi-drug resistance ratio of C. jejuni (55% (47/85) )was significantly lower than that (86% (57/66) )of C. coli (χ(2) = 16.70, P Campylobacter isolates, 21 antimicrobial resistance patterns were identified, including 20 patterns among C. jejuni isolates and 10 patterns among C.coli isolates. Among C.jejuni isolates, CIP-DOX-TET was dominant (22% (19

  11. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in Ecuadorian broilers at slaughter age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinueza-Burgos, Christian; Wautier, Magali; Martiny, Delphine; Cisneros, Marco; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are a major cause of foodborne gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The linkage of human campylobacteriosis and poultry has been widely described. In this study we aimed to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of C. coli and C. jejuni in broilers from Ecuador. Caecal content from 379 randomly selected broiler batches originating from 115 farms were collected from 6 slaughterhouses located in the province of Pichincha during 1 year. Microbiological isolation was performed by direct plating on mCCDA agar. Identification of Campylobacter species was done by PCR. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, streptomycin, and erythromycin were obtained. Genetic variation was assessed by RFLP-flaA typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of selected isolates. Prevalence at batch level was 64.1%. Of the positive batches 68.7% were positive for C. coli, 18.9% for C. jejuni, and 12.4% for C. coli and C. jejuni. Resistance rates above 67% were shown for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid. The resistance pattern tetracycline, ciprofloxin, and nalidixic acid was the dominant one in both Campylobacter species. RFLP-flaA typing analysis showed that C. coli and C. jejuni strains belonged to 38 and 26 profiles respectively. On the other hand MLST typing revealed that C. coli except one strain belonged to CC-828, while C. jejuni except 2 strains belonged to 12 assigned clonal complexes (CCs). Furthermore 4 new sequence types (STs) for both species were described, whereby 2 new STs for C. coli were based on new allele sequences. Further research is necessary to estimate the impact of the slaughter of Campylobacter positive broiler batches on the contamination level of carcasses in slaughterhouses and at retail in Ecuador. PMID:28339716

  12. Prevalence of Campylobacter Jejuni and Coli in Sheep Carcasses by Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahrokhabadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens causing gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 randomly sheep carcasses were sampled by surface section of neck meat taken immediately after slaughter analyzed using microbiological examinations. Results: Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 10.13% meat cultures samples examined. Among these 80% sample were C. jejuni and 20% sample were C. coli. Using PCR assays, the number of positive campylobacters increased to 11.48%. Of these positive samples, 82.35% were C. jejuni and 17.65% were C. coli. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p<0.05 were found in the meat samples taken in summer (47.05%. Conclusion: The PCR is a reliable and sensitive method which can be used as a diagnostic technique for the detection of campylobacter in lamb samples.

  13. Biotyping of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry in and around Anand city, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Tayde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of different biotypes of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the study area. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples comprising 90 chicken and 60 caecal content were collected from retail meat market and processed for isolation of Campylobacter spp. 52 Campylobacter isolates obtained from raw poultry meat (6 and caecal content (46 were subjected to biotyping using Lior's biotyping scheme. Results: Among the 52 Campylobacter isolates studied, 60.46 % isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni Biotype I and 39.53% were C. jejuni Biotype II, whereas 83.33 % were C. coli Biotype I and 16.66 % C. coli Biotype II. No other biotypes were identified. Conclusions: The present study revealed that C. jejuni Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II whereas in case of C. coli, Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II providing basis for further epidemiological study.

  14. Poultry meat – as a source of Campylobacter spp., infection in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Drinceanu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Current studies indicate that Campylobacter spp. is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in humans in both developed countries and worldwide. This explains the ever-increasing interest of the researchers in the eradication of digestive disorders caused by Campylobacter spp. and also to identify the risk factors involved in prevention of human infections. Because birds are considered a major source of Campylobacter jejuni contamination in humans the purpose of this paper is to summarize the literature in regards to the incidence of campylobacter related infections in humans, identify the risk factors but mostly to describe the implications of poultry meat contamination during preparation for the consumer. Herein we refer to the applicable strategies in poultry farms as the introduction of competition between microbial populations in the gut, the use of new management practices in raising chickens and better hygiene to reduce the rate of gastrointestinal colonization with Campylobacter spp. in broilers and hens.

  15. Estimate of the number of Campylobacter infections in the Hunter region, NSW, 2004-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Witteveen, April R; Durrheim, David N; Merritt, Tony D; Munnoch, Sally A

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is not notifiable in NSW and the number of cases of Campylobacter disease is thus not well described. De-identified campylobacteriosis records for 2004-2007 were requested from laboratories in the Hunter region of NSW. Based on notifying laboratory, a Salmonella notification weighting was applied to laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis cases to provide an overall estimate of Campylobacter disease in the area. The estimated median of the annual number of laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis cases was 788 (range 700-1022). The ratio of estimated Campylobacter cases to Salmonella notifications was 5.5 : 1. Campylobacter infection causes considerable disease in the Hunter, and likely in NSW. Regular review of Campylobacter laboratory results may be valuable.

  16. Reductive Effect of Fly Screens on the Campylobacter Prevalence of Broiler Flocks in Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, B.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, H. S.

    Flies act as vectors in the introduction of Campylobacter from the environment to broiler flocks. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effect of fly screens on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. Cases were 52 broiler flocks reared in 20 houses on 11 farms between June...... and November 2006, where houses were equipped with fly screens made of glass fibre mesh. The controls consisted of 70 broiler flocks reared in 25 matched houses on 13 farms without screens. Other bio-security and management routines were strictly as before the study. All broiler houses were ventilated through...... wall inlets and roof outlets. The broiler flocks were sampled at days 21, 28, and 35 and at slaughter (on day 35 to 42). Samples were tested for Campylobacter by PCR. Campylobacter prevalence data were analyzed using SAS (SAS Institute). In fly screened houses, the Campylobacter prevalence was 15.4% (8...

  17. Analysis of factors important for the occurrence of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Heuer, Ole Eske; Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel

    2013-01-01

    of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. The study was based on a large data set consisting of Campylobacter positive status for nearly 6000 broiler flocks and 43 explanatory variables. Data were obtained from the Danish Campylobacter surveillance programme in poultry and from the responses to a standardized...... of positive flocks/total number of flocks delivered over the 2-year period).The following factors were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of Campylobacter in the broiler flocks: old broiler houses, late introduction of whole wheat in the feed, relatively high broiler age at slaughter....... The results concerning chimneys may be explained by the easier access that flies have to the broiler houses, which seems in agreement with recent Danish studies on the significance of fly-screens to reduce Campylobacter in broiler flocks. The results of this study may be used in identification of effective...

  18. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based colony blot immunoassay for detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Phipps-Todd, Beverley; McMahon, Tanis; Elmgren, Catherine L; Lutze-Wallace, Cheryl; Todd, Zoe A; Garcia, Manuel M

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., such as C. jejuni, are major human foodborne pathogens. Culture methods have been routinely used for the detection of this organism in various types of samples. An alternative, simple and rapid confirmation test(s) without further tedious biochemical tests would be useful. Meanwhile, Campylobacter-like colonies can be difficult to identify on agar plates overgrown with competitive bacteria, which can lead to false-negative results. This study was to develop a simple colony blot immunoassay using a new monoclonal antibody (Mab) produced in the present study for rapid screening, confirmation and quantification of campylobacters on culture agar plates. The procedure developed in this study was able to specifically detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., but not other non-thermotolerant Campylobacter and non-Campylobacter reference strains tested. This assay could detect 10 5 cells in a single dot. This assay showed 100% correlation with the culture method for the blotted membranes from 21 either chicken meat or vegetable samples experimentally inoculated with thermotolerant campylobacters. Among 101 natural samples of chicken meat (n=44), chicken feces (n=20) and vegetables (n=37), this assay also showed positive for 23 chicken meat and 14 fecal samples that were positive for thermotolerant campylobacters by culture method, and identified four additional suspects that were culture negative. Membranes stored at 4°C for at least 4years could also be used for this assay. The assay developed in this study can be used in quantitative study for immediate or archival usage, and for diagnostic test to preliminarily confirm the presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter on agar plates. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A fluoroquinolone resistance associated mutation in gyrA affects DNA supercoiling in Campylobacter jejuni

