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Sample records for bacterial type iii

  1. Assembly of the bacterial type III secretion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepold, Andreas; Wagner, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Many bacteria that live in contact with eukaryotic hosts, whether as symbionts or as pathogens, have evolved mechanisms that manipulate host cell behaviour to their benefit. One such mechanism, the type III secretion system, is employed by Gram-negative bacterial species to inject effector proteins into host cells. This function is reflected by the overall shape of the machinery, which resembles a molecular syringe. Despite the simplicity of the concept, the type III secretion system is one of the most complex known bacterial nanomachines, incorporating one to more than hundred copies of up to twenty different proteins into a multi-MDa transmembrane complex. The structural core of the system is the so-called needle complex that spans the bacterial cell envelope as a tripartite ring system and culminates in a needle protruding from the bacterial cell surface. Substrate targeting and translocation are accomplished by an export machinery consisting of various inner membrane embedded and cytoplasmic components. The formation of such a multimembrane-spanning machinery is an intricate task that requires precise orchestration. This review gives an overview of recent findings on the assembly of type III secretion machines, discusses quality control and recycling of the system and proposes an integrated assembly model.

  2. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey.

  3. Behind the lines–actions of bacterial type III effector proteins in plant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of most Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria depends on the type III secretion (T3S) system, which translocates bacterial effector proteins into plant cells. Type III effectors modulate plant cellular pathways to the benefit of the pathogen and promote bacterial multiplication. One major virulence function of type III effectors is the suppression of plant innate immunity, which is triggered upon recognition of pathogen-derived molecular patterns by plant receptor proteins. Ty...

  4. Behind the lines–actions of bacterial type III effector proteins in plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of most Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria depends on the type III secretion (T3S) system, which translocates bacterial effector proteins into plant cells. Type III effectors modulate plant cellular pathways to the benefit of the pathogen and promote bacterial multiplication. One major virulence function of type III effectors is the suppression of plant innate immunity, which is triggered upon recognition of pathogen-derived molecular patterns by plant receptor proteins. Type III effectors also interfere with additional plant cellular processes including proteasome-dependent protein degradation, phytohormone signaling, the formation of the cytoskeleton, vesicle transport and gene expression. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular functions of type III effector proteins with known plant target molecules. Furthermore, plant defense strategies for the detection of effector protein activities or effector-triggered alterations in plant targets are discussed. PMID:27526699

  5. A bacterial pathogen uses distinct type III secretion systems to alternate between host kingdoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant and animal-pathogenic bacteria utilize phylogenetically distinct type III secretion systems (T3SS) that produce needle-like injectisomes or pili for the delivery of effector proteins into host cells. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), the causative agent of Stewart’s bacterial wilt and...

  6. Bacterial flagella and Type III secretion: case studies in the evolution of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallen, M J; Gophna, U

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial flagella at first sight appear uniquely sophisticated in structure, so much so that they have even been considered 'irreducibly complex' by the intelligent design movement. However, a more detailed analysis reveals that these remarkable pieces of molecular machinery are the product of processes that are fully compatible with Darwinian evolution. In this chapter we present evidence for such processes, based on a review of experimental studies, molecular phylogeny and microbial genomics. Several processes have played important roles in flagellar evolution: self-assembly of simple repeating subunits, gene duplication with subsequent divergence, recruitment of elements from other systems ('molecular bricolage'), and recombination. We also discuss additional tentative new assignments of homology (FliG with MgtE, FliO with YscJ). In conclusion, rather than providing evidence of intelligent design, flagellar and non-flagellar Type III secretion systems instead provide excellent case studies in the evolution of complex systems from simpler components.

  7. The Bacterial Type III Secretion System as a Target for Developing New Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShan, Andrew C.; De Guzman, Roberto N.

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogens requires new targets for developing novel antibacterials. The bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) is an attractive target for developing antibacterials as it is essential in the pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria. The T3SS consists of structural proteins, effectors and chaperones. Over 20 different structural proteins assemble into a complex nanoinjector that punctures a hole on the eukaryotic cell membrane to allow the delivery of effectors directly into the host cell cytoplasm. Defects in the assembly and function of the T3SS render bacteria non-infective. Two major classes of small molecules, salicylidene acylhydrazides and thiazolidinones, have been shown to inhibit multiple genera of bacteria through the T3SS. Many additional chemically and structurally diverse classes of small molecule inhibitors of the T3SS have been identified as well. While specific targets within the T3SS of a few inhibitors have been suggested, the vast majority of specific protein targets within the T3SS remain to be identified or characterized. Other T3SS inhibitors include polymers, proteins and polypeptides mimics. In addition, T3SS activity is regulated by its interaction with biologically relevant molecules, such as bile salts and sterols, which could serve as scaffolds for drug design. PMID:25521643

  8. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

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    Picking Wendy L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. Results In this study, we present the 3.3 Å crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155 of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC1-151. Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric "head-to- head" dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC1-151. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II

  9. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

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    Lin Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000, associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family.

  10. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Zhang, Lingling; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2010-10-05

    Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg) C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. In this study, we present the 3.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155) of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC{sup 1-151}). Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric 'head-to-head' dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC{sup 1-151}. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions: From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II chaperones may

  11. Determination of the Stoichiometry of the Complete Bacterial Type III Secretion Needle Complex Using a Combined Quantitative Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkenat, Susann; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Galán, Jorge E; Macek, Boris; Wagner, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    Precisely knowing the stoichiometry of their components is critical for investigating structure, assembly, and function of macromolecular machines. This has remained a technical challenge in particular for large, hydrophobic membrane-spanning protein complexes. Here, we determined the stoichiometry of a type III secretion system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using two complementary protocols of gentle complex purification combined with peptide concatenated standard and synthetic stable isotope-labeled peptide-based mass spectrometry. Bacterial type III secretion systems are cell envelope-spanning effector protein-delivery machines essential for colonization and survival of many Gram-negative pathogens and symbionts. The membrane-embedded core unit of these secretion systems, termed the needle complex, is composed of a base that anchors the machinery to the inner and outer membranes, a hollow filament formed by inner rod and needle subunits that serves as conduit for substrate proteins, and a membrane-embedded export apparatus facilitating substrate translocation. Structural analyses have revealed the stoichiometry of the components of the base, but the stoichiometry of the essential hydrophobic export apparatus components and of the inner rod protein remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that the export apparatus of type III secretion systems contains five SpaP, one SpaQ, one SpaR, and one SpaS. We confirmed that the previously suggested stoichiometry of nine InvA is valid for assembled needle complexes and describe a loose association of InvA with other needle complex components that may reflect its function. Furthermore, we present evidence that not more than six PrgJ form the inner rod of the needle complex. Providing this structural information will facilitate efforts to obtain an atomic view of type III secretion systems and foster our understanding of the function of these and related flagellar machines. Given that other virulence

  12. T346Hunter: a novel web-based tool for the prediction of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems in bacterial genomes.

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    Pedro Manuel Martínez-García

    Full Text Available T346Hunter (Type Three, Four and Six secretion system Hunter is a web-based tool for the identification and localisation of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems (T3SS, T4SS and T6SS, respectively clusters in bacterial genomes. Non-flagellar T3SS (NF-T3SS and T6SS are complex molecular machines that deliver effector proteins from bacterial cells into the environment or into other eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, with significant implications for pathogenesis of the strains encoding them. Meanwhile, T4SS is a more functionally diverse system, which is involved in not only effector translocation but also conjugation and DNA uptake/release. Development of control strategies against bacterial-mediated diseases requires genomic identification of the virulence arsenal of pathogenic bacteria, with T3SS, T4SS and T6SS being major determinants in this regard. Therefore, computational methods for systematic identification of these specialised machines are of particular interest. With the aim of facilitating this task, T346Hunter provides a user-friendly web-based tool for the prediction of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS clusters in newly sequenced bacterial genomes. After inspection of the available scientific literature, we constructed a database of hidden Markov model (HMM protein profiles and sequences representing the various components of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS. T346Hunter performs searches of such a database against user-supplied bacterial sequences and localises enriched regions in any of these three types of secretion systems. Moreover, through the T346Hunter server, users can visualise the predicted clusters obtained for approximately 1700 bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. T346Hunter offers great help to researchers in advancing their understanding of the biological mechanisms in which these sophisticated molecular machines are involved. T346Hunter is freely available at http://bacterial-virulence-factors.cbgp.upm.es/T346Hunter.

  13. The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and the interferon family: type I, type II and type III interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussurget, Olivier; Bierne, Hélène; Cossart, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are secreted proteins of the cytokine family that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses to infection. Although the importance of IFNs in the antiviral response has long been appreciated, their role in bacterial infections is more complex and is currently a major focus of investigation. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the role of these cytokines in host defense against the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and highlights recent discoveries on the molecular mechanisms evolved by this intracellular bacterium to subvert IFN responses.

  14. Cholesterol binding by the bacterial type III translocon is essential for virulence effector delivery into mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Richard D; Cain, Robert J; McGhie, Emma J; Phillips, Neil; Garner, Matthew J; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2005-05-01

    A ubiquitous early step in infection of man and animals by enteric bacterial pathogens like Salmonella, Shigella and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is the translocation of virulence effector proteins into mammalian cells via specialized type III secretion systems (TTSSs). Translocated effectors subvert the host cytoskeleton and stimulate signalling to promote bacterial internalization or survival. Target cell plasma membrane cholesterol is central to pathogen-host cross-talk, but the precise nature of its critical contribution remains unknown. Using in vitro cholesterol-binding assays, we demonstrate that Salmonella (SipB) and Shigella (IpaB) TTSS translocon components bind cholesterol with high affinity. Direct visualization of cell-associated fluorescently labelled SipB and parallel immunogold transmission electron microscopy revealed that cholesterol levels limit both the amount and distribution of plasma membrane-integrated translocon. Correspondingly, cholesterol depletion blocked effector translocation into cultured mammalian cells by not only the related Salmonella and Shigella TTSSs, but also the more divergent EPEC system. The data reveal that cholesterol-dependent association of the bacterial TTSS translocon with the target cell plasma membrane is essential for translocon activation and effector delivery into mammalian cells.

  15. Using weakly conserved motifs hidden in secretion signals to identify type-III effectors from bacterial pathogen genomes.

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    Xiaobao Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As one of the most important virulence factor types in gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, type-III effectors (TTEs play a crucial role in pathogen-host interactions by directly influencing immune signaling pathways within host cells. Based on the hypothesis that type-III secretion signals may be comprised of some weakly conserved sequence motifs, here we used profile-based amino acid pair information to develop an accurate TTE predictor. RESULTS: For a TTE or non-TTE, we first used a hidden Markov model-based sequence searching method (i.e., HHblits to detect its weakly homologous sequences and extracted the profile-based k-spaced amino acid pair composition (HH-CKSAAP from the N-terminal sequences. In the next step, the feature vector HH-CKSAAP was used to train a linear support vector machine model, which we designate as BEAN (Bacterial Effector ANalyzer. We compared our method with four existing TTE predictors through an independent test set, and our method revealed improved performance. Furthermore, we listed the most predictive amino acid pairs according to their weights in the established classification model. Evolutionary analysis shows that predictive amino acid pairs tend to be more conserved. Some predictive amino acid pairs also show significantly different position distributions between TTEs and non-TTEs. These analyses confirmed that some weakly conserved sequence motifs may play important roles in type-III secretion signals. Finally, we also used BEAN to scan one plant pathogen genome and showed that BEAN can be used for genome-wide TTE identification. The webserver and stand-alone version of BEAN are available at http://protein.cau.edu.cn:8080/bean/.

  16. Vibrio type III effector VPA1380 is related to the cysteine protease domain of large bacterial toxins.

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    Thomas Calder

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium and one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis. Its genome harbors two Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2, but only T3SS2 is required for enterotoxicity seen in animal models. Effector proteins secreted from T3SS2 have been previously shown to promote colonization of the intestinal epithelium, invasion of host cells, and destruction of the epithelial monolayer. In this study, we identify VPA1380, a T3SS2 effector protein that is toxic when expressed in yeast. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that VPA1380 is highly similar to the inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6-inducible cysteine protease domains of several large bacterial toxins. Mutations in conserved catalytic residues and residues in the putative IP6-binding pocket abolished toxicity in yeast. Furthermore, VPA1380 was not toxic in IP6 deficient yeast cells. Therefore, our findings suggest that VPA1380 is a cysteine protease that requires IP6 as an activator.

  17. Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol bacterium on rice growth and disease resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haiying Ren; Ganyu Gu; Juying Long; Qian Yin; Tingquan Wu; Tao Song; Shujian Zhang; Zhiyi Chen; Hansong Dong

    2006-12-01

    Expression of HpaGXoo, a bacterial type-III effector, in transgenic plants induces disease resistance. Resistance also can be elicited by biocontrol bacteria. In both cases, plant growth is often promoted. Here we address whether biocontrol bacteria and HpaGXoo can act together to provide better results in crop improvement. We studied effects of Pseudomonas cepacia on the rice variety R109 and the hpaGXoo-expressing rice line HER1. Compared to R109, HER1 showed increased growth, grain yield, and defense responses toward diseases and salinity stress. Colonization of roots by P. cepacia caused 20% and 13% increase, in contrast to controls, in root growth of R109 and HER1. Growth of leaves and stems also increased in R109 but that of HER1 was inhibited. When P. cepacia colonization was subsequent to plant inoculation with Rhizoctonia solani, a pathogen that causes sheath blight, the disease was less severe than controls in both R109 and HER1; HER1, nevertheless, was more resistant, suggesting that P. cepacia and HpaGXoo cooperate in inducing disease resistance. Several genes that critically regulate growth and defense behaved differentially in HER1 and R109 while responding to P. cepacia. In R109 leaves, the OsARF1 gene, which regulates plant growth, was expressed in consistence with growth promotion by P. cepacia. Inversely, OsARF1 expression was coincident with inhibition in growth of HER1 leaves. In both plants, the expression of OsEXP1, which encodes an expansin protein involved in plant growth, was concomitant with growth promotion in leaves instead of roots, in response to P. cepacia. We also studied OsMAPK, a gene that encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase and controls defense responses toward salinity and infection by pathogens in rice. In response to P. cepacia, an early expression of OsMAPK was coincident with R109 resistance to the disease, while HER1 expressed the gene similarly whether P. cepacia was present or not. Evidently, P. cepacia and GXoo

  18. The type III manufactory

    CERN Document Server

    Palcoux, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Using unusual objects in the theory of von Neumann algebra, as the chinese game Go or the Conway game of life (generalized on finitely presented groups), we are able to build, by hands, many type III factors.

  19. 3′-NADP and 3′-NAADP, Two Metabolites Formed by the Bacterial Type III Effector AvrRxo1*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuebel, Felix; Rocker, Andrea; Edelmann, Daniel; Schessner, Julia; Brieke, Clara; Meinhart, Anton

    2016-01-01

    An arsenal of effector proteins is injected by bacterial pathogens into the host cell or its vicinity to increase virulence. The commonly used top-down approaches inferring the toxic mechanism of individual effector proteins from the host's phenotype are often impeded by multiple targets of different effectors as well as by their pleiotropic effects. Here we describe our bottom-up approach, showing that the bacterial type III effector AvrRxo1 of plant pathogens is an authentic phosphotransferase that produces two novel metabolites by phosphorylating nicotinamide/nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide at the adenosine 3′-hydroxyl group. Both products of AvrRxo1, 3′-NADP and 3′-nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (3′-NAADP), are substantially different from the ubiquitous co-enzyme 2′-NADP and the calcium mobilizer 2′-NAADP. Interestingly, 3′-NADP and 3′-NAADP have previously been used as inhibitors or signaling molecules but were regarded as “artificial” compounds so far. Our findings now necessitate a shift in thinking about the biological importance of 3′-phosphorylated NAD derivatives. PMID:27621317

  20. Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacterial and Archaeal Type Strains, Phase III: the genomes of soil and plant-associated and newly described type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, William B; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhou, Yuguang; Lilburn, Timothy G; Beck, Brian J; De Vos, Paul; Vandamme, Peter; Eisen, Jonathan A; Garrity, George; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-01-01

    The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project was launched by the JGI in 2007 as a pilot project to sequence about 250 bacterial and archaeal genomes of elevated phylogenetic diversity. Herein, we propose to extend this approach to type strains of prokaryotes associated with soil or plants and their close relatives as well as type strains from newly described species. Understanding the microbiology of soil and plants is critical to many DOE mission areas, such as biofuel production from biomass, biogeochemistry, and carbon cycling. We are also targeting type strains of novel species while they are being described. Since 2006, about 630 new species have been described per year, many of which are closely aligned to DOE areas of interest in soil, agriculture, degradation of pollutants, biofuel production, biogeochemical transformation, and biodiversity.

  1. Genes encoding putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 are required for bacterial virulence and proliferation in macrophages.

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    Hensel, M; Shea, J E; Waterman, S R; Mundy, R; Nikolaus, T; Banks, G; Vazquez-Torres, A; Gleeson, C; Fang, F C; Holden, D W

    1998-10-01

    The type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) is required for systemic infection of this pathogen in mice. Cloning and sequencing of a central region of SPI-2 revealed the presence of genes encoding putative chaperones and effector proteins of the secretion system. The predicted products of the sseB, sseC and sseD genes display weak but significant similarity to amino acid sequences of EspA, EspD and EspB, which are secreted by the type III secretion system encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. The transcriptional activity of an sseA::luc fusion gene was shown to be dependent on ssrA, which is required for the expression of genes encoding components of the secretion system apparatus. Strains carrying nonpolar mutations in sseA, sseB or sseC were severely attenuated in virulence, strains carrying mutations in sseF or sseG were weakly attenuated, and a strain with a mutation in sseE had no detectable virulence defect. These phenotypes were reflected in the ability of mutant strains to grow within a variety of macrophage cell types: strains carrying mutations in sseA, sseB or sseC failed to accumulate, whereas the growth rates of strains carrying mutations in sseE, sseF or sseG were only modestly reduced. These data suggest that, in vivo, one of the functions of the SPI-2 secretion system is to enable intracellular bacterial proliferation.

  2. The Bacterial Flagellar Type III Export Gate Complex Is a Dual Fuel Engine That Can Use Both H+ and Na+ for Flagellar Protein Export.

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    Tohru Minamino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force (PMF to transport flagellar proteins to the distal end of the growing flagellar structure for self-assembly. The transmembrane export gate complex is a H+-protein antiporter, of which activity is greatly augmented by an associated cytoplasmic ATPase complex. Here, we report that the export gate complex can use sodium motive force (SMF in addition to PMF across the cytoplasmic membrane to drive protein export. Protein export was considerably reduced in the absence of the ATPase complex and a pH gradient across the membrane, but Na+ increased it dramatically. Phenamil, a blocker of Na+ translocation, inhibited protein export. Overexpression of FlhA increased the intracellular Na+ concentration in the presence of 100 mM NaCl but not in its absence, suggesting that FlhA acts as a Na+ channel. In wild-type cells, however, neither Na+ nor phenamil affected protein export, indicating that the Na+ channel activity of FlhA is suppressed by the ATPase complex. We propose that the export gate by itself is a dual fuel engine that uses both PMF and SMF for protein export and that the ATPase complex switches this dual fuel engine into a PMF-driven export machinery to become much more robust against environmental changes in external pH and Na+ concentration.

  3. The Bacterial Flagellar Type III Export Gate Complex Is a Dual Fuel Engine That Can Use Both H+ and Na+ for Flagellar Protein Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru; Morimoto, Yusuke V; Hara, Noritaka; Aldridge, Phillip D; Namba, Keiichi

    2016-03-01

    The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force (PMF) to transport flagellar proteins to the distal end of the growing flagellar structure for self-assembly. The transmembrane export gate complex is a H+-protein antiporter, of which activity is greatly augmented by an associated cytoplasmic ATPase complex. Here, we report that the export gate complex can use sodium motive force (SMF) in addition to PMF across the cytoplasmic membrane to drive protein export. Protein export was considerably reduced in the absence of the ATPase complex and a pH gradient across the membrane, but Na+ increased it dramatically. Phenamil, a blocker of Na+ translocation, inhibited protein export. Overexpression of FlhA increased the intracellular Na+ concentration in the presence of 100 mM NaCl but not in its absence, suggesting that FlhA acts as a Na+ channel. In wild-type cells, however, neither Na+ nor phenamil affected protein export, indicating that the Na+ channel activity of FlhA is suppressed by the ATPase complex. We propose that the export gate by itself is a dual fuel engine that uses both PMF and SMF for protein export and that the ATPase complex switches this dual fuel engine into a PMF-driven export machinery to become much more robust against environmental changes in external pH and Na+ concentration.

  4. Structural and functional similarity between the bacterial type III secretion system needle protein PrgI and the eukaryotic apoptosis Bcl-2 proteins.

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    Matthew D Shortridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional similarity is challenging to identify when global sequence and structure similarity is low. Active-sites or functionally relevant regions are evolutionarily more stable relative to the remainder of a protein structure and provide an alternative means to identify potential functional similarity between proteins. We recently developed the FAST-NMR methodology to discover biochemical functions or functional hypotheses of proteins of unknown function by experimentally identifying ligand binding sites. FAST-NMR utilizes our CPASS software and database to assign a function based on a similarity in the structure and sequence of ligand binding sites between proteins of known and unknown function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The PrgI protein from Salmonella typhimurium forms the needle complex in the type III secretion system (T3SS. A FAST-NMR screen identified a similarity between the ligand binding sites of PrgI and the Bcl-2 apoptosis protein Bcl-xL. These ligand binding sites correlate with known protein-protein binding interfaces required for oligomerization. Both proteins form membrane pores through this oligomerization to release effector proteins to stimulate cell death. Structural analysis indicates an overlap between the PrgI structure and the pore forming motif of Bcl-xL. A sequence alignment indicates conservation between the PrgI and Bcl-xL ligand binding sites and pore formation regions. This active-site similarity was then used to verify that chelerythrine, a known Bcl-xL inhibitor, also binds PrgI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A structural and functional relationship between the bacterial T3SS and eukaryotic apoptosis was identified using our FAST-NMR ligand affinity screen in combination with a bioinformatic analysis based on our CPASS program. A similarity between PrgI and Bcl-xL is not readily apparent using traditional global sequence and structure analysis, but was only identified because of conservation in

  5. The non-flagellar type III secretion system evolved from the bacterial flagellum and diversified into host-cell adapted systems.

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    Sophie S Abby

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs are essential components of two complex bacterial machineries: the flagellum, which drives cell motility, and the non-flagellar T3SS (NF-T3SS, which delivers effectors into eukaryotic cells. Yet the origin, specialization, and diversification of these machineries remained unclear. We developed computational tools to identify homologous components of the two systems and to discriminate between them. Our analysis of >1,000 genomes identified 921 T3SSs, including 222 NF-T3SSs. Phylogenomic and comparative analyses of these systems argue that the NF-T3SS arose from an exaptation of the flagellum, i.e. the recruitment of part of the flagellum structure for the evolution of the new protein delivery function. This reconstructed chronology of the exaptation process proceeded in at least two steps. An intermediate ancestral form of NF-T3SS, whose descendants still exist in Myxococcales, lacked elements that are essential for motility and included a subset of NF-T3SS features. We argue that this ancestral version was involved in protein translocation. A second major step in the evolution of NF-T3SSs occurred via recruitment of secretins to the NF-T3SS, an event that occurred at least three times from different systems. In rhizobiales, a partial homologous gene replacement of the secretin resulted in two genes of complementary function. Acquisition of a secretin was followed by the rapid adaptation of the resulting NF-T3SSs to multiple, distinct eukaryotic cell envelopes where they became key in parasitic and mutualistic associations between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Our work elucidates major steps of the evolutionary scenario leading to extant NF-T3SSs. It demonstrates how molecular evolution can convert one complex molecular machine into a second, equally complex machine by successive deletions, innovations, and recruitment from other molecular systems.

  6. Type III effector-mediated processes in Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Joris; Finlay, B Brett

    2012-06-01

    Salmonella is one of the most successful bacterial pathogens that infect humans in both developed and developing countries. In order to cause infection, Salmonella uses type III secretion systems to inject bacterial effector proteins into host cells. In the age of antibiotic resistance, researchers have been looking for new strategies to reduce Salmonella infection. To understand infection and to analyze type III secretion as a potential therapeutic target, research has focused on identification of effectors, characterization of effector functions and how they contribute to disease. Many effector-mediated processes have been identified that contribute to infection but thus far no specific treatment has been found. In this perspective we discuss our current understanding of effector-mediated processes and discuss new techniques and approaches that may help us to find a solution to this worldwide problem.

  7. Type III restriction-modification enzymes: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Desirazu N; Dryden, David T F; Bheemanaik, Shivakumara

    2014-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases interact with DNA at specific sites leading to cleavage of DNA. Bacterial DNA is protected from restriction endonuclease cleavage by modifying the DNA using a DNA methyltransferase. Based on their molecular structure, sequence recognition, cleavage position and cofactor requirements, restriction-modification (R-M) systems are classified into four groups. Type III R-M enzymes need to interact with two separate unmethylated DNA sequences in inversely repeated head-to-head orientations for efficient cleavage to occur at a defined location (25-27 bp downstream of one of the recognition sites). Like the Type I R-M enzymes, Type III R-M enzymes possess a sequence-specific ATPase activity for DNA cleavage. ATP hydrolysis is required for the long-distance communication between the sites before cleavage. Different models, based on 1D diffusion and/or 3D-DNA looping, exist to explain how the long-distance interaction between the two recognition sites takes place. Type III R-M systems are found in most sequenced bacteria. Genome sequencing of many pathogenic bacteria also shows the presence of a number of phase-variable Type III R-M systems, which play a role in virulence. A growing number of these enzymes are being subjected to biochemical and genetic studies, which, when combined with ongoing structural analyses, promise to provide details for mechanisms of DNA recognition and catalysis.

  8. Coronal type III radio bursts and their X-ray flare and interplanetary type III counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Hamish A S

    2016-01-01

    Type III bursts and hard X-rays are both produced by flare energetic electron beams. The link between both emissions has been investigated in many previous studies, but no statistical studies have compared both coronal and interplanetary type III bursts with X-ray flares. Using coronal radio events above 100 MHz exclusively from type III bursts, we revisited long-standing questions: Do all coronal type III bursts have X-ray counterparts. What correlation, if any, occurs between radio and X-ray intensities. What X-ray and radio signatures above 100 MHz occur in connection with interplanetary type III bursts below 14 MHz. We analysed data from 2002 to 2011 starting with coronal type III bursts above 100 MHz. We used RHESSI X-ray data greater than 6 keV to make a list of 321 events that have associated type III bursts and X-ray flares, encompassing at least 28 percent of the initial sample of type III events. We examined the timings, intensities, associated GOES class, and any interplanetary radio signature. For...

  9. Mechanistic insights into type III restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Nidhanapati K; Bheemanaik, Shivakumara; Rao, Desirazu N

    2012-01-01

    Type III restriction-modification (R-M) enzymes need to interact with two separate unmethylated DNA sequences in indirectly repeated, head-to-head orientations for efficient cleavage to occur at a defined location next to only one of the two sites. However, cleavage of sites that are not in head-to-head orientation have been observed to occur under certain reaction conditions in vitro. ATP hydrolysis is required for the long-distance communication between the sites prior to cleavage. Type III R-M enzymes comprise two subunits, Res and Mod that form a homodimeric Mod2 and a heterotetrameric Res2Mod2 complex. The Mod subunit in M2 or R2M2 complex recognizes and methylates DNA while the Res subunit in R2M2 complex is responsible for ATP hydrolysis, DNA translocation and cleavage. A vast majority of biochemical studies on Type III R-M enzymes have been undertaken using two closely related enzymes, EcoP1I and EcoP15I. Divergent opinions about how the long-distance interaction between the recognition sites exist and at least three mechanistic models based on 1D- diffusion and/or 3D- DNA looping have been proposed.

  10. Influence of organic substrates on the kinetics of bacterial As(III) oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescure, T.; Joulian, C.; Bauda, P.; Hénault, C.; Battaglia-Brunet, F.

    2012-04-01

    on the bacterial speciation of arsenic in contaminated soils. Moreover, the biogeochemical consequences of this phenomenon on the mobility and ecotoxicity of this metalloid will be studied. The first task of this program is the precise and systematic investigation of the influence of different types and concentrations of organic matters on the activity of As(III)-oxidizing pure strains. Influence of aspartate, succinate (simple substrates) and yeast extract (complex substrate) on As(III)-oxidation kinetics has been studied. For each experiment, the bacterial growth and the expression of genes involved in the speciation of arsenic, i.e. aio and ars genes, has been monitored. A direct perspective of this work will be to perform experiments with humic and fulvic acids (complex organic matter commonly found in soils), and with water-extracted organic matter from polluted soils. Then the As(III)-oxidation activity of bacterial communities extracted from contaminated soils will be followed. These assays should allow the screening of conditions which will be applied in subsequent experiments with several real contaminated soils, including a former mining site, impacted industrial sites, and a forest soil heavily contaminated after arsenical ammunitions storage. This work is co-funded by BRGM and ADEME (convention TEZ 11-16).

  11. NNMSM type-II and -III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane (Japan); Hokkaido University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Hokkaido University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Osaka University, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Hokkaido University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    We suggest two types of extension of the standard model, which are the so-called next to new minimal standard model type-II and -III. They can achieve gauge coupling unification as well as suitable dark matter abundance, small neutrino masses, baryon asymmetry of the universe, inflation, and dark energy. The gauge coupling unification can be realized by introducing two or three extra new fields, and they could explain charge quantization. We also show that there are regions in which the vacuum stability, coupling perturbativity, and correct dark matter abundance can be realized with current experimental data at the same time. (orig.)

  12. Insight into the flagella type III export revealed by the complex structure of the type III ATPase and its regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Katsumi; Minamino, Tohru; Uchida, Yumiko; Kinoshita, Miki; Namba, Keiichi

    2016-03-29

    FliI and FliJ form the FliI6FliJ ATPase complex of the bacterial flagellar export apparatus, a member of the type III secretion system. The FliI6FliJ complex is structurally similar to the α3β3γ complex of F1-ATPase. The FliH homodimer binds to FliI to connect the ATPase complex to the flagellar base, but the details are unknown. Here we report the structure of the homodimer of a C-terminal fragment of FliH (FliHC2) in complex with FliI. FliHC2 shows an unusually asymmetric homodimeric structure that markedly resembles the peripheral stalk of the A/V-type ATPases. The FliHC2-FliI hexamer model reveals that the C-terminal domains of the FliI ATPase face the cell membrane in a way similar to the F/A/V-type ATPases. We discuss the mechanism of flagellar ATPase complex formation and a common origin shared by the type III secretion system and the F/A/V-type ATPases.

  13. Type III Societies (Apparently) Do Not Exist

    CERN Document Server

    Lacki, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] Whether technological societies remain small and planet-bound like our own, or ultimately span across galaxies is an open question in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. Societies that engineer on a galactic scale are classified as Type III on Kardashev's scale. I argue that Type III societies can take the form of blackboxes, entire galaxies veiled in an opaque screen. A blackbox has a temperature that is just above that of the cosmic microwave background. The screen can be made from artificial dust pervading the galaxy. I show that there is enough material in galaxies to build blackboxes if the dust is fashioned into dipole antennas. The thermal emission of a blackbox makes it a bright microwave source. I examine the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources to constrain the abundance of blackboxes. None of the 100 GHz sources has the spectrum expected of a blackbox. The null result rules out shrouded galaxy clusters out to z ~ 1 and shrouded Milky Ways out to (comoving) 700 Mpc. The reach of th...

  14. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  15. IpaD is localized at the tip of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Musa; Botteaux, Anne; Parsot, Claude; Sansonetti, Philippe; Boekema, Egbert J.; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2007-01-01

    Type III secretion (T3S) systems are used by numerous Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria to inject virulence proteins into animal and plant host cells. The core of the T3S apparatus, known as the needle complex, is composed of a basal body transversing both bacterial membranes and a needle protruding

  16. Possible interaction between the bacterial transcription factor ArtA and the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Sachiko

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) transcribes tRNA genes and short interspersed elements that have internal promoters consisting of A- and B-blocks. The B-block binding subunit of the transcription initiation factor TFIIIC binds to the B-block. The mobile bacterial insertion sequence (IS) 1 contains a RNAP III promoter-like sequence, which stimulates bacterial transcription along with the bacterial ArtA protein. Here, the DNA-binding ability of ArtA was examined in vitro using a simple, newly developed method. Various DNA fragments, including RNAP III promoter fragments, were separately incubated with purified ArtA, and then loaded onto a polyacrylamide gel. Since DNAs bound by ArtA remain in the gel wells during electrophoresis, SDS was added into the wells at the electrophoresis halfway point. It was hypothesized that SDS would dissociate the DNA-ArtA complexes in the wells, and then the DNAs would begin to migrate. In fact, new bands appeared in all of the lanes at similar intensities, indicating that ArtA binds nonspecifically to DNA. Therefore, labeled wild-type RNAP III promoter fragments were incubated with either the unlabeled wild-type or mutant fragments and ArtA, and electrophoresed. The B-block(-like) sequences of IS1, a human Alu element, and an anuran tRNA gene were important for binding to ArtA. Additionally, in silico analyses revealed the presence of the RNAP III promoter-like structures in the IS1 isoforms and the IS3 family elements. These results suggest the presence of parts of the RNAP III transcription machinery in bacteria, and might imply that its prototype existed in the common ancestor.

  17. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Type III Secretion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant pathogens have presented increasing challenges to the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents. The type III secretion system (T3SS, existing in bacterial chromosomes or plasmids, is one of the most complicated protein secretion systems. T3SSs of animal and plant pathogens possess many highly conserved main structural components comprised of about 20 proteins. Many Gram-negative bacteria carry T3SS as a major virulence determinant, and using the T3SS, the bacteria secrete and inject effector proteins into target host cells, triggering disease symptoms. Therefore, T3SS has emerged as an attractive target for antimicrobial therapeutics. In recent years, many T3SS-targeting small-molecule inhibitors have been discovered; these inhibitors prevent the bacteria from injecting effector proteins and from causing pathophysiology in host cells. Targeting the virulence of Gram-negative pathogens, rather than their survival, is an innovative and promising approach that may greatly reduce selection pressures on pathogens to develop drug-resistant mutations. This article summarizes recent progress in the search for promising small-molecule T3SS inhibitors that target the secretion and translocation of bacterial effector proteins.

  18. Autism Symptoms Related to Tyrosinemia Type III: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Yolga Tahiroğlu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The published literature on tyrosinemia type III consists of only a few case reports. In this report, we present a patient with tyrosinemia type III, autism, and mental retardation. This patient’s speech improved and his autistic symptoms lessened on a tyrosine-restricted diet, although his mental retardation remained unchanged. This is the first published report of a patient with tyrosinemia type III and autism. This observation is significant due to the paucity of published information about tyrosinemia type III. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 55-6

  19. Diverse intracellular pathogens activate type III interferon expression from peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendall, Charlotte; Dixit, Evelyn; Stavru, Fabrizia; Bierne, Helene; Franz, Kate M; Durbin, Ann Fiegen; Boulant, Steeve; Gehrke, Lee; Cossart, Pascale; Kagan, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    Type I interferon responses are considered the primary means by which viral infections are controlled in mammals. Despite this view, several pathogens activate antiviral responses in the absence of type I interferons. The mechanisms controlling type I interferon-independent responses are undefined. We found that RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) induce type III interferon expression in a variety of human cell types, and identified factors that differentially regulate expression of type I and type III interferons. We identified peroxisomes as a primary site of initiation of type III interferon expression, and revealed that the process of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation upregulates peroxisome biogenesis and promotes robust type III interferon responses in human cells. These findings highlight the importance of different intracellular organelles in specific innate immune responses.

  20. The expression of type III hyperlipoproteinemia: involvement of lipolysis genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, P.; Sman-de Beer, F. van der; Moghaddam, P.H.; Huijts, P.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Kastelein, J.J.; Duijn, C.M. van; Havekes, L.M.; Frants, R.R.; Dijk, K.W. van; Smelt, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) is mainly found in homozygous apolipoprotein (APO) E2 (R158C) carriers. Genetic factors contributing to the expression of type III HLP were investigated in 113 hyper- and 52 normolipidemic E2/2 subjects, by testing for polymorphisms in APOC3, APOA5, HL (hepatic li

  1. Bacterial Formation of As(V) and As(III) Ferric Oxyhydroxides in Acid Mine Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, G.; Juillot, F.; Lebrun, S.; Casiot, C.; Elbaz-Poulichet, F.; Bruneel, O.; Personne, J.; Leblanc, M.; Ildefonse, P.; Calas, G.

    2002-12-01

    The oxidation of dissolved Fe(II) which is often promoted by acidophilic bacteria in acid mine drainage (AMD) and some hot springs, leads to the precipitation of Fe(III) oxy-hydroxides which incorporate toxic elements within their structure or adsorb them at their surface, thus limiting their mobility. In such complex natural systems, synchrotron-based techniques as X-ray absorption spectroscopy offer the opportunity to monitor surface/solution interactions as well as redox changes affecting the mobility and toxicity of trace elements as arsenic. Spatial and seasonal variations of the (bio-) oxidation of Fe(II) and As(III), and the subsequent precipitation of As-Fe gels, were followed by XANES, XRD, and SEM along the CarnoulŠs AMD (Gard, France). Chemical and mineralogical data collected on sediments, stromatolite, and bioassay samples showed that some indigenous bacteria living in the As-rich CarnoulŠs water ([As] = up to 350 mg.l-1) play an important role in the nature and composition of the solid phases that sequester arsenic at the site. The formation of nano-crystalline and amorphous As(III) ferric oxy-hydroxides has been related to the presence of bacteria able to oxidize Fe(II) but not As(III), which are only present in winter in the upstream area. A rare ferric arsenite sulfate oxy-hydroxide mineral was discovered in this context. Other types of bacteria, occurring in the downstream area whatever the season, are able to catalyze As(III) to As(V) oxidation and, provided that enough Fe(II) oxidizes, promote the formation of amorphous As(V) rich ferric oxy-hydroxides. These bacterially mediated reactions significantly reduce the concentration of dissolved As(III), which is more toxic and mobile than As(V), and might thus be helpful for designing As-removal processes. This work was supported by the French PEVS and ACI Ecologie Quantitative Programs and the PIRAMID EC program. ?Deceased, 26 October 1999 Juillot F., Ildefonse Ph., Morin G., Calas G., De

  2. Guarding the frontiers: the biology of type III interferons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wack, Andreas; Terczynska-Dyla, Ewa; Hartmann, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFNs) or IFN-λs regulate a similar set of genes as type I IFNs, but whereas type I IFNs act globally, IFN-λs primarily target mucosal epithelial cells and protect them against the frequent viral attacks that are typical for barrier tissues. IFN-λs thereby help to maintain...

  3. The expression of type III hyperlipoproteinemia: involvement of lipolysis genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Peter; van der Sman-de Beer, Femke; Moghaddam, Payman Hanifi; Huijts, Petra; Stalenhoef, Anton FH; Kastelein, John JP; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Havekes, Louis M; Frants, Rune R; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Smelt, Augustinus HM

    2009-01-01

    Type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) is mainly found in homozygous apolipoprotein (APO) E2 (R158C) carriers. Genetic factors contributing to the expression of type III HLP were investigated in 113 hyper- and 52 normolipidemic E2/2 subjects, by testing for polymorphisms in APOC3, APOA5, HL (hepatic lipase) and LPL (lipoprotein lipase) genes. In addition, 188 normolipidemic Dutch control panels (NDCP) and 141 hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients were genotyped as well. No associations were found for four HL gene polymorphisms and two LPL gene polymorphisms and type III HLP. The frequency of the rare allele of APOC3 3238 G>C and APOA5 −1131 T>C (in linkage disequilibrium) was significantly higher in type III HLP patients when compared with normolipidemic E2/2 subjects, 15.6 vs 6.9% and 15.1 vs 5.8%, respectively, (PC polymorphism and LPL c.27 G>A mutation were higher in type III HLP patients, though not significant. Some 58% of the type III HLP patients carried either the APOA5 −1131 T>C, c.56 G>C and/or LPL c.27 G>A mutation as compared to 27% of the normolipidemic APOE2/2 subjects (odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval=1.8–7.5, PC/APOA5 −1131 T>C polymorphism showed a more severe hyperlipidemia than patients without this polymorphism. Polymorphisms in lipolysis genes associate with the expression and severity of type III HLP in APOE2/2. PMID:19034316

  4. Type III factors with unique Cartan decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Houdayer, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    We prove that for any free ergodic nonsingular nonamenable action \\Gamma\\ \\actson (X,\\mu) of all \\Gamma\\ in a large class of groups including all hyperbolic groups, the associated group measure space factor $L^\\infty(X) \\rtimes \\Gamma$ has L^\\infty(X) as its unique Cartan subalgebra, up to unitary conjugacy. This generalizes the probability measure preserving case that was established in [PV12]. We also prove primeness and indecomposability results for such crossed products, for the corresponding orbit equivalence relations and for arbitrary amalgamated free products $M_1 *_B M_2$ over a subalgebra B of type I.

  5. Auroral Kilometric Radiation and Type III Solar Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romantsova, T. V.; Mogilevsky, M. M.; Skalsky, A. A.; Hanasz, J.

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous wave observations onboard the ISEE-1 and ISEE-3 spacecraft show that onsets of the Auroral Kilometric Radiation frequently coincide with an arrival of type III solar burst (Calvert, 1981). It was supposed that solar burst stimulates maser instability in auroral region and AKR consequently . We present statistical and case studies of events when both type III solar radio bursts and Auroral Kilometric Radiation are recorded simultaneously. AKR was observed onboard the INTERBALL-2 spacecraft orbiting around the Earth by the POLRAD experiment. Wave measurements carried out onboard the Wind, INTEBALL-TAIL and Geotail spacecraft are used to identify unambiguously the type III solar radio bursts. The origin of close relation between onsets of both solar radiation and AKR is discussed and interpreted. Acknowledgements. This work is supported by grant RFBR 06-02-72560.

  6. Assessment of sleep in children with mucopolysaccharidosis type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Victoria Mahon

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are prevalent in mucopolysaccharidosis Type III (MPS III, yet there is a lack of objective, ecologically valid evidence detailing sleep quantity, quality or circadian system. Eight children with MPS III and eight age-matched typically developing children wore an actigraph for 7-10 days/nights. Saliva samples were collected at three time-points on two separate days, to permit analysis of endogenous melatonin levels. Parents completed a sleep questionnaire and a daily sleep diary. Actigraphic data revealed that children with MPS III had significantly longer sleep onset latencies and greater daytime sleep compared to controls, but night-time sleep duration did not differ between groups. In the MPS III group, sleep efficiency declined, and sleep onset latency increased, with age. Questionnaire responses showed that MPS III patients had significantly more sleep difficulties in all domains compared to controls. Melatonin concentrations showed an alteration in the circadian system in MPS III, which suggests that treatment for sleep problems should attempt to synchronise the sleep-wake cycle to a more regular pattern. Actigraphy was tolerated by children and this monitoring device can be recommended as a measure of treatment success in research and clinical practice.

  7. The type III protein secretion system contributes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Zimaro, Tamara

    2014-04-18

    Background: Several bacterial plant pathogens colonize their hosts through the secretion of effector proteins by a Type III protein secretion system (T3SS). The role of T3SS in bacterial pathogenesis is well established but whether this system is involved in multicellular processes, such as bacterial biofilm formation has not been elucidated. Here, the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) was used as a model to gain further insights about the role of the T3SS in biofilm formation. Results: The capacity of biofilm formation of different X. citri T3SS mutants was compared to the wild type strain and it was observed that this secretion system was necessary for this process. Moreover, the T3SS mutants adhered proficiently to leaf surfaces but were impaired in leaf-associated growth. A proteomic study of biofilm cells showed that the lack of the T3SS causes changes in the expression of proteins involved in metabolic processes, energy generation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and bacterial motility as well as outer membrane proteins. Furthermore, EPS production and bacterial motility were also altered in the T3SS mutants. Conclusions: Our results indicate a novel role for T3SS in X. citri in the modulation of biofilm formation. Since this process increases X. citri virulence, this study reveals new functions of T3SS in pathogenesis. 2014 Zimaro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  8. Exploiting the Biosynthetic Potential of Type III Polyketide Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ping Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyketides are structurally and functionally diverse secondary metabolites that are biosynthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs using acyl-CoA precursors. Recent studies in the engineering and structural characterization of PKSs have facilitated the use of target enzymes as biocatalysts to produce novel functionally optimized polyketides. These compounds may serve as potential drug leads. This review summarizes the insights gained from research on type III PKSs, from the discovery of chalcone synthase in plants to novel PKSs in bacteria and fungi. To date, at least 15 families of type III PKSs have been characterized, highlighting the utility of PKSs in the development of natural product libraries for therapeutic development.

  9. Tyrosinemia Type III detected via neonatal screening: management and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, Evelyne; Scherer, Gerd; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; Marie, Sandrine; Fischer, Judith; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile

    2012-11-01

    Tyrosinemia Type III is caused by the deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD), an enzyme involved in the catabolic pathway of tyrosine. To our knowledge, only a few patients presenting with this disease have been described in the literature, and the clinical phenotype remains variable and unclear. We report the case of a boy with tyrosinemia Type III detected using neonatal screening, who is homozygous for the splice donor mutation IVS11+1G>A in intron 11 of the HPD gene. At the age of 30 months, the boy's outcome under mild protein restriction was characterized by normal growth and psychomotor development.

  10. Type III von Neumann Algebras associated with $\\O_\\theta$

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Dilian

    2011-01-01

    Let $\\Fth$ be a 2 graph generated by $m$ blue edges and $n$ red edges, and $\\omega$ be the distinguished faithful state associated with its graph C*-algebra $\\O_\\theta$. In this paper, we characterize the factorness of the von Neumann algebra $\\pi_\\omega(\\O_\\theta)"$ induced from the GNS representation of $\\omega$ under a certain condition. Moreover, when $\\pi_\\omega(\\O_\\theta)"$ is a factor, then it is of type III$_{m^{-\\frac{1}{b}}}$ (or III$_{n^{-\\frac{1}{a}}}$) if $\\frac{\\ln m}{\\ln n}\\in\\bQ$, where $a,b\\in\\bN$ with $\\gcd(a,b)=1$ satisfy $m^a=n^b$, and of type III$_1$ if $\\frac{\\ln m}{\\ln n}\

  11. Microwave Type III Pair Bursts in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Baolin; Karlicky, Marian; Huang, Guangli; Tan, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    Solar microwave type III pair burst is composed of normal and reverse-sloped (RS) burst branches with oppositely fast frequency drifts. It is the most sensitive signature of the primary energy release and electron accelerations in flares. This work reported 11 microwave type III pair events in 9 flares observed by radio spectrometers in China and the Czech Republic at frequency of 0.80 - 7.60 GHz during 1994 - 2014. These type III pairs occurred in flare impulsive and postflare phases with separate frequency in range of 1.08 - 3.42 GHz and frequency gap 10 - 1700 MHz. The frequency drift increases with the separate frequency (f_{x}), the lifetime of each burst is anti-correlated to f_{x}, while the frequency gap is independent to f_{x}. In most events, the normal branches are drifting obviously faster than the RS branches. The type III pairs occurring in flare impulsive phase have lower separate frequency, longer lifetime, wider frequency gap, and slower frequency drift than that occurring in postflare phase....

  12. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome mutations in type III collagen differently stall the triple helical folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kazunori; Boudko, Sergei; Engel, Jürgen; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2013-06-28

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is the most severe form of EDS. In many cases the disease is caused by a point mutation of Gly in type III collagen. A slower folding of the collagen helix is a potential cause for over-modifications. However, little is known about the rate of folding of type III collagen in patients with EDS. To understand the molecular mechanism of the effect of mutations, a system was developed for bacterial production of homotrimeric model polypeptides. The C-terminal quarter, 252 residues, of the natural human type III collagen was attached to (GPP)7 with the type XIX collagen trimerization domain (NC2). The natural collagen domain forms a triple helical structure without 4-hydroxylation of proline at a low temperature. At 33 °C, the natural collagenous part is denatured, but the C-terminal (GPP)7-NC2 remains intact. Switching to a low temperature triggers the folding of the type III collagen domain in a zipper-like fashion that resembles the natural process. We used this system for the two known EDS mutations (Gly-to-Val) in the middle at Gly-910 and at the C terminus at Gly-1018. In addition, wild-type and Gly-to-Ala mutants were made. The mutations significantly slow down the overall rate of triple helix formation. The effect of the Gly-to-Val mutation is much more severe compared with Gly-to-Ala. This is the first report on the folding of collagen with EDS mutations, which demonstrates local delays in the triple helix propagation around the mutated residue.

  13. Architecture of the major component of the type III secretion system export apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrusci, Patrizia; Vergara-Irigaray, Marta; Johnson, Steven; Beeby, Morgan D; Hendrixson, David R; Roversi, Pietro; Friede, Miriam E; Deane, Janet E; Jensen, Grant J; Tang, Christoph M; Lea, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are bacterial membrane-embedded nanomachines designed to export specifically targeted proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm. Secretion through T3SS is governed by a subset of inner membrane proteins termed the 'export apparatus'. We show that a key member of the Shigella flexneri export apparatus, MxiA, assembles into a ring essential for secretion in vivo. The ring-forming interfaces are well-conserved in both nonflagellar and flagellar homologs, implying that the ring is an evolutionarily conserved feature in these systems. Electron cryo-tomography revealed a T3SS-associated cytoplasmic torus of size and shape corresponding to those of the MxiA ring aligned to the secretion channel located between the secretion pore and the ATPase complex. This defines the molecular architecture of the dominant component of the export apparatus and allows us to propose a model for the molecular mechanisms controlling secretion.

  14. Hierarchical effector protein transport by the Salmonella Typhimurium SPI-1 type III secretion system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Winnen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type III secretion systems (TTSS are employed by numerous pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria to inject a cocktail of different "effector proteins" into host cells. These effectors subvert host cell signaling to establish symbiosis or disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have studied the injection of SipA and SptP, two effector proteins of the invasion-associated Salmonella type III secretion system (TTSS-1. SipA and SptP trigger different host cell responses. SipA contributes to triggering actin rearrangements and invasion while SptP reverses the actin rearrangements after the invasion has been completed. Nevertheless, SipA and SptP were both pre-formed and stored in the bacterial cytosol before host cell encounter. By time lapse microscopy, we observed that SipA was injected earlier than SptP. Computer modeling revealed that two assumptions were sufficient to explain this injection hierarchy: a large number of SipA and SptP molecules compete for transport via a limiting number of TTSS; and the TTSS recognize SipA more efficiently than SptP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This novel mechanism of hierarchical effector protein injection may serve to avoid functional interference between SipA and SptP. An injection hierarchy of this type may be of general importance, allowing bacteria to precisely time the host cell manipulation by type III effectors.

  15. Identification of Novel Type III Effectors Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the six secretion systems identified in Gram-negative bacteria, the type III secretion system (T3SS plays important roles in the disease development of pathogens. T3SS has attracted a great deal of research interests. However, the secretion mechanism has not been fully understood yet. Especially, the identification of effectors (secreted proteins is an important and challenging task. This paper adopts machine learning methods to identify type III secreted effectors (T3SEs. We extract features from amino acid sequences and conduct feature reduction based on latent semantic information by using latent Dirichlet allocation model. The experimental results on Pseudomonas syringae data set demonstrate the good performance of the new methods.

  16. On the theory of the type III burst exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Goldstein, M. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1976-01-01

    In situ satellite observations of type III burst exciters at 1 AU show that the beam does not evolve into a plateau in velocity space, contrary to the prediction of quasilinear theory. The observations can be explained by a theory that includes mode coupling effects due to excitation of the parametric oscillating two-stream instability and its saturation by anomalous resistivity. The time evolution of the beam velocity distribution is included in the analysis.

  17. Tape Casting of Honeywell PZT Type III Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    STANDARDS 193 A . . . • . .I-" ’ .7. ’. .. ’. .-7 . • " U) 1 IV. Tape Casting of Honeywell PZT Type III Poder II~ II * I S Gordon 0. Dayton Beth A. Jones...Street Port Hueneme, CA 93043 Arlington, VA 22217 3 ATTN: Materials Division Attn: Code 431 Naval Research Laboratory Naval Electronics Laboratory...Washington, DC 20375 San Diego, CA 92152 ATTN: Codes 6000 1 ATTN: Electron Materials 6300 1 Sciences Division 2627 1 Naval Air Development Center Naval

  18. Emission Patterns of Solar Type III Radio Bursts: Stereoscopic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of solar type III radio bursts obtained by the STEREO A, B, and WIND spacecraft at low frequencies from different vantage points in the ecliptic plane are used to determine their directivity. The heliolongitudes of the sources of these bursts, estimated at different frequencies by assuming that they are located on the Parker spiral magnetic field lines emerging from the associated active regions into the spherically symmetric solar atmosphere, and the heliolongitudes of the spacecraft are used to estimate the viewing angle, which is the angle between the direction of the magnetic field at the source and the line connecting the source to the spacecraft. The normalized peak intensities at each spacecraft Rj = Ij /[Sigma]Ij (the subscript j corresponds to the spacecraft STEREO A, B, and WIND), which are defined as the directivity factors are determined using the time profiles of the type III bursts. It is shown that the distribution of the viewing angles divides the type III bursts into: (1) bursts emitting into a very narrow cone centered around the tangent to the magnetic field with angular width of approximately 2 deg and (2) bursts emitting into a wider cone with angular width spanning from [approx] -100 deg to approximately 100 deg. The plots of the directivity factors versus the viewing angles of the sources from all three spacecraft indicate that the type III emissions are very intense along the tangent to the spiral magnetic field lines at the source, and steadily fall as the viewing angles increase to higher values. The comparison of these emission patterns with the computed distributions of the ray trajectories indicate that the intense bursts visible in a narrow range of angles around the magnetic field directions probably are emitted in the fundamental mode, whereas the relatively weaker bursts visible to a wide range of angles are probably emitted in the harmonic mode.

  19. In silico identification of potential chaperone genes that belong to type III and type IV secretion systems in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Khater

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The secretion of bacterial virulence factors and flagellar components requires the assistance of specific type III and flagellar chaperones. Standard computational annotation of the genome of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, a plant pathogen that causes citrus canker, initially did not identify any genes belonging to these chaperone categories since the primary sequence homology between them was very low. However, in a search for hypothetical proteins with characteristics similar to these chaperones, we have now identified 30 chromosomal and 10 plasmidial potential genes encoding chaperones belonging to types III/IV, and flagellar secretion systems in this organism. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  20. Activation of type III interferon genes by pathogenic bacteria in infected epithelial cells and mouse placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Bierne

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections trigger the expression of type I and II interferon genes but little is known about their effect on type III interferon (IFN-λ genes, whose products play important roles in epithelial innate immunity against viruses. Here, we studied the expression of IFN-λ genes in cultured human epithelial cells infected with different pathogenic bacteria and in the mouse placenta infected with Listeria monocytogenes. We first showed that in intestinal LoVo cells, induction of IFN-λ genes by L. monocytogenes required bacterial entry and increased further during the bacterial intracellular phase of infection. Other Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis, also induced IFN-λ genes when internalized by LoVo cells. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydia trachomatis did not substantially induce IFN-λ. We also found that IFN-λ genes were up-regulated in A549 lung epithelial cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in HepG2 hepatocytes and BeWo trophoblastic cells infected with L. monocytogenes. In a humanized mouse line permissive to fetoplacental listeriosis, IFN-λ2/λ3 mRNA levels were enhanced in placentas infected with L. monocytogenes. In addition, the feto-placental tissue was responsive to IFN-λ2. Together, these results suggest that IFN-λ may be an important modulator of the immune response to Gram-positive intracellular bacteria in epithelial tissues.

  1. Enriched iron(III-reducing bacterial communities are shaped by carbon substrate and iron oxide mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Lentini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe oxides exist in a spectrum of structures in the environment, with ferrihydrite widely considered the most bioavailable phase. Yet, ferrihydrite is unstable and rapidly transforms to more crystalline Fe(III oxides (e.g., goethite, hematite, which are poorly reduced by model dissimilatory Fe(III-reducing microorganisms. This begs the question, what processes and microbial groups are responsible for reduction of crystalline Fe(III oxides within sedimentary environments? Further, how do changes in Fe mineralogy shape oxide-hosted microbial populations? To address these questions, we conducted a large-scale cultivation effort using various Fe(III oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite and carbon substrates (glucose, lactate, acetate along a dilution gradient to enrich for microbial populations capable of reducing Fe oxides spanning a wide range of crystallinities and reduction potentials. While carbon source was the most important variable shaping community composition within Fe(III-reducing enrichments, both Fe oxide type and sediment dilution also had a substantial influence. For instance, with acetate as the carbon source, only ferrihydrite enrichments displayed a significant amount of Fe(III reduction and the well known dissimilatory metal reducer Geobacter sp. was the dominant organism enriched. In contrast, when glucose and lactate were provided, all three Fe oxides were reduced and reduction coincided with the presence of fermentative (e.g. Enterobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g. Desulfovibrio spp.. Thus, changes in Fe oxide structure and resource availability may shift Fe(III-reducing communities between dominantly metal-respiring to fermenting and/or sulfate-reducing organisms which are capable of reducing more recalcitrant Fe phases. These findings highlight the need for further targeted investigations into the composition and activity of speciation-directed metal-reducing populations within natural environments.

  2. Nonlinear Spinor Fields in Bianchi type-III spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Within the scope of Bianchi type-III spacetime we study the role of spinor field on the evolution of the Universe as well as the influence of gravity on the spinor field. In doing so we have considered a polynomial type of nonlinearity. In this case the spacetime remains locally rotationally symmetric and anisotropic all the time. It is found that depending on the sign of nonlinearity the models allows both accelerated and oscillatory modes of expansion. The non-diagonal components of energy-momentum tensor though impose some restrictions on metric functions and components of spinor field, unlike Bianchi type I, V and $VI_0$ cases, they do not lead to vanishing mass and nonlinear terms of the spinor field.

  3. $\\ell_1 \\to \\ell_2 \\gamma$ in type III seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, F

    2008-01-01

    We study the decay rates of the $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ and $\\tau \\to \\ell \\gamma$ transitions in the framework of the type III seesaw model, where fermionic triplets are exchanged to generate neutrino masses. We show that the observation of one of those decays in planned experiments would contradict bounds arising from present experimental limits on the $\\mu \\to eee$ and $\\tau \\to 3 l$ decay rates, and therefore imply that there exist other sources of lepton flavour violation than those associated to triplet of fermions.

  4. Guadalajara camptodactyly type III: a new probably autosomal dominant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuera, L E; Ramírez-Dueñas, M L; Dávalos, I P; Cantú, J M

    2002-10-01

    A Mexican family is presented with the main clinical features of camptodactyly, a distinctive facial appearance because of ocular hypertelorism, telecanthus, symblepharon and spinal defects. Other clinical manifestations included: multiple nevi, simplified ears, retrognathia, congenital shortness of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, thin hands and feet, a small penis and mild mental retardation. Radiographic studies revealed spina bifida occulta at cervical and dorso-lumbar levels, increased bone trabeculae, cortical thickening and delayed bone age. The presence of five affected members through four generations suggests autosomal dominant inheritance although no male-to-male transmission was documented. The authors propose this as a new entity, and have designated it Guadalajara camptodactyly type III.

  5. A Probable Short Decimetric Type I-like Noise Storm: Associated with Type III Bursts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Xiang Xie; Min Wang; Yi-Hua Yan

    2005-01-01

    A rare Type I-like noise storm was observed with the solar radio spectrometers (1.0-2.0 GHz and 2.60-3.8 GHz) at National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) on September 23, 1998. We concentrate on checking the Type I-like noise storm occurred in the decay phase of a Type IV radio burst. This noise storm consists of many Type I bursts and isolated Type III or Type III pair bursts.It has a bandwidth of ≤ 0.5 GHz. The duration of each Type I burst is of the order of 100-300ms. The total duration is greater than 11 minutes. The circular polarization degree of the components of Type I and associated Type III bursts are about 40%-100% and almost 100%, respectively, which is greater than that of the background continuum (nearly the precision of our instrument). This short decimetric Type I-like storm may be another kind or the extension of the kind of metric Type I storm, and may possess the duality of metric and decimetric radio emission. It may be in favor of an earlier emission mechanism of the fundamental plasma radiation due to the coalescence of Langmuir waves with low-frequency waves.

  6. Numerical simulations of type III planetary migration: III. Outward migration of massive planets

    CERN Document Server

    Peplinski, A; Mellema, G

    2008-01-01

    We present a numerical study of rapid, so called type III migration for Jupiter-sized planets embedded in a protoplanetary disc. We limit ourselves to the case of outward migration, and study in detail its evolution and physics, concentrating on the structure of the co-rotation and circumplanetary regions, and processes for stopping migration. We also consider the dependence of the migration behaviour on several key parameters. We perform this study using global, two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with adaptive mesh refinement. We find that the outward directed type III migration can be started if the initial conditions support $Z > 1$, that corresponds to initial value $M_\\rmn{\\Delta} \\ga 1.5$. Unlike the inward directed migration, in the outward migration the migration rate increases due to the growing of the volume of the co-orbital region. We find the migration to be strongly dependent on the rate of the mass accumulation in the circumplanetary disc, leading to two possible regimes of migration, f...

  7. Outcome of Gartland type II and type III supracondylar fractures treated by Blount′s technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gheldere Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to some orthopedic surgeons, almost all supracondylar humerus fractures should be treated operatively by reduction and pinning. While according to others, closed reduction and immobolization should be used for Gartland type II and some type III fractures. However, the limit of this technique remains unclear. We present 74 patients with displaced extension-type supracondylar fractures treated by closed reduction and immobilization with a collar sling fixed to a cast around the wrist. The purpose of the study is to give a more precise limitation of this technique. Materials and Methods : Retrospective data acquisition of 74 patients with a Gartland type II or type III fractures treated by closed reduction and immobilization (Blount′s technique between January 2004 and December 2007 was done. The mean age was 6.3 years (range, 2-11. The mean time of follow-up was 6.5 months (range, 3-25. All open injuries and complex elbow fracture dislocations or T-condylar fractures were excluded from the study. All patients were evaluated with standardized anteroposterior and true lateral x-rays of the elbow, and Flynn criteria were used for functional assessment. Results : Gartland type II fractures had 94% good or excellent final results. Gartland type III fractures had 73% good or excellent final result. The Gartland type III outcome depended on the displacement. The fractures remained stable in 88% for the posterior displacement, and 58% for the posteromedial displacement. These displacements were mild. However, for the posterolaterally displaced fractures, only 36% were stable; 36% had a mild displacement and 27% had a major displacement. Conclusion : Pure posterior displacement is more stable than posteromedial displacement which is more stable than posterolaterally displaced fractures. This study suggests that Gartland type II and pure posterior or posteromedial displaced Gartland type III fractures can be treated by closed

  8. Preparation of cellulose II and III{sub I} films by allomorphic conversion of bacterial cellulose I pellicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria-Tischer, Paula C.S., E-mail: paula.tischer@pq.cnpq.br [BioPol, Departamento de Química, UFPR, Cx. Postal 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Université Grenoble Alpes, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolécules Végétales (CERMAV), F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, CERMAV, F-38000 Grenoble (France); UMR 5628 (LMGP), CNRS and Grenoble Institute of Technology, 3 Parvis Louis Néel, F-38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Tischer, Cesar A. [BioPol, Departamento de Química, UFPR, Cx. Postal 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Université Grenoble Alpes, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolécules Végétales (CERMAV), F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, CERMAV, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CIME Nanotech, 3 Parvis Louis Néel, F-38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Heux, Laurent [Université Grenoble Alpes, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolécules Végétales (CERMAV), F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, CERMAV, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Le Denmat, Simon; Picart, Catherine [UMR 5628 (LMGP), CNRS and Grenoble Institute of Technology, 3 Parvis Louis Néel, F-38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Sierakowski, Maria-R. [BioPol, Departamento de Química, UFPR, Cx. Postal 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); and others

    2015-06-01

    The structural changes resulting from the conversion of native cellulose I (Cel I) into allomorphs II (Cel II) and III{sub I} (Cel III{sub I}) have usually been studied using powder samples from plant or algal cellulose. In this work, the conversion of Cel I into Cel II and Cel III{sub I} was performed on bacterial cellulose films without any mechanical disruption. The surface texture of the films was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the morphology of the constituting cellulose ribbons, by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structural changes were characterized using solid-state NMR spectroscopy as well as X-ray and electron diffraction. The allomorphic change into Cel II and Cel III{sub I} resulted in films with different crystallinity, roughness and hydrophobic/hydrophilicity surface and the films remained intact during all process of allomorphic conversion. - Highlights: • Description of a method to modify the allomorphic structure of bacterial cellulose films • Preparation of films with specific morphologies and hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface characters • First report on cellulose III films from bacterial cellulose under swelling conditions • Detailed characterization of cellulose II and III films with complementary techniques • Development of films with specific properties as potential support for cells, enzymes, and drugs.

  9. Epidemiological Study of Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Conjunctivitis in a Level III Neonatal Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Catarina; Gonçalves, Márcia; João, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Background. Conjunctivitis is one of the most frequently occurring hospital-acquired infections among neonates, although it is less studied than potentially life-threatening infections, such as sepsis and pneumonia. Objectives. The aims of our work were to identify epidemiologic characteristics, pathogens, and susceptibility patterns of bacterial hospital-acquired conjunctivitis (HAC) in a level III neonatal unit. Materials and Methods. Data were collected retrospectively from patient charts and laboratory databases. Hospital-acquired conjunctivitis was defined in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) diagnostic criteria. Results. One or more episodes of HAC were diagnosed in 4,0% (n = 60) of 1492 neonates admitted during the study period. Most of the episodes involved premature (75,4%) and low birth weight (75,4%) neonates. Infection rates were higher among patients undergoing noninvasive mechanical ventilation (46,7%), parenteral nutrition (13,6%), and phototherapy (6,8%). Predominant pathogens included Serratia marcescens (27,9%), Escherichia coli (23%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%). Susceptibility patterns revealed bacterial resistances to several antibiotic classes. Gentamicin remains the adequate choice for empirical treatment of HAC in our NICU. Conclusion. It is important to know the local patterns of the disease in order to adjust prevention strategies. Our work contributes to the epidemiological characterization of a sometimes overlooked disease. PMID:23766676

  10. Epidemiological Study of Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Conjunctivitis in a Level III Neonatal Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Conjunctivitis is one of the most frequently occurring hospital-acquired infections among neonates, although it is less studied than potentially life-threatening infections, such as sepsis and pneumonia. Objectives. The aims of our work were to identify epidemiologic characteristics, pathogens, and susceptibility patterns of bacterial hospital-acquired conjunctivitis (HAC in a level III neonatal unit. Materials and Methods. Data were collected retrospectively from patient charts and laboratory databases. Hospital-acquired conjunctivitis was defined in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN diagnostic criteria. Results. One or more episodes of HAC were diagnosed in 4,0% ( of 1492 neonates admitted during the study period. Most of the episodes involved premature (75,4% and low birth weight (75,4% neonates. Infection rates were higher among patients undergoing noninvasive mechanical ventilation (46,7%, parenteral nutrition (13,6%, and phototherapy (6,8%. Predominant pathogens included Serratia marcescens (27,9%, Escherichia coli (23%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%. Susceptibility patterns revealed bacterial resistances to several antibiotic classes. Gentamicin remains the adequate choice for empirical treatment of HAC in our NICU. Conclusion. It is important to know the local patterns of the disease in order to adjust prevention strategies. Our work contributes to the epidemiological characterization of a sometimes overlooked disease.

  11. 77 FR 76426 - Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... organizations that are not functionally integrated. The withdrawal affects Type III supporting organizations... ``Type III Supporting Organizations''). Those regulations reflect changes to the law made by the Pension... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG 155929-06] RIN 1545-BL44 Payout Requirements for Type III...

  12. 77 FR 76382 - Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... regulations regarding the requirements to qualify as a Type III supporting organization that is operated in... Pension Protection Act of 2006. The regulations will affect Type III supporting organizations and their... may require to ensure that the Type III supporting organization is responsive to the needs or...

  13. Biphenyl synthase, a novel type III polyketide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Raeth, T; Beuerle, T; Beerhues, L

    2007-05-01

    Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Maloideae, a subfamily of the economically important Rosaceae. The carbon skeleton of the two classes of antimicrobial secondary metabolites is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS). A cDNA encoding this key enzyme was cloned from yeast-extract-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia. BIS is a novel type III polyketide synthase (PKS) that shares about 60% amino acid sequence identity with other members of the enzyme superfamily. Its preferred starter substrate is benzoyl-CoA that undergoes iterative condensation with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to give 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl via intramolecular aldol condensation. BIS did not accept CoA-linked cinnamic acids such as 4-coumaroyl-CoA. This substrate, however, was the preferential starter molecule for chalcone synthase (CHS) that was also cloned from S. aucuparia cell cultures. While BIS expression was rapidly, strongly and transiently induced by yeast extract treatment, CHS expression was not. In a phylogenetic tree, BIS grouped together closely with benzophenone synthase (BPS) that also uses benzoyl-CoA as starter molecule but cyclizes the common intermediate via intramolecular Claisen condensation. The molecular characterization of BIS thus contributes to the understanding of the functional diversity and evolution of type III PKSs.

  14. A Novel Type III Endosome Transmembrane Protein, TEMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan D. Teasdale

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of a high-throughput subcellular localisation project, the protein encoded by the RIKEN mouse cDNA 2610528J11 was expressed and identified to be associated with both endosomes and the plasma membrane. Based on this, we have assigned the name TEMP for Type III Endosome Membrane Protein. TEMP encodes a short protein of 111 amino acids with a single, alpha-helical transmembrane domain. Experimental analysis of its membrane topology demonstrated it is a Type III membrane protein with the amino-terminus in the lumenal, or extracellular region, and the carboxy-terminus in the cytoplasm. In addition to the plasma membrane TEMP was localized to Rab5 positive early endosomes, Rab5/Rab11 positive recycling endosomes but not Rab7 positive late endosomes. Video microscopy in living cells confirmed TEMP's plasma membrane localization and identified the intracellular endosome compartments to be tubulovesicular. Overexpression of TEMP resulted in the early/recycling endosomes clustering at the cell periphery that was dependent on the presence of intact microtubules. The cellular function of TEMP cannot be inferred based on bioinformatics comparison, but its cellular distribution between early/recycling endosomes and the plasma membrane suggests a role in membrane transport.

  15. Identification of chromosomal genes in Yersinia pestis that influence type III secretion and delivery of Yops into target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Houppert

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Yersinia species possess a type III secretion system, which is required for the delivery of effector Yop proteins into target cells during infection. Genes encoding the type III secretion machinery, its substrates, and several regulatory proteins all reside on a 70-Kb virulence plasmid. Genes encoded in the chromosome of yersiniae are thought to play important roles in bacterial perception of host environments and in the coordinated activation of the type III secretion pathway. Here, we investigate the contribution of chromosomal genes to the complex regulatory process controlling type III secretion in Yersinia pestis. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified five chromosomal genes required for expression or secretion of Yops in laboratory media. Four out of the five chromosomal mutants were defective to various extents at injecting Yops into tissue culture cells. Interestingly, we found one mutant that was not able to secrete in vitro but was fully competent for injecting Yops into host cells, suggesting independent mechanisms for activation of the secretion apparatus. When tested in a mouse model of plague disease, three mutants were avirulent, whereas two strains were severely attenuated. Together these results demonstrate the importance of Y. pestis chromosomal genes in the proper function of type III secretion and in the pathogenesis of plague.

  16. Salmonella Typhimurium type III secretion effectors stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M Bruno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of conserved bacterial products by innate immune receptors leads to inflammatory responses that control pathogen spread but that can also result in pathology. Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to bacterial products and therefore must prevent signaling through innate immune receptors to avoid pathology. However, enteric pathogens are able to stimulate intestinal inflammation. We show here that the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium can stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells by mechanisms that do not involve receptors of the innate immune system. Instead, S. Typhimurium stimulates these responses by delivering through its type III secretion system the bacterial effector proteins SopE, SopE2, and SopB, which in a redundant fashion stimulate Rho-family GTPases leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and NF-kappaB signaling. These observations have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella Typhimurium induces intestinal inflammation as well as other intestinal inflammatory pathologies.

  17. Chronic effects of a Salmonella type III secretion effector protein AvrA in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella infection is a common public health problem that can become chronic and increase the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. AvrA is a Salmonella bacterial type III secretion effector protein. Increasing evidence demonstrates that AvrA is a multi-functional enzyme with critical roles in inhibiting inflammation, regulating apoptosis, and enhancing proliferation. However, the chronic effects of Salmonella and effector AvrA in vivo are still unknown. Moreover, alive, mutated, non-invasive Salmonella is used as a vector to specifically target cancer cells. However, studies are lacking on chronic infection with non-pathogenic or mutated Salmonella in the host. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We infected mice with Salmonella Typhimurium for 27 weeks and investigated the physiological effects as well as the role of AvrA in intestinal inflammation. We found altered body weight, intestinal pathology, and bacterial translocation in spleen, liver, and gallbladder in chronically Salmonella-infected mice. Moreover, AvrA suppressed intestinal inflammation and inhibited the secretion of cytokines IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. AvrA expression in Salmonella enhanced its invasion ability. Liver abscess and Salmonella translocation in the gallbladder were observed and may be associated with AvrA expression in Salmonella. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We created a mouse model with persistent Salmonella infection in vivo. Our study further emphasizes the importance of the Salmonella effector protein AvrA in intestinal inflammation, bacterial translocation, and chronic infection in vivo.

  18. Bacteria attenuation by iron electrocoagulation governed by interactions between bacterial phosphate groups and Fe(III) precipitates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaire, Caroline; van Genuchten, Case M.; Amrose, Susan E.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2016-01-01

    Iron electrocoagulation (Fe-EC) is a low-cost process in which Fe(II) generated from an Fe(0) anode reacts with dissolved O2 to form (1) Fe(III) precipitates with an affinity for bacterial cell walls and (2) bactericidal reactive oxidants. Previous work suggests that Fe-EC is a promising treatment o

  19. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-10-03

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  20. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelrod Felicia B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating. Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III, which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  1. The type III secreted protein BspR regulates the virulence genes in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kurushima

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica is closely related with B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, the causative agents of whooping cough. These pathogenic species share a number of virulence genes, including the gene locus for the type III secretion system (T3SS that delivers effector proteins. To identify unknown type III effectors in Bordetella, secreted proteins in the bacterial culture supernatants of wild-type B. bronchiseptica and an isogenic T3SS-deficient mutant were compared with iTRAQ-based, quantitative proteomic analysis method. BB1639, annotated as a hypothetical protein, was identified as a novel type III secreted protein and was designated BspR (Bordetella secreted protein regulator. The virulence of a BspR mutant (ΔbspR in B. bronchiseptica was significantly attenuated in a mouse infection model. BspR was also highly conserved in B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, suggesting that BspR is an essential virulence factor in these three Bordetella species. Interestingly, the BspR-deficient strain showed hyper-secretion of T3SS-related proteins. Furthermore, T3SS-dependent host cell cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity were also enhanced in the absence of BspR. By contrast, the expression of filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and adenylate cyclase toxin was completely abolished in the BspR-deficient strain. Finally, we demonstrated that BspR is involved in the iron-responsive regulation of T3SS. Thus, Bordetella virulence factors are coordinately but inversely controlled by BspR, which functions as a regulator in response to iron starvation.

  2. The inner rod protein controls substrate switching and needle length in a Salmonella type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebre, Matthew D; Galán, Jorge E

    2014-01-14

    Type III secretion machines are essential for the biology of many bacteria that are pathogenic or symbiotic for animals, plants, or insects. They exert their function by delivering bacterial effector proteins into target eukaryotic cells. The core component of these machines is the needle complex, a multiprotein structure that spans the bacterial envelope and serves as a conduit for proteins that transit this secretion pathway. The needle complex is composed of a multiring base embedded in the bacterial envelope and a filament-like structure, the needle, that projects from the bacterial surface and is linked to the base by the inner rod. Assembly of the needle complex proceeds in a step-wise fashion that is initiated by the assembly of the base and is followed by the export of the building subunits for the needle and inner rod substructures. Once assembled, the needle complex reprograms its specificity and becomes competent for the secretion of effector proteins. Here through genetic, biochemical, and electron microscopy analyses of the Salmonella inner rod protein subunit PrgJ we present evidence that the assembly of the inner rod dictates the timing of substrate switching and needle length. Furthermore, the identification of mutations in PrgJ that specifically alter the hierarchy of protein secretion provides additional support for a complex role of the inner rod substructure in type III secretion.

  3. Prevalence of type III secretion system in effective biocontrol pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, Juliana; Gobbin, Davide; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Rezzonico, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Functional type III secretion system (T3SS) genes are needed for effective biocontrol of Pythium damping-off of cucumber by Pseudomonas fluorescens KD, but whether biocontrol Pseudomonas strains with T3SS genes display overall a higher plant-protecting activity is unknown. The assessment of 198 biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads originating from 60 soils worldwide indicated that 32% harbour the ATPase-encoding T3SS gene hrcN, which was most often found in tomato isolates. The hrcN(+) biocontrol strains (and especially those also producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and displaying 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity) displayed higher plant-protecting ability in comparison with hrcN(-) biocontrol strains, both in the Pythium/cucumber and Fusarium/cucumber pathosystems.

  4. Yersinia Type III Secretion System Master Regulator LcrF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiesow, Leah; Lam, Hanh; Dersch, Petra; Auerbuch, Victoria

    2015-12-07

    Many Gram-negative pathogens express a type III secretion (T3SS) system to enable growth and survival within a host. The three human-pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica, encode the Ysc T3SS, whose expression is controlled by an AraC-like master regulator called LcrF. In this review, we discuss LcrF structure and function as well as the environmental cues and pathways known to regulate LcrF expression. Similarities and differences in binding motifs and modes of action between LcrF and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog ExsA are summarized. In addition, we present a new bioinformatics analysis that identifies putative LcrF binding sites within Yersinia target gene promoters.

  5. High-Frequency Cutoff in Type III Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislavsky, A. A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Volvach, Ya. S.; Koval, A. A.

    In this article we report about a group of solar bursts with high-frequency cutoff, observed on 19 August of 2012 near 8:23 UT, simultaneously by three different radio telescopes: the Ukrainian decameter radio telescope (8-33 MHz), the French Nancay Decametric Array (10-70 MHz) and the Italian San Vito Solar Observatory of RSTN (25-180 MHz). Morphologically the bursts are very similar to the type III bursts. The solar activity is connected with the emergency of a new group of solar spots on the far side of the Sun with respect to observers on Earth. The solar bursts accompany many moderate flares over eastern limb. The refraction of the behind-limb radio bursts towards the Earth is favorable, if CMEs generate low-density cavities in solar corona.

  6. The SPI-1-like Type III secretion system: more roles than you think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Frank; Barret, Matthieu; O'Gara, Fergal

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a protein delivery system which is involved in a wide spectrum of interactions, from mutualism to pathogenesis, between Gram negative bacteria and various eukaryotes, including plants, fungi, protozoa and mammals. Various phylogenetic families of the T3SS have been described, including the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 family (SPI-1). The SPI-1 T3SS was initially associated with the virulence of enteric pathogens, but is actually found in a diverse array of bacterial species, where it can play roles in processes as different as symbiotic interactions with insects and colonization of plants. We review the multiple roles of the SPI-1 T3SS and discuss both how these discoveries are changing our perception of the SPI-1 family and what impacts this has on our understanding of the specialization of the T3SS in general.

  7. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : III. AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE ISOLATION OF THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE AND ITS APPLICATION TO PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPES II, III, AND VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M; Avery, O T

    1946-01-31

    1. An improved method is outlined for the isolation and purification of the pneumococcal transforming substance. This method makes use of the fact that citrate inhibits the destructive action of the enzyme, desoxyribonuclease, which is released together with the active material during lysis of the living bacterial cells. A fivefold greater yield of purified transforming agent is obtained by the present method than by the procedure previousiy described. 2. The specific transforming substance has been isolated from pneumococci of types II and VI, in addition to Type III. In each instance the biologically active material has been found to consist of desoxyribonucleic acid.

  8. Harnessing type I and type III CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingjun; Pan, Saifu; Zhang, Yan;

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are widespread in archaea and bacteria, and research on their molecular mechanisms has led to the development of genome-editing techniques based on a few Type II systems. However, there has not been any...... report on harnessing a Type I or Type III system for genome editing. Here, a method was developed to repurpose both CRISPR-Cas systems for genetic manipulation in Sulfolobus islandicus, a thermophilic archaeon. A novel type of genome-editing plasmid (pGE) was constructed, carrying an artificial mini...

  9. Type II and Type III Radio Bursts and their Correlation with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, L M

    2015-01-01

    Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010-2013, we present an analysis of the 123 decametric-hectometric (DH) type II solar radio bursts during this period, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with solar energetic proton (SEP) properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. We present a useful catalog of the type II burst, type III burst, Langmuir wave, and proton flux properties for these 123 events, which we employ to develop a statistical relationship between the radio properties and peak proton flux that can be used to forecast SEP events. We find that all SEP events with a peak > 10 MeV flux above 15 pfu are associated with a type II burst and virtually all SEP events, 92%, are also associated with a type III radio burst. Based on a principal component analysis, the radio burst properties that are most highly correlated with the occurrence of gradual SEP events and account for the most variance in the ra...

  10. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ type III effector family in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D Lewis

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found in both plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. In P. syringae, this superfamily includes the evolutionarily diverse HopZ1, HopZ2 and HopZ3 alleles. To investigate the roles of the HopZ family in immunomodulation, we generated dexamethasone-inducible T3SE transgenic lines of Arabidopsis for HopZ family members and characterized them for immune suppression phenotypes. We show that all of the HopZ family members can actively suppress various facets of Arabidopsis immunity in a catalytic residue-dependent manner. HopZ family members can differentially suppress the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase cascades or the production of reactive oxygen species, whereas all members can promote the growth of non-virulent P. syringae. Localization studies show that four of the HopZ family members containing predicted myristoylation sites are localized to the vicinity of the plasma membrane while HopZ3 which lacks the myristoylation site is at least partially nuclear localized, suggesting diversification of immunosuppressive mechanisms. Overall, we demonstrate that despite significant evolutionary diversification, all HopZ family members can suppress immunity in Arabidopsis.

  11. Establishment of an inducing medium for type III effector secretion in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the type III secretion system (T3SS and type III (T3 effectors are essential for the pathogenicity of most bacterial phytopathogens and that the expression of T3SS and T3 effectors is suppressed in rich media but induced in minimal media and plants. To facilitate in-depth studies on T3SS and T3 effectors, it is crucial to establish a medium for T3 effector expression and secretion. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a model bacterium for studying plant-pathogen interactions. To date no medium for Xcc T3 effector secretion has been defined. Here, we compared four minimal media (MME, MMX, XVM2, and XOM2 which are reported for T3 expression induction in Xanthomonas spp. and found that MME is most efficient for expression and secretion of Xcc T3 effectors. By optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH value based on MME, we established XCM1 medium, which is about 3 times stronger than MME for Xcc T3 effectors secretion. We further optimized the concentration of phosphate, calcium, and magnesium in XCM1 and found that XCM1 with a lower concentration of magnesium (renamed as XCM2 is about 10 times as efficient as XCM1 (meanwhile, about 30 times stronger than MME. Thus, we established an inducing medium XCM2 which is preferred for T3 effector secretion in Xcc.

  12. Cross-complementation study of the flagellar type III export apparatus membrane protein FlhB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    Full Text Available The bacterial type III export apparatus is found in the flagellum and in the needle complex of some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. In the needle complex its function is to secrete effector proteins for infection into Eukaryotic cells. In the bacterial flagellum it exports specific proteins for the building of the flagellum during its assembly. The export apparatus is composed of about five membrane proteins and three soluble proteins. The mechanism of the export apparatus is not fully understood. The five membrane proteins are well conserved and essential. Here a cross-complementation assay was performed: substituting in the flagellar system of Salmonella one of these membrane proteins, FlhB, by the FlhB ortholog from Aquifex aeolicus (an evolutionary distant hyperthermophilic bacteria or a chimeric protein (AquSalFlhB made by the combination of the trans-membrane domain of A. aeolicus FlhB with the cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella FlhB dramatically reduced numbers of flagella and motility. From cells expressing the chimeric AquSalFlhB protein, suppressor mutants with enhanced motility were isolated and the mutations were identified using whole genome sequencing. Gain-of-function mutations were found in the gene encoding FlhA, another membrane protein of the type III export apparatus. Also, mutations were identified in genes encoding 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase, ubiquinone/menaquinone biosynthesis methyltransferase, and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase, which are required for ubiquinone biosynthesis. The mutations were shown by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography to reduce the quinone pool of the cytoplasmic membrane. Ubiquinone biosynthesis could be restored for the strain bearing a mutated gene for 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase by the addition of excess exogenous 4-hydroxybenzoate. Restoring the level of ubiquinone reduced flagella biogenesis with the AquSalFlhB chimera

  13. Cross-Complementation Study of the Flagellar Type III Export Apparatus Membrane Protein FlhB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial type III export apparatus is found in the flagellum and in the needle complex of some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. In the needle complex its function is to secrete effector proteins for infection into Eukaryotic cells. In the bacterial flagellum it exports specific proteins for the building of the flagellum during its assembly. The export apparatus is composed of about five membrane proteins and three soluble proteins. The mechanism of the export apparatus is not fully understood. The five membrane proteins are well conserved and essential. Here a cross-complementation assay was performed: substituting in the flagellar system of Salmonella one of these membrane proteins, FlhB, by the FlhB ortholog from Aquifex aeolicus (an evolutionary distant hyperthermophilic bacteria) or a chimeric protein (AquSalFlhB) made by the combination of the trans-membrane domain of A. aeolicus FlhB with the cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella FlhB dramatically reduced numbers of flagella and motility. From cells expressing the chimeric AquSalFlhB protein, suppressor mutants with enhanced motility were isolated and the mutations were identified using whole genome sequencing. Gain-of-function mutations were found in the gene encoding FlhA, another membrane protein of the type III export apparatus. Also, mutations were identified in genes encoding 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase, ubiquinone/menaquinone biosynthesis methyltransferase, and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase, which are required for ubiquinone biosynthesis. The mutations were shown by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography to reduce the quinone pool of the cytoplasmic membrane. Ubiquinone biosynthesis could be restored for the strain bearing a mutated gene for 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase by the addition of excess exogenous 4-hydroxybenzoate. Restoring the level of ubiquinone reduced flagella biogenesis with the AquSalFlhB chimera demonstrating that the

  14. Comparative Analysis of Different Types of Bacterial Colonies from the Soils of Yusmarg Forest, Kashmir valley India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowhar Hamid Dar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in the soils of Yusmarg forest to study about the bacterial load (density and diversity, to identify and isolate the bacteria from the soils. During the study a total of thirty six isolates were obtained, among thirty-six different isolates obtained at the four sites B7 and B8 were present at all the four sites, B6 and B9 were present only at site I in November, B16 and B17 were present only at site II in November, B19, B22, B23 and B24 were present only at site III in November, B32, B33 and B34 were present only at site III in December and B35 was present only at site IV in December. Comparative analysis of different types of colonies found at the four sites during the study indicates that the bacterial load was dominant in the month of November.

  15. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1-INH (HAE type III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with normal C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), also known as HAE type III, is a familial condition only clinically recognized within the past three decades. Similar to HAE from C1-INH deficiency (HAE types I and II), affected individuals experience unpredictable angioedema episodes of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and airway. Unique clinical features of HAE with normal C1-INH include the predominance of affected women, frequent exacerbation by estrogen, and a prominence of angioedema that involves the face and oropharynx. The underlying pathophysiology of HAE with normal C1-INH is poorly understood, but indirect evidence points to contact pathway dysregulation with bradykinin-mediated angioedema. Currently, evaluation is complicated by a lack of confirmatory laboratory testing such that clinical criteria must often be used to make the diagnosis of HAE with normal C1-INH. Factor XII mutations have been identified in only a minority of persons affected by HAE with normal C1-INH, limiting the utility of such analysis. To date, no controlled clinical studies have examined the efficacy of therapeutic agents for HAE with normal C1-INH, although published evidence supports frequent clinical benefit with medications shown effective in HAE due to C1-INH deficiency.

  16. Pulmonary involvement in siblings with Gaucher disease type III

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    Đorđević Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary involvement has been described in all types of Gaucher disease (GD but it is considered as relatively rare manifestation. There are reports suggesting that homozygosity for L444P mutation in GBA gene is associated with a substantial risk for developing primary pulmonary disease in GD. Case report. We reported sisters with pulmonary involvement in GD type III. Respiratory failure with fatal outcome at 3 years and 4 months of age occurred in K.K. due to pulmonary complications of GD. At the time enzyme replacement therapy (ERT was not available in Serbia. J.K., homozygous for L444P mutation, developed asymptomatic pulmonary involvement at the age of 6 after 2.5 years of ERT. Pulmonary disease in J.K. was verified by high resolution computerized tomography, cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histopathology of transbronchial lung biopsy. Conclusion. Primary lung disease in children homoallelic for L444P mutation in GBA gene emerges as a significant clinical manifestation of GD with unclear response to ERT.

  17. Antiviral Type I and Type III Interferon Responses in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Michiels

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway.

  18. Spontaneous R-Parity Violating Type III Seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, Sandhya

    2009-01-01

    We present a model where neutrino masses are generated by a combination of spontaneous R-parity violation and Type III seesaw. In addition to the usual MSSM particle content, our model consists of one extra triplet matter chiral superfield containing heavy SU(2) triplet fermions and its superpartners. R-parity is broken spontaneously when the sneutrinos associated with the one heavy neutrino as well as the three light neutrinos get vacuum expectation values, giving rise to the mixed $8\\times 8$ neutralino-neutrino mass matrix. We show that our model can comfortably explain all the existing neutrino oscillation data. Due to the presence of the triplet fermion, we have a pair of additional heavy charged leptons which mix with the standard model charged leptons and the charginos. This gives rise to a $6\\times 6$ chargino-charged lepton mass matrix, with 6 massive eigenstates. Finally we discuss about the different R-parity violating possible decay modes and the distinctive collider signatures which our model off...

  19. Radiative Type III Seesaw Model and its collider phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    von der Pahlen, Federico; Restrepo, Diego; Zapata, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the present bounds of a scotogenic model, the Radiative Type III Seesaw (RSIII), in which an additional scalar doublet and at least two fermion triplets of $SU(2)_L$ are added to the Standard Model (SM). In the RSIII the new physics (NP) sector is odd under an exact global $Z_2$ symmetry. This symmetry guaranties that the lightest NP neutral particle is stable, providing a natural dark matter (DM) candidate, and leads to naturally suppressed neutrino masses generated by a one-loop realization of an effective Weinberg operator. We focus on the region with the highest sensitivity in present and future LHC searches, with light scalar DM and at least one NP fermion triplet at the sub-TeV scale. This region allows for significant production cross-sections of NP fermion pairs at the LHC. We reinterpret a set of searches for supersymmetric particles at the LHC obtained using the package CheckMATE, to set limits on our model as a function of the masses of the NP particles and their Yukawa interactions. The...

  20. Identification of type II and III DDR2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, André; Nguyen, Hoang D; Phan, Trang; Simard, Jeffrey R; Grütter, Christian; Engel, Julian; Rauh, Daniel

    2014-05-22

    Discoidin domain-containing receptors (DDRs) exhibit a unique mechanism of action among the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) because their catalytic activity is induced by extracellular collagen binding. Moreover, they are essential components in the assimilation of extracellular signals. Recently, DDRs were reported to be significantly linked to tumor progression in breast cancer by facilitating the processes of invasion, migration, and metastasis. Here, we report the successful development of a fluorescence-based, direct binding assay for the detection of type II and III DFG-out binders for DDR2. Using sequence alignments and homology modeling, we designed a DDR2 construct appropriate for fluorescent labeling. Successful assay development was validated by sensitive detection of a reference DFG-out binder. Subsequent downscaling led to convenient application to high-throughput screening formats. Screening of a representative compound library identified high-affinity DDR2 ligands validated by orthogonal activity-based assays, and a subset of identified compounds was further investigated with respect to DDR1 inhibition.

  1. Evaluation of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score in Combat-Related Type III Tibia Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Evaluation of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score in Combat-Related Type III Open Tibia Fracture Andrew J. Sheean, MD,* Chad A...soldiers sustaining combat-related Gustilo–Anderson type III open tibia fractures. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary trauma center...Patients: Service Members with combat-related type III open tibia fractures occurring between 2003 and 2007 treated definitively in a US military medical

  2. Synthesis of type III collagen by fibroblasts from the embryonic chick cornea

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Synthesis of collagen types I, II, III, and IV in cells from the embryonic chick cornea was studied using specific antibodies and immunofluorescence. Synthesis of radioactively labeled collagen types I and III was followed by fluorographic detection of cyanogen bromide peptides on polyacrylamide slab gels and by carboxymethylcellulose chromatography followed by disc gel electrophoresis. Type III collagen had been detected previously by indirect immunofluorescence in the corneal epithelial cel...

  3. Harnessing type I and type III CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingjun; Pan, Saifu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are widespread in archaea and bacteria, and research on their molecular mechanisms has led to the development of genome-editing techniques based on a few Type II systems. However, there has not been any...... report on harnessing a Type I or Type III system for genome editing. Here, a method was developed to repurpose both CRISPR-Cas systems for genetic manipulation in Sulfolobus islandicus, a thermophilic archaeon. A novel type of genome-editing plasmid (pGE) was constructed, carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR...... and selectively retained as transformants. Using this strategy, different types of mutation were generated, including deletion, insertion and point mutations. We envision this method is readily applicable to different bacteria and archaea that carry an active CRISPR-Cas system of DNA interference provided...

  4. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou, Sophia; Sullivan, Dan; Black, William; Levow, Gina-Anne; Gillespie, Joseph J; Mao, Chunhong; Pyysalo, Sampo; Kolluru, Balakrishna; Tsujii, Junichi; Sobral, Bruno

    2011-03-29

    Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org). We developed named entity recognition (NER) tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1) bacteria names, 2) biological processes, 3) molecular functions, and 4) cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80%) are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.

  5. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Ananiadou

    Full Text Available Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org. We developed named entity recognition (NER tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1 bacteria names, 2 biological processes, 3 molecular functions, and 4 cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80% are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.

  6. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan S Georgy

    Full Text Available Cerebrolysin (CBL, a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i vehicle- (ii CBL- and (iii STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%, which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU, glycine, serotonin (5-HT and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti

  7. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Gehan S; Nassar, Noha N; Mansour, Hanaa A; Abdallah, Dalaal M

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrolysin (CBL), a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ) on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i) vehicle- (ii) CBL- and (iii) STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv) STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%), which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF)-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp)-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU), glycine, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and

  8. Type I and III procollagen propeptides in growth hormone-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Jørgensen, J O; Risteli, J;

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increasing doses of growth hormone on collagen synthesis in GH-treated GH-deficient patients was determined in a short-term study. The synthesis of type I and III collagen was estimated by measurements of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen and the aminoterminal...... propeptide of type III procollagen. Type I collagen is mainly found in bone and type III collagen in loose connective tissue. We observed a GH dose dependency of both procollagen propeptides. Serum type I procollagen propeptide was significantly higher following GH doses of 4 and 6 IU/day for 14 days...... procollagen propeptide increased twice as much as type I procollagen propeptide, by 47 vs 25%, at a GH dose of 6 IU/day compared with 2 IU/day. The differences between the effects on type I and type III collagen may reflect differences in secretion or turn-over rate of collagen in bone and loose connective...

  9. The Architecture of the Cytoplasmic Region of Type III Secretion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Fumiaki; Shen, Dakang; Kajimura, Naoko; Kawamoto, Akihiro; Pissaridou, Panayiota; Oswin, Henry; Pain, Maria; Murillo, Isabel; Namba, Keiichi; Blocker, Ariel J.

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are essential devices in the virulence of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. They mediate injection of protein effectors of virulence from bacteria into eukaryotic host cells to manipulate them during infection. T3SSs involved in virulence (vT3SSs) are evolutionarily related to bacterial flagellar protein export apparatuses (fT3SSs), which are essential for flagellar assembly and cell motility. The structure of the external and transmembrane parts of both fT3SS and vT3SS is increasingly well-defined. However, the arrangement of their cytoplasmic and inner membrane export apparatuses is much less clear. Here we compare the architecture of the cytoplasmic regions of the vT3SSs of Shigella flexneri and the vT3SS and fT3SS of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium at ~5 and ~4 nm resolution using electron cryotomography and subtomogram averaging. We show that the cytoplasmic regions of vT3SSs display conserved six-fold symmetric features including pods, linkers and an ATPase complex, while fT3SSs probably only display six-fold symmetry in their ATPase region. We also identify other morphological differences between vT3SSs and fT3SSs, such as relative disposition of their inner membrane-attached export platform, C-ring/pods and ATPase complex. Finally, using classification, we find that both types of apparatuses can loose elements of their cytoplasmic region, which may therefore be dynamic. PMID:27686865

  10. OPA3, mutated in 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III, encodes two transcripts targeted primarily to mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizing, Marjan; Dorward, Heidi; Ly, Lien

    2010-01-01

    3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type III (3-MGCA type III), caused by recessive mutations in the 2-exon gene OPA3, is characterized by early-onset bilateral optic atrophy, later-onset extrapyramidal dysfunction, and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid. Her...

  11. 46 CFR 170.135 - Operating information for a vessel with Type III subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating information for a vessel with Type III... Operating Personnel § 170.135 Operating information for a vessel with Type III subdivision. (a) In addition to the information required in 46 CFR 170.110, the stability booklet of a passenger vessel with...

  12. 78 FR 9802 - Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... requirements to qualify as a Type III supporting organization that is operated in connection with one or more... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BG31; 1545-BL38 Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS),...

  13. A note on tilted Bianchi type VIh models: the type III bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, A. A.; Hervik, S.

    2008-10-01

    In this note we complete the analysis of Hervik, van den Hoogen, Lim and Coley (2007 Class. Quantum Grav. 24 3859) of the late-time behaviour of tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type III models. We consider models with dust, and perfect fluids stiffer than dust, and eludicate the late-time behaviour by studying the centre manifold which dominates the behaviour of the model at late times. In the dust case, this centre manifold is three-dimensional and can be considered a double bifurcation as the two parameters (h and γ) of the type VIh model are varied. We therefore complete the analysis of the late-time behaviour of tilted ever-expanding Bianchi models of types I VIII.

  14. Harnessing Type I and Type III CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingjun; Pan, Saifu; Zhang, Yan; Ren, Min; Feng, Mingxia; Peng, Nan; Chen, Lanming; Liang, Yun Xiang; She, Qunxin

    2016-02-29

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are widespread in archaea and bacteria, and research on their molecular mechanisms has led to the development of genome-editing techniques based on a few Type II systems. However, there has not been any report on harnessing a Type I or Type III system for genome editing. Here, a method was developed to repurpose both CRISPR-Cas systems for genetic manipulation in Sulfolobus islandicus, a thermophilic archaeon. A novel type of genome-editing plasmid (pGE) was constructed, carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR array and a donor DNA containing a non-target sequence. Transformation of a pGE plasmid would yield two alternative fates to transformed cells: wild-type cells are to be targeted for chromosomal DNA degradation, leading to cell death, whereas those carrying the mutant gene would survive the cell killing and selectively retained as transformants. Using this strategy, different types of mutation were generated, including deletion, insertion and point mutations. We envision this method is readily applicable to different bacteria and archaea that carry an active CRISPR-Cas system of DNA interference provided the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) of an uncharacterized PAM-dependent CRISPR-Cas system can be predicted by bioinformatic analysis.

  15. Cloning of Bovine herpesvirus type 1 and type 5 as infectious bacterial artifical chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Mathias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesviruses type 1 (BoHV1 and type 5 (BoHV5 are two closely related pathogens of cattle. The identity of the two viruses on the amino acid level averages 82%. Despite their high antigenetic similarities the two pathogens induce distinctive clinical signs. BoHV1 causes respiratory and genital tract infections while BoHV5 leads to severe encephalitis in calves. Findings The viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 were cloned as infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs. First, recombinant viruses carrying the genetic elements for propagation in bacteria were generated. Second, DNA from these recombinant viruses were transferred into prokaryotic cells. Third, DNA from these bacteria were transferred into eukaryotic cells. Progeny viruses from BAC transfections showed similar kinetics as their corresponding wild types. Conclusion The two viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 cloned as BACs are accessible to the tools of bacterial genetics. The ability to easily manipulate the viral genomes on a molecular level in future experiments will lead to a better understanding of the difference in pathogenesis induced by these two closely related bovine herpesviruses.

  16. Positive regulation of the Hrp type III secretion system in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Martín, Inmaculada; Thwaites, Richard; Macho, Alberto P; Mansfield, John W; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2010-05-01

    Disease in compatible hosts and induction of the hypersensitive response in resistant plants by most plant-pathogenic bacteria require a functional type III secretion system (T3SS). Expression of T3SS genes responds to host and environmental factors and is induced within the plant. In Pseudomonas syringae, expression of the T3SS requires HrpL, which is transcriptionally upregulated by HrpR and HrpS. In some pathovars, expression of the hrpRS genes is upregulated by the GacA/S two-component system. Additionally, HrpA, the major component of the T3SS pilus, has also been linked to the regulation of the hrpRS gene expression. Previous studies concerning regulation of hypersensitive response and pathogenesis/hypersensitive response conserved (hrp/hrc) gene expression have used mostly in vitro inducing conditions, different pathovars, and methodology. Here, we analyze the roles of HrpL, GacA, and HrpA in the bean pathogen, using single, double, and triple mutants as well as strains ectopically expressing the regulators. We use real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis in vitro and in planta to quantify gene expression and competitive indices and other assays to assess bacterial fitness. Our results indicate that i) HrpL acts as a general virulence regulator that upregulates non-T3SS virulence determinants and downregulates flagellar function; ii) GacA modulates the expression of hrpL, and its contribution to virulence is entirely HrpL dependent; iii) there is a basal HrpL-independent expression of the T3SS genes in rich medium that is important for full activation of the system, maybe by keeping the system primed for rapid activation upon contact with the plant; and iv) HrpA upregulates expression of the T3SS genes and is essential to activate expression of the hrpZ operon upon contact with the plant.

  17. Frontal Sinus Patency after Extended Frontal Sinusotomy Type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbeygi, Mansour; Nadjafi, Ali; Amali, Amin; Saedi, Babak; Sadrehosseini, Seyed Mousa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The surgical management of chronic frontal sinus disorders remains a challenge for rhinologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the result of Draf III in a series of patients who underwent this procedure. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients were included in this study. Demographic data, history of prior surgery, asthma, aspirin sensitivity and Lund–Mackay score were recorded. A visual analog scale was used for frontal-related symptoms. Patients were followed for a mean duration of 17.5 months and the patency of the frontal sinus ostium was closely monitored. Results: Fifteen patients with chronic frontal sinusitis, two patients with mucoceles, two with malignancy, and one with osteoma underwent Draf III. The mean symptoms score significantly decreased from 5.9 to 3. No ostial closure was seen in the follow-up period. Among 15 patients with chronic frontal sinusitis, 12 had patent ostia of whom three had significant stenosis. All patients with mucocele and osteoma had patent ostia in the follow-up period but patients with sinonasal malignancy showed significant stenosis. Conclusion: Draf III frontal sinusotomy is successful in alleviating patient symptoms and the frontal sinus neo-ostium will remain patent in long-term follow-up of most patients. Revision surgery will be required in some cases, which seems to be related to the nature of the underlying chronic sinus diseases. PMID:27738610

  18. Type III Secretion: a Virulence Factor Delivery System Essential for the Pathogenicity of Burkholderia mallei

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich, Ricky L; DeShazer, David

    2004-01-01

    By creating mutations in the Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 animal pathogen-like type III secretion system (TTSS), this study analyzes the correlation between type III secretion and the pathogenicity of ATCC 23344 in vivo. Mutagenesis demonstrated that a functional TTSS was required for the full pathogenicity of ATCC 23344 in the BALB/c mouse and Syrian hamster models of infection. However, vaccination with each mutant failed to elicit a protective immunity against challenge with wild-type AT...

  19. [Prophylactic use of icatibant before tracheal intubation of a patient with hereditary angioedema type III. (A literature review of perioperative management of patients with hereditary angioedema type III)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturri Clavero, F; González Uriarte, A; Tamayo Medel, G; Gamboa Setién, P M

    2014-01-01

    Type III hereditary angioedema is a rare familial disorder that has recently been described as a separate condition. Triggers for episodes of angioedema include surgery, dental procedures, and tracheal intubation maneuvers. Since episodes affecting the upper airway are potentially life-threatening, prophylactic treatment is recommended in these situations. The use of icatibant (Firazyr(®)), for prevention of angioedema prior to tracheal intubation, is reported in a patient with type iii hereditary angioedema. A literature review on the anesthetic management of this condition was conducted.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Secretory Toxin ExoU and Its Predicted Homologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiji Sawa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoU, a type III secretory toxin and major virulence factor with patatin-like phospholipase activity, is responsible for acute lung injury and sepsis in immunocompromised patients. Through use of a recently updated bacterial genome database, protein sequences predicted to be homologous to Ps. aeruginosa ExoU were identified in 17 other Pseudomonas species (Ps. fluorescens, Ps. lundensis, Ps. weihenstephanensis, Ps. marginalis, Ps. rhodesiae, Ps. synxantha, Ps. libanensis, Ps. extremaustralis, Ps. veronii, Ps. simiae, Ps. trivialis, Ps. tolaasii, Ps. orientalis, Ps. taetrolens, Ps. syringae, Ps. viridiflava, and Ps. cannabina and 8 Gram-negative bacteria from three other genera (Photorhabdus, Aeromonas, and Paludibacterium. In the alignment of the predicted primary amino acid sequences used for the phylogenetic analyses, both highly conserved and nonconserved parts of the toxin were discovered among the various species. Further comparative studies of the predicted ExoU homologs should provide us with more detailed information about the unique characteristics of the Ps. aeruginosa ExoU toxin.

  1. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N.; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R.; Grishin, Nick V.; Orth, Kim

    2016-07-05

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered thatVibrio parahaemolyticusVtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment.

  2. Fermentation of Metroxylon sagu resistant starch type III by Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium bifidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew-Wai, Loo; Zi-Ni, Tan; Karim, Alias A; Hani, Norziah M; Rosma, Ahmad

    2010-02-24

    The in vitro fermentability of sago (Metroxylon sagu) resistant starch type III (RS(3)) by selected probiotic bacteria was investigated. Sago RS(3) with 12% RS content was prepared by enzymatic debranching of native sago starch with pullulanase enzyme, followed by autoclaving, cooling, and annealing. The fermentation of sago RS(3) by L. acidophilus FTCC 0291, L. bulgaricus FTCC 0411, L. casei FTCC 0442, and B. bifidum BB12 was investigated by observing the bacterial growth, carbohydrate consumption profiles, pH changes, and total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced in the fermentation media. Comparisons were made with commercial fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), Hi-maize 1043, and Hi-maize 240. Submerged fermentations were conducted in 30 mL glass vials for 24 h at 37 degrees C in an oven without shaking. The results indicated that fermentation of sago RS(3) significantly (P < 0.05) yielded the highest count of Lactobacillus sp. accompanied by the largest reduction in pH of the medium. Sago RS(3) was significantly the most consumed substrate compared to FOS and Hi-maizes.

  3. Serum aminoterminal type III procollagen peptide reflects repair after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Hørslev-Petersen, K; Toft, P;

    1990-01-01

    similar to changes observed during wound healing in humans. PIIINP is cleaved off procollagen type III during the biosynthesis of type III collagen, which characterizes the early stages of repair and inflammation. Our findings suggest that serum PIIINP reflects the repair processes and scar formation......In 16 patients with acute myocardial infarction and in 15 controls, procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide in serum (PIIINP) was measured consecutively. Serum PIIINP was increased on the second to third postinfarction day (p less than 0.01) and remained elevated for more than 4 months. Peak...

  4. High frequency of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with SCCmec type III and Spa types t037 and t631 isolated from burn patients in southwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizgari, Najmeh; Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali Asghar; Marashifard, Masoud; Yazdanpanah, Mahboobeh; Emaneini, Mohammad; Gharibpour, Farzaneh; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood; Moein, Masoud; Naraki, Mahmood

    2016-03-01

    Methicilin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are the major challenges in hospitals, especially in the burn units. The use of molecular typing methods is essential for tracking the spread of S. aureus infection and epidemiological investigations. The aim of this study was to find the profile of the spa types and also the prevalence of each SCCmec type of S. aureus strains in a central burn hospital in southwest of Iran. A total of 81 non-duplicate S. aureus were isolated from burn patients between April 2011 and February 2012. The susceptibility of the isolates against 13 different antibiotics was tested by disk agar diffusion (DAD) method. MRSA strains were identified by amplification of mecA gene. Multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to determine the SCCmec types of MRSA strains and all the S. aureus isolates were typed by spa typing method. Detection of mecA gene showed that 70 (86.4%) of the isolates were MRSA. The highest rate of resistance was observed for penicillin (97.5%) and erythromycin (77.8%). None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Sixty-seven of the 70 MRSA isolates harbored only SCCmec type III and three untypeable isolates. Five different spa types were detected. The most common spa types were t037 (42.5%) and t631 (34.5%) and were only found in MRSA isolates. Only SCCmec type III was found in burn patients which emphasizes the HA-MRSA origin of these strains. Only five different spa types identified in this study are in accordance with one SCCmec type which indicates that a limited number of bacterial colons are circulated in the burn unit in this hospital.

  5. Bacteria attenuation by iron electrocoagulation governed by interactions between bacterial phosphate groups and Fe(III) precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaire, Caroline; van Genuchten, Case M; Amrose, Susan E; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-10-15

    Iron electrocoagulation (Fe-EC) is a low-cost process in which Fe(II) generated from an Fe(0) anode reacts with dissolved O2 to form (1) Fe(III) precipitates with an affinity for bacterial cell walls and (2) bactericidal reactive oxidants. Previous work suggests that Fe-EC is a promising treatment option for groundwater containing arsenic and bacterial contamination. However, the mechanisms of bacteria attenuation and the impact of major groundwater ions are not well understood. In this work, using the model indicator Escherichia coli (E. coli), we show that physical removal via enmeshment in EC precipitate flocs is the primary process of bacteria attenuation in the presence of HCO3(-), which significantly inhibits inactivation, possibly due to a reduction in the lifetime of reactive oxidants. We demonstrate that the adhesion of EC precipitates to cell walls, which results in bacteria encapsulation in flocs, is driven primarily by interactions between EC precipitates and phosphate functional groups on bacteria surfaces. In single solute electrolytes, both P (0.4 mM) and Ca/Mg (1-13 mM) inhibited the adhesion of EC precipitates to bacterial cell walls, whereas Si (0.4 mM) and ionic strength (2-200 mM) did not impact E. coli attenuation. Interestingly, P (0.4 mM) did not affect E. coli attenuation in electrolytes containing Ca/Mg, consistent with bivalent cation bridging between bacterial phosphate groups and inorganic P sorbed to EC precipitates. Finally, we found that EC precipitate adhesion is largely independent of cell wall composition, consistent with comparable densities of phosphate functional groups on Gram-positive and Gram-negative cells. Our results are critical to predict the performance of Fe-EC to eliminate bacterial contaminants from waters with diverse chemical compositions.

  6. Second harmonic generation microscopy differentiates collagen type I and type III in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Kayra, Damian; Elliott, W. Mark; Hogg, James C.; Abraham, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    The structural remodeling of extracellular matrix proteins in peripheral lung region is an important feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Multiphoton microscopy is capable of inducing specific second harmonic generation (SHG) signal from non-centrosymmetric structural proteins such as fibrillar collagens. In this study, SHG microscopy was used to examine structural remodeling of the fibrillar collagens in human lungs undergoing emphysematous destruction (n=2). The SHG signals originating from these diseased lung thin sections from base to apex (n=16) were captured simultaneously in both forward and backward directions. We found that the SHG images detected in the forward direction showed well-developed and well-structured thick collagen fibers while the SHG images detected in the backward direction showed striking different morphological features which included the diffused pattern of forward detected structures plus other forms of collagen structures. Comparison of these images with the wellestablished immunohistochemical staining indicated that the structures detected in the forward direction are primarily the thick collagen type I fibers and the structures identified in the backward direction are diffusive structures of forward detected collagen type I plus collagen type III. In conclusion, we here demonstrate the feasibility of SHG microscopy in differentiating fibrillar collagen subtypes and understanding their remodeling in diseased lung tissues.

  7. Dietary management in glycogen storage disease type III : what is the evidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Terry G. J.; Smit, G. Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    In childhood, GSD type III causes relatively severe fasting intolerance, classically associated with ketotic hypoglycaemia. During follow up, history of (documented) hypoglycaemia, clinical parameters (growth, liver size, motor development, neuromuscular parameters), laboratory parameters (glucose,

  8. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen. Studies on physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the physiological basis for the clinical use of serum PIIINP as a marker of the deposition rate of type III collagen. The assumption was that the serum concentration of PIIINP would reflect the turnover of type III collagen and thus directly reflect...... disappears when the body is in a catabolic state. Anabolic states give rise to increased serum concentrations of PIIINP as compared with normals states. The general conclusion is that serum PIIINP is a marker of type III collagen turnover under well-defined conditions. Serum PIIINP, mainly consisting...... of peaks B and C (intact PIIINP) may, owing to the disposal rate, reflect changes in type III collagen turnover over one day (6 half-lives). The liver and kidneys actively take part in the degradation of circulating PIIINP. Serum concentrations of PIIINP in the presence of changing body composition (weight...

  9. Decameter type III bursts with positive and negative frequency drift rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, V. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Briand, C.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Zarka, P.; Frantzusenko, A. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Rutkevych, B. P.; Panchenko, M.; Zaqarashvili, T.; Shergelashvili, B.

    2013-09-01

    We report about observations of decameter type III bursts whose frequency drift rates vary their signs from negative to positive. Moreover drift rates of some bursts vary the sign some times. Positive drift rates for some bursts are changed from 0.44 MHz/s to 12 MHz/s. At the same time the negative drift rates of these bursts are standard values for decameter type III bursts. A possible interpretation of such phenomenon on the base of plasma mechanism of type III burst generation is discussed. The sense of this interpretation is that group velocity of type III electromagnetic waves generated by fast electrons at some conditions can be smaller than velocity of these electrons.

  10. Critical behavior of the Lyapunov exponent in type-III intermittency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Llamoza, O. [Departamento de Fisica, FACYT, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela); Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Grupo de Caos y Sistemas Complejos, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5251, Merida (Venezuela)], E-mail: llamoza@ula.ve; Cosenza, M.G. [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Grupo de Caos y Sistemas Complejos, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5251, Merida (Venezuela); Ponce, G.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras (Honduras); Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Pedagogica Nacional Francisco Morazan, Tegucigalpa (Honduras)

    2008-04-15

    The critical behavior of the Lyapunov exponent near the transition to robust chaos via type-III intermittency is determined for a family of one-dimensional singular maps. Critical boundaries separating the region of robust chaos from the region where stable fixed points exist are calculated on the parameter space of the system. A critical exponent {beta} expressing the scaling of the Lyapunov exponent is calculated along the critical curve corresponding to the type-III intermittent transition to chaos. It is found that {beta} varies on the interval 0 {<=} {beta} < 1/2 as a function of the order of the singularity of the map. This contrasts with earlier predictions for the scaling behavior of the Lyapunov exponent in type-III intermittency. The variation of the critical exponent {beta} implies a continuous change in the nature of the transition to chaos via type-III intermittency, from a second-order, continuous transition to a first-order, discontinuous transition.

  11. Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System 2 ATPase EivC Is Involved in the Motility and Virulence of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Xin; Xu, Xuan; Yang, Denghui; Wang, Dong; Han, Xiangan; Shi, Yonghong; Tian, Mingxing; Ding, Chan; Peng, Daxin; Yu, Shengqing

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are crucial for bacterial infections because they deliver effector proteins into host cells. The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is present in the majority of E. coli strains, and although it is degenerate, ETT2 regulates bacterial virulence. An ATPase is essential for T3SS secretion, but the function of the ETT2 ATPase has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that EivC is homologous to the β subunit of F0F1 ATPases and it possesses ATPase activity. To investigate the effects of ETT2 ATPase EivC on the phenotype and virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), eivC mutant and complemented strains were constructed and characterized. Inactivation of eivC led to impaired flagella production and augmented fimbriae on the bacterial surface, and, consequently, reduced bacterial motility. In addition, the eivC mutant strain exhibited attenuated virulence in ducks, diminished serum resistance, reduced survival in macrophage cells and in ducks, upregulated fimbrial gene expression, and downregulated flagellar and virulence gene expression. The expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 were increased in HD-11 macrophages infected with the eivC mutant strain, compared with the wild-type strain. These virulence-related phenotypes were restored by genetic complementation. These findings demonstrate that ETT2 ATPase EivC is involved in the motility and pathogenicity of APEC. PMID:27630634

  12. Expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III during the development of the peripheral nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-liang Huang; Zhong-yang Liu; Jing-hui Huang; Zhuo-jing Luo

    2015-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 type III is a key regulator in Schwann cell proliferation, committing to a myelinat-ing fate and regulating myelin sheath thickness. However, the expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III in the peripheral nervous system during developmental periods (such as the premyelin-ating stage, myelinating stage and postmyelinating stage) has rarely been studied. In this study, dorsal root ganglia were isolated from rats between postnatal day 1 and postnatal day 56. The expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III in dorsal root ganglia neurons at various develop-mental stages were compared by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot assay and immunolfuorescent staining. The expression of neuregulin-1 type III mRNA reached its peak at postnatal day 3 and then stabilized at a relative high expression level from postnatal day 3 to postnatal day 56. The expression of neuregulin-1 type III protein increased gradually from postnatal day 1, reached a peak at postnatal day 28, and then decreased at postnatal day 56. Immunolfuorescent staining results showed a similar tendency to western blot assay results. Experimental findings indicate that the expression of neuregulin-1 type III in rat dorsal root ganglion was increased during the premyelinating (from postnatal day 2 to postnatal day 5) and myelinating stage (from postnatal day 5 to postnatal day 10), but remained at a high level in the postmyelinating stage (after postnatal day 10).

  13. Solar Micro-Type III Burst Storms and Long Dipolar Magnetic Field in the Outer Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Iwai, K.; Kasaba, Y.; Masuda, S.; Misawa, H.; Obara, T.

    2015-08-01

    Solar micro-type III radio bursts are elements of the so-called type III storms and are characterized by short-lived, continuous, and weak emissions. Their frequency of occurrence with respect to radiation power is quite different from that of ordinary type III bursts, suggesting that the generation process is not flare-related, but due to some recurrent acceleration processes around the active region. We examine the relationship of micro-type III radio bursts with coronal streamers. We also explore the propagation channel of bursts in the outer corona, the acceleration process, and the escape route of electron beams. It is observationally confirmed that micro-type III bursts occur near the edge of coronal streamers. The magnetic field line of the escaping electron beams is tracked on the basis of the frequency drift rate of micro-type III bursts and the electron density distribution model. The results demonstrate that electron beams are trapped along closed dipolar field lines in the outer coronal region, which arise from the interface region between the active region and the coronal hole. A 22 year statistical study reveals that the apex altitude of the magnetic loop ranges from 15 to 50 RS. The distribution of the apex altitude has a sharp upper limit around 50 RS suggesting that an unknown but universal condition regulates the upper boundary of the streamer dipolar field.

  14. The noncanonical type III secretion system of Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis is essential for forage grass infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Hersemann, Lena; Widmer, Franco; Blom, Jochen; Niehaus, Karsten; Reinhard, Sonja; Conradin, Constanze; Kölliker, Roland

    2013-08-01

    Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) is a gammaproteobacterium that causes bacterial wilt on a wide range of forage grasses. To gain insight into the host-pathogen interaction and to identify the virulence factors of Xtg, we compared a draft genome sequence of one isolate (Xtg29) with other Xanthomonas spp. with sequenced genomes. The type III secretion system (T3SS) encoding a protein transport system for type III effector (T3E) proteins represents one of the most important virulence factors of Xanthomonas spp. In contrast with other Xanthomonas spp. assigned to clade 1 on the basis of phylogenetic analyses, we identified an hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) gene cluster encoding T3SS components and a representative set of 35 genes encoding putative T3Es in the genome of Xtg29. The T3SS was shown to be divergent from the hrp gene clusters of other sequenced Xanthomonas spp. Xtg mutants deficient in T3SS regulating and structural genes were constructed to clarify the role of the T3SS in forage grass colonization. Italian ryegrass infection with these mutants led to significantly reduced symptoms (P < 0.05) relative to plants infected with the wild-type strain. This showed that the T3SS is required for symptom evocation. In planta multiplication of the T3SS mutants was not impaired significantly relative to the wild-type, indicating that the T3SS is not required for survival until 14 days post-infection. This study represents the first major step to understanding the bacterial colonization strategies deployed by Xtg and may assist in the identification of resistance (R) genes in forage grasses.

  15. Membrane topology of conserved components of the type III secretion system from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Carolin; Robin, Guillaume P; Bonas, Ulla; Koebnik, Ralf

    2010-07-01

    Type III secretion (T3S) systems play key roles in the assembly of flagella and the translocation of bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. Eleven proteins which are conserved among gram-negative plant and animal pathogenic bacteria have been proposed to build up the basal structure of the T3S system, which spans both inner and outer bacterial membranes. We studied six conserved proteins, termed Hrc, predicted to reside in the inner membrane of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. The membrane topology of HrcD, HrcR, HrcS, HrcT, HrcU and HrcV was studied by translational fusions to a dual alkaline phosphatase-beta-galactosidase reporter protein. Two proteins, HrcU and HrcV, were found to have the same membrane topology as the Yersinia homologues YscU and YscV. For HrcR, the membrane topology differed from the model for the homologue from Yersinia, YscR. For our data on three other protein families, exemplified by HrcD, HrcS and HrcT, we derived the first topology models. Our results provide what is believed to be the first complete model of the inner membrane topology of any bacterial T3S system and will aid in elucidating the architecture of T3S systems by ultrastructural analysis.