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    Jing eHan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ-resistant Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of FQ-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand the impact of FQ resistance on the fitness of Campylobacter in its natural hosts as understanding fitness will help to determine and predict the persistence of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. Previously it was shown that acquisition of resistance to FQ antimicrobials enhanced the in vivo fitness of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. In this study, we confirmed the role of the Thr-86-Ile mutation in GyrA in modulating Campylobacter fitness by reverting the mutation to the wild-type allele, which resulted in the loss of the fitness advantage. Additionally, we determined if the resistance-conferring GyrA mutations alter the enzymatic function of the DNA gyrase. Recombinant wild-type gyrase and mutant gyrases with three different types of mutations (Thr-86-Ile, Thr-86-Lys, and Asp-90-Asn, which are associated with FQ resistance in Campylobacter, were generated in E. coli and compared for their supercoiling activities using an in vitro assay. The mutant gyrase with the Thr-86-Ile change showed a greatly reduced supercoiling activity compared with the wild-type gyrase, while other mutant gyrases did not show an altered supercoiling. Furthermore, we measured DNA supercoiling within Campylobacter cells using a reporter plasmid. Consistent with the results from the in vitro supercoiling assay, the FQ-resistant mutant carrying the Thr-86-Ile change in GyrA showed much less DNA supercoiling than the wild-type strain and the mutant strains carrying other mutations. Together, these results indicate that the Thr-86-Ile mutation, which is predominant in clinical FQ-resistant Campylobacter, modulates DNA supercoiling homeostasis in FQ-resistant Campylobacter.

  20. Rapid and specific enzyme immunoassay on hydrophobic grid membrane filter for detection and enumeration of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from milk and chicken rinses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Boyle, E; Farber, J

    2000-04-01

    Six commercially available anti-Campylobacter antibodies were examined for their applicability in an enzyme immunoassay on hydrophobic grid membrane filters, both for the detection and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. When a panel of nine Campylobacter (seven Campylobacter jejuni and two Campylobacter coli) and eight non-Campylobacter strains were used in a dot-blot format enzyme immunoassay to test the specificity of these antibodies, only one polyclonal antibody (Biodesign) detected all Campylobacter strains. Escherichia coli O157:H7 produced weak nonspecific signals due to endogenous peroxidase activity. The specificity of this Biodesign antibody was further tested against 30 more Campylobacter strains and more than 600 non-Campylobacter strains on hydrophobic grid membrane filters grown on modified Campylobacter agar with charcoal and deoxycholate, a Campylobacter selective medium. All the Campylobacter strains were detected, whereas only two (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Salmonella Minnesota) of the approximately 130 non-Campylobacter strains, which grew on modified Campylobacter agar with charcoal and deoxycholate, gave false-positive signals. This simple, rapid, and specific enzyme immunoassay also detected Campylobacter spp. from inoculated milk and chicken rinses and naturally contaminated chicken rinses.

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children and environmental sources in urban and suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanska, Bernadeta; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Spica, Dorota; Klawe, Jacek J

    2017-04-04

    Campylobacteriosis is a dominant bacterial cause of foodborne infection and is considered the main public health problem in Europe and many other countries worldwide. In the study lasting from 2011 to 2013 we compared the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children, domestic animals, poultry meat and surface water in Northern Poland. During a 3-years study 1973 samples were analysed. The results proved the presence of Campylobacter spp. in 306 (15.5%) samples. The percentage of Campylobacter-positive samples differed among the sample types, from 0% (freshwater beaches) to 38.6% (poultry meat in 2011). Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in children isolates was 9.6%. It decreased from 13.2% in 2011 to 8.0% in 2013. It should be highlighted with a particular concern that Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 20.0% of fountains. All children and poultry meat isolates were susceptible to azithromycin. Two C. coli (3.7%) and four C. jejuni (3.3%) isolated from poultry meat were resistant to erythromycin. The highest percentage of C. jejuni isolates with resistance to ciprofloxacin were found in samples from 80% dogs and 85% ponds. Among isolates resistant to two antimicrobials 74.7% C. jejuni and 59.2% C. coli isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin as well as to tetracycline. Only one cat C. coli isolate was resistant to both azithromycin and erythromycin. One C. jejuni isolate from a fountain was resistant to four antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, azithromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin). The study proved that surface water, poultry meat and pets constituted potential sources of Campylobacter to children. Fountains can be a direct source of children campylobacteriosis but can also pollute other environments with multidrug-resistant Campylobacter. The high resistance to some antimicrobials among the isolates may lead to increasing numbers of difficult-to-treat campylobacteriosis cases among children.

  2. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from broiler chicken-related samples using BAX PCR and conventional International Organization for Standardization culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa K; McMeechan, Alisdair; Baalham, Tamsin; Ward, Laura; Humphrey, Tom J; Jørgensen, Frieda

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the conventional International Organization for Standardization (ISO) culture method was compared with the DuPont Qualicon BAX system, a high-throughput, rapid molecular assay that can be used to detect several bacterial species, including Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in diverse sample types. Standard enrichment culture is a time-consuming process, taking up to 6 days to obtain a confirmed result. Rapid molecular assays have been developed that provide results within 24 h. Naturally contaminated samples from the poultry production chain were examined for the presence of Campylobacter spp. Samples from broiler chicken ceca (n = 100), fresh chicken carcass rinses (n = 60), and bootsocks (gauze sock walked through a broiler chicken house; n = 50) were enriched according to the ISO 10272 method in Bolton broth specifically designed to detect Campylobacter spp. in complex sample types. Samples were enriched without blood for use with the BAX system using the Campylobacter BAX kits for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli. Samples also were directly plated onto modified charcoal cefperazone deoxycholate agar, and results were compared with those from the enriched samples for the ability to detect Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 49% of samples with conventional enrichment cultures, from 48% with direct culture, from 68% with the BAX system and enrichment cultures, and from 62% with the BAX system used directly with samples. Overall, the BAX system detected more positive samples than did the conventional culture method and is an effective methodology for the rapid and reliable detection of Campylobacter spp. from diverse sample types.

  3. Detection of Small Numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Cells in Environmental Water, Sewage, and Food Samples by a Seminested PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Waage, Astrid S.; Vardund, Traute; Lund, Vidar; Kapperud, Georg

    1999-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for detection of small numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cells in environmental water, sewage, and food samples. Water and sewage samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched overnight in a nonselective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for PCR by a rapid and simple procedure consisting of centrifugation, proteinase K treatment, and boiling. A seminested PCR based on specific amplification of the intergenic seq...

  4. Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli contamination of broiler carcasses across the slaughter line in Danish slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    This study presents levels of Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli on broiler carcasses across the slaughter line in three fully automated Danish slaughterhouses with the aim to investigate differences in slaughter hygiene between the lines, correlation between concentrations of E.coli and Cam......This study presents levels of Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli on broiler carcasses across the slaughter line in three fully automated Danish slaughterhouses with the aim to investigate differences in slaughter hygiene between the lines, correlation between concentrations of E...... of E. coli were reduced to a larger extent than counts of Campylobacter. This suggests that for processing of Campylobacter positive broilers E. coli may be used as an indicator of faecal contamination during the processing steps up to the point of chilling but not as an indicator of Campylobacter...... contamination of chilled broiler meat. A correlation was found, though, between the mean number of Campylobacter in caeca and the mean number of Campylobacter on broiler meat after chilling which means that the level in the gut at slaughter significantly impacts the level on the chilled meat. In conclusion, our...

  5. Colonisation of a phage susceptible Campylobacter jejuni population in two phage positive broiler flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Kittler

    Full Text Available The pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are commensals in the poultry intestine and campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequent foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. Phages were identified to be effective in reducing intestinal Campylobacter load and this was evaluated, in the first field trials which were recently carried out. The aim of this study was to further investigate Campylobacter population dynamics during phage application on a commercial broiler farm. This study determines the superiority in colonisation of a Campylobacter type found in a field trial that was susceptible to phages in in vitro tests. The colonisation factors, i.e. motility and gamma glutamyl transferase activity, were increased in this type. The clustering in phylogenetic comparisons of MALDI-TOF spectra did not match the ST, biochemical phenotype and phage susceptibility. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni strains and phage susceptibility types with different colonisation potential seem to play a very important role in the success of phage therapy in commercial broiler houses. Thus, mechanisms of both, phage susceptibility and Campylobacter colonisation should be further investigated and considered when composing phage cocktails.