  16. The extracellular matrix of Gadus morhua muscle contains types III, V, VI and IV collagens in addition to type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Lawson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Confocal microscopy and immuno‐histochemistry were used to examine collagens in the extracellular matrix of cod Gadus morhua swimming muscle. In addition to the well known presence of type I fibrous collagen, types III and VI were also found in the myocommata and the endomysium. The beaded collagen...

  17. Electrochemiluminescence of terbium (III) complex and its potential application for the determination of bacterial endospores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kun; Liu, Junying; Shu, Guibo; Yang, Yu; Zhu, Yinggui, E-mail: ygzhu08@mail.ahnu.edu.cn; Zhao, Guangchao

    2013-09-15

    Binary Tb (III) complex with pyridine-2, 6-dicarboxylate (DPA) was synthesized by a simple process and its electrochemiluminesence (ECL) property in an aqueous solution was investigated carefully for the first time. Based on the ECL property of the synthesized Tb (III) complex, a new method to detect DPA with high sensitivity was established. Under the optimal condition, the linear relationship between enhanced ECL and the concentration of DPA was 2.0×10{sup −7}–3.4×10{sup −5} mol/L and the limit of detection (LOD) was 6.0×10{sup −8} mol/L. Furthermore, the possible mechanism for the ECL behavior of Tb (III) complex was also investigated. -- Highlights: • ECL property of Tb (DPA){sub 3}(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} at aqueous solution was explored for the first time. • The mechanism of its ECL was proposed; upon optimal condition, a great ECL phenomenon would be observed. • Pyridine-2, 6-dicarboxylate(DPA) was first detected by using the ECL method. • The discovery of Tb (DPA){sub 3}(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} enriched the ECL materials field.

  18. Identification and characterization of a type III Trichomonas vaginalis virus in the protozoan pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessarab, Irina N; Nakajima, Rui; Liu, Hsing-Wei; Tai, Jung-Hsiang

    2011-02-01

    A type III Trichomonas vaginalis virus, which may be involved in transcriptional regulation of the major surface protein gene P270 of the protozoan pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, was purified and characterized in the present study. The complete 4844-base-pair complementary DNA sequence of the viral genome reveals overlapping cap and pol genes with a putative ribosomal frame-shifting signal within the overlap region. The type III virus is related more closely to the type II virus than to the type I virus in the sequence of its ribosomal frameshift signal and in its capsid protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses could be grouped in the same clade as a genus distantly related to other genera in the family Totiviridae. Virus-induced P270 gene expression was only evident in Trichomonas vaginalis cells infected with either a type II or type III virus, but not with a type I virus. These findings suggest that transcription of the P270 gene is likely regulated by viral factors common to type II and type III viruses and thus provides important information for future investigation of virus-host interactions.

  19. The Type III Secretion System Effector SptP of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Byrne, Alexander; Berger, Cedric N; Klemm, Elizabeth; Crepin, Valerie F; Dougan, Gordon; Frankel, Gad

    2017-02-15

    Strains of the various Salmonella enterica serovars cause gastroenteritis or typhoid fever in humans, with virulence depending on the action of two type III secretion systems (Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 [SPI-1] and SPI-2). SptP is a Salmonella SPI-1 effector, involved in mediating recovery of the host cytoskeleton postinfection. SptP requires a chaperone, SicP, for stability and secretion. SptP has 94% identity between S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S Typhi; direct comparison of the protein sequences revealed that S Typhi SptP has numerous amino acid changes within its chaperone-binding domain. Subsequent comparison of ΔsptP S Typhi and S. Typhimurium strains demonstrated that, unlike SptP in S. Typhimurium, SptP in S Typhi was not involved in invasion or cytoskeletal recovery postinfection. Investigation of whether the observed amino acid changes within SptP of S Typhi affected its function revealed that S Typhi SptP was unable to complement S. Typhimurium ΔsptP due to an absence of secretion. We further demonstrated that while S. Typhimurium SptP is stable intracellularly within S Typhi, S Typhi SptP is unstable, although stability could be recovered following replacement of the chaperone-binding domain with that of S. Typhimurium. Direct assessment of the strength of the interaction between SptP and SicP of both serovars via bacterial two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that S Typhi SptP has a significantly weaker interaction with SicP than the equivalent proteins in S. Typhimurium. Taken together, our results suggest that changes within the chaperone-binding domain of SptP in S Typhi hinder binding to its chaperone, resulting in instability, preventing translocation, and therefore restricting the intracellular activity of this effector.

  20. Potassium transport of Salmonella is important for type III secretion and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yehao; Ho, Katharina Kim; Su, Jing; Gong, Hao; Chang, Alexander C; Lu, Sangwei

    2013-08-01

    Intracellular cations are essential for the physiology of all living organisms including bacteria. Cations such as potassium ion (K(+)), sodium ion (Na(+)) and proton (H(+)) are involved in nearly all aspects of bacterial growth and survival. K(+) is the most abundant cation and its homeostasis in Escherichia coli and Salmonella is regulated by three major K(+) transporters: high affinity transporter Kdp and low affinity transporters Kup and Trk. Previous studies have demonstrated the roles of cations and cation transport in the physiology of Escherichia coli; their roles in the virulence and physiology of pathogenic bacteria are not well characterized. We have previously reported that the Salmonella K(+) transporter Trk is important for the secretion of effector proteins of the type III secretion system (TTSS) of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Here we further explore the role of Salmonella cation transport in virulence in vitro and pathogenesis in animal models. Impairment of K(+) transport through deletion of K(+) transporters or exposure to the chemical modulators of cation transport, gramicidin and valinomycin, results in a severe defect in the TTSS of SPI-1, and this defect in the TTSS was not due to a failure to regulate intrabacterial pH or ATP. Our results also show that K(+) transporters are critical to the pathogenesis of Salmonella in mice and chicks and are involved in multiple growth and virulence characteristics in vitro, including protein secretion, motility and invasion of epithelial cells. These results suggest that cation transport of the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella, especially K(+) transport, contributes to its virulence in addition to previously characterized roles in maintaining homeostasis of bacteria.

  1. Lack of the type III epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Nielsen, Jens Nederby;

    2007-01-01

    network are being investigated and mutations in the EGFR gene have been identified. The type III epidermal growth factor receptor, a tumour-specific, ligand independent, constitutively activated form of EGFR, might contribute to the malignant phenotype in CRC and may be a potential target for anticancer...... therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of EGFRvIII in CRC by PCR and protein analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 79 colorectal cancer patients for PCR analysis and 50 patients for protein analysis by Western blots, in two different laboratories. RESULTS......: No type III mutations were detected in our material. CONCLUSION: The EGFRvIII mutations are rare in colorectal adenocarcinomas and overall probability does not appear to contribute to the malignant phenotype of this disease....

  2. On the three harmonics of solar type III bursts at the decameter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhenko, Anatolii; Pylaev, Oleg; Melnik, Valentin; Konovalenko, Alexandr; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Rucker, Helmut; Frantsuzenko, Anatolii; Dorovskyy, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Harmonic structure of type III bursts are explained in terms of plasma emission mechanism. The second harmonic emission is well known. But there are theoretical papers about the third harmonic of type III bursts. And there were observations of the third harmonic of such types of bursts as U, J, V, II. We observed triple type III bursts where frequency ratio is close to 1:2:3. They are structures where type III emission is repeated at the double and triple frequencies. Incidentally, components of triple type III bursts are not only standard type III but also type IIIb bursts. We registered 30 triple bursts during 2011 and 2012 years. Observations were made by radio telescope URAN-2, Poltava, Ukraine. It enables polarization measurements at the frequencies 8 - 32 MHz. URAN-2 allows registration of radio emission with time and frequency resolution 10 ms and 4 kHz correspondingly. We analyze properties of the components of triple bursts and their dependencies on frequency, type of burst and on the position of the component within the triplet. The main properties of the components of triple bursts such as duration and drift rate are similar to those of standard type III and IIIb bursts. We find usual for type III bursts dependencies such as follow: duration decreases with frequency, the type IIIb bursts have always smaller duration at the same frequencies, all bursts drift from high to low frequencies. But we also find the linear dependence of drift rate on frequency. All components of a trio have the same sign of polarization. Polarization of the first component is always the highest in triple bursts. It corresponds to the generally accepted viewpoint about the first harmonic emission. The second and the third components of trio have low polarization. It is typical for the second and the third harmonics according to the plasma radiation mechanism. We discuss possible emission mechanisms and theoretical aspects of observed dependencies. The most of detected regularities

  3. OPA3, mutated in 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III, encodes two transcripts targeted primarily to mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizing, Marjan; Dorward, Heidi; Ly, Lien;

    2010-01-01

    3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type III (3-MGCA type III), caused by recessive mutations in the 2-exon gene OPA3, is characterized by early-onset bilateral optic atrophy, later-onset extrapyramidal dysfunction, and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid. Her...... we report the identification of a novel third OPA3 coding exon, the apparent product of a segmental duplication event, resulting in two gene transcripts, OPA3A and OPA3B. OPA3A deficiency (as in optic atrophy type 3) causes up-regulation of OPA3B. OPA3 protein function remains unknown...

  4. Serial audiometry and speech recognition findings in Finnish Usher syndrome type III patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, R.F.; Kleemola, L.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Joensuu, T.; Sankila, E.M.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Audiometric features, evaluated by serial pure tone audiometry and speech recognition tests (n = 31), were analysed in 59 Finnish Usher syndrome type III patients (USH3) with Finmajor/Finmajor (n = 55) and Finmajor/Finminor (n = 4) USH3A mutations. These patients showed a highly variable type and de

  5. Exercise intolerance in Glycogen Storage Disease Type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Pradel, Agnès; Husu, Edith

    2013-01-01

    experience exercise intolerance due to insufficient carbohydrate oxidation in skeletal muscle. Six patients aged 17-36-years were studied. We determined VO 2peak (peak oxygen consumption), the response to forearm exercise, and the metabolic and cardiovascular responses to cycle exercise at 70% of VO 2peak......Myopathic symptoms in Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIIa (GSD IIIa) are generally ascribed to the muscle wasting that these patients suffer in adult life, but an inability to debranch glycogen likely also has an impact on muscle energy metabolism. We hypothesized that patients with GSD IIIa can...... caused exercise intolerance with dynamic skeletal muscle symptoms (excessive fatigue and muscle pain), and hypoglycemia in 4 subjects. In this study we combined anaerobic and aerobic exercise to systematically study skeletal muscle metabolism and exercise tolerance in patients with GSD IIIa. Exercise...

  6. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Characterization of the Type III Secretion System Tip Chaperone Protein PcrG of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sukanya; Nordhues, Bryce A; Kaur, Kawaljit; Zhang, Na; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2015-11-01

    Lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of death among cystic fibrosis patients. To initiate infection, P. aeruginosa assembles a protein nanomachine, the type III secretion system (T3SS), to inject bacterial proteins directly into target host cells. An important regulator of the P. aeruginosa T3SS is the chaperone protein PcrG, which forms a complex with the tip protein, PcrV. In addition to its role as a chaperone to the tip protein, PcrG also regulates protein secretion. PcrG homologues are also important in the T3SS of other pathogens such as Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague. The atomic structure of PcrG or any member of the family of tip protein chaperones is currently unknown. Here, we show by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that PcrG lacks a tertiary structure. However, it is not completely disordered but contains secondary structures dominated by two long α-helices from residue 16 to 41 and from residue 55 to 76. The helices of PcrG are partially formed, have similar backbone dynamics, and are flexible. NMR titrations show that the entire length of PcrG residues from position 9 to 76 is involved in binding to PcrV. PcrG adds to the growing list of partially folded or unstructured proteins with important roles in type III secretion.

  7. The Structures of Coiled-Coil Domains from Type III Secretion System Translocators Reveal Homology to Pore-Forming Toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Patil, Mrinalini; Keightley, Andrew; Wyckoff, Gerald J.; Picking, William D.; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2012-03-26

    Many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to alter the normal functions of target cells. Shigella flexneri uses its T3SS to invade human intestinal cells to cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) that is responsible for over one million deaths per year. The Shigella type III secretion apparatus is composed of a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and an exposed oligomeric needle. Host altering effectors are secreted through this energized unidirectional conduit to promote bacterial invasion. The active needle tip complex of S. flexneri is composed of a tip protein, IpaD, and two pore-forming translocators, IpaB and IpaC. While the atomic structure of IpaD has been elucidated and studied, structural data on the hydrophobic translocators from the T3SS family remain elusive. We present here the crystal structures of a protease-stable fragment identified within the N-terminal regions of IpaB from S. flexneri and SipB from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium determined at 2.1 {angstrom} and 2.8 {angstrom} limiting resolution, respectively. These newly identified domains are composed of extended-length (114 {angstrom} in IpaB and 71 {angstrom} in SipB) coiled-coil motifs that display a high degree of structural homology to one another despite the fact that they share only 21% sequence identity. Further structural comparisons also reveal substantial similarity to the coiled-coil regions of pore-forming proteins from other Gram-negative pathogens, notably, colicin Ia. This suggests that these mechanistically separate and functionally distinct membrane-targeting proteins may have diverged from a common ancestor during the course of pathogen-specific evolutionary events.

  8. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Yersinia pestis Type III secretion system YscN ATPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieslaw Swietnicki

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pathogen uses a type III secretion system (T3SS to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. The system contains a single ATPase, YscN, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. In this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscN gene in Y. pestis CO92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the Swiss-Webster mouse model of bubonic plague. The result validates the YscN protein as a therapeutic target for plague. The catalytic domain of the YscN protein was made using recombinant methods and its ATPase activity was characterized in vitro. To identify candidate therapeutics, we tested computationally selected small molecules for inhibition of YscN ATPase activity. The best inhibitors had measured IC(50 values below 20 µM in an in vitro ATPase assay and were also found to inhibit the homologous BsaS protein from Burkholderia mallei animal-like T3SS at similar concentrations. Moreover, the compounds fully inhibited YopE secretion by attenuated Y. pestis in a bacterial cell culture and mammalian cells at µM concentrations. The data demonstrate the feasibility of targeting and inhibiting a critical protein transport ATPase of a bacterial virulence system. It is likely the same strategy could be applied to many other common human pathogens using type III secretion system, including enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Burkholderia mallei/pseudomallei species.

  9. Translational regulation of Yersinia enterocolitica mRNA encoding a type III secretion substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaskie, Karyl S; Ligtenberg, Katherine Given; Schneewind, Olaf

    2013-12-06

    Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion machines transport YopQ and other Yop effectors into host immune cells. YopD and its chaperone LcrH are essential components of the Yersinia type III pathway, enabling effector translocation into host cells. YopD, LcrH, and YscM1 also regulate yop expression post-transcriptionally in response to environmental signals; however, the molecular mechanisms for this regulation and Yop secretion are unknown. We show here that YopD associates with 30 S ribosomal particles in a manner requiring LcrH. When added to ribosomes, YopD, LcrH, and YscM1 block the translation of yopQ mRNA. We propose a model whereby LcrH-dependent association of YopD with 30 S ribosomal particles enables YscM1 to block yopQ translation unless type III machines are induced to secrete the effector.

  10. The heliocentric radial variation of plasma oscillations associated with type III radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Scarf, F. L.; Kurth, W. S.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is presented of all of the electron plasma oscillation events found to date in association with low-frequency type III solar radio bursts using approximately 9 years of observations from the Imp 6 and 8, Helios 1 and 2, and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Plasma oscillation events associated with type III radio bursts show a pronounced increase in both the intensity and the frequency of occurrence with decreasing heliocentric radial distance. This radial dependence explains why intense electron plasma oscillations are seldon observed in association with type III radio bursts at the orbit of the earth. Possible interpretations of the observed radial variation in the plasma oscillation intensity are considered.

  11. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen. Studies on physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T

    1997-01-01

    disappears when the body is in a catabolic state. Anabolic states give rise to increased serum concentrations of PIIINP as compared with normals states. The general conclusion is that serum PIIINP is a marker of type III collagen turnover under well-defined conditions. Serum PIIINP, mainly consisting......The aim of the present study was to examine the physiological basis for the clinical use of serum PIIINP as a marker of the deposition rate of type III collagen. The assumption was that the serum concentration of PIIINP would reflect the turnover of type III collagen and thus directly reflect......-venous shunt in conscious pigs was developed. Double and triple isotope tracer techniques were used for kinetic studies in the animal model and in cultures of tubule cells. The rat model with the induction of granulation tissue was used to investigate catabolic states. The anabolic state was studied in humans...

  12. Clay mineral type effect on bacterial enteropathogen survival in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Fiona P; Moynihan, Emma; Griffiths, Bryan S; Hillier, Stephen; Owen, Jason; Pendlowski, Helen; Avery, Lisa M

    2014-01-15

    Enteropathogens released into the environment can represent a serious risk to public health. Soil clay content has long been known to have an important effect on enteropathogen survival in soil, generally enhancing survival. However, clay mineral composition in soils varies, and different clay minerals have specific physiochemical properties that would be expected to impact differentially on survival. This work investigated the effect of clay materials, with a predominance of a particular mineral type (montmorillonite, kaolinite, or illite), on the survival in soil microcosms over 96 days of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Dublin, and Escherichia coli O157. Clay mineral addition was found to alter a number of physicochemical parameters in soil, including cation exchange capacity and surface area, and this was specific to the mineral type. Clay mineral addition enhanced enteropathogen survival in soil. The type of clay mineral was found to differentially affect enteropathogen survival and the effect was enteropathogen-specific.

  13. An important role for type III interferon (IFN-lambda/IL-28) in TLR-induced antiviral activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ank, Nina; Iversen, Marie B; Bartholdy, Christina;

    2008-01-01

    Type III IFNs (IFN-lambda/IL-28/29) are cytokines with type I IFN-like antiviral activities, which remain poorly characterized. We herein show that most cell types expressed both types I and III IFNs after TLR stimulation or virus infection, whereas the ability of cells to respond to IFN-lambda w...

  14. Conservative Management of Type III Dens in Dente Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens in dente, also known as dens invaginatus, dilated composite odontoma, or deep foramen caecum, is a developmental malformation that usually affects maxillary incisor teeth, particularly lateral incisors. It may occur in teeth anywhere within the jaws, other locations are comparatively rare. It can occur within both the crown and the root, although crown invaginations are more common. The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is very helpful in endodontic diagnosis of complex anatomic variations. In this case we demonstrate the use of CBCT in the evaluation and endodontic management of a Type III dens in dente (Oehler′s Type III.

  15. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P < 0·001). Median total attack duration was 5·0 h and 9·0 h for patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II, respectively.

  16. Three cross leg flaps for lower leg reconstruction of Gustilo type III C open fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Sano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year old male had Gustilo type III C open fracture of the right lower leg. After radical debridement, the large open defect including certain loss of the bone tissue was successfully augmented and covered, by consecutive three cross-leg flaps, which consisted of the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, the fibula osteocutaneous flap and the conventional sural flap. Although indication for amputation or preservation is decided with multiple factors in each case, a strategic combination of cross-leg flap, free flap, external fixation and vascular delay could increase the potential of preservation of the lower leg with even disastrous Gustilo type III C.

  17. Type III Radio Bursts and the Structure of the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Type III solar radio bursts provide important information on the origin, acceleration, and propagation of particles associated with solar flares and coronal shocks. Since these radio emissions are generated by the plasma emission mechanism, observations of these solar radio transients also provide remote sensing of the plasma conditions in the corona and of the magnetic and plasma structure of the inner heliosphere. In this talk I will review the progress of type III research from their discovery in the late 40s to the most recent advances from low-frequency spacecraft observations, primarily from ISEE-3, Wind and Ulysses.

  18. Salter-Harris Type III and Type IV Combined Fracture of the Distal Femoral Epiphysis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aydin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distal femoral physeal fractures are not common but have a high rate of complications. They generally follow one of the patterns described in the Salter-Harris classification. We present a case of combination of Salter-Harris type III and type IV injury. Our case was a 15-year-old boy who had a motor vehicle accident. There was swelling, ecchymosis, severe pain, and valgus deformity, because of medial proximal fracture fragment, on the left knee. We deemed that Salter-Harris type III and type IV combination fracture in our case has not been previously reported. We prepared this paper in consideration of its contribution to the literature.

  19. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  20. Concurrent Occurrence of Type II and Type III Endoleak of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Stent Graft: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Su; Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Yong Jae; Goo, Dong Erk; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Endoleak is an important complication following stent grafts for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Here we describe ultrasonography findings in an 86-year-old man including doppler ultrasonography and CT scan in an unusual and interesting case of the concurrent occurrence of a type II endoleak that originated from the left accessory renal artery and a type III endoleak due to shaft fracture of the stent

  1. Collagen Type III and VI Turnover in Response to Long-Term Immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Shu; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Muscle mass and function are perturbed by immobilization and remobilization. When muscle mass changes, the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix protein, particularly the collagens, change with it. In this study, we investigated the temporal profile of three peptide...... biomarkers derived from turnover of collagen type III and type VI in a long-term immobilization and remobilization study. We also compared individual biomarker levels with Lean body Mass (LBM) and changes therein, hypothesizing that these biomarkers would be biomarkers of the remodeling processes associated...... the synthesis of collagen type III; Pro-C6, measured the synthesis of collagen type VI; and C6M measured the degradation of collagen type VI induced by MMP-2 and MMP-9 cleavage. RESULTS: Pro-C3 and Pro-C6 biomarkers are up-regulated with both immobilization and remobilization, whereas C6M is hardly affected...

  2. Decreased abundance of type III secretion system-inducing signals in Arabidopsis mkp1 enhances resistance against Pseudomonas syringae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jeffrey C.; Wan, Ying; Kim, Young-Mo; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Peck, Scott C.

    2014-04-21

    Many phytopathogenic bacteria use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject defense-suppressing effector proteins into host cells. Genes encoding the T3SS are induced at the start of infection, yet host signals that initiate T3SS gene expression are poorly understood. Here we identify several plant-derived metabolites that induce the T3SS in the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. In addition, we report that mkp1 (mapk phosphatase 1), an Arabidopsis mutant that is more resistant to bacterial infection, produces decreased levels of these T3SS-inducing metabolites. Consistent with the observed decrease in these metabolites, T3SS effector delivery by DC3000 was impaired in mkp1. Addition of the bioactive metabolites to the mkp1-DC3000 interaction fully restored T3SS effector delivery and suppressed enhanced resistance in mkp1. Together, these results demonstrate that DC3000 perceives multiple signals derived from plants to initiate their virulence program, and reveal a new layer of molecular communication between plants and these pathogenic bacteria.

  3. Detection of bacterial biofilms in different types of chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xingzhi; Keyoumu, Youlidusi; Long, Li; Zhang, Hua

    2014-11-01

    Biofilms are organized bacterial communities that may be homogeneous or heterogeneous. They play a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic nasal sinusitis, chronic tonsillitis, cholesteatomas, and device-related infections. Despite this, few studies have been done that examine the presence of bacterial biofilms in tissues from patients with different types of COM or middle ear cholesteatomas. In the current study, we examined the presence of biofilms in surgical tissue specimens from humans with chronic ear infections using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We hypothesize that bacterial biofilms present differently in patients with different types of chronic otitis media. Our results provide new insights regarding treatment of chronic otitis media. A prospective study was conducted in which middle ear tissues were obtained from 38 patients who underwent tympanoplasty and/or tympanomastoid surgery due to chronic ear infections. A total of 50 middle and mastoid tissue samples were processed for SEM analysis. In addition, 38 middle ear secretion specimens were obtained for routine bacterial culture analysis. Bacterial biofilms were present in 85 % (11 of 13) of patients with middle ear cholesteatoma, 92 % (12/13) of patients with chronic otitis suppurative media (CSOM), and 16 % of patients (2/12) with tympanic membrane perforation (TMP). Fungal biofilms were found in two cases of cholesteatoma. The positive coincidence rate between bacterial biofilms visualized by SEM and bacteria detected by culture was 82 %. Our findings suggest that bacterial biofilms are very common in CSOM and middle ear cholesteatomas. Positive bacterial cultures imply the presence of biofilm formation in CSOM and cholesteatomas. As such, our results provide new insights regarding treatment of chronic otitis media.

  4. Tracking Type III Radio Burst Sources in the Solar Corona by Heliographic Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, A. A.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Volvach, Ya. S.

    We present the preliminary results of heliographic measurements of solar type III radio bursts in the low-frequency range (16.5-33 MHz) using the UTR-2 radio heliograph. The radio astronomy tools permit us to obtain two-dimensional spatial structures of burst sources in dependence of frequency and time. Each heliogram consists of 40 pixels (beams) as a result of the serial sweep in UV-plane wherein signals of each beam are recorded in a dynamic spectrum with both high temporal (˜ 2.482 ms) and top spectral (˜ 4 kHz) resolutions. The rate of output heliograph is one image per 3 seconds. Over a session in April, 2013 many type III radio and IIIb-III bursts were observed. On the heliograms the source motion direction in the upper corona is clearly detectable. The heliogram features are discussed.

  5. Angular Study of the III Type Solar Bursts by Ukrainian Decameter Heliograph of UTR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Artem; Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Konovalenko, Aleksander

    2014-05-01

    Solar radio bursts are attractive manifestations of solar activity. They contain useful information about physical processes in solar corona. The type III radio bursts are the most frequent events among many different types of solar bursts studied since middle of the last century. The type III bursts are generated by beams of fast electrons (beams velocity ~ 0.3c) ejected into the corona and propagated through coronal plasma to interplanetary medium. It is assumed that such an electron beam passing coronal plasma generates plasma waves that converse to electromagnetic waves registered as type III radio bursts. They are observed in a wide frequency range from 1 GHz to tens kHz. In particular, the decameter emission (10-30 MHz) of III type bursts arises at heights about 2-3 solar radii from the center of the Sun. In the last decades the various ground-based, satellite and spacecraft observations have provided detailed information about features of the bursts. Due to non-thermal emission mechanism their intensity can be very high that allows ones to record the bursts even by amateur radio astronomers with help of elementary antennas (for example, half-wave dipole) and simple radio equipment. At dynamic spectra the type III radio bursts are characterized by very fast frequency drifts. Usually, the analysis of such two-dimensional spectrograms reveals also duration and intensity of the events in time and frequency; if the antenna facilities permit, as well as degree of polarization. It should be noticed that the observations of angular three-dimensional structure of the burst source are also of great interest. Our knowledge about angular structure of type III radio bursts in decameter wavelengths was very restricted because of the absence of appropriate radio astronomy instruments. Recently, the difficulty has been overcome by means of the UTR-2 radio telescope (Kharkiv, Ukraine) in heliographic modes. It was successfully used for heliographic observations of solar

  6. Type III interferon gene expression in response to influenza virus infection in chicken and duck embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zou, Tingting; Hu, Xiaotong; Jin, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Type III interferons (IFN-λs) comprise a group of newly identified antiviral cytokines that are functionally similar to type I IFNs and elicit first-line antiviral responses. Recently, type III IFNs were identified in several species; however, little information is available about type III IFNs in ducks. We compared the expression of type III IFNs and their receptor in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) and duck embryonic fibroblasts (DEFs) in response to influenza virus infection. The results showed that the expression of type III IFNs was upregulated in both DEFs and CEFs following infection with H1N1 influenza virus or treatment with poly (I:C), and expression levels were significantly higher in CEFs than in DEFs at each time point. The expression of the receptor for type III IFNs (IL-28Rα) was also upregulated following infection with H1N1 virus or treatment with poly (I:C) and was significantly higher in CEFs than in DEFs at each time point. The expression of the receptor for type III IFNs occurred from 8 hpi and remained at similar levels until 36 hpi in CEFs, but the expression level was elevated from 36 hpi in DEFs. These findings revealed the existence of distinct expression patterns for type III IFNs in chickens and ducks in response to influenza virus infection. The provided data are fundamentally useful in furthering our understanding of type III IFNs and innate antiviral responses in different species.

  7. Pregnancy Differentially Regulates the Collagens Types I and III in Left Ventricle from Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Limon-Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathologic cardiac remodeling has been widely documented; however, the physiological cardiac remodeling induced by pregnancy and its reversion in postpartum are poorly understood. In the present study we investigated the changes in collagen I (Col I and collagen III (Col III mRNA and protein levels in left ventricle from rat heart during pregnancy and postpartum. Col I and Col III mRNA expression in left ventricle samples during pregnancy and postpartum were analyzed by using quantitative PCR. Data obtained from gene expression show that Col I and Col III in left ventricle are upregulated during pregnancy with reversion in postpartum. In contrast to gene expression, the protein expression evaluated by western blot showed that Col I is downregulated and Col III is upregulated in left ventricle during pregnancy. In conclusion, the pregnancy differentially regulates collagens types I and III in heart; this finding could be an important molecular mechanism that regulates the ventricular stiffness in response to blood volume overload present during pregnancy which is reversed in postpartum.

  8. Type III restriction endonucleases translocate DNA in a reaction driven by recognition site-specific ATP hydrolysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meisel, A.; Mackeldanz, P; Bickle, T A; Krüger, D H; Schroeder, C.

    1995-01-01

    Type III restriction/modification systems recognize short non-palindromic sequences, only one strand of which can be methylated. Replication of type III-modified DNA produces completely unmethylated recognition sites which, according to classical mechanisms of restriction, should be signals for restriction. We have shown previously that suicidal restriction by the type III enzyme EcoP15I is prevented if all the unmodified sites are in the same orientation: restriction by EcoP15I requires a pa...

  9. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of SrcA, a Multi-cargo Type III Secretion Chaperone in Salmonella Required for Pathogenic Association with a Host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.; Zhang, K; Andres, S; Fnag, Y; Kaniuk, N; Hannemann, M; Brumell, J; Foster, L; Junop, M; Coombes, B

    2010-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria colonize and exploit host niches using a protein apparatus called a type III secretion system (T3SS) that translocates bacterial effector proteins into host cells where their functions are essential for pathogenesis. A suite of T3SS-associated chaperone proteins bind cargo in the bacterial cytosol, establishing protein interaction networks needed for effector translocation into host cells. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a T3SS encoded in a large genomic island (SPI-2) is required for intracellular infection, but the chaperone complement required for effector translocation by this system is not known. Using a reverse genetics approach, we identified a multi-cargo secretion chaperone that is functionally integrated with the SPI-2-encoded T3SS and required for systemic infection in mice. Crystallographic analysis of SrcA at a resolution of 2.5 {angstrom} revealed a dimer similar to the CesT chaperone from enteropathogenic E. coli but lacking a 17-amino acid extension at the carboxyl terminus. Further biochemical and quantitative proteomics data revealed three protein interactions with SrcA, including two effector cargos (SseL and PipB2) and the type III-associated ATPase, SsaN, that increases the efficiency of effector translocation. Using competitive infections in mice we show that SrcA increases bacterial fitness during host infection, highlighting the in vivo importance of effector chaperones for the SPI-2 T3SS.

  10. Structural and biochemical characterization of SrcA, a multi-cargo type III secretion chaperone in Salmonella required for pathogenic association with a host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A Cooper

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Many Gram-negative bacteria colonize and exploit host niches using a protein apparatus called a type III secretion system (T3SS that translocates bacterial effector proteins into host cells where their functions are essential for pathogenesis. A suite of T3SS-associated chaperone proteins bind cargo in the bacterial cytosol, establishing protein interaction networks needed for effector translocation into host cells. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a T3SS encoded in a large genomic island (SPI-2 is required for intracellular infection, but the chaperone complement required for effector translocation by this system is not known. Using a reverse genetics approach, we identified a multi-cargo secretion chaperone that is functionally integrated with the SPI-2-encoded T3SS and required for systemic infection in mice. Crystallographic analysis of SrcA at a resolution of 2.5 A revealed a dimer similar to the CesT chaperone from enteropathogenic E. coli but lacking a 17-amino acid extension at the carboxyl terminus. Further biochemical and quantitative proteomics data revealed three protein interactions with SrcA, including two effector cargos (SseL and PipB2 and the type III-associated ATPase, SsaN, that increases the efficiency of effector translocation. Using competitive infections in mice we show that SrcA increases bacterial fitness during host infection, highlighting the in vivo importance of effector chaperones for the SPI-2 T3SS.

  11. On the speed and acceleration of electron beams triggering interplanetary type III radio bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Krupar, Vratislav; Soucek, Jan; Santolik, Ondrej; Maksimovic, Milan; Kruparova, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    Type III radio bursts are intense radio emissions triggered by beams of energetic electrons often associated with solar flares. These exciter beams propagate outwards from the Sun along an open magnetic field line in the corona and in the interplanetary (IP) medium. We performed a statistical survey of 29 simple and isolated IP type III bursts observed by STEREO/Waves instruments between January 2013 and September 2014. We investigated their time-frequency profiles in order to derive the speed and acceleration of exciter electron beams. We show these beams noticeably decelerate in the IP medium. Obtained speeds range from $\\sim$ 0.02c up to $\\sim$ 0.35c depending on initial assumptions. It corresponds to electron energies between tens of eV and hundreds of keV, and in order to explain the characteristic energies or speeds of type III electrons ($\\sim 0.1$c) observed simultaneously with Langmuir waves at 1 au, the emission of type III bursts near the peak should be predominately at double plasma frequency. Der...

  12. An Essential Role for Fibronectin Extra Type III Domain A in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Muro, Andrés F.; Moretti, Federico A.; Moore, Bethany B.; Yan, Mei; Atrasz, Rachelle G.; Wilke, Carol A.; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Tsui, Jessica L.; Sheppard, Dean; Baralle, Francisco E.; Toews, Galen B.; White, Eric S.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Tissue fibrosis is considered a dysregulated wound-healing response. Fibronectin containing extra type III domain A (EDA) is implicated in the regulation of wound healing. EDA-containing fibronectin is deposited during wound repair, and its presence precedes that of collagen.

  13. Propolis Modifies Collagen Types I and III Accumulation in the Matrix of Burnt Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Olczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing represents an interactive process which requires highly organized activity of various cells, synthesizing cytokines, growth factors, and collagen. Collagen types I and III, serving as structural and regulatory molecules, play pivotal roles during wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare the propolis and silver sulfadiazine therapeutic efficacy throughout the quantitative and qualitative assessment of collagen types I and III accumulation in the matrix of burnt tissues. Burn wounds were inflicted on pigs, chosen for the evaluation of wound repair because of many similarities between pig and human skin. Isolated collagen types I and III were estimated by the surface plasmon resonance method with a subsequent collagenous quantification using electrophoretic and densitometric analyses. Propolis burn treatment led to enhanced collagens and its components expression, especially during the initial stage of the study. Less expressed changes were observed after silver sulfadiazine (AgSD application. AgSD and, with a smaller intensity, propolis stimulated accumulation of collagenous degradation products. The assessed propolis therapeutic efficacy, throughout quantitatively and qualitatively analyses of collagen types I and III expression and degradation in wounds matrix, may indicate that apitherapeutic agent can generate favorable biochemical environment supporting reepithelization.

  14. Biofilms and type III secretion are not mutually exclusive in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, H; Bond, N J; Skindersoe, M E;

    2009-01-01

    in exponential phase than to those in stationary phase. In the current study, we investigated how these conditions influence the production of virulence factors using a transcriptomic approach. Our results show that biofilms express the type III secretion system, whereas planktonic cells do not...

  15. Search for the Third Harmonic of Type III Bursts Radio Emission at Decameter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhenko, A. I.; Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Pylaev, O. S.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Vashchishin, R. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    The results of observations of trio bursts consisting of type III bursts are presented in this paper. The instantaneous frequency ratio of trio components is near 1:2:3. We analyze flow, duration, frequency drift rate and polarization of trio components as well as dependencies of these characteristics on frequency.

  16. Decameter Type III Bursts with Changing Frequency Drift-Rate Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, V. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Briand, C.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Zarka, P.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Rutkevych, B. P.; Panchenko, M.; Denis, L.; Zaqarashvili, T.; Shergelashvili, B.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss properties of type III bursts that change the sign of their drift rate from negative to positive and vice versa. Moreover, these bursts may change the sign of their drift rates more than once. These particular type III bursts were observed simultaneously by the radio telescopes UTR-2 ( Ukrainian T-shaped Radio telescope, Kharkov, Ukraine), URAN-2 ( Ukrainian Radio telescope of the Academy of Sciences, Poltava, Ukraine), and by the NDA ( Nançay Decametric Array, Nancay, France) in the frequency range 8 - 41 MHz. The negative drift rates of these bursts are similar to those of previously reported decameter type III bursts and vary from -0.7 MHz s-1 to -1.7 MHz s-1, but their positive drift rates vary in a wider range from 0.44 MHz s-1 to 6 MHz s-1. Unlike inverted U-bursts, the tracks of these type III bursts have C- or inverted C-shapes.

  17. Structure of Spa15, a type III secretion chaperone from Shigella flexneri with broad specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerde, André van; Hamiaux, Cyril; Pérez, Javier; Parsot, Claude; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2004-01-01

    Type III secretion (TTS) systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to inject virulence proteins into the cells of their hosts. Several of these virulence effectors require TTS chaperones that maintain them in a secretion-competent state. Whereas most chaperones bind only one effector, Spa15 f

  18. Weapons of Mass Secretion : The Type III Secretion System of Shigella flexneri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Musa

    2007-01-01

    In bacteria that are pathogenic for animals, type III secretion systems allow extracellular bacteria adhering to the surface of a host cell to inject specialized proteins across the plasma membrane. The injected proteins subvert the functioning of the aggressed cell or destroy its communications, fa

  19. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen provides new information on prognosis after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Jensen, L T; Bendixen, P M;

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine sequential changes in serum levels of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (S-PIIINP) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and to assess the value of S-PIIINP as a predictor of outcome. The study group comprised 74 patients with AMI, and 24...

  20. Mutations in the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase gene are responsible for tyrosinemia type III and hawkinsinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoeda, K; Awata, H; Matsuura, T; Matsuda, I; Ploechl, E; Milovac, T; Boneh, A; Scott, C R; Danks, D M; Endo, F

    2000-11-01

    The enzyme 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase (HPD) catalyzes the reaction of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid to homogentisic acid in the tyrosine catabolism pathway. A deficiency in the catalytic activity of HPD may lead to tyrosinemia type III, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by elevated levels of blood tyrosine and massive excretion of tyrosine derivatives into urine. It has been postulated that hawkinsinuria, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the excretion of 'hawkinsin,' may also be a result of HPD deficiency. Hawkinsin is a sulfur amino acid identified as (2-l-cystein-S-yl, 4-dihydroxycyclohex-5-en-1-yl)acetic acid. Patients with hawkinsinuria excrete this metabolite in their urine throughout their life, although symptoms of metabolic acidosis and tyrosinemia improve in the first year of life. We performed analyses of the HPD gene in a patient with tyrosinemia type III and two unrelated patients with hawkinsinuria. A homozygous missense mutation predicting an Ala to Val change at codon 268 (A268V) in the HPD gene was found in the patient with tyrosinemia type III. A heterozygous missense mutation predicting an Ala to Thr change at codon 33 (A33T) was found in the same HPD gene in the two patients with hawkinsinuria. These findings support the hypothesis that alterations in the structure and activity of HPD are causally related to two different metabolic disorders, tyrosinemia type III and hawkinsinuria.

  1. Cloning and characterization of type III iodothyronine deiodinase from the fish Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Sanders (Jo); S. van der Geyten; E. Kaptein (Ellen); V.M. Darras (Veerle); E.R. Kuhn; J.L. Leonard; T.J. Visser (Theo)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractType III iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inner ring deiodination (IRD) of T4 and T3 to the inactive metabolites rT3 and 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2), respectively. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of complementary DNA (cDNA) co

  2. Liver transplantation for glycogen storage disease types I, III, and IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matern, D; Starzl, TE; Arnaout, W; Barnard, J; Bynon, JS; Dhawan, A; Emond, J; Haagsma, EB; Hug, G; Lachaux, A; Smit, GPA; Chen, YT

    1999-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) types I, III, and IV can be associated with severe liver disease. The possible development of hepatocellular carcinoma and/or hepatic failure make these GSDs potential candidates for liver transplantation. Early diagnosis and initiation of effective dietary therapy hav

  3. Perfect simulation and moment properties for the Matérn type III process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Huber, Mark L.; Wolpert, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Matérn III process within a bounded window in , fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound...

  4. Perfect simulation and moment properties for the Matérn type III process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Huber, Mark L.; Wolpert, Robert L.

    In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Mat´ern III process within a bounded window in Rd fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound...

  5. Integrated scenario with type-III ELMy H-mode edge: extrapolation to ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; Corre, Y.; Andrew, Y.; M.R. de Baar,; Beurskens, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Brix, M.; Devaux, S.; Eich, T.; Felton, R.; Fundamenski, W.; Giroud, C.; Howell, D.; Huber, A.; Jachmich, S.; Joffrin, E.; Korotkov, A.; Matthews, G. F.; McDonald, D. C.; Meigs, A.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Morgan, P.; Nunes, I.; van Rooij, G. J.; Sauter, O.; Stamp, M. F.; Telesca, G.; de Vries, P. C.; Zagorski, R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most severe problems for fusion reactors is the power load on the plasma facing components. The challenge is to develop operation scenarios, which combine sufficient energy confinement with benign heat loads to the plasma facing components. The radiative type-III ELMy H-mode seems a possi

  6. Aquatic Therapy for a Child with Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Yasser; Gropack, Stacy Jaffee

    2010-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons. This case report describes an aquatic therapy program and the outcomes for a 3-year-old girl with type III SMA. Motor skills were examined using the 88-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales…

  7. Disturbances in affective touch in hereditary sensory & autonomic neuropathy type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macefield, Vaughan G; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Löken, Line; Axelrod, Felicia B; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2014-07-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (HSAN III, Riley-Day syndrome, Familial Dysautomia) is characterised by elevated thermal thresholds and an indifference to pain. Using microelectrode recordings we recently showed that these patients possess no functional stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors in their muscles (muscle spindles), a feature that may explain their lack of stretch reflexes and ataxic gait, yet patients have apparently normal low-threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptors. The density of C-fibres in the skin is markedly reduced in patients with HSAN III, but it is not known whether the C-tactile afferents, a distinct type of low-threshold C fibre present in hairy skin that is sensitive to gentle stroking and has been implicated in the coding of pleasant touch are specifically affected in HSAN III patients. We addressed the relationship between C-tactile afferent function and pleasant touch perception in 15 patients with HSAN III and 15 age-matched control subjects. A soft make-up brush was used to apply stroking stimuli to the forearm and lateral aspect of the leg at five velocities: 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30 cm/s. As demonstrated previously, the control subjects rated the slowest and highest velocities as less pleasant than those applied at 1-10 cm/s, which fits with the optimal velocities for exciting C-tactile afferents. Conversely, for the patients, ratings of pleasantness did not fit the profile for C-tactile afferents. Patients either rated the higher velocities as more pleasant than the slow velocities, with the slowest velocities being rated unpleasant, or rated all velocities equally pleasant. We interpret this to reflect absent or reduced C-tactile afferent density in the skin of patients with HSAN III, who are likely using tactile cues (i.e. myelinated afferents) to rate pleasantness of stroking or are attributing pleasantness to this type of stimulus irrespective of velocity.

  8. Alterations of thoraco-abdominal volumes and asynchronies in patients with spinal muscle atrophy type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; Romei, Marianna; Priori, Rita; Laviola, Marianna; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2014-06-15

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by degeneration of motor neurons resulting in muscle weakness. For the mild type III form, a sub-classification into type IIIA and IIIB, based on age of motor impairment, was recently proposed. To investigate if SMA IIIA (more severe) and IIIB differ also in terms of respiratory function, thoracoabdominal kinematics was measured during quiet breathing, inspiration preceding cough and inspiratory capacity on 5 type IIIA and 9 type IIIB patients. Four patients with SMA II (more severe than types III) and 19 healthy controls were also studied. Rib cage motion was similar in SMA IIIB and controls. Conversely, in SMA IIIA and SMA II it was significantly reduced and sometime paradoxical during quiet breathing in supine position. Our results suggest that in SMA IIIA intercostal muscles are weakened and the diaphragm is preserved similarly to SMA II, while in SMA IIIB the action of all inspiratory muscles is maintained. Sub-classification of type III seems feasible also for respiratory function.

  9. On the Energy Momentum in Bianchi Type I-III-V-VI0 Space-Time

    CERN Document Server

    Aygun, S; Tarhan, I; Aygun, Melis; Aygun, Sezgin; Tarhan, Ismail

    2006-01-01

    In this study, using the energy momentum definitions of Einstein, Moller, Bergmann-Thomson, Landau-Lifshitz and Papapetrou we compute the total energy-momentum distribution (due to matter and fields including gravitation) of the universe based on general Bianchi type I-III-V-VI(o) space-time and its transforms type I, III, V, VI(o) metrics, respectively. The energy-momentum densities are found exactly same for Einstein and Bergmann-Thomson definitions. The total energy and momentum is found to be zero for Bianchi types I and VI(o) space-times. These results are same as a previous works of Radinschi, Banerjee-Sen, Xulu and Aydogdu-Salti. Another point is that our study agree with previous works of Cooperstock-Israelit, Rosen, Johri et al.

  10. Dentin phosphoprotein gene locus is not associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta types II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, M.; Zeichner-David, M.; Davis, A.; Slavkin, H. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)); Murray, J. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)); Crall, M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) is an autosomal dominant inherited dental disease which affects dentin production and mineralization. Genetic linkage studies have been performed on several multigeneration informative kindreds. These studies determined linkage between DGI types II and III and group-specific component (vitamin D-binding protein). This gene locus has been localized to the long arm of human chromosome 4 in the region 4q11-q21. Although this disease has been mapped to chromosome 4, the defective gene product is yet to be determined. Biochemical studies have suggested abnormal levels of dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) associated with DGI type II. This highly acidic protein is the major noncollagenous component of dentin, being solely expressed by the ectomesenchymal derived odontoblast cells of the tooth. The purpose of the present study was to establish whether DPP is associated with DGI types II and III, by using molecular biology techniques. The results indicated that DPP is not localized to any region of human chromosome 4, thus suggesting that the DPP gene is not directly associated with DGI type II or DGI type III. The data do not exclude the possibility that other proteins associated with DPP posttranslational modifications might be responsible for this genetic disease.

  11. Type I and III procollagen propeptides in growth hormone-deficient patients: effects of increasing doses of GH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Jørgensen, J O; Risteli, J;

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increasing doses of growth hormone on collagen synthesis in GH-treated GH-deficient patients was determined in a short-term study. The synthesis of type I and III collagen was estimated by measurements of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen and the aminoterminal...... propeptide of type III procollagen. Type I collagen is mainly found in bone and type III collagen in loose connective tissue. We observed a GH dose dependency of both procollagen propeptides. Serum type I procollagen propeptide was significantly higher following GH doses of 4 and 6 IU/day for 14 days...... procollagen propeptide increased twice as much as type I procollagen propeptide, by 47 vs 25%, at a GH dose of 6 IU/day compared with 2 IU/day. The differences between the effects on type I and type III collagen may reflect differences in secretion or turn-over rate of collagen in bone and loose connective...

  12. Key steps in type III secretion system (T3SS) towards translocon assembly with potential sensor at plant plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongtao; Dong, Hansong

    2015-09-01

    Many plant- and animal-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins from bacterial cells into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. The effector translocation occurs through an integral component of T3SS, the channel-like translocon, assembled by hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteinaceous translocators in a two-step process. In the first, hydrophilic translocators localize to the tip of a proteinaceous needle in animal pathogens, or a proteinaceous pilus in plant pathogens, and associate with hydrophobic translocators, which insert into host plasma membranes in the second step. However, the pilus needs to penetrate plant cell walls in advance. All hydrophilic translocators so far identified in plant pathogens are characteristic of harpins: T3SS accessory proteins containing a unitary hydrophilic domain or an additional enzymatic domain. Two-domain harpins carrying a pectate lyase domain potentially target plant cell walls and facilitate the penetration of the pectin-rich middle lamella by the bacterial pilus. One-domain harpins target plant plasma membranes and may play a crucial role in translocon assembly, which may also involve contrapuntal associations of hydrophobic translocators. In all cases, sensory components in the target plasma membrane are indispensable for the membrane recognition of translocators and the functionality of the translocon. The conjectural sensors point to membrane lipids and proteins, and a phosphatidic acid and an aquaporin are able to interact with selected harpin-type translocators. Interactions between translocators and their sensors at the target plasma membrane are assumed to be critical for translocon assembly.

  13. Dentin phosphoprotein compound mutation in dentin sialophosphoprotein causes dentinogenesis imperfecta type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juan; Gu, TingTing; Jeffords, Leticia; MacDougall, Mary

    2005-01-30

    A rare compound mutation involving a 36 bp deletion and 18 bp insertion within exon 5 of the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene has been identified in a family with dentinogenesis imperfecta type III (DGI-III). The DSPP gene encodes two major tooth matrix proteins dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). DSPP mutations associated with DGI-III results in an in frame truncation of the serine aspartic acid triplet repeat found in DPP near the highly conserved carboxyl terminal region shortening the protein by six amino acids. Clinically this family presents with discolored amber opalescent teeth and severe attrition of the tooth structure. This study is the first report of a mutation within DPP associated with a genetic dentin disease. Our study indicates that DGI-III is allelic with some forms of DGI-II with and without progressive hearing loss and dentin dysplasia type II that have been shown to be caused by mutations within the DSP coding or signal peptide regions.

  14. Bianchi type-I, type-III and Kantowski-Sachs solutions in f( T) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. E.; Kpadonou, A. V.; Rahaman, F.; Oliveira, P. J.; Houndjo, M. J. S.

    2015-06-01

    In the context of modified tele-parallel theory of gravity, we undertake cosmological anisotropic models and search for their solutions. Within a suitable choice of non-diagonal tetrads, the decoupled equations of motion are obtained for Bianchi-I, Bianchi-III and Kantowski-Sachs models, from which we obtain the correspondent solutions. By the way, energy density and pressures are also obtained, showing, as an important result, that our universe may live a quintessence like universe even while anisotropic models are considered.

  15. Using multilocus sequence typing to study bacterial variation: prospects in the genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Keith A; Maiden, Martin C J

    2014-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) indexes the sequence variation present in a small number (usually seven) of housekeeping gene fragments located around the bacterial genome. Unique alleles at these loci are assigned arbitrary integer identifiers, which effectively summarizes the variation present in several thousand base pairs of genome sequence information as a series of numbers. Comparing bacterial isolates using allele-based methods efficiently corrects for the effects of lateral gene transfer present in many bacterial populations and is computationally efficient. This 'gene-by-gene' approach can be applied to larger collections of loci, such as the ribosomal protein genes used in ribosomal MLST (rMLST), up to and including the complete set of coding sequences present in a genome, whole-genome MLST (wgMLST), providing scalable, efficient and readily interpreted genome analysis.

  16. A New Look at Type III Bursts and their Use as Coronal Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, Samuel Tun; White, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We present meter wave solar radio spectra of the highest spectrotemporal resolution achieved to date. The observations, obtained with the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1), show unprecedented detail of solar emissions across a wide bandwidth during a Type III/IIIb storm. Our flux calibration demonstrates that the LWA1 can detect Type III bursts much weaker than 1 SFU, much lower than previous observations, and that the distribution of fluxes in these bursts varies with frequency. The high sensitivity and low noise in the data provide strong constraints to models of this type of plasma emission. The continuous generation of electron beams in the corona revealed by the high density Type III storm is evidence for ubiquitous magnetic reconnection in the lower corona. Such an abundance of reconnection events not only contributes to the total coronal energy budget, but also provides an engine by which to form the populations of seed particles responsible for proton-rich solar energetic particle even...

  17. In Situ Detection of Strong Langmuir Turbulence Processes in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, Thejappa; Macdowall, Robert J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    The high time resolution observations obtained by the WAVES experiment of the STEREO spacecraft in solar type III radio bursts show that Langmuir waves often occur as intense localized wave packets. These wave packets are characterized by short durations of only a few ms and peak intensities, which well exceed the supersonic modulational instability (MI) thresholds. These timescales and peak intensities satisfy the criterion of the solitons collapsed to spatial scales of a few hundred Debye lengths. The spectra of these wave packets consist of primary spectral peaks corresponding to beam-resonant Langmuir waves, two or more sidebands corresponding to down-shifted and up-shifted daughter Langmuir waves, and low frequency enhancements below a few hundred Hz corresponding to daughter ion sound waves. The frequencies and wave numbers of these spectral components satisfy the resonance conditions of the modulational instability (MI). Moreover, the tricoherences, computed using trispectral analysis techniques show that these spectral components are coupled to each other with a high degree of coherency as expected of the MI type of four wave interactions. The high intensities, short scale lengths, sideband spectral structures and low frequency spectral enhancements and, high levels of tricoherences amongst the spectral components of these wave packets provide unambiguous evidence for the supersonic MI and related strong turbulence processes in type III radio bursts. The implication of these observations include: (1) the MI and related strong turbulence processes often occur in type III source regions, (2) the strong turbulence processes probably play very important roles in beam stabilization as well as conversion of Langmuir waves into escaping radiation at the fundamental and second harmonic of the electron plasma frequency, fpe, and (3) the Langmuir collapse probably follows the route of MI in type III radio bursts.

  18. C1-C3 lateral mass fusion for type IIa and type III Hangman′s fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Muthukumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hangman′s fractures, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis, can be managed either conservatively with immobilization or by surgery. Surgery is usually indicated in cases with instability or failure of conservative treatment. Different surgical approaches, both anterior and posterior, have been described for treating Hangman′s fracture. We report two patients, one with type IIa and another with type III Hangman′s fracture treated with C1-C3 lateral mass fusion and discuss the advantages and limitations of this technique when compared to other techniques for fusion in patients with Hangman′s fracture.

  19. A conserved domain in type III secretion links the cytoplasmic domain of InvA to elements of the basal body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, Mirjana; Quezada, Cindy M.; Stebbins, C. Erec, E-mail: stebbins@rockefeller.edu [Laboratory of Structural Microbiology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella InvA shares homology to a recurring scaffold in the membrane-spanning components of the type II and type III secretion systems. Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events.

  20. Salmonella pathogenicity island 2-encoded type III secretion system mediates exclusion of NADPH oxidase assembly from the phagosomal membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallois, A; Klein, J R; Allen, L A; Jones, B D; Nauseef, W M

    2001-05-01

    Salmonella typhimurium requires a type III secretion system encoded by pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 to survive and proliferate within macrophages. This survival implies that S. typhimurium avoids or withstands bactericidal events targeted to the microbe-containing vacuole, which include intraphagosomal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phagosomal acidification, and delivery of hydrolytic enzymes to the phagosome via fusion with lysosomes. Recent evidence suggests that S. typhimurium alters ROS production by murine macrophages in an SPI-2-dependent manner. To gain insights into the mechanism by which S. typhimurium inhibits intraphagosomal ROS production, we analyzed the subcellular distribution of NADPH oxidase components during infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages by wild-type (WT) or several SPI-2 mutant strains of S. typhimurium. We found that the membrane component of the NADPH oxidase, flavocytochrome b(558), was actively excluded or rapidly removed from the phagosomal membrane of WT-infected monocyte-derived macrophages, thereby preventing assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex and intraphagosomal production of superoxide anion. In contrast, the NADPH oxidase assembled on and generated ROS in phagosomes containing SPI-2 mutant S. typhimurium. Subversion of NADPH oxidase assembly by S. typhimurium was accompanied by increased bacterial replication relative to that of SPI-2 mutant strains, suggesting that the ability of WT S. typhimurium to prevent NADPH oxidase assembly at the phagosomal membrane represents an important virulence factor influencing its intracellular survival.

  1. Protection of epithelial cells from Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis invasion by antibodies against the SPI-1 type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desin, Taseen S; Mickael, Claudia S; Lam, Po-King S; Potter, Andrew A; Köster, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is one of the major causes of bacterial food-borne illness in humans. During the course of infection, Salmonella Enteritidis uses 2 type III secretion systems (T3SS), one of which is encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). SPI-1 plays a major role in the invasion process. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of sera against the SPI-1 T3SS components on invasion in vitro using polarized human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Antisera to SipD protected Caco-2 cells against entry of wild-type Salmonella Enteritidis. On the other hand, sera against InvG, PrgI, SipA, SipC, SopB, SopE, and SopE2 did not affect Salmonella Enteritidis entry. To illustrate the specificity of anti-SipD mediated inhibition, SipD-specific antibodies were depleted from the serum. Antiserum depleted of SipD-specific antibodies lost its capacity to inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis entry. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that antibodies against the SPI-1 needle tip protein (SipD) inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis invasion and that the SipD protein may be an important target in blocking SPI-1 mediated virulence of Salmonella Enteritidis.

  2. Propagation of energetic electrons from the corona into interplanetary space and type III radio emission

    CERN Document Server

    Breitling, F; Vocks, C

    2015-01-01

    During solar flares a large amount of electrons with energies greater than 20 keV is generated with a production rate of typically $10^{36}$ s$^{-1}$. A part of them is able to propagate along open magnetic field lines through the corona into interplanetary space. During their travel they emit radio radiation which is observed as type III radio bursts in the frequency range from 100 MHz down to 10 kHz by the WAVES radio spectrometer aboard the spacecraft WIND, for instance. From the drift rates of these bursts in dynamic radio spectra the radial propagation velocity $V_r$ of the type III burst exciting electrons is derived by employing a newly developed density model of the heliosphere. Calculations show that the radio radiation is emitted by electrons with different $V_r$ and therefore by different electrons of the initially produced electron distribution.

  3. Stopping Frequency of Type III Solar Radio Bursts in Expanding Magnetic Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Hamish A S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the properties of type III radio bursts in the solar corona and interplanetary space is one of the best ways to remotely deduce the characteristics of solar accelerated electron beams and the solar wind plasma. One feature of all type III bursts is the lowest frequency they reach (or stopping frequency). This feature reflects the distance from the Sun that an electron beam can drive the observable plasma emission mechanism. The stopping frequency has never been systematically studied before from a theoretical perspective. Using numerical kinetic simulations, we explore the different parameters that dictate how far an electron beam can travel before it stops inducing a significant level of Langmuir waves, responsible for plasma radio emission. We use the quasilinear approach to model self-consistently the resonant interaction between electrons and Langmuir waves in inhomogeneous plasma, and take into consideration the expansion of the guiding magnetic flux tube and the turbulent density of the in...

  4. Clumpy Langmuir waves in type III radio sources - Comparison of stochastic-growth theory with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed comparisons are made between the Langmuir-wave properties predicted by the recently developed stochastic-growth theory of type III sources and those observed by the plasma wave experiment on ISEE 3, after correcting for the main instrumental and selection effects. Analysis of the observed field-strength distribution confirms the theoretically predicted form and implies that wave growth fluctuates both spatially and temporally in sign and magnitude, leading to an extremely clumpy distribution of fields. A cutoff in the field-strength distribution is seen at a few mV/m, corresponding to saturation via nonlinear effects. Analysis of the size distribution of Langmuir clumps yields results in accord with those obtained in earlier work and with the size distribution of ambient density fluctuations in the solar wind. This confirms that the inhomogeneities in the Langmuir growth rate are determined by the density fluctuations and that these fluctuations persist during type III events.

  5. Mutations in the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase gene (HPD) in patients with tyrosinemia type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüetschi, U; Cerone, R; Pérez-Cerda, C; Schiaffino, M C; Standing, S; Ugarte, M; Holme, E

    2000-06-01

    Tyrosinemia type III (OMIM 276710) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPD), the second enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. The enzyme deficiency results in an accumulation and increased excretion of tyrosine and phenolic metabolites. Only a few cases with the disorder have been described, and the clinical spectrum of the disorder is unknown. Reported patients have presented with mental retardation or neurological symptoms or have been picked up by neonatal screening. We have identified four presumed pathogenic mutations (two missense and two nonsense mutations) in the HPD gene in three unrelated families encompassing four homozygous individuals and one compound heterozygous individual with tyrosinemia type III. Furthermore, a number of polymorphic mutations have been identified in the HPD gene. No correlation of the severity of the mutation and enzyme deficiency and mental function has been found; neither do the recorded tyrosine levels correlate with the clinical phenotype.

  6. Type III events, flares and CMEs, in the extremely active period October-November 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsakou, E; Preka-Papadema, P; Moussas, X; Hillaris, A; Caroubalos, C; Alissandrakis, C E; Tsitsipis, P; Kontogeorgos, A; Bougeret, J -L; Dumas, G; 10.1063/1.2347984

    2010-01-01

    The type III observations trace the propagation of energetic electron populations through the Solar Corona which, more often than not, precede or are associated with energy release on the Sun. A sample of Type III bursts in the range 20-650 MHz during the period of extraordinary solar activity (20 October to 4 November 2003) recorded by the ARTEMIS-IV1 radio spectrograph is analysed; its parameters are compared with characteristics of associated flares (Ha and GOES SXR) and CMEs, observed in the same period and reported in the SGR and the LASCO archives respectively. In this report we attempt to establish a correlation between energetic particles and major manifestations of solar activity such as flares and CMEs.