  6. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter Foodborne Illness in Raw Beef Offal Consumption in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiyeon; Lee, Jeeyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Ki-Sun; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal in South Korea. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw beef offal (liver and tripe) was investigated by plating samples on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar with Preston enrichment broth. Data were collected about storage temperature and length of storage of raw beef offal, and probabilistic distributions for the data were determined, using @RISK software. Predictive models were developed to describe the fate of Campylobacter in raw beef offal, and the amount and frequency of consumption and dose-response model were surveyed. Subsequently, these data were used to estimate the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal. Of 80 beef offal samples, 1 (1.25%) was contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni . Predictive models were used for exposure assessment. An exponential distribution was selected to represent beef offal consumption by people who eat this occasionally, with a mean of 60.2 g and 3.6% monthly consumption frequency. Simulations using @RISK predicted that the probability of Campylobacter foodborne illness per person per month is 1.56 × 10 -5 for home consumption and 1.74 × 10 -5 for restaurant consumption in South Korea, which indicates the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness by intake of raw beef offal in South Korea.

  7. Genomic Evidence for the Emergence and Evolution of Pathogenicity and Niche Preferences in the Genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology. PMID:25193310

  8. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royden, A; Wedley, A; Merga, J Y; Rushton, S; Hald, B; Humphrey, T; Williams, N J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms. Of flies cultured individually, 0·22% [2/902, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0-0·53] were positive by culture for Campylobacter spp. Additionally, 1293 flies were grouped by family and cultured in 127 batches: 4/127 (3·15%, 95% CI 0·11-6·19) from three broiler farms were positive for Campylobacter. Multilocus sequence typing of isolates demonstrated that the flies were carrying broiler-associated sequence types, responsible for human enteric illness. Malaise traps were used to survey the dipteran species diversity on study farms and also revealed up to 612 flies present around broiler-house ventilation inlets over a 2-h period. Therefore, despite the low prevalence of Campylobacter cultured from flies, the risk of transmission by this route may be high, particularly during summer when fly populations are greatest.

  9. Identification of risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses during the slaughter process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-02

    Campylobacter carcass contamination was quantified across the slaughter line during processing of Campylobacter positive batches. These quantitative data were combined together with information describing slaughterhouse and batch related characteristics in order to identify risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses. The results revealed that Campylobacter counts are influenced by the contamination of incoming birds (both the initial external carcass contamination and the colonization level of caeca) and the duration of transport and holding time that can be linked with feed withdrawal period. In addition, technical aspects of the slaughter process such as a dump based unloading system, electrical stunning, lower scalding temperature, incorrect setting of plucking, vent cutter and evisceration machines were identified as risk factors associated with increased Campylobacter counts on processed carcasses. As such the study indicates possible improvements of the slaughter process that can result in better control of Campylobacter numbers under routine processing of Campylobacter positive batches without use of chemical or physical decontamination. Moreover, all investigated factors were existing variations of the routine processing practises and therefore proposed interventions are practically and economically achievable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail meats in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez-Bravo, Claudia; Taboada, Eduardo N; Mutschall, Steven K; Aslam, Mueen

    2017-07-17

    Campylobacter is an important zoonotic pathogen found in livestock and can cause illness in humans following consumption of raw and undercooked meat products. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in retail meat (poultry, turkey, pork and beef) purchased in Alberta, Canada and to assess antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness of recovered Campylobacter strains with previously isolated strains from clinical and environmental sources. A Comparative Genomic Fingerprinting (CGF) method was used for assessing genetic relatedness of isolates. A total of 606 samples comprising 204, 110, 145 and 147 samples of retail chicken, turkey, ground beef and pork, respectively, were obtained. Campylobacter was isolated from 23.5% (48/204) of chicken samples and 14.2% (8/110) of turkey samples. Pork and beef samples were negative for Campylobacter. Campylobacter jejuni was the most common (94.6%) spp. found followed by C. coli (5.4%). Resistance to tetracycline was found in 48.1% of isolates, followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin (5.5%), nalidixic acid (5.5%), azithromycin (1.78%), and erythromycin (1.78%). All isolates were susceptible to clindamycin, florfenicol, gentamicin and telithromycin. Tetracycline resistance was attributable to the presence of the tetO gene. CGF analysis showed that Campylobacter isolated from poultry meat in this study were genetically related to clinical isolates recovered from human infections and to those isolated from animals and the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Species shift and multidrug resistance of Campylobacter from chicken and swine, China, 2008-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Dong, Yanni; Deng, Fengru; Liu, Dejun; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Qijing; Shen, Jianzhong; Liu, Zhihai; Gao, Yanan; Wu, Congming; Shen, Zhangqi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolated from broiler chickens and swine during 2008-14. Campylobacter isolates were collected from samples of intestinal content and excreta from broiler chickens and swine from slaughter houses as well as conventional farms in five Chinese provinces during 2008-14. The agar dilution method was used to determine the susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to seven antimicrobial agents. The χ(2) test and Fisher's exact test were used to perform the statistical analysis. In total, 989 Campylobacter jejuni and 1991 Campylobacter coli were isolated from 10 535 samples. MIC results revealed a high prevalence of multidrug resistance among these Campylobacter isolates. In addition, we observed an apparent shift of the dominant species from C. jejuni to C. coli in chickens and this species shift coincided with an increased prevalence of macrolide-resistant C. coli. It is worth noting that almost 100% of the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones. The high prevalence of fluoroquinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter suggests that these two clinically important antibiotic classes may no longer be suitable for the treatment of human campylobacteriosis in China. Thus, enhanced surveillance and control efforts are needed to reduce antimicrobial resistance in this group of major foodborne pathogens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Anti-Campylobacter and resistance-modifying activity of Alpinia katsumadai seed extracts.

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    Klančnik, A; Gröblacher, B; Kovač, J; Bucar, F; Možina, S Smole

    2012-11-01

    We tested extracts from Alpinia katsumadai seeds for anti-Campylobacter activity and investigated the roles of the CmeABC and CmeDEF efflux pumps in Campylobacter resistance to these natural phenolics. Additionally, we investigated an A. katsumadai ethanolic extract (AlpE) and other plant extracts as putative efflux pump inhibitors on Campylobacter isolates and mutants in efflux pump genes. AlpE showed antimicrobial activity against sensitive and multidrug-resistant Campylobacter isolates. CmeB inactivation resulted in the greatest reduction in resistance, while cmeF and cmeR mutations produced only moderate effects on minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The chemical efflux pump inhibitors additionally reduced MICs in isolates and mutants, confirming that active efflux is an important mechanism in resistance to AlpE, with additional contributions of other efflux systems. A notable decrease in resistance to tested antimicrobials in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of AlpE confirms its modifying activity in Campylobacter spp. AlpE is important anti-Campylobacter source of antimicrobial compounds with resistance-modifying activity. At least two of the efflux systems are involved in the resistance to A. katsumadai antimicrobial seed extracts. This is the first report of antimicrobial and resistance-modifying activity of AlpE from A. katsumadai seeds, demonstrating its potential in the control of Campylobacter in the food chain. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Isolation of thermotolerant campylobacters and C. hyointestinalis from rectal swabs of healthy pigs

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    Mrenoski Slavco

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermotolerant campylobacters are the most common bacterial etiological agents of human infectious gastroenteritis worldwide. The most frequent isolated species among them are Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, and less frequent C. upsaliensis and C. lari. Also C. hyointestinalis, that not belong to the group of thermotolerant campylobacters, has been indicate as an agent of human infectious gastroenteritis. Natural reservoir of all named campylobacters is the intestinal tract of many mammals and birds, including domestic animals. In these animals, campylobacters are commonly present as commensals and their feces is considered as a prime source for environmental contamination. Unlike the human feces which is usually examined in the cases of diarrhea, thermotolerant campylobacters and C. hyointestinalis in the animal feces are generally present in a much lesser amount and the isolation very often could be unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to estimate the validity of applied procedure for isolation (and identification of thermotolerant campylobacters and C. hyointestinalis from pig rectal swabs, as a procedure for detection of healthy animal carriers.

  14. Relevance of Campylobacter to public health--the need for a One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölz, Greta; Rosner, Bettina; Hofreuter, Dirk; Josenhans, Christine; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Löwenstein, Anna; Schielke, Anika; Stark, Klaus; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Wieler, Lothar H; Alter, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Campylobacter species belong to the most important foodborne bacteria which cause gastroenteritis in humans in both developed and developing countries. With increasing reporting rates, the public awareness towards Campylobacter infections is growing continuously. This strengthens the necessity to establish intervention measures for prevention and control of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. along the food chain, as in particular poultry and poultry meat represent a major source of human infections. An interdisciplinary One Health approach and a combined effort of all stakeholders are necessary to ultimately reduce the burden of campylobacteriosis cases in humans. Numerous studies point out, however, that at present a complete elimination of Campylobacter in the food chain is not feasible. The present aim should therefore be to establish control measures and intervention strategies to minimize the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in livestock (e.g. poultry flocks) and to reduce the quantitative Campylobacter burden in animals and foods. To this end, a combination of intervention methods at different stages of the food chain appears most promising. That has to be accompanied by targeted consumer advice and education campaigns to raise the awareness towards Campylobacter infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and genotyping of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Baky, R M; Sakhy, M; Gad, G F M

    2014-01-01

    To study the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis . A total of 125 stool samples were collected from children with gastroenteritis. The identification of isolates was performed with conventional methods as well as with molecular methods based on 16SrRNA species-specific gene amplification by PCR and product analysis. Resistance pattern of the isolated strains was determined using agar dilution method. Conventional methods including sodium hippurate hydrolysis revealed that 12 (9.6%) samples were positive for Campylobacter species. Ten out of 12 Campylobacter spp. were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 2 as Campylobacter coli but PCR assay revealed that five samples only were positive for Campylobacter and all were C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials was performed and all isolates (five isolates of C. jejuni) were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amikacin but all were resistant to ceftriaxone. PCR assay method allows reliable detection of C. jejuni. C. jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species. Gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotic.

  16. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility in thermophilic Campylobacter species isolated from pigs and chickens in South Africa.

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    Jonker, A; Picard, J A

    2010-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of sporadic food-borne bacterial disease in humans. In intensive poultry and pig rearing systems the use of oral antibiotics is essential to maintain health. Consequently, there is a high risk for the thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli resident in the intestinal tract of food animals to develop resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Contamination of meat or eggs with pathogenic strains of resistant Campylobacter could, therefore, result in a form of campylobacteriosis in humans that is difficult to treat. The aim of this investigation was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from pigs and poultry by the broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. A total of 482 samples from the Western Cape and Gauteng provinces was collected and analysed. Thirty-eight Campylobacter isolates were obtained. Analysis of data revealed that C. jejuni strains mainly of poultry origin were more resistant to the fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracyclines and the C. coli strains were more resistant to the macrolides and lincosamides. Multi-resistance was also detected in 4 Campylobacter strains from the Western Cape. With the exception of tetracyclines, strains from high health Gauteng broiler farms were susceptible to antibiotics used to treat Campylobacter infections.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility in thermophilic Campylobacter species isolated from pigs and chickens in South Africa

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    A. Jonker

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of sporadic food-borne bacterial disease in humans. In intensive poultry and pig rearing systems the use of oral antibiotics is essential to maintain health. Consequently, there is a high risk for the thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli resident in the intestinal tract of food animals to develop resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Contamination of meat or eggs with pathogenic strains of resistant Campylobacter could, therefore, result in a form of campylobacteriosis in humans that is difficult to treat. The aim of this investigation was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from pigs and poultry by the broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC test. A total of 482 samples from the Western Cape and Gauteng provinces was collected and analysed. Thirty-eight Campylobacter isolates were obtained. Analysis of data revealed that C. jejuni strains mainly of poultry origin were more resistant to the fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracyclines and the C. coli strains were more resistant to the macrolides and lincosamides. Multiresistance was also detected in 4 Campylobacter strains from the Western Cape. With the exception of tetracyclines, strains from high health Gauteng broiler farms were susceptible to antibiotics used to treat Campylobacter infections.

  19. Effect of bacteriophage application on Campylobacter jejuni loads in commercial broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, Sophie; Fischer, Samuel; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Glünder, Gerhard; Klein, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent food-borne human enteritis. The major source for infection with Campylobacter spp. is broiler meat. Risk assessments consider the reduction of Campylobacter in primary production to be most beneficial for human health. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a bacteriophage application under commercial conditions which had proved to be effective in previous noncommercial studies under controlled experimental conditions. A phage cocktail for Campylobacter reduction was tested on three commercial broiler farms each with a control and an experimental group. Colonization of Campylobacter was confirmed prior to phage application in fecal samples. Subsequently, a phage cocktail was applied via drinking water in the experimental group (log10 5.8 to 7.5 PFU/bird). One day after phage application, Campylobacter counts of one experimental group were reduced under the detection limit (log10 3.2 CFU/g cecal content compared to the control was still detected (P=0.0011). No significant reduction was observed in the experimental groups of the other trials. However, a significant drop in cecal Campylobacter counts occurred in a phage-contaminated control. These results suggest that maximum reduction of Campylobacter at the slaughterhouse might be achieved by phage application 1 to 4 days prior to slaughter.

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and genotyping of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Abd El-Baky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis . Materials and Methods: A total of 125 stool samples were collected from children with gastroenteritis. The identification of isolates was performed with conventional methods as well as with molecular methods based on 16SrRNA species-specific gene amplification by PCR and product analysis. Resistance pattern of the isolated strains was determined using agar dilution method. Results: Conventional methods including sodium hippurate hydrolysis revealed that 12 (9.6% samples were positive for Campylobacter species. Ten out of 12 Campylobacter spp. were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 2 as Campylobacter coli but PCR assay revealed that five samples only were positive for Campylobacter and all were C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials was performed and all isolates (five isolates of C. jejuni were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amikacin but all were resistant to ceftriaxone. Conclusion: PCR assay method allows reliable detection of C. jejuni. C. jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species. Gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotic.

  1. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat

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    A Rosyidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken

  2. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 °C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 °C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat.

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genotypic Characteristic of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Free-Living Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Bednarski, Michał; Wieliczko, Alina

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6.14%) from the feces of 7 wild bird species: Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos (29 positive/121 tested), great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (5/77), velvet scoters Melanitta fusca (4/30), tawny owls Strix aluco (2/5), common buzzard Buteo buteo (1/3), rook Corvus frugilegus (1/6), and Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus (1/30). Thirty-eight (88.37%) of obtained strains belonged to C. jejuni and five (11.63%) to C. coli. Other 428 examined birds from different bird species were Campylobacter negative. The antimicrobial susceptibility to nine antimicrobials was also studied in investigated isolates of Campylobacter spp. Sixteen of the examined strains (37.21% of all positive samples) showed susceptibility to all of the nine antimicrobials. Moreover, the prevalence of selected virulence genes, such as flaA, cadF, ceuE, virB11, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were all analyzed. The virulence gene that was found most frequently in total number of Campylobacter strains was ceuE (72.10%) and other genes, such as flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, were found in over 60% of all examined strains. Variable antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of different virulence genes of examined strains, isolated from free-living birds, suggest that special attention should be given to wild birds and any potential approaches to the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter should be discussed.

  4. Campylobacter infection as a trigger for Guillain-Barré syndrome in Egypt.

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    Thomas F Wierzba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies of Campylobacter infection triggering Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS are conducted in western nations were Campylobacter infection and immunity is relatively rare. In this study, we explored Campylobacter infections, Campylobacter serotypes, autoantibodies to gangliosides, and GBS in Egypt, a country where Campylobacter exposure is common. METHODS: GBS cases (n = 133 were compared to age- and hospital-matched patient controls (n = 374. A nerve conduction study was performed on cases and a clinical history, serum sample, and stool specimen obtained for all subjects. RESULTS: Most (63.3% cases were demyelinating type; median age four years. Cases were more likely than controls to have diarrhea (29.5% vs. 22.5%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa = 1.69, P = 0.03, to have higher geometric mean IgM anti-Campylobacter antibody titers (8.18 vs. 7.25 P<0.001, and to produce antiganglioside antibodies (e.g., anti-Gd1a, 35.3 vs. 11.5, ORa = 4.39, P<0.0001. Of 26 Penner:Lior Campylobacter serotypes isolated, only one (41:27, C. jejuni, P = 0.02 was associated with GBS. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike results from western nations, data suggested that GBS cases were primarily in the young and cases and many controls had a history of infection to a variety of Campylobacter serotypes. Still, the higher rates of diarrhea and greater antibody production against Campylobacter and gangliosides in GBS patients were consistent with findings from western countries.