  7. RNA-activated DNA cleavage by the Type III-B CRISPR-Cas effector complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Michael A; Kuo, Fang-Ting; Bailey, Scott

    2016-02-15

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) system is an RNA-guided immune system that protects prokaryotes from invading genetic elements. This system represents an inheritable and adaptable immune system that is mediated by multisubunit effector complexes. In the Type III-B system, the Cmr effector complex has been found to cleave ssRNA in vitro. However, in vivo, it has been implicated in transcription-dependent DNA targeting. We show here that the Cmr complex from Thermotoga maritima can cleave an ssRNA target that is complementary to the CRISPR RNA. We also show that binding of a complementary ssRNA target activates an ssDNA-specific nuclease activity in the histidine-aspartate (HD) domain of the Cmr2 subunit of the complex. These data suggest a mechanism for transcription-coupled DNA targeting by the Cmr complex and provide a unifying mechanism for all Type III systems.

  8. Type III Dyson Sphere of Highly Advanced Civilizations around a Super Massive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new system for a society of highly advanced civilizations around a super massive black hole (SMBH), as an advanced Type III "Dyson Sphere", pointing out an efficient usage of energy for the advanced civilizations. SMBH also works as a sink for waste materials. Here we assume that Type III civilisations of Kardashev classification [1] form a galactic club [2] in a galaxy, and the energy from the SMBH will be delivered to the club members, forming an energy control system similar to power grids in our present society. The energy is probably transmitted by a sharp beam with coherent electro-magnetic waves, which provide a new concept for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) via detection of such energy transmission signals. This expands the search window for other intelligences within the Universe.

  9. Apparent diffusion coefficient vale of the brain in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Abd El-Gaber, Nahed [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mansoura (Egypt); Abdalla, Ahmed; Fathy, Abeer [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric, Mansoura (Egypt); Azab, Ahmed [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Mansoura (Egypt); Rahman, Ashraf Abdel [Radiology Unit of Pediatric Hospital, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this work is to assess the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the brain for diagnosis of patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III. Prospective study was conducted upon 13 patients (nine boys and four girls aged 8 months-14 years: mean 6.1 years) with Gaucher's disease type II and III and for age-matched control group (n = 13). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging using a single-shot echo-planar imaging with a diffusion-weighted factor b of 0, 500, and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2} was done for all patients and volunteers. The ADC value was calculated in ten regions of the brain parenchyma and correlated with genotyping. There was significantly lower ADC value of the cortical frontal (P = 0.003), cortical temporal (P = 0.04), frontal subcortical white matter (P = 0.02), corticospinal tract (P = 0.001), cerebellum (P = 0.001), medulla (P = 0.002), and midbrain (P = 0.02) between patients and volunteers. There was significant difference in the ADC value of the frontal and temporal gray matter (P = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively) between patients with heterozygous and homozygous gene mutation. We concluded that ADC value is a new promising quantitative imaging parameter that can be used for the detection of brain abnormalities in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III and has a correlation with genotyping. (orig.)

  10. Observation of local radio emission associated with type III radio bursts and Langmuir waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, M. J.; Stone, R. G.; Fainberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    The first clear detection of fundamental and harmonic radiation from the type III radio source region is presented. This radiation is characterized by its lack of frequency drift, its short rise and decay times, its relative weakness compared to the remotely observed radiation and its temporal coincidence with observed Langmuir waves. The observations were made with the radio and plasma frequency (URAP) receivers on the Ulysses spacecraft between about 1 and 2 AU from the Sun.

  11. Observation of Current Structures at Type-III ELM Onset on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ning; Naulin, Volker; Xu, G.

    In far scrape-o layer (SOL), alternating negative and positive burst structures in ion saturation current were detected at the onset of each type-III edge localized mode (ELM) on EAST. Different from the fast streaming phenomenon reported previously, one subsequent positive burst structure appears...... led generated by scrape-off layer current can ultimately trigger the ELM through the coupling with MHD modes inside the separatrix....

  12. Type III Seesaw and Dark Matter in a Supersymmetric Left-Right Model

    CERN Document Server

    Borah, Debasish

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new supersymmetric left right model with Higgs doublets carrying odd B-L charge, higgs bidoublet and heavy Higgs triplets with zero B-L charge and a set of sterile neutrinos which are singlet under the gauge group. We show that spontaneous parity violation can be achieved naturally in this model and the neutrino masses arise from the so called type III seesaw mechanism. We also discuss the possible phenomenology in the context of neutrino masses and dark matter.

  13. Increased nitric oxide release by neutrophils of a patient with tyrosinemia type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eufemia, Patrizia; Finocchiaro, Roberto; Celli, Mauro; Raccio, Ivana; Properzi, Enrico; Zicari, Alessandra

    2009-06-01

    Tyrosinemia type III (OMIM 276710) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPD). Few cases have been described with mental retardation or neurological symptoms. Recently it has been demonstrated that 4-HPD participates to nitric oxide (NO) intracellular sequestration in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 4-HPD is an ubiquitous enzyme with a prominent expression in neutrophils and neurons. In the nervous system NO has been perceived to be a potential neuromodulator although prolonged excessive generation is detrimental. We analyzed NO release by neutrophils of a patient with tyrosinemia type III in order to evaluate a possible influence of 4-HPD deficiency on this process. Our patient, previously described, is a 30-year-old women with persistent tyrosinemia (450-680 micromol/l) and deficient activity of 4-HPD. At 17 months of age she experienced an acute ataxia and drowsiness lasting for 10 days, but further clinical course showed persistent tyrosinemia with normal growth and psychomotor development. Neutrophils isolated from our patient exhibited a NO release greatly higher in respect to the controls (mean+/-SEM 23.2+/-1.8 micromol/10(6) cells vs 3.5+/-0.5 micromol/10(6) cells). Clinical findings of tyrosinemia type III include neurological symptoms and mental retardation but no consistent phenotype has emerged. Therefore the pathogenesis of neurological involvement is yet not well understood. Our results suggest that an excessive neutrophils of NO release could reflect the lack of scavenging action of 4-HPD. Considering the prominent expression of this enzyme in neurons, we hypothesize that excessive NO release could participate in neuronal damage explaining the neurological involvement described in patients with tyrosinemia type III.

  14. Global Analysis of a Delayed Impulsive Lotka-Volterra Model with Holling III Type Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A delayed impulsive Lotka-Volterra model with Holing III type functional response was established. With the help of Mawhin’s Continuation Theorem in coincidence degree theory, a sufficient condition is found for the existence of positive periodic solutions of the system under consideration. By applying the comparison theorem and constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional, the permanence and global attractivity of the model are proved. Two numerical simulations are also given to illustrate our main results.

  15. Infection Reduces Return-to-duty Rates for Soldiers with Type III Open Tibia Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Type III open tibia fracture and tabulated the prevalence of infectious complications.We searched the Physical Evaluation Board database to determine...disability among combat casualties, with an average disability rating of 42% based on the Physical Evaluation Board.8 In addition, it has been...redness, warmth , swelling, or purulence that required operative inter- vention. Osteomyelitis was defined as deep infection with positive bone cultures

  16. Searching the charged Higgs boson of the type III two Higss doublet model

    CERN Document Server

    Cardenas, H

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) type III appears two charged Higgs boson and recently there are experimental reports from D0 and CDF collaborations searching a particular signature of new physics. We present a review of the analisys done in the region $M_{H^+}>m_t$ by D0 collaboration and we use the ratio $R_\\sigma$ for the region $M_{H^+} < m_t$ in different scenarios of space parameter of this model.

  17. The relationship between chronic type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation and cervical spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestri Anna R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed at evaluating whether or not patients with chronic type III acromioclavicular dislocation develop cervical spine pain and degenerative changes more frequently than normal subjects. Methods The cervical spine of 34 patients with chronic type III AC dislocation was radiographically evaluated. Osteophytosis presence was registered and the narrowing of the intervertebral disc and cervical lordosis were evaluated. Subjective cervical symptoms were investigated using the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ. One-hundred healthy volunteers were recruited as a control group. Results The rate and distribution of osteophytosis and narrowed intervertebral disc were similar in both of the groups. Patients with chronic AC dislocation had a lower value of cervical lordosis. NPQ score was 17.3% in patients with AC separation (100% = the worst result and 2.2% in the control group (p Conclusions Our study shows that chronic type III AC dislocation does not interfere with osteophytes formation or intervertebral disc narrowing, but that it may predispose cervical hypolordosis. The higher average NPQ values were observed in patients with chronic AC dislocation, especially in those that developed cervical hypolordosis.

  18. Evidence for Langmuir Envelope Solitons in Solar Type III Burst Source Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; Goldstein, M. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Papadopoulos, K.; Stone, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    We present observational evidence for the generation of Langmuir envelope solitons in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts. The solitons appear to be formed by electron beams which excite either the modulational instability or oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI). Millisecond data from the Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (URAP) show that Langmuir waves associated with type III bursts occur as broad intense peaks with time scales ranging from 15 to 90 milliseconds (6 - 27 km). These broad field structures have the properties expected of Langmuir envelope solitons, viz.: the normalized peak energy densities, W(sub L)/n(sub e)T(sub e) approximately 10(exp -5), are well above the modulational instability threshold; the spatial scales, L, which range from 1 - 5 Langmuir wavelengths, show a high degree of inverse correlation with (W(sub L)/n(sub e)T(sub e))(sup 1/2); and the observed widths of these broad peaks agree well with the predicted widths of envelope solitons. We show that the orientation of the Langmuir field structures is random with respect to the ambient magnetic field, indicating that they are probably isotropic structures that have evolved from initially pancake-like solitons. These observations suggest that strong turbulence processes, such as the modulational instability or the OTSI, stabilize the electron beams that produce type III bursts.

  19. Operated DeBakey type III dissecting aortic aneurysm: review of 12 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hi Eun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Oh, Sang Joon; Yoon, Sei Ra; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Han, Chang Yul [Inje University, Seoul Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    We evaluated the indications of operation and radiologic findings in 12 operated DeBakey type III aortic dissections. We retrospectively reviewed radiologic findings of 12 operated DeBakey type III aortic dissections, using CT, MRI, or aortography, and correlations were made with clinical course of the patients. Three cases were uncomplicated dissections. There were aneurysm rupture in 4 cases, impending rupture in 4 cases, occlusion of common iliac artery in 2 cases, occlusion of renal artery in 1 case, and compression of bronchus and esophagus by dilated aorta in 1 case. Associated clinical sign and symptoms were chest and back pain in 12 cases, claudication in 3 cases, dyspnea and dysphagia in 1 case, hoarseness in 1 case, and hemoptysis in 1 case. Post-operative complications were death from aneurysm rupture in 1 case, paraplegia in 2 cases, acute renal failure in 3 cases, and hemopericardium in 1 case. Although medical therapy is preferred in management of DeBakey type III aortic dissection, surgical treatment should be considered in patients with radiological findings of aortic rupture, impending rupture, occlusion of aortic major branches.

  20. HVEM serial-section analysis of rabbit foliate taste buds: I. Type III cells and their synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, S M; Kinnamon, J C

    1991-04-01

    Serially sectioned rabbit foliate taste buds were examined with high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM) and computer-assisted, three-dimensional reconstruction. This report focuses on the ultrastructure of the type III cells and their synapses with sensory nerve fibers. Type III cells have previously been proposed to be the primary gustatory receptor cells in taste buds of rabbits and other mammals. Within rabbit foliate taste buds, type III cells constitute a well-defined, easily recognizable class and are the only taste bud cells observed to form synapses with intragemmal nerve fibers. Among 18 type III cells reconstructed from serial sections, 11 formed from 1 to 6 synapses each with nerve fibers; 7 reconstructed type III cells formed no synapses. Examples of both convergence and divergence of synaptic input from type III cells onto nerve fibers were observed. The sizes of the active zones of the synapses and numbers of vesicles associated with the presynaptic membrane specializations were highly variable. Dense-cored vesicles 80-140 nm in diameter were often found among the 40-60 nm clear vesicles clustered at presynaptic sites. At some synapses, these large dense-cored vesicles appeared to be the predominant vesicle type. This observation suggests that there may be functionally different types of synapses in taste buds, distinguished by the prevalence of either clear or dense-cored vesicles. Previous investigations have indicated that the dense-cored vesicles in type III cells may be storage sites for biogenic amines.

  1. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli requires N-WASP for efficient type III translocation but not for EspFU-mediated actin pedestal formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Vingadassalom

    Full Text Available Upon infection of mammalian cells, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC O157:H7 utilizes a type III secretion system to translocate the effectors Tir and EspF(U (aka TccP that trigger the formation of F-actin-rich 'pedestals' beneath bound bacteria. EspF(U is localized to the plasma membrane by Tir and binds the nucleation-promoting factor N-WASP, which in turn activates the Arp2/3 actin assembly complex. Although N-WASP has been shown to be required for EHEC pedestal formation, the precise steps in the process that it influences have not been determined. We found that N-WASP and actin assembly promote EHEC-mediated translocation of Tir and EspF(U into mammalian host cells. When we utilized the related pathogen enteropathogenic E. coli to enhance type III translocation of EHEC Tir and EspF(U, we found surprisingly that actin pedestals were generated on N-WASP-deficient cells. Similar to pedestal formation on wild type cells, Tir and EspF(U were the only bacterial effectors required for pedestal formation, and the EspF(U sequences required to interact with N-WASP were found to also be essential to stimulate this alternate actin assembly pathway. In the absence of N-WASP, the Arp2/3 complex was both recruited to sites of bacterial attachment and required for actin assembly. Our results indicate that actin assembly facilitates type III translocation, and reveal that EspF(U, presumably by recruiting an alternate host factor that can signal to the Arp2/3 complex, exhibits remarkable versatility in its strategies for stimulating actin polymerization.

  2. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria...

  3. Characteristic Relations of Type-III Intermittency in an Electronic Circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C M; Ryu, J W; Park, Y J; Kim, Chil-Min; Yim, Geo-Su; Ryu, Jung-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    1998-01-01

    It is reported that the characteristic relations of type-II and type-III intermittencies, with respective local Poincar$\\acute{e}$ maps of $x_{n+1}= (1+\\epsilon)x_n + a x^3_n$ and $x_{n+1}= - (1+\\epsilon)x_n - a x^3_n$, are both $- ln (\\epsilon)$ under the assumption of uniform reinjection probability. However, the intermittencies have various characteristic relations such as probability. In this Letters the various characteristic relations are discussed, and the $\\epsilon^{-1/2}$ characteristic relation is obtained experimentally in an electronic circuit, with uniform reinjection probability.

  4. Functional and computational analysis of amino acid patterns predictive of type III secretion system substrates in Pseudomonas syringae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Schechter

    Full Text Available Bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs deliver proteins called effectors into eukaryotic cells. Although N-terminal amino acid sequences are required for translocation, the mechanism of substrate recognition by the T3SS is unknown. Almost all actively deployed T3SS substrates in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato strain DC3000 possess characteristic patterns, including (i greater than 10% serine within the first 50 amino acids, (ii an aliphatic residue or proline at position 3 or 4, and (iii a lack of acidic amino acids within the first 12 residues. Here, the functional significance of the P. syringae T3SS substrate compositional patterns was tested. A mutant AvrPto effector protein lacking all three patterns was secreted into culture and translocated into plant cells, suggesting that the compositional characteristics are not absolutely required for T3SS targeting and that other recognition mechanisms exist. To further analyze the unique properties of T3SS targeting signals, we developed a computational algorithm called TEREE (Type III Effector Relative Entropy Evaluation that distinguishes DC3000 T3SS substrates from other proteins with a high sensitivity and specificity. Although TEREE did not efficiently identify T3SS substrates in Salmonella enterica, it was effective in another P. syringae strain and Ralstonia solanacearum. Thus, the TEREE algorithm may be a useful tool for identifying new effector genes in plant pathogens. The nature of T3SS targeting signals was additionally investigated by analyzing the N-terminus of FtsX, a putative membrane protein that was classified as a T3SS substrate by TEREE. Although the first 50 amino acids of FtsX were unable to target a reporter protein to the T3SS, an AvrPto protein substituted with the first 12 amino acids of FtsX was translocated into plant cells. These results show that the T3SS targeting signals are highly mutable and that secretion may be directed by multiple

  5. Expression and Quorum Sensing Regulation of Type III Secretion System Genes of Vibrio harveyi during Infection of Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Karunasagar, Indrani; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems enable pathogens to inject their virulence factors directly into the cytoplasm of the host cells. The type III secretion system of Vibrio harveyi, a major pathogen of aquatic organisms and a model species in quorum sensing studies, is repressed by the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR. In this study, we found that during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, the expression levels of three type III secretion operons in V. harveyi increased within the first 12h after challenge and decreased again thereafter. The in vivo expression levels were highest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in low cell density configuration (minimal LuxR levels) and lowest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in the high cell density configuration (maximal LuxR levels), which is consistent with repression of type III secretion by LuxR. Remarkably, in vivo expression levels of the type III secretion system genes were much (> 1000 fold) higher than the in vitro expression levels, indicating that (currently unknown) host factors significantly induce the type III secretion system. Given the fact that type III secretion is energy-consuming, repression by the quorum sensing master regulators might be a mechanism to save energy under conditions where it does not provide an advantage to the cells.

  6. SORPTION OF Ga (III ON FLEXIBLE OPEN CELL POLYURETHANE FOAM OF POLYETHER TYPE IMPREGNATED WITH TRI-N-BUTHYL PHOSPATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Tofan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The obtained results concerning the Ga (III ion retention on flexible open cell polyurethane foam of polyether type pretreated with tri-n-butyl phosphate are presented. The influence of solution acidity, phases contact time, Ga (III concentration and solution temperature have been investigated. The parameters of Ga (III batch sorption have been optimized. On the basis of Langmuir isotherms, the sorption constants and the thermodynamic parameters, ∆G, ∆Η and ∆S have been calculated.

  7. NMR and molecular dynamics studies of the conformational epitope of the type III group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, J R; Uhrinova, S; Woods, R J; van der Zwan, M; Jarrell, H C; Paoletti, L C; Kasper, D L; Jennings, H J

    1997-03-18

    The conformational epitope of the type III group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide (GBSP III) exhibits unique properties which can be ascribed to the presence of sialic acid in its structure and the requirement for an extended binding site. By means of NMR and molecular dynamics studies on GBSP III and its fragments, the extended epitope of GBSP III was further defined. The influence of sialic acid on the conformational properties of GBSP III was examined by performing conformational analysis on desialylated GBSP III, which is identical to the polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14, and also on oxidized and reduced GBSP III. Conformational changes were gauged by 1H and 13C chemical shift analysis, NOE, 1D selective TOCSY-NOESY experiments, J(HH) and J(CH) variations, and NOE of OH resonances. Changes in mobility were examined by 13C T1 and T2 measurements. Unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water using the AMBER force field and the GLYCAM parameter set were used to assess static and dynamic conformational models, simulate the observable NMR parameters and calculate helical parameters. GBSP III was found to be capable of forming extended helices. Hence, the length dependence of the conformational epitope could be explained by its location on extended helices within the random coil structure of GBSP III. The interaction of sialic acid with the backbone of the PS was also found to be important in defining the conformational epitope of GBSP III.

  8. Small-molecule inhibitors suppress the expression of both type III secretion and amylovoran biosynthesis genes in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Korban, Schuyler S; Pusey, P Lawrence; Elofsson, Michael; Sundin, George W; Zhao, Youfu

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran are two essential pathogenicity factors in Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of the serious bacterial disease fire blight. In this study, small molecules that inhibit T3SS gene expression in E. amylovora under hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity)-inducing conditions were identified and characterized using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These compounds belong to salicylidene acylhydrazides and also inhibit amylovoran production. Microarray analysis of E. amylovora treated with compounds 3 and 9 identified a total of 588 significantly differentially expressed genes. Among them, 95 and 78 genes were activated and suppressed by both compounds, respectively, when compared with the dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) control. The expression of the majority of T3SS genes in E. amylovora, including hrpL and the avrRpt2 effector gene, was suppressed by both compounds. Compound 3 also suppressed the expression of amylovoran precursor and biosynthesis genes. However, both compounds induced significantly the expression of glycogen biosynthesis genes and siderophore biosynthesis, regulatory and transport genes. Furthermore, many membrane, lipoprotein and exported protein-encoding genes were also activated by both compounds. Similar expression patterns were observed for compounds 1, 2 and 4. Using crab apple flower as a model, compound 3 was capable of reducing disease development in pistils. These results suggest a common inhibition mechanism shared by salicylidene acylhydrazides and indicate that small-molecule inhibitors that disable T3SS function could be explored to control fire blight disease.

  9. Transcriptional profiling of Bordetella pertussis reveals requirement of RNA chaperone Hfq for Type III secretion system functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibova, Ilona; Hot, David; Keidel, Kristina; Amman, Fabian; Slupek, Stephanie; Cerny, Ondrej; Gross, Roy; Vecerek, Branislav

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of human whooping cough (pertussis) produces a complex array of virulence factors in order to establish efficient infection in the host. The RNA chaperone Hfq and small regulatory RNAs are key players in posttranscriptional regulation in bacteria and have been shown to play an essential role in virulence of a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. This study represents the first attempt to characterize the Hfq regulon of the human pathogen B. pertussis under laboratory conditions as well as upon passage in the host and indicates that loss of Hfq has a profound effect on gene expression in B. pertussis. Comparative transcriptional profiling revealed that Hfq is required for expression of several virulence factors in B. pertussis cells including the Type III secretion system (T3SS). In striking contrast to the wt strain, T3SS did not become operational in the hfq mutant passaged either through mice or macrophages thereby proving that Hfq is required for the functionality of the B. pertussis T3SS. Likewise, expression of virulence factors vag8 and tcfA encoding autotransporter and tracheal colonization factor, respectively, was strongly reduced in the hfq mutant. Importantly, for the first time we demonstrate that B. pertussis T3SS can be activated upon contact with macrophage cells in vitro.

  10. Manipulation of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Function by the Cell Contact-Dependent Type III Secretion Systems of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky eO'Boyle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus elicits gastroenteritis by deploying Type III Secretion Systems (TTSS to deliver effector proteins into epithelial cells of the human intestinal tract. The bacteria must adhere to the human cells to allow colonization and operation of the TTSS translocation apparatus bridging the bacterium and the host cell. This article first reviews recent advances in identifying the molecules responsible for intercellular adherence. V. parahaemolyticus possesses two TTSS, each of which delivers an exclusive set of effectors and mediates unique effects on the host cell. TTSS effectors primarily target and alter the activation status of host cell signalling proteins, thereby bringing about changes in the regulation of cellular behaviour. TTSS1 is responsible for the cytotoxicity of V. parahaemolyticus, while TTSS2 is necessary for the enterotoxicity of the pathogen. Recent publications have elucidated the function of several TTSS effectors and their importance in the virulence of the bacterium. This review will explore the ability of the TTSS to manipulate activities of human intestinal cells and how this modification of cell function favours bacterial colonization and persistence of V. parahaemolyticus in the host.

  11. Angiogenic inhibitors delivered by the type III secretion system of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium safely shrink tumors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Yu, Bin; Cai, Chun-Hui; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Despite of a growing number of bacterial species that apparently exhibit intrinsic tumor-targeting properties, no bacterium is able to inhibit tumor growth completely in the immunocompetent hosts, due to its poor dissemination inside the tumors. Oxygen and inflammatory reaction form two barriers and restrain the spread of the bacteria inside the tumors. Here, we engineered a Salmonella typhimurium strain named ST8 which is safe and has limited ability to spread beyond the anaerobic regions of tumors. When injected systemically to tumor-bearing immunocompetent mice, ST8 accumulated in tumors at levels at least 100-fold greater than parental obligate anaerobic strain ST4. ST8/pSEndo harboring therapeutic plasmids encoding Endostatin fused with a secreted protein SopA could target vasculature at the tumor periphery, can stably maintain and safely deliver a therapeutic vector, release angiogenic inhibitors through a type III secretion system (T3SS) to interfere with the pro-angiogenic action of growth factors in tumors. Mice with murine CT26 colon cancer that had been injected with ST8/pSEndo showed efficient tumor suppression by inducing more severe necrosis and inhibiting blooding vessel density within tumors. Our findings provide a therapeutic platform for indirectly acting therapeutic strategies such as anti-angiogenesis and immune therapy.

  12. Analysis of the characteristics of patients with open tibial fractures of Gustilo and Anderson type III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Carlos Jaña Neto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of patients with Gustilo-Anderson Type III open tibial fractures treated at a tertiary care hospital in São Paulo between January 2013 and August 2014. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study. The following data were gathered from the electronic medical records: age; gender; diagnosis; trauma mechanism; comorbidities; associated fractures; Gustilo and Anderson, Tscherne and AO classifications; treatment (initial and definitive; presence of compartment syndrome; primary and secondary amputations; MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score index; mortality rate; and infection rate. RESULTS: 116 patients were included: 81% with fracture type IIIA, 12% IIIB and 7% IIIC; 85% males; mean age 32.3 years; and 57% victims of motorcycle accidents. Tibial shaft fractures were significantly more prevalent (67%. Eight patients were subjected to amputation: one primary case and seven secondary cases. Types IIIC (75% and IIIB (25% predominated among the patients subjected to secondary amputation. The MESS index was greater than 7 in 88% of the amputees and in 5% of the limb salvage group. CONCLUSION: The profile of patients with open tibial fracture of Gustilo and Anderson Type III mainly involved young male individuals who were victims of motorcycle accidents. The tibial shaft was the segment most affected. Only 7% of the patients underwent amputation. Given the current controversy in the literature about amputation or salvage of severely injured lower limbs, it becomes necessary to carry out prospective studies to support clinical decisions.

  13. Management of Oehler’s Type III Dens Invaginatus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Ranganathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens Invaginatus is a dental malformation that poses diagnostic difficulties in the clinical context. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate endodontic procedure due to the aberrant root canal anatomy. Compared to conventional radiographs, three-dimensional images obtained with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT are invaluable in the diagnosis of the extent of this anomaly and in the appropriate treatment planning. Oehler’s classification (1957 for Dens Invaginatus (DI into three types depending on the depth of the invagination has been used for treatment planning. Of the three types Type III DI is characterized by infolding of the enamel into the tooth up to the root apex and is considered as the most severe variant of DI and hence the most challenging to treat endodontically, due to the morphological complexities. This report describes a case of Oehler’s Type III DI in a necrotic permanent maxillary lateral incisor in which CBCT images played a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The case was managed successfully by a combination of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic therapy with orthograde and retrograde thermoplastic gutta percha obturation.

  14. Epigenetic reprogramming of the type III interferon response potentiates antiviral activity and suppresses tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyuan Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type III interferon (IFN-λ exhibits potent antiviral activity similar to IFN-α/β, but in contrast to the ubiquitous expression of the IFN-α/β receptor, the IFN-λ receptor is restricted to cells of epithelial origin. Despite the importance of IFN-λ in tissue-specific antiviral immunity, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this confined receptor expression remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the histone deacetylase (HDAC repression machinery mediates transcriptional silencing of the unique IFN-λ receptor subunit (IFNLR1 in a cell-type-specific manner. Importantly, HDAC inhibitors elevate receptor expression and restore sensitivity to IFN-λ in previously nonresponsive cells, thereby enhancing protection against viral pathogens. In addition, blocking HDAC activity renders nonresponsive cell types susceptible to the pro-apoptotic activity of IFN-λ, revealing the combination of HDAC inhibitors and IFN-λ to be a potential antitumor strategy. These results demonstrate that the type III IFN response may be therapeutically harnessed by epigenetic rewiring of the IFN-λ receptor expression program.

  15. Type III Supracondylar Humerus Fractures in Children: Open Reduction and Pinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common type of fractures involving the elbow region in children. Open reduction is a successful method for the management of displaced supracondylar fractures, with the most important advantages being complete anatomical reduction by visualising the fracture line and the lower level of risk for iatrogenic neurovascular injuries. In the present study, we assessed outcomes of open reduction and cross-pinning employed in the surgical management of paediatric Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures. Material and Method: The study included 18 children with Gartland extension type III supracondylar humerus fractures (13 boys, 5 girls; mean age: 7.3 ± 2.02 years; range, 3%u201312. There were fractures in the right elbows of 11 patients (61.1% and in the left elbows of seven (38.8%. The mean operative time was 53.3 ± 8.5 minutes (range, 45%u201370. The mean length of hospital stay was 1.7 ± 0.75 days (range, 1%u20133, while the mean follow-up time was 2.2 ± 0.6 years (range, 1.5%u20134. Results: According to the Flynn criteria, excellent results were obtained in six patients (33.3%, and good results in 12 (61.7% regarding changes in the carrying angle of the elbow. Functional assessment results were excellent for 14 patients (77.7% and good for four (22.3% regarding their loss of joint movement. Radiographic examinations revealed an average Baumann%u2019s angle of 75.6° (range, 70%u201385. Discussion: Good clinical outcomes can be achieved through the management of Gartland extension type III supracondylar humerus fractures using the open reduction technique. The most important disadvantage, however, is the post-surgical appearance of the elbow incision scar.

  16. Complex Function for SicA, a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Type III Secretion-Associated Chaperone

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Stephanie C.; Jorge E Galán

    2000-01-01

    Salmonella enterica encodes a type III secretion system within a pathogenicity island located at centisome 63 that is essential for virulence. All type III secretion systems require the function of a family of low-molecular-weight proteins that aid the secretion process by acting as partitioning factors and/or secretion pilots. One such protein is SicA, which is encoded immediately upstream of the type III secreted proteins SipB and SipC. We found that the absence of SicA results in the degra...

  17. Early Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation Does Not Prevent Neurological Deterioration in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, Lindsey; Marchal, Jan Pieter; van Hasselt, Peter; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Wijburg, Frits A; Boelens, Jaap Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo disease, is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by defective lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate (HS). No effective disease-modifying therapy is yet available. In contrast to some other neuronopathic LSDs, bone marro

  18. Effects of bacterial cells and two types of extracellular polymers on bioclogging of sand columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Xin, Jia; Sun, Zhaoyue; Wang, Leyun

    2016-04-01

    Microbially induced reductions in the saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, of natural porous media, conventionally called bioclogging, occurs frequently in natural and engineered subsurface systems. Bioclogging can affect artificial groundwater recharge, in situ bioremediation of contaminated aquifers, or permeable reactive barriers. In this study, we designed a series of percolation experiments to simulate the growth and metabolism of bacteria in sand columns. The experimental results showed that the bacterial cell amount gradually increased to a maximum of 8.91 log10 CFU/g sand at 144 h during the bioclogging process, followed by a decrease to 7.89 log10 CFU/g sand until 336 h. The same variation pattern was found for the concentration of tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS), which had a peak value of 220.76 μg/g sand at 144 h. In the same experiments, the concentration of loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) increased sharply from 54.45 to 575.57 μg/g sand in 192 h, followed by a slight decline to 505.04 μg/g sand. The increase of the bacterial cell amount along with the other two concentrations could reduce the Ks of porous media, but their relative contributions varied to a large degree during different percolation stages. At the beginning of the tests (e.g., 48 h before), bacterial cells were likely responsible for the Ks reduction of porous media because no increase was found for the other two concentrations. With the accumulation of cells and EPS production from 48 to 144 h, both were important for the reduction of Ks. However, in the late period of percolation tests from 144 to 192 h, LB-EPS was probably responsible for the further reduction of Ks, as the bacterial cell amount and TB-EPS concentration decreased. Quantitative contributions of bacterial cell amount and the two types of extracellular polymers to Ks reductions were also evaluated.

  19. Influence of silver additions to type 316 stainless steels on bacterial inhibition, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tseng, I-Sheng; Møller, Per;

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial contamination is a major concern in many areas. In this study, silver was added to type 316 stainless steels in order to obtain an expected bacteria inhibiting property to reduce the occurrence of bacterial contamination. Silver-bearing 316 stainless steels were prepared by vacuum melti...

  20. Trabecular Metal Augments for the Management of Paprosky Type III Defects Without Pelvic Discontinuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grappiolo, Guido; Loppini, Mattia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Traverso, Francesco; Mazziotta, Giuseppe; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Fifty-five hips undergoing acetabular reconstruction with trabecular metal (TM)-coated cup and TM augments were reviewed at an average follow up of 53.7 months (36-91). Bony defects were Paprosky type IIIA in 42 and type IIIB without pelvic discontinuity in 13 hips. The average HHS increased from 40 (27-52) preoperatively to 90.5 (61-100) postoperatively (P<0.0001). Four (7.3%) of 55 hips underwent acetabular components revision: three cases of loosening (5.4%), and one of recurrent instability (1.8%) were reported. Survival rate at 2 and 5 years was 96.4% and 92.8%. In conclusion, the use of TM-coated cups and augments could be considered an effective management of Paprosky type III defects without pelvic discontinuity providing good clinical and radiographic outcomes in the mid term.

  1. Beat-type Langmuir wave emissions associated with a type III solar radio burst: Evidence of parametric decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent measurements from the plasma wave instrument on the Galileo spacecraft have shown that Langmuir waves observed in conjunction with a type III solar radio burst contain many beat-type waveforms, with beat frequencies ranging from about 150 to 650 Hz. Strong evidence exists that the beat pattern is produced by two closely spaced narrowband components. The most likely candidates for these two waves are a beam-generated Langmuir wave and an oppositely propagating Langmuir wave produced by parametric decay. In the parametric decay process, nonlinear interactions cause the beam-driven Langmuir wave to decay into a Langmuir wave and a low-frequency ion sound wave. Comparisons of the observed beat frequency are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a three-wave parametric decay process. Weak low-frequency emissions are also sometimes observed at the predicted frequency of the ion sound wave.

  2. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosan, D. E.; Gallagher, P. T.; Zucca, P.; Fallows, R.; Carley, E. P.; Mann, G.; Bisi, M. M.; Kerdraon, A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; MacKinnon, A. L.; Rucker, H. O.; Thidé, B.; Magdalenić, J.; Vocks, C.; Reid, H.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hassall, T. E.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Markoff, S.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pietka, G.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D.; Serylak, M.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Stewart, A.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, C.; Vermeulen, R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Aims: Here, the combined high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) was used to study solar Type III radio bursts at 30-90 MHz and their association with CMEs. Methods: The Sun was imaged with 126 simultaneous tied-array beams within ≤5 R⊙ of the solar centre. This method offers benefits over standard interferometric imaging since each beam produces high temporal (~83 ms) and spectral resolution (12.5 kHz) dynamic spectra at an array of spatial locations centred on the Sun. LOFAR's standard interferometric output is currently limited to one image per second. Results: Over a period of 30 min, multiple Type III radio bursts were observed, a number of which were found to be located at high altitudes (~4 R⊙ from the solar center at 30 MHz) and to have non-radial trajectories. These bursts occurred at altitudes in excess of values predicted by 1D radial electron density models. The non-radial high altitude Type III bursts were found to be associated with the expanding flank of a CME. Conclusions: The CME may have compressed neighbouring streamer plasma producing larger electron densities at high altitudes, while the non-radial burst trajectories can be explained by the deflection of radial magnetic fields as the CME expanded in the low corona. Movie associated to Fig. 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. The Structure of the SlrP-hTrx1 Complex Sheds Light on the Autoinhibition Mechanism of the Type-III Secretion System Effectors of the NEL Family

    OpenAIRE

    Zouhir, Samira; Bernal-Bayard, Joaquín; Cordero-Alba, Mar; Cardenal Muñoz, Elena; Guimaraes, Beatriz,; Lazar, Noureddine; Ramos Morales, Francisco; Nessler, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella infections are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States and the European Union. Antimicrobial therapy is often administered to treat the infection but increasing isolates are being detected that demonstrate resistance to multiple antibiotics. Salmonella enterica contains two virulence related type-III secretion systems (T3SS): one promotes invasion of the intestine and the other one mediates systemic disease. Both of them secrete the SlrP prot...

  4. Type-II/III DCT/DST algorithms with reduced number of arithmetic operations

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Xuancheng

    2007-01-01

    We present algorithms for the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete sine transform (DST), of types II and III, that achieve a lower count of real multiplications and additions than previously published algorithms, without sacrificing numerical accuracy. Asymptotically, the operation count is reduced from ~ 2N log_2 N to ~ (17/9) N log_2 N for a power-of-two transform size N. Furthermore, we show that a further N multiplications may be saved by a certain rescaling of the inputs or outputs, generalizing a well-known technique for N=8 by Arai et al. These results are derived by considering the DCT to be a special case of a DFT of length 4N, with certain symmetries, and then pruning redundant operations from a recent improved fast Fourier transform algorithm (based on a recursive rescaling of the conjugate-pair split radix algorithm). The improved algorithms for DCT-III, DST-II, and DST-III follow immediately from the improved count for the DCT-II.

  5. Bounds on charged higgs boson in the 2HDM type III from Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, R; Rozo, M

    2003-01-01

    We consider the Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) of type III which leads to Flavour Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC) at tree level. In the framework of this model we can use an appropriate form of the Yukawa Lagrangian that makes the type II model limit of the general type III couplings apparent. This way is useful in order to compare with the experimental data which is model dependent. The analytical expressions of the partial width $\\Gamma (t \\to H^+ b) $ are derived and we compare with the data available at this energy range. We examine the limits on the new parameter $\\lambda_{tt}$ from the validness criterium of perturbation theory and we get $\\lambda_{tt} \\geq \\sqrt{2} (1-\\tan \\beta)/\\sqrt{1+\\tan^2 \\beta}$. Furthermore, we analyze the perturbation theory limit together with experimental bounds on $B(t \\to H^+ b)$ and we get a bound on the charged Higgs mass, $m_{H^+}\\geq 123$ GeV.

  6. Type III polyketide synthase is involved in the biosynthesis of protocatechuic acid in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yangyong; Xiao, Jing; Pan, Li

    2014-11-01

    Genomic studies have shown that not only plants but also filamentous fungi contain type III polyketide synthases. To study the function of type III polyketide synthase (AnPKSIII) in Aspergillus niger, a deletion strain (delAnPKSIII) and an overexpression strain (oeAnPKSIII) were constructed in A. niger MA169.4, a derivative of the wild-type (WT) A. niger ATCC 9029 that produces large quantities of gluconic acid. Alterations in the metabolites were analyzed by HPLC when the extract of the overexpression strain was compared with extracts of the WT and deletion strains. Protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3.2 mg/l) was isolated and identified as the main product of AnPKSIII when inductively expressed in A. niger MA169.4. The molecular weight of PCA was 154.1 (m/z 153.1 [M-H](-)), was detected by ESI-MS in the negative ionization mode, and (1)H and (13)C NMR data confirmed its structure.

  7. The Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion Systems manipulate host cell MAPK for critical steps in pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Matlawska-Wasowska, Ksenia

    2010-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen causing inflammation of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Pathogenic strains of this bacterium possess two Type III Secretion Systems (TTSS) that deliver effector proteins into host cells. In order to better understand human host cell responses to V. parahaemolyticus, the modulation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activation in epithelial cells by an O3:K6 clinical isolate, RIMD2210633, was investigated. The importance of MAPK activation for the ability of the bacterium to be cytotoxic and to induce secretion of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) was determined.

  8. Tyrosinemia type III: diagnosis and ten-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerone, R; Holme, E; Schiaffino, M C; Caruso, U; Maritano, L; Romano, C

    1997-09-01

    Tyrosinemia type III, caused by deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, is a rare disorder of tyrosine catabolism. Primary 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase deficiency has been described in only three patients. The biochemical phenotype shows hypertyrosinemia and elevated urinary excretion of 4-hydroxyphenyl derivatives. We report the clinical and biochemical findings and the results of long-term follow-up in a new patient with this disorder presenting with severe mental retardation and neurological abnormalities. The clinical phenotype is compared with those reported in the three previously described patients.

  9. Developmental defects in a Caenorhabditis elegans model for type III galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokate-Llanos, Ana M; Monje, José M; Murdoch, Piedad Del Socorro; Muñoz, Manuel J

    2014-12-01

    Type III galactosemia is a metabolic disorder caused by reduced activity of UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, which participates in galactose metabolism and the generation of various UDP-sugar species. We characterized gale-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans and found that a complete loss-of-function mutation is lethal, as has been hypothesized for humans, whereas a nonlethal partial loss-of-function allele causes a variety of developmental abnormalities, likely resulting from the impairment of the glycosylation process. We also observed that gale-1 mutants are hypersensitive to galactose as well as to infections. Interestingly, we found interactions between gale-1 and the unfolded protein response.

  10. Metabolism of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in cultures of human proximal tubular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Blaehr, H; Andersen, C B;

    1992-01-01

    Degradation of the intact form of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) has been established in the liver, whereas the col 1 domain of PIIINP is extracted by the kidneys. We used native human PIIINP and col 1 domain of PIIINP to investigate the degradation of PIIINP...... in cultures of human proximal tubular cells. Normal renal tissue was obtained from the healthy part of kidneys surgically removed and from biopsies from a total of 10 patients. The degradation was characterized by incubation of [125I]-PIIINP followed by gel filtration. We found that in physiological...

  11. The rare decay $t \\to c \\gamma$ in the General 2HDM type III

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, R A; Rodríguez, José Alberto; Diaz, Rodolfo A.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the branching ratio for the process $t \\to c \\gamma$ in the context of the General Two Higgs Doublet Model type III. We find that taking into account reasonable values for the parameter $\\tan \\beta$ is possible to get values of this branching ratio up to orders of magnitude lying in the range of sensitivity of near future top quark experiments. For values of $B(t \\to c \\gamma) \\sim 1-9 \\times 10^{-5}$, values between 8-15 for $\\tan \\beta$ are allowed.

  12. Localization, by linkage analysis, of the cystinuria type III gene to chromosome 19q13.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisceglia, L.; Totaro, A.; Melchionda, S. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive aminoaciduria in which three urinary phenotypes (I, II, and III) have been described. An amino acid transporter gene, SLC3A1 (formerly rBAT), was found to be responsible for this disorder. Mutational and linkage analysis demonstrated the presence of genetic heterogeneity in which the SLC3A1 gene is responsible for type I cystinuria but not for type II or type III. In this study, we report the identification of the cystinuria type III locus on the long arm of chromosome 19 (19q13.1), obtained after a genomewide search. Pairwise linkage analysis in a series of type III or type II families previously excluded from linkage to the cystinuria type I locus (SLC3A1 gene) revealed a significant maximum LOD score (Z{sub max}) of 13.11 at a maximum recombination fraction ({theta}{sub max}) of .00, with marker D19S225. Multipoint linkage analysis performed with the use of additional markers from the region placed the cystinuria type III locus between D19S414 and D19S220. Preliminary data on type II families also seem to place the disease locus for this rare type of cystinuria at 19q13.1 (significant Z{sub max} = 3.11 at {theta}{sub max} of .00, with marker D19S225). 33 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Molecular Epidemiologic Typing Systems of Bacterial Pathogens: Current Issues and Perpectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J Struelens

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiologic typing of bacterial pathogens can be applied to answer a number of different questions: in case of outbreak, what is the extent and mode of transmission of epidemic clone(s ? In case of long-term surveillance, what is the prevalence over time and the geographic spread of epidemic and endemic clones in the population? A number of molecular typing methods can be used to classify bacteria based on genomic diversity into groups of closely-related isolates (presumed to arise from a common ancestor in the same chain of transmission and divergent, epidemiologically-unrelated isolates (arising from independent sources of infection. Ribotyping, IS-RFLP fingerprinting, macrorestriction analysis of chromosomal DNA and PCR-fingerprinting using arbitrary sequence or repeat element primers are useful methods for outbreak investigations and regional surveillance. Library typing systems based on multilocus sequence-based analysis and strain-specific probe hybridization schemes are in development for the international surveillance of major pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Accurate epidemiological interpretation of data obtained with molecular typing systems still requires additional research on the evolution rate of polymorphic loci in bacterial pathogens.

  14. Structure-function relationships within Keppler-type antitumor ruthenium(III) complexes: the case of 2-aminothiazolium[trans-tetrachlorobis(2-aminothiazole)ruthenate(III)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Pasquale; Piccioli, Francesca; Gabbiani, Chiara; Camalli, Mercedes; Messori, Luigi

    2005-07-11

    Keppler-type ruthenium(III) complexes exhibit promising antitumor properties. We report here a study of 2-aminothiazolium[trans-tetrachlorobis(2-aminothiazole)ruthenate(III)], both in the solid state and in solution. The crystal structure has been solved and found to exhibit classical features. Important solvatochromic effects were revealed. Notably, we observed that introduction of an amino group in position 2 greatly accelerates chloride hydrolysis compared to the thiazole analogue; this latter finding may be of interest for a fine-tuning of the reactivity of these novel metallodrugs.

  15. Collagen Type III and VI Turnover in Response to Long-Term Immobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Sun

    Full Text Available Muscle mass and function are perturbed by immobilization and remobilization. When muscle mass changes, the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix protein, particularly the collagens, change with it. In this study, we investigated the temporal profile of three peptide biomarkers derived from turnover of collagen type III and type VI in a long-term immobilization and remobilization study. We also compared individual biomarker levels with Lean body Mass (LBM and changes therein, hypothesizing that these biomarkers would be biomarkers of the remodeling processes associated with immobilization and/or remobilization.In the Berlin bed rest study, 20 young men were recruited and randomly assigned to 8-week's strict bed rest with or without resistive vibration exercise countermeasure. We measured three neo-epitope ELISA kits in the serum samples of this study: Pro-C3, measured the synthesis of collagen type III; Pro-C6, measured the synthesis of collagen type VI; and C6M measured the degradation of collagen type VI induced by MMP-2 and MMP-9 cleavage.Pro-C3 and Pro-C6 biomarkers are up-regulated with both immobilization and remobilization, whereas C6M is hardly affected at all. We found that Pro-C3 and C6M levels are related to LBM at baseline and that high levels of Pro-C6 are associated with smaller changes in muscle mass during both immobilization and remobilization.The Pro-C3 and-C6 biomarkers change likely reflect remodeling changes in response to unloading or reloading, whereas C6M does not appear to respond to unloading. Pro-C3 and C6M levels correlate with LBM at baseline, while Pro-C6 is related to the anabolic and catabolic responses to unloading and reloading.

  16. Burkholderia type VI secretion systems have distinct roles in eukaryotic and bacterial cell interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Schwarz

    Full Text Available Bacteria that live in the environment have evolved pathways specialized to defend against eukaryotic organisms or other bacteria. In this manuscript, we systematically examined the role of the five type VI secretion systems (T6SSs of Burkholderia thailandensis (B. thai in eukaryotic and bacterial cell interactions. Consistent with phylogenetic analyses comparing the distribution of the B. thai T6SSs with well-characterized bacterial and eukaryotic cell-targeting T6SSs, we found that T6SS-5 plays a critical role in the virulence of the organism in a murine melioidosis model, while a strain lacking the other four T6SSs remained as virulent as the wild-type. The function of T6SS-5 appeared to be specialized to the host and not related to an in vivo growth defect, as ΔT6SS-5 was fully virulent in mice lacking MyD88. Next we probed the role of the five systems in interbacterial interactions. From a group of 31 diverse bacteria, we identified several organisms that competed less effectively against wild-type B. thai than a strain lacking T6SS-1 function. Inactivation of T6SS-1 renders B. thai greatly more susceptible to cell contact-induced stasis by Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia proteamaculans-leaving it 100- to 1000-fold less fit than the wild-type in competition experiments with these organisms. Flow cell biofilm assays showed that T6S-dependent interbacterial interactions are likely relevant in the environment. B. thai cells lacking T6SS-1 were rapidly displaced in mixed biofilms with P. putida, whereas wild-type cells persisted and overran the competitor. Our data show that T6SSs within a single organism can have distinct functions in eukaryotic versus bacterial cell interactions. These systems are likely to be a decisive factor in the survival of bacterial cells of one species in intimate association with those of another, such as in polymicrobial communities present both in the environment and in many infections.

  17. Influence of geochemical properties and land-use types on the microbial reduction of Fe(III) in subtropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengshuai; Wang, Yongkui; Li, Fangbai; Chen, Manjia; Zhai, Guangshu; Tao, Liang; Liu, Chuanping

    2014-08-01

    Microbial Fe(III) reduction significantly impacts the geochemical processes and the composition of most subsurface soils. However, up to now, the factors influencing the efficiency of Fe(III) reduction in soils have not been fully described. In this study, soil Fe(III) reduction processes related to geochemical properties and land-use types were systematically investigated using iron-rich soils. The results showed that microbial Fe(III) reduction processes were efficient and their rates varied significantly in different types of soils. Fe(III) reduction rates were 1.1-5.6 times as much in soils with glucose added as in those without glucose. Furthermore, Fe(III) reduction rates were similar in soils from the same parent materials, while they were highest in soils developed from sediments, with a mean rate of 1.87 mM per day when supplemented with glucose. In addition, the Fe(III) reduction rates, reaching 0.99 and 0.59 mM per day on average with and without glucose added, respectively, were higher in the paddy soils affected heavily by human activities than those in the forest soils (average rates of 0.38 and 0.15 mM per day when with and without glucose, respectively). All the soil weathering indices correlated linearly with Fe(III) reduction rates, even though the reduction of iron in soils with higher weathering degrees was partly inhibited by a higher soil protonation trend and fewer available iron reduction sites in the soils, which gives lower reduction rates. These results clearly illustrate that soil Fe(III) reduction rates are greatly dependent on soil geochemical properties and land-use types and help define which soil types exhibit similar degrees of Fe(III) reduction under field conditions.

  18. The host type Ⅰ interferon response to viral and bacterial infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea K. PERRY; Gang CHEN; Dahai ZHENG; Hong TANG; Genhong CHENG

    2005-01-01

    Type Ⅰ interferons (IFN) are well studied cytokines with anti-viral and immune-modulating functions. Type Ⅰ IFNs are produced following viral infections, but until recently, the mechanisms of viral recognition leading to IFN production were largely unknown. Toll like receptors (TLRs) have emerged as key transducers of type Ⅰ IFN during viral infections by recognizing various viral components. Furthermore, much progress has been made in defining the signaling pathways downstream of TLRs for type Ⅰ IFN production. TLR7 and TLR9 have become apparent as universally important in inducing type Ⅰ IFN during infection with most viruses, particularly by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. New intracellular viral pattern recognition receptors leading to type Ⅰ IFN production have been identified. Many bacteria can also induce the up-regulation of these cytokines. Interestingly, recent studies have found a detrimental effect on host cells if type Ⅰ IFN is produced during infection with the intracellular gram-positive bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. This review will discuss the recent advances made in defining the signaling pathways leading to type Ⅰ IFN production.

  19. Insights into the Emergent Bacterial Pathogen Cronobacter spp., Generated by Multilocus Sequence Typing and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Susan; Forsythe, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. (previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii) is a bacterial pathogen affecting all age groups, with particularly severe clinical complications in neonates and infants. One recognized route of infection being the consumption of contaminated infant formula. As a recently recognized bacterial pathogen of considerable importance and regulatory control, appropriate detection, and identification schemes are required. The application of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and analysis (MLSA) of the seven alleles atpD, fusA, glnS, gltB, gyrB, infB, and ppsA (concatenated length 3036 base pairs) has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the genus. This approach is supported by both the reliability of DNA sequencing over subjective phenotyping and the establishment of a MLST database which has open access and is also curated; http://www.pubMLST.org/cronobacter. MLST has been used to describe the diversity of the newly recognized genus, instrumental in the formal recognition of new Cronobacter species (C. universalis and C. condimenti) and revealed the high clonality of strains and the association of clonal complex 4 with neonatal meningitis cases. Clearly the MLST approach has considerable benefits over the use of non-DNA sequence based methods of analysis for newly emergent bacterial pathogens. The application of MLST and MLSA has dramatically enabled us to better understand this opportunistic bacterium which can cause irreparable damage to a newborn baby's brain, and has contributed to improved control measures to protect neonatal health.

  20. Insights into the emergent bacterial pathogen Cronobacter spp., generated by multilocus sequence typing and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan eJoseph

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii is a bacterial pathogen affecting all age groups, with particularly severe clinical complications in neonates and infants. One recognised route of infection being the consumption of contaminated infant formula. As a recently recognised bacterial pathogen of considerable importance and regulatory control, appropriate detection and identification schemes are required. The application of multilocus sequence typing (MLST and analysis (MLSA of the seven alleles atpD, fusA, glnS, gltB, gyrB, infB and ppsA (concatenated length 3036 base pairs has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the genus. This approach is supported by both the reliability of DNA sequencing over subjective phenotyping and the establishment of a MLST database which has open access and is also curated; http://www.pubMLST.org/cronobacter. MLST has been used to describe the diversity of the newly recognised genus, instrumental in the formal recognition of new Cronobacter species (C. universalis and C. condimenti and revealed the high clonality of strains and the association of clonal complex 4 with neonatal meningitis cases. Clearly the MLST approach has considerable benefits over the use of non-DNA sequence based methods of analysis for newly emergent bacterial pathogens. The application of MLST and MLSA has dramatically enabled us to better understand this opportunistic bacterium which can cause irreparable damage to a newborn baby’s brain, and has contributed to improved control measures to protect neonatal health.

  1. Confounding roles for type I interferons during bacterial and viral pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrero, Javier Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Although type I interferons (IFN-I) were initially defined as potent antiviral agents, they can also cause decreased host resistance to some bacterial and viral infections. The many antiviral functions of the IFN-I include direct suppression of viral replication and activation of the immune response against viruses. In addition to their antiviral effects, IFN-I are also protective against several extracellular bacterial infections, in part, by promoting the induction of TNF-α and nitric oxide. In contrast, there is a negative effect of IFN-I on host resistance during chronic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and acute infections with intracellular bacteria. In the case of LCMV, chronic IFN-I signaling induces adaptive immune system suppression. Blockade of IFN-I signaling removes the suppression and allows CD4 T-cell- and IFN-γ-mediated resolution of the infection. During acute intracellular bacterial infection, IFN-I suppress innate immunity by at least two defined mechanisms. During Francisella infection, IFN-I prevent IL-17 upregulation on γδ T cells and neutrophil recruitment. Following Listeria infection, IFN-I promote the cell death of macrophages and lymphocytes, which leads to innate immune suppression. These divergent findings for the role of IFN-I on pathogen control emphasize the complexity of the interferons system and force more mechanistic evaluation of its role in pathogenesis. This review evaluates IFN-I during infection with an emphasis on work carried out IFN-I-receptor-deficient mice.

  2. Pore-forming Activity of the Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System Protein EspD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Caballero-Franco, Celia; Bakker, Dannika; Totten, Stephanie; Jardim, Armando

    2015-10-16

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is a causative agent of gastrointestinal and diarrheal diseases. Pathogenesis associated with enterohemorrhagic E. coli involves direct delivery of virulence factors from the bacteria into epithelial cell cytosol via a syringe-like organelle known as the type III secretion system. The type III secretion system protein EspD is a critical factor required for formation of a translocation pore on the host cell membrane. Here, we show that recombinant EspD spontaneously integrates into large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) lipid bilayers; however, pore formation required incorporation of anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine and an acidic pH. Leakage assays performed with fluorescent dextrans confirmed that EspD formed a structure with an inner diameter of ∼2.5 nm. Protease mapping indicated that the two transmembrane helical hairpin of EspD penetrated the lipid layer positioning the N- and C-terminal domains on the extralumenal surface of LUVs. Finally, a combination of glutaraldehyde cross-linking and rate zonal centrifugation suggested that EspD in LUV membranes forms an ∼280-320-kDa oligomeric structure consisting of ∼6-7 subunits.

  3. Type III mixed cryoglobulinemia and antiphospholipid syndrome in a patient with partial DiGeorge syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alice D; Tachdjian, Raffi; Gallagher, Kerry; McCurdy, Deborah K; Lassman, Charles; Stiehm, E Richard; Yadin, Ora

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 14 year-old boy with partial DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), status post complete repair of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia. He presented with recurrent fever and dyspnea upon exertion secondary to right pulmonary embolus on chest computed tomography (CT). Coagulation studies revealed homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT mutations, elevated cardiolipin IgM antibodies, and elevated beta(2)-glycoprotein I IgM antibodies. Infectious work-up revealed only positive anti-streptolysin O (ASO) and anti-DNAse B titers. Autoimmune studies showed strongly positive anti-platelet IgM, elevated rheumatoid factor (RF), and positive cryocrit. Renal biopsy for evaluation of proteinuria and hematuria showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) with membranoproliferative features consistent with cryoglobulinemia. Immunofixation showed polyclonal bands. Our patient was treated successfully with antibiotics, prednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). This is the first report of a patient with partial DGS presenting with APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia possibly due to Streptococcal infection.

  4. Extended SUSY SU(5) predicting type-III seesaw testable at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Awasthi, Ram Lal

    2013-01-01

    We propose an extension of the SUSY SU(5) which predicts LHC testable type-III seesaw. The supersymmetric SU(5) GUT model is extended by adding a 24-plet matter superfield along with a pair of $10_H$-plet and $\\bar{10}_H$-plet Higgs superfields. The 24-plet carries a triplet and a singlet fermion multiplet of SU(2)$_L$, which leads to type I+III seesaw. The additional $10_H$ (and $\\bar{10}_H$) multiplets help in achieving gauge coupling unification while keeping the triplet fermion mass in the TeV range, making them accessible at LHC. We study the phenomenology of this model in detail. Large lepton flavor violation predicted in this model puts severe constraints on the Yukawa couplings of the triplet fermion. We show that this smothers the possibility of observing the contribution of the heavy fermions in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. The presence of the additional $10_H$ and $\\bar{10}_H$ in this model not only gives gauge coupling unification, it also leads to very large lepton flavor violation...

  5. Plant flavonoids target Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 flagella and type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Paola; Farias, Gabriela A; Nogales, Joaquina; Prada, Harold; Carvajal, Vivian; Barón, Matilde; Rivilla, Rafael; Martín, Marta; Olmedilla, Adela; Gallegos, María-Trinidad

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids are among the most abundant plant secondary metabolites involved in plant protection against pathogens, but micro-organisms have developed resistance mechanisms to those compounds. We previously demonstrated that the MexAB-OprM efflux pump mediates resistance of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 to flavonoids, facilitating its survival and the colonization of the host. Here, we have shown that tomato plants respond to Pto infection producing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. The effects of flavonoids on key traits of this model plant-pathogen bacterium have also been investigated observing that they reduce Pto swimming and swarming because of the loss of flagella, and also inhibited the expression and assembly of a functional type III secretion system. Those effects were more severe in a mutant lacking the MexAB-OprM pump. Our results suggest that flavonoids inhibit the function of the GacS/GacA two-component system, causing a depletion of rsmY RNA, therefore affecting the synthesis of two important virulence factors in Pto DC3000, flagella and the type III secretion system. These data provide new insights into the flavonoid role in the molecular dialog between host and pathogen.

  6. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Morosan, D E; Zucca, P; Fallows, R; Carley, E P; Mann, G; Bisi, M M; Kerdraon, A; Konovalenko, A A; MacKinnon, A L; Rucker, H O; Thidé, B; Magdalenić, J; Vocks, C; Reid, H; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Bregman, J; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; Conway, J E; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Deller, A; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hassall, T E; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Markoff, S; McKean, J P; Mulcahy, D D; Munk, H; Nelles, A; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pandey, V N; Pietka, G; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Stewart, A; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, C; Vermeulen, R; van Weeren, R J; Wucknitz, O; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

    2014-01-01

    The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Here, the combined high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) was used to study solar Type III radio bursts at 30-90 MHz and their association with CMEs. The Sun was imaged with 126 simultaneous tied-array beams within 5 solar radii of the solar centre. This method offers benefits over standard interferometric imaging since each beam produces high temporal (83 ms) and spectral resolution (12.5 kHz) dynamic spectra at an array of spatial locations centred on the Sun. LOFAR's standard interferometric output is currently limited to one image per second. Over a period of 30 minutes, multiple Type III radio bursts were observed, a number of which were found to be located at high...

  7. Adenocarcinoma arising in a heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egashira Yutaro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Heterotopic pancreatic cancer in the duodenum is a very rare disease. Only twelve cases have been reported worldwide to date. We report a rare case of malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III in the duodenum with long-term survival of the patient, and review the 12 cases in the literature. Case presentation A 75-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital complaining of nausea and vomiting. Endoscopy and upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed marked duodenal stenosis. A pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathological examination of the surgically resected specimen showed malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III in the duodenum. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 30. He is well and shows no signs of recurrence at the time of writing, six years after the surgery. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma arising within the heterotopic pancreas appears to be rare. It is difficult to obtain a correct diagnosis preoperatively. The management of heterotopic pancreas depends on the presence or absence of symptoms. If the patient is asymptomatic or benign, conservative treatment with regular follow-up is recommended. When the patient is symptomatic or there is a suspicion of malignancy, surgical management with intra-operative frozen section diagnosis is indicated.