  5. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

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    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Loads and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. on fresh chicken meat in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

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    Sison, F B; Chaisowwong, W; Alter, T; Tiwananthagorn, S; Pichpol, D; Lampang, K N; Baumann, M P O; Gölz, G

    2014-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and to semiquantify Campylobacter spp. on chicken meat samples at 4 selected local wet markets in Nueva Ecija, Philippines, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates. Out of 120 chicken meat samples, 57 (47.5%) were Campylobacter spp. positive. The majority of isolated Campylobacter strains were identified as Campylobacter coli (54.4%) and 45.6% as Campylobacter jejuni. Most of these positive samples (52.6%) showed a very high quantitative Campylobacter contamination (most probable number > 2,400/g, lower confidence limit 580/g). For antimicrobial resistance testing, 44 C. coli/jejuni isolates were tested using the agar disk diffusion method. Out of these, 77.3% were resistant to ampicillin, followed by ciprofloxacin (70.4%), tetracycline (54.6%), erythromycin (20.2%), and gentamicin (11.4%). Of the isolates, 36.4% (n = 16) were resistant to 1 antimicrobial agent, 34.1% (n = 15) were resistance to 3 antimicrobial agents, 13.6% (n = 6) to 2 antimicrobial agents, 9.1% (n = 4) to 4 antimicrobial agents, and 6.8% (n = 3) to all 5 antimicrobial agents tested. Our data demonstrate a high contamination of fresh chicken meat with Campylobacter spp. at retail in the Philippines. The detected high Campylobacter prevalences and quantitative loads on chicken meat at retail in the Philippines highlight the need to implement efficient intervention measures along the food chain and to encourage sanitary handling of poultry meat.

  7. A laboratory-based survey of Campylobacter infections in Prahova County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Marilena; Usein, Codruţa-Romaniţa; Irimia, Mariana; Damian, Maria

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, as well as in many western countries, members of the genus Campylobacter are recognized as one of the most common cause of acute bacterial enteritis. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolation rates have been shown to be equal to, and sometimes higher than those of other enteric pathogens. The Microbiology Laboratory of the local Public Health Authority in Prahova County conducted a one and a half-year laboratory-based survey of Campylobacter infections in patients suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms. From a total of 3284 stool samples screened, the culture-positive ones confirmed the bacterial etiology for 551 diarrhea cases. Campylobacter was found in 345 specimens, being the most frequently isolated enteropathogen. C. jejuni outnumbered C. coli species (239 vs. 106 isolates). Salmonella isolates were the second local cause of diarrhea. The highest isolation rate of Campylobacter was found in children 5 years of age (262 strains). The prevalence of campylobacteriosis declined with age. The isolation rate of Campylobacter (10.5%), the unimodal age-specific distribution of cases, as well as the identification of polymicrobial infections among the screened population were epidemiological aspects resembling reports on campylobacteriosis in developing countries. The susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to various antimicrobial agents, including macrolides and fluoroquinolones was also assessed. Among the screened isolates, Erythromycin retained a good activity, while an increased ciprofloxacin resistance was observed. The information gathered through this local study sustains the importance of Campylobacter in the etiology of autochthonous infectious diarrhea. A development of a national surveillance program regarding the most important foodborne pathogens would be beneficial for improving prevention and controlling measures.

  8. Symptomatic and asymptomatic Campylobacter infections associated with reduced growth in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwenyth; Pan, William; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Tilley, Drake; Gregory, Michael; Oberhelman, Richard; Burga, Rosa; Chavez, Cesar Banda; Kosek, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Although diarrheal illnesses are recognized as both a cause and effect of undernutrition, evidence for the effect of specific enteropathogens on early childhood growth remains limited. We estimated the effects of undernutrition as a risk factor for campylobacteriosis, as well as associations between symptomatic and asymptomatic Campylobacter infections and growth. Using data from a prospective cohort of 442 children aged 0-72 months, the effect of nutritional status on the incidence of Campylobacter infection was estimated using uni- and multivariate Poisson models. Multivariate regression models were developed to evaluate the effect of Campylobacter infection on weight gain and linear growth. Overall, 8.3% of diarrheal episodes were associated with Campylobacter (crude incidence rate = 0.37 episodes/year) and 4.9% of quarterly asymptomatic samples were Campylobacter positive. In univariate models, the incidence of Campylobacter infection was marginally higher in stunted than non-stunted children (IRR 1.270, 95% CI (0.960, 1.681)(p = 0.095). When recent diarrheal burdens were included in the analysis, there was no difference in risk between stunted and unstunted children. Asymptomatic and symptomatic Campylobacter infections were associated with reduced weight gain over a three-month period (65.5 g (95% CI: -128.0, -3.0)(p = 0.040) and 43.9 g (95% CI:-87.6, -1.0)(p = 0.049) less weight gain, respectively). Symptomatic Campylobacter infections were only marginally associated with reduced linear growth over a nine month period (-0.059 cm per episode, 95% CI: -0.118, 0.001)(p = 0.054), however relatively severe episodes were associated with reduced linear growth (-0.169 cm/episode, 95% CI -0.310, -0.028)(p = 0.019). Our findings suggest that Campylobacter is not as benign as commonly assumed, and that there is evidence to support expanding the indications for antibiotic therapy in campylobacteriosis in children.

  9. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar.

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    Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar

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    Camila Cristina Gonsalves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples. Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products.

  11. Impact of changing from staining to culture techniques on detection rates of Campylobacter spp. in routine stool samples in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Lorena; Varela, Carmen; Haecker, Thomas; Morales, Sara; Weitzel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, but sensitive diagnostic methods such as culture are expensive and often not available in resource limited settings. Therefore, direct staining techniques have been developed as a practical and economical alternative. We analyzed the impact of replacing Campylobacter staining with culture for routine stool examinations in a private hospital in Chile. From January to April 2014, a total of 750 consecutive stool samples were examined in parallel by Hucker stain and Campylobacter culture. Isolation rates of Campylobacter were determined and the performance of staining was evaluated against culture as the gold standard. Besides, isolation rates of Campylobacter and other enteric pathogens were compared to those of past years. Campylobacter was isolated by culture in 46 of 750 (6.1 %) stool samples. Direct staining only identified three samples as Campylobacter positive and reached sensitivity and specificity values of 6.5 and 100 %, respectively. In comparison to staining-based detection rates of previous years, we observed a significant increase of Campylobacter cases in our patients. Direct staining technique for Campylobacter had a very low sensitivity compared to culture. Staining methods might lead to a high rate of false negative results and an underestimation of the importance of campylobacteriosis. With the inclusion of Campylobacter culture, this pathogen became a leading cause of intestinal infection in our patient population.

  12. Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection.

  13. [Prevalence of emerging foodborne pathogens and illness: Campylobacter and Listeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriero, Anna Maria; Damiani, Gianfranco; Neve, Caterina Bianca; Bianchi, Aurora; Ronconi, Alessandra; Laurenti, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the proportion of food samples, examined by the Italian Istituti Zooprofilattici Sperimentali (Experimental Zooprophylactic Institutes) in the years 2000-2005, positive for Campylobacter and Listeria. A correlation was found between food samples found positive for Listeria in the years 2002-2005 and the number of hospitalisations for Listeria illness in the same years (as reported in hospital discharge abstract forms). This confirms that attention should be given in the evaluation of phenomena known to be under reported and for which data are collected and analysed by different methods.

  14. Campylobacter gastritis simulating Menetrier's disease by upper gastrointestinal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloupka, J.C.; Gay, B.B. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Within this decade it has been determined that primary gastritis in both children and adults is frequently associated with infection of the gastric mucosa with Campylobacter pylori. It is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process in which the mucosa of the gastric antrum is typically most severely involved. Other regions of the stomach may be involved and associated peptic ulcers of the stomach and duodenal bulb are frequent. A case of C. pylori gastritis is reported in which involvement of the gastric fundus and body produced severe rugal hypertrophy that resembled Menetrier's disease. (orig.)

  15. Campylobacter infection in urban and rural populations in Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbald, C. J.; Sharp, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A review of campylobacter infection in Scotland over five years (1978-82), during which 7808 human isolates were recorded (mean annual isolation rate of 30 per 100000), revealed differences in the epidemiology of the disease between rural and urban populations which were not apparent in the national data. The incidence of infection in the two rural areas studied was greatest in the early months of the year, whereas that in the two urban areas showed a third-quarter predominance. In both urban...