  8. Tenascin C promiscuously binds growth factors via its fifth fibronectin type III-like domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Laporte

    Full Text Available Tenascin C (TNC is an extracellular matrix protein that is upregulated during development as well as tissue remodeling. TNC is comprised of multiple independent folding domains, including 15 fibronectin type III-like (TNCIII domains. The fifth TNCIII domain (TNCIII5 has previously been shown to bind heparin. Our group has shown that the heparin-binding fibronectin type III domains of fibronectin (FNIII, specifically FNIII12-14, possess affinity towards a large number of growth factors. Here, we show that TNCIII5 binds growth factors promiscuously and with high affinity. We produced recombinant fragments of TNC representing the first five TNCIII repeats (TNCIII1-5, as well as subdomains, including TNCIII5, to study interactions with various growth factors. Multiple growth factors of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF family, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF family, the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β superfamily, the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGF-BPs, and neurotrophins were found to bind with high affinity to this region of TNC, specifically to TNCIII5. Surface plasmon resonance was performed to analyze the kinetics of binding of TNCIII1-5 with TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, NT-3, and FGF-2. The promiscuous yet high affinity of TNC for a wide array of growth factors, mediated mainly by TNCIII5, may play a role in multiple physiological and pathological processes involving TNC.

  9. High frequency ion sound waves associated with Langmuir waves in type III radio burst source regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thejappa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Short wavelength ion sound waves (2-4kHz are detected in association with the Langmuir waves (~15-30kHz in the source regions of several local type III radio bursts. They are most probably not due to any resonant wave-wave interactions such as the electrostatic decay instability because their wavelengths are much shorter than those of Langmuir waves. The Langmuir waves occur as coherent field structures with peak intensities exceeding the Langmuir collapse thresholds. Their scale sizes are of the order of the wavelength of an ion sound wave. These Langmuir wave field characteristics indicate that the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are most probably generated during the thermalization of the burnt-out cavitons left behind by the Langmuir collapse. Moreover, the peak intensities of the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are comparable to the expected intensities of those ion sound waves radiated by the burnt-out cavitons. However, the speeds of the electron beams derived from the frequency drift of type III radio bursts are too slow to satisfy the needed adiabatic ion approximation. Therefore, some non-linear process such as the induced scattering on thermal ions most probably pumps the beam excited Langmuir waves towards the lower wavenumbers, where the adiabatic ion approximation is justified.

  10. Type III Mixed Cryoglobulinemia and Antiphospholipid Syndrome in a Patient With Partial DiGeorge Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice D. Chang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a 14 year-old boy with partial DiGeorge syndrome (DGS, status post complete repair of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed antiphospholipid syndrome (APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia. He presented with recurrent fever and dyspnea upon exertion secondary to right pulmonary embolus on chest computed tomography (CT. Coagulation studies revealed homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT mutations, elevated cardiolipin IgM antibodies, and elevated β2-glycoprotein I IgM antibodies. Infectious work-up revealed only positive anti-streptolysin O (ASO and anti-DNAse B titers. Autoimmune studies showed strongly positive anti-platelet IgM, elevated rheumatoid factor (RF, and positive cryocrit. Renal biopsy for evaluation of proteinuria and hematuria showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN with membranoproliferative features consistent with cryoglobulinemia. Immunofixation showed polyclonal bands. Our patient was treated successfully with antibiotics, prednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF. This is the first report of a patient with partial DGS presenting with APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia possibly due to Streptococcal infection.

  11. Role of NSO compounds during primary cracking of a Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, F.; Lorant, F.; Lewan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to follow the generation of NSO compounds during the artificial maturation of an immature Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite in order to determine the different sources of the petroleum potential during primary cracking. Experiments were carried out in closed system pyrolysis in the temperature range from 225 to 350 ??C. Two types of NSOs were recovered: one is soluble in n-pentane and the second in dichloromethane. A kinetic scheme was optimised including both kerogen and NSO cracking. It was validated by complementary experiments carried out on isolated asphaltenes generated from the Type II kerogen and on the total n-pentane and DCM extracts generated from the Type III lignite. Results show that kerogen and lignite first decompose into DCM NSOs with minor generation of hydrocarbons. Then, the main source of petroleum potential originates from secondary cracking of both DCM and n-pentane NSOs through successive decomposition reactions. These results confirm the model proposed by Tissot [Tissot, B., 1969. Premie??res donne??es sur les me??canismes et la cine??tique de la formation du pe??trole dans les bassins se??dimentaires. Simulation d'un sche??ma re??actionnel sur ordinateur. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 24, 470-501] in which the main source of hydrocarbons is not the insoluble organic matter, but the NSO fraction. As secondary cracking of the NSOs largely overlaps that of the kerogen, it was demonstrated that bulk kinetics in open system is a result of both kerogen and NSO cracking. Thus, another kinetic scheme for primary cracking in open system was built as a combination of kerogen and NSO cracking. This new kinetic scheme accounts for both the rate and amounts of hydrocarbons generated in a closed pyrolysis system. Thus, the concept of successive steps for hydrocarbon generation is valid for the two types of pyrolysis system and, for the first time, a common kinetic scheme is available for extrapolating results to natural

  12. Structure of the type IVa major pilin from the electrically conductive bacterial nanowires of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Patrick N; Mueller, Karl T

    2013-10-11

    Several species of δ proteobacteria are capable of reducing insoluble metal oxides as well as other extracellular electron acceptors. These bacteria play a critical role in the cycling of minerals in subsurface environments, sediments, and groundwater. In some species of bacteria such as Geobacter sulfurreducens, the transport of electrons is proposed to be facilitated by filamentous fibers that are referred to as bacterial nanowires. These nanowires are polymeric assemblies of proteins belonging to the type IVa family of pilin proteins and are mainly comprised of one subunit protein, PilA. Here, we report the high resolution solution NMR structure of the PilA protein from G. sulfurreducens determined in detergent micelles. The protein is >85% α-helical and exhibits similar architecture to the N-terminal regions of other non-conductive type IVa pilins. The detergent micelle interacts with the first 21 amino acids of the protein, indicating that this region likely associates with the bacterial inner membrane prior to fiber formation. A model of the G. sulfurreducens pilus fiber is proposed based on docking of this structure into the fiber model of the type IVa pilin from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This model provides insight into the organization of aromatic amino acids that are important for electrical conduction.

  13. Structure of the Type IVa Major Pilin from the Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Patrick N.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2013-10-11

    Several species of bacteria are capable of reducing insoluble metal oxides as well as other extracellular electron acceptors. These bacteria play a critical role in the cycling of minerals in subsurface environments, sediments, and groundwater. In some species of bacteria, such as Geobacter sulfurreducens, the transport of electrons is facilitated by filamentous fibers that are referred to as bacterial nanowires. These nanowires belong to the type IVa family of pilin proteins and are mainly comprised of one subunit protein, PilA. Here, we report the high resolution solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the PilA protein from G. sulfurreducens determined in detergent micelles. The protein is over 85% α-helical and exhibits similar architecture to the N-terminal regions of other non-conductive type IVa pilins. The detergent micelle interacts with the first 21 amino acids of the protein, indicating that this region likely associates with the bacterial inner membrane prior to fiber formation. A model of the G. sulfurreducens pilus fiber is proposed based on docking of this structure into the fiber model of the type IVa pilin from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This model provides insight into the organization of aromatic amino acids that are important for electrical conduction.

  14. Increased Levels of Type I and III Collagen and Hyaluronan in Scleroderma Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Klaus; Heickendorff, Lene; L, Risteli

    1997-01-01

    The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) and the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and hyaluronan (HA) were measured in plasma and suction blister fluid from 13 systemic sclerosis patients and 11 healthy volunteers. Suction blisters and skin biopsies were...... from the transition zone between normal skin and scleroderma, and uninvolved abdominal skin of patients. The median value of suction blister PIIINP from the transition zone was 38% higher than suction blister PIIINP from uninvolved skin. PIIINP was localized to the dermis by immunohistochemical...... techniques. PICP and HA levels in blisters from the transition zone were 87% and 53%, respectively, above the levels measured in uninvolved skin. Furthermore, PICP and HA blister levels from the transition zone were 67% and 63%, respectively, higher than the levels measured in healthy volunteers. In plasma...

  15. Human tandem-repeat-type galectins bind bacterial non-βGal polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knirel, Yu A.; Gabius, H.-J.; Blixt, Klas Ola;

    2014-01-01

    ), prompted us to establish an array with bacterial polysaccharides. We addressed the question whether sugar determinants other than β-galactosides may be docking sites, using human galectins-4, -8, and -9. Positive controls with histo-blood group ABH-epitopes and the E. coli 086 polysaccharide ascertained...... the suitability of the set-up. Significant signal generation, depending on type of galectin and polysacchride, was obtained. Presence of cognate β-galactoside-related epitopes within a polysaccharide chain or its branch will not automatically establish binding properties, and structural constellations lacking...

  16. Peptidomimetic Small Molecules Disrupt Type IV Secretion System Activity in Diverse Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie L. Shaffer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria utilize complex type IV secretion systems (T4SSs to translocate diverse effector proteins or DNA into target cells. Despite the importance of T4SSs in bacterial pathogenesis, the mechanism by which these translocation machineries deliver cargo across the bacterial envelope remains poorly understood, and very few studies have investigated the use of synthetic molecules to disrupt T4SS-mediated transport. Here, we describe two synthetic small molecules (C10 and KSK85 that disrupt T4SS-dependent processes in multiple bacterial pathogens. Helicobacter pylori exploits a pilus appendage associated with the cag T4SS to inject an oncogenic effector protein (CagA and peptidoglycan into gastric epithelial cells. In H. pylori, KSK85 impedes biogenesis of the pilus appendage associated with the cag T4SS, while C10 disrupts cag T4SS activity without perturbing pilus assembly. In addition to the effects in H. pylori, we demonstrate that these compounds disrupt interbacterial DNA transfer by conjugative T4SSs in Escherichia coli and impede vir T4SS-mediated DNA delivery by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in a plant model of infection. Of note, C10 effectively disarmed dissemination of a derepressed IncF plasmid into a recipient bacterial population, thus demonstrating the potential of these compounds in mitigating the spread of antibiotic resistance determinants driven by conjugation. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of synthetic small molecules that impair delivery of both effector protein and DNA cargos by diverse T4SSs.

  17. Protein export according to schedule: architecture, assembly, and regulation of type III secretion systems from plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Daniela

    2012-06-01

    Flagellar and translocation-associated type III secretion (T3S) systems are present in most gram-negative plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria and are often essential for bacterial motility or pathogenicity. The architectures of the complex membrane-spanning secretion apparatuses of both systems are similar, but they are associated with different extracellular appendages, including the flagellar hook and filament or the needle/pilus structures of translocation-associated T3S systems. The needle/pilus is connected to a bacterial translocon that is inserted into the host plasma membrane and mediates the transkingdom transport of bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. During the last 3 to 5 years, significant progress has been made in the characterization of membrane-associated core components and extracellular structures of T3S systems. Furthermore, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators that control T3S gene expression and substrate specificity have been described. Given the architecture of the T3S system, it is assumed that extracellular components of the secretion apparatus are secreted prior to effector proteins, suggesting that there is a hierarchy in T3S. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of T3S system components and associated control proteins from both plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria.

  18. Deoxycholate interacts with IpaD of Shigella flexneri in inducing the recruitment of IpaB to the type III secretion apparatus needle tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensrud, Kenneth F; Adam, Philip R; La Mar, Cassandra D; Olive, Andrew J; Lushington, Gerald H; Sudharsan, Raghavi; Shelton, Naomi L; Givens, Richard S; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D

    2008-07-04

    Type III secretion (TTS) is an essential virulence function for Shigella flexneri that delivers effector proteins that are responsible for bacterial invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. The Shigella TTS apparatus (TTSA) consists of a basal body that spans the bacterial inner and outer membranes and a needle exposed at the pathogen surface. At the distal end of the needle is a "tip complex" composed of invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD). IpaD not only regulates TTS, but is required for the recruitment and stable association of the translocator protein IpaB at the TTSA needle tip in the presence of deoxycholate or other bile salts. This phenomenon is not accompanied by induction of TTS or the recruitment of IpaC to the Shigella surface. We now show that IpaD specifically binds fluorescein-labeled deoxycholate and, based on energy transfer measurements and docking simulations, this interaction appears to occur where the N-terminal domain of IpaD meets its central coiled-coil, a region that may also be involved in needle-tip interactions. TTS is initiated as a series of distinct steps and that small molecules present in the bacterial milieu are capable of inducing the first step of TSS through interactions with the needle tip protein IpaD. Furthermore, the amino acids proposed to be important for deoxycholate binding by IpaD appear to have significant roles in regulating tip complex composition and pathogen entry into host cells.

  19. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Graña

    Full Text Available This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%, moderate (27.8% and high (7.1%. This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types.

  20. Malabsorption, Orocecal Transit Time and Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, S V; Malik, Aastha; Bhadada, Sanjay K; Sachdeva, Naresh; Morya, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Gaurav

    2017-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate insulin secretion. Most of diabetic patients report significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Entire GI tract can be affected by diabetes from oral cavity to large bowel and anorectal region. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and most fluids are absorbed in small intestine. Malabsorption may occurs when proper absorption of nutrients does not take place due to bacterial overgrowth or altered gut motility. The present study was planned to measure various malabsorption parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. 175 patients and 175 age and sex matched healthy controls attending Endocrinology Clinic in PGI, Chandigarh were enrolled. Lactose intolerance was measured by using non-invasive lactose hydrogen breath test. Urinary d-xylose and fecal fat were estimated using standard methods. Orocecal transit time and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth were measured using non-invasive lactulose and glucose breath test respectively. Out of 175 diabetic patients enrolled, 87 were males while among 175 healthy subjects 88 were males. SIBO was observed in 14.8 % type 2 diabetic patients and in 2.8 % of controls. There was statistically significant increase (p diabetic patients compared with controls. OCTT was observed to be more delayed (p diabetic patients and 39.4 % in controls. Urinary d-xylose levels were also lower in case of diabetic patients but no significant difference was found in 72 h fecal fat excretion among diabetic patients and controls. Urinary d-xylose and lactose intolerance in SIBO positive type 2 diabetic patients was more severe as compared to SIBO negative diabetic patients. From this study we can conclude that delayed OCTT may have led to SIBO which may have instigated the process of malabsorption among type 2 diabetic patients.

  1. A novel multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing scheme for African phylotype III strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santatra Ravelomanantsoa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reliable genotyping that provides an accurate description of diversity in the context of pathogen emergence is required for the establishment of strategies to improve disease management. MultiLocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA is a valuable genotyping method. It can be performed at small evolutionary scales where high discriminatory power is needed. Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC are highly genetically diverse. These destructive pathogens are the causative agent of bacterial wilt on an unusually broad range of host plants worldwide. In this study, we developed an MLVA scheme for genotyping the African RSSC phylotype III. Methods. We selected different publicly available tandem repeat (TR loci and additional TR loci from the genome of strain CMR15 as markers. Based on these loci, a new phylotype III-MLVA scheme is presented. MLVA and multiLocus sequence typing (MLST were compared at the global, regional, and local scales. Different populations of epidemiologically related and unrelated RSSC phylotype III strains were used. Results and Discussion. Sixteen polymorphic TR loci, which included seven microsatellites and nine minisatellites, were selected. These TR loci were distributed throughout the genome (chromosome and megaplasmid and located in both coding and intergenic regions. The newly developed RS3-MLVA16 scheme was more discriminative than MLST. RS3-MLVA16 showed good ability in differentiating strains at global, regional, and local scales, and it especially highlighted epidemiological links between closely related strains at the local scale. RS3-MLVA16 also underlines genetic variability within the same MLST-type and clonal complex, and gives a first overview of population structure. Overall, RS3-MLVA16 is a promising genotyping method for outbreak investigation at a fine scale, and it could be used for outbreak investigation as a first-line, low-cost assay for the routine screening

  2. A novel multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing scheme for African phylotype III strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelomanantsoa, Santatra; Robène, Isabelle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Guérin, Fabien; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Reliable genotyping that provides an accurate description of diversity in the context of pathogen emergence is required for the establishment of strategies to improve disease management. MultiLocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a valuable genotyping method. It can be performed at small evolutionary scales where high discriminatory power is needed. Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) are highly genetically diverse. These destructive pathogens are the causative agent of bacterial wilt on an unusually broad range of host plants worldwide. In this study, we developed an MLVA scheme for genotyping the African RSSC phylotype III. Methods. We selected different publicly available tandem repeat (TR) loci and additional TR loci from the genome of strain CMR15 as markers. Based on these loci, a new phylotype III-MLVA scheme is presented. MLVA and multiLocus sequence typing (MLST) were compared at the global, regional, and local scales. Different populations of epidemiologically related and unrelated RSSC phylotype III strains were used. Results and Discussion. Sixteen polymorphic TR loci, which included seven microsatellites and nine minisatellites, were selected. These TR loci were distributed throughout the genome (chromosome and megaplasmid) and located in both coding and intergenic regions. The newly developed RS3-MLVA16 scheme was more discriminative than MLST. RS3-MLVA16 showed good ability in differentiating strains at global, regional, and local scales, and it especially highlighted epidemiological links between closely related strains at the local scale. RS3-MLVA16 also underlines genetic variability within the same MLST-type and clonal complex, and gives a first overview of population structure. Overall, RS3-MLVA16 is a promising genotyping method for outbreak investigation at a fine scale, and it could be used for outbreak investigation as a first-line, low-cost assay for the routine screening of RSSC

  3. Type- and Subcomplex-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies against Domain III of Dengue Virus Type 2 Envelope Protein Recognize Adjacent Epitopes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukupolvi-Petty, Soila; Austin, S. Kyle; Purtha, Whitney E.; Oliphant, Theodore; Nybakken, Grant E.; Schlesinger, Jacob J.; Roehrig, John T.; Gromowski, Gregory D.; Barrett, Alan D.; Fremont, Daved H.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Neutralization of flaviviruses in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein. Previous studies demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII) of the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein strongly protect against infection in animals. Based on X-ray crystallography and sequence analysis, an analogous type-specific neutralizing epitope for individual serotypes of the related flavivirus dengue virus (DENV) was hypothesized. Using yeast surface display of DIII variants, we defined contact residues of a panel of type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive MAbs that recognize DIII of DENV type 2 (DENV-2) and have different neutralizing potentials. Type-specific MAbs with neutralizing activity against DENV-2 localized to a sequence-unique epitope on the lateral ridge of DIII, centered at the FG loop near residues E383 and P384, analogous in position to that observed with WNV-specific strongly neutralizing MAbs. Subcomplex-specific MAbs that bound some but not all DENV serotypes and neutralized DENV-2 infection recognized an adjacent epitope centered on the connecting A strand of DIII at residues K305, K307, and K310. In contrast, several MAbs that had poor neutralizing activity against DENV-2 and cross-reacted with all DENV serotypes and other flaviviruses recognized an epitope with residues in the AB loop of DIII, a conserved region that is predicted to have limited accessibility on the mature virion. Overall, our experiments define adjacent and structurally distinct epitopes on DIII of DENV-2 which elicit type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive antibodies with different neutralizing potentials. PMID:17881453

  4. Type- and subcomplex-specific neutralizing antibodies against domain III of dengue virus type 2 envelope protein recognize adjacent epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukupolvi-Petty, Soila; Austin, S Kyle; Purtha, Whitney E; Oliphant, Theodore; Nybakken, Grant E; Schlesinger, Jacob J; Roehrig, John T; Gromowski, Gregory D; Barrett, Alan D; Fremont, Daved H; Diamond, Michael S

    2007-12-01

    Neutralization of flaviviruses in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein. Previous studies demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII) of the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein strongly protect against infection in animals. Based on X-ray crystallography and sequence analysis, an analogous type-specific neutralizing epitope for individual serotypes of the related flavivirus dengue virus (DENV) was hypothesized. Using yeast surface display of DIII variants, we defined contact residues of a panel of type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive MAbs that recognize DIII of DENV type 2 (DENV-2) and have different neutralizing potentials. Type-specific MAbs with neutralizing activity against DENV-2 localized to a sequence-unique epitope on the lateral ridge of DIII, centered at the FG loop near residues E383 and P384, analogous in position to that observed with WNV-specific strongly neutralizing MAbs. Subcomplex-specific MAbs that bound some but not all DENV serotypes and neutralized DENV-2 infection recognized an adjacent epitope centered on the connecting A strand of DIII at residues K305, K307, and K310. In contrast, several MAbs that had poor neutralizing activity against DENV-2 and cross-reacted with all DENV serotypes and other flaviviruses recognized an epitope with residues in the AB loop of DIII, a conserved region that is predicted to have limited accessibility on the mature virion. Overall, our experiments define adjacent and structurally distinct epitopes on DIII of DENV-2 which elicit type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive antibodies with different neutralizing potentials.

  5. Spectroscopic Identification of Type 2 Quasars at Z < 1 in SDSS-III/BOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Sihan; Zakamska, Nadia L

    2016-01-01

    The physics and demographics of type 2 quasars remain poorly understood, and new samples of such objects selected in a variety of ways can give insight into their physical properties, evolution, and relationship to their host galaxies. We present a sample of 2758 type 2 quasars at z $\\leq$ 1 from the SDSS-III/BOSS spectroscopic database, selected on the basis of their emission-line properties. We probe the luminous end of the population by requiring the rest-frame equivalent width of [OIII] to be > 100 {\\AA}. We distinguish our objects from star-forming galaxies and type 1 quasars using line widths, standard emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams at z 0.52. The majority of our objects have [OIII] luminosities in the range 10^8.5-10^10 L$_{\\odot}$ and redshifts between 0.4 and 0.65. Our sample includes over 400 type 2 quasars with incorrectly measured redshifts in the BOSS database; such objects often show kinematic substructure or outflows in the [OIII] line. The majority of the sample has counterparts in t...

  6. Two Translation Products of Yersinia yscQ Assemble To Form a Complex Essential to Type III Secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzymek, Krzysztof P.; Hamaoka, Brent Y.; Ghosh, Partho (UCSD)

    2012-07-11

    The bacterial flagellar C-ring is composed of two essential proteins, FliM and FliN. The smaller protein, FliN, is similar to the C-terminus of the larger protein, FliM, both being composed of SpoA domains. While bacterial type III secretion (T3S) systems encode many proteins in common with the flagellum, they mostly have a single protein in place of FliM and FliN. This protein resembles FliM at its N-terminus and is as large as FliM but is more like FliN at its C-terminal SpoA domain. We have discovered that a FliN-sized cognate indeed exists in the Yersinia T3S system to accompany the FliM-sized cognate. The FliN-sized cognate, YscQ-C, is the product of an internal translation initiation site within the locus encoding the FliM-sized cognate YscQ. Both intact YscQ and YscQ-C were found to be required for T3S, indicating that the internal translation initiation site, which is conserved in some but not all YscQ orthologs, is crucial for function. The crystal structure of YscQ-C revealed a SpoA domain that forms a highly intertwined, domain-swapped homodimer, similar to those observed in FliN and the YscQ ortholog HrcQ{sub B}. A single YscQ-C homodimer associated reversibly with a single molecule of intact YscQ, indicating conformational differences between the SpoA domains of intact YscQ and YscQ-C. A 'snap-back' mechanism suggested by the structure can account for this. The 1:2 YscQ-YscQ-C complex is a close mimic of the 1:4 FliM-FliN complex and the likely building block of the putative Yersinia T3S system C-ring.

  7. Changes in histoanatomical distribution of types I, III and V collagen promote adaptative remodeling in posterior tibial tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Satomi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a common cause of adult flat foot deformity, and its etiology is unknown. PURPOSE: In this study, we characterized the morphologic pattern and distribution of types I, III and V collagen in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. METHOD: Tendon samples from patients with and without posterior tibial tendon dysfunction were stained by immunofluorescence using antibodies against types I, III and V collagen. RESULTS: Control samples showed that type V deposited near the vessels only, while surgically obtained specimens displayed type V collagen surrounding other types of collagen fibers in thicker adventitial layers. Type III collagen levels were also increased in pathological specimens. On the other hand, amounts of collagen type I, which represents 95% of the total collagen amount in normal tendon, were decreased in pathological specimens. CONCLUSION: Fibrillogenesis in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is altered due to higher expression of types III and V collagen and a decreased amount of collagen type I, which renders the originating fibrils structurally less resistant to mechanical forces.

  8. Supramolecular structure and functional analysis of the type III secretion system in Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eLiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system (T3SS of plant and animal bacterial pathogens directs the secretion and injection of proteins into host cells. Some homologous genes of T3SS were found also in nonpathogenic bacteria, but the organization of its machinery and basic function are still unknown. In this study, we identified a T3SS gene cluster from the plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24 and isolated the corresponding T3SS apparatus. The T3SS gene cluster of strain 2P24 is similar organizationally to that of pathogenic P. syringae, except that it lacks the regulator hrpR and the hrpK1 and hrpH genes, which are involved in translocation of proteins. Electron microscopy revealed that the T3SS supramolecular structure of strain 2P24 was comprised of two distinctive substructures: a long extracellular, filamentous pilus and a membrane-embedded base. We show that strain 2P24 deploys a harpin homologue protein, RspZ1, to elicit a hypersensitive response when infiltrated into Nicotiana tabacum cv. xanthi leaves with protein that is partially purified, and by complementing the hrpZ1 mutation of pHIR11. The T3SS of strain 2P24 retained ability to secrete effectors, whereas its effector translocation activity appeared to be excessively lost. Mutation of the rscC gene from 2P24 T3SS abolished the secretion of effectors, but the general biocontrol properties were unaffected. Remarkably, strain 2P24 induced functional MAMP-triggered immunity that included a burst of reactive oxygen species, strong suppression of challenge cell death, and disease expansion, while it was not associated with the secretion functional T3SS.

  9. Efficient isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion translocators and assembly of heteromeric transmembrane pores in model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Fabian B; Rossi, Kyle C; Savva, Christos G; Holzenburg, Andreas; Clerico, Eugenia M; Heuck, Alejandro P

    2011-08-23

    Translocation of bacterial toxins or effectors into host cells using the type III secretion (T3S) system is a conserved mechanism shared by many Gram-negative pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa injects different proteins across the plasma membrane of target cells, altering the normal metabolism of the host. Protein translocation presumably occurs through a proteinaceous transmembrane pore formed by two T3S secreted protein translocators, PopB and PopD. Unfolded translocators are secreted through the T3S needle prior to insertion into the target membrane. Purified PopB and PopD form pores in model membranes. However, their tendency to form heterogeneous aggregates in solution had hampered the analysis of how these proteins undergo the transition from a denatured state to a membrane-inserted state. Translocators were purified as stable complexes with the cognate chaperone PcrH and isolated from the chaperone using 6 M urea. We report here the assembly of stable transmembrane pores by dilution of urea-denatured translocators in the presence of membranes. PopB and PopD spontaneously bound liposomes containing anionic phospholipids and cholesterol in a pH-dependent manner as observed by two independent assays, time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer and sucrose-step gradient ultracentrifugation. Using Bodipy-labeled proteins, we found that PopB interacts with PopD on the membrane surface as determined by excitation energy migration and fluorescence quenching. Stable transmembrane pores are more efficiently assembled at pH <5.0, suggesting that acidic residues might be involved in the initial membrane binding and/or insertion. Altogether, the experimental setup described here represents an efficient method for the reconstitution and analysis of membrane-inserted translocators.

  10. Type I, II, and III Interferons: Regulating Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, Maja; Petkovic, Miroslav; Verhaz, Antonija

    2016-02-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens or tumor cells. The aim of this review was to present the previously known and new findings about the role of interferons type I and II, and recently discovered type III in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection control. Infection of various cell types with M. tuberculosis induce both IFN-α and IFN-β synthesis. The majority of the studies support the findings that IFN type I actually promotes infection with M. tuberculosis. It has been well establish that IFN-γ has protective function against M. tuberculosis and the other mycobacteria and that the primary source of this cytokine are CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Recently, it has been shown that also the innate lymphocytes, γδ T cells, natural killer (NK) T cells, and NK cells can also be the source of IFN-γ in response to mycobacterial infection. Several studies have shown that CD4(+) T cells protect mice against M. tuberculosis independently of IFN-γ. The balance between IFN-γ and different cytokines such as IL-10 and other Th2 cell cytokines is likely to influence disease outcome. Type I IFN appears to be detrimental through at least three separate, but overlapping, type I IFN-mediated mechanisms: induction of excessive apoptosis, specific suppression of Th1 and IFN-γ responses, and dampening of the immune response by strong IL-10 induction. Recently it has been found that M. tuberculosis infection in A549 lung epithelial cells stimulate up-regulation of IFN-λ genes in vitro. IFN-λs also have a role in modulation of Th1/Th2 response. IFN-λs are not essential for M. tuberculosis infection control, but can give some contribution in immune response to this pathogen.

  11. AgdbNet – antigen sequence database software for bacterial typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiden Martin CJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial typing schemes based on the sequences of genes encoding surface antigens require databases that provide a uniform, curated, and widely accepted nomenclature of the variants identified. Due to the differences in typing schemes, imposed by the diversity of genes targeted, creating these databases has typically required the writing of one-off code to link the database to a web interface. Here we describe agdbNet, widely applicable web database software that facilitates simultaneous BLAST querying of multiple loci using either nucleotide or peptide sequences. Results Databases are described by XML files that are parsed by a Perl CGI script. Each database can have any number of loci, which may be defined by nucleotide and/or peptide sequences. The software is currently in use on at least five public databases for the typing of Neisseria meningitidis, Campylobacter jejuni and Streptococcus equi and can be set up to query internal isolate tables or suitably-configured external isolate databases, such as those used for multilocus sequence typing. The style of the resulting website can be fully configured by modifying stylesheets and through the use of customised header and footer files that surround the output of the script. Conclusion The software provides a rapid means of setting up customised Internet antigen sequence databases. The flexible configuration options enable typing schemes with differing requirements to be accommodated.

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of a Type III Dens Invagination Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mohsen; Adl, Alireza; Javanmardi, Samane; Naghizadeh, Sina

    2016-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented with the history of pain and swelling in the anterior maxillary segment. The periapical radiography was indicative of a dental anomaly in right maxillary lateral incisor. Due to the insufficient information from conventional radiography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was ordered. CBCT showed apical root resorption, large apical lucency and two separate canals with distinct apical foramen (Oehlers type III dens invagination). The CBCT image was used as a guide for dentine removal with an ultrasonic tip. Conventional root canal therapy was done using lateral compaction technique. One-and two-year follow-up radiographies revealed periapical repair and absence of symptoms. PMID:27790268

  13. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Translocon Is Required for Biofilm Formation at the Epithelial Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Cindy S; Rangel, Stephanie M; Almblad, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Clinical infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a deadly Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, often involve the formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Although biofilm formation has been extensively studied in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces, much less is known...... about biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier. We have previously shown that when added to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, P. aeruginosa rapidly forms cell-associated aggregates within 60 minutes of infection. By confocal microscopy we now show that cell-associated aggregates...... a previously unappreciated function for the type III translocon in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms at the epithelial barrier and demonstrate that biofilms may form at early time points of infection....

  14. Type III occipital condylar fracture presenting with hydrocephalus, vertebral artery injury and vasospasm: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, J.A.; Baskaya, M.K.; Day, M.A.; Nanda, A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Louisiana State Univ., Shreveport (United States); Helath Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Occipital condylar fractures (OCF) are rare and have a high mortality rate. We report a patient with OCF who presented with acute hydrocephalus and died from diffuse vasospasm secondary to vertebral artery injury. A 45-year-old man fell 20 feet from a deer stand and landed on his head. CT showed a type III OCF continuing to the anterior rim of the foramen magnum on the left, with a bone fragment pushing into the medulla, causing hydrocephalus. The patient was stabilized, and a four-vessel arteriogram showed diffuse vasospasm with complete occlusion of the left vertebral artery at the level of the OCF. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of the conjunction of OCF, hydrocephalus, and vasospasm. (orig.)

  15. Dynamics of Langmuir and ion-sound waves in type III solar radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Willes, A. J.; Cairns, I. H.

    1993-01-01

    The study traces the evolution of Langmuir and ion-sound waves in type III sources, incorporating linear growth, linear damping, and nonlinear electrostatic decay. Improved estimates are obtained for the wavenumber range of growing waves and the nonlinear coupling coefficient for the decay process. It is shown that the conditions in the solar wind do not allow a steady state to be attained; instead, bursty linear and nonlinear interactions take place, consistent with the highly inhomogeneous and impulsive waves actually observed. Nonlinear growth is found to be rapid enough to saturate the growth of the parent Langmuir waves in the available interaction time. The competing processes of nonlinear wave collapse and quasi-linear relaxation are discussed, and it is concluded that neither is responsible for the saturation of Langmuir growth.

  16. A clinical report of Type III dens invaginatus: relevant aspects of a combined therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva E Souza, Patricia de Almeida Rodrigues; de Almeida, Bruno Vila Nova; Tartari, Talita; Alves, Ana Claudia Braga Amoras; Tuji, Farbicio Mesquita; Silva E Souza, Mario Honorato

    2013-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental abnormality that alters dental morphology; as a result, treating this condition is a challenge for endodontic practices. This article describes how a combination of nonsurgical and surgical therapies was utilized to treat a maxillary central incisor with Type III dens invaginatus and vital pulp. The treatment plan included using computed tomography (CT) for a detailed analysis of the dental anatomy and periapical area, endodontic and surgical procedures, and a 4-year follow-up period that included periodic clinical and radiographic examinations. The follow-up examinations revealed a regression of the apical lesion and no other signs or symptoms. Based on the present case report, the authors concluded that this combination of surgical and nonsurgical approaches was effective and that CT is a valuable auxiliary tool for the study of dental anatomy.

  17. Relationship of type III radio bursts with quasi-periodic pulsations in a solar flare

    CERN Document Server

    Kupriyanova, E G; Reid, H A S; Myagkova, I N

    2016-01-01

    We studied a solar flare with pronounced quasi-periodic pulsations detected in the microwave, X-ray, and radio bands. We used the methods of correlation, Fourier, and wavelet analyses to examine the temporal fine structures and relationships between the time profiles in each wave band. We found that the time profiles of the microwaves, hard X-rays and type III radio bursts vary quasi-periodically with the common period of 40-50 s. The average amplitude of the variations is high, above 30% of the background flux level and reaching 80% after the flare maximum. We did not find the periodicity in either the thermal X-ray flux component or source size dynamics. Our findings indicate that the detected periodicity is likely to be associated with periodic dynamics in the injection of non-thermal electrons, that can be produced by periodic modulation of magnetic reconnection.

  18. The immune reponse to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide in mice with malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedderburn, N; Dracott, B N

    1977-04-01

    The immune response of BALB/c mice to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide (SIII), as measured by splenic PFC, was abolished at the height of an acute self-limiting attack of malaria caused by the murine plasmodium P. yoelii, over a wide range of antigen doses. The response to antigen, given at various times after clinical recovery, gradually reappeared, but did not reach normal levels until 12 weeks after the injection of the parasite. A second injection of P. yoelii given 1 hr before SIII caused a moderate degree of depression, although in this case the plasmodium does not multiply. In chronic malaria the response to SIII was also very poor. Short term under-nourishment was found to reduce only slightly the response to SIII.

  19. Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena, E-mail: e_cardenal@us.es; Gutiérrez, Gabriel, E-mail: ggpozo@us.es; Ramos-Morales, Francisco, E-mail: framos@us.es

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • We analyzed HeLa cells transcriptome in response to Salmonella SteA. • Significant differential expression was detected for 58 human genes. • They are involved in ECM organization and regulation of some signaling pathways. • Cell death, cell adhesion and cell migration were decreased in SteA-expressing cells. • These results contribute to understand the role of SteA during infections. - Abstract: Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also causes repression of genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. In addition, a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, and decreased cytotoxicity, cell–cell adhesion and migration.

  20. HrpG and HrpV proteins from the Type III secretion system of Erwinia amylovora form a stable heterodimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazi, Anastasia D; Charova, Spyridoula; Aivaliotis, Michalis; Panopoulos, Nicholas J; Kokkinidis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are specialized multicomponent nanomachines that mediate the transport of proteins either to extracellular locations or directly into eukaryotic host cell cytoplasm. Erwinia amylovora, the main agent of rosaceous plants fireblight disease, employs an Hrp/Hrc1 T3SS to accomplish its pathogenesis. The regulatory network that controls the activation of this T3SS is largely unknown in E. amylovora. However, in Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, the HrpG/HrpV complex has been shown to directly regulate the activity of transcription factor HrpS and consequently the upregulation of the Hrp/Hrc1 T3SS related genes. In this work, we report the successful recombinant production and purification of a stable E. amylovora HrpG/HrpV complex, using pPROpET, a bicistronic expression vector. Furthermore, we present the first solution structure of this complex based on small-angle X-ray scattering data.

  1. Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 μg/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene.

  2. Type I/II cytokines, JAKs, and new strategies for treating autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniella M; Bonelli, Michael; Gadina, Massimo; O'Shea, John J

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines are major drivers of autoimmunity, and biologic agents targeting cytokines have revolutionized the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Despite the effectiveness of these drugs, they do not induce complete remission in all patients, prompting the development of alternative strategies - including targeting of intracellular signal transduction pathways downstream of cytokines. Many cytokines that bind type I and type II cytokine receptors are critical regulators of immune-mediated diseases and employ the Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway to exert their effect. Pharmacological inhibition of JAKs blocks the actions of type I/II cytokines, and within the past 3 years therapeutic JAK inhibitors, or Jakinibs, have become available to rheumatologists. Jakinibs have proven effective for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Adverse effects of these agents are largely related to their mode of action and include infections and hyperlipidemia. Jakinibs are currently being investigated for a number of new indications, and second-generation selective Jakinibs are being developed and tested. Targeting STATs could be a future avenue for the treatment of rheumatologic diseases, although substantial challenges remain. Nonetheless, the ability to therapeutically target intracellular signalling pathways has already created a new paradigm for the treatment of rheumatologic disease.

  3. Influence of silver additions to type 316 stainless steels on bacterial inhibition, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tseng, I-Sheng; Møller, Per;

    2010-01-01

    techniques. The microstructure of these 316 stainless steels was examined, and the influences of silver additions to 316 stainless steels on bacterial inhibition, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance were investigated. This study suggested that silver-bearing 316 stainless steels could be used......Bacterial contamination is a major concern in many areas. In this study, silver was added to type 316 stainless steels in order to obtain an expected bacteria inhibiting property to reduce the occurrence of bacterial contamination. Silver-bearing 316 stainless steels were prepared by vacuum melting...

  4. Biogenic amine producing capability of bacterial populations isolated during processing of different types of dry fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vincenzini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the distribution of the biogenic amine (BA producing capability within the bacterial populations occurring during production of dry fermented sausages, four different types of sausage processing, three with the use of starter cultures and one without, were investigated. All the main bacterial populations involved in the sausage processing showed a diffuse and strain dependent capability to produce BAs. However, quantitative determination of individual BAs produced by the bacterial isolates suggests an important role of enterococci in the accumulation of tyramine, the most abundant biogenic amine found in all investigated sausages.

  5. Focal adhesion kinase is involved in type III group B streptococcal invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sooan; Paul-Satyaseela, Maneesh; Maneesh, Paul-Satyaseela; Lee, Jong-Seok; Romer, Lewis H; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2006-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), the leading cause of neonatal meningitis, has been shown to invade human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitute the blood-brain barrier. GBS invasion of HBMEC has been shown to require the host cell actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. The present study examined the mechanisms underlying actin cytoskeleton rearrangements that are involved in type III GBS invasion of HBMEC. We showed that type III GBS invasion was inhibited by genistein, a general tyrosine kinase inhibitor (mean 54% invasion decrease at 100 microM), and LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase inhibitor (mean 70% invasion decrease at 50 microM), but not by PP2, an inhibitor of the Src family tyrosine kinases. We subsequently showed that the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was the one of the host proteins tyrosine phosphorylated by type III GBS. Over-expression of a dominant negative form of the FAK C-terminal domain significantly decreased type III GBS invasion of HBMEC (mean 51% invasion decrease). In addition, we showed that FAK phosphorylation correlated with its association of paxillin, an adapter protein of actin filament, and PI3-kinase subunit p85. This is the first demonstration that FAK phosphorylation and its association with paxillin and PI3 kinase play a key role in type III GBS invasion of HBMEC.

  6. Planar tetranuclear Dy(III) single-molecule magnet and its Sm(III), Gd(III), and Tb(III) analogues encapsulated by salen-type and β-diketonate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Lin, Po-Heng; Habib, Fatemah; Aharen, Tomoko; Murugesu, Muralee; Deng, Zhao-Peng; Li, Guang-Ming; Sun, Wen-Bin

    2011-08-01

    The syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties are reported for four new lanthanide clusters [Sm(4)(μ(3)-OH)(2)L(2)(acac)(6)]·4H(2)O (1), [Gd(4)(μ(3)-OH)(2)L(2)(acac)(6)]·4CH(3)CN (2), and [Ln(4)(μ(3)-OH)(2)L(2)(acac)(6)]·2H(2)L·2CH(3)CN (3, Ln = Tb; 4, Ln = Dy) supported by salen-type (H(2)L = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediamine) and β-diketonate (acac = acetylacetonate) ligands. The four clusters were confirmed to be essentially isomorphous by infrared spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their crystal structures reveal that the salen-type ligand provides a suitable tetradentate coordination pocket (N(2)O(2)) to encapsulate lanthanide(III) ions. Moreover, the planar Ln(4) core is bridged by two μ(3)-hydroxide, four phenoxide, and two ketonate oxygen atoms. Magnetic properties of all four compounds have been investigated using dc and ac susceptibility measurements. For 4, the static and dynamic data indicate that the Dy(4) complex exhibits slow relaxation of the magnetization below 5 K associated with single-molecule magnet behavior.

  7. Bacteriophage ΦM1 of Pectobacterium evolves to escape two bifunctional Type III toxin-antitoxin and abortive infection systems through mutations in a single viral gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Tim R; Chai, Ray; Przybilski, Rita; Chindhy, Shahzad; Fang, Xinzhe; Kidman, Samuel E; Tan, Hui; Luisi, Ben F; Fineran, Peter C; Salmond, George P C

    2017-02-03

    Some bacteria, when infected by their viral parasites (bacteriophages), undergo a suicidal response that also terminates productive viral replication (abortive infection; Abi). This response can be viewed as an altruistic act protecting the uninfected bacterial clonal population. Abortive infection can occur through the action of Type III protein-RNA toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, such as ToxINPa from the phytopathogen, Pectobacterium atrosepticum Rare spontaneous mutants evolved in the generalized transducing phage, ΦM1, which escaped ToxINPa-mediated abortive infection in P. atrosepticum ΦM1 is a member of the Podoviridae and member of the "KMV-like viruses", a subset of the T7 supergroup. Genomic sequencing of ΦM1 escape mutants revealed single-base changes which clustered in a single open reading frame. The "escape" gene product, M1-23, was highly toxic to the host bacterium when over-expressed, but mutations in M1-23 that enabled an escape phenotype caused M1-23 to be less toxic. M1-23 is encoded within the DNA metabolism modular section of the phage genome, and when it was over-expressed, it co-purified with the host nucleotide excision repair protein, UvrA. While the M1-23 protein interacted with UvrA in co-immunoprecipitation assays, a UvrA mutant strain still aborted ΦM1, suggesting that the interaction is not critical for the Type III TA Abi activity. Additionally, ΦM1 escaped a heterologous Type III TA system (TenpINPl) from Photorhabdus luminescens (reconstituted in P. atrosepticum) through mutations in the same protein, M1-23. The mechanistic action of M1-23 is currently unknown but further analysis of this protein could provide insights into the mode of activation of both systems.

  8. Studies on the Painlev\\'e Equations, V, \\\\ Third Painlev\\'e Equations \\\\ of Special Type $P_{\\rm III}(D_7)$ and $P_{\\rm III}(D_8)$

    OpenAIRE

    Ohyama, Yousuke; Kwamuko, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Hidetaka; Okamoto, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    By means of geometrical classification (\\cite{S}) of space of initial conditions, it is natural to consider the three types, $P_{\\rm III}(D_6)$, $P_{\\rm III}(D_7)$ and $P_{\\rm III}(D_8)$, for the third Painlev\\'e equation. The fourth article of the series of papers \\cite{O2} on the Painlev\\'e equations is concerned with $P_{\\rm III}(D_6)$, generic type of the equation. The other two types, $P_{\\rm III}(D_7)$ and $P_{\\rm III}(D_8)$ are obtained as degeneration from $P_{\\rm III}(D_6...

  9. The Type III Secretion System (T3SS) is a Determinant for Rice-Endophyte Colonization by Non-Photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piromyou, Pongdet; Songwattana, Pongpan; Greetatorn, Teerana; Okubo, Takashi; Kakizaki, Kaori Chiba; Prakamhang, Janpen; Tittabutr, Panlada; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Teaumroong, Neung; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    Plant associations by bradyrhizobia have been detected not only in leguminous plants, but also in non-leguminous species including rice. Bradyrhizobium sp. SUTN9-2 was isolated from Aeschynomene americana L., which is a leguminous weed found in the rice fields of Thailand. This strain promoted the highest total rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivar Pathum Thani 1) dry weight among the endophytic bradyrhizobial strains tested, and was, thus, employed for the further characterization of rice-Bradyrhizobium interactions. Some known bacterial genes involved in bacteria-plant interactions were selected. The expression of the type III secretion component (rhcJ), type IV secretion component (virD4), and pectinesterase (peces) genes of the bacterium were up-regulated when the rice root exudate was added to the culture. When SUTN9-2 was inoculated into rice seedlings, the peces, rhcJ, virD4, and exopolysaccharide production (fliP) genes were strongly expressed in the bacterium 6-24 h after the inoculation. The gene for glutathione-S-transferase (gst) was slightly expressed 12 h after the inoculation. In order to determine whether type III secretion system (T3SS) is involved in bradyrhizobial infections in rice plants, wild-type SUTN9-2 and T3SS mutant strains were inoculated into the original host plant (A. americana) and a rice plant (cultivar Pathum Thani 1). The ability of T3SS mutants to invade rice tissues was weaker than that of the wild-type strain; however, their phenotypes in A. americana were not changed by T3SS mutations. These results suggest that T3SS is one of the important determinants modulating rice infection; however, type IV secretion system and peces may also be responsible for the early steps of rice infection.

  10. The flagellar-specific transcription factor, sigma28, is the Type III secretion chaperone for the flagellar-specific anti-sigma28 factor FlgM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Phillip D; Karlinsey, Joyce E; Aldridge, Christine; Birchall, Christopher; Thompson, Danielle; Yagasaki, Jin; Hughes, Kelly T

    2006-08-15

    The sigma(28) protein is a member of the bacterial sigma(70)-family of transcription factors that directs RNA polymerase to flagellar late (class 3) promoters. The sigma(28) protein is regulated in response to flagellar assembly by the anti-sigma(28) factor FlgM. FlgM inhibits sigma(28)-dependent transcription of genes whose products are needed late in assembly until the flagellar basal motor structure, the hook-basal body (HBB), is constructed. A second function for the sigma(28) transcription factor has been discovered: sigma(28) facilitates the secretion of FlgM through the HBB, acting as the FlgM Type III secretion chaperone. Transcription-specific mutants in sigma(28) were isolated that remained competent for FlgM-facilitated secretion separating the transcription and secretion-facilitation activities of sigma (28). Conversely, we also describe the isolation of mutants in sigma(28) that are specific for FlgM-facilitated secretion. The data demonstrate that sigma(28) is the Type III secretion chaperone for its own anti-sigma factor FlgM. Thus, a novel role for a sigma(70)-family transcription factor is described.

  11. Transfer of the cloned Salmonella SPI-1 type III secretion system and characterization of its expression mechanisms in Gram negative bacteria in comparison with cloned SPI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangelosi, Chris; Hannagan, Susan; Santiago, Clayton P; Wilson, James W

    2015-11-01

    Cloned type III secretion systems have much potential to be used for bacterial engineering purposes involving protein secretion and substrate translocation directly into eukaryotic cells. We have previously cloned the SPI-1 and SPI-2 type III systems from the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genome using plasmid R995 which can conveniently capture large genomic segments for transfer between bacterial strains. However, though expressed and functional in Salmonella strains, cloned SPI-1 was previously observed to have a serious expression defect in other Gram negative bacteria including Escherichia coli. Here we show that cloned SPI-1 expression and secretion can be detected in the secretion preps from E. coli and Citrobacter indicating the first observation of non-Salmonella SPI-1 expression. We describe a compatible plasmid system to introduce engineered SPI-1 substrates into cloned SPI-1 strains. However, a SPI-1 translocation defect is still observed in E. coli, and we show that this is likely due to a defect in SipB expression/secretion in this species. In addition, we also examined the requirement for the hilA and ssrAB regulators in the expression of cloned SPI-1 and SPI-2, respectively. We found a strict requirement for hilA for full cloned SPI-1 expression and secretion. However, though we found that ssrAB is required for full cloned SPI-2 expression in a range of media across different bacteria, it is not required for cloned SPI-2 expression in MgM8 inducing media in S. Typhimurium. This suggests that under SPI-2 inducing conditions in S. Typhimurium, other factors can substitute for loss of ssrAB in cloned SPI-2 expression. The results provide key foundational information for the future use of these cloned systems in bacteria.

  12. Durability improvement assessment in different high strength bacterial structural concrete grades against different types of acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramin Andalib; M Zaimi Abd Majid; A Keyvanfar; Amirreza Talaiekhozan; Mohd Warid Hussin; A Shafaghat; Rosli Mohd Zin; Chew Tin Lee; Mohammad Ali Fulazzaky; Hasrul Haidar Ismail

    2014-12-01

    This paper provides an insight into a new biotechnological method based on calcite precipitation for achieving high strength bio-concrete durability. It is very clear that mineral precipitation has the potential to enhance construction material resistance towards degradation procedures. The appropriate microbial cell concentration (30 * 105 cells/ml) was introduced onto different structural concrete grades (40, 45 and 50 MPa) by mixing water. In order to study the durability of structural concrete against aggressive agents, specimens were immersed in different types of acids solution (5% H2SO4 and HCl) to compare their effects on 60th, 90th and 120th day. In general, sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid are known to be the most aggressive natural threats from industrial waters which can penetrate concrete to transfer the soluble calcium salts away from the cement matrix. The experimental results demonstrated that bio-concrete has less weight and strength losses when compared to the ordinary Portland cement concrete without microorganism. It was also found that maximum compressive strength and weight loss occurred during H2SO4 acid immersion as compared to HCl immersion. The density and uniformity of bio-concrete were examined using ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test. Microstructure chemical analysis was also quantified by energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to justify the durability improvement in bacterial concrete. It was observed that less sulphur and chloride were noticed in bacterial concrete against H2SO4 and HCl, respectively in comparison to the ordinary Portland cement concrete due to calcite deposition.

  13. Identification of a novel PROS1 c.1113T -> GG frameshift mutation in a family with mixed type I/type III protein S deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kate, Min Ki; Mulder, Rene; Platteel, Mathieu; Brouwer, Jan-Leendert P.; van der Steege, Gerrit; van der Meer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    We report a family with type I and type III protein S (PS) deficiency, which showed to be phenotypic variants of the same genetic disease. Direct sequencing analysis of the PROS1 gene was performed to establish the genotype. The ratio of protein C antigen and total PS antigen levels (protein C/S rat

  14. Enhanced expression of the type II transforming growth factor beta receptor in human pancreatic cancer cells without alteration of type III receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, H; Yamanaka, Y; Büchler, M; Berger, H G; Kobrin, M S; Baldwin, R L; Korc, M

    1993-06-15

    We have recently found that human pancreatic adenocarcinomas exhibit strong immunostaining for the three mammalian transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) isoforms. These important growth-regulating polypeptides bind to a number of proteins, including the type I TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-I), type II TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-II), and the type III TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-III). In the present study we sought to determine whether T beta R-II and T beta R-III expression is altered in pancreatic cancer. Northern blot analysis indicated that, by comparison with the normal pancreas, pancreatic adenocarcinomas exhibited a 4.6-fold increase (P beta R-II. In contrast, mRNA levels encoding T beta R-III were not increased. In situ hybridization showed that T beta R-II mRNA was expressed in the majority of cancer cells, whereas mRNA grains encoding T beta R-III were detectable in only a few cancer cells and were present mainly in the surrounding stroma. These findings suggest that enhanced levels of T beta R-II may have a role in regulating human pancreatic cancer cell growth, while T beta R-III may function in the extracellular matrix.

  15. Immunohistochemical expression of types I and III collagen antibodies in the temporomandibular joint disc of human foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O.C. de Moraes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the morphology of the articular disc and analyse the immunohistochemical expression of types I and III collagen markers in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ disc of human foetuses of different gestational ages. Twenty TMJ from human foetuses supplied by Universidade Federal de Uberaba with gestational ages from 17 to 24 weeks were studied. The gestational age of the foetuses was determined by measuring the crown-rump (CR length. Macroscopically, the foetuses were fixed in 10% formalin solution and dissected by removing the skin and subcutaneous tissue and exposing the deep structures. Immunohistochemical markers of type I and III were used to characterize the existence of collagen fibres. Analysis of the immunohistochemical markers of types I and III collagen revealed the presence of heterotypical fibril networks.

  16. Flare-associated type III radio bursts and dynamics of the EUV jet from SDO/AIA and RHESSI observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Naihwa; Innes, Davina

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the interrelation between the Type III radio bursts and energetic phenomena associated with the flare activities in Active region AR 11158 at 07:58 UT on 2011, Feb. 15. The timing of the Type-III radio burst measured by the radio wave experiment on the Wind/WAVE and an array of ground-based radio telescopes, coincided with an EUV jet and hard X-ray emission observed by SDO/AIA and RHESSI., respectively. There is clear evidence that the EUV jet shares the same source region as the hard X-ray emission. The temperature of the jet, as determined by multiwavelength measurements of AIA, suggests that type III emission is associated with hot, 7 MK, plasma at the jet's footpoint.

  17. Evidence for four- and three-wave interactions in solar type III radio emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thejappa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The high time resolution observations obtained by the STEREO/WAVES experiment show that in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts, Langmuir waves often occur as intense localized wave packets with short durations of only few ms. One of these wave packets shows that it is a three-dimensional field structure with WLneTe ~ 10−3, where WL is the peak energy density, and ne and Te are the electron density and temperature, respectively. For this wave packet, the conditions of the oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI and supersonic collapse are satisfied within the error range of determination of main parameters. The density cavity, observed during this wave packet indicates that its depth, width and temporal coincidence are consistent with those of a caviton, generated by the ponderomotive force of the collapsing wave packet. The spectrum of each of the parallel and perpendicular components of the wave packet contains a primary peak at fpe, two secondary peaks at fpe ± fS and a low-frequency enhancement below fS, which, as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the fast Fourier transform (FFT-based tricoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, fpe + fS, fpe − fS, are coupled to each other by the OTSI type of four-wave interaction (fpe is the local electron plasma frequency and fS is the frequency of ion sound waves. In addition to the primary peak at fpe, each of these spectra also contains a peak at 2fpe, which as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the wavelet-based bicoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, appears to correspond to the second harmonic electromagnetic waves generated as a result of coalescence of oppositely propagating sidebands excited by the OTSI. Thus, these observations for the first time provide combined evidence that (1 the OTSI and related strong turbulence processes play a significant role in the stabilization of the electron beam, (2 the coalescence

  18. The Role of Type III Interferons in Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Bruening

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human interferon (IFN response is a key innate immune mechanism to fight virus infection. IFNs are host-encoded secreted proteins, which induce IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs with antiviral properties. Among the three classes of IFNs, type III IFNs, also called IFN lambdas (IFNLs, are an essential component of the innate immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV. In particular, human polymorphisms in IFNL gene loci correlate with hepatitis C disease progression and with treatment response. To date, the underlying mechanisms remain mostly elusive; however it seems clear that viral infection of the liver induces IFNL responses. As IFNL receptors show a more restricted tissue expression than receptors for other classes of IFNs, IFNL treatment has reduced side effects compared to the classical type I IFN treatment. In HCV therapy, however, IFNL will likely not play an important role as highly effective direct acting antivirals (DAA exist. Here, we will review our current knowledge on IFNL gene expression, protein properties, signaling, ISG induction, and its implications on HCV infection and treatment. Finally, we will discuss the lessons learnt from the HCV and IFNL field for virus infections beyond hepatitis C.

  19. Adenylate Cyclase Type III Is Not a Ubiquitous Marker for All Primary Cilia during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Maria Cristina; Bénardais, Karelle; Samama, Brigitte; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Ghandour, Said; Boehm, Nelly

    2017-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase type III (AC3) is localized in plasma membrane of neuronal primary cilium and can be used as a marker of this cilium. AC3 has also been detected in some other primary cilia such as those of fibroblasts, synoviocytes or astrocytes. Despite the presence of a cilium in almost all cell types, we show that AC3 is not a common marker of all primary cilia of different human and mouse tissues during development. In peripheral organs, AC3 is present mainly in primary cilia in cells of the mesenchymal lineage (fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts-osteocytes, odontoblasts, muscle cells and endothelial cells). In epithelia, the apical cilium of renal and pancreatic tubules and of ductal plate in liver is AC3-negative whereas the cilium of basal cells of stratified epithelia is AC3-positive. Using fibroblasts cell culture, we show that AC3 appears at the plasma membrane of the primary cilium as soon as this organelle develops. The functional significance of AC3 localization at the cilium membrane in some cells but not others has to be investigated in relationship with cell physiology and expression at the cilium plasma membrane of specific upstream receptors. PMID:28122017

  20. Defective glycosylation of coagulation factor XII underlies hereditary angioedema type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkqvist, Jenny; de Maat, Steven; Lewandrowski, Urs; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Oschatz, Chris; Schönig, Kai; Nöthen, Markus M; Drouet, Christian; Braley, Hal; Nolte, Marc W; Sickmann, Albert; Panousis, Con; Maas, Coen; Renné, Thomas

    2015-08-03

    Hereditary angioedema type III (HAEIII) is a rare inherited swelling disorder that is associated with point mutations in the gene encoding the plasma protease factor XII (FXII). Here, we demonstrate that HAEIII-associated mutant FXII, derived either from HAEIII patients or recombinantly produced, is defective in mucin-type Thr309-linked glycosylation. Loss of glycosylation led to increased contact-mediated autoactivation of zymogen FXII, resulting in excessive activation of the bradykinin-forming kallikrein-kinin pathway. In contrast, both FXII-driven coagulation and the ability of C1-esterase inhibitor to bind and inhibit activated FXII were not affected by the mutation. Intravital laser-scanning microscopy revealed that, compared with control animals, both F12-/- mice reconstituted with recombinant mutant forms of FXII and humanized HAEIII mouse models with inducible liver-specific expression of Thr309Lys-mutated FXII exhibited increased contact-driven microvascular leakage. An FXII-neutralizing antibody abolished bradykinin generation in HAEIII patient plasma and blunted edema in HAEIII mice. Together, the results of this study characterize the mechanism of HAEIII and establish FXII inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy to interfere with excessive vascular leakage in HAEIII and potentially alleviate edema due to other causes.

  1. AGN III - primordial activity in nuclei of late-type galaxies with pseudobulges

    CERN Document Server

    Komberg, B V

    2013-01-01

    1. Based on observational data on evolution of quasars and galaxies of different types along with the results of numerical simulations we make a conclusion that on low redshifts ($z<0.5$) QSOI/II objects in massive elliptical and spiral galaxies with classical bulges cannot be in late single activity event (be "primordial"). Instead of it they have had events of activity earlier in their evolution. It means that their presence on low redshifts is connected with the recurrence phenomenon, sequential wet minor mergings, because timescale of the activity does not exceed several units of $10^7$ years. 2. We define a new class - "AGN III" as active galactic nuclei in isolated late-type spirals with low-mass rapidly rotating pseudobulges. We also state that only such objects can be in the primordial phase of activity at low redshifts. Black holes in such galaxies have masses $M_{BH}<10^7M_\\odot$ and also, probably very high spin. Such properties can explain their peculiar emission spectra. A good representati...

  2. Feynman Rules in the Type III Natural Flavour-Conserving Two-Higgs Doublet Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, C; Yang, Y W; Lin, Chilong; Lee, Chien-er; Yang, Yeou-Wei

    1994-01-01

    We consider a two Higgs-doublet model with $S_3$ symmetry, which implies a $\\pi \\over 2$ rather than 0 relative phase between the vacuum expectation values $$ and $$. The corresponding Feynman rules are derived accordingly and the transformation of the Higgs fields from the weak to the mass eigenstates includes not only an angle rotation but also a phase transformation. In this model, both doublets couple to the same type of fermions and the flavour-changing neutral currents are naturally suppressed. We also demonstrate that the Type III natural flavour-conserving model is valid at tree-level even when an explicit $S_3$ symmetry breaking perturbation is introduced to get a reasonable CKM matrix. In the special case $\\beta = \\alpha$, as the ratio $\\tan\\beta = {v_2 \\over v_1}$ runs from 0 to $\\infty$, the dominant Yukawa coupling will change from the first two generations to the third generation. In the Feynman rules, we also find that the charged Higgs currents are explicitly left-right asymmetric. The ratios ...

  3. Immunohistochemical analysis of type III collagen expression in the lingual mucosa of rats during organogenesis of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi; Asami, Tomoichiro; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Aoyagi, Hidekazu

    2008-07-01

    We examined the distribution of immunofluorescence due to immunostaining of type III collagen, differential interference contrast (DIC) images and images obtained in the transmission mode after toluidine blue staining by laser-scanning microscopy of semi-ultrathin sections of epoxy resin-embedded samples, during morphogenesis of the filiform papillae, keratinization of the lingual epithelium, and myogenesis of the rat tongue. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was distributed widely in the mesenchymal connective tissue in fetuses on day 15 after conception (E15), at which time the lingual epithelium was composed of one or two layers of cuboidal cells and the lingual muscle was barely recognizable. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was clearly detected on the lamina propria in fetuses on E17 and E19, and it was relatively distinct just beneath the lingual epithelium. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was sparsely distributed on the connective tissue around the developing lingual muscle. In fetuses on E19, the epithelium became clearly stratified and squamous. At postnatal stages from newborn (P0) to postnatal day 14 (P14), keratinization of the lingual epithelium advanced gradually with the development of filiform papillae. On P0, myogenesis of the tongue was almost completed. The intensity of the fluorescence immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen at postnatal stages was almost same as that on E19. The immunoreactivity around the fully mature muscle was relatively distinct between P0 and P14. Thus, type III collagen appeared in conjunction with the morphogenesis of filiform papillae and the keratinization of the lingual epithelium as well as in the connective tissue that surrounded the lingual muscle during myogenesis of the rat tongue.

  4. Oblique Axis Body Fracture: An Unstable Subtype of Anderson Type III Odontoid Fractures—Apropos of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Takai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Anderson type III odontoid fractures have traditionally been considered stable and treated conservatively. However, unstable cases with unfavorable results following conservative treatment have been reported. Methods. We present the cases of two patients who sustained minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures with a characteristic fracture pattern that we refer to as “oblique type axis body fracture.” Results. The female patients aged 90 and 72 years, respectively, were both diagnosed with minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures. Both fractures had a characteristic “oblique type” fracture pattern. The first patient was treated conservatively with cervical spine immobilization in a semirigid collar. However, gross displacement was noted at the 6-week follow-up visit. The second patient was therefore treated operatively by C1–C3/4 posterior fusion and the course was uneventful. Conclusions. Oblique type axis body fractures resemble a highly unstable subtype of Anderson type III fractures with the potential of severe secondary deformity following conservative treatment, irrespective of initial grade of displacement. The authors therefore warrant a high index of suspicion for this injury and suggest early operative stabilization.

  5. Strains of the Propionibacterium acnes type III lineage are associated with the skin condition progressive macular hypomelanosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Emma; Liu, Jared; Yankova, Eliza; Cavalcanti, Silvana M.; Magalhães, Marcelo; Li, Huiying; Patrick, Sheila; McDowell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a common skin disorder that causes hypopigmentation in a variety of skin types. Although the underlying aetiology of this condition is unclear, there is circumstantial evidence that links the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to the condition. We now describe the first detailed population genetic analysis of P. acnes isolates recovered from paired lesional and non-lesional skin of PMH patients. Our results demonstrate a strong statistical association between strains from the type III phylogenetic lineage and PMH lesions (P = 0.0019), but not those representing other phylogroups, including those associated with acne (type IA1). We also demonstrate, based on in silico 16S rDNA analysis, that PMH isolates previously recovered from patients in Europe are also consistent with the type III lineage. Using comparative genome analysis, we identified multiple genomic regions that are specific for, or absent from, type III strains compared to other phylogroups. In the former case, these include open reading frames with putative functions in metabolism, transport and transcriptional regulation, as well as predicted proteins of unknown function. Further study of these genomic elements, along with transcriptional and functional analyses, may help to explain why type III strains are associated with PMH. PMID:27555369

  6. Mn(II,III) oxidation and MnO2 mineralization by an expressed bacterial multicopper oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Cristina N.; Soldatova, Alexandra V.; Lee, Sung-Woo; Spiro, Thomas G.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2013-07-01

    Reactive Mn(IV) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in the environment and control the bioavailability and distribution of many toxic and essential elements and organic compounds. Their formation is thought to be dependent on microbial enzymes, because spontaneous Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxidation is slow. Several species of marine Bacillus spores oxidize Mn(II) on their exosporium, the outermost layer of the spore, encrusting them with Mn(IV) oxides. Molecular studies have identified the mnx (Mn oxidation) genes, including mnxG, encoding a putative multicopper oxidase (MCO), as responsible for this two-electron oxidation, a surprising finding because MCOs only catalyze single-electron transfer reactions. Characterization of the enzymatic mechanism has been hindered by the lack of purified protein. By purifying active protein from the mnxDEFG expression construct, we found that the resulting enzyme is a blue (absorption maximum 590 nm) complex containing MnxE, MnxF, and MnxG proteins. Further, by analyzing the Mn(II)- and (III)-oxidizing activity in the presence of a Mn(III) chelator, pyrophosphate, we found that the complex facilitates both electron transfers from Mn(II) to Mn(III) and from Mn(III) to Mn(IV). X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the Mn mineral product confirmed its similarity to Mn(IV) oxides generated by whole spores. Our results demonstrate that Mn oxidation from soluble Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxides is a two-step reaction catalyzed by an MCO-containing complex. With the purification of active Mn oxidase, we will be able to uncover its mechanism, broadening our understanding of Mn mineral formation and the bioinorganic capabilities of MCOs.

  7. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Zang, E.A.; Morrison, J.M.; Harley, E.J.; de Cordoba, S.R.; Bacino, C.; Ting, R.C.; Bodner, A.J.; Sarngadharan, M.G.; Gallo, R.C.

    1986-04-25

    Using blood samples collected since 1978, the authors investigated the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in a group of 378 homosexually active men who have resided in New York City since the acquire immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic began. The anti-HTLV-III prevalence was 6.6% in sera from 1978 or 1979, and the subsequent annual incidence of seroconversion among susceptible men ranged between 5.5% and 10.6%. The highest incidences were in recent years, even though these men reported a decrease in their sexual activity during this time. These data demonstrate the continuing risk of HTLV-III infections in the homosexual population studied and emphasize the need for more effective prevention of transmission. The year during which antibody was first present was the only factor identified that was associated with altered cell-mediated immunity in antibody-positive men.

  8. Ulysses Observations of Nonlinear Wave-wave Interactions in the Source Regions of Type III Solar Radio Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Thejappa; R. J. MacDowall

    2000-09-01

    The Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (URAP) has observed Langmuir, ion-acoustic and associated solar type III radio emissions in the interplanetary medium. Bursts of 50-300 Hz (in the spacecraft frame) electric field signals, corresponding to long-wavelength ion-acoustic waves are often observed coincident in time with the most intense Langmuir wave spikes, providing evidence for the electrostatic decay instability. Langmuir waves often occur as envelope solitons, suggesting that strong turbulence processes, such as modulational instability and soliton formation, often coexist with weak turbulence processes, such as electrostatic decay, in a few type III burst source regions.

  9. Understanding the sequential activation of Type III and Type VI Secretion Systems in Salmonella typhimurium using Boolean modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Three pathogenicity islands, viz. SPI-1 (Salmonella pathogenicity island 1), SPI-2 (Salmonella pathogenicity island 2) and T6SS (Type VI Secretion System), present in the genome of Salmonella typhimurium have been implicated in the virulence of the pathogen. While the regulation of SPI-1 and SPI-2 (both encoding components of the Type III Secretion System - T3SS) are well understood, T6SS regulation is comparatively less studied. Interestingly, inter-connections among the regulatory elements of these three virulence determinants have also been suggested to be essential for successful infection. However, till date, an integrated view of gene regulation involving the regulators of these three secretion systems and their cross-talk is not available. Results In the current study, relevant regulatory information available from literature have been integrated into a single Boolean network, which portrays the dynamics of T3SS (SPI-1 and SPI-2) and T6SS mediated virulence. Some additional regulatory interactions involving a two-component system response regulator YfhA have also been predicted and included in the Boolean network. These predictions are aimed at deciphering the effects of osmolarity on T6SS regulation, an aspect that has been suggested in earlier studies, but the mechanism of which was hitherto unknown. Simulation of the regulatory network was able to recreate in silico the experimentally observed sequential activation of SPI-1, SPI-2 and T6SS. Conclusions The present study integrates relevant gene regulatory data (from literature and our prediction) into a single network, representing the cross-communication between T3SS (SPI-1 and SPI-2) and T6SS. This holistic view of regulatory interactions is expected to improve the current understanding of pathogenesis of S. typhimurium. PMID:24079299

  10. Microbial Diagnostic Microarrays for the Detection and Typing of Food- and Water-Borne (Bacterial) Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Tanja; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-10-14

    Reliable and sensitive pathogen detection in clinical and environmental (including food and water) samples is of greatest importance for public health. Standard microbiological methods have several limitations and improved alternatives are needed. Most important requirements for reliable analysis include: (i) specificity; (ii) sensitivity; (iii) multiplexing potential; (iv) robustness; (v) speed; (vi) automation potential; and (vii) low cost. Microarray technology can, through its very nature, fulfill many of these requirements directly and the remaining challenges have been tackled. In this review, we attempt to compare performance characteristics of the microbial diagnostic microarrays developed for the detection and typing of food and water pathogens, and discuss limitations, points still to be addressed and issues specific for the analysis of food, water and environmental samples.

  11. Microbial Diagnostic Microarrays for the Detection and Typing of Food- and Water-Borne (Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kostić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and sensitive pathogen detection in clinical and environmental (including food and water samples is of greatest importance for public health. Standard microbiological methods have several limitations and improved alternatives are needed. Most important requirements for reliable analysis include: (i specificity; (ii sensitivity; (iii multiplexing potential; (iv robustness; (v speed; (vi automation potential; and (vii low cost. Microarray technology can, through its very nature, fulfill many of these requirements directly and the remaining challenges have been tackled. In this review, we attempt to compare performance characteristics of the microbial diagnostic microarrays developed for the detection and typing of food and water pathogens, and discuss limitations, points still to be addressed and issues specific for the analysis of food, water and environmental samples.

  12. Differential decomposition of bacterial and viral fecal indicators in common human pollution types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjugi, Pauline; Sivaganesan, Mano; Korajkic, Asja; Kelty, Catherine A; McMinn, Brian; Ulrich, Robert; Harwood, Valerie J; Shanks, Orin C

    2016-11-15

    Understanding the decomposition of microorganisms associated with different human fecal pollution types is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decomposition of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fecal pollution originating from fresh human feces, septage, and primary effluent sewage in a subtropical marine environment was assessed over a six day period with an emphasis on the influence of ambient sunlight and indigenous microbiota. Ambient water mixed with each fecal pollution type was placed in dialysis bags and incubated in situ in a submersible aquatic mesocosm. Genetic and cultivated fecal indicators including fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci, E. coli, and Bacteroidales), coliphage (somatic and F+), Bacteroides fragilis phage (GB-124), and human-associated genetic indicators (HF183/BacR287 and HumM2) were measured in each sample. Simple linear regression assessing treatment trends in each pollution type over time showed significant decay (p ≤ 0.05) in most treatments for feces and sewage (27/28 and 32/40, respectively), compared to septage (6/26). A two-way analysis of variance of log10 reduction values for sewage and feces experiments indicated that treatments differentially impact survival of cultivated bacteria, cultivated phage, and genetic indicators. Findings suggest that sunlight is critical for phage decay, and indigenous microbiota play a lesser role. For bacterial cultivated and genetic indicators, the influence of indigenous microbiota varied by pollution type. This study offers new insights on the decomposition of common human fecal pollution types in a subtropical marine environment with important implications for water quality management applications.

  13. Lysogeny with Shiga toxin 2-encoding bacteriophages represses type III secretion in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefang Xu

    Full Text Available Lytic or lysogenic infections by bacteriophages drive the evolution of enteric bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC have recently emerged as a significant zoonotic infection of humans with the main serotypes carried by ruminants. Typical EHEC strains are defined by the expression of a type III secretion (T3S system, the production of Shiga toxins (Stx and association with specific clinical symptoms. The genes for Stx are present on lambdoid bacteriophages integrated into the E. coli genome. Phage type (PT 21/28 is the most prevalent strain type linked with human EHEC infections in the United Kingdom and is more likely to be associated with cattle shedding high levels of the organism than PT32 strains. In this study we have demonstrated that the majority (90% of PT 21/28 strains contain both Stx2 and Stx2c phages, irrespective of source. This is in contrast to PT 32 strains for which only a minority of strains contain both Stx2 and 2c phages (28%. PT21/28 strains had a lower median level of T3S compared to PT32 strains and so the relationship between Stx phage lysogeny and T3S was investigated. Deletion of Stx2 phages from EHEC strains increased the level of T3S whereas lysogeny decreased T3S. This regulation was confirmed in an E. coli K12 background transduced with a marked Stx2 phage followed by measurement of a T3S reporter controlled by induced levels of the LEE-encoded regulator (Ler. The presence of an integrated Stx2 phage was shown to repress Ler induction of LEE1 and this regulation involved the CII phage regulator. This repression could be relieved by ectopic expression of a cognate CI regulator. A model is proposed in which Stx2-encoding bacteriophages regulate T3S to co-ordinate epithelial cell colonisation that is promoted by Stx and secreted effector proteins.

  14. Lysogeny with Shiga toxin 2-encoding bacteriophages represses type III secretion in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuefang; McAteer, Sean P; Tree, Jai J; Shaw, Darren J; Wolfson, Eliza B K; Beatson, Scott A; Roe, Andrew J; Allison, Lesley J; Chase-Topping, Margo E; Mahajan, Arvind; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Morabito, Stefano; Gally, David L

    2012-01-01

    Lytic or lysogenic infections by bacteriophages drive the evolution of enteric bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) have recently emerged as a significant zoonotic infection of humans with the main serotypes carried by ruminants. Typical EHEC strains are defined by the expression of a type III secretion (T3S) system, the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) and association with specific clinical symptoms. The genes for Stx are present on lambdoid bacteriophages integrated into the E. coli genome. Phage type (PT) 21/28 is the most prevalent strain type linked with human EHEC infections in the United Kingdom and is more likely to be associated with cattle shedding high levels of the organism than PT32 strains. In this study we have demonstrated that the majority (90%) of PT 21/28 strains contain both Stx2 and Stx2c phages, irrespective of source. This is in contrast to PT 32 strains for which only a minority of strains contain both Stx2 and 2c phages (28%). PT21/28 strains had a lower median level of T3S compared to PT32 strains and so the relationship between Stx phage lysogeny and T3S was investigated. Deletion of Stx2 phages from EHEC strains increased the level of T3S whereas lysogeny decreased T3S. This regulation was confirmed in an E. coli K12 background transduced with a marked Stx2 phage followed by measurement of a T3S reporter controlled by induced levels of the LEE-encoded regulator (Ler). The presence of an integrated Stx2 phage was shown to repress Ler induction of LEE1 and this regulation involved the CII phage regulator. This repression could be relieved by ectopic expression of a cognate CI regulator. A model is proposed in which Stx2-encoding bacteriophages regulate T3S to co-ordinate epithelial cell colonisation that is promoted by Stx and secreted effector proteins.

  15. Genetics of type III Bartter syndrome in Spain, proposed diagnostic algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García Castaño

    Full Text Available The p.Ala204Thr mutation (exon 7 of the CLCNKB gene is a "founder" mutation that causes most of type III Bartter syndrome cases in Spain. We performed genetic analysis of the CLCNKB gene, which encodes for the chloride channel protein ClC-Kb, in a cohort of 26 affected patients from 23 families. The diagnostic algorithm was: first, detection of the p.Ala204Thr mutation; second, detecting large deletions or duplications by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and Quantitative Multiplex PCR of Short Fluorescent Fragments; and third, sequencing of the coding and flanking regions of the whole CLCNKB gene. In our genetic diagnosis, 20 families presented with the p.Ala204Thr mutation. Of those, 15 patients (15 families were homozygous (57.7% of overall patients. Another 8 patients (5 families were compound heterozygous for the founder mutation together with a second one. Thus, 3 patients (2 siblings presented with the c. -19-?_2053+? del deletion (comprising the entire gene; one patient carried the p.Val170Met mutation (exon 6; and 4 patients (3 siblings presented with the novel p.Glu442Gly mutation (exon 14. On the other hand, another two patients carried two novel mutations in compound heterozygosis: one presented the p.Ile398_Thr401del mutation (exon 12 associated with the c. -19-?_2053+? del deletion, and the other one carried the c.1756+1G>A splice-site mutation (exon 16 as well as the already described p.Ala210Val change (exon 7. One case turned out to be negative in our genetic screening. In addition, 51 relatives were found to be heterozygous carriers of the described CLCNKB mutations. In conclusion, different mutations cause type III Bartter syndrome in Spain. The high prevalence of the p.Ala204Thr in Spanish families thus justifies an initial screen for this mutation. However, should it not be detected further investigation of the CLCNKB gene is warranted in clinically diagnosed families.

  16. Investigations into the synthesis and fluorescence properties of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) complexes of a novel bis-beta-diketone-type ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi-Ming; Chen, Zhe; Tang, Rui-Ren; Xiao, Lin-Xiang; Peng, Hong-Jian

    2008-02-01

    A novel bis-beta-diketon ligand, 1,1'-(2,6-bispyridyl)bis-3-phenyl-1,3-propane-dione (L), was designed and synthesized and its complexes with Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) ions were successfully prepared. The ligand and the corresponding metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, and infrared, mass and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of the IR spectra suggested that each of the lanthanide metal ions coordinated to the ligand via the carbonyl oxygen atoms and the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring. The fluorescence properties of these complexes in solid state were investigated and it was discovered that all of the lanthanide ions could be sensitized by the ligand (L) to some extent. In particular, the Tb(III) complex was an excellent green-emitter and would be a potential candidate material for applications in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and medical diagnosis.

  17. Investigations into the synthesis and fluorescence properties of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) complexes of a novel bis- β-diketone-type ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi-Ming; Chen, Zhe; Tang, Rui-Ren; Xiao, Lin-Xiang; Peng, Hong-Jian

    2008-02-01

    A novel bis- β-diketon ligand, 1,1'-(2,6-bispyridyl)bis-3-phenyl-1,3-propane-dione (L), was designed and synthesized and its complexes with Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) ions were successfully prepared. The ligand and the corresponding metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, and infrared, mass and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of the IR spectra suggested that each of the lanthanide metal ions coordinated to the ligand via the carbonyl oxygen atoms and the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring. The fluorescence properties of these complexes in solid state were investigated and it was discovered that all of the lanthanide ions could be sensitized by the ligand (L) to some extent. In particular, the Tb(III) complex was an excellent green-emitter and would be a potential candidate material for applications in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and medical diagnosis.

  18. A modeling study of notch noise responses of type III units in the gerbil dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaohan; Voigt, Herbert F

    2006-12-01

    A computational model of the neural circuitry of the gerbil dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), based on the MacGregor's neuromime model, was used to simulate type III unit (P-cell) responses to notch noise stimuli. The DCN patch model is based on a previous computational model of the cat DCN [Hancock, K. E., and H. F. Voigt. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 27:73-87, 1999]. According to the experimental study of Parsons et al. [Ann. Biomed. Eng. 29:887-896, 2001], the responses of gerbil DCN type III units to notch noise stimuli are similar to those of cat DCN type IV units, which are thought to be spectral notch detectors. This suggests that type III units in the gerbil DCN may serve as spectral notch detectors. In this modeling study, a simplified notch noise response plot--spike discharge rate vs. notch cutoff frequency plot--was used to compare model responses to the experimental results. Parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis of three connection parameters within the DCN patch have been studied and shows the model is robust, providing reasonable fits to the experimental data from 14 of 15 type III units examined.

  19. Genetic and expression studies of SMN2 gene in Russian patients with spinal muscular atrophy type II and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiöth Helgi B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA type I, II and III is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1. SMN2 is a centromeric copy gene that has been characterized as a major modifier of SMA severity. SMA type I patients have one or two SMN2 copies while most SMA type II patients carry three SMN2 copies and SMA III patients have three or four SMN2 copies. The SMN1 gene produces a full-length transcript (FL-SMN while SMN2 is only able to produce a small portion of the FL-SMN because of a splice mutation which results in the production of abnormal SMNΔ7 mRNA. Methods In this study we performed quantification of the SMN2 gene copy number in Russian patients affected by SMA type II and III (42 and 19 patients, respectively by means of real-time PCR. Moreover, we present two families consisting of asymptomatic carriers of a homozygous absence of the SMN1 gene. We also developed a novel RT-qPCR-based assay to determine the FL-SMN/SMNΔ7 mRNA ratio as SMA biomarker. Results Comparison of the SMN2 copy number and clinical features revealed a significant correlation between mild clinical phenotype (SMA type III and presence of four copies of the SMN2 gene. In both asymptomatic cases we found an increased number of SMN2 copies in the healthy carriers and a biallelic SMN1 absence. Furthermore, the novel assay revealed a difference between SMA patients and healthy controls. Conclusions We suggest that the SMN2 gene copy quantification in SMA patients could be used as a prognostic tool for discrimination between the SMA type II and SMA type III diagnoses, whereas the FL-SMN/SMNΔ7 mRNA ratio could be a useful biomarker for detecting changes during SMA pharmacotherapy.

  20. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET as a Tool for Dissecting the Molecular Mechanisms for Maturation of the Shigella Type III Secretion Needle Tip Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Picking

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET provides a powerful tool for monitoring intermolecular interactions and a sensitive technique for studying Å-level protein conformational changes. One system that has particularly benefited from the sensitivity and diversity of FRET measurements is the maturation of the Shigella type III secretion apparatus (T3SA needle tip complex. The Shigella T3SA delivers effector proteins into intestinal cells to promote bacterial invasion and spread. The T3SA is comprised of a basal body that spans the bacterial envelope and a needle with an exposed tip complex that matures in response to environmental stimuli. FRET measurements demonstrated bile salt binding by the nascent needle tip protein IpaD and also mapped resulting structural changes which led to the recruitment of the translocator IpaB. At the needle tip IpaB acts as a sensor for host cell contact but prior to secretion, it is stored as a heterodimeric complex with the chaperone IpgC. FRET analyses showed that chaperone binding to IpaB’s N-terminal domain causes a conformational change in the latter. These FRET analyses, with other biophysical methods, have been central to understanding T3SA maturation and will be highlighted, focusing on the details of the FRET measurements and the relevance to this particular system.

  1. A conserved domain in type III secretion links the cytoplasmic domain of InvA to elements of the basal body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilic, Mirjana; Quezada, Cindy M; Stebbins, C Erec

    2010-06-01

    Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events.

  2. A Conserved Domain in Type III Secretion Links the Cytoplasmic Domain of InvA to Elements of the Basal Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, M.; Quezada, C; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events.

  3. Type III Secretion System Translocon Component EseB Forms Filaments on and Mediates Autoaggregation of and Biofilm Formation by Edwardsiella tarda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi Peng; Nie, Pin; Lu, Jin Fang; Liu, Lu Yi; Xiao, Tiao Yi; Liu, Wei; Liu, Jia Shou; Xie, Hai Xia

    2015-09-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) of Edwardsiella tarda plays an important role in infection by translocating effector proteins into host cells. EseB, a component required for effector translocation, is reported to mediate autoaggregation of E. tarda. In this study, we demonstrate that EseB forms filamentous appendages on the surface of E. tarda and is required for biofilm formation by E. tarda in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). Biofilm formation by E. tarda in DMEM does not require FlhB, an essential component for assembling flagella. Dynamic analysis of EseB filament formation, autoaggregation, and biofilm formation shows that the formation of EseB filaments occurs prior to autoaggregation and biofilm formation. The addition of an EseB antibody to E. tarda cultures before bacterial autoaggregation prevents autoaggregation and biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the addition of the EseB antibody to E. tarda cultures in which biofilm is already formed does not destroy the biofilm. Therefore, EseB filament-mediated bacterial cell-cell interaction is a prerequisite for autoaggregation and biofilm formation.

  4. The bacterial cytoskeleton modulates motility, type 3 secretion, and colonization in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Bulmer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been great advances in our understanding of the bacterial cytoskeleton, major gaps remain in our knowledge of its importance to virulence. In this study we have explored the contribution of the bacterial cytoskeleton to the ability of Salmonella to express and assemble virulence factors and cause disease. The bacterial actin-like protein MreB polymerises into helical filaments and interacts with other cytoskeletal elements including MreC to control cell-shape. As mreB appears to be an essential gene, we have constructed a viable ΔmreC depletion mutant in Salmonella. Using a broad range of independent biochemical, fluorescence and phenotypic screens we provide evidence that the Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 type three secretion system (SPI1-T3SS and flagella systems are down-regulated in the absence of MreC. In contrast the SPI-2 T3SS appears to remain functional. The phenotypes have been further validated using a chemical genetic approach to disrupt the functionality of MreB. Although the fitness of ΔmreC is reduced in vivo, we observed that this defect does not completely abrogate the ability of Salmonella to cause disease systemically. By forcing on expression of flagella and SPI-1 T3SS in trans with the master regulators FlhDC and HilA, it is clear that the cytoskeleton is dispensable for the assembly of these structures but essential for their expression. As two-component systems are involved in sensing and adapting to environmental and cell surface signals, we have constructed and screened a panel of such mutants and identified the sensor kinase RcsC as a key phenotypic regulator in ΔmreC. Further genetic analysis revealed the importance of the Rcs two-component system in modulating the expression of these virulence factors. Collectively, these results suggest that expression of virulence genes might be directly coordinated with cytoskeletal integrity, and this regulation is mediated by the two-component system

  5. ABNORMAL TYPE-III COLLAGEN PRODUCED BY AN EXON-17-SKIPPING MUTATION OF THE COL3A1 GENE IN EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME TYPE-IV IS NOT INCORPORATED INTO THE EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHIODO, AA; SILLENCE, DO; COLE, WG; BATEMAN, JF

    1995-01-01

    A novel heterozygous mutation of the COL3Al gene that encodes the alpha 1(III) chains of type III collagen was identified in a family with the: acrogeric form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS-IV). Cultured dermal fibroblasts produced normal and shortened alpha 1(III) chains. The triple helix o

  6. Type III Effector VopC Mediates Invasion for Vibrio Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio spp. are associated with infections caused by contaminated food and water. A type III secretion system (T3SS2 is a shared feature of all clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus and some V. cholerae strains. Despite its being responsible for enterotoxicity, no molecular mechanism has been determined for the T3SS2-dependent pathogenicity. Here, we show that although Vibrio spp. are typically thought of as extracellular pathogens, the T3SS2 of Vibrio mediates host cell invasion, vacuole formation, and replication of intracellular bacteria. The catalytically active effector VopC is critical for Vibrio T3SS2-mediated invasion. There are other marine bacteria encoding VopC homologs associated with a T3SS; therefore, we predict that these bacteria are also likely to use T3SS-mediated invasion as part of their pathogenesis mechanisms. These findings suggest a new molecular paradigm for Vibrio pathogenicity and modify our view of the roles of T3SS effectors that are translocated during infection.

  7. Phase Coupling Between Spectral Components of Collapsing Langmuir Solitons in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the high time resolution observations of one of the Langmuir wave packets obtained in the source region of a solar type III radio burst. This wave packet satisfies the threshold condition of the supersonic modulational instability, as well as the criterion of a collapsing Langmuir soliton, i.e., the spatial scale derived from its peak intensity is less than that derived from its short time scale. The spectrum of t his wave packet contains an intense spectral peak at local electron plasma frequency, f(sub pe) and relatively weaker peaks at 2f(sub pe) and 3f(sub pe). We apply the wavelet based bispectral analysis technique on this wave packet and compute the bicoherence between its spectral components. It is found that the bicoherence exhibits two peaks at (approximately f(sub pe), approximately f(sub pe)) and (approximately f(sub pe) approximately 2f(sub pe)), which strongly suggest that the spectral peak at 2f(sub pe) probably corresponds to the second harmonic radio emission, generated as a result of the merging of antiparallel propagating Langmuir waves trapped in the collapsing Langmuir soliton, and, the spectral peak at 3f(sub pe) probably corresponds to the third harmonic radio emission, generated as a result of merging of a trapped Langmuir wave and a second harmonic electromagnetic wave.

  8. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica type III secretion system effector proteins as carriers for heterologous vaccine antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Wael Abdel Halim; Xu, Xin; Metelitsa, Leonid; Hensel, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Live attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica have a high potential as carriers of recombinant vaccines. The type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent translocation of S. enterica can be deployed for delivery of heterologous antigens to antigen-presenting cells. Here we investigated the efficacy of various effector proteins of the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI2)-encoded T3SS for the translocation of model antigens and elicitation of immune responses. The SPI2 T3SS effector proteins SifA, SteC, SseL, SseJ, and SseF share an endosomal membrane-associated subcellular localization after translocation. We observed that all effector proteins could be used to translocate fusion proteins with the model antigens ovalbumin and listeriolysin into the cytosol of host cells. Under in vitro conditions, fusion proteins with SseJ and SteC stimulated T-cell responses that were superior to those triggered by fusion proteins with SseF. However, in mice vaccinated with Salmonella carrier strains, only fusion proteins based on SseJ or SifA elicited potent T-cell responses. These data demonstrate that the selection of an optimal SPI2 effector protein for T3SS-mediated translocation is a critical parameter for the rational design of effective Salmonella-based recombinant vaccines.

  9. /sup 31/P-NMR studies of a case of type III glycogenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Mitsuru; Aizawa, Hitoshi; Itoh, Masamitsu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Murase, Toshio

    1988-05-01

    /sup 31/P-NMR spectra of skeletal muscles were obtained from a patient of type III glycogenosis (33 y.o. man, reported by one of the authors, T. Murase, in 1973) and the control subject (32 y.o. man), using a superconducting whole body MR (Magnetom, Siemens). Two parameters, 1. muscle pH calculated from the chemical shift of Pi (inorganic phosphate) and PCr (creatine phosphate) and 2. PCr/Pi ratio were monitored before and after the aerobic or ischemic exercise. In resting state, the spectra were normal except for the muscle pH of thigh extensors (7.3), which was obviously higher than that of the control subject (7.0). Significant reduction of PCr/Pi ratio (from 7.0 to 4.1) was observed after the aerobic exercise in thigh extensors. Such a reduction was not recognized in the control subject. The ischemic exercise of forearm muscles revealed slight decrease in muscle pH (from 7.1 to 6.9), which was less prominent than that of the control subject. These results were compatible with the abnormality in the energy metabolism of this disorder, the block in the pathway of glycogenolysis.

  10. Phylogeny and virulence of naturally occurring type III secretion system-deficient Pectobacterium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Ma, Bing; Perna, Nicole T; Charkowski, Amy O

    2009-07-01

    Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Previous epidemiological studies of Pectobacterium species have suffered from an inability to identify most isolates to the species or subspecies level. We used three previously described DNA-based methods, 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to examine isolates from diseased stems and tubers and found that MLSA provided the most reliable classification of isolates. We found that strains belonging to at least two Pectobacterium clades were present in each field examined, although representatives of only three of five Pectobacterium clades were isolated. Hypersensitive response and DNA hybridization assays revealed that strains of both Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium wasabiae lack a type III secretion system (T3SS). Two of the T3SS-deficient strains assayed lack genes adjacent to the T3SS gene cluster, suggesting that multiple deletions occurred in Pectobacterium strains in this locus, and all strains appear to have only six rRNA operons instead of the seven operons typically found in Pectobacterium strains. The virulence of most of the T3SS-deficient strains was similar to that of T3SS-encoding strains in stems and tubers.

  11. Phylogeny and Virulence of Naturally Occurring Type III Secretion System-Deficient Pectobacterium Strains▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Ma, Bing; Perna, Nicole T.; Charkowski, Amy O.

    2009-01-01

    Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Previous epidemiological studies of Pectobacterium species have suffered from an inability to identify most isolates to the species or subspecies level. We used three previously described DNA-based methods, 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to examine isolates from diseased stems and tubers and found that MLSA provided the most reliable classification of isolates. We found that strains belonging to at least two Pectobacterium clades were present in each field examined, although representatives of only three of five Pectobacterium clades were isolated. Hypersensitive response and DNA hybridization assays revealed that strains of both Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium wasabiae lack a type III secretion system (T3SS). Two of the T3SS-deficient strains assayed lack genes adjacent to the T3SS gene cluster, suggesting that multiple deletions occurred in Pectobacterium strains in this locus, and all strains appear to have only six rRNA operons instead of the seven operons typically found in Pectobacterium strains. The virulence of most of the T3SS-deficient strains was similar to that of T3SS-encoding strains in stems and tubers. PMID:19411432

  12. Neutrino Masses at LHC: Minimal Lepton Flavour Violation in Type-III See-saw

    CERN Document Server

    Eboli, O J P; Gonzalez-Garcia, M C

    2011-01-01

    We study the signatures of minimal lepton flavour violation in a simple Type-III see--saw model in which the flavour scale is given by the new fermion triplet mass and it can be naturally light enough to be produced at the LHC. In this model the flavour structure of the couplings of the triplet fermions to the Standard Model leptons can be reconstructed from the neutrino mass matrix and the smallness of the neutrino mass is associated with a tiny violation of total lepton number. Characteristic signatures of this model include suppressed lepton number violation decays of the triplet fermions, absence of displaced vertices in their decays and predictable lepton flavour composition of the states produced in their decays. We study the observability of these signals in the processes $pp\\rightarrow 3\\ell + 2j +\\Sla{E_T}$ and $pp\\rightarrow 2\\ell + 4j$ with $\\ell =e$ or $\\mu$ taking into account the present low energy data on neutrino physics and the corresponding Standard Model backgrounds. Our results indicate th...

  13. Two Higgs Doublet Type III Seesaw with mu-tau symmetry at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Priyotosh; Mitra, Manimala

    2009-01-01

    We propose a two Higgs doublet Type III seesaw model with $\\mu$-$\\tau$ flavor symmetry. We add an additional SU(2) Higgs doublet and three SU(2) fermion triplets in our model. The presence of two Higgs doublets allows for natural explanation of small neutrino masses with triplet fermions in the 100 GeV mass range, without fine tuning of the Yukawa couplings to extremely small values. The triplet fermions couple to the gauge bosons and can be thus produced at the LHC. We study in detail the effective cross-sections for the production and subsequent decays of these heavy exotic fermions. We show for the first time that the $\\mu$-$\\tau$ flavor symmetry in the low energy neutrino mass matrix results in mixing matrices for the neutral and charged heavy fermions that are not unity and which carry the flavor symmetry pattern. This flavor structure can be observed in the decays of the heavy fermions at LHC. The large Yukawa couplings in our model result in the decay of the heavy fermions into lighter leptons and Higg...

  14. DYNC2H1 mutations cause asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy and short rib-polydactyly syndrome, type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagoneau, Nathalie; Goulet, Marie; Geneviève, David; Sznajer, Yves; Martinovic, Jelena; Smithson, Sarah; Huber, Céline; Baujat, Geneviève; Flori, Elisabeth; Tecco, Laura; Cavalcanti, Denise; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Serre, Valérie; Le Merrer, Martine; Munnich, Arnold; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2009-05-01

    Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD) is an autosomal-recessive chondrodysplasia characterized by short ribs and a narrow thorax, short long bones, inconstant polydactyly, and trident acetabular roof. ATD is closely related to the short rib polydactyly syndrome (SRP) type III, which is a more severe condition characterized by early prenatal expression and lethality and variable malformations. We first excluded IFT80 in a series of 26 fetuses and children belonging to 14 families diagnosed with either ATD or SRP type III. Studying a consanguineous family from Morocco, we mapped an ATD gene to chromosome 11q14.3-q23.1 in a 20.4 Mb region and identified homozygous mutations in the cytoplasmic dynein 2 heavy chain 1 (DYNC2H1) gene in the affected children. Compound heterozygosity for DYNC2H1 mutations was also identified in four additional families. Among the five families, 3/5 were diagnosed with ATD and 2/5 included pregnancies terminated for SRP type III. DYNC2H1 is a component of a cytoplasmic dynein complex and is directly involved in the generation and maintenance of cilia. From this study, we conclude that ATD and SRP type III are variants of a single disorder belonging to the ciliopathy group.

  15. Periodic solutions of multispecies-competition predator-prey system with Holling's type III functional response and prey supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a nonautonomous multispecies competition predator-prey system with Holling's type III functional response and prey supplement. It is proved that the system is uniformly persistent under some conditions. Furthermore, we show that the system has a unique positive periodic solution which is globally asymptotically stable.

  16. A note on classification of proper homothetic vector fields in Kantowski-Sachs and Bianchi type III Lorentzian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Shabbir, Ghulam

    2011-01-01

    A complete study of Kantowski-Sachs and Bianchi type III space-times according to their proper homothetic vector fields is given by using direct integration technique. Using the above mentioned technique we have shown that very special classes of the above space-times admit proper homothetic vector fields. The dimension of homothetic vector fields is five.

  17. Virulence determinants of Pseudomonas syringae strains isolated from grasses in the context of a small type III effector repertoire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudnik, Alexey; Dudler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas syringae is pathogenic to a large number of plant species. For host colonization and disease progression, strains of this bacterium utilize an array of type III-secreted effectors and other virulence factors, including small secreted molecules such as syringolin A, a pepti...

  18. Talents and Type Iiis: The Effects of the Talents Unlimited Model on Creative Productivity in Gifted Youngsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jane L.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined a set of lessons that integrate the Talents Unlimited Model (TU; C. L. Schlichter, 1986) with the 10 steps of completing a Type III activity (J. S. Renzulli & S. M. Reis, 1985) to determine the effects of these lessons on the quality of students' creative products and on the number of students who completed their products.…

  19. A note on proper affine symmetry in Kantowski-Sachs and Bianchi type III space-times

    CERN Document Server

    Shabbir, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    We investigate proper affine symmetry for the Kantowski-Sachs and Bianchi type III space-times by using holonomy and decomposability, the rank of the 6X6 Riemann matrix and direct integration techniques. It is shown that the very special classes of the above space-times admit proper affine vector fields.

  20. The Low-High-Low Trend of Type III Radio Burst Starting Frequencies and Solar Flare Hard X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Hamish A S; Kontar, Eduard P

    2014-01-01

    Using simultaneous X-ray and radio observations from solar flares, we investigate the link between the type III radio burst starting frequency and hard X-ray spectral index. For a proportion of events the relation derived between the starting height (frequency) of type III radio bursts and the electron beam velocity spectral index (deduced from X-rays) is used to infer the spatial properties (height and size) of the electron beam acceleration region. Both quantities can be related to the distance travelled before an electron beam becomes unstable to Langmuir waves. To obtain a list of suitable events we considered the RHESSI catalogue of X-ray flares and the Phoenix 2 catalogue of type III radio bursts. From the 200 events that showed both type III and X-ray signatures, we selected 30 events which had simultaneous emission in both wavelengths, good signal to noise in the X-ray domain and > 20 seconds duration. We find that > 50 % of the selected events show a good correlation between the starting frequencies ...

  1. Structure and Activity of the RNA-Targeting Type III-B CRISPR-Cas Complex of Thermus thermophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staals, R.H.J.; Agari, Y.; Maki-Yonekura, S.; Zhu, Y.; Taylor, D.W.; van Duijn, E.; Barendregt, A.; Vlot, M.C.; Koehorst, J.J.; Sakamoto, K.; Masuda, A.; Dohmae, N.; Schaap, P.J.; Doudna, J.A.; Heck, A.J.R.; Yonekura, K.; van der Oost, J.; Shinkai, A.

    2013-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas system is a prokaryotic host defense system against genetic elements. The Type III-B CRISPR-Cas system of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the TtCmr complex, is composed of six different protein subunits (Cmr1-6) and one crRNA with a stoichiometry of Cmr112131445361:crRNA1. The TtC

  2. Adsorption of As(III) from Aqueous Solutions by Novel Fe-Mg Type Hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2015-01-01

    Morphological and chemical evaluation of Fe-Mg hydrotalcite (Fe-HT) was performed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and electron microanalysis for application as an adsorbent for water treatment. The adsorption of arsenic III (As(III)) on Fe-HT was evaluated via examination of the effect of the contact time and analysis of the adsorption isotherm. The amount of As(III) adsorbed increased slightly with increasing temperature. The results of the adsorption isotherm studies suggested that As(III) adsorption can be well described by both the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The adsorption of As(III) on Fe-HT reached equilibrium within 24 h, and the adsorption kinetic data fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model better than the pseudo-first-order model. The amount of As(III) present on the surface of Fe-HT increased after As(III) adsorption, and the crystalline structure of Fe-HT was maintained after adsorption of As(III). The (003) and (006) peaks in the X-ray diffraction patterns were attributed to basal reflections, and these peaks shifted from respective 2θ values of 10.86 and 21.94° to 11.12 and 22.52°, indicating exchange of As(III) with chloride ions in Fe-HT with consequent narrowing of the inter-layer spacing. Collectively, these results suggest that Fe-HT is prospectively useful for the adsorption of As(III) from aqueous solutions.

  3. The Serine Protease EspC from Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Regulates Pore Formation and Cytotoxicity Mediated by the Type III Secretion System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Guignot

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Type III secretion systems (T3SSs are specialized macromolecular machines critical for bacterial virulence, and allowing the injection of bacterial effectors into host cells. The T3SS-dependent injection process requires the prior insertion of a protein complex, the translocon, into host cell membranes consisting of two-T3SS hydrophobic proteins, associated with pore-forming activity. In all described T3SS to date, a hydrophilic protein connects one hydrophobic component to the T3SS needle, presumably insuring the continuum between the hollow needle and the translocon. In the case of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, the hydrophilic component EspA polymerizes into a filament connecting the T3SS needle to the translocon composed of the EspB and EspD hydrophobic proteins. Here, we identify EspA and EspD as targets of EspC, a serine protease autotransporter of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE. We found that in vitro, EspC preferentially targets EspA associated with EspD, but was less efficient at proteolyzing EspA alone. Consistently, we found that EspC did not regulate EspA filaments at the surface of primed bacteria that was devoid of EspD, but controlled the levels of EspD and EspA secreted in vitro or upon cell contact. While still proficient for T3SS-mediated injection of bacterial effectors and cytoskeletal reorganization, an espC mutant showed increased levels of cell-associated EspA and EspD, as well as increased pore formation activity associated with cytotoxicity. EspP from enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC also targeted translocator components and its activity was interchangeable with that of EspC, suggesting a common and important function of these SPATEs. These findings reveal a novel regulatory mechanism of T3SS-mediated pore formation and cytotoxicity control during EPEC/EHEC infection.

  4. Glucocorticoids inhibit the synthesis rate of type III collagen, but do not affect the hepatic clearance of its aminoterminal propeptide (PIIINP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Stoltenberg, M; Høst, N B;

    1995-01-01

    The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) is a marker of type III collagen metabolism. The serum concentration of PIIINP is increased during inflammation, probably reflecting stimulated biosynthesis of type III collagen. Serum PIIINP decreases during glucocorticoid treatment....... This has been interpreted as an inhibited biosynthesis of type III collagen. However, circulating PIIINP is extracted by the liver, and the decrease in serum PIIINP may also be caused by an increased hepatic elimination. In the present study we investigated the influence of intravenous methylprednisolone...

  5. Spatiotemporal Patterns of a Predator-Prey System with an Allee Effect and Holling Type III Functional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jinfeng

    A diffusive Gause type predator-prey system with Allee effect in prey growth and Holling type III response subject to Neumann boundary conditions is investigated. Existence of nonconstant positive steady state solutions is proved by Leray-Schauder degree theory and bifurcation theory. Global stability of the positive equilibrium of the system is also investigated. Moreover, bifurcations of spatially homogeneous and nonhomogeneous periodic solutions are analyzed. Our rigorous results justify some recent ecological observations.

  6. Manganese(III)-containing Wells-Dawson sandwich-type polyoxometalates: comparison with their manganese(II) counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrini, Mounim; Mbomekallé, Israël M; Dolbecq, Anne; Marrot, Jérôme; Berthet, Patrick; Ntienoue, Joseline; Sécheresse, Francis; Vigneron, Jacky; Etcheberry, Arnaud

    2011-07-18

    We present the synthesis and structural characterization, assessed by various techniques (FTIR, TGA, UV-vis, elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction for three compounds, magnetic susceptibility, and electrochemistry) of five manganese-containing Wells-Dawson sandwich-type (WDST) complexes. The dimanganese(II)-containing complex, [Na(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](18-) (1), was obtained by reaction of MnCl(2) with 1 equiv of [As(2)W(15)O(56)](12-) in acetate medium (pH 4.7). Oxidation of 1 by Na(2)S(2)O(8) in aqueous solution led to the dimanganese(III) complex [Na(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](16-) (2), while its trimanganese(II) homologue, [Na(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(H(2)O)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](17-) (3), was obtained by addition of ca. 1 equiv of MnCl(2) to a solution of 1 in 1 M NaCl. The trimanganese(III) and tetramanganese(III) counterparts, [Mn(III)(H(2)O)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](15-) (4) and [Mn(III)(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](12-) (6), are, respectively, obtained by oxidation of aqueous solutions of 3 and [Mn(II)(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](16-) (5) by Na(2)S(2)O(8). Single-crystal X-ray analyses were carried out on 2, 3, and 4. BVS calculations and XPS confirmed that the oxidation state of Mn centers is +II for complexes 1, 3, and 5 and +III for 2, 4, and 6. A complete comparative electrochemical study was carried out on the six compounds cited above, and it was possible to observe the distinct redox steps Mn(IV/III) and Mn(III/II). Magnetization measurements, as a function of temperature, confirm the presence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the Mn ions in these compounds in all cases with the exception of compound 2.

  7. Negative Autogenous Control of the Master Type III Secretion System Regulator HrpL in Pseudomonas syringae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Christopher; Schumacher, Jörg; Jovanovic, Milija; Bennett, Mark

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a principal virulence determinant of the model bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. T3SS effector proteins inhibit plant defense signaling pathways in susceptible hosts and elicit evolved immunity in resistant plants. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor HrpL coordinates the expression of most T3SS genes. Transcription of hrpL is dependent on sigma-54 and the codependent enhancer binding proteins HrpR and HrpS for hrpL promoter activation. hrpL is oriented adjacently to and divergently from the HrpL-dependent gene hrpJ, sharing an intergenic upstream regulatory region. We show that association of the RNA polymerase (RNAP)-HrpL complex with the hrpJ promoter element imposes negative autogenous control on hrpL transcription in P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. The hrpL promoter was upregulated in a ΔhrpL mutant and was repressed by plasmid-borne hrpL. In a minimal Escherichia coli background, the activity of HrpL was sufficient to achieve repression of reconstituted hrpL transcription. This repression was relieved if both the HrpL DNA-binding function and the hrp-box sequence of the hrpJ promoter were compromised, implying dependence upon the hrpJ promoter. DNA-bound RNAP-HrpL entirely occluded the HrpRS and partially occluded the integration host factor (IHF) recognition elements of the hrpL promoter in vitro, implicating inhibition of DNA binding by these factors as a cause of negative autogenous control. A modest increase in the HrpL concentration caused hypersecretion of the HrpA1 pilus protein but intracellular accumulation of later T3SS substrates. We argue that negative feedback on HrpL activity fine-tunes expression of the T3SS regulon to minimize the elicitation of plant defenses. PMID:28119474

  8. An N-terminal three-helix fragment of the exchangeable insect apolipoprotein apolipophorin III conserves the lipid binding properties of wild-type protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettloff, M; Weers, P M; Niere, M; Kay, C M; Ryan, R O; Wiesner, A

    2001-03-13

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) from the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella is an exchangeable insect apolipoprotein that consists of five amphipathic alpha-helices, sharing high sequence identity with apoLp-III from the sphinx moth Manduca sexta whose structure is available. To define the minimal requirement for apoLp-III structural stability and function, a C-terminal truncated apoLp-III encompassing residues 1-91 of this 163 amino acid protein was designed. Far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed apoLp-III(1-91) has 50% alpha-helix secondary structure content in buffer (wild-type apoLp-III 86%), increasing to essentially 100% upon interactions with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). Guanidine hydrochloride denaturation studies revealed similar stability properties for wild-type apoLp-III and apoLp-III(1-91). Resistance to denaturation for both proteins increased substantially upon association with phospholipid. In the absence of lipid, wild-type apoLp-III was monomeric whereas apoLp-III(1-91) partly formed dimers and trimers. Discoidal apoLp-III(1-91)-DMPC complexes were smaller in diameter (13.5 nm) compared to wild-type apoLp-III (17.7 nm), and more molecules of apoLp-III(1-91) associated with the complexes. Lipid interaction revealed that apoLp-III(1-91) binds to modified spherical lipoprotein surfaces and efficiently transforms phospholipid vesicles into discoidal complexes. Thus, the first three helices of G. mellonella apoLp-III contain the basic features required for maintenance of the structural integrity of the entire protein.

  9. Influence of Term of Exposure to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity on Myocardial Collagen Type I and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Danielle Cristina Tomaz da [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares [Departamento de Esportes, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, ES (Brazil); Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé de; Nascimento, André Ferreira do [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Sílvio Assis Junior de [Escola de Fisioterapia da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Padovani, Carlos Roberto [Departamento de Bioestatística do Instituto de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Cicogna, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: dany.tomaz@gmail.com [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Obesity is a risk factor for many medical complications; medical research has shown that hemodynamic, morphological and functional abnormalities are correlated with the duration and severity of obesity. Present study determined the influence of term of exposure to high-fat diet-induced obesity on myocardial collagen type I and III. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: a control (C) group fed a standard rat chow and an obese (Ob) group alternately fed one of four palatable high-fat diets. Each diet was changed daily, and the rats were maintained on their respective diets for 15 (C{sub 15} and Ob{sub 15}) and 30 (C{sub 30} and Ob{sub 30}) consecutive weeks. Obesity was determined by adiposity index. The Ob{sub 15} group was similar to the C{sub 15} group regarding the expression of myocardial collagen type I; however, expression in the Ob{sub 30} group was less than C{sub 30} group. The time of exposure to obesity was associated with a reduction in collagen type I in Ob{sub 30} when compared with Ob{sub 15}. Obesity did not affect collagen type III expression. This study showed that the time of exposure to obesity for 30 weeks induced by unsaturated high-fat diet caused a reduction in myocardial collagen type I expression in the obese rats. However, no effect was seen on myocardial collagen type III expression.

  10. Identification of host cytosolic sensors and bacterial factors regulating the type I interferon response to Legionella pneumophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Monroe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that replicates in host macrophages and causes a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' Disease. The innate immune response to L. pneumophila remains poorly understood. Here we focused on identifying host and bacterial factors involved in the production of type I interferons (IFN in response to L. pneumophila. It was previously suggested that the delivery of L. pneumophila DNA to the host cell cytosol is the primary signal that induces the type I IFN response. However, our data are not easily reconciled with this model. We provide genetic evidence that two RNA-sensing proteins, RIG-I and MDA5, participate in the IFN response to L. pneumophila. Importantly, these sensors do not seem to be required for the IFN response to L. pneumophila DNA, whereas we found that RIG-I was required for the response to L. pneumophila RNA. Thus, we hypothesize that bacterial RNA, or perhaps an induced host RNA, is the primary stimulus inducing the IFN response to L. pneumophila. Our study also identified a secreted effector protein, SdhA, as a key suppressor of the IFN response to L. pneumophila. Although viral suppressors of cytosolic RNA-sensing pathways have been previously identified, analogous bacterial factors have not been described. Thus, our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which an intracellular bacterial pathogen activates and also represses innate immune responses.

  11. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of a complete bacterial fatty-acid synthase type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderle, Mathias [Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 15, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried (Germany); McCarthy, Andrew [EMBL Grenoble, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Paithankar, Karthik Shivaji, E-mail: paithankar@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 15, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Grininger, Martin, E-mail: paithankar@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 15, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried (Germany)

    2015-10-23

    Bacterial and fungal type I fatty-acid synthases (FAS I) are evolutionarily connected, as bacterial FAS I is considered to be the ancestor of fungal FAS I. In this work, the production, crystallization and X-ray diffraction data analysis of a bacterial FAS I are reported. While a deep understanding of the fungal and mammalian multi-enzyme type I fatty-acid synthases (FAS I) has been achieved in recent years, the bacterial FAS I family, which is narrowly distributed within the Actinomycetales genera Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium and Nocardia, is still poorly understood. This is of particular relevance for two reasons: (i) although homologous to fungal FAS I, cryo-electron microscopic studies have shown that bacterial FAS I has unique structural and functional properties, and (ii) M. tuberculosis FAS I is a drug target for the therapeutic treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and therefore is of extraordinary importance as a drug target. Crystals of FAS I from C. efficiens, a homologue of M. tuberculosis FAS I, were produced and diffracted X-rays to about 4.5 Å resolution.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses type III secretion system to kill biofilm-associated amoebae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; Moreno, Ana Maria; Alhede, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria and protozoa coexist in a wide range of biofilm communities of natural, technical and medical importance. Generally, this interaction is characterized by the extensive grazing activity of protozoa on bacterial prey populations. We hypothesized that the close spatial coexistence in biofilms...... suggest that conserved virulence pathways and specifically the T3SS play a central role in bacteria- protozoa interactions in biofilms and may be instrumental for the environmental persistence and evolution of opportunistic bacterial pathogens....

  13. Diagnosing the Source Region of a Solar Burst on 26 September 2011 by Using Microwave Type-III Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B. L.; Karlický, M.; Mészárosová, H.; Kashapova, L.; Huang, J.; Yan, Y.; Kontar, E. P.

    2016-10-01

    We report a peculiar and interesting train of microwave Type-III pair bursts in the impulsive rising phase of a solar flare on 26 September 2011. The observations include radio spectrometers at frequencies of 0.80 - 2.00 GHz from the Ondřejov radiospectrograph in the Czech Republic (ORSC), hard X-ray from the Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor onboard the Fermi Space Telescope ( Fermi/GRB), EUV images from the Sun Watcher using APS detectors and image Processing instrument onboard the Project for Onboard Autonomy 2 (SWAP/PROBA2), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO/HMI). By using a recently developed method (Tan et al., Res. Astron. Astrophys. 16, 82, 2016a), we diagnosed the plasma density, temperature, plasma-β, magnetic field near the source region, the energy of energetic electrons, and the distance between the acceleration region and the emission start sites of Type-III bursts. From the diagnostics, we find that i) The plasma density, temperature, magnetic field, and the distance between the acceleration region and the emission start sites have almost no obvious variations during the period of Type-III pair trains, while the energy of electrons has an obvious peak value that is consistent with the hard X-ray emission. ii) The plasma-β is much higher than unity, showing a highly dynamic process near the emission start site of Type-III bursts. iii) Although the reversed-slope Type-III branches drift more slowly by one order of magnitude than that of the normal Type-IIIs, the related descending and ascending electrons still could have energy of the same order of magnitude. These facts indicate that both the ascending and descending electrons are possibly accelerated by a similar mechanism and in a small source region. These diagnostics can help us to understand the physics in the source region of solar bursts.

  14. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Burkholderia pseudomallei Bsa type III secretion system effectors using hypersecreting mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Broek, Charles W; Chalmers, Kevin J; Stevens, Mark P; Stevens, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals. One of the virulence factors critical for early stages of infection is the Burkholderia secretion apparatus (Bsa) Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS), a molecular syringe that injects bacterial proteins, called effectors, into eukaryotic cells where they subvert cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. Although the Bsa T3SS itself is known to be important for invasion, intracellular replication, and virulence, only a few genuine effector proteins have been identified and the complete repertoire of proteins secreted by the system has not yet been fully characterized. We constructed a mutant lacking bsaP, a homolog of the T3SS "gatekeeper" family of proteins that exert control over the timing and magnitude of effector protein secretion. Mutants lacking BsaP, or the T3SS translocon protein BipD, were observed to hypersecrete the known Bsa effector protein BopE, providing evidence of their role in post-translational control of the Bsa T3SS and representing key reagents for the identification of its secreted substrates. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ), a gel-free quantitative proteomics technique, was used to compare the secreted protein profiles of the Bsa T3SS hypersecreting mutants of B. pseudomallei with the isogenic parent strain and a bsaZ mutant incapable of effector protein secretion. Our study provides one of the most comprehensive core secretomes of B. pseudomallei described to date and identified 26 putative Bsa-dependent secreted proteins that may be considered candidate effectors. Two of these proteins, BprD and BapA, were validated as novel effector proteins secreted by the Bsa T3SS of B. pseudomallei.

  15. Engineering de novo disulfide bond in bacterial α-type carbonic anhydrase for thermostable carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Byung Hoon; Park, Tae Yoon; Park, Hyun June; Yeon, Young Joo; Yoo, Young Je; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2016-07-01

    Exploiting carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that rapidly catalyzes carbon dioxide hydration, is an attractive biomimetic route for carbon sequestration due to its environmental compatibility and potential economic viability. However, the industrial applications of CA are strongly hampered by the unstable nature of enzymes. In this work, we introduced in silico designed, de novo disulfide bond in a bacterial α-type CA to enhance thermostability. Three variants were selected and expressed in Escherichia coli with an additional disulfide bridge. One of the variants showed great enhancement in terms of both kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities. This improvement could be attributed to the loss of conformational entropy of the unfolded state, showing increased rigidity. The variant showed an upward-shifted optimal temperature and appeared to be thermoactivated, which compensated for the lowered activity at 25 °C. Collectively, the variant constructed by the rapid and effective de novo disulfide engineering can be used as an efficient biocatalyst for carbon sequestration under high temperature conditions.

  16. Effect of leaf type and pesticide exposure on abundance of bacterial taxa in mosquito larval habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephantus J Muturi

    Full Text Available Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poorly understood. We used indoor aquatic microcosms to determine the abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria in leaf litters from seven plant species and their responses to low concentrations of four pesticides with different modes of action on the target organisms; permethrin, malathion, atrazine and glyphosate. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species support different quantities of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and that exposure to pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations alters bacterial abundance and community structure in mosquito larval habitats. We found support for both hypotheses suggesting that leaf litter identity and chemical contamination may alter the quality and quantity of mosquito food base (microbial communities in larval habitats. The effect of pesticides on microbial communities varied significantly among leaf types, suggesting that the impact of pesticides on natural microbial communities may be highly complex and difficult to predict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential for detritus composition within mosquito larval habitats and exposure to pesticides to influence the quality of mosquito larval habitats.

  17. The Type III Secretion System-Related CPn0809 from Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid C Engel

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS, which enables the pathogen to deliver, in a single step, effector proteins for modulation of host-cell functions into the human host cell cytosol to establish a unique intracellular niche for replication. The translocon proteins located at the top of the T3SS needle filament are essential for its function, as they form pores in the host-cell membrane. Interestingly, unlike other Gram-negative bacteria, C. pneumoniae has two putative translocon operons, named LcrH_1 and LcrH_2. However, little is known about chlamydial translocon proteins. In this study, we analyzed CPn0809, one of the putative hydrophobic translocators encoded by the LcrH_1 operon, and identified an 'SseC-like family' domain characteristic of T3S translocators. Using bright-field and confocal microscopy, we found that CPn0809 is associated with EBs during early and very late phases of a C. pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, CPn0809 forms oligomers, and interacts with the T3SS chaperone LcrH_1, via its N-terminal segment. Moreover, expression of full-length CPn0809 in the heterologous host Escherichia coli causes a grave cytotoxic effect that leads to cell death. Taken together, our data indicate that CPn0809 likely represents one of the translocon proteins of the C. pneumoniae T3SS, and possibly plays a role in the translocation of effector proteins in the early stages of infection.

  18. Characteristics of Metroxylon sagu resistant starch type III as prebiotic substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi-Ni, Tan; Rosma, Ahmad; Napisah, Hussin; Karim, Alias A; Liong, Min-Tze

    2015-04-01

    Resistant starch type III (RS3 ) was produced from sago (Metroxylon sagu) and evaluated for its characteristics as a prebiotic. Two RS3 samples designated sago RS and HCl-sago RS contained 35.71% and 68.30% RS, respectively, were subjected to hydrolyses by gastric juice and digestive enzymes and to absorption. Both sago RS and HCl-sago RS were resistant to 180 min hydrolysis by gastric acidity at pH 1 to 4 with less than 0.85% hydrolyzed. Both samples were also resistant toward hydrolysis by gastrointestinal tract enzymes and intestinal absorption with 96.75% and 98.69% of RS3 were recovered respectively after 3.5 h digestion and overnight dialysis at 37 °C. Sago RS3 supported the growth of both beneficial (lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) and pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter coli, and Clostridium perfringens) in the range of 2.60 to 3.91 log10 CFU/mL. Hence, prebiotic activity score was applied to describe the extent to which sago RS3 supports selective growth of the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains over pathogenic bacteria. The highest scores were obtained from Bifidobacterium sp. FTDC8943 grown on sago RS (+0.26) and HCl-sago RS (+0.24) followed by L. bulgaricus FTDC1511 grown on sago RS (+0.21). The findings had suggested that sago RS3 has the prebiotic partial characteristics and it is suggested to further assess the suitability of sago RS3 as a prebiotic material.