  16. Whole-Genome Sequencing in Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llarena, Ann-Katrin; Taboada, Eduardo; Rossi, Mirko

    2017-05-01

    This review describes the current state of knowledge regarding the application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni , the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. We describe how WGS has increased our understanding of the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of this pathogen and how WGS has the potential to improve surveillance and outbreak detection. We have identified hurdles to the full implementation of WGS in public health settings. Despite these challenges, we think that ample evidence is available to support the benefits of integrating WGS into the routine monitoring of C. jejuni infections and outbreak investigations. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Isolation, identification and subtyping of Campylobacter: where to from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Stephen L W

    2013-10-01

    Campylobacter species are widely regarded as the most frequent bacterial cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Their main transmission routes are via contaminated food and water. For interventions to be effective, methods for the detection, identification and epidemiological subtyping must be sensitive, accurate and rapid. As yet, methods are not perfect, although several significant advances have been made in these areas in recent years. This paper provides a brief review and commentary on the current state of the art in the hope that it will help provide context for others in selecting, improving or developing these vital tools for research and diagnoses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence, quantitative load, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. from broiler ceca and broiler skin samples in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokboonmongkol, C; Patchanee, P; Gölz, G; Zessin, K-H; Alter, T

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks by testing cecal contents at slaughter and to detect and quantify Campylobacter on broiler carcass skin samples of the corresponding slaughter batches, to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates, and to genotype selected Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing analysis. Ninety-eight broiler flocks were included in the study. Intact ceca were randomly taken at the time of evisceration throughout a slaughter batch to detect Campylobacter spp. at the broiler flock level and one whole carcass per slaughter batch was taken for the detection of Campylobacter spp. on broiler skin. The prevalences of Campylobacter spp. in broiler ceca and broiler skin samples were 11.2% (11/98) and 51% (50/98), respectively. Even though most Campylobacter-positive broiler skin samples were contaminated with only up to 230 most probable number per gram, a substantial share (13.3%) showed very high Campylobacter numbers on the broiler skin samples (most probable number = ∞; lower confidence limit T(0) 580/g). From 32 C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates tested, the highest antimicrobial resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (81.2%), followed by tetracycline (40.6%), ampicillin (31.2%), and erythromycin (9.4%). All tested strains were sensitive to gentamicin. By multilocus sequence typing analysis, a total of 9 different sequence types were identified among 16 C. jejuni isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolated from cecal content and carcass skin of the same farm or slaughter batch showed corresponding allelic profiles. Our data suggest that intense cross-contamination during the slaughter process led to a strong increase of Campylobacter prevalence on broiler skin compared with the prevalence in broiler ceca. To reduce Campylobacter prevalences on broiler skin, on-farm biosecurity measures need to be accompanied by control measures

  19. PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzav, Marianne; Isohanni, Pauliina; Lund, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    During a period of 9 months, 194 marinated and non-marinated poultry products were collected from retail shops in a defined area in Western Finland and tested for Campylobacter spp. using a conventional enrichment culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. For marinated poultry products......, the study involved modification of a commercial DNA isolation method. Using either a conventional culture or PCR method, a total of 25 (12.9%) of all investigated samples were Campylobacter positive. In marinated poultry products, Campylobacter was detected at a prevalence of 21.1% and 9.5% in turkey...

  20. Susceptibility to Campylobacter infection is associated with the species composition of the human fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicksved, Johan; Ellström, Patrik; Engstrand, Lars; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-09-16

    The gut microbiota is essential for human health, but very little is known about how the composition of this ecosystem can influence and respond to bacterial infections. Here we address this by prospectively studying the gut microbiota composition before, during, and after natural Campylobacter infection in exposed poultry abattoir workers. The gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S amplicon sequencing of fecal samples from poultry abattoir workers during the peak season of Campylobacter infection in Sweden. The gut microbiota compositions were compared between individuals who became culture positive for Campylobacter and those who remained negative. Individuals who became Campylobacter positive had a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.007) and Escherichia (P = 0.002) species than those who remained culture negative. Furthermore, this group had a significantly higher abundance of Phascolarctobacterium (P = 0.017) and Streptococcus (P = 0.034) sequences than the Campylobacter-negative group, which had an overrepresentation of Clostridiales (P = 0.017), unclassified Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.008), and Anaerovorax (P = 0.015) sequences. Intraindividual comparisons of the fecal microbiota compositions yielded small differences over time in Campylobacter-negative participants, but significant long-term changes were found in the Campylobacter-positive group (P microbiota reduces resistance to Campylobacter colonization in humans and that Campylobacter infection can have long-term effects on the composition of the human fecal microbiota. Studies using mouse models have made important contributions to our understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in resistance to bacterial enteropathogen colonization. The relative abundances of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides species have been pointed out as important determinants of susceptibility to Gram-negative pathogens in general and Campylobacter infection in particular. In this study, we assessed the

  1. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates obtained from retail chicken meat and offal products in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidano, Arata; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Muroga, Norihiko; Kobayashi, Sota; Nishida, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    A rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter has been posing a serious concern for human health. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the overall trend in antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates obtained from chicken meat and offal products collected from a wide geographic area throughout Japan. Resistance to Enrofloxacin was most frequently observed, with significantly higher rate of resistance among isolates obtained from offal (55.6%) than from meat (27.3%) samples (p = 0.05). These results highlight need for a better understanding of the characteristics of Campylobacter isolates obtained from chicken meat and offal products.

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Species Isolated from Broilers in Live Bird Markets in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beibei; Ma, Licai; Li, Yingli; Jia, Haiyan; Wei, Jianchao; Shao, Donghua; Liu, Ke; Shi, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Yafeng; Ma, Zhiyong

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolates from broilers in live bird markets (LBMs). A total of 209 Campylobacter spp. isolates (84 Campylobacter jejuni; 125 Campylobacter coli) were recovered from 364 broiler cecum samples collected from five LBMs in Shanghai, China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 13 antimicrobials were determined using agar dilution method. More than 96% of the Campylobacter spp. isolates were resistant to quinolones and tetracyclines. A high prevalence of macrolide resistance (erythromycin, 84.0%; azithromycin, 80.8%) was observed in C. coli, but not in C. jejuni (erythromycin, 6.0%; azithromycin, 2.4%). C. coli also showed significantly higher resistance than C. jejuni to clindamycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin. In contrast, C. coli isolates had lower resistance to florfenicol than the C. jejuni isolates. The majority of the C. jejuni (88.1%) and C. coli (97.6%) isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) to three or more classes of antimicrobials. All of the 208 ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter spp. isolates were positive for the C257T mutation of the gyrA gene. In addition, the tet(O) gene was identified in all of the 202 doxycycline-resistant Campylobacter spp. isolates. Furthermore, 75.7% and 20.4% of the 103 azithromycin-resistant Campylobacter spp. isolates were positive for the A2075G mutation of the 23S rRNA gene and the presence of the erm(B) gene, respectively. Moreover, the cat gene was found in 14.3% (8/56) and 76.8% (73/95) of the chloramphenicol-resistant C. jejuni and C. coli isolates, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter spp. isolates originating from LBMs. The high prevalence of MDR Campylobacter spp. isolates in LBMs highlights the need to implement efficient intervention measures to control not only Campylobacter contamination in LBMs but also

  3. Campylobacter in healthy slaughter pigs: a possible source of infection for man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticht-Groh, V

    1982-01-30

    Campylobacter were isolated from 103 of 173 (59 per cent) specimens of healthy slaughter pig faeces, washed intestines and water samples collected from a slaughterhouse and butcher's shop in West Germany. As most cases of human campylobacter enteritis are caused by Campylobacter jejuni, an attempt was made to find this organism among the isolates. Twenty-five out of the 103 strains (24 per cent) were identified as C jejuni. C jejuni was also isolated from salted water samples after overnight bowel storage in the butcher's shop, indicating that the customary salt preparation of the intestines did not eliminate all organisms present.

  4. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start...... that batch depletion of broiler houses increased the prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-infected broilers in the flocks, that the introduction occurred a hen catching the first batch, and that campylobacter spreads through the entire flock within a week. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results from...

  5. Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Isolated From Poultry Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi-Hachesoo, Bahman; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Asasi, Keramat

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the leading bacterial species causing foodborne illnesses in humans. Antimicrobial agents have been extensively used for treatment of Campylobacter infections; but in the recent years, both animal and human isolates of this bacterium have shown resistance to several antibiotics such as tetracycline. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of genetic determinants of tetracycline resistance in Campylobacter spp. recovered from poultry carcasses in Shiraz, Iran. Eighty-three thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Isolates were first identified based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then screened for presence of tetracycline resistance genes (tet (A), tet (B), tet (O) and te (S)) by PCR. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli among the examined isolates was 51.8% and 48.2%, respectively. Tetracycline resistance genes of tet (B) and tet (S) were not seen among these Campylobacter spp. Isolates, whereas the most common tet gene identified was tet (O), found in 83.1% (69/83) of all the isolates. The tet (O) gene sequence comparison between C. jejuni and C. coli showed 100% similarity and these sequences (JX853721and JX853722) were also identical to the homologous sequences of other strains of Campylobacter spp. existing in the GenBank databases. In addition, tet (A) was found in 18% (15/83) of Campylobacter spp. isolates. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of tet (A) in Campylobacter spp. There was 100% homology between the sequences of tet (A) from this study (JX891463 and JX891464) and the tet (A) sequences mentioned for other bacteria in the GenBank databases. The high prevalence of tet (O) resistance gene along with new detection of tet (A) resistance gene in Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry carcasses revealed an extensive tetracycline resistance among Campylobacter isolates from poultry in Iran. It emphasized the need for cautious use of tetracycline in poultry production to

  6. A charcoal- and blood-free enrichment broth for isolation and PCR detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Soto, Luisa Y; García, Santos; Wesley, Irene; Heredia, Norma

    2011-02-01

    The microaerophilic nature of Campylobacter and its requirement of ∼5% O(2) for growth have complicated its recovery from foods. The addition to the enrichment media of oxygen quenchers such as charcoal or blood could interfere with PCR for its detection. In this study, a two-step simple aerobic method for Campylobacter detection is proposed. A modification of the Tran blood-free enrichment broth (BFEB), in which charcoal was excluded from the medium (M-BFEB), was compared with the original formulation and other enrichment broths. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were screened by PCR directly from the enrichment media. Various levels of pure cultures of C. jejuni and C. coli combined with Escherichia coli were inoculated into Preston, Bolton, BFEB, and the modified BFEB (M-BFEB). In addition, Campylobacter was inoculated onto retail purchased chicken skin and recovery was quantified. Rates of recovery after 24 to 48 h of enrichment at 42 °C under aerobic incubation for BFEB and M-BFEB and microaerobic incubations for Preston and Bolton broths were determined. Overall, our results indicated that the most sensitive medium was Bolton's, followed by either BFEB or M-BFEB; the least sensitive was Preston's. M-BFEB was directly coupled to a PCR assay to detect Campylobacter, avoiding intermediate plating. Campylobacter was detected in the presence of up to 10(8) E. coli cells per ml. M-BFEB facilitated detection of both C. jejuni and C. coli artificially inoculated onto chicken skin samples. M-BFEB coupled to PCR is a rapid and attractive alternative for isolation and identification of C. coli and C. jejuni from poultry. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  7. Cepas de Campylobacter jejuni resistentes a quinolonas aisladas de humanos, gallinas y pollos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Notario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon 8 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni provenientes de humanos con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con 23 aislamientos de cloaca de gallinas y pollos obtenidos de zonas próximas a la ciudad de Rosario, todos resistentes a la ciprofloxacina. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo y se incubaron en microaerofilia a 42 °C. Las colonias se identificaron con el método tradicional. Los aislamientos se conservaron a -70 °C en caldo cerebro corazón con 17% v/v de glicerina. La clonalidad se determinó por RAPD-PCR, utilizando el primer 1254 (Stern NJ. Se interpretaron los aislamientos como clones distintos cuando diferían en una banda de amplificación. Se obtuvieron 5 clones diferentes. Los patrones I, II y V fueron aislados en criaderos industriales de pollos y en humanos (el II también en un establecimiento de gallinas ponedoras de huevos. En un gallinero familiar se obtuvo el patrón I. El patrón III sólo se obtuvo de humanos. El patrón IV se halló en uno de los criaderos pero no en humanos. Se pudo determinar que 93.5% de las cepas se aislaron tanto de animales como de humanos, por lo que se considera posible que la colonización de criaderos con cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos pudiera ser el origen de la infección de humanos.

  8. Rapidly decreased serum IgG to Campylobacter pylori following elimination of Campylobacter in histological chronic biopsy Campylobacter-positive gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bohemen, C G; Langenberg, M L; Rauws, E A; Oudbier, J; Weterings, E; Zanen, H C

    1989-01-15

    The anaerobic bacterium Campylobacter pylori (Cp) is thought to be associated with chronic gastritis. This paper presents clinical data underpinning this view. Five patients with histological chronic gastritis as determined by diagnostic endoscopy, which was associated with Cp as determined by positive biopsy cultures, all possessed statistically raised serum IgG ELISA titers to Cp during a longitudinal period of observation of 15 months. Treatment with the antibiotics amoxycillin (clamoxyl) or colloidal bismuth subcitrate (denol) eliminated Cp within one month. Associated with this, serum IgG ELISA titers were found to decrease sharply and rapidly. Tagamet and spiramycin had little effect. Although the data are preliminary, they support the assumed Cp involvement in chronic gastritis and suggest that specific serum IgG ELISA titers to Cp are useful parameters in monitoring disease status, exceeding bacteriological culture of biopsy specimens in speed and convenience.

  9. Higiene alimentaria para la prevención de trastornos digestivos infecciosos y por toxinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Manuel Moreno, Dr.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El principal factor que interviene en el origen y prevención de las enfermedades trasmitidas por los alimentos es la higiene alimentaria. Dichas enfermedades son causadas por la ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados con microorganismos patógenos ocasionando una infección o por la ingestión de alimentos contaminados con toxinas. Los principales agentes involucrados son Escherichia Coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria Monocytogenes, Norovirus, virus Hepatitis A, Astrovirus, Rotavirus, y Virus Coxsackie. Toxinas producidas por hongos o por microflora marina y los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes pueden también causar serios problemas de salud. La inocuidad alimentaría ha tomado relevancia debido a una mayor exigencia por consumidores cada día más informados y por las demandas del comercio exterior. Medidas que aseguren una adecuada higiene alimentaría nos permitirá prevenir enfermedades, principalmente digestivas, causadas por variados agentes en los alimentos. Esto se logra por la implementación de las medidas propuestas por la Comisión Internacional conocida como Codex Alimentarius.

  10. Inquiring into the Gaps of Campylobacter Surveillance Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana, Maria; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos; Burriel, Angeliki R.; Ioannidis, Anastasios

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most common pathogen-related causes of diarrheal illnesses globally and has been recognized as a significant factor of human disease for more than three decades. Molecular typing techniques and their combinations have allowed for species identification among members of the Campylobacter genus with good resolution, but the same tools usually fail to proceed to subtyping of closely related species due to high sequence similarity. This problem is exacerbated by the demanding conditions for isolation and detection from the human, animal or water samples as well as due to the difficulties during laboratory maintenance and long-term storage of the isolates. In an effort to define the ideal typing tool, we underline the strengths and limitations of the typing methodologies currently used to map the broad epidemiologic profile of campylobacteriosis in public health and outbreak investigations. The application of both the old and the new molecular typing tools is discussed and an indirect comparison is presented among the preferred techniques used in current research methodology. PMID:29056694

  11. Inquiring into the Gaps of Campylobacter Surveillance Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana, Maria; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos; Burriel, Angeliki R; Ioannidis, Anastasios

    2017-07-19

    Campylobacter is one of the most common pathogen-related causes of diarrheal illnesses globally and has been recognized as a significant factor of human disease for more than three decades. Molecular typing techniques and their combinations have allowed for species identification among members of the Campylobacter genus with good resolution, but the same tools usually fail to proceed to subtyping of closely related species due to high sequence similarity. This problem is exacerbated by the demanding conditions for isolation and detection from the human, animal or water samples as well as due to the difficulties during laboratory maintenance and long-term storage of the isolates. In an effort to define the ideal typing tool, we underline the strengths and limitations of the typing methodologies currently used to map the broad epidemiologic profile of campylobacteriosis in public health and outbreak investigations. The application of both the old and the new molecular typing tools is discussed and an indirect comparison is presented among the preferred techniques used in current research methodology.