  19. Tracking the Cognitive, Social, and Neuroanatomical Profile in Early Neurodegeneration: Type III Cockayne Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Couto, Blas; Herrera, Eduar; Bocanegra, Yamile; Trujillo-Orrego, Natalia; Madrigal-Zapata, Lucia; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin; Villegas, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with premature aging, progressive multiorgan degeneration, and nervous system abnormalities including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, brain calcifications, and white matter abnormalities. Although several clinical descriptions of CS patients have reported developmental delay and cognitive impairment with relative preservation of social skills, no previous studies have carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological and social cognition assessment. Furthermore, no previous research in individuals with CS has examined the relationship between brain atrophy and performance on neuropsychological and social cognition tests. This study describes the case of an atypical late-onset type III CS patient who exceeds the mean life expectancy of individuals with this pathology. The patient and a group of healthy controls underwent a comprehensive assessment that included multiple neuropsychological and social cognition (emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy) tasks. In addition, we compared the pattern of atrophy in the patient to controls and to its concordance with ERCC8 gene expression in a healthy brain. The results showed memory, language, and executive deficits that contrast with the relative preservation of social cognition skills. The cognitive profile of the patient was consistent with his pattern of global cerebral and cerebellar loss of gray matter volume (frontal structures, bilateral cerebellum, basal ganglia, temporal lobe, and occipito-temporal/occipito-parietal regions), which in turn was anatomically consistent with the ERCC8 gene expression level in a healthy donor's brain. The study of exceptional cases, such as the one described here, is fundamental to elucidating the processes that affect the brain in premature aging diseases, and such studies provide an important source of information for understanding the problems associated with normal and pathological aging.

  20. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola Mutants Compromised for type III secretion system gene induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Xiao, Yanmei; Lan, Lefu; Zhou, Jian-Min; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2009-08-01

    Pseudomonas syringae bacteria utilize the type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into host cells. The T3SS and T3 effector genes (together called the T3 genes hereafter) are repressed in nutrient-rich medium but rapidly induced after the bacteria are transferred into minimal medium or infiltrated into plants. The induction of the T3 genes is mediated by HrpL, an alternative sigma factor that recognizes the conserved hrp box motif in the T3 gene promoters. The induction of hrpL is mediated by HrpR and HrpS, two homologous proteins that bind the hrpL promoter. To identify additional genes involved in regulation of the T3 genes, we screened for the P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 transposon-tagged mutants with reduced induction of avrPto-luc and hrpL-luc, reporter genes for promoters of effector gene avrPto and hrpL, respectively. Determination of the transposon-insertion sites revealed genes with putative functions in signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, protein synthesis, and basic metabolism. A transcriptional regulator (AefR(NPS3121)) was identified in our screen that is homologous to AefR of P. syringae pv. syringae strain B728a, a regulator of the quorum-sensing signal and epiphytic traits, but was not known to regulate the T3 genes. AefR(NPS3121) in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 and AefR in P. syringae pv. syringae B728a behave similarly in regulating the quorum-sensing signal in liquid medium but differ in regulating the epiphytic traits, including swarming motility, leaf entry, and epiphytic survival.

  1. Tracking the cognitive, social and neuroanatomical profile in early neurodegeneration: Type III Cockayne syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBaez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is an autosomal recessive disease associated with premature aging, progressive multiorgan degeneration and nervous system abnormalities including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, brain calcifications and white matter abnormalities. Although several clinical descriptions of CS patients have reported developmental delay and cognitive impairment with relative preservation of social skills, no previous studies have carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological and social cognition assessment. Furthermore, no previous research in individuals with CS has examined the relationship between brain atrophy and performance on neuropsychological and social cognition tests. This study describes the case of an atypical late-onset type III CS patient who exceeds the mean life expectancy of individuals with this pathology. The patient and a group of healthy controls underwent a comprehensive assessment that included multiple neuropsychological and social cognition (emotion recognition, theory of mind and empathy tasks. In addition, we compared the pattern of atrophy in the patient to controls and to its concordance with ERCC8 gene expression in a healthy brain. The results showed memory, language and executive deficits that contrast with the relative preservation of social cognition skills. The cognitive profile of the patient was consistent with his pattern of global cerebral and cerebellar loss of gray matter volume (frontal structures, bilateral cerebellum, basal ganglia, temporal lobe, and occipito-temporal/occipito-parietal regions, which in turn was anatomically consistent with the ERCC8 gene expression level in a healthy donor’s brain. The study of exceptional cases, such as the one described here, is fundamental to elucidating the processes that affect the brain in premature aging diseases, and such studies provide an important source of information for understanding the problems associated with normal and pathological aging.

  2. Severe osteogenesis imperfecta Type-III and its challenging treatment in newborn and preschool children. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Ojaniemi, Marja; Lehenkari, Petri; Serlo, Willy

    2015-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders, of which Type III is the most severe among survivors. The disease is characterised in particular by bone fragility, decreased bone mass and increased incidence of fractures. Other usual findings are muscle hypotonia, joint hypermobility and short stature. Fractures and weak bones may consequently cause limb and spinal deformity and chronic physical disability. Bisphosphonates have revolutionised the treatment of newborn children with severe OI type III. Surgery is still needed in most patients due to high frequency of the fractures. In this systematic review we describe the present state-of-art in treating the most severe type of OI in newborn and preschool children with their bone fractures.

  3. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium Discoideum Differentation-Inducing Factor by a Hybrid Type I Fatty Acid A-Type III polyketide synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin,M.; Saito, T.; Bowman, M.; Haydock, S.; Kato, A.; Moore, B.; Kay, R.; Noel, J.

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two {approx}3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed 'steely', as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis.

  4. Ketoglutarate transport protein KgtP is secreted through the type III secretion system and contributes to virulence in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Cai, Lu-Lu; Zou, Hua-Song; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Liu, Xi-Ling; Zou, Li-Fang; Li, Yu-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Bin; Chen, Gong-You

    2012-08-01

    The phytopathogenic prokaryote Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight (BB) of rice and utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver T3SS effectors into rice cells. In this report, we show that the ketoglutarate transport protein (KgtP) is secreted in an HpaB-independent manner through the T3SS of X. oryzae pv. oryzae PXO99(A) and localizes to the host cell membrane for α-ketoglutaric acid export. kgtP contained an imperfect PIP box (plant-inducible promoter) in the promoter region and was positively regulated by HrpX and HrpG. A kgtP deletion mutant was impaired in bacterial virulence and growth in planta; furthermore, the mutant showed reduced growth in minimal media containing α-ketoglutaric acid or sodium succinate as the sole carbon source. The reduced virulence and the deficiency in α-ketoglutaric acid utilization by the kgtP mutant were restored to wild-type levels by the presence of kgtP in trans. The expression of OsIDH, which is responsible for the synthesis of α-ketoglutaric acid in rice, was enhanced when KgtP was present in the pathogen. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that KgtP, which is regulated by HrpG and HrpX and secreted by the T3SS in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, transports α-ketoglutaric acid when the pathogen infects rice.

  5. Expression of Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors in yeast under stress conditions reveals that HopX1 attenuates activation of the high osmolarity glycerol MAP kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Dor; Bosis, Eran; Dar, Daniel; Nachman, Iftach; Sessa, Guido

    2012-11-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) is the causal agent of speck disease in tomato. Pst pathogenicity depends on a type III secretion system that delivers effector proteins into host cells, where they promote disease by manipulating processes to the advantage of the pathogen. Previous studies identified seven Pst effectors that inhibit growth when expressed in yeast under normal growth conditions, suggesting that they interfere with cellular processes conserved in yeast and plants. We hypothesized that effectors also target conserved cellular processes that are required for yeast growth only under stress conditions. We therefore examined phenotypes induced by expression of Pst effectors in yeast grown in the presence of various stressors. Out of 29 effectors tested, five (HopX1, HopG1, HopT1-1, HopH1 and AvrPtoB) displayed growth inhibition phenotypes only in combination with stress conditions. Viability assays revealed that the HopX1 effector caused loss of cell viability under prolonged osmotic stress. Using transcription reporters, we found that HopX1 attenuated the activation of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which is responsible for yeast survival under osmotic stress, while other MAPK pathways were mildly affected by HopX1. Interestingly, HopX1-mediated phenotypes in yeast were dependent on the putative transglutaminase catalytic triad of the effector. This study enlarges the pool of phenotypes available for the functional analysis of Pst type III effectors in yeast, and exemplifies how analysis of phenotypes detected in yeast under stress conditions can lead to the identification of eukaryotic cellular processes affected by bacterial effectors.

  6. Purification, crystal structure determination and functional characterization of type III antifreeze proteins from the European eelpout Zoarces viviparus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Ramløv, Hans;

    2014-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are essential components of many organisms adaptation to cold temperatures. Fish type III AFPs are divided into two groups, SP isoforms being much less active than QAE1 isoforms. Two type III AFPs from Zoarces viviparus, a QAE1 (ZvAFP13) and an SP (ZvAFP6) isoform...

  7. Heterotrophic activity, bacterial types and abundance in different ecosystems of the Queen Maud Land

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kodagali, J.; Nair, S.; Sheelu, G.; Chandramohan, D.

    . Distribution of bacterial populations in freshwater, terrestrial and glacial habitats in the Schirmacher Oasis showed a remarkable ecological adaptation. They were more abundant in the habitats where there was accumulation of organic matter. Interestingly...

  8. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptors types II and III within various cells in the rat periodontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Symons, A L; Bartold, P M

    1999-02-01

    This study reports the immunohistochemical localization of TGF-beta receptor type II (T beta R-II) and type III (T beta R-III) in cells of the forming periodontal ligament (PDL) in rat first molar roots. Mandibular periodontium was obtained from 3, 6 and 12-wk-old rats. This represented tissue from the initial, pre-mature and post-mature stages of root and periodontal development, respectively. Mandibular bone chips and molar roots were used to isolate osteoblasts, fibroblasts and cementoblasts. Cells were obtained using a 2-step trypsinization and explant technique, and cultured in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM) under routine cell culture conditions. Cells were cultured on coverslips for the purpose of detecting TGF-beta receptors, and compared with whole tissue sections using the same detection method. Cells which stained positively for T beta R-II and T beta R-III on both paraffin sections and cultured cell slides were counted. Both receptors were expressed in the various periodontal tissue compartments. PDL fibroblasts, cementoblasts and osteoblasts were stained positively for T beta R-II and T beta R-III. Endothelial cells were noted to be positive for T beta R-II only. T beta R-II was more widely distributed in cells than T beta R-III, but T beta R-III was extensively localized in the extracellular matrix. Both receptors were expressed on the cell membrane and also localized in the cytoplasm. The findings for paraffin sections were consistent with the immunohistochemical staining of cultured cells. The percentage of cells which stained positively for T beta R-II was greater (approximately 85%) than that for T beta R-III (approximately 60%) in all major types of the PDL cells on both paraffin sections and cultured cell slides. Extensive location of TGF-beta receptors in both cells and extracellular matrix suggests that several binding sites are available for TGF-beta s to interact with target cells during development and following maturation

  9. Inheritance of Pantoea type III secretion systems through both vertical and horizontal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirzinger, Morgan W B; Butz, Cory J; Stavrinides, John

    2015-12-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an extracellular apparatus used by many Gram-negative bacteria to deliver effector proteins directly into plant and animal cells, thereby facilitating host-specific association. Strains of the enterobacterial genus, Pantoea, have been isolated from a wide variety of hosts, including plants, insects, and humans, yet it is unclear whether the T3SS may be involved in these associations. In this study, we use comparative genomics and phylogenetic methods to examine the origin and distribution of T3SSs in 35 sequenced environmental and clinical strains of Pantoea. We began our analysis by examining the distribution of the previously characterized plant cell-specific PSI-1 and animal cell-specific PSI-2 of the plant pathogenic Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii DC283 (PstDC283), and showed that both had a somewhat limited distribution. Our analysis, however, identified two variants of a unique plant cell-specific T3SS (PSI-1a and PSI-1b) in six Pantoea strains, including a clinical isolate. Our genome analysis of PstDC283 also identified a third T3SS that we named PSI-3, which has a similar genetic content and organization to the Salmonella, animal cell-specific SPI-2 system. Phylogenetic analysis of all three systems suggests that the PSI-1 system has been inherited vertically, whereas the newly identified PSI-1a and PSI-1b systems have been acquired independently from other genera within the Enterobacteriaceae. PSI-2 appears to have been acquired horizontally as far back as the Erwinia/Pantoea common ancestor, with evidence of more recent horizontal acquisition of the PSI-3 system. Our results suggest that Pantoea is a relatively old plant pathogen that has lost and subsequently regained different plant-associated T3SSs. This work has broad implications for understanding the host-associating capacity of Pantoea strains, and reveals the propensity for Pantoea isolates to exchange pathogenicity determinants with human

  10. Ethylene polymerization by PN3-type pincer chromium(III) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (III) complexes, Cr1, [2,6-(tBu2PNH) 2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr2, [2,6-(Ph 2PNH)2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr3, [2-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N]CrCl3 THF; Cr4, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2- CH2NEt2]CrCl3; Cr5, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-C3H2N 2]CrCl3; Cr6, [6-(tBu2PNH)C 5H4N-2-(3,5-Me2)C3H 2N2]CrCl3; Cr7, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-iPr 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3; Cr8, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-Ph 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3, bearing a family of neutral PN3-type pincer ligands have been prepared. The molecular structure of Cr2 was further elucidated by the X-ray crystallographic analysis, showing an octahedral geometry. Treatment of these complexes with MAO or alkylaluminum led to catalysts with moderate activities (about 105 g (PE)/Cr(mol) h) for ethylene polymerization, affording exclusively linear low molecular weight solid PE without any detectable oligomers. Among Cr1-Cr8, the highest activity was achieved for Cr1/MAO at room temperature with production of PE with highest molecular weight, indicating that replacement of both tBu groups in Cr1 with Ph groups, or one PtBu2 with the N (imine) arm, resulted in a lower catalytic activity and lower M w. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Observation of bacterial type I pili extension and contraction under fluid flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilia E Rangel

    Full Text Available Type I pili are proteinaceous tethers that mediate bacterial adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to surfaces and are thought to help bacteria resist drag forces imparted by fluid flow via uncoiling of their quaternary structure. Uncoiling and recoiling have been observed in force spectroscopy experiments, but it is not clear if and how this process occurs under fluid flow. Here we developed an assay to study the mechanical properties of pili in a parallel plate flow chamber. We show that pili extend when attached E. coli bacteria are exposed to increasing shear stresses, that pili can help bacteria move against moderate fluid flows, and characterize two dynamic regimes of this displacement. The first regime is consistent with entropic contraction as modeled by a freely jointed chain, and the second with coiling of the quaternary structure of pili. These results confirm that coiling and uncoiling happen under flow but the observed dynamics are different from those reported previously. Using these results and those from previous studies, we review the mechanical properties of pili in the context of other elastic proteins such as the byssal threads of mussels. It has been proposed that the high extensibility of pili may help recruit more pili into tension and lower the force acting on each one by damping changes in force due to fluid flow. Our analysis of the mechanical properties suggests additional functions of pili; in particular, their extensibility may reduce tension by aligning pili with the direction of flow, and the uncoiled state of pili may complement uncoiling in regulating the force of the terminal adhesin.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an acridone-producing novel multifunctional type III polyketide synthase from Huperzia serrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Hiroyuki [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan); Kondo, Shin; Kato, Ryohei [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Kiyofumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka and the COE21 Program, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Sugio, Shigetoshi, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Abe, Ikuro, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka and the COE21 Program, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kohno, Toshiyuki, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    An acridone-producing novel type III polyketide synthase from H. serrata has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.0 Å. Polyketide synthase 1 (PKS1) from Huperzia serrata is a plant-specific type III polyketide synthase that shows an unusually versatile catalytic potential, producing various aromatic tetraketides, including chalcones, benzophenones, phlorogulucinols and acridones. Recombinant H. serrata PKS1 expressed in Escherichia coli was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group I222 or I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.3, b = 85.0, c = 137.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at BL24XU of SPring-8.

  13. Matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated type III collagen degradation as a novel serological biochemical marker for liver fibrogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Barascuk, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    During fibrogenesis in the liver, in which excessive remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs, both the quantity of type III collagen (CO3) and levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP-9, increase significantly. MMPs play major roles in ECM remodelling, via their acti......During fibrogenesis in the liver, in which excessive remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs, both the quantity of type III collagen (CO3) and levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP-9, increase significantly. MMPs play major roles in ECM remodelling, via...... their activity in the proteolytic degradation of extracellular macromolecules such as collagens, resulting in the generation of specific cleavage fragments. These neo-epitopes may be used as markers of fibrosis....

  14. Characteristics of type III bursts in the solar wind from simultaneous observations on board ISEE-3 and Voyager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecacheux, A.; Steinberg, J.-L.; Hoang, S.; Dulk, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    The properties of solar type III bursts observed aboard ISEE-3 and Voyager that originate behind the sun are analyzed and compared to those originating on the near side. The measurement of the burst parameters and the correction for proximity effects are described. The diminution of flux densities, the increase of source sizes, the difference of source azimuths and elevations, the change of spectral properties, and the anomalous delays in burst arrival time at one spacecraft relative to another are determined. Many of the observations imply that the beaming of type III radiation is much more widespread at all frequencies than has been derived from statistical studies. The effective beam appears to consist of at least two components: a Gaussian core of half width about 60 deg, and a very broad halo that extends to 180 deg with an amplitude of a few percent.

  15. Feasibility of Using Microsoft Kinect to Assess Upper Limb Movement in Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebourg-Polster, Juliane; Wolf, Detlef; Czech, Christian; Bonati, Ulrike; Fischer, Dirk; Khwaja, Omar; Strahm, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Although functional rating scales are being used increasingly as primary outcome measures in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), sensitive and objective assessment of early-stage disease progression and drug efficacy remains challenging. We have developed a game based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor, specifically designed to measure active upper limb movement. An explorative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of this new tool in 18 ambulant SMA type III patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Upper limb movement was analysed elaborately through derived features such as elbow flexion and extension angles, arm lifting angle, velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were found in the active range of motion between ambulant SMA type III patients and controls. Hand velocity was found to be different but further validation is necessary. This study presents an important step in the process of designing and handling digital biomarkers as complementary outcome measures for clinical trials. PMID:28122039

  16. Feasibility of Using Microsoft Kinect to Assess Upper Limb Movement in Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Siebourg-Polster, Juliane; Wolf, Detlef; Czech, Christian; Bonati, Ulrike; Fischer, Dirk; Khwaja, Omar; Strahm, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Although functional rating scales are being used increasingly as primary outcome measures in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), sensitive and objective assessment of early-stage disease progression and drug efficacy remains challenging. We have developed a game based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor, specifically designed to measure active upper limb movement. An explorative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of this new tool in 18 ambulant SMA type III patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Upper limb movement was analysed elaborately through derived features such as elbow flexion and extension angles, arm lifting angle, velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were found in the active range of motion between ambulant SMA type III patients and controls. Hand velocity was found to be different but further validation is necessary. This study presents an important step in the process of designing and handling digital biomarkers as complementary outcome measures for clinical trials.

  17. Nitrated type III collagen as a biological marker of nitric oxide-mediated synovial tissue metabolism in osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardot, P; Charni-Ben Tabassi, N; Toh, L

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Nitric oxide (NO) is a major mediator of joint tissue inflammation and damage in osteoarthritis (OA) and mediates the nitration of tyrosine (Y*) residues in proteins. We investigated the nitration of type III collagen, a major constituent of synovial membrane, in knee OA. METHODS...... in healthy controls and significantly correlated with C-reactive protein values (r=0.40, Pcollagen N-telopeptide is increased in the synovial tissue of patients with knee OA. Measurements of serum IIINys level may be useful for the clinical......: A polyclonal antibody directed against the nitrated QY*DSY*DVKSG sequence from type III collagen N-telopeptide was generated. Synovial tissues from patients with knee OA (n=4) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n=4) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for IIINys. Serum IIINys levels were measured by enzyme...

  18. DYNC2H1 Mutations Cause Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy and Short Rib-Polydactyly Syndrome, Type III

    OpenAIRE

    Dagoneau, Nathalie; Goulet, Marie; Geneviève, David; Sznajer, Yves; Martinovic, Jelena; Smithson, Sarah; Huber, Céline; Baujat, Geneviève; Flori, Elisabeth; Tecco, Laura; Cavalcanti, Denise; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Serre, Valérie; Le Merrer, Martine; Munnich, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD) is an autosomal-recessive chondrodysplasia characterized by short ribs and a narrow thorax, short long bones, inconstant polydactyly, and trident acetabular roof. ATD is closely related to the short rib polydactyly syndrome (SRP) type III, which is a more severe condition characterized by early prenatal expression and lethality and variable malformations. We first excluded IFT80 in a series of 26 fetuses and children belonging to 14 families diagnos...

  19. Comparison of backbone dynamics of the type III antifreeze protein and antifreeze-like domain of human sialic acid synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Geun [Gyeongsang National University, Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Natural Science (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chin-Ju [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences and Department of Chemistry (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Eun; Seo, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Ae-Ree; Choi, Seo-Ree; Lee, Shim Sung; Lee, Joon-Hwa, E-mail: joonhwa@gnu.ac.kr [Gyeongsang National University, Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Natural Science (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are found in a variety of cold-adapted (psychrophilic) organisms to promote survival at subzero temperatures by binding to ice crystals and decreasing the freezing temperature of body fluids. The type III AFPs are small globular proteins that consist of one α-helix, three 3{sub 10}-helices, and two β-strands. Sialic acids play important roles in a variety of biological functions, such as development, recognition, and cell adhesion and are synthesized by conserved enzymatic pathways that include sialic acid synthase (SAS). SAS consists of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal antifreeze-like (AFL) domain, which is similar to the type III AFPs. Despite having very similar structures, AFL and the type III AFPs exhibit very different temperature-dependent stability and activity. In this study, we have performed backbone dynamics analyses of a type III AFP (HPLC12 isoform) and the AFL domain of human SAS (hAFL) at various temperatures. We also characterized the structural/dynamic properties of the ice-binding surfaces by analyzing the temperature gradient of the amide proton chemical shift and its correlation with chemical shift deviation from random coil. The dynamic properties of the two proteins were very different from each other. While HPLC12 was mostly rigid with a few residues exhibiting slow motions, hAFL showed fast internal motions at low temperature. Our results provide insight into the molecular basis of thermostability and structural flexibility in homologous psychrophilic HPLC12 and mesophilic hAFL proteins.

  20. The Dynamics of an Impulsive Predator-Prey System with Stage Structure and Holling Type III Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the biological resource management of natural resources, a stage-structured predator-prey model with Holling type III functional response, birth pulse, and impulsive harvesting at different moments is proposed in this paper. By applying comparison theorem and some analysis techniques, the global attractivity of predator-extinction periodic solution and the permanence of this system are studied. At last, examples and numerical simulations are given to verify the validity of the main results.

  1. Type III Effector Diversification via Both Pathoadaptation and Horizontal Transfer in Response to a Coevolutionary Arms Race

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbo Ma; Dong, Frederick F. T; John Stavrinides; David S. Guttman

    2006-01-01

    The concept of the coevolutionary arms race holds a central position in our understanding of pathogen-host interactions. Here we identify the molecular mechanisms and follow the stepwise progression of an arms race in a natural system. We show how the evolution and function of the HopZ family of type III secreted effector proteins carried by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae are influenced by a coevolutionary arms race between pathogen and host. We surveyed 96 isolates of P. syringae an...

  2. [Purpura pigmentosa progressiva in type III cryoglobulinemia and tartrazine intolerance. A follow-up over 20 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinke, D U; Wüthrich, B

    1999-01-01

    A 58 year old patient with hepatitis virus C (HCV) infection had a secondary polyclonal IgG-IgM cryoglobulinemia with a benign 20 year course. Clinically the patient suffered from progressive pigmented purpura (PPP). Histologic evaluation revealed a lymphocytic vasculitis. Food containing tartrazine triggered flares of the PPP, as demonstrated with controlled oral provocation testing. In most of the previously described cases of HCV and type III cryoglobulinemia, the typical cutaneous finding was palpable purpura with leukocytoclastic vasculitis.

  3. Diagnose Physical Conditions Near the Flare Energy-release Sites from Observations of Solar Microwave Type III Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Baolin; Meszarosova, Hana; Huang, Guangli

    2015-01-01

    In the physics of solar flares, it is crucial to diagnose the physical conditions near the flare energy-release sites. However, so far it is unclear how do diagnose these physical conditions. Solar microwave type III burst is believed to be a sensitive signature of the primary energy release and electron accelerations in solar flares. This work takes into account the effect of magnetic field on the plasma density and developed s set of formulas which can be used to estimate the plasma density, temperature, magnetic field near the magnetic reconnection site and particle acceleration region, and the velocity and energy of electron beams. We applied these formulas to three groups of microwave type III pairs in a X-class flare, and obtained some reasonable and interesting results. This method can be applied to other microwave type III bursts to diagnose the physical conditions of source regions, and provide some basic information to understand the intrinsic nature and fundamental processes occurring near the flar...

  4. Phase Coupling in Langmuir Wave Packets: Evidence for Four Wave Interactions in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    The four wave interaction process, known as the oscillating two stream instability (OTSI) is considered as one of the mechanisms responsible for stabilizing the electron beams associated with solar type III radio bursts. It has been reported that (1) an intense localized Langmuir wave packet associated with a type III burst contains the spectral characteristics of the OTSI: (a) a resonant peak at the local electron plasma frequency, f(sub pe), (b) a Stokes peak at a frequency slightly lower than f(sub pe), (c) anti-Stokes peak at a frequency slightly higher than f(sub pe), and (d) a low frequency enhancement below a few hundred Hz, (2) the frequencies and wave numbers of these spectral components satisfy the resonance conditions of the OTSI, and (3) the peak intensity of the wave packet is well above the thresholds for the OTSI as well as spatial collapse of envelope solitons. Here, for the first time, applying the trispectral analysis on this wave packet, we show that the tricoherence, which measures the degree of coherent four-wave coupling amongst the observed spectral components exhibits a peak. This provides an additional evidence for the OTSI and related spatial collapse of Langmuir envelope solitons in type III burst sources.

  5. Diagnosing the Source Region of a Solar Burst on 26 September 2011 by Microwave Type III Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Baolin; Meszarosova, Hana; Kashapova, Larisa; Huang, Jing; Yan, Yan; Kontar, Eduard P

    2016-01-01

    This work reports a peculiar and interesting train of microwave type III pair bursts in the impulsive rising phase of a solar flare on 2011 September 26. The observations include radio spectrometers at frequency of 0.80 - 2.00 GHz, hard X-ray (RHESSI and FERMI), EUV images of SWAP/PROBA-2 and magnetogram of HMI/SDO. By using a recently developed method (Tan et al. 2016a), we diagnosed the plasma density, temperature, plasma beta, magnetic field near the source region, the energy of energetic electrons and the distance between the acceleration region and the emission start sites of type III bursts. From the diagnostics, we find that: (1) The plasma density, temperature, magnetic field, and the distance between the acceleration region and the emission start sites almost have no obvious variations during the period of type III pair trains, while the energy of electrons has an obvious peak value which is consistent to the hard X-ray emission. (2) The plasma beta is much higher than an unity showing a highly dynam...

  6. On the Brightness and Waiting-time Distributions of a Type III Radio Storm observed by STEREO/WAVES

    CERN Document Server

    Eastwood, J P; Hudson, H S; Krucker, S; Bale, S D; Maksimovic, M; Goetz, K; Bougeret, J -L

    2009-01-01

    Type III solar radio storms, observed at frequencies below approximately 16 MHz by space borne radio experiments, correspond to the quasi-continuous, bursty emission of electron beams onto open field lines above active regions. The mechanisms by which a storm can persist in some cases for more than a solar rotation whilst exhibiting considerable radio activity are poorly understood. To address this issue, the statistical properties of a type III storm observed by the STEREO/WAVES radio experiment are presented, examining both the brightness distribution and (for the first time) the waiting-time distribution. Single power law behavior is observed in the number distribution as a function of brightness; the power law index is approximately 2.1 and is largely independent of frequency. The waiting-time distribution is found to be consistent with a piecewise-constant Poisson process. This indicates that during the storm individual type III bursts occur independently and suggests that the storm dynamics are consiste...

  7. Minifilament Eruption as the Source of a Blowout Jet, C-class Flare, and Type-III Radio Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Li, Haidong; Xu, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    We report a strong minifilament eruption associated with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite C1.6 flare and WIND type-III radio burst. The minifilament, which lies at the periphery of active region 12259, is detected by Hα images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope. The minifilament undergoes a partial and then a full eruption. Simultaneously, two co-spatial jets are successively observed in extreme ultraviolet images from the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The first jet exhibits a typical fan-spine geometry, suggesting that the co-spatial minifilament is possibly embedded in magnetic fields with a fan-spine structure. However, the second jet displays blowout morphology when the entire minifilament erupts upward, leaving behind a hard X-ray emission source in the base. Differential emission measure analyses show that the eruptive region is heated up to about 4 MK during the fan-spine jet, while up to about 7 MK during the blowout jet. In particular, the blowout jet is accompanied by an interplanetary type-III radio burst observed by WIND/WAVES in the frequency range from above 10 to 0.1 MHz. Hence, the minifilament eruption is correlated with the interplanetary type-III radio burst for the first time. These results not only suggest that coronal jets can result from magnetic reconnection initiated by erupting minifilaments with open fields, but also shed light on the potential influence of minifilament eruption on interplanetary space.

  8. Titanocene(III)-promoted Barbier-type crotylation of carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Sanz, Iris; Miguel, Delia; Millán, Alba; Estévez, Rosa E; Oller-López, Juan L; Álvarez-Manzaneda, Enrique; Robles, Rafael; Cuerva, Juan M; Justicia, José

    2011-01-21

    A mild, highly regio- and stereoselective method for the crotylation of aldehydes and ketones mediated/catalyzed by titanocene(III) is described. Optimized conditions permit the selective generation of γ-adducts in high yields together with high stereoselectivity, with a predominance of anti stereoisomers.

  9. Effect of catchment land use and soil type on the concentration, quality, and bacterial degradation of riverine dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autio, Iida; Soinne, Helena; Helin, Janne;

    2016-01-01

    of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (DOC, DON, and DOP, respectively), and was linked to DOM quality. Soil type was more important than land use in determining the concentration and quality of riverine DOM. On average, 5–9 % of the DOC and 45 % of the DON were degraded by the bacterial......We studied the effects of catchment characteristics (soil type and land use) on the concentration and quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in river water and on the bacterial degradation of terrestrial DOM. The share of organic soil was the strongest predictor of high concentrations...... communities within 2–3 months. Simultaneously, the proportion of humic-like compounds in the DOM pool increased. Bioavailable DON accounted for approximately one-third of the total bioavailable dissolved nitrogen, and thus, terrestrial DON can markedly contribute to the coastal plankton dynamics and support...

  10. Hemolytic C-type lectin CEL-III from sea cucumber expressed in transgenic mosquitoes impairs malaria parasite development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeto Yoshida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The midgut environment of anopheline mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of the malaria parasite. Using genetic manipulation of anopheline mosquitoes to change the environment in the mosquito midgut may inhibit development of the malaria parasite, thus blocking malaria transmission. Here we generate transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes that express the C-type lectin CEL-III from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata, in a midgut-specific manner. CEL-III has strong and rapid hemolytic activity toward human and rat erythrocytes in the presence of serum. Importantly, CEL-III binds to ookinetes, leading to strong inhibition of ookinete formation in vitro with an IC(50 of 15 nM. Thus, CEL-III exhibits not only hemolytic activity but also cytotoxicity toward ookinetes. In these transgenic mosquitoes, sporogonic development of Plasmodium berghei is severely impaired. Moderate, but significant inhibition was found against Plasmodium falciparum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of stably engineered anophelines that affect the Plasmodium transmission dynamics of human malaria. Although our laboratory-based research does not have immediate applications to block natural malaria transmission, these findings have significant implications for the generation of refractory mosquitoes to all species of human Plasmodium and elucidation of mosquito-parasite interactions.

  11. Progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion in a baby with Saethre-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Али Аль-Каисси

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 3-months old baby of Austrian origin and product of non-consanguineous parents. Abnormal craniofacial contour was the main deformity. The overall clinico-radiographic features were consistent with Saether-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome. Bi-directional sequencing of the exon 8 and of the FGFR3-genes, exons 7 of FGFR3 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor3 genes, the exon 5 of the FGFR1 gene, revealed no mutations. Sagittal MRI imaging of the spine showed anterior vertebral fusion along the thoraco-lumbar vertebrae compatible with the non-infectious type.

  12. Endoscopic treatment of choledochal cyst type III Tratamento endoscópico de cisto de colédoco do tipo III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Alessi Rodrigues

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Todani type III cysts are not very common disease. Endoscopically the choledochocele is not a challenging diagnosis. Sometimes biliary stone disease is associated and events of cholangitis and pancreatitis may occur. Normally these patients are referred for surgical treatment, mainly because there is a widespread concept that choledocal cysts are very prone to develop neoplasia and must be resected. Nevertheless surgical resection is not free of morbidity. The chance for neoplasia in such cases seems to be related to the presence of pancreaticobiliary reflux towards the common bile duct. AIM: To report a case of endoscopic treatment of choledochal cyst type III with literature review. CASE REPORT: Young man with recurrent abdominal pain, fever and hyperamylasemia. An ERCP showed pancreaticobiliary maljunction and calculus impaction. Papillotomy was performed and complete biliary clearance was achieved. Amylase contents in the common bile duct was measured and normal. Due to absence of pancreatiobiliary reflux, a second endoscopic approach was performed and a wide communication between choledochocele and duodenum was done with diathermy (using the papillotome. The patient recovering was uneventful and in 30 months follow-up he remains asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Since pancreatobiliary reflux is not present, surgical approach of the diverticulum seemed to be not necessary. Endoscopic drainage of choledococele was a good option for conservative treatment.INTRODUÇÃO: Cisto de colédoco do tipo III de Todani não é doença muito comum. Eventualmente pode ocorrer a presença de doença biliar calculosa, que nestes casos estaria associada a eventos de colangite e pancreatite. Normalmente estes pacientes são conduzidos ao tratamento cirúrgico, principalmente porque há conceito difundido de que os cistos de colédoco são muito propensos a desenvolver neoplasia e que a sua presença indicaria ressecção cirúrgica. A chance para

  13. Translocation and functional analysis of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 type III secretion system effectors reveals two novel effector families of the Pseudomonas syringae complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Isabel M; Castañeda-Ojeda, M Pilar; Aragón, Isabel M; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Murillo, Jesús; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Ramos, Cayo

    2014-05-01

    Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 causes olive knot disease and is a model pathogen for exploring bacterial infection of woody hosts. The type III secretion system (T3SS) effector repertoire of this strain includes 31 effector candidates plus two novel candidates identified in this study which have not been reported to translocate into plant cells. In this work, we demonstrate the delivery of seven NCPPB 3335 effectors into Nicotiana tabacum leaves, including three proteins from two novel families of the P. syringae complex effector super-repertoire (HopBK and HopBL), one of which comprises two proteins (HopBL1 and HopBL2) that harbor a SUMO protease domain. When delivered by P. fluorescens heterologously expressing a P. syringae T3SS, all seven effectors were found to suppress the production of defense-associated reactive oxygen species. Moreover, six of these effectors, including the truncated versions of HopAA1 and HopAZ1 encoded by NCPPB 3335, suppressed callose deposition. The expression of HopAZ1 and HopBL1 by functionally effectorless P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000D28E inhibited the hypersensitive response in tobacco and, additionally, expression of HopBL2 by this strain significantly increased its competitiveness in N. benthamiana. DNA sequences encoding HopBL1 and HopBL2 were uniquely detected in a collection of 31 P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains and other P. syringae strains isolated from woody hosts, suggesting a relevant role of these two effectors in bacterial interactions with olive and other woody plants.

  14. Multi-functional characteristics of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III needle-tip protein, PcrV; comparison to orthologs in other gram negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi eSato

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS to intoxicate host cells and evade innate immunity. This virulence-related machinery consists of a molecular syringe and needle assembled on the bacterial surface, which allows delivery of T3 effector proteins into infected cells. To accomplish a one-step effector translocation, a tip protein is required at the top end of the T3 needle structure. Strains lacking expression of the functional tip protein fail to intoxicate host cells.P. aeruginosa encodes a T3S that is highly homologous to the proteins encoded by Yersinia species. The needle tip proteins of Yersinia, LcrV, and P. aeruginosa, PcrV, share 37% identity and 65% similarity. Other known tip proteins are AcrV (Aeromonas, IpaD (Shigella, SipD (Salmonella, BipD (Burkholderia, EspA (EPEC, EHEC, Bsp22 (Bordetella, with additional proteins identified from various Gram negative species, such as Vibrio and Bordetella. The tip proteins can serve as a protective antigen or may be critical for sensing host cells and evading innate immune responses. Recognition of the host microenvironment transcriptionally activates synthesis of T3SS components. The machinery appears to be mechanically controlled by the assemblage of specific junctions within the apparatus. These junctions include the tip and base of the T3 apparatus, the needle proteins and components within the bacterial cytoplasm. The tip proteins likely have chaperone functions for translocon proteins, allowing the proper assembly of translocation channels in the host membrane and completing vectorial delivery of effector proteins into the host cytoplasm. Multifunctional features of the needle-tip proteins appear to be intricately controlled. In this review, we highlight the functional aspects and complex controls of T3 needle-tip proteins with particular emphasis on PcrV and LcrV.

  15. Two-Higgs-doublet type-II and -III models and t → ch at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arhrib, A. [Universite Abdelmalek Essaadi, Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B. 416, Tangier (Morocco); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China); Benbrik, R. [Cadi Ayyad University, LPHEA, Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco); Faculte Polydisciplinaire de Safi, MSISM Team, Sidi Bouzid, B.P 4162, Safi (Morocco); Chen, Chuan-Hung [National Cheng-Kung University, Department of Physics, Tainan (China); Gomez-Bock, Melina [Universidad de las Americas Puebla, DAFM, Cholula, PUE (Mexico); Semlali, Souad [Cadi Ayyad University, LPHEA, Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco)

    2016-06-15

    We study the constraints of the generic two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) type-III and the impacts of the new Yukawa couplings. For comparisons, we revisit the analysis in the 2HDM type-II. To understand the influence of all involving free parameters and to realize their correlations, we employ a χ-square fitting approach by including theoretical and experimental constraints, such as the S, T, and U oblique parameters, the production of standard model Higgs and its decay to γγ, WW*/ZZ*, τ{sup +}τ{sup -}, etc. The errors of the analysis are taken at 68, 95.5, and 99.7% confidence levels. Due to the new Yukawa couplings being associated with cos(β - α) and sin(β - α), we find that the allowed regions for sin α and tan β in the type-III model can be broader when the dictated parameter χ{sub F} is positive; however, for negative χ{sub F}, the limits are stricter than those in the type-II model. By using the constrained parameters, we find that the deviation from the SM in h → Zγ can be of O(10 %). Additionally, we also study the top-quark flavor-changing processes induced at the tree level in the type-III model and find that when all current experimental data are considered, we get Br(t → c(h, H)) < 10{sup -3} for m{sub h} = 125.36 and m{sub h} = 150 GeV, and Br(t → cA) slightly exceeds 10{sup -3} for m{sub A} = 130 GeV. (orig.)

  16. IPS-1 is essential for type III IFN production by hepatocytes and dendritic cells in response to hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masaaki; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Masahiro; Kato, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

    2014-03-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease. The innate immune system is essential for controlling HCV replication, and HCV is recognized by RIG-I and TLR3, which evoke innate immune responses through IPS-1 and TICAM-1 adaptor molecules, respectively. IL-28B is a type III IFN, and genetic polymorphisms upstream of its gene are strongly associated with the efficacy of polyethylene glycol-IFN and ribavirin therapy. As seen with type I IFNs, type III IFNs induce antiviral responses to HCV. Recent studies established the essential role of TLR3-TICAM-1 pathway in type III IFN production in response to HCV infection. Contrary to previous studies, we revealed an essential role of IPS-1 in type III IFN production in response to HCV. First, using IPS-1 knockout mice, we revealed that IPS-1 was essential for type III IFN production by mouse hepatocytes and CD8(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in response to cytoplasmic HCV RNA. Second, we demonstrated that type III IFN induced RIG-I but not TLR3 expression in CD8(+) DCs and augmented type III IFN production in response to cytoplasmic HCV RNA. Moreover, we showed that type III IFN induced cytoplasmic antiviral protein expression in DCs and hepatocytes but failed to promote DC-mediated NK cell activation or cross-priming. Our study indicated that IPS-1-dependent pathway plays a crucial role in type III IFN production by CD8(+) DCs and hepatocytes in response to HCV, leading to cytoplasmic antiviral protein expressions.

  17. TtsI, a key regulator of Rhizobium species NGR234 is required for type III-dependent protein secretion and synthesis of rhamnose-rich polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Corinne; Deakin, William J; Ojanen-Reuhs, Tuula; Diallo, Ericka; Reuhs, Brad; Broughton, William J; Perret, Xavier

    2004-09-01

    Formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on legume roots by Rhizobium sp. NGR234 requires an array of bacterial factors, including nodulation outer proteins (Nops) secreted through a type III secretion system (TTSS). Secretion of Nops is abolished upon inactivation of ttsI (formerly y4xI), a protein with characteristics of two-component response regulators that was predicted to activate transcription of TTSS-related genes. During the symbiotic interaction, the phenotype of NGR omega ttsI differs from that of a mutant with a nonfunctional secretion machine, however. This indicated that TtsI regulates the synthesis of other symbiotic factors as well. Conserved sequences, called tts boxes, proposed to act as binding sites for TtsI, were identified not only within the TTSS cluster but also in the promoter regions of i) genes predicted to encode homologs of virulence factors secreted by pathogenic bacteria, ii) loci involved in the synthesis of a rhamnose-rich component (rhamnan) of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and iii) open reading frames that play roles in plasmid partitioning. Transcription studies showed that TtsI and tts boxes are required for the activation of TTSS-related genes and those involved in rhamnose synthesis. Furthermore, extraction of polysaccharides revealed that inactivation of ttsI abolishes the synthesis of the rhamnan component of the LPS. The phenotypes of mutants impaired in TTSS-dependent protein secretion, rhamnan synthesis, or in both functions were compared to assess the roles of some of the TtsI-controlled factors during symbiosis.

  18. Dynamics of bacterial communities in two unpolluted soils after spiking with phenanthrene: soil type specific and common responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Chun eDing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering their key role for ecosystem processes, it is important to understand the response of microbial communities in unpolluted soils to pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Phenanthrene, a model compound for PAH, was spiked to a Cambisol and a Luvisol soil. Total community DNA from phenanthrene-spiked and control soils collected on days 0, 21 and 63 were analyzed based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genefragments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE fingerprints of bacterial communities increasingly deviated with time between spiked and control soils. In taxon specific DGGE, significant responses of Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria became only detectable after 63 days, while significant effects on Betaproteobacteria were detectable in both soils after 21 days. Comparison of the taxonomic distribution of bacteria in spiked and control soils on day 63 as revealed by pyrosequencing indicated soil type specific negative effects of phenanthrene on several taxa, many of them belonging to the Gamma-, Beta- or Deltaproteobacteria. Bacterial richness and evenness decreased in spiked soils. Despite the significant differences in the bacterial community structure between both soils on day 0, similar genera increased in relative abundance after PAH spiking, especially Sphingomonas and Polaromonas. However, this did not result in an increased overall similarity of the bacterial communities in both soils.

  19. A type VI secretion system is involved in Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterial competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoin, Victorien; Barbey, Corinne; Bergeau, Dorian; Latour, Xavier; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Orange, Nicole; Merieau, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    Protein secretion systems are crucial mediators of bacterial interactions with other organisms. Among them, the type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and appears to inject toxins into competitor bacteria and/or eukaryotic cells. Major human pathogens, such as Vibrio cholerae, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, express T6SSs. Bacteria prevent self-intoxication by their own T6SS toxins by producing immunity proteins, which interact with the cognate toxins. We describe here an environmental P. fluorescens strain, MFE01, displaying an uncommon oversecretion of Hcp (hemolysin-coregulated protein) and VgrG (valine-glycine repeat protein G) into the culture medium. These proteins are characteristic components of a functional T6SS. The aim of this study was to attribute a role to this energy-consuming overexpression of the T6SS. The genome of MFE01 contains at least two hcp genes (hcp1 and hcp2), suggesting that there may be two putative T6SS clusters. Phenotypic studies have shown that MFE01 is avirulent against various eukaryotic cell models (amebas, plant or animal cell models), but has antibacterial activity against a wide range of competitor bacteria, including rhizobacteria and clinical bacteria. Depending on the prey cell, mutagenesis of the hcp2 gene in MFE01 abolishes or reduces this antibacterial killing activity. Moreover, the introduction of T6SS immunity proteins from S. marcescens, which is not killed by MFE01, protects E. coli against MFE01 killing. These findings suggest that the protein encoded by hcp2 is involved in the killing activity of MFE01 mediated by effectors of the T6SS targeting the peptidoglycan of Gram-negative bacteria. Our results indicate that MFE01 can protect potato tubers against Pectobacterium atrosepticum, which causes tuber soft rot. Pseudomonas fluorescens is often described as a major PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium), and our results suggest that there may be a connection between

  20. A type VI secretion system is involved in Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterial competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorien Decoin

    Full Text Available Protein secretion systems are crucial mediators of bacterial interactions with other organisms. Among them, the type VI secretion system (T6SS is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and appears to inject toxins into competitor bacteria and/or eukaryotic cells. Major human pathogens, such as Vibrio cholerae, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, express T6SSs. Bacteria prevent self-intoxication by their own T6SS toxins by producing immunity proteins, which interact with the cognate toxins. We describe here an environmental P. fluorescens strain, MFE01, displaying an uncommon oversecretion of Hcp (hemolysin-coregulated protein and VgrG (valine-glycine repeat protein G into the culture medium. These proteins are characteristic components of a functional T6SS. The aim of this study was to attribute a role to this energy-consuming overexpression of the T6SS. The genome of MFE01 contains at least two hcp genes (hcp1 and hcp2, suggesting that there may be two putative T6SS clusters. Phenotypic studies have shown that MFE01 is avirulent against various eukaryotic cell models (amebas, plant or animal cell models, but has antibacterial activity against a wide range of competitor bacteria, including rhizobacteria and clinical bacteria. Depending on the prey cell, mutagenesis of the hcp2 gene in MFE01 abolishes or reduces this antibacterial killing activity. Moreover, the introduction of T6SS immunity proteins from S. marcescens, which is not killed by MFE01, protects E. coli against MFE01 killing. These findings suggest that the protein encoded by hcp2 is involved in the killing activity of MFE01 mediated by effectors of the T6SS targeting the peptidoglycan of Gram-negative bacteria. Our results indicate that MFE01 can protect potato tubers against Pectobacterium atrosepticum, which causes tuber soft rot. Pseudomonas fluorescens is often described as a major PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, and our results suggest that there may be a

  1. Adjusting the log-Pearson type III function to even-aged eucalyptus stands data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henrique Breda Binoti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of the log-Pearson tipo III function to describe the diameter structure of even-aged stands, and propose a diameter distribution model using the function. The modeling function performed by the log-Pearson tipo III was compared with the modeling performed with the Weibull function. For this we used data from permanent plots of eucalyptus, located in the Midwestern region of Minas Gerais. Adherence to the functions of the data was confirmed by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS. The diameter distribution models used were based on models proposed by Nogueira et al. (2005 and were evaluated in terms of RMSE (% and the correlation coefficient between estimated and observed values. All fitting to the data presented adherence by the KS test. All equations fitted for the recovery of the diameter distribution showed high correlation coefficients and can be used for modeling the diameter distribution of eucalyptus.

  2. Multiplex real-time PCR for detecting and typing Clostridium botulinum group III organisms and their mosaic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Woudstra, Cédric; Fach, Patrick; Fiore, Alfonsina; Skarin, Hanna; Bano, Luca; Segerman, Bo; Knutsson, Rickard; De Medici, Dario

    2013-09-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease that can occur in all warm-blooded animals, birds, and fishes. The disease in animals is mainly caused by toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum strains belonging to group III, although outbreaks due to toxins produced by group I and II organisms have been recognized. Group III strains are capable of producing botulinum toxins of type C, D, and C/D and D/C mosaic variants. Definitive diagnosis of animal botulism is made by combining clinical findings with laboratory investigations. Detection of toxins in clinical specimens and feed is the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis. Since toxins may be degraded by organisms contained in the gastrointestinal tract or may be present at levels below the detection limit, the recovery of C. botulinum from sick animal specimens is consistent for laboratory confirmation. In this article we report the development and in-house validation of a new multiplex real-time PCR for detecting and typing the neurotoxin genes found in C. botulinum group III organisms. Validation procedures have been carried out according to ISO 16140, using strains and samples recovered from cases of animal botulism in Italy and France.

  3. The pathogenicity factor HrpF interacts with HrpA and HrpG to modulate type III secretion system (T3SS) function and t3ss expression in Pseudomonas syringae pv. averrhoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Chiao; Lin, Yuan-Chuen; Wei, Chia-Fong; Deng, Wen-Ling; Huang, Hsiou-Chen

    2016-09-01

    To ensure the optimal infectivity on contact with host cells, pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae has evolved a complex mechanism to control the expression and construction of the functional type III secretion system (T3SS) that serves as a dominant pathogenicity factor. In this study, we showed that the hrpF gene of P. syringae pv. averrhoi, which is located upstream of hrpG, encodes a T3SS-dependent secreted/translocated protein. Mutation of hrpF leads to the loss of bacterial ability on elicitation of disease symptoms in the host and a hypersensitive response in non-host plants, and the secretion or translocation of the tested T3SS substrates into the bacterial milieu or plant cells. Moreover, overexpression of hrpF in the wild-type results in delayed HR and reduced t3ss expression. The results of protein-protein interactions demonstrate that HrpF interacts directly with HrpG and HrpA in vitro and in vivo, and protein stability assays reveal that HrpF assists HrpA stability in the bacterial cytoplasm, which is reduced by a single amino acid substitution at the 67th lysine residue of HrpF with alanine. Taken together, the data presented here suggest that HrpF has two roles in the assembly of a functional T3SS: one by acting as a negative regulator, possibly involved in the HrpSVG regulation circuit via binding to HrpG, and the other by stabilizing HrpA in the bacterial cytoplasm via HrpF-HrpA interaction prior to the secretion and formation of Hrp pilus on the bacterial surface.

  4. Fine specificity and cross-reactions of monoclonal antibodies to group B streptococcal capsular polysaccharide type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pincus, Seth H; Moran, Emily; Maresh, Grace

    2012-01-01

    ) is considered the dominant "protective" immune mediator. Here we study the fine specificity and potential host reactivity of a panel of well-characterized murine monoclonal Abs against the type III CPS by examining the binding of the Abs to intact and neuraminidase-digested GBS, purified CPS, synthetic...... carbohydrate structures, and cells. The results showed marked differences in the fine specificity among these mAbs to a single carbohydrate structure. Cross-reactions with synthetic GD3 and GT3 carbohydrates, representing structures found on surfaces of neural and developing cells, were demonstrated using...... serendipitously demonstrated cross-reactions of some anti-CPS(III) mAbs with antigens, likely carbohydrates, found on human leukocytes. These studies suggest caution in the development of a maternal vaccine to prevent infection by this important human pathogen....

  5. Optical fingerprinting in medical microbiology; Raman spectroscopy as a bacterial typing tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.M. Willemse-Erix (Diana)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBacteria are present everywhere on earth and form a large part of the world’s biomass (41). It has been estimated that there are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells as there are human cells in the body. The majority of bacteria present in or on the body are harmless and many

  6. A human β-III-spectrin spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 mutation causes high-affinity F-actin binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Adam W.; Crain, Jonathan; Thomas, David D.; Hays, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) is a human neurodegenerative disease that stems from mutations in the SPTBN2 gene encoding the protein β-III-spectrin. Here we investigated the molecular consequence of a SCA5 missense mutation that results in a L253P substitution in the actin-binding domain (ABD) of β-III-spectrin. We report that the L253P substitution in the isolated β-III-spectrin ABD causes strikingly high F-actin binding affinity (Kd = 75.5 nM) compared to the weak F-actin binding affinity of the wild-type ABD (Kd = 75.8 μM). The mutation also causes decreased thermal stability (Tm = 44.6 °C vs 59.5 °C). Structural analyses indicate that leucine 253 is in a loop at the interface of the tandem calponin homology (CH) domains comprising the ABD. Leucine 253 is predicted to form hydrophobic contacts that bridge the CH domains. The decreased stability of the mutant indicates that these bridging interactions are probably disrupted, suggesting that the high F-actin binding affinity of the mutant is due to opening of the CH domain interface. These results support a fundamental role for leucine 253 in regulating opening of the CH domain interface and binding of the ABD to F-actin. This study indicates that high-affinity actin binding of L253P β-III-spectrin is a likely driver of neurodegeneration. PMID:26883385

  7. Discovery of plant phenolic compounds that act as type III secretion system inhibitors or inducers of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhani, Devanshi; Zhang, Chengfang; Li, Yan; Wang, Qi; Zeng, Quan; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Hutchins, William; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xin; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2013-09-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes a devastating disease called fire blight in rosaceous plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is one of the important virulence factors utilized by E. amylovora in order to successfully infect its hosts. By using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct combined with a high-throughput flow cytometry assay, a library of phenolic compounds and their derivatives was studied for their ability to alter the expression of the T3SS. Based on the effectiveness of the compounds on the expression of the T3SS pilus, the T3SS inhibitors 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid (TMCA) and benzoic acid (BA) and one T3SS inducer, trans-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethenylsulfonate (EHPES), were chosen for further study. Both the T3SS inhibitors (TMCA and BA) and the T3SS inducer (EHPES) were found to alter the expression of T3SS through the HrpS-HrpL pathway. Additionally, TMCA altered T3SS expression through the rsmBEa-RsmAEa system. Finally, we found that TMCA and BA weakened the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco by suppressing the T3SS of E. amylovora. In our study, we identified phenolic compounds that specifically targeted the T3SS. The T3SS inhibitor may offer an alternative approach to antimicrobial therapy by targeting virulence factors of bacterial pathogens.

  8. Spa13 of Shigella flexneri has a dual role: chaperone escort and export gate-activator switch of the type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherradi, Youness; Hachani, Abderrahman; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) is used by numerous Gram-negative pathogens to inject virulence factors into eukaryotic cells. The Shigella flexneri T3SA spans the bacterial envelope and its assembly requires the products of ~20 mxi and spa genes. Despite progress made in understanding how the T3SA is assembled, the role of several predicted soluble components, such as Spa13, remains elusive. Here, we show that the secretion defect of the spa13 mutant is associated with lack of T3SA assembly which is partly due to the instability of the needle component MxiH. In contrast to its Yersinia counterpart, Spa13 is not a secreted protein. We identified a network of interactions between Spa13 and the ATPase Spa47, the C-ring protein Spa33, and the inner-membrane protein Spa40. Moreover, we revealed a Spa13 interaction with the inner-membrane MxiA and showed that overexpression of the large cytoplasmic domain of MxiA in the WT background shuts off secretion. Lastly, we demonstrated that Spa13 interacts with the cleaved form of Spa40 and with the translocator chaperone IpgC, suggesting that Spa13 intervenes during the secretion hierarchy switch process. Collectively, our results support a dual role of Spa13 as a chaperone escort and as an export gate-activator switch.

  9. A Family of Salmonella Type III Secretion Effector Proteins Selectively Targets the NF-κB Signaling Pathway to Preserve Host Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Kamanova, Jana; Lara-Tejero, Maria; Galán, Jorge E

    2016-03-01

    Microbial infections usually lead to host innate immune responses and inflammation. These responses most often limit pathogen replication although they can also result in host-tissue damage. The enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella Typhimurium utilizes a type III secretion system to induce intestinal inflammation by delivering specific effector proteins that stimulate signal transduction pathways resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We show here that a family of related Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins PipA, GogA and GtgA redundantly target components of the NF-κB signaling pathway to inhibit transcriptional responses leading to inflammation. We show that these effector proteins are proteases that cleave both the RelA (p65) and RelB transcription factors but do not target p100 (NF-κB2) or p105 (NF-κB1). A Salmonella Typhimurium strain lacking these effectors showed increased ability to stimulate NF-κB and increased virulence in an animal model of infection. These results indicate that bacterial pathogens can evolve determinants to preserve host homeostasis and that those determinants can reduce the pathogen's virulence.

  10. A Family of Salmonella Type III Secretion Effector Proteins Selectively Targets the NF-κB Signaling Pathway to Preserve Host Homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial infections usually lead to host innate immune responses and inflammation. These responses most often limit pathogen replication although they can also result in host-tissue damage. The enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella Typhimurium utilizes a type III secretion system to induce intestinal inflammation by delivering specific effector proteins that stimulate signal transduction pathways resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We show here that a family of related Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins PipA, GogA and GtgA redundantly target components of the NF-κB signaling pathway to inhibit transcriptional responses leading to inflammation. We show that these effector proteins are proteases that cleave both the RelA (p65 and RelB transcription factors but do not target p100 (NF-κB2 or p105 (NF-κB1. A Salmonella Typhimurium strain lacking these effectors showed increased ability to stimulate NF-κB and increased virulence in an animal model of infection. These results indicate that bacterial pathogens can evolve determinants to preserve host homeostasis and that those determinants can reduce the pathogen's virulence.

  11. Inhibition of Nuclear Transport of NF-ĸB p65 by the Salmonella Type III Secretion System Effector SpvD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolhion, Nathalie; Furniss, R Christopher D; Grabe, Grzegorz; Ryan, Aindrias; Liu, Mei; Matthews, Sophie A; Holden, David W

    2016-05-01

    Salmonella enterica replicates in macrophages through the action of effector proteins translocated across the vacuolar membrane by a type III secretion system (T3SS). Here we show that the SPI-2 T3SS effector SpvD suppresses proinflammatory immune responses. SpvD prevented activation of an NF-ĸB-dependent promoter and caused nuclear accumulation of importin-α, which is required for nuclear import of p65. SpvD interacted specifically with the exportin Xpo2, which mediates nuclear-cytoplasmic recycling of importins. We propose that interaction between SpvD and Xpo2 disrupts the normal recycling of importin-α from the nucleus, leading to a defect in nuclear translocation of p65 and inhibition of activation of NF-ĸB regulated promoters. SpvD down-regulated pro-inflammatory responses and contributed to systemic growth of bacteria in mice. This work shows that a bacterial pathogen can manipulate host cell immune responses by interfering with the nuclear transport machinery.

  12. Activation of Type I and III Interferon Response by Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal MAVS and Inhibition by Hepatitis C Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Bender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensing viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRR triggers the innate immune system of the host cell and activates immune signaling cascades such as the RIG-I/IRF3 pathway. Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, also known as IPS-1, Cardif, and VISA is the crucial adaptor protein of this pathway localized on mitochondria, peroxisomes and mitochondria-associated membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Activation of MAVS leads to the production of type I and type III interferons (IFN as well as IFN stimulated genes (ISGs. To refine the role of MAVS subcellular localization for the induction of type I and III IFN responses in hepatocytes and its counteraction by the hepatitis C virus (HCV, we generated various functional and genetic knock-out cell systems that were reconstituted to express mitochondrial (mito or peroxisomal (pex MAVS, exclusively. Upon infection with diverse RNA viruses we found that cells exclusively expressing pexMAVS mounted sustained expression of type I and III IFNs to levels comparable to cells exclusively expressing mitoMAVS. To determine whether viral counteraction of MAVS is affected by its subcellular localization we employed infection of cells with HCV, a major causative agent of chronic liver disease with a high propensity to establish persistence. This virus efficiently cleaves MAVS via a viral protease residing in its nonstructural protein 3 (NS3 and this strategy is thought to contribute to the high persistence of this virus. We found that both mito- and pexMAVS were efficiently cleaved by NS3 and this cleavage was required to suppress activation of the IFN response. Taken together, our findings indicate comparable activation of the IFN response by pex- and mitoMAVS in hepatocytes and efficient counteraction of both MAVS species by the HCV NS3 protease.

  13. IM-1662 Attenuates Radiation-Induced Fibroblast Differentiation through Restoration of TGF-beta type III Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sa Rah; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Kim, Mi Hyoung; Lim, Min Jin; Lee, Sae Loom; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institue of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Although pulmonary fibrosis occurs 5-20% of lung cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy, clinically standard treatment for fibrotic disease has not been developed yet. Among fibrosis mediating factors such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), interleukin-13 (IL-13), IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), TGF-beta is considered as a critical mediator in normal wound healing as well as pathological fibrogenic processes. The TGF-beta transmits signals either directly or indirectly through types I, II and III (TbetaRI, II, and III) receptor complexes and activates downstream Smad signaling. The type III TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRIII or betaglycan) is a transmembrane proteoglycan without a functional kinase domain, and is regarded as a co-receptor to increase the affinity of ligand binding to TbetaRII. In addition, TbetaRIII act as a regulator in cell migration, invasion and cell growth in cancer models. However, in contrast to a great number of studies about TGF-beta ligand and TbetaRII signaling, the relationship between TGF-beta and TbetaRIII (or betaglycan) remains largely unknown. In this study, we searched for a new compound which inhibited TGF-beta responses using cell-based chemical screening and investigated the effects of the novel compound on radiation induced myofibroblast differentiation. We suggest that a novel small molecule, pyrazolopyrimidine compound IM-1662, can act as an anti-fibrotic agent through inhibiting expression of TGF-beta receptor type I and type II whereas, preserving the levels of TbetaRIII which seems to act as a negative regulator in TGF-beta signaling

  14. Structural and kinetic characterization of guinea pig L-asparaginase type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Amanda M; Lavie, Arnon

    2014-04-15

    We investigated whether an uncharacterized protein from guinea pig could be the enzyme behind Kidd's serendipitous discovery, made over 60 years ago, that guinea pig serum has cell killing ability. It has been long known that an enzyme with l-asparaginase activity is responsible for cell killing, although astonishingly, its identity remains unclear. Bacterial asparaginases with similar cell killing properties have since become a mainstay therapy of certain cancers such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia. By hydrolyzing asparagine to aspartate and ammonia, these drugs deplete the asparagine present in the blood, killing cancer cells that rely on extracellular asparagine uptake for survival. However, bacterial asparaginases can elicit an adverse immune response. We propose that replacement of bacterial enzymes with the guinea pig asparaginase responsible for serum activity, by its virtue of being more closely related to human enzymes, will be less immunogenic. To this goal, we investigated whether an uncharacterized protein from guinea pig with putative asparaginase activity, which we call gpASNase3, could be that enzyme. We examined its self-activation process (gpASNase3 requires autocleavage to become active), kinetically characterized it for asparaginase and β-aspartyl dipeptidase activity, and elucidated its crystal structure in both the uncleaved and cleaved states. This work reveals that gpASNase3 is not the enzyme responsible for the antitumor effects of guinea pig serum. It exhibits a low affinity for asparagine as measured by a high Michaelis constant, KM, in the millimolar range, in contrast to the low KM (micromolar range) required for asparaginase to be effective as an anticancer agent.