  12. Histologic characteristics of Campylobacter pylori (Helicobacter pylori) mediated gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, E; Kemp, J; Westblom, T U; Chaffin, J; Foster, A M

    1990-01-01

    One hundred-nineteen specimens were reviewed to determine whether or not there were histologic changes specific for Campylobacter pylori (CP), (Helicobacter pylori) mediated gastritis. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Brown-Hopp, and Wright-Giemsa stained sections were examined independently by two pathologists for (a) the presence of acute cryptitis, (b) percent and degree of crypt involvement, and (c) spectrum of inflammatory cells within the lamina propriae. The amount of mucus was quantified on the Periodic Acid Schift (PAS)-Alcian Blue stain sections. Changes in the character of the mucus were noted by using both the PAS-Alcian Blue and the High Iron Diamine-Alcian Blue. A positive specimen for Campylobacter pylori (CP+), (Helicobacter pylori) was defined as one in which curved or spiral shaped microbes were identified on Wright-Giemsa and Brown-Hopp stain. Seventy-eight specimens were CP+ and 41 CP-. Statistically significant histologic findings included the extent and degree of superficial cryptitis and the preponderance of plasma cells in CP+ cases. These findings confirm aspects seen in an animal model and suggest that there is an histologic pattern consistent with C. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) mediated gastritis.

  13. Clinical manifestations of Campylobacter concisus infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-11-01

    There is only sparse information about the clinical impact of Campylobacter concisus infections in children. A study was performed during a 2-year period to determine the clinical manifestations in C. concisus-positive children with gastroenteritis. A case patient was defined as a child or teenager (Campylobacter jejuni/coli infection. Two thousand three hundred seventy-two diarrheic stool samples from 1867 children were cultured for pathogenic enteric bacteria during the study period, and 85 and 109 children with C. concisus and C. jejuni/coli, respectively, were identified. Comparison of the acute clinical manifestations in 44 C. concisus patients with those in 64 C. jejuni/coli patients showed a significantly lower prevalence of fever, chills and blood in stools in the former. However, half of C. concisus patients compared with one-fourth of C. jejuni/coli patients had prolonged diarrhea for more than 2 weeks and two-thirds of all children with C. concisus reported loose stools after 6-month follow-up. C. concisus infection in children seems to have a milder course of acute gastroenteritis compared with C. jejuni/coli infection but is associated with more prolonged diarrhea. Children with C. concisus have the same degree of late gastrointestinal complaints as children diagnosed with C. jejuni/coli infection.

  14. Global Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni Penner Serotypes: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Pike

    Full Text Available Penner serotyping has been the principal method for differentiating Campylobacter isolates since its inception. Campylobacter capsule polysaccharide (CPS, the principal serodeterminant on which Penner serotyping is based, is presently of interest as a vaccine component. To determine the required valency of an effective CPS-based vaccine, a comprehensive understanding of CPS distribution is needed. Because of the association between Penner serotype and CPS, we conducted a systematic review to estimate the frequency and distribution of Penner serotypes associated with cases of Campylobacteriosis. In total, more than 21,000 sporadic cases of C. jejuni cases were identified for inclusion. While regional variation exists, distribution estimates indicate that eight serotypes accounted for more than half of all sporadic diarrheal cases globally and three serotypes (HS4 complex, HS2, and HS1/44 were dominant inter-regionally as well as globally. Furthermore, a total of 17 different serotypes reached a representation of 2% or greater in at least one of the five regions sampled. While this review is an important first step in defining CPS distribution, these results make it clear that significant gaps remain in our knowledge. Eliminating these gaps will be critical to future vaccine development efforts.

  15. Application of TRiMiCri for the evaluation of risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter on broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    A potential solution for the reduction of consumer exposure to Campylobacter is establishing a microbiological criterion (MC) for Campylobacter on broiler meat. In the present study the freely available software tool TRiMiCri was applied to evaluate risk-based microbiological criteria by two...... of microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in the EU is discussed. TRiMiCri provides user friendly software to evaluate the available data and can help risk managers in establishing risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat....... approaches: the traditional one that implies a microbiological limit (ML-MC) and the second one which is based on the relative risk estimate (RRL-MC). A baseline risk was estimated based on the Belgian baseline data, whereas the data for the evaluated batches were Campylobacter counts from 28 Campylobacter...

  16. The use of probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) to develop a cost-effective vaccination strategy against Campylobacter in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, A.; Vigre, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis represents an important economic and public health problem. Campylobacter originating from feces of infected chickens will contaminate chicken meat posing a risk to the consumer. Vaccination against Campylobacter in broilers is one probable measure to reduce consumers......’ exposure to Campylobacter.In this presentation we focus on the development of a computerized decision support system to aid management decisions on Campylobacter vaccination of commercial broilers. Broilers should be vaccinated against Campylobacter in the first 2 weeks of age. Therefore, the decision......, epidemiological and economic factors (cost-reward functions) have been included in the models. The final outcome of the models is presented in probabilities of expected level of Campylobacter and financial terms influenced by the decision on vaccination. For example, if the best decision seems to be to vaccinate...

  17. Genotypic and Phenotypic Properties of Cattle-Associated Campylobacter and Their Implications to Public Health in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanad, Yasser M.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Abley, Melanie; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; LeJeune, Jeffrey T.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2011-01-01

    Since cattle are a major source of food and the cattle industry engages people from farms to processing plants and meat markets, it is conceivable that beef-products contaminated with Campylobacter spp. would pose a significant public health concern. To better understand the epidemiology of cattle-associated Campylobacter spp. in the USA, we characterized the prevalence, genotypic and phenotypic properties of these pathogens. Campylobacter were detected in 181 (19.2%) out of 944 fecal samples. Specifically, 71 C. jejuni, 132 C. coli, and 10 other Campylobacter spp. were identified. The prevalence of Campylobacter varied regionally and was significantly (PCampylobacter isolates showed resistance to several antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of cattle as a potential reservoir for clinically important Campylobacter. PMID:22046247

  18. Broiler health status has a major negative impact on broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaudaite-Lydekaitiene, Viktorija; Serniene, Loreta; Vismantaite, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for Campylobacter infection in broiler flocks in Lithuania. Each broiler flock was tested for the contamination with Campylobacter spp., and various broiler farm, flock and abattoir as well as the weather-associated characteristics were...... analysed using the statistical package SPSS. Study revealed that 59.3% of the examined broiler flocks were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Statistical analysis revealed that broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter was abattoir- and farm-dependent. Among a number of risk factors (e.g. the number...... spp. in broilers. According to our results broiler health status has a major negative effect on broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter. Thus, it needs to be considered when improving control of Campylobacter spp. in broilers....

  19. Control of campylobacter in poultry industry from farm to poultry processing unit: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaraw, Pramila; Prajapati, A; Verma, Akhilesh K; Pathak, V; Singh, V P

    2017-03-04

    Campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic bacterial threat in the poultry industry. Most of the human cases of campylobacteriosis recorded have revealed their poultry origins. Various control measures have been employed both at the farm and processing levels to combat with it. The antibiotic treatment, phage therapy, competitive exclusion, and vaccination have been adapted at the farm level to reduce colonization of Campylobacter in poultry gut. While prevention of intestinal spillage, scheduled slaughter, logistic slaughter, chemical decontamination of carcasses are recommended to reduce contamination during processing. The postharvest interventions such as heat treatment, freezing, irradiation of contaminated carcass can effectively reduce Campylobacter contamination. Thus, integrated approaches are required to tackle infection of Campylobacter in humans.

  20. Hazards of Healthy Living: Bottled Water and Salad Vegetables as Risk Factors for Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. Donald; Salmon, Roland L.

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, yet the etiology of this infection remains only partly explained. In a retrospective cohort study, we compared 213 sporadic campylobacter case-patients with 1,144 patients with negative fecal samples. Information was obtained on food history, animal contact, foreign travel, leisure activities, medical conditions, and medication use. Eating chicken, eating food from a fried chicken outlet, eating salad vegetables, drinking bottled water, and direct contact with cows or calves were all independently associated with infection. The population-attributable fractions for these risk factors explained nearly 70% of sporadic campylobacter infections. Eating chicken is a well-established risk factor, but consuming salad and bottled water are not. The association with salad may be explained by cross-contamination of food within the home, but the possibility that natural mineral water is a risk factor for campylobacter infection could have wide public health implications. PMID:14609455