  15. Fate of a Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi type III secretion system mutant in olive plants (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Lambertsen, Lotte; Matas, Isabel M; Murillo, Jesús; Tegli, Stefania; Jiménez, Antonio J; Ramos, Cayo

    2010-06-01

    Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strain NCPPB 3335 is a model bacterial pathogen for studying the molecular basis of disease production in woody hosts. We report the sequencing of the hrpS-to-hrpZ region of NCPPB 3335, which has allowed us to determine the phylogenetic position of this pathogen with respect to previously sequenced Pseudomonas syringae hrp clusters. In addition, we constructed a mutant of NCPPB 3335, termed T3, which carries a deletion from the 3' end of the hrpS gene to the 5' end of the hrpZ operon. Despite its inability to multiply in olive tissues and to induce tumor formation in woody olive plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 can induce knot formation on young micropropagated olive plants. However, the necrosis and formation of internal open cavities previously reported in knots induced by the wild-type strain were not observed in those induced by P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3. Tagging of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) allowed real-time monitoring of its behavior on olive plants. In olive plant tissues, the wild-type strain formed aggregates that colonized the intercellular spaces and internal cavities of the hypertrophic knots, while the mutant T3 strain showed a disorganized distribution within the parenchyma of the knot. Ultrastructural analysis of knot sections revealed the release of extensive outer membrane vesicles from the bacterial cell surface of the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 mutant, while the wild-type strain exhibited very few vesicles. This phenomenon has not been described before for any other bacterial phytopathogen during host infection.

  16. Differential expression of type III effector BteA protein due to IS481 insertion in Bordetella pertussis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ja Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis is the primary etiologic agent of the disease pertussis. Universal immunization programs have contributed to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality of pertussis; however, incidence of the disease, especially in adolescents and adults, has increased in several countries despite high vaccination coverage. During the last three decades, strains of Bordetella pertussis in circulation have shifted from the vaccine-type to the nonvaccine-type in many countries. A comparative proteomic analysis of the strains was performed to identify protein(s involved in the type shift. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Proteomic analysis identified one differentially expressed protein in the B. pertussis strains: the type III cytotoxic effector protein BteA, which is responsible for host cell death in Bordetella bronchiseptica infections. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the prominent expression of BteA protein in the nonvaccine-type strains but not in the vaccine-type strains. Sequence analysis of the vaccine-type strains revealed an IS481 insertion in the 5' untranslated region of bteA, -136 bp upstream of the bteA start codon. A high level of bteA transcripts from the IS481 promoter was detected in the vaccine-type strains, indicating that the transcript might be an untranslatable form. Furthermore, BteA mutant studies demonstrated that BteA expression in the vaccine-type strains is down-regulated by the IS481 insertion. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The cytotoxic effector BteA protein is expressed at higher levels in B. pertussis nonvaccine-type strains than in vaccine-type strains. This type-dependent expression is due to an insertion of IS481 in B. pertussis clinical strains, suggesting that augmented expression of BteA protein might play a key role in the type shift of B. pertussis.

  17. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial gastroenteritis is present when bacteria cause an infection of the stomach and intestines ... has not been treated Many different types of bacteria can cause ... Campylobacter jejuni E coli Salmonella Shigella Staphylococcus ...

  18. Training improves oxidative capacity, but not function, in spinal muscular atrophy type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karen Lindhardt; Hansen, Regitze Sølling; Preisler, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    a 12-week training program, performing 42 30-minute sessions exercising at 65-70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). VO2max , muscle strength, functional tests, and self-reported activities of daily living were assessed before and after the training. RESULTS: Training induced a 27 ± 3% increase in VO2......max (17 ± 2 to 21 ± 2 ml/kg/min, P VO2max in SMA III without causing muscle...

  19. Kubas-type hydrogen storage in V(III) polymers using tri- and tetradentate bridging ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tuan K A; Hamaed, Ahmad; Moula, Golam; Aroca, Ricardo; Trudeau, Michel; Antonelli, David M

    2011-04-01

    Oxalic acid, oxamide, glycolic acid, and glycolamide were employed as 2-carbon linkers to synthesize a series of one-dimensional V(III) polymers from trismesityl vanadium(III)·THF containing a high concentration of low-valent metal sites that can be exploited for Kubas binding in hydrogen storage. Synthesized materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), nitrogen adsorption (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis. Because each of these organic linkers possesses a different number of protons and coordinating atoms, the products in each case were expected to have different stoichiometries with respect to the number of mesityl groups eliminated and also a different geometry about the V(III) centers. For example, the oxalate and glycolate polymers contained residual mesityl groups; however, these could be exchanged with hydride via hydrogenolysis. The highest adsorption capacity was recorded on the product of trismesityl vanadium(III)·THF with oxamide (3.49 wt % at 77 K and 85 bar). As suggested by the high enthalpy of adsorption (17.9 kJ/mol H(2)), a substantial degree of performance of the vanadium metal centers was retained at room temperature (25%), corresponding to a gravimetric adsorption of 0.87 wt % at 85 bar, close to the performance of MOF-177 at this temperature and pressure. This is remarkable given the BET surface area of this material is only 9 m(2)/g. A calculation on the basis of thermogravimetric results provides 0.88 hydrogen molecule per vanadium center under these conditions. Raman studies with H(2) and D(2) showed the first unequivocal evidence for Kubas binding on a framework metal in an extended solid, and IR studies demonstrated H(D) exchange of the vanadium hydride with coordinated D(2). These spectroscopic observations are sufficient to assign the rising trends in isosteric heats of hydrogen adsorption observed

  20. [Medium-term outcome, follow-up, and quality of life in children treated for type III esophageal atresia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeytre, C; De Lagausie, P; Merrot, T; Baumstarck, K; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the medium-term outcome (health status, medical and surgical French National Health Authority-recommended follow-up, and quality of life) of children born with type III esophageal atresia (EA). Previous events (during the perinatal period, associated abnormalities, respiratory and digestive complications) of children treated for type III EA at the Marseille university hospitals between 1999 and 2009 were noted. Parents completed a standardized questionnaire concerning the health of their children during the previous year, and a quality-of-life questionnaire (PedsQL 4.0) was also completed by children aged more than 8 years. Among the 68 children treated, 44 responded to our solicitation (mean age, 7.6 years; range, 3-12.8 years). Previous important events were : pneumonia(s) (65%), asthma before the age of 3 years (66%), hospitalization for a respiratory event (45%), fundoplication (20%), and esophageal dilatation (45%). We noted current chronic cough (16%), asthma (30%), dysphagia (39%), and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (9%). National guidelines were not respected, except for the surgical indications in children aged less than 6 years. The quality-of-life scores (n=43 children) were similar to healthy controls but were negatively influenced by a gastrostomy procedure (P=0.020), pneumonia (P=0.013), and hospitalization due to a respiratory event (P=0.006) or a digestive event (P=0.010), and also by current asthma (P=0.004). In conclusion, despite recurrent respiratory or digestive symptoms and inadequate recommended follow-up, the quality of life of children treated for type III of EA is good.

  1. Accurate prediction of secreted substrates and identification of a conserved putative secretion signal for type III secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Samudrala

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system is an essential component for virulence in many Gram-negative bacteria. Though components of the secretion system apparatus are conserved, its substrates--effector proteins--are not. We have used a novel computational approach to confidently identify new secreted effectors by integrating protein sequence-based features, including evolutionary measures such as the pattern of homologs in a range of other organisms, G+C content, amino acid composition, and the N-terminal 30 residues of the protein sequence. The method was trained on known effectors from the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and validated on a set of effectors from the animal pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium after eliminating effectors with detectable sequence similarity. We show that this approach can predict known secreted effectors with high specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, by considering a large set of effectors from multiple organisms, we computationally identify a common putative secretion signal in the N-terminal 20 residues of secreted effectors. This signal can be used to discriminate 46 out of 68 total known effectors from both organisms, suggesting that it is a real, shared signal applicable to many type III secreted effectors. We use the method to make novel predictions of secreted effectors in S. Typhimurium, some of which have been experimentally validated. We also apply the method to predict secreted effectors in the genetically intractable human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, identifying the majority of known secreted proteins in addition to providing a number of novel predictions. This approach provides a new way to identify secreted effectors in a broad range of pathogenic bacteria for further experimental characterization and provides insight into the nature of the type III secretion signal.

  2. Accurate prediction of secreted substrates and identification of a conserved putative secretion signal for type III secretion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samudrala, Ram; Heffron, Fred; McDermott, Jason E.

    2009-04-24

    The type III secretion system is an essential component for virulence in many Gram-negative bacteria. Though components of the secretion system apparatus are conserved, its substrates, effector proteins, are not. We have used a machine learning approach to identify new secreted effectors. The method integrates evolutionary measures, such as the pattern of homologs in a range of other organisms, and sequence-based features, such as G+C content, amino acid composition and the N-terminal 30 residues of the protein sequence. The method was trained on known effectors from Salmonella typhimurium and validated on a corresponding set of effectors from Pseudomonas syringae, after eliminating effectors with detectable sequence similarity. The method was able to identify all of the known effectors in P. syringae with a specificity of 84% and sensitivity of 82%. The reciprocal validation, training on P. syringae and validating on S. typhimurium, gave similar results with a specificity of 86% when the sensitivity level was 87%. These results show that type III effectors in disparate organisms share common features. We found that maximal performance is attained by including an N-terminal sequence of only 30 residues, which agrees with previous studies indicating that this region contains the secretion signal. We then used the method to define the most important residues in this putative secretion signal. Finally, we present novel predictions of secreted effectors in S. typhimurium, some of which have been experimentally validated, and apply the method to predict secreted effectors in the genetically intractable human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. This approach is a novel and effective way to identify secreted effectors in a broad range of pathogenic bacteria for further experimental characterization and provides insight into the nature of the type III secretion signal.

  3. Deep vein thrombosis, an unreported first manifestation of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Horsey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman with severe right lower leg pain, edema and erythema was presented to the Emergency Department and was found to have an extensive deep vein thrombosis (DVT confirmed by ultrasound. She underwent an extensive evaluation due to her prior history of malignancy and new hypercoagulable state, but no evidence of recurrent disease was detected. Further investigation revealed pernicious anemia (PA, confirmed by the presence of a macrocytic anemia (MCV=115.8fL/red cell, Hgb=9.0g/dL, decreased serum B12 levels (56pg/mL, with resultant increased methylmalonic acid (5303nmol/L and hyperhomocysteinemia (131μmol/L, the presumed etiology of the DVT. The patient also suffered from autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD, and both antithyroglobulin and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were detected. She responded briskly to anticoagulation with heparin and coumadin and treatment of PA with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections. Our case suggests that a DVT secondary to hyperhomocystenemia may represent the first sign of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III-B (PAS III-B, defined as the coexistent autoimmune conditions AITD and PA. It is important to recognize this clinical entity, as patients may not only require acute treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation and prolonged anticoagulation, as in this patient, but may also harbor other autoimmune diseases.

  4. Crystal structures of type III{sub H} NAD-dependent D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from two thermophiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Pampa, K.J. [Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Manjula, M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Hemantha Kumar, G. [Department of Studies in Computer Science, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Kunishima, Naoki [Advanced Protein Crystallography Research Group, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Lokanath, N.K., E-mail: lokanath@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Determined the crystal structures of PGDH from two thermophiles. • Monomer is composed of nucleotide binding domain and substrate binding domain. • Crystal structures of type III{sub H} PGDH. - Abstract: In the L-Serine biosynthesis, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) catalyzes the inter-conversion of D-3-phosphoglycerate to phosphohydroxypyruvate. PGDH belongs to 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases family. We have determined the crystal structures of PGDH from Sulfolobus tokodaii (StPGDH) and Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhPGDH) using X-ray diffraction to resolution of 1.77 Å and 1.95 Å, respectively. The PGDH protomer from both species exhibits identical structures, consisting of substrate binding domain and nucleotide binding domain. The residues and water molecules interacting with the NAD are identified. The catalytic triad residues Glu-His-Arg are highly conserved. The residues involved in the dimer interface and the structural features responsible for thermostability are evaluated. Overall, structures of PGDHs with two domains and histidine at the active site are categorized as type III{sub H} and such PGDHs structures having this type are reported for the first time.

  5. Two-Higgs-Doublet type-II and -III models and $t\\to c h$ at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Arhrib, A; Chen, Chuan-Hung; Gomez-Bock, M; Semlali, S

    2015-01-01

    Based on the updated $8$ TeV LHC data for the Higgs searches, we study the constraints of generic two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) type-III and the impacts of the new Yukawa couplings. For comparisons, we revisit the analysis in 2HDM type-II. For understanding the influence of all involving free parameters and realizing their correlations, we employ $\\chi$-square fitting approach by including theoretical and experimental constraints, such as $B\\to X_s \\gamma$, $B_q-\\bar B_q$ mixing, S, T and U oblique parameters, the production of standard model Higgs and its decay to $\\gamma\\gamma$, $WW^*/ZZ^*$, $\\tau^+ \\tau^-$, etc. The errors of analysis are taken at $68\\%$, $95.5\\%$ and $99.7\\%$ confidence level. Due to the new Yukawa couplings being associated with $\\cos(\\alpha-\\beta)$ and $\\sin(\\alpha-\\beta)$, we find that the allowed regions for $\\sin\\alpha$ and $\\tan\\beta$ in type-III could be broader when the dictated parameter $\\chi_F$ is positive; however, for negative $\\chi_F$, the limits are more strict than those ...

  6. Stochastic gradient boosting classification trees for forest fuel types mapping through airborne laser scanning and IRS LISS-III imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirici, G.; Scotti, R.; Montaghi, A.; Barbati, A.; Cartisano, R.; Lopez, G.; Marchetti, M.; McRoberts, R. E.; Olsson, H.; Corona, P.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents an application of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data in conjunction with an IRS LISS-III image for mapping forest fuel types. For two study areas of 165 km2 and 487 km2 in Sicily (Italy), 16,761 plots of size 30-m × 30-m were distributed using a tessellation-based stratified sampling scheme. ALS metrics and spectral signatures from IRS extracted for each plot were used as predictors to classify forest fuel types observed and identified by photointerpretation and fieldwork. Following use of traditional parametric methods that produced unsatisfactory results, three non-parametric classification approaches were tested: (i) classification and regression tree (CART), (ii) the CART bagging method called Random Forests, and (iii) the CART bagging/boosting stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) approach. This contribution summarizes previous experiences using ALS data for estimating forest variables useful for fire management in general and for fuel type mapping, in particular. It summarizes characteristics of classification and regression trees, presents the pre-processing operation, the classification algorithms, and the achieved results. The results demonstrated superiority of the SGB method with overall accuracy of 84%. The most relevant ALS metric was canopy cover, defined as the percent of non-ground returns. Other relevant metrics included the spectral information from IRS and several other ALS metrics such as percentiles of the height distribution, the mean height of all returns, and the number of returns.

  7. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  8. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    Full Text Available Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB, mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all

  9. Progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion in a baby with Saethre-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We report on a 3-months old baby of Austrian origin and product of non-consanguineous parents. Abnormal craniofacial contour was the main deformity. The overall clinico-radiographic features were consistent with Saether-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome. Bi-directional sequencing of the exon 8 and of the FGFR3-genes, exons 7 of FGFR3 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor3) genes, the exon 5 of the FGFR1 gene, revealed no mutations. Sagittal MRI imaging of the spine showed anterior ...

  10. H-1 and N-15 resonance assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiselyov, Vladislav V; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth;

    2008-01-01

    We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region...... of the module. The FG-loop region also contains a putative nucleotide-binding motif, which was shown by NMR to interact with ATP. Furthermore, ATP was demonstrated to inhibit binding of the second F3 module of NCAM to FGFR....

  11. Arabidopsis HFR1 Is a Potential Nuclear Substrate Regulated by the Xanthomonas Type III Effector XopD Xcc8004

    OpenAIRE

    Choon Meng Tan; Meng-Ying Li; Pei-Yun Yang; Shu Heng Chang; Yi-Ping Ho; Hong Lin; Wen-Ling Deng; Jun-Yi Yang

    2015-01-01

    XopD Xcc8004, a type III effector of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) 8004, is considered a shorter version of the XopD, which lacks the N-terminal domain. To understand the functions of XopD Xcc8004, in planta, a transgenic approach combined with inducible promoter to analyze the effects of XopD Xcc8004 in Arabidopsis was done. Here, the expression of XopD Xcc8004, in Arabidopsis elicited the accumulation of host defense-response genes. These molecular changes were dependent on sa...

  12. Self-assembly synthesis, structural features, and photophysical properties of dilanthanide complexes derived from a novel amide type ligand: energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) in a heterodinuclear derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cunji; Kirillov, Alexander M; Dou, Wei; Tang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Liangliang; Yan, Xuhuan; Xie, Yujie; Zang, Peixian; Liu, Weisheng; Tang, Yu

    2014-01-21

    A novel amide type ligand benzyl-N,N-bis[(2'-furfurylaminoformyl)phenoxyl)ethyl]-amine (L) has been designed and applied for the self-assembly generation of homodinuclear lanthanide coordination compounds [Ln2(μ2-L)2(NO3)6(EtOH)2] [Ln = Eu (1), Tb (2), and Gd (3)] and a heterodinuclear derivative [EuTb(μ2-L)2(NO3)6(EtOH)2] (4). All the complexes have been characterized by the X-ray single-crystal diffraction analyses. They are isostructural, crystallize in a monoclinic space group P21/c, and form [2 + 2] rectangular macrocycle structures. Compound 4 is the first example of a [2 + 2] rectangular macrocycle heterodinuclear EuTb complex assembled from an amide type ligand. In 4, the discrete 0D dimeric [EuTb(μ2-L)2(NO3)6(EtOH)2] units are extended, via the multiple N-H···O hydrogen bonds, into a 2D supramolecular network that has been topologically classified as a uninodal 4-connected underlying net with the sql [Shubnikov tetragonal plane net] topology. The triplet state ((3)ππ*) of L studied by the Gd(III) complex 3 demonstrated that the ligand beautifully populates Tb(III) emission (Φ = 52%), whereas the corresponding Eu(III) derivative 1 shows weak luminescence efficiency (Φ = 0.7%) because the triplet state of L has a poor match with (5)D1 energy level of Eu(III). Furthermore, the photoluminescent properties of heterodinuclear complex 4 have been compared with those of the analogous homodinuclear compounds. The quantum yield and lifetime measurements prove that energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) is being achieved, namely, that the Tb(III) center is also acting to sensitize the Eu(III) and enhancing Eu(III) emission in 4.

  13. The matlockite-type praseodymium(III oxide bromide PrOBr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Talmon-Gros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the praseodymium(III oxide bromide, PrOBr, can be best described with layers of agglomerated square antiprisms [PrO4Br4]9−. These slabs are stacked along the c axis and linked via two different secondary contacts between Pr3+ and Br−. The Pr3+ cations occupy the Wyckoff site 2c with 4mm symmetry and carry four O2− anions as well as four primary Br− anions, yielding a coordination number of 8. While the Br− anions exhibit the same site symmetry as the Pr3+ cations, the oxide anions are located at the Wyckoff position 2a with site symmetry overline{4}m2 and have four Pr3+ cations as neighbours, defining a tetrahedron.

  14. Design guide for Category III reactors: pool type reactors. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynda, W J; Lobner, P R; Powell, R W; Straker, E A

    1978-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) in the ERDA Manual requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirement of Category III reactor structures, components, and systems.

  15. Deep vein thrombosis, an unreported first manifestation of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, P; Oliver, T

    2016-01-01

    Summary A 71-year-old woman with severe right lower leg pain, edema and erythema was presented to the Emergency Department and was found to have an extensive deep vein thrombosis (DVT) confirmed by ultrasound. She underwent an extensive evaluation due to her prior history of malignancy and new hypercoagulable state, but no evidence of recurrent disease was detected. Further investigation revealed pernicious anemia (PA), confirmed by the presence of a macrocytic anemia (MCV=115.8fL/red cell, Hgb=9.0g/dL), decreased serum B12 levels (56pg/mL), with resultant increased methylmalonic acid (5303nmol/L) and hyperhomocysteinemia (131μmol/L), the presumed etiology of the DVT. The patient also suffered from autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), and both antithyroglobulin and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were detected. She responded briskly to anticoagulation with heparin and coumadin and treatment of PA with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections. Our case suggests that a DVT secondary to hyperhomocystenemia may represent the first sign of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III-B (PAS III-B), defined as the coexistent autoimmune conditions AITD and PA. It is important to recognize this clinical entity, as patients may not only require acute treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation and prolonged anticoagulation, as in this patient, but may also harbor other autoimmune diseases. Learning points A DVT can be the first physical manifestation of a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. Hyperhomocysteinemia secondary to pernicious anemia should be considered as an etiology of an unprovoked DVT in a euthyroid patient with autoimmune thyroid disease. Patients with DVT secondary to hyperhomocysteinemia should undergo screening for the presence of co-existent autoimmune diseases in addition to treatment with B12 supplementation and anticoagulation to prevent recurrent thromboembolism. PMID:27482386

  16. Salmonella type III effector SpvC, a phosphothreonine lyase, contributes to reduction in inflammatory response during intestinal phase of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneda, Takeshi; Ishii, Yuta; Shimizu, Hiromichi; Ohshima, Keiko; Iida, Naoyuki; Danbara, Hirofumi; Okada, Nobuhiko

    2012-04-01

    Salmonella phosphothreonine lyase SpvC inactivates the dual-phosphorylated host mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) through β-elimination. While SpvC can be secreted in vitro by both Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2 type III secretion systems (T3SSs), translocation of this protein into the host cell cytosol has only been demonstrated by SPI-2 T3SS. In this study, we show that SpvC can be delivered into the host cell cytoplasm by both SPI-1 and SPI-2 T3SSs. Dephosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) was detected in an SPI-1 T3SS-dependent manner 2 h post infection. Using a mouse model for Salmonella enterocolitis, which was treated with streptomycin prior to infection, we observed that mice infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains lacking the spvC gene showed pronounced colitis when compared with mice infected with the wild-type strain 1 day after infection. The effect of SpvC on the development of colitis was characterized by reduced mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and reduced inflammation with less infiltration of neutrophils. Furthermore, the reduction in inflammation by SpvC resulted in increased bacterial dissemination in spleen of mice infected with Salmonella. Collectively, our findings suggest that SpvC exerts as an anti-inflammatory effector and the attenuation of intestinal inflammatory response by SpvC is involved in systemic infection of Salmonella.

  17. The Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato type III effector HopM1 suppresses Arabidopsis defenses independent of suppressing salicylic acid signaling and of targeting AtMIN7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Gangadharan

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000 (Pto delivers several effector proteins promoting virulence, including HopM1, into plant cells via type III secretion. HopM1 contributes to full virulence of Pto by inducing degradation of Arabidopsis proteins, including AtMIN7, an ADP ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola strain NPS3121 (Pph lacks a functional HopM1 and elicits robust defenses in Arabidopsis thaliana, including accumulation of pathogenesis related 1 (PR-1 protein and deposition of callose-containing cell wall fortifications. We have examined the effects of heterologously expressed HopM1Pto on Pph-induced defenses. HopM1 suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression, a widely used marker for salicylic acid (SA signaling and systemic acquired resistance. Surprisingly, HopM1 reduces PR-1 expression without affecting SA accumulation and also suppresses the low levels of PR-1 expression apparent in SA-signaling deficient plants. Further, HopM1 enhances the growth of Pto in SA-signaling deficient plants. AtMIN7 contributes to Pph-induced PR-1 expression. However, HopM1 fails to degrade AtMIN7 during Pph infection and suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression and callose deposition in wild-type and atmin7 plants. We also show that the HopM1-mediated suppression of PR-1 expression is not observed in plants lacking the TGA transcription factor, TGA3. Our data indicate that HopM1 promotes bacterial virulence independent of suppressing SA-signaling and links TGA3, AtMIN7, and other HopM1 targets to pathways distinct from the canonical SA-signaling pathway contributing to PR-1 expression and callose deposition. Thus, efforts to understand this key effector must consider multiple targets and unexpected outputs of its action.

  18. Crystal structure of the Csm3-Csm4 subcomplex in the type III-A CRISPR-Cas interference complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Tomoyuki; Inanaga, Hideko; Sato, Chikara; Osawa, Takuo

    2015-01-30

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci play a pivotal role in the prokaryotic host defense system against invading genetic materials. The CRISPR loci are transcribed to produce CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), which form interference complexes with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to target the invading nucleic acid for degradation. The interference complex of the type III-A CRISPR-Cas system is composed of five Cas proteins (Csm1-Csm5) and a crRNA, and targets invading DNA. Here, we show that the Csm1, Csm3, and Csm4 proteins from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii form a stable subcomplex. We also report the crystal structure of the M. jannaschii Csm3-Csm4 subcomplex at 3.1Å resolution. The complex structure revealed the presence of a basic concave surface around their interface, suggesting the RNA and/or DNA binding ability of the complex. A gel retardation analysis showed that the Csm3-Csm4 complex binds single-stranded RNA in a non-sequence-specific manner. Csm4 structurally resembles Cmr3, a component of the type III-B CRISPR-Cas interference complex. Based on bioinformatics, we constructed a model structure of the Csm1-Csm4-Csm3 ternary complex, which provides insights into its role in the Csm interference complex.

  19. Re-evaluating the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis during initiation of DNA sliding by Type III restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Júlia; Bollins, Jack; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2015-12-15

    DNA cleavage by the Type III restriction enzymes requires long-range protein communication between recognition sites facilitated by thermally-driven 1D diffusion. This 'DNA sliding' is initiated by hydrolysis of multiple ATPs catalysed by a helicase-like domain. Two distinct ATPase phases were observed using short oligoduplex substrates; the rapid consumption of ∼10 ATPs coupled to a protein conformation switch followed by a slower phase, the duration of which was dictated by the rate of dissociation from the recognition site. Here, we show that the second ATPase phase is both variable and only observable when DNA ends are proximal to the recognition site. On DNA with sites more distant from the ends, a single ATPase phase coupled to the conformation switch was observed and subsequent site dissociation required little or no further ATP hydrolysis. The overall DNA dissociation kinetics (encompassing site release, DNA sliding and escape via a DNA end) were not influenced by the second phase. Although the data simplifies the ATP hydrolysis scheme for Type III restriction enzymes, questions remain as to why multiple ATPs are hydrolysed to prepare for DNA sliding.

  20. Dissociation from DNA of Type III Restriction-Modification enzymes during helicase-dependent motion and following endonuclease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Júlia; van Aelst, Kara; Salmons, Hannah; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2012-08-01

    DNA cleavage by the Type III Restriction-Modification (RM) enzymes requires the binding of a pair of RM enzymes at two distant, inversely orientated recognition sequences followed by helicase-catalysed ATP hydrolysis and long-range communication. Here we addressed the dissociation from DNA of these enzymes at two stages: during long-range communication and following DNA cleavage. First, we demonstrated that a communicating species can be trapped in a DNA domain without a recognition site, with a non-specific DNA association lifetime of ∼ 200 s. If free DNA ends were present the lifetime became too short to measure, confirming that ends accelerate dissociation. Secondly, we observed that Type III RM enzymes can dissociate upon DNA cleavage and go on to cleave further DNA molecules (they can 'turnover', albeit inefficiently). The relationship between the observed cleavage rate and enzyme concentration indicated independent binding of each site and a requirement for simultaneous interaction of at least two enzymes per DNA to achieve cleavage. In light of various mechanisms for helicase-driven motion on DNA, we suggest these results are most consistent with a thermally driven random 1D search model (i.e. 'DNA sliding').

  1. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: II. Initiation-promotion assay of Type III built-up roofing asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James J; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Beazley, S; Burnett, Donald M; Clark, Charles R; Mahagaokar, Suneeta; Parker, Craig M; Stewart, Christopher W; Swanson, Mark S; Arp, Earl W

    2011-10-01

    Clark et al. (accepted for publication) reported that a sample of field-matched fume condensate from a Type III built-up roofing asphalt (BURA) resulted in a carcinogenic response in a mouse skin bioassay, with relatively few tumor-bearing animals, long tumor latency and chronic skin irritation. This mouse skin initiation/promotion study was conducted to assess possible mechanisms, i.e., genotoxic initiation vs. tumor promotion subsequent to repeated skin injury and repair. The same Type III BURA fume condensate sample was evaluated in groups of 30 male Crl:CD1® mice by skin application twice per week (total dose of 50 mg/week) for 2 weeks during the initiation phase and for 26 weeks during the promotion phase. Positive control substances were 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA, 50 μg applied once) as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA, 5 μg, applied twice weekly) during the promotion phase. During the 6 months of study with the asphalt fume condensate, eight skin masses were observed when tested for initiation, five of which were confirmed microscopically to be benign squamous cell papillomas. Only two papillomas were observed when tested for promotion. There was no apparent relationship between skin irritation and tumor development in this study. These results are more indicative of genotoxicity rather than a non-genotoxic mode of action.

  2. Functional insights into the Shigella type III needle tip IpaD in secretion control and cell contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavolin, Lionel; Meghraoui, Alaeddine; Cherradi, Youness; Biskri, Latéfa; Botteaux, Anne; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2013-04-01

    Type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) are complex nanomachines that insert a translocation pore into the host cell membrane through which effector proteins are injected into the cytosol. In Shigella, the pore is inserted by a needle tip complex that also controls secretion. IpaD is the key protein that rules the composition of the tip complex before and upon cell contact or Congo red (CR) induction. However, how IpaD is involved in secretion control and translocon insertion remains not fully understood. Here, we report the phenotypic analysis of 20 10-amino acids deletion variants all along the coiled-coil and the central domains of IpaD (residues 131-332). Our results highlight three classes of T3S phenotype; (i) wild-type secretion, (ii) constitutive secretion of all classes of effectors, and (iii) constitutive secretion of translocators and early effectors, but not of late effectors. Our data also suggest that the composition of the tip complex defines both the T3SA inducibility state and late effectors secretion. Finally, we shed light on a new aspect regarding the contact of the needle tip with cell membrane by uncoupling the Shigella abilities to escape macrophage vacuole, and to insert the translocation pore or to invade non-phagocytic cells.

  3. Clonal structure of Trypanosoma cruzi Colombian strain (biodeme Type III: biological, isoenzymic and histopathological analysis of seven isolated clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camandaroba Edson Luiz Paes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The clonal structure of the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, biodeme Type III and zymodeme 1, was analyzed in order to characterize its populations and to establish its homogeneity or heterogeneity. Seven isolated clones presented the basic characteristics of Biodeme Type III, with the same patterns of parasitemic curves, tissue tropism to skeletal muscle and myocardium, high pathogenicity with extensive necrotic-inflammatory lesions from the 20th to 30th day of infection. The parental strain and its clones C1, C3, C4 and C6, determined the higher levels of parasitemia, 20 to 30 days of infection, with high mortality rate up to 30 days (79 to 100%; clones C2, C5 and C7 presented lower levels of parasitemia, with low mortality rates (7.6 to 23%. Isoenzymic patterns, characteristic of zymodeme 1, (Z1 were similar for the parental strain and its seven clones. Results point to a phenotypic homogeneity of the clones isolated from the Colombian strain and suggest the predominance of a principal clone, responsible for the biological behavior of the parental strain and clones.

  4. Axonal Type III Nrg1 Controls Glutamate Synapse Formation and GluA2 Trafficking in Hippocampal-Accumbens Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmentin, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Altered neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)/ErbB signaling and glutamatergic hypofunction have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Here, we employed gene chimeric ventral hippocampus (vHipp)-nucleus accumbens (nAcc) coculture from mouse, electrophysiology, immunocytochemistry, FM1-43 vesicle fusion, and electron microscopy techniques to examine the pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms of genetic deficits in Nrg1/ErbB signaling-induced glutamatergic dysfunctions. Reduced presynaptic type III Nrg1 expression along vHipp axons decreases the number of glutamate synapses and impairs GluA2 trafficking in the postsynaptic nAcc neurons, resulting in decreased frequency and amplitude of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs). Reduced expression of axonal type III Nrg1 along vHipp projections also decreases functional synaptic vesicle (SV) clustering and vesicular trafficking to presynaptic vHipp axonal terminals. These findings suggest that Nrg1/ErbB signaling modulate glutamatergic transmission via both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. PMID:28275713

  5. Function of FlhB, a Membrane Protein Implicated in the Bacterial Flagellar Type III Secretion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshcheryakov, Vladimir A.; Barker, Clive S.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2013-01-01

    The membrane protein FlhB is a highly conserved component of the flagellar secretion system, and it plays an active role in the regulation of protein export. In this study conserved properties of FlhB that are important for its function were investigated. Replacing the flhB gene (or part of the gene) in Salmonella typhimurium with the flhB gene of the distantly related bacterium Aquifex aeolicus greatly reduces motility. However, motility can be restored to some extent by spontaneous mutations in the part of flhB gene coding for the cytoplasmic domain of Aquifex FlhB. Structural analysis suggests that these mutations destabilize the structure. The secondary structure and stability of the mutated cytoplasmic fragments of FlhB have been studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results suggest that conformational flexibility could be important for FlhB function. An extragenic suppressor mutation in the fliS gene, which decreases the affinity of FliS to FliC, partially restores motility of the FlhB substitution mutants. PMID:23874605

  6. Function of FlhB, a membrane protein implicated in the bacterial flagellar type III secretion system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A Meshcheryakov

    Full Text Available The membrane protein FlhB is a highly conserved component of the flagellar secretion system, and it plays an active role in the regulation of protein export. In this study conserved properties of FlhB that are important for its function were investigated. Replacing the flhB gene (or part of the gene in Salmonella typhimurium with the flhB gene of the distantly related bacterium Aquifex aeolicus greatly reduces motility. However, motility can be restored to some extent by spontaneous mutations in the part of flhB gene coding for the cytoplasmic domain of Aquifex FlhB. Structural analysis suggests that these mutations destabilize the structure. The secondary structure and stability of the mutated cytoplasmic fragments of FlhB have been studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results suggest that conformational flexibility could be important for FlhB function. An extragenic suppressor mutation in the fliS gene, which decreases the affinity of FliS to FliC, partially restores motility of the FlhB substitution mutants.

  7. IgG kappa monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance presenting as acquired type III Von Willebrand syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christin R; Lin, Tara L; Cunningham, Mark T; Lipe, Brea C

    2014-09-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder associated with hematoproliferative disorders, autoimmune conditions, neoplasia and cardiovascular disorders that often present a diagnostic challenge. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is one of the most common causes of AVWS that typically presents later in life with mucocutaneous or postsurgical bleeding and multimers consistent with type I or II von Willebrand disease (VWD). Here, we present the case of a patient with a 32-year history of type III VWD that was ultimately found to be AVWS related to an IgG MGUS. In this case report, we highlight the diagnostic challenges of AVWS to ensure proper identification and potentially lifesaving treatment of this rare disorder.

  8. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). III. 142 additional O-type systems

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz; Arias, J I; Barbá, R H; Walborn, N R; Simón-Díaz, S; Negueruela, I; Marco, A; Leão, J R S; Herrero, A; Gamen, R C; Alfaro, E J

    2016-01-01

    This is the third installment of GOSSS, a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R~2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC). In this paper we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s), of which 6 are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary (SB3) of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al. (2016).

  9. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). III. 142 Additional O-type Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sota, A.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Leão, J. R. S.; Herrero, A.; Gamen, R. C.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2016-05-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ˜ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al. The GOSSS spectroscopic data in this article were gathered with five facilities: the 1.5 m Telescope at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO), the 3.5 m Telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA), and the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM).

  10. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days < Salmonella sp. (133 days from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure, respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  11. Inactivation of selected bacterial pathogens in dairy cattle manure by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (balloon type digester).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-07-14

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%-99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  12. Type 1 AGN at low z. III. The optical narrow line ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We present the optical narrow line ratios in an SDSS based sample of 3,175 broad Ha selected type 1 AGN, and explore their positions in the BPT diagrams as a function of the AGN and the host properties. We find the following: 1. The luminosities of all measured narrow lines (Ha, Hb, [OIII], [NII], [SII], [OI]) show a Baldwin relation relative to the broad Ha luminosity L_bHa, with slopes in the range of 0.53-0.72. 2. About 20% of the type 1 AGN reside within the `Composite' and `SF' regions of the BPT diagrams. These objects also show excess narrow Ha and UV luminosities, for their L_bHa, consistent with contribution from star formation which dominates the narrow lines emission, as expected from their positions in the BPT diagrams. 3. The type 1 which reside within the AGN region in the BPT diagrams, are offset to lower [SII]/Ha and [NII]/Ha luminosity ratios, compared to type 2 AGN. This offset is a selection effect, related to the lower AGN/host luminosity selection of the type 2 AGN selected from the SDSS ...

  13. Parallel evolution of a type IV secretion system in radiating lineages of the host-restricted bacterial pathogen Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Engel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS, and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps, evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial

  14. Parallel evolution of a type IV secretion system in radiating lineages of the host-restricted bacterial pathogen Bartonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-02-10

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens

  15. DETERMINATION OF CORROSION INHIBITOR CRITERIA FOR TYPE III/IIIA TANKS DURING SALT DISSOLUTION OPERATIONS SUMMARY DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Wiersma, B.; Garcia-Diaz, B.

    2009-10-01

    Dissolution of salt from Type III/IIIA waste tanks at the Savannah River Site may create solutions with inhibitor concentrations below those currently required (0.6M OH{sup -} and 1.1M OH{sup -} + NO{sub 2}{sup -}) per the Corrosion Control Program for high nitrate salt solutions (5.5 to 8.5M NO{sub 3}{sup -}). An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of grade A537 carbon steel for waste simulants containing 4.5-8.5M NaNO{sub 3} with maximum inhibitor concentrations of 0.6M NaOH and 0.2M NaNO{sub 2}. These maximum inhibitor concentrations used in this program are at a reduced level from those currently required. Current requirements were initially established for the Types I, II and IV tanks made of A285 carbon steel. The experimental program involved corrosion testing to evaluate the pitting and stress corrosion stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of the Type III/IIIA waste tank materials. The program was conducted in two phases; the results of the first phase were reported previously (WSRC-STI-2006-00029). In this second phase, the corrosion specimens were modified to represent the 'as-fabricated' condition of the tank wall, and included specimens with mill scale, ground welds and stress-relief heat treatments. The complete description of the corrosion testing and the results are reported herein. The collective corrosion test results for A537 carbon steel in high nitrate waste simulants (4.5 - 8.5M) with the maximum inhibitor concentrations of 0.6M NaOH and 0.2M NaNO{sub 2} were as follows: (1) In long-term non-polarized U-bend testing, heat treatment, similar to the waste tank stress relief regime, reduced the incidence of cracking over the 18-month test period. Vapor space SCC was found to initiate on non-heat treated U-bend coupons. (2) In polarized U-bend testing, cracking occurred on U-bend coupons that had welds prepared similar to those in the waste tanks, i.e. ground and heat treated. (3) In

  16. Cowpea Nodules Harbor Non-rhizobial Bacterial Communities that Are Shaped by Soil Type Rather than Plant Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jakson; Fischer, Doreen; Rouws, Luc F. M.; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo I.; Hofmann, Andreas; Kublik, Susanne; Schloter, Michael; Xavier, Gustavo R.; Radl, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have been pointing to a high diversity of bacteria associated to legume root nodules. Even though most of these bacteria do not form nodules with legumes themselves, it was shown that they might enter infection threads when co-inoculated with rhizobial strains. The aim of this work was to describe the diversity of bacterial communities associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) root nodules using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, regarding the factors plant genotype and soil type. As expected, Bradyrhizobium was the most abundant genus of the detected genera. Furthermore, we found a high bacterial diversity associated to cowpea nodules; OTUs related to the genera Enterobacter, Chryseobacterium, Sphingobacterium, and unclassified Enterobacteriacea were the most abundant. The presence of these groups was significantly influenced by the soil type and, to a lesser extent, plant genotype. Interestingly, OTUs assigned to Chryseobacterium were highly abundant, particularly in samples obtained from an Ultisol soil. We confirmed their presence in root nodules and assessed their diversity using a target isolation approach. Though their functional role still needs to be addressed, we postulate that Chryseobacterium strains might help cowpea plant to cope with salt stress in semi-arid regions. PMID:28163711

  17. Acute downregulation of Type II and Type III iodothyronine deiodinases by photoperiod in peripubertal male and female Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf-Lassin, August; Prendergast, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Availability of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) in the mediobasal hypothalamus plays a central role in seasonal reproductive responses to photoperiod. Across many vertebrates, Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2) is elevated under reproductively stimulatory long days (LD) and synthesizes the conversion of thyroxine to T3; Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) reduces T3 production and signaling, and is upregulated under reproductively-inhibitory short days (SD). In Siberian hamsters, regulation of hypothalamic T3 is dominated by dio3 expression, whereas dio2 expression is less-consistently affected by photoperiod. In adult hamsters, changes in deiodinase mRNA expression typically require several weeks to manifest, but it is not known whether or how quickly these mechanisms are engaged during the rapid responses to photoperiod observed in young, peri-pubertal hamsters. This experiment tested the hypotheses that (1) deiodinase responses to photoperiod are accelerated in juvenile hamsters and (2) photoperiodic downregulation of deiodinase expression occurs more rapidly than upregulation. Hypothalamic dio2 and dio3 mRNA expression was quantified in male and female Siberian hamsters that were weaned on postnatal day 18 (PND 18) into SD or remained in their natal LD, and on PND 31 were exposed to a single long or short day. In SD males and females, a single long day inhibited dio3 mRNA expression, but did not increase dio2 mRNA. In LD males, a single short day rapidly inhibited dio2 mRNA expression, but did not stimulate expression of dio3 mRNA. Downregulation of dio2 and dio3 mRNAs precedes gonadotrophin responses to day length. Rapid photoperiodic inhibition of deiodinase mRNAs may initiate changes in thyroid hormone signaling in advance of longer-term, melatonin-dependent, responses.

  18. Galaxy populations in the Antlia cluster - III. Properties of faint early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Castelli, Analia V Smith; Faifer, Favio R; Bassino, Lilia P; Richtler, Tom; Romero, Gisela A; Calderon, Juan Pablo; Caso, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    (Abridge) We present a new analysis of the early-type galaxy population in the central region of the Antlia cluster, focusing on the faint systems like dwarf ellipticals (dE) and dwarf spheroidals (dSph). We confirm 22 early-type galaxies as Antlia members, using GEMINI-GMOS and MAGELLAN-MIKE spectra. Among them, 2 belong to the rare type of compact ellipticals (cE), and 5 are new faint dwarfs that had never been catalogued before. In addition, we present 16 newly identified low surface brightness galaxy candidates, almost half of them displaying morphologies consistent with being Antlia's counterparts of Local Group dSphs, that extend the faint luminosity limit of our study down to MB = -10.1 (BT = 22.6) mag. We built an improved CMR in the Washington photometric system, i.e. integrated T1 magnitudes versus (C - T1) colours, which extends \\sim 4 mag faintwards the limit of spectroscopically confirmed Antlia members. When only confirmed early-type members are considered, this relation extends over 10 mag in l...

  19. High Dispersion Spectroscopy of Solar-type Superflare Stars. III. Lithium Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    We report on the abundance analysis of Li in solar-type (G-type main sequence) superflare stars which were found by the analysis of Kepler photometric data. Li is a key element to understand the evolution of the stellar convection zone which reflects the age of solar-type stars. We performed the high dispersion spectroscopy of solar-type superflare stars with Subaru/HDS, and confirmed that 34 stars show no evidence of binarity in our previous study. In this study, we derived the Li abundances of these 34 objects. We investigate correlations of Li abundance with stellar atmospheric parameters, rotational velocity, and superflare activities to understand the nature of superflare stars and the possibility of the nucleosynthesis of Li by superflares. We confirm the large dispersion in the Li abundance, and the correlation with stellar parameters is not seen. As compared with the Li abundance in Hyades cluster which is younger than the Sun, it is suggested that half of the observed stars are younger than Hyades cl...

  20. Type III interferon protects swine against foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years we have developed novel strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) including the use of biotherapeutics such as interferons (IFN) delivered by a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). Swine can be sterilely protected after vaccination with an Ad5 that encodes po...

  1. Altered spatiotemporal expression of collagen types I, III, IV, and VI in Lpar3-deficient peri-implantation mouse uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Honglu; Aplin, John D; Xiao, Shuo; Chun, Jerold; Li, Zuguo; Chen, Shiyou; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2011-02-01

    Lpar3 is upregulated in the preimplantation uterus, and deletion of Lpar3 leads to delayed uterine receptivity in mice. Microarray analysis revealed that there was higher expression of Col3a1 and Col6a3 in the Preimplantation Day 3.5 Lpar3(-/-) uterus compared to Day 3.5 wild-type (WT) uterus. Since extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is indispensable during embryo implantation, and dynamic spatiotemporal alteration of specific collagen types is part of this process, this study aimed to characterize the expression of four main uterine collagen types: fibril-forming collagen (COL) I and COL III, basement membrane COL IV, and microfibrillar COL VI in the peri-implantation WT and Lpar3(-/-) uterus. An observed delay of COL III and COL VI clearance in the Lpar3(-/-) uterus may be associated with higher preimplantation expression of Col3a1 and Col6a3. There was also delayed clearance of COL I and delayed deposition of COL IV in the decidual zone in the Lpar3(-/-) uterus. These changes were different from the effects of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone on uterine collagen expression in ovariectomized WT uterus, indicating that the altered collagen expression in Lpar3(-/-) uterus is unlikely to be a result of alterations in ovarian hormones. Decreased expression of several genes encoding matrix-degrading metallo- and serine proteinases was observed in the Lpar3(-/-) uterus. These results demonstrate that pathways downstream of LPA3 are involved in the dynamic remodeling of ECM in the peri-implantation uterus.

  2. Bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes from developing castor oil seeds interact in vivo and associate with the surface of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonho; Khuu, Nicholas; Howard, Alexander S M; Mullen, Robert T; Plaxton, William C

    2012-07-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from developing castor oil seeds (COS) exists as two distinct oligomeric isoforms. The typical class-1 PEPC homotetramer consists of 107-kDa plant-type PEPC (PTPC) subunits, whereas the allosterically desensitized 910-kDa class-2 PEPC hetero-octamer arises from the association of class-1 PEPC with 118-kDa bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC) subunits. The in vivo interaction and subcellular location of COS BTPC and PTPC were assessed by imaging fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged PEPCs in tobacco suspension-cultured cells. The BTPC-FP mainly localized to cytoplasmic punctate/globular structures, identified as mitochondria by co-immunostaining of endogenous cytochrome oxidase. Inhibition of respiration with KCN resulted in proportional decreases and increases in mitochondrial versus cytosolic BTPC-FP, respectively. The FP-PTPC and NLS-FP-PTPC (containing an appended nuclear localization signal, NLS) localized to the cytosol and nucleus, respectively, but both co-localized with mitochondrial-associated BTPC when co-expressed with BTPC-FP. Transmission electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled developing COS revealed that BTPC and PTPC are localized at the mitochondrial (outer) envelope, as well as the cytosol. Moreover, thermolysin-sensitive BTPC and PTPC polypeptides were detected on immunoblots of purified COS mitochondria. Overall, our results demonstrate that: (i) COS BTPC and PTPC interact in vivo as a class-2 PEPC complex that associates with the surface of mitochondria, (ii) BTPC's unique and divergent intrinsically disordered region mediates its interaction with PTPC, whereas (iii) the PTPC-containing class-1 PEPC is entirely cytosolic. We hypothesize that mitochondrial-associated class-2 PEPC facilitates rapid refixation of respiratory CO(2) while sustaining a large anaplerotic flux to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons withdrawn for biosynthesis.

  3. Neonatal infection with neurotropic influenza A virus affects working memory and expression of type III Nrg1 in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Linnéa; Beraki, Simret; Kristensson, Krister; Ogren, Sven Ove; Karlsson, Håkan

    2009-08-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that early life infections may contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders characterized by cognitive deficits. Here, we studied the effects of a neonatal influenza A/WSN/33 virus infection on locomotor activity, working memory and emotional behavior in adult mice. In addition to wild type mice, immunodeficient (Tap1(-/-)) mice lacking functional CD8(+) T cells, were included in the study to model the potential influence of a genetic deficit relating to virus clearance. Three to four months after the infection, infected Tap1(-/-) mice, but not wild type mice, exhibited deficits in working memory as well as increased rearing activity and anxiety. In the medial prefrontal cortices of these infected Tap1(-/-) mice reduced levels of type III Nrg1 transcripts were observed supporting a role for neuregulin 1 signaling in neuronal circuits involved in working memory. Virus replication, distribution or clearance did not differ between the two genotypes. The lack of CD8(+) T cells, however, appeared to contribute to a more pronounced glia response in Tap1(-/-) than in wild type mice. Thus, the present study suggest that the risk of developing deficits in cognitive and emotional behavior following a CNS infection during brain development is influenced by genetic variation in genes involved in the immune response.

  4. Efficiency of antibiotic treatment of premature ejaculation in patients with type III prostatic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoman Cem Kadioglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common male sexual disorder is premature ejaculation as it affects 30-40% of sexually active men. Various studies showed that the correlation of prostatic inflammation and chronic bacterial prostatitis with premature ejaculation is present in more than half of the sufferers. These studies also show that more than 85% of prostatic inflammation cases was shown to be caused by chronic prostatitis in the premature ejaculation patient group. Even though this relation is evident, the effect of antibiotic treatment of premature ejaculation in patients with chronic prostatitis has only recently being investigated extensively. In this study, 36 men suffering from secondary premature ejaculation who were included the study. These patients had no erectile dysfunction problems and were included in the study after they timed intravaginal ejaculatory latency in their last 3 intercourses to see that time was less than 2 minutes in each trial. To evaluate the prostatic inflammation, diagnosis was made by identifying 10 or more white blood cells per high power field in expressed prostatic secretions. 22 of 36 premature ejaculation patients in our study had more than 10 white blood cells in thier expressed prostatic secretions and were diagnosed to have prostatic inflammation. The other 14 patients were included in the study as the control group. Following one month antibiotic treatment 78% patients in the study group returned with the information that all 3 of their last intercourses ended with more than 2 minutes of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time while none of the control group reported similarly. No side effects were reported by any of the patients due to antibiotic usage. Our study shows that patients with PE that may benefit from month-long quinolone antibiotic therapy can be screened for by checking their expressed prostatic secretions under a microscope in the office. A more accurate definition of premature ejaculation, a scale for

  5. Type III frontal sinusotomy: surgical technique, indications, outcomes, a multi-university retrospective study of 120 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, P; Vlaminck, S; Jorissen, M; Hellings, P; Timmermans, M; Daele, J; Ransky, P; Hassid, S; Van Zele, T; Bachert, C; Poirrier, A L; Bertrand, B

    2011-01-01

    Draf in 1991. The procedure--which is also known as the modified endoscopic Lothrop procedure--aims to create the largest possible anteroposterior and lateral to lateral opening between both frontal sinuses and the nasal cavities. This requires the resection of the medial floor of both frontal sinuses, the intersinus septum and the superior nasal septum. The authors present a retrospective study including a cohort of 120 patients who underwent surgery in six Belgian university ENT departments. Mean follow-up was 24.6 months (range: 5-36 months). This paper describes the surgical procedure and reviews the indications, comorbidities, outcomes and complications of the type III frontal sinusotomy. Some correlations are also established with the data published in the worldwide literature. The authors conclude that the Draf III is a demanding procedure requiring considerable expertise in endoscopic sinus surgery. The procedure is effective with a success rate of 87.5%. Indeed, 12.5% of patients only experienced closure of the neoostium while 20% of all the patients had unchanged or worse symptomatology. The percentage of post-operative complications is 7.5%. All complications were managed successfully.

  6. Reemergence of dengue virus type-3 (subtype-III in India: Implications for increased incidence of DHF & DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewari KN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus infection has recently taken endemic proportion in India implicating all the four known dengue serotypes. There was a major dengue outbreak in northern India including Delhi in October- December, 2003 and again in 2004. We have carried out a detailed investigation of the 2004 outbreak by Serosurveillance, RT-PCR, nested PCR, virus isolation and genotyping. We also report the molecular epidemiological investigation of these outbreaks. Results The serological investigation of 162 suspected serum samples using an in-house dengue dipstick ELISA revealed 11%-IgM, 51%-IgG and 38%-both IgM and IgG antibody positivity. The RT-PCR analysis revealed presence of dengue RNA in 17 samples. Further subtyping and genotyping by nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing of C-prM gene junction revealed the association of subtype III of dengue virus type 3 in the outbreak. Conclusion The sudden shifting and dominance of the dengue virus serotype-3 (subtype III replacing the earlier circulating serotype-2 (subtype IV is a point of major concern and may be attributed to increased incidence of DHF and DSS in India.

  7. On the molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein deficiency type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija L Mehtälä

    Full Text Available Molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein (D-BP deficiency was studied with wild type and five disease-causing variants of 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase fragment of the human MFE-2 (multifunctional enzyme type 2 protein. Complementation analysis in vivo in yeast and in vitro enzyme kinetic and stability determinants as well as in silico stability and structural fluctuation calculations were correlated with clinical data of known patients. Despite variations not affecting the catalytic residues, enzyme kinetic performance (K(m, V(max and k(cat of the recombinant protein variants were compromised to a varying extent and this can be judged as the direct molecular cause for D-BP deficiency. Protein stability plays an additional role in producing non-functionality of MFE-2 in case structural variations affect cofactor or substrate binding sites. Structure-function considerations of the variant proteins matched well with the available data of the patients.

  8. Sfp-type PPTase inactivation promotes bacterial biofilm formation and ability to enhance wheat drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salme eTimmusk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus polymyxa is a common soil bacterium with broad range of practical applications. An important group of secondary metabolites in P. polymyxa are nonribosomal peptide and polyketide derived metabolites (NRP/PK. Modular nonribosomal peptide synthetases catalyse main steps in the biosynthesis of the complex secondary metabolites. Here we report on the inactivation of an A26 sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase. The inactivation of the gene resulted in loss of NRP/PK production. In contrast to the former Bacillus spp. model the mutant strain compared to wild type showed greatly enhanced biofilm formation ability. Its biofilm promotion is directly mediated by NRP/PK, as exogenous addition of the wild type metabolite extracts restores its biofilm formation level. Wheat inoculation with bacteria that had lost their sfp-type PPTase gene resulted in two times higher plant survival and about three times increased biomass under severe drought stress compared to wild type.

  9. Evaluation of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of orally delivered Shigella type III secretion system proteins IpaB and IpaD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Shannon J; Diaz-McNair, Jovita; Martinez-Becerra, Francisco J; Choudhari, Shyamal P; Clements, John D; Picking, Wendy L; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2013-06-19

    Shigella spp. are food- and water-borne pathogens that cause shigellosis, a severe diarrheal and dysenteric disease that is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in resource-poor countries. No licensed vaccine is available to prevent shigellosis. We have recently demonstrated that Shigella invasion plasmid antigens (Ipas), IpaB and IpaD, which are components of the bacterial type III secretion system (TTSS), can prevent infection in a mouse model of intranasal immunization and lethal pulmonary challenge. Because they are conserved across Shigella spp. and highly immunogenic, these proteins are excellent candidates for a cross-protective vaccine. Ideally, such a vaccine could be administered to humans orally to induce mucosal and systemic immunity. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Shigella IpaB and IpaD administered orally with a double mutant of the Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (dmLT) as a mucosal adjuvant. We characterized the immune responses induced by oral vs. intranasal immunization and the protective efficacy using a mouse pulmonary infection model. Serum IgG and fecal IgA against IpaB were induced after oral immunization. These responses, however, were lower than those obtained after intranasal immunization despite a 100-fold dosage increase. The level of protection induced by oral immunization with IpaB and IpaD was 40%, while intranasal immunization resulted in 90% protective efficacy. IpaB- and IpaD-specific IgA antibody-secreting cells in the lungs and spleen and T-cell-derived IL-2, IL-5, IL-17 and IL-10 were associated with protection. These results demonstrate the immunogenicity of orally administered IpaB and IpaD and support further studies in humans.

  10. Substrate type and free ammonia determine bacterial community structure in full-scale mesophilic anaerobic digesters treating cattle or swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabao eLi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The microbial-mediated anaerobic digestion (AD process represents an efficient biological process for the treatment of organic waste along with biogas harvest. Currently, the key factors structuring bacterial communities and the potential core and unique bacterial populations in manure anaerobic digesters are not completely elucidated yet. In this study, we collected sludge samples from 20 full-scale anaerobic digesters treating cattle or swine manure, and investigated the variations of bacterial community compositions using high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Clustering and correlation analysis suggested that substrate type and free ammonia (FA play key roles in determining the bacterial community structure. The COD: NH4+-N (C:N ratio of substrate and FA were the most important available operational parameters correlating to the bacterial communities in cattle and swine manure digesters, respectively. The bacterial populations in all of the digesters were dominated by phylum Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Increased FA content selected Firmicutes, suggesting that they probably play more important roles under high FA content. Syntrophic metabolism by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Synergistetes and Planctomycetes are likely inhibited when FA content is high. Despite the different manure substrates, operational conditions and geographical locations of digesters, core bacterial communities were identified. The core communities were best characterized by phylum Firmicutes, wherein Clostridium predominated overwhelmingly. Substrate-unique and abundant communities may reflect the properties of manure substrate and operational conditions. These findings extend our current understanding of the bacterial assembly in full-scale manure anaerobic digesters.

  11. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : INDUCTION OF TRANSFORMATION BY A DESOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID FRACTION ISOLATED FROM PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPE III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, O T; Macleod, C M; McCarty, M

    1944-02-01

    1. From Type III pneumococci a biologically active fraction has been isolated in highly purified form which in exceedingly minute amounts is capable under appropriate cultural conditions of inducing the transformation of unencapsulated R variants of Pneumococcus Type II into fully encapsulated cells of the same specific type as that of the heat-killed microorganisms from which the inducing material was recovered. 2. Methods for the isolation and purification of the active transforming material are described. 3. The data obtained by chemical, enzymatic, and serological analyses together with the results of preliminary studies by electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, and ultraviolet spectroscopy indicate that, within the limits of the methods, the active fraction contains no demonstrable protein, unbound lipid, or serologically reactive polysaccharide and consists principally, if not solely, of a highly polymerized, viscous form of desoxyribonucleic acid. 4. Evidence is presented that the chemically induced alterations in cellular structure and function are predictable, type-specific, and transmissible in series. The various hypotheses that have been advanced concerning the nature of these changes are reviewed.

  12. Tissue elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the characteristics of collagen type I and type III in prostatic stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prostate elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the content and distribution of collagen type I (Col1 and type III (Col3. A total of 62 patients underwent transrectal real-time tissue elastography (TRTE examinations. Targeted biopsies were performed after 12-core systematic biopsy. The tissues corresponding to the elastograms were stained with picric acid-sirius red. The distribution of Col1 and type Col3 was observed, and the collagen volume fraction (CVF of these two types of collagen fibers was calculated. The CVFs of Col1 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.01 (P = 0.002, respectively. The CVFs of Col3 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.04 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P = 0.13, respectively. The circular analysis results showed that collagen fibers were disorganized both in the soft and stiff groups. Col1 and Col3 were mainly cross-linked, and some parallelization was observed in the sections. The distributions of Col1 and Col3 were different between the stiff and soft groups (P = 0.03. In conclusion, the texture of the prostate is due to the content of Col1 and its relative correlation with Col3.

  13. An archaeal CRISPR type III-B system exhibiting distinctive RNA targeting features and mediating dual RNA and DNA interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wenfang; Feng, Mingxia; Feng, Xu

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide a small RNA-based mechanism to defend against invasive genetic elements in archaea and bacteria. To investigate the in vivo mechanism of RNA interference by two